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Sample records for extraction method showed

  1. How to Show the Real Microbial Biodiversity? A Comparison of Seven DNA Extraction Methods for Bacterial Population Analyses in Matrices Containing Highly Charged Natural Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Rene; Krolla-Sidenstein, Peter

    2015-10-20

    A DNA extraction that comprises the DNA of all available taxa in an ecosystem is an essential step in population analysis, especially for next generation sequencing applications. Many nanoparticles as well as naturally occurring clay minerals contain charged surfaces or edges that capture negatively charged DNA molecules after cell lysis within DNA extraction. Depending on the methodology of DNA extraction, this phenomenon causes a shift in detection of microbial taxa in ecosystems and a possible misinterpretation of microbial interactions. With the aim to describe microbial interactions and the bio-geo-chemical reactions during a clay alteration experiment, several methods for the detection of a high number of microbial taxa were examined in this study. Altogether, 13 different methods of commercially available DNA extraction kits provided by seven companies as well as the classical phenol-chloroform DNA extraction were compared. The amount and the quality of nucleic acid extracts were determined and compared to the amplifiable amount of DNA. The 16S rRNA gene fragments of several taxa were separated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to determine the number of different species and sequenced to get the information about what kind of species the microbial population consists of. A total number of 13 species was detected in the system. Up to nine taxa could be detected with commercially available DNA extraction kits while phenol-chloroform extraction lead to three detected species. In this paper, we describe how to combine several DNA extraction methods for the investigation of microbial community structures in clay.

  2. How to Show the Real Microbial Biodiversity? A Comparison of Seven DNA Extraction Methods for Bacterial Population Analyses in Matrices Containing Highly Charged Natural Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kaden

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A DNA extraction that comprises the DNA of all available taxa in an ecosystem is an essential step in population analysis, especially for next generation sequencing applications. Many nanoparticles as well as naturally occurring clay minerals contain charged surfaces or edges that capture negatively charged DNA molecules after cell lysis within DNA extraction. Depending on the methodology of DNA extraction, this phenomenon causes a shift in detection of microbial taxa in ecosystems and a possible misinterpretation of microbial interactions. With the aim to describe microbial interactions and the bio-geo-chemical reactions during a clay alteration experiment, several methods for the detection of a high number of microbial taxa were examined in this study. Altogether, 13 different methods of commercially available DNA extraction kits provided by seven companies as well as the classical phenol-chloroform DNA extraction were compared. The amount and the quality of nucleic acid extracts were determined and compared to the amplifiable amount of DNA. The 16S rRNA gene fragments of several taxa were separated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE to determine the number of different species and sequenced to get the information about what kind of species the microbial population consists of. A total number of 13 species was detected in the system. Up to nine taxa could be detected with commercially available DNA extraction kits while phenol-chloroform extraction lead to three detected species. In this paper, we describe how to combine several DNA extraction methods for the investigation of microbial community structures in clay.

  3. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  4. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  5. Method of infusion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  6. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  7. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition

  8. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  9. Rhodiola rosea L extract shows protective activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alzheimer's disease in 3xTg-AD mice ... Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of Rhodiola rosea L. extract (RRLE) against Alzheimer's ..... Social interaction rescues memory deficit in an animal model of. Alzheimer's disease by ...

  10. Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-15

    Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700 μmol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae extract shows protective effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a control group ... twice as common in women as in men [6], and ... old experiences an osteoporotic fracture in her ... EXPERIMENTAL ... before use. ... which was similar to that observed in the H-CLJE ..... Zhuanggu Granule on relieving pain in menopausal.

  12. Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.; Dalmas, E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Methods and results: Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 bas

  13. EXTRACTIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    ketone (MIBK) extractable yellow nickel(II)-methyldithiocarbamate complex at 380 nm through ... The method has been applied to the analysis of carbaryl in its ...... Farahani, G.H.N.; Zakaria, Z.; Kuntom, A.; Omar, D.; Ismail, B.S. Adv. Environ.

  14. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  15. Extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of carbaryl in environmental samples. ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... method has been developed for its determination in environmental samples viz. soil, water and ...

  16. Flavonoids of an extract of Pterospartum tridentatum showing endothelial protection against oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Rute F; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Teixeira, Generosa; Borges, Carlos; Rodrigues, Ana Isabel; Teixeira, Adriano; Paulo, Alexandra

    2004-08-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum is a Leguminosae that grows spontaneously in Portugal. The flowers are used in popular medicine for the treatment of throat irritation conditions and in herbal mixtures for diabetes. Diabetic vascular complications are due, among other reasons, to increased oxidative stress and for that reason antioxidants are believed to be beneficial for the diabetic patient. The flower water extract of this herbal drug showed dose-dependent protective effect of cultured human endothelial cells against oxidative injury induced by H2O2, at concentrations > or =0.3 mg/ml. This water extract, after liquid-liquid and chromatographic fractionation afforded one new isoflavone (5,5'-dihydroxy-3'-metoxi-isoflavone-7-O-beta-glucoside) and three other known isoflavones (prunetin, genistin and sissotrin). The structural characterisation of isolated compounds was achieved by UV, NMR and MS analysis. The flavonol glycoside isoquercitrin was also identified in the extract by HPLC analysis. Isoquercitrin is one of the active antioxidant principles of the extract since it showed dose-dependent protective effect against oxidative injury at concentrations > or =0.3 mM. Isoflavones were inactive at the same concentrations. The results suggest that the water extract of this herbal drug may prevent or reduce the development of diabetic vascular complications.

  17. Evaluation of extraction and non-extraction treatment effects by two different superimposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türköz, Çağrı; İşcan, Hakan Necip

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether different evaluation methods may be the cause of the varied outcomes of research that have evaluated the effects of extraction and non-extraction therapy on jaw rotation. This retrospective study consisted of the pre- (T1) and post- (T2) treatment lateral cephalograms of 70 skeletal Class I subjects with an optimal vertical mandibular plane angle, who had undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Thirty-five of the subjects (20 females and 15 males, mean age: 14.7 years) were treated with four first premolar extractions and 35 (22 females and 13 males, mean age: 15 years) without extractions. T1 and T2 radiographs were superimposed using Björk's structural method and Steiner's method of sella-nasion line registered at sella. A Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the changes between T1 and T2 and the Mann-Whitney U-test to determine differences between the extraction and non-extraction and Björk and Steiner groups. No significant difference was found between the methods of Steiner and Björk according to the spatial changes of the cephalometric points in the extraction and non-extraction groups. The maxilla showed forward rotation in the extraction group and backward rotation in the non-extraction group with both superimposition methods, but the differences were not significant in either inter- or intraclass comparisons. The mandible showed forward rotation in the extraction group with both superimposition methods but, in the non-extraction group, forward rotation was recorded with Björk's method and backward rotation with Steiner's method. These findings were not significant in either inter- or intraclass evaluations. No significant difference was found between the groups or methods.

  18. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. suspension cell extract show antidiabetic potential in Alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Karthic; S Nagaraj; P Arulmurugan; S Seshadri; R Rengasamy; K Kathiravan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic effects of suspension cell extract of Gymnema sylvestre (G.sylvestre in vitro grown suspension cells of G. sylvestre along with field grown and wild plant leaves of G.sylvestre was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results: While oral administration of the extracts reduced the glucose content in blood and urine, sugar and lipids in serum significantly (P≤0.05), it also increased the body weight, total haemoglobin and plasma protein content.Conclusions:It can be concluded that G. sylvestre suspension cell extract show excellent) along with field grown and wild plants. Methods: The effect of ethanolic extracts of the antidiabetic potential against alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats therefore be considered as potent antidiabetic drug.

  19. Bayesian methods of astronomical source extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, R S S S

    2005-01-01

    We present two new source extraction methods, based on the Bayesian statistical formalism. The first is a source detection filter, able to simultaneously detect point sources and estimate the image background. The second is an advanced photometry technique, which measures the flux, position (to sub-pixel accuracy), local background and point spread function of a previously-detected source. In both cases, we use the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) to compare the relative likelihood of different models. We apply the source detection filter to simulated Herschel-SPIRE data and show the filter's ability to both detect point sources and also simultaneously estimate the image background. We use the photometry method to analyse a simple simulated image containing a source of unknown flux, position and point spread function; we not only accurately measure these parameters, but also determine their uncertainties (using Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampling). We also characterise the nature of the source (for example,...

  20. Warthin-starry Silver Method Showing Particulate Matter in Macrophage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-GANG LIU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To verify whether Warthin-Starry(WS)silver method could detect the air particulate matter(PM)/dust particles(Ps)located within the macrophages in situ. Methods There were 26 antopsy cases that resulted from cerebral hemorrhage(group A),silicosis(group B),and fetal death during pregnancy(group C).Samples were collected separately and serial sections were prepared from the lungs and lymph nodes and stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE),WS silver,immunohistochemistry of CD68.Furthermore,ultrathin sections were taken from the WS positive serial sections of groups A and B.Ps were observed under a transmission electron microscope(TEM)and the elements of Ps were measured by X-ray spectrum analysis(X-RSA).Results In both groups A and B,WS staining was positive for the larger and fine Ps,the so called"dust cells",but HE staining Was almost negative for fine Ps.In group C,no larger or fine Ps were found.Immunohistochemical staining of CD68 certified that the"dust cells"containing Ps were macrophages.The results of TEM and X-RSA proved that the structure and elements of Ps belonged to PM indeed.Conclusion WS staining is a better than HE staining in showing the location of PM within macrophages.

  1. Comparison of pyrethrins extraction methods efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... Best developed method was used for determination of pyrethrin content in three different ... There are many areas of application of .... The extractions were made on a soxtec avanti 2055 manual system ... was automated.

  2. Method for analyzing solvent extracted sponge core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellington, W.E.; Calkin, C.L.

    1988-11-22

    For use in solvent extracted sponge core measurements of the oil saturation of earth formations, a method is described for quantifying the volume of oil in the fluids resulting from such extraction. The method consists of: (a) separating the solvent/oil mixture from the water in the extracted fluids, (b) distilling at least a portion of the solvent from the solvent/oil mixture substantially without co-distillation or loss of the light hydrocarbons in the mixture, (c) determining the volume contribution of the solvent remaining in the mixture, and (d) determining the volume of oil removed from the sponge by substracting the determined remaining solvent volume.

  3. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb extract shows anti-neoplastic effects on prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabih El-Merahbi

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs, including those of advanced prostate cancer, are a suggested reason for tumor resistance toward conventional tumor therapy. Therefore, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed for targeting CSCs. Despite the minimal understanding of their modes of action, natural products and herbal therapies have been commonly used in the prevention and treatment of many cancers. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb (BLE is a plant rich in alkaloids which may possess anti-cancer activity and a high potential for eliminating CSCs. We tested the effect of BLE on prostate cancer cells and our data indicated that this extract induced significant reduction in cell viability and inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3 and 22Rv1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BLE extract induced a perturbation of the cell cycle, leading to a G0-G1 arrest. Furthermore, we noted 50% cell death, characterized by the production of high levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS. Inhibition of cellular migration and invasion was also achieved upon treatment with BLE extract, suggesting a role in inhibiting metastasis. Interestingly, BLE extract had a major effect on CSCs. Cells were grown in a 3D sphere-formation assay to enrich for a population of cancer stem/progenitor cells. Our results showed a significant reduction in sphere formation ability. Three rounds of treatment with BLE extract were sufficient to eradicate the self-renewal ability of highly resistant CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest a high therapeutic potential of BLE extract in targeting prostate cancer and its CSCs.

  4. COMPARISON OF RNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Passiflora edulis SIMS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNY CAROLYNE DA LUZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Functional genomic analyses require intact RNA; however, Passiflora edulis leaves are rich in secondary metabolites that interfere with RNA extraction primarily by promoting oxidative processes and by precipitating with nucleic acids. This study aimed to analyse three RNA extraction methods, Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA, TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen and TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen/ice -commercial products specifically designed to extract RNA, and to determine which method is the most effective for extracting RNA from the leaves of passion fruit plants. In contrast to the RNA extracted using the other 2 methods, the RNA extracted using TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen did not have acceptable A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and did not have ideal concentrations. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed a strong DNA band for all of the Concert™ method extractions but not for the TRIzol® and TRIzol®/ice methods. The TRIzol® method resulted in smears during electrophoresis. Due to its low levels of DNA contamination, ideal A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and superior sample integrity, RNA from the TRIzol®/ice method was used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and the resulting amplicons were highly similar. We conclude that TRIzol®/ice is the preferred method for RNA extraction for P. edulis leaves.

  5. The effect of extraction method on antioxidant activity of Atractylis babelii Hochr. leaves and flowers extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadidja Boudebaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii were chosen to investigate their antioxidant activities. Thus, a comparison between the antioxidant properties of ethanolic crude extracts obtained by two extraction methods, maceration and soxhlet extraction, was performed using two different tests; DPPH and ABTS radical assays. Besides, total polyphenol, flavonoid and condensed tannin contents were determined in leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii by colorimetric methods. The results showed that there was no correlation between phenolic contents of plant parts and their antioxidant activity. Whereas, leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii showed that both had almost similar phenolic contents, while their antioxidant activity depended on the plant parts. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of plant parts was also depended on extraction method. Such a result may be likely ascribed to a variety of chemical composition can be found in Atractylis babelii extracts which has been related to its antioxidant properties.

  6. Amniotic Membrane Extract Preparation: What is the Best Method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirgholamreza Mahbod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare different preparation methods for a suitable amniotic membrane (AM extract containing a given amount of growth factors. Methods: In this interventional case series, we dissected the AM from eight placentas within 24 hours after delivery, under clean conditions. After washing and mixing, AM extracts (AMEs were prepared using pulverization and homogenization methods, and different processing and storing conditions. Main outcome measures were the amount of added protease inhibitor (PI, the relative centrifugal force (g, in-process temperature, repeated extraction times, drying percentage, repeated pulverization times, and the effect of filtering with 0.2 μm filters. Extract samples were preserved at different temperature and time parameters, and analyzed for hepatic growth factor (HGF and total protein using ELISA and calorimetric methods, respectively. Results: The extracted HGF was 20% higher with pulverization as compared to homogenization, and increased by increasing the PI to 5.0 μl/g of dried AM. Repeating centrifugation up to 3 times almost doubled the extracted HGF and protein. Storing the AME at −170° for 6 months caused a 50% drop in the level of HGF and protein. Other studied parameters showed no significant effect on the extracted amount of HGF or total protein. Conclusion: Appropriate extraction methods with an adequate amount of PI increases the level of extractable components from harvested AMs. To achieve the maximal therapeutic effects of AMEs, it is necessary to consider the half-life of its bioactive components.

  7. Newer methods of extraction of teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHendra Chandha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atraumatic extraction methods are deemed to be important to minimize alveolar bone loss after tooth extraction. With the advent of such techniques, exodontia is no more a dreaded procedure in anxious patients. Newer system and techniques for extraction of teeth have evolved in the recent few decades. This article reviews and discusses new techniques to make simple and complex exodontias more efficient with improved patient outcomes. This includes physics forceps, powered periotome, piezosurgery, benex extractor, sonic instrument for bone surgery, lasers.

  8. How the Television Show "Mythbusters" Communicates the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik; Sharpsteen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The importance of understanding and internalizing the scientific method can hardly be exaggerated. Unfortunately, it is all too common for high school--and even university--students to graduate with only a partial or oversimplified understanding of what the scientific method is and how to actually employ it. Help in remedying this situation may…

  9. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for meat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçınkaya, Burhanettin; Yumbul, Eylem; Mozioğlu, Erkan; Akgoz, Muslum

    2017-04-15

    Preventing adulteration of meat and meat products with less desirable or objectionable meat species is important not only for economical, religious and health reasons, but also, it is important for fair trade practices, therefore, several methods for identification of meat and meat products have been developed. In the present study, ten different DNA extraction methods, including Tris-EDTA Method, a modified Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) Method, Alkaline Method, Urea Method, Salt Method, Guanidinium Isothiocyanate (GuSCN) Method, Wizard Method, Qiagen Method, Zymogen Method and Genespin Method were examined to determine their relative effectiveness for extracting DNA from meat samples. The results show that the salt method is easy to perform, inexpensive and environmentally friendly. Additionally, it has the highest yield among all the isolation methods tested. We suggest this method as an alternative method for DNA isolation from meat and meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A piperidine amide extracted from Piper longum L. fruit shows activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hee-Kwon; Kim, Moo-Key; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2002-06-19

    Mosquito larvicidal activity of Piper longum fruit-derived materials against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was examined. A crude methanol extract of P. longum fruits was found to be active against the larvae, and the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity of 100% mortality. The biologically active component of P. longum fruits was characterized as pipernonaline by spectroscopic analyses. The LC(50) value of pipernonaline was 0.25 mg/L. The toxicity of pipernonaline is comparable to that of pirimiphos-methyl as a mosquito larvicide. In tests with available components derived from P. longum, no activity was observed with piperettine, piperine, or piperlongumine.

  11. Comparison of Methods for Protein Extraction from Pine Needles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of proteins from pine needles for proteomic analysis has long been a challenge for scientists. We compared three different protein extraction methods including sucrose, Tris-HCl and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone (TCA method) to determine their efficiency in separating pine needle proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional PAGE (2D-PAGE). Proteins were then separated by SDS-PAGE. Among three methods the method using sucrose extraction buffer showed the highest efficiency and highest quality in separating proteins. In addition, clearer and more stable strips were detected by SDS-PAGE using sucrose extraction buffer. When the proteins extracted using sucrose extraction buffer were separated by 2D-PAGE, more than 300 protein spots, with isoelectric points (PI) ranging from 4.0 to 7.0 and molecular weights (MW) from 6.5 to 97.4 kD, were observed. This confirmed that the method with sucrose extraction buffer was an efficient and reliable method for extracting proteins from pine needles.

  12. Effects of Different Extraction Methods and Conditions on the Phenolic Composition of Mate Tea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vladic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v and liquid CO2 extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C. Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO2 with aqueous ethanol (40% as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar.

  13. Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Dalmas, E; Nout, M J R; Abee, T

    2010-07-01

    Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 based on optical density and viable count measurements. This growth inhibition was manifested by a 4 log CFU ml(-1) reduction, within the first 15 min of exposure. Tempe extracts also rapidly inactivated B. cereus spores upon germination. Viability and membrane permeability assessments using fluorescence probes showed rapid inactivation and permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane confirming the bactericidal mode of action. Cooked beans and Rhizopus grown on different media did not show antibacterial activity, indicating the unique association of the antibacterial activity with tempe. Subsequent characterization of the antibacterial activity revealed that heat treatment and protease addition nullified the bactericidal effect, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the bioactive compound. During fermentation of soya beans with Rhizopus, compounds are released with extensive antibacterial activity against B. cereus cells and spores. The results show the potential of producing natural antibacterial compounds that could be used as ingredients in food preservation and pathogen control. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. A Robust Digital Watermark Extracting Method Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOLihua; YANGShutang; LIJianhua

    2003-01-01

    Since watermark removal software, such as StirMark, has succeeded in washing watermarks away for most of the known watermarking systems, it is necessary to improve the robustness of watermarking systems. A watermark extracting method based on the error Back propagation (BP) neural network is presented in this paper, which can efficiently improve the robustness of watermarking systems. Experiments show that even if the watermarking systems are attacked by the StirMark software, the extracting method based on neural network can still efficiently extract the whole watermark information.

  15. String Variant Alias Extraction Method using Ensemble Learner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Selvaperumal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available String variant alias names are surnames which are string variant form of the primary name. Extracting string variant aliases are important in tasks such as information retrieval, information extraction, and name resolution etc. String variant alias extraction involves candidate alias name extraction and string variant alias validation. In this paper, string variant aliases are first extracted from the web and then using seven different string similarity metrics as features, candidate aliases are validated using ensemble classifier random forest. Experiments were conducted using string variant name-alias dataset containing name-alias data for 15 persons containing 30 name-alias pairs. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms other similar methods in terms of accuracy.

  16. Fast title extraction method for business documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Yutaka; Naoi, Satoshi

    1997-04-01

    Conventional electronic document filing systems are inconvenient because the user must specify the keywords in each document for later searches. To solve this problem, automatic keyword extraction methods using natural language processing and character recognition have been developed. However, these methods are slow, especially for japanese documents. To develop a practical electronic document filing system, we focused on the extraction of keyword areas from a document by image processing. Our fast title extraction method can automatically extract titles as keywords from business documents. All character strings are evaluated for similarity by rating points associated with title similarity. We classified these points as four items: character sitting size, position of character strings, relative position among character strings, and string attribution. Finally, the character string that has the highest rating is selected as the title area. The character recognition process is carried out on the selected area. It is fast because this process must recognize a small number of patterns in the restricted area only, and not throughout the entire document. The mean performance of this method is an accuracy of about 91 percent and a 1.8 sec. processing time for an examination of 100 Japanese business documents.

  17. A comparison of DNA extraction methods using Petunia hybrida tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamari, Farshad; Hinkley, Craig S; Ramprashad, Naderia

    2013-09-01

    Extraction of DNA from plant tissue is often problematic, as many plants contain high levels of secondary metabolites that can interfere with downstream applications, such as the PCR. Removal of these secondary metabolites usually requires further purification of the DNA using organic solvents or other toxic substances. In this study, we have compared two methods of DNA purification: the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method that uses the ionic detergent hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and chloroform-isoamyl alcohol and the Edwards method that uses the anionic detergent SDS and isopropyl alcohol. Our results show that the Edwards method works better than the CTAB method for extracting DNA from tissues of Petunia hybrida. For six of the eight tissues, the Edwards method yielded more DNA than the CTAB method. In four of the tissues, this difference was statistically significant, and the Edwards method yielded 27-80% more DNA than the CTAB method. Among the different tissues tested, we found that buds, 4 days before anthesis, had the highest DNA concentrations and that buds and reproductive tissue, in general, yielded higher DNA concentrations than other tissues. In addition, DNA extracted using the Edwards method was more consistently PCR-amplified than that of CTAB-extracted DNA. Based on these results, we recommend using the Edwards method to extract DNA from plant tissues and to use buds and reproductive structures for highest DNA yields.

  18. Ipomoea aquatica Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

  19. Ipomoea aquatica extract shows protective action against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkiyumi, Salim Said; Abdullah, Mahmood Ameen; Alrashdi, Ahmed Salim; Salama, Suzy Munir; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2012-05-22

    In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda) it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg) for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months). The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time). The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

  20. Influence of extraction method on protein profile of soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlićević Milica Ž.; Stanojević Slađana P.; Vucelić-Radović Biljana V.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison between protein profiles of soybean obtained by commonly used methods of extraction (Tris buffer and Tris-urea buffer) with methods used for extraction of plant proteins for 2D PAGE analysis (direct solubilization in IEF buffer, acetone extraction, phenol extraction, extraction with urea solubilization buffer and thiourea-urea extraction) was investigated. 2D profiles of samples extracted directly in IEF buffer, in urea solubilization buffer and in acetone were characterized ...

  1. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  2. A cell extraction method for oily sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eLappé

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are also an important economical resource, through natural seepage or accidental release they can also be major pollutants. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence and thereby hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008 separates the cells from the sediment matrix. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it is not optimized for this application.Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from samples treated according to our new protocol are significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008. We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and – in samples containing more biodegraded oils – methanol, delivered the best results. However, as solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which hydrocarbon extraction is maximised and cell lysis minimized. A ratio between slurry and solvent of 1:2 to 1:5 delivered the highest cell counts without lysing too many cells. The method provided reproducibly good results on samples from very different environments, both marine and terrestrial.

  3. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncero, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2 and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses. The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.En este trabajo se revisan los métodos de extracción del aceite de almendra virgen y su composición química. Los métodos más habituales para la obtención del aceite son la extracción con disolventes, la extracción con fluidos supercríticos (CO2 y los sistemas de presión (prensas hidráulica y de tornillo. El mayor rendimiento industrial, pero también la peor calidad de los aceites, se consigue mediante el uso de disolventes. Además, los aceites obtenidos por este método no se pueden considerar vírgenes, pues se obtienen por medio de tratamientos químicos. La extracción con fluidos supercríticos da lugar a aceites de mayor calidad pero a un precio muy elevado. La extracción mediante prensado se convierte en la mejor opción de extracción, al conseguir aceites de alta calidad a un precio asequible. En cuanto a su composición química, el aceite de almendra se caracteriza por su bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados y el predominio de los monoinsaturados, en

  4. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of different polarities stem crude extracts by different extraction methods of Adenium obesum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Tahiya Hilal Ali Alabri; Amira Hamood Salim Al Musalami; Md. Sohail Akhtar; Sadri Said

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To select best extraction method for the isolated antioxidant compounds from the stems of Adenium obesum.Methods:Two methods used for the extraction are Soxhlet and maceration methods. Methanol solvent was used for both extraction method. The methanol crude extract was defatted with water and extracted successively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol solvents. The antioxidant potential for all crude extracts were determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method.Results:The percentage of extraction yield by Soxhlet method is higher compared to maceration method. The antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by Soxhlet extractor method was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in hexane crude extracts and found in the order of ethyl acetate>butanol>water>chloroform>methanol>hexane. However, the antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by maceration method was highest in butanol and lowest in hexane followed in the order of butanol>methanol>chloroform>water>ethyl acetate>hexane.Conclusions:The results showed that isolate antioxidant compounds effected on the extraction method and condition of extraction.

  5. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of different polarities stem crude extracts by different extraction methods of Adenium obesum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To select best extraction method for the isolated antioxidant compounds from the stems of Adenium obesum. Methods: Two methods used for the extraction are Soxhlet and maceration methods. Methanol solvent was used for both extraction method. The methanol crude extract was defatted with water and extracted successively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol solvents. The antioxidant potential for all crude extracts were determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The percentage of extraction yield by Soxhlet method is higher compared to maceration method. The antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by Soxhlet extractor method was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in hexane crude extracts and found in the order of ethyl acetate>butanol>water>chloroform>methanol>hexane. However, the antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by maceration method was highest in butanol and lowest in hexane followed in the order of butanol>methanol>chloroform>water>ethyl acetate>hexane. Conclusions: The results showed that isolate antioxidant compounds effected on the extraction method and condition of extraction.

  6. Spectrophotometric validation of assay method for selected medicinal plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Arhewoh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop UV spectrophotometric assay validation methods for some selected medicinal plant extracts.Methods: Dried, powdered leaves of Annona muricata (AM and Andrographis paniculata (AP as well as seeds of Garcinia kola (GK and Hunteria umbellata (HU were separately subjected to maceration using distilled water. Different concentrations of the extracts were scanned spectrophotometrically to obtain wavelengths of maximum absorbance. The different extracts were then subjected to validation studies following international guidelines at the respective wavelengths obtained.Results: The results showed linearity at peak wavelengths of maximum absorbance of 292, 280, 274 and 230 nm for GK, HU, AM and AP, respectively. The calibration curves for the different concentrations of the extract gave R2 values ranging from 0.9831 for AM to 0.9996 for AP the inter-day and intra-day precision study showed that the relative standard deviation (% was ≤ 10% for all the extracts.Conclusion: The aqueous extracts and isolates of these plants can be assayed and monitored using these wavelengths.

  7. A cell extraction method for oily sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappé, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are an important economical resource and, through natural seepage or accidental release, they can be major pollutants. Oil sands from Alberta, Canada, and samples from the seafloor of the Gulf of Mexico represent typical examples of either natural or anthropogenically affected oily sediments. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence and thereby massively hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008) separates the cells from the sediment matrix, producing a sediment free cell extract that can then be used for subsequent staining and cell enumeration under a fluorescence microscope. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it was not originally optimized for this application and does not provide satisfactory results. Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction by a solvent treatment. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from oily samples treated according to our new protocol were significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008). We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and - in samples containing more biodegraded oils - methanol, delivered the best results. Because solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which the positive effect of hydrocarbon extraction overcomes the negative effect of cell lysis. A volumetric ratio of 1:2 to 1:5 between a formalin-fixed sediment slurry and solvent delivered highest cell counts. Extraction

  8. Extraction method for parasitic capacitances and inductances of HEMT models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, HengShuang; Ma, PeiJun; Lu, Yang; Zhao, BoChao; Zheng, JiaXin; Ma, XiaoHua; Hao, Yue

    2017-03-01

    A new method to extract parasitic capacitances and inductances for high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) is proposed in this paper. Compared with the conventional extraction method, the depletion layer is modeled as a physically significant capacitance model and the extrinsic values obtained are much closer to the actual results. In order to simulate the high frequency behaviour with higher precision, series parasitic inductances are introduced into the cold pinch-off model which is used to extract capacitances at low frequency and the reactive elements can be determined simultaneously over the measured frequency range. The values obtained by this method can be used to establish a 16-elements small-signal equivalent circuit model under different bias conditions. The results show good agreements between the simulated and measured scattering parameters up to 30 GHz.

  9. Apriori and N-gram Based Chinese Text Feature Extraction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晔; 黄上腾

    2004-01-01

    A feature extraction, which means extracting the representative words from a text, is an important issue in text mining field. This paper presented a new Apriori and N-gram based Chinese text feature extraction method, and analyzed its correctness and performance. Our method solves the question that the exist extraction methods cannot find the frequent words with arbitrary length in Chinese texts. The experimental results show this method is feasible.

  10. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μ...

  11. Calculation of radon concentration in water by toluene extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masaaki [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Noguchi method and Horiuchi method have been used as the calculation method of radon concentration in water. Both methods have two problems in the original, that is, the concentration calculated is changed by the extraction temperature depend on the incorrect solubility data and the concentration calculated are smaller than the correct values, because the radon calculation equation does not true to the gas-liquid equilibrium theory. However, the two problems are solved by improving the radon equation. I presented the Noguchi-Saito equation and the constant B of Horiuchi-Saito equation. The calculating results by the improved method showed about 10% of error. (S.Y.)

  12. Tetrahydro-beta-carboline derivatives in aged garlic extract show antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Jiro; Ide, Nagatoshi; Sasaoka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2006-03-01

    This study used the hydroden peroxide scavenging assay to investigate antioxidant chemical constituents derived and separated from aged garlic extract, a unique garlic extract produced by soaking sliced garlic in an aqueous ethanol solution for >10 mo. Four types of 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline derivatives (THbetaCs); 1-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and 1-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid (MTCdiC), from both diastereoisomers, were isolated and identified by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All these compounds indicate strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities and inhibit 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride-induced lipid peroxidation. Particularly, (1S, 3S)-MTCdiC had the most potent hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, more than ascorbic acid. The (1R, 3S)- and (1S, 3S)-MTCdiC at 50-100 micromol/L and 10-100 micromol/L inhibited LPS-induced nitrite production. Interestingly, THbetaCs were not detected in raw garlic and other processed garlic preparations, but they were generated and increased during the natural aging garlic extraction process. These data suggest that THbetaCs, which are formed during the natural aging process, are potent antioxidants in aged garlic extract and thus may be useful for the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative damage.

  13. Bioguided Fractionation Shows Cassia alata Extract to Inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Takashi Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have a long history to be used in folk medicine. Cassia alata extracts are known to exert antibacterial activity but details on compounds and mechanism of action remain poorly explored. We purified and concentrated the aqueous leaf extract of C. alata by reverse phase-solid phase extraction and screened the resulting CaRP extract for antimicrobial activity. CaRP extract exhibited antimicrobial activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. CaRP also inhibited biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Several bacterial growth-inhibiting compounds were detected when CaRP extract was fractionated by TLC chromatography coupled to bioautography agar overlay technique. HPLC chromatography of CaRP extract yielded 20 subfractions that were tested by bioautography for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Five bioactive fractions were detected and chemically characterized, using high-resolution mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS. Six compounds from four fractions could be characterized as kaempferol, kaempferol-O-diglucoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucoside, rhein, and danthron. In the Salmonella/microsome assay CaRP showed weak mutagenicity (MI<3 only in strain TA98, pointing to a frameshift mutation activity. These results indicate that C. alata leaf extract contains a minimum of 7 compounds with antimicrobial activity and that these together or as single substance are active in preventing formation of bacterial biofilm, indicating potential for therapeutic applications.

  14. Correction method for line extraction in vision measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Shao

    Full Text Available Over-exposure and perspective distortion are two of the main factors underlying inaccurate feature extraction. First, based on Steger's method, we propose a method for correcting curvilinear structures (lines extracted from over-exposed images. A new line model based on the Gaussian line profile is developed, and its description in the scale space is provided. The line position is analytically determined by the zero crossing of its first-order derivative, and the bias due to convolution with the normal Gaussian kernel function is eliminated on the basis of the related description. The model considers over-exposure features and is capable of detecting the line position in an over-exposed image. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method is not significantly affected by the exposure level and is suitable for correcting lines extracted from an over-exposed image. In our experiments, the corrected result is found to be more precise than the uncorrected result by around 45.5%. Second, we analyze perspective distortion, which is inevitable during line extraction owing to the projective camera model. The perspective distortion can be rectified on the basis of the bias introduced as a function of related parameters. The properties of the proposed model and its application to vision measurement are discussed. In practice, the proposed model can be adopted to correct line extraction according to specific requirements by employing suitable parameters.

  15. Comparison of DNA and RNA extraction methods for mummified tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konomi, Nami; Lebwohl, Eve; Zhang, David

    2002-12-01

    Nucleic acids extracted from mummified tissues are valuable materials for the study of ancient human beings. Significant difficulty in extracting nucleic acids from mummified tissues has been reported due to chemical modification and degradation. The goal of this study was to determine a method that is more efficient for DNA and RNA extraction from mummified tissues. Twelve mummy specimens were analyzed with 9 different nucleic acid extraction methods, including guanidium thiocyanate (GTC) and proteinase K/detergent based methods prepared in our laboratory or purchased. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase DNA and beta-actin RNA were used as markers for the presence of adequate DNA and RNA, respectively, for PCR and RT-PCR amplification. Our results show that 5 M GTC is more efficient of releasing nucleic acids from mummified tissue than proteinase K/detergent, and phenol/chloroform extraction with an additional chloroform step is more efficient than phenol/chloroform along. We were able to isolate DNAs from all 12 specimens and RNAs from 8 of 12 specimens, and the nucleic acids were sufficient for PCR and RT-PCR analysis. We further tested hepatitis viruses including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis G virus, and TT virus DNA, and fail to detect these viruses in all 12 specimens.

  16. Ipomoea aquatica Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab; Suzy Munir Salama; Salim Said Alkiyumi; Mahmood Ameen Abdullah; Ahmed Salim Alrashdi

    2012-01-01

    In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda) it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orally fed with ...

  17. Green technology approach towards herbal extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalib, Tengku Nur Atiqah Tengku Ab; Hamzah, Zainab; Hashim, Othman; Mat, Hishamudin Che

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present study was to compare maceration method of selected herbs using green and non-green solvents. Water and d-limonene are a type of green solvents while non-green solvents are chloroform and ethanol. The selected herbs were Clinacanthus nutans leaf and stem, Orthosiphon stamineus leaf and stem, Sesbania grandiflora leaf, Pluchea indica leaf, Morinda citrifolia leaf and Citrus hystrix leaf. The extracts were compared with the determination of total phenolic content. Total phenols were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Follin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The most suitable and effective solvent is water which produced highest total phenol contents compared to other solvents. Among the selected herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves contain high total phenols at 9.087mg/g.

  18. Determination of the antioxidant capacity of two seagrass species according to the extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kethia L. González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a wide variety of methods for obtaining of plant extracts that enable a good yield of bioactive metabolites. For several years, extractive techniques have been perfected for obtaining natural extracts with powerful pharmacological properties. Aims: To determine the influence of various extraction methods (infusion, decoction, microwave, maceration with heat and agitation, and constant heat and agitation on the content of solids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of marine angiosperms Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König (Hyrocharitacea and Syringodium filiforme kützing (Cymodoceaceae. Methods: The soluble solids content was determined by the gravimetric method; total phenolic content, using Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Results: Results showed the effectiveness of extraction by decoction for T. testudinum and by microwave for S. filiforme, among the methods that use water as the extraction solvent. In the case those that use the hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent extraction, maceration with agitation and heat extraction showed the higher yields of soluble solids and total polyphenols, as well as a higher antioxidant activity for both species. Conclusions: Results showed the effectiveness of extraction by decoction for T. testudinum and by microwave for S. filiforme, among the methods that use water as extraction solvent. In the case those that use hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent extraction, maceration with agitation and heat extraction showed the higher yields of soluble solids and total polyphenols, as well as a higher antioxidant activity for both species.

  19. Alcoholic Extract of Eclipta alba Shows In Vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity without Exhibiting Toxicological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Rakesh Kumar; Dev, Kapil; Sharma, Chetan; Hossain, Zakir; Meena, Sanjeev; Arya, K. R.; Gayen, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    As per WHO estimates, 80% of people around the world use medicinal plants for the cure and prevention of various diseases including cancer owing to their easy availability and cost effectiveness. Eclipta alba has long been used in Ayurveda to treat liver diseases, eye ailments, and hair related disorders. The promising medicinal value of E. alba prompted us to study the antioxidant, nontoxic, and anticancer potential of its alcoholic extract. In the current study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant effect of the alcoholic extract of Eclipta alba (AEEA) in multiple cancer cell lines along with control. We have also evaluated its effect on different in vivo toxicity parameters. Here, we found that AEEA was found to be most active in most of the cancer cell lines but it significantly induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA damage. Moreover, AEEA treatment inhibited migration in both MCF 7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose dependent manner. Further, AEEA possesses robust in vitro antioxidant activity along with high total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In summary, our results indicate that Eclipta alba has enormous potential in complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of cancer. PMID:28250894

  20. Comparison of extraction methods for the hypotensive drugs from Eucommia ulmoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Hui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction methods using Soxhlet extraction (SE, enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction (EE, semi-bionic extraction (SBE and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE were evaluated for the yields of geniposidic acid (GPA and geniposide (GPS from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides. The results showed that the yields of GPA and GPS attained by EE and SBE were highest, respectively. Compared with various extraction methods for the extraction of GPA and GPS, the SBE was more efficient than other methods. There was no organic solvent used in SBE. The pH values of semi-bionic extraction were the same as in the human body. The results indicate that SBE can be used for large-scale and efficient extraction of GPA and GPS from plant materials. The time taken by SFE was longer than other methods, but the yields of GPA and GPS were the lowest. .

  1. Spoken Language Identification Using Hybrid Feature Extraction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pawan; Mishra, A N; Chandra, Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces and motivates the use of hybrid robust feature extraction technique for spoken language identification (LID) system. The speech recognizers use a parametric form of a signal to get the most important distinguishable features of speech signal for recognition task. In this paper Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), Perceptual linear prediction coefficients (PLP) along with two hybrid features are used for language Identification. Two hybrid features, Bark Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (BFCC) and Revised Perceptual Linear Prediction Coefficients (RPLP) were obtained from combination of MFCC and PLP. Two different classifiers, Vector Quantization (VQ) with Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) were used for classification. The experiment shows better identification rate using hybrid feature extraction techniques compared to conventional feature extraction methods.BFCC has shown better performance than MFCC with both classifiers. RPLP along with GMM has shown be...

  2. A method for extracting $cos\\alpha$

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, B; Rothstein, I Z; Grinstein, Benjamin; Nolte, Detlef R.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2000-01-01

    We show that it is possible to extract the weak mixing angle alpha via a measurement of the rate for B^+(-) -> \\pi^+(-) e^+e^-. The sensitivity to cos(alpha) results from the interference between the long and short distance contributions. The short distance contribution can be computed, using heavy quark symmetry, in terms of semi-leptonic form factors. More importantly, we show that, using Ward identities and a short distance operator product expansion, the long distance contribution can be calculated without recourse to light cone wave functions when the invariant mass of the lepton pair, q^2, is much larger than LQCDs. We find that for q^2 > 2 GeV^2 the branching fraction is approximately 1 * 10^{-8}|V_{td}/0.008|^2. The shape of the differential rate is very sensitive to the value of cos(alpha) at small values of q^2 with dGamma /dq^2 varying up to 50% in the interval -1< cos(alpha)< 1 at q^2= 2 GeV^2. The size of the variation depends upon the ratio V_{ub}/V_{td}.

  3. [Comparing and evaluating six methods of extracting human genomic DNA from whole blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Su-Hua; Li, Li

    2009-04-01

    Comparing the differences in purity and yield among six methods of extracting human genomic DNA from whole blood, which included Classic Phenol-chloroform extraction, modified combined technique composed of improved Phenol-chloroform extraction and Chelex-100 extraction, Chelex-100 extraction, IQ, Qiagen and SP. Ten samples of intravenous whole blood (5 mL/sample) were collected and human genomic DNA was extracted with these six methods. The purity and concentration of the DNA products were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and fluorescent quantitation technique, the yield was calculated and tested with statistical software. The Chelex-100 extraction was inferior in DNA purity to other methods while the other five methods showed no statistical difference. Modified combined technique was the poorest and IQ was the best in yield among the six methods of extraction. Statistical result showed that the extraction with high quality kits was better than that with classic Phenol-chloroform extraction, Chelex-100 extraction and modified combined technique composed of improved Phenol-chloroform. There was statistical difference between them. Comparing to Phenol-chloroform extraction and Chelex-100 extraction, high quality kits are more useful in DNA extraction from forensic materials.

  4. An effective method for extraction and polymerase chain reaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    root

    seven years, we optimized the method of extracting DNA from these samples. We used (a) ... difficulty in extracting DNA from formalin-preserved tissue samples ..... genomic DNA from whole blood, buccal epithelial cells, semen and forensic ...

  5. Comparison of conventional and non conventional methods of extraction of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devgun, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid H

    2012-01-01

    The renewed interest in plant-derived drugs has led to an increased need for efficient extraction methods. The present investigation was an attempt to evaluate and compare the conventional methods of extraction with non conventional methods of extraction, such as ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) methods. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. has been reported to contain bioactive phytochemicals, e.g., pterostilbene (3',5'-dimethoxy-4-stilbenol). The results showed that among the conventional extraction methods, percolation gave the highest yield. The non conventional methods were optimized. The extraction yield was the highest in case of MAE. The phytochemical screening of the extracts indicated similar groups of compounds in all the extracts. The thin layer chromatography showed the presence of pterostilbene in the extracts obtained by using percolation, MAE and UAE. In these extracts the quantification of pterostilbene was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography and the method was validated. The MAE method extracted significantly higher amount of pterostilbene.

  6. Four Different Methods Comparison for Extraction of Astaxanthin from Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhao Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the potent organisms for production of astaxanthin. Up to now, no efficient method has been achieved due to its thick cell wall hindering solvent extraction of astaxanthin. In this study, four different methods, hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by acetone extraction (HCl-ACE, hexane/isopropanol (6 : 4, v/v mixture solvents extraction (HEX-IPA, methanol extraction followed by acetone extraction (MET-ACE, 2-step extraction, and soy-oil extraction, were intensively evaluated for extraction of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. Results showed that HCl-ACE method could obtain the highest oil yield (33.3±1.1% and astaxanthin content (19.8±1.1%. Quantitative NMR analysis provided the fatty acid chain profiles of total lipid extracts. In all cases, oleyl chains were predominant, and high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains were observed and the major fatty acid components were oleic acid (13–35%, linoleic acid (37–43%, linolenic acid (20–31%, and total saturated acid (17–28%. DPPH radical scavenging activity of extract obtained by HCl-ACE was 73.2±1.0%, which is the highest amongst the four methods. The reducing power of extract obtained by four extraction methods was also examined. It was concluded that the proposed extraction method of HCl-ACE in this work allowed efficient astaxanthin extractability with high antioxidant properties.

  7. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Assays on Polygonum minus Extracts: Different Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The effect of solvent type and extraction method was investigated to study the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Polygonum minus. Two extraction methods were used: a solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the free radical-scavenging capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The highest polyphenol content was obtained from the m...

  8. Development of Poliovirus Extraction Method from Stool Extracts by Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Sensitized with Soluble Poliovirus Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Arita, Minetaro

    2013-01-01

    A method for extracting poliovirus (PV) from stool extracts was developed. Magnetic nanoparticles sensitized with soluble PV receptor efficiently extracted PV pseudovirus (>99% extraction) or endogenous infectious PVs (>90% extraction) from stool extracts. This method would be useful for extraction of PV from crude biological samples.

  9. Carotenoid extraction methods: A review of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Keum, Young-Soo

    2018-02-01

    The versatile use of carotenoids in feed, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries has emphasized the optimization of extraction methods to obtain the highest recovery. The choice of method for carotenoid extraction from food matrices is crucial, owing to the presence of diverse carotenoids with varied levels of polarity, and the presence of various physical and chemical barriers in the food matrices. This review highlights the theoretical aspects and recent developments of various conventional and nonconventional methods used for the extraction of carotenoids, including ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Recent applications of non-toxic and environmentally safe solvents (green solvents) and ionic liquids (IL) for carotenoid extraction are also described. Additionally, future research challenges in the context of carotenoids extractions are also identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new method for stable lead isotope extraction from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurbrick, Cheryl M., E-mail: CZurbric@ucsc.edu [WIGS, Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gallon, Céline [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Flegal, A. Russell [WIGS, Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-10-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We present a relatively fast (2.5–6.5 h), semi-automated system to extract Pb from seawater. •Extraction requires few chemicals and has a relatively low blank (0.7 pmol kg{sup −1}). •We compare analyses of Pb isotopes by HR ICP-MS with those by MC-ICP-MS. -- Abstract: A new technique for stable lead (Pb) isotope extraction from seawater is established using Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M{sup ®} resin (Tosoh Bioscience LLC). This new method is advantageous because it is semi-automated and relatively fast; in addition it introduces a relatively low blank by minimizing the volume of chemicals used in the extraction. Subsequent analyses by HR ICP-MS have a good relative external precision (2σ) of 3.5‰ for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, while analyses by MC-ICP-MS have a better relative external precision of 0.6‰. However, Pb sample concentrations limit MC-ICP-MS analyses to {sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb, and {sup 208}Pb. The method was validated by processing the common Pb isotope reference material NIST SRM-981 and several GEOTRACES intercalibration samples, followed by analyses by HR ICP-MS, all of which showed good agreement with previously reported values.

  11. Curvelet Transform-Based Denoising Method for Doppler Frequency Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Shu-juan; WU Si-liang

    2007-01-01

    A novel image denoising method based on curvelet transform is proposed in order to improve the performance of Doppler frequency extraction in low signal-noise-ratio (SNR) environment. The echo can be represented as a gray image with spectral intensity as its gray values by time-frequency transform. And the curvelet coefficients of the image are computed. Then an adaptive soft-threshold scheme based on dual-median operation is implemented in curvelet domain. After that, the image is reconstructed by inverse curvelet transform and the Doppler curve is extracted by a curve detection scheme. Experimental results show the proposed method can improve the detection of Doppler frequency in low SNR environment.

  12. Extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L.) shows inhibition of blood capillary formation in vitro

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mirshahi, M.; Mirshahi, P.; Negro, S.; Soria, J.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Kotnala, S.; Therwath, A.; Chatterji, A.

    copy of CVISION PDFCompressor 36 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. Vol. 32(1) 2009 Massoud Mirshahi et al. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cells Cultures Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) (Golestaneh et al., 2001), were cultured in endothelial basal.... The human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) line was continuously propagated in 75 cm culture dishes, containing RPMI 1640 supplemented with glutamine (1 mM), fetal calf serum (10%), penicillin (100 U/ml), streptomycin (100 U/ml) and incubated...

  13. DNA extraction of birch leaves by improved CTAB method and optimization of its ISSR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN hua; YANG Chuan-ping; WEI Zhi-gang; JIANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    The basic method of DNA extraction (CTAB) was improved as the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method and used to extract the DNA of birch leaved in this experiment. Results showed that the improved method is suitable not only for genomic DNA extraction of birch but also for that of other plants. The purity of genomic DNA extracted by the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method is higher than that by one time STE-CTAB method, and it does not need the process of RNase. The factors of influencing ISSR system were explored based on the genomic DNA of birch extracted by the two methods. The optimal conditions for ISSR system were determined as follows: cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 94℃, annealing for 30 s at 51 ℃, extension for 30 s at 72℃, and a final 7 min extension at 72 ℃.

  14. Evaluation of sample extraction methods for proteomics analysis of green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2016-05-01

    Many protein extraction methods have been developed for plant proteome analysis but information is limited on the optimal protein extraction method from algae species. This study evaluated four protein extraction methods, i.e. direct lysis buffer method, TCA-acetone method, phenol method, and phenol/TCA-acetone method, using green algae Chlorella vulgaris for proteome analysis. The data presented showed that phenol/TCA-acetone method was superior to the other three tested methods with regards to shotgun proteomics. Proteins identified using shotgun proteomics were validated using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) technique. Additionally, SWATH provides protein quantitation information from different methods and protein abundance using different protein extraction methods was evaluated. These results highlight the importance of green algae protein extraction method for subsequent MS analysis and identification.

  15. Chemometric analysis of chromatographic fingerprints shows potential of Cyclopia maculata (Andrews) Kies for production of standardized extracts with high xanthone content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Alexandra E; de Beer, Dalene; de Villiers, André; Manley, Marena; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2014-10-29

    Cyclopia species are used for the production of honeybush tea and food ingredient extracts associated with many health benefits. A species-specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for Cyclopia maculata, developed and validated, allowed quantification of the major compounds in extracts from "unfermented" and fermented C. maculata. Two xanthones were tentatively identified for the first time in a Cyclopia species, whereas an additional four compounds were tentatively identified for the first time in C. maculata. "Fermentation" (oxidation) decreased the content of all compounds, with the exception of vicenin-2. Similarity analysis of the chromatographic fingerprints of unfermented C. maculata aqueous extracts showed extremely low variation (r ≥ 0.97) between samples. Some differences between wild-harvested and cultivated seedling plants were, however, demonstrated using principal component analysis. Quantitative data of selected compounds confirmed the low level of variation, making this Cyclopia species ideal for the production of standardized food ingredient extracts.

  16. Leukocyte telomere length variation due to DNA extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Joshua; Marques, Francine Z; Charchar, Fadi J

    2014-12-04

    Telomere length is indicative of biological age. Shorter telomeres have been associated with several disease and health states. There are inconsistencies throughout the literature amongst relative telomere length measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and different extraction methods or kits used. We quantified whole-blood leukocyte telomere length using the telomere to single copy gene (T/S) ratio by qPCR in 20 young (18-25 yrs) men after extracting DNA using three common extraction methods: Lahiri and Nurnberger (high salt) method, PureLink Genomic DNA Mini kit (Life Technologies) and QiaAmp DNA Mini kit (Qiagen). Telomere length differences of DNA extracted from the three extraction methods was assessed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). DNA purity differed between extraction methods used (P=0.01). Telomere length was impacted by the DNA extraction method used (P=0.01). Telomeres extracted using the Lahiri and Nurnberger method (mean T/S ratio: 2.43, range: 1.57-3.02) and PureLink Genomic DNA Mini Kit (mean T/S ratio: 2.57, range: 2.24-2.80) did not differ (P=0.13). Likewise, QiaAmp and Purelink-extracted telomeres were not statistically different (P=0.14). The Lahiri-extracted telomeres, however, were significantly shorter than those extracted using the QiaAmp DNA Mini Kit (mean T/S ratio: 2.71, range: 2.32-3.02; P=0.003). DNA purity was associated with telomere length. There are discrepancies between the length of leukocyte telomeres extracted from the same individuals according to the DNA extraction method used. DNA purity could be responsible for the discrepancy in telomere length but this will require validation studies. We recommend using the same DNA extraction kit when quantifying leukocyte telomere length by qPCR or when comparing different cohorts to avoid erroneous associations between telomere length and traits of interest.

  17. Natural colorants: Pigment stability and extraction yield enhancement via utilization of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamwonglumlert, Luxsika; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2017-10-13

    Natural colorants from plant-based materials have gained increasing popularity due to health consciousness of consumers. Among the many steps involved in the production of natural colorants, pigment extraction is one of the most important. Soxhlet extraction, maceration, and hydrodistillation are conventional methods that have been widely used in industry and laboratory for such a purpose. Recently, various non-conventional methods, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed-electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction have emerged as alternatives to conventional methods due to the advantages of the former in terms of smaller solvent consumption, shorter extraction time, and more environment-friendliness. Prior to the extraction step, pretreatment of plant materials to enhance the stability of natural pigments is another important step that must be carefully taken care of. In this paper, a comprehensive review of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods for chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, and anthocyanins, which are major classes of plant pigments, is provided by using pigment stability and extraction yield as assessment criteria.

  18. Method for 3D Airway Topology Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Grothausmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In lungs the number of conducting airway generations as well as bifurcation patterns varies across species and shows specific characteristics relating to illnesses or gene variations. A method to characterize the topology of the mouse airway tree using scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT tomograms is presented in this paper. It is used to test discrimination between two types of mice based on detected differences in their conducting airway pattern. Based on segmentations of the airways in these tomograms, the main spanning tree of the volume skeleton is computed. The resulting graph structure is used to distinguish between wild type and surfactant protein (SP-D deficient knock-out mice.

  19. Swietenia mahagony extract shows agonistic activity to PPARγ and gives ameliorative effects on diabetic db/db mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan-dan LI; Xu SHEN; Hua-liang JIANG; Jun-hua CHEN; Qing CHEN; Guo-wei LI; Jing CHEN; Jian-min YUE; Min-li CHEN; Xiao-ping WANG; Jian-hua SHEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To search the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists from Swietenia mahagony extract (SmE) and observe the possible ameliorative effects of SmE on diabetic db/db mice. Methods: The PPARγ agonistic activity of SmE was screened by yeast-two hybrid system. The blood glucose levels of diabetic db/db mice were measured using a blood glucose level monitor and the data were statistically analyzed by NDST8.8W software. Results: By using the clinical drug rosiglitazone as a positive control, it was found that the PPARγ agonistic activity of SmE at a concentration of 50 μg/L was approximately half that of 35.7 μg/L (0.1 μmol/L) of rosiglitazone. At the dose of 1000 mg/kg, SmE remark ably decreased the blood glucose concentration of db/db mice from (15.26±2.98) to (7.58±2.20) mmol/L, and reduced the blood glucose levels by 55.49% compared with the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: SmE shows agonistic activity to PPARγ and can ameliorate the blood glucose levels of diabetic db/db mice. SmE may be thus used as a potential agent for diabetes therapy.

  20. Different methods to select the best extraction system for solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The optimization methods for planning a solid-phase extraction experiment are presented. These methods are based on a study of interactions between different parts of an extraction system. Determination of the type and strength of interaction depends on the physicochemical properties of the individual components of the system. The main parameters that determine the extraction properties are described in this work. The influence of sorbents' and solvents' polarity on extraction efficiency, Hansen solubility parameters and breakthrough volume determination on sorption and desorption extraction step are discussed.

  1. An optimized affordable DNA-extraction method from Salmonella enterica Enteritidis for PCR experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimnasab, N.,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In diagnostic and research bacteriology settings with budget and staff restrictions, fast and cost-effective genome extraction methods are desirable. If not inactivated properly, cellular and/or environmental DNA nucleases will degrade genomic material during the extraction stage, and therefore might give rise to incorrect results in PCR experiments. When crude cell extracts, proteinase K–treated templates and purified DNAs prepared by phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol method as well as a commercial extraction kit were subjected to the Salmonella enterica Enteritidis specific STM2 PCR, with exception of crude cell extract, PCR products from all other three methods saved their integrity for 28 days post-generation. This work aimed to find out whether improvement to boiling method can guaranty stability of PCR products. As results showed, treatment of crude cell extracts from S. Enteritidis with proteinase K offers an inexpensive, fast and effective DNA extraction method suitable for high-throughput laboratories.

  2. Selection of an Appropriate Protein Extraction Method to Study the Phosphoproteome of Maize Photosynthetic Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Often plant tissues are recalcitrant and, due to that, methods relying on protein precipitation, such as TCA/acetone precipitation and phenol extraction, are usually the methods of choice for protein extraction in plant proteomic studies. However, the addition of precipitation steps to protein extraction methods may negatively impact protein recovery, due to problems associated with protein re-solubilization. Moreover, we show that when working with non-recalcitrant plant tissues, such as you...

  3. Effects of extraction methods on the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murrill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Feng; Liu, Yong; Ren, Haitao; Gong, Guili; Wang, Yanyan; Wu, Songhai

    2013-11-01

    Five polysaccharides were obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) through different extraction methods including hot water extraction, single enzyme extraction (pectinase, cellulase or papain) and compound enzymes extraction (cellulase:pectinase:papain). Their characteristics such as the polysaccharide yield, polysaccharide content, protein content, infrared spectra were determined, and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical, DPPH free radical, ABTS free radical and reducing power. The results showed that five extracts exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with other methods, the compound enzymes extraction method was found to present the highest polysaccharides yield (17.44%). Moreover, compound enzymes extracts exhibited the strongest reducing power and highest scavenging rates on hydroxyl radicals, DPPH radicals and ABTS radicals. On the contrary, hot water extraction method had the lowest polysaccharides yield of 11.95%, whose extracts also exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities. Overall, the available data obtained in vitro models suggested that ABM extracts were natural antioxidants and compound enzymes extraction was an appropriate, mild and effective extracting method for obtaining the polysaccharide extracts from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM).

  4. An efficient and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil using a newly formulated cell extraction buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Avinash; Jain, Kunal; Shah, Amita R; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-06-01

    The present study describes the rapid and efficient indirect lysis method for environmental DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil by newly formulated cell extraction buffer. The available methods are mostly based on direct lysis which leads to DNA shearing and co-extraction of extra cellular DNA that influences the community and functional analysis. Moreover, during extraction of DNA by direct lysis from athalassohaline soil, it was observed that, upon addition of poly ethylene glycol (PEG), isopropanol or absolute ethanol for precipitation of DNA, salt precipitates out and affecting DNA yield significantly. Therefore, indirect lysis method was optimized for extraction of environmental DNA from such soil containing high salts and low microbial biomass (CFU 4.3 × 10(4) per gram soil) using newly formulated cell extraction buffer in combination with low and high speed centrifugation. The cell extraction buffer composition and its concentration were optimized and PEG 8000 (1 %; w/v) and 1 M NaCl gave maximum cell mass for DNA extraction. The cell extraction efficiency was assessed with acridine orange staining of soil samples before and after cell extraction. The efficiency, reproducibility and purity of extracted DNA by newly developed procedure were compared with previously recognized methods and kits having different protocols including indirect lysis. The extracted environmental DNA showed better yield (5.6 ± 0.7 μg g(-1)) along with high purity ratios. The purity of DNA was validated by assessing its usability in various molecular techniques like restriction enzyme digestion, amplification of 16S rRNA gene using PCR and UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis.

  5. An Experimental Method to Quantify Extractable Amino Acids in Soils from Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xian-you; WU Liang-huan; CAO Xiao-chuang; Sarkar Animesh; ZHU Yuan-hong

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and comparison of soil amino acids using different extractants (deionized water, K2SO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, KCl) were reported. Results showed that 0.5 mol L-1 K2SO4 with a 5 times extraction was a better method to assess the concentration of extractable amino acids in soils. The total amino acids extracted from soil planted for tea were similar to the total inorganic nitrogen. While they extracted from vegetable soil and paddy soil were much lower than the total inorganic nitrogen.

  6. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeates C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1. DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. This method was compared to other DNA extraction methods with regard to DNA purity and size.

  7. Selection of an Appropriate Protein Extraction Method to Study the Phosphoproteome of Maize Photosynthetic Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Inês M.; Alexandre, Bruno M.; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Often plant tissues are recalcitrant and, due to that, methods relying on protein precipitation, such as TCA/acetone precipitation and phenol extraction, are usually the methods of choice for protein extraction in plant proteomic studies. However, the addition of precipitation steps to protein extraction methods may negatively impact protein recovery, due to problems associated with protein re-solubilization. Moreover, we show that when working with non-recalcitrant plant tissues, such as young maize leaves, protein extraction methods with precipitation steps compromise the maintenance of some labile post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as phosphorylation. Therefore, a critical issue when studying PTMs in plant proteins is to ensure that the protein extraction method is the most appropriate, both at qualitative and quantitative levels. In this work, we compared five methods for protein extraction of the C4-photosynthesis related proteins, in the tip of fully expanded third-leaves. These included: TCA/Acetone Precipitation; Phenol Extraction; TCA/Acetone Precipitation followed by Phenol Extraction; direct extraction in Lysis Buffer (a urea-based buffer); and direct extraction in Lysis Buffer followed by Cleanup with a commercial kit. Protein extraction in Lysis Buffer performed better in comparison to the other methods. It gave one of the highest protein yields, good coverage of the extracted proteome and phosphoproteome, high reproducibility, and little protein degradation. This was also the easiest and fastest method, warranting minimal sample handling. We also show that this method is adequate for the successful extraction of key enzymes of the C4-photosynthetic metabolism, such as PEPC, PPDK, PEPCK, and NADP-ME. This was confirmed by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis of excised spots of 2DE analyses of the extracted protein pools. Staining for phosphorylated proteins in 2DE revealed the presence of several phosphorylated isoforms of PEPC, PPDK, and PEPCK. PMID

  8. Spectrophotometric validation of assay method for selected medicinal plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Arhewoh; Augustine O. Okhamafe

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop UV spectrophotometric assay validation methods for some selected medicinal plant extracts.Methods: Dried, powdered leaves of Annona muricata (AM) and Andrographis paniculata (AP) as well as seeds of Garcinia kola (GK) and Hunteria umbellata (HU) were separately subjected to maceration using distilled water. Different concentrations of the extracts were scanned spectrophotometrically to obtain wavelengths of maximum absorbance. The different extracts were then subjected t...

  9. Automatic segmentation of brain images: selection of region extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Leiguang; Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Mezrich, Reuben S.

    1991-07-01

    In automatically analyzing brain structures from a MR image, the choice of low level region extraction methods depends on the characteristics of both the target object and the surrounding anatomical structures in the image. The authors have experimented with local thresholding, global thresholding, and other techniques, using various types of MR images for extracting the major brian landmarks and different types of lesions. This paper describes specifically a local- binary thresholding method and a new global-multiple thresholding technique developed for MR image segmentation and analysis. The initial testing results on their segmentation performance are presented, followed by a comparative analysis of the two methods and their ability to extract different types of normal and abnormal brain structures -- the brain matter itself, tumors, regions of edema surrounding lesions, multiple sclerosis lesions, and the ventricles of the brain. The analysis and experimental results show that the global multiple thresholding techniques are more than adequate for extracting regions that correspond to the major brian structures, while local binary thresholding is helpful for more accurate delineation of small lesions such as those produced by MS, and for the precise refinement of lesion boundaries. The detection of other landmarks, such as the interhemispheric fissure, may require other techniques, such as line-fitting. These experiments have led to the formulation of a set of generic computer-based rules for selecting the appropriate segmentation packages for particular types of problems, based on which further development of an innovative knowledge- based, goal directed biomedical image analysis framework is being made. The system will carry out the selection automatically for a given specific analysis task.

  10. Extraction of Roots of Quintics by Division Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method to extract roots of a reducible quintic over the real field, which makes use of a simple division. A procedure to synthesize such quintics is given and a numerical example is solved to extract the roots of quintic with the proposed method.

  11. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  12. Are extraction methods in quantitative assays of pharmacopoeia monographs exhaustive? A comparison with pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalo, Carlos; Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-10-01

    The extraction methods in selected monographs of the European and the Swiss Pharmacopoeia were compared to pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with respect to the yield of constituents to be dosed in the quantitative assay for the respective herbal drugs. The study included five drugs, Belladonnae folium, Colae semen, Boldo folium, Tanaceti herba and Agni casti fructus. They were selected to cover different classes of compounds to be analyzed and different extraction methods to be used according to the monographs. Extraction protocols for PLE were optimized by varying the solvents and number of extraction cycles. In PLE, yields > 97 % of extractable analytes were typically achieved with two extraction cycles. For alkaloid-containing drugs, the addition of ammonia prior to extraction significantly increased the yield and reduced the number of extraction cycles required for exhaustive extraction. PLE was in all cases superior to the extraction protocol of the pharmacopoeia monographs (taken as 100 %), with differences ranging from 108 % in case of parthenolide in Tanaceti herba to 343 % in case of alkaloids in Boldo folium.

  13. Discriminative tonal feature extraction method in mandarin speech recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hao; ZHU Jie

    2007-01-01

    To utilize the supra-segmental nature of Mandarin tones, this article proposes a feature extraction method for hidden markov model (HMM) based tone modeling. The method uses linear transforms to project F0 (fundamental frequency) features of neighboring syllables as compensations, and adds them to the original F0 features of the current syllable. The transforms are discriminatively trained by using an objective function termed as "minimum tone error", which is a smooth approximation of tone recognition accuracy. Experiments show that the new tonal features achieve 3.82% tone recognition rate improvement, compared with the baseline, using maximum likelihood trained HMM on the normal F0 features. Further experiments show that discriminative HMM training on the new features is 8.78% better than the baseline.

  14. A method of ECG template extraction for biometrics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Chen, Meng; Bao, Shu-Di; Miao, Fen

    2014-01-01

    ECG has attracted widespread attention as one of the most important non-invasive physiological signals in healthcare-system related biometrics for its characteristics like ease-of-monitoring, individual uniqueness as well as important clinical value. This study proposes a method of dynamic threshold setting to extract the most stable ECG waveform as the template for the consequent ECG identification process. With the proposed method, the accuracy of ECG biometrics using the dynamic time wraping for difference measures has been significantly improved. Analysis results with the self-built electrocardiogram database show that the deployment of the proposed method was able to reduce the half total error rate of the ECG biometric system from 3.35% to 1.45%. Its average running time on the platform of android mobile terminal was around 0.06 seconds, and thus demonstrates acceptable real-time performance.

  15. Effects of Feature Extraction and Classification Methods on Cyberbully Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra SARAÇ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is defined as an aggressive, intentional action against a defenseless person by using the Internet, or other electronic contents. Researchers have found that many of the bullying cases have tragically ended in suicides; hence automatic detection of cyberbullying has become important. In this study we show the effects of feature extraction, feature selection, and classification methods that are used, on the performance of automatic detection of cyberbullying. To perform the experiments FormSpring.me dataset is used and the effects of preprocessing methods; several classifiers like C4.5, Naïve Bayes, kNN, and SVM; and information gain and chi square feature selection methods are investigated. Experimental results indicate that the best classification results are obtained when alphabetic tokenization, no stemming, and no stopwords removal are applied. Using feature selection also improves cyberbully detection performance. When classifiers are compared, C4.5 performs the best for the used dataset.

  16. Extraction of lipids from microalgae by ultrasound application: prospection of the optimal extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Glacio S; Matos, Leonardo J B L; Fernandes, Jader O; Cartaxo, Samuel J M; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Farias, Wladimir R L

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry will depend on the selection of appropriate microalgal strains and the selection of the most suitable lipid extraction method. In this paper, five extraction methods were evaluated regarding the extraction of lipids from Chlorella vulgaris: Bligh and Dyer, Chen, Folch, Hara and Radin, and Soxhlet. Furthermore, the addition of silica powder was studied to evaluate the introduction of more shear stress to the system as to increase the disruption of cell walls. Among the studied methods, the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound resulted in the highest extraction of oil from C. vulgaris (52.5% w/w). Addition of powder silica did not improve the extraction of oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Extraction Methods on Polysaccharide of Clitocybe maxima Stipe

    OpenAIRE

    Junchen Chen; Pufu Lai; Hengsheng Shen; Hengguang Zhen; Rutao Fang

    2013-01-01

    Clitocybe maxima (Gartn. ex Mey. Fr.) Quél. is a favorable edible fungi species. The proportion of its stipe is about 45% of entire fruit biomass, which is a low value defined byproduct. To increase its value added utilization, three extraction methods (as hot water, microwave-assisted and complex-enzyme-hydrolysis-assist) were conducted. The extraction effect on the polysaccharide of Clitocybe maxima stipe was compared and the processing conditions in extraction were optimized. The content o...

  18. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Yeates C; Gillings, MR; Davison AD; Altavilla N; Veal DA

    1998-01-01

    Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1). DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol pr...

  19. COMPARISON OF RNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Passiflora edulis SIMS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Functional genomic analyses require intact RNA; however, Passiflora edulis leaves are rich in secondary metabolites that interfere with RNA extraction primarily by promoting oxidative processes and by precipitating with nucleic acids. This study aimed to analyse three RNA extraction methods, Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen) and TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen)/ice -commercial products specifically designed to extract RNA, and...

  20. Evaluation of anti-melanogenic activity of Ziziphus jujuba fruits obtained by two different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salimi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dried pulps and peels of Ziziphus jujuba fruits are commonly applied as food because of their high nutritional value. It has been widely used in traditional medicine as laxative, tonic, wound healing agent and appetizer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-melanogenic effects of Z. jujuba fruit. Methods: Fruit extracts were obtained by two different extraction methods, percolation (cold extraction and soxhlet (hot extraction using methanol 80% as the solvent. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity and anti-tyrosinase capacity of the MeOH extracts from Z. jujuba fruits were evaluated in vitro. In addition, the effects of fruit extracts on the melanin content and cytotoxicity on human melanoma SKMEL-3 cells were determined after 72 hours. Results: The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the cold extract were found higher in comparison to the hot extract. Moreover, the antioxidant (SC50 =1.40 mg/mL and anti-tyrosinase activities (IC50 = 0.54 mg/mL of the cold extract were significantly stronger than the hot extract. At the dose of 500 μg/mL, the cold extract showed weaker toxicity to the melanoma cells than the hot extract. Melanin content of the cold extract was reduced to 30% at this concentration, while the hot extract had no inhibitory effect on melanin formation. Conclusion: The results showed that the percolation method was more suitable for extraction of the (poly phenolics from Z. jujuba fruits. In addition, the results of tyrosinase activity and melanin content assays suggested that the cold extract of Z. jujuba fruit can be considered as a dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  1. 3,5-Diarylpyrazole Derivatives Obtained by Ammonolysis of the Total Flavonoids from Chrysanthemum indicum Extract Show Potential for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Taizong; Jiang, Cheng; Wang, Ling; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Miao, Hui; Gu, Lianquan; Xu, Jun; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Gu, Qiong

    2015-07-24

    Four new 3,5-diarylpyrazole analogues (1-4) were isolated from an extract of the flowers of Chrysanthemun indicum using a combination of ammonolysis of the total flavonoid extract and an Aβ aggregation inhibitory activity guided purification procedure. All four compounds (1-4) showed moderate to potent activity against Aβ aggregation with EC50 values of 4.3, 15.8, 1.3, and 2.9 μM, respectively. Moreover, compound 3 showed low cytotoxicity and significant neuroprotective activity against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in the SH-SY5Y cell line. This report is the first to show that 3,5-diarylpyrazole analogues can inhibit Aβ aggregation and exhibit neuroprotective activity with potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Taken together, the method presented here offers an alternative approach to yield bioactive compounds.

  2. Data showing chemical compositions of the essential oils of the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus obtained by varying pH of the extraction medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the various chemical components as obtained from the oils in the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus using hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Furthermore, extractions of the oils were also carried out with a slight in pH variation and compared, "GC-MS evaluation of C. citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods" (Ajayi et al., 2016 [1]). The current article contains one table exhibiting a list of compounds in the four different methods of extraction. Comparative studies amongst the various methods of extraction are highlighted in the table.

  3. Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits: An Exploratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-22

    M T R 1 4 0 4 4 3 R 2 M I T R E T E C H N I C A L R E P O R T Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits : An...JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits : An...contributes to closing this gap. We discuss an exploratory investigation into a method and a set of tools for evaluating a text extraction toolkit

  4. An efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moslem, M.A.; Bahkali, A.H.; Abd-Elsalam, K.A.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi, which are important fungal plant pathogens. The cell wall of Cladosporioid fungi is often melanized, which makes it difficult to extract DNA from their cells. In order to overcome this we grew these fungi for three days on

  5. An efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moslem, M.A.; Bahkali, A.H.; Abd-Elsalam, K.A.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi, which are important fungal plant pathogens. The cell wall of Cladosporioid fungi is often melanized, which makes it difficult to extract DNA from their cells. In order to overcome this we grew these fungi for three days on

  6. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  7. A RAPID PCR-QUALITY DNA EXTRACTION METHOD IN FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong; LIANG Hong-Wei; ZOU Gui-Wei

    2012-01-01

    PCR has been a general preferred method for biological research in fish, and previous research have enabled us to extract and purify PCR-quality DNA templates in laboratories[1-4]. The same problem among these procedures is waiting for tissue digesting for a long time. The overabundance time spent on PCR-quality DNA extraction restricts the efficiency of PCR assay, especially in large-scale PCR amplification, such as SSR-based genetic-mapping construction [5,6], identification of germ plasm resource[7,8] and evolution research [9,10], etc. In this study, a stable and rapid PCR-quality DNA extraction method was explored, using a modified alkaline lysis protocol. Extracting DNA for PCR only takes approximately 25 minutes. This stable and rapid DNA extraction method could save much laboratory time and promotes.%PCR has been a general preferred method for biological research in fish,and previous research have enabled us to extract and purify PCR-quality DNA templates in laboratories [1-4].The same problem among these procedures is waiting for tissue digesting for a long time.The overabundance time spent on PCR-quality DNA extraction restricts the efficiency of PCR assay,especially in large-scale PCR amplification,such as SSR-based genetic-mapping construction [5,6],identification of germ plasm resource[7,8] and evolution research [9,10],etc.In this study,a stable and rapid PCR-quality DNA extraction method was explored,using a modified alkaline lysis protocol.Extracting DNA for PCR only takes approximately 25 minutes.This stable and rapid DNA extraction method could save much laboratory time and promotes.

  8. Antioxidant activity of bulbs and aerial parts of Crocus caspius, impact of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Masomeh; Fathi, Hamed; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Crocus genus (Iridaceae) is comprises approximately 80 species. In this study in vitro antioxidant activities of extracts from C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts were investigated. Ultrasonically assisted extraction (US), percolation method (PE) and polyphenolic fraction (PP) were used. Antioxidant activities were evaluated with five different tests. Aerial parts US extract with high levels of phenol and flavonoids were the most potent extract in DPPH radical scavenging than others. Aerial parts PE extract had shown very potent reducing power, which was so better than other extracts (p<0.01). Aerial parts PP fraction showed very good Fe(2+) chelating ability. Aerial parts US extract were the most potent extract in scavenging of H(2)O(2). Bulb PP fraction with IC(50)=22.8±0.7 µg ml(-1) was the most potent fraction in nitric oxide scavenging. The results improved high levels of antioxidant activities of C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts in all tested models.

  9. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  10. An effective method for network module extraction from microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahanta Priyakshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of high-throughput Microarray technologies has provided various opportunities to systematically characterize diverse types of computational biological networks. Co-expression network have become popular in the analysis of microarray data, such as for detecting functional gene modules. Results This paper presents a method to build a co-expression network (CEN and to detect network modules from the built network. We use an effective gene expression similarity measure called NMRS (Normalized mean residue similarity to construct the CEN. We have tested our method on five publicly available benchmark microarray datasets. The network modules extracted by our algorithm have been biologically validated in terms of Q value and p value. Conclusions Our results show that the technique is capable of detecting biologically significant network modules from the co-expression network. Biologist can use this technique to find groups of genes with similar functionality based on their expression information.

  11. Data showing chemical compositions of the essential oils of the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus obtained by varying pH of the extraction medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Ajayi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the various chemical components as obtained from the oils in the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus using hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Furthermore, extractions of the oils were also carried out with a slight in pH variation and compared, “GC–MS evaluation of C. citratus (DC Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods” (Ajayi et al., 2016 [1]. The current article contains one table exhibiting a list of compounds in the four different methods of extraction. Comparative studies amongst the various methods of extraction are highlighted in the table.

  12. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study...... was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). FINDINGS: In this study, a semi-automatic DNA extraction system (easyMag®, BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France......) and a manual one (QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) were tested on stool samples collected from 3 patients with Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) and 5 healthy individuals. DNA extracts obtained by the QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit yield a higher amount of DNA compared to DNA extracts obtained...

  13. comparison of protein extraction methods for the leaves of ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. I. Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... This study investigated several extraction methods for proteins from the leaves of Ficus .... found to be effective to remove plant lipids and pigments [22]. ... The addition of SDS as a solubilizing agent in the Tris buffered phenol.

  14. Comparison of four methods of DNA extraction from rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Polyphenols, teroens, and resins make it difficult to obtain high quality genomic DNA from rice. Four extraction methods were compared in our study, and CTAB precipitation was the most practical one.

  15. Accelerated, microwave-assisted, and conventional solvent extraction methods affect anthocyanin composition from colored grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Akhtar, Humayoun; Rabalski, Iwona; Bryan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Anthocyanins are important dietary components with diverse positive functions in human health. This study investigates effects of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) on anthocyanin composition and extraction efficiency from blue wheat, purple corn, and black rice in comparison with the commonly used solvent extraction (CSE). Factorial experimental design was employed to study effects of ASE and MAE variables, and anthocyanin extracts were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (DAD), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatography. The extraction efficiency of ASE and MAE was comparable with CSE at the optimal conditions. The greatest extraction by ASE was achieved at 50 °C, 2500 psi, 10 min using 5 cycles, and 100% flush. For MAE, a combination of 70 °C, 300 W, and 10 min in MAE was the most effective in extracting anthocyanins from blue wheat and purple corn compared with 50 °C, 1200 W, and 20 min for black rice. The anthocyanin composition of grain extracts was influenced by the extraction method. The ASE extraction method seems to be more appropriate in extracting anthocyanins from the colored grains as being comparable with the CSE method based on changes in anthocyanin composition. The method caused lower structural changes in anthocaynins compared with the MAE method. Changes in blue wheat anthocyanins were lower in comparison with purple corn or black rice perhaps due to the absence of acylated anthocyanin compounds in blue wheat. The results show significant differences in anthocyanins among the 3 extraction methods, which indicate a need to standardize a method for valid comparisons among studies and for quality assurance purposes.

  16. A PCR amplification method without DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Xu, Haiyue; Zhao, Chunjiang; Sulaiman, Yiming; Wu, Changxin

    2011-02-01

    To develop a simple and inexpensive method for direct PCR amplification of animal DNA from tissues, we optimized different components and their concentration in lysis buffer systems. Finally, we acquired the optimized buffer system composed of 10 mmol tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-Cl (pH 8.0), 2 mmol ethylene diamine tetraacetic (EDTA) (pH 8.0), 0.2 mol NaCl and 200 μg/mL Proteinase K. Interestingly, the optimized buffer is also very effective when working with common human sample types, including blood, buccal cells and hair. The direct PCR method requires fewer reagents (Tris-Cl, EDTA, Protease K and NaCl) and less incubation time (only 35 min). The cost of treating every sample is less than $0.02, and all steps can be completed on a thermal cycler in a 96-well format. So, the proposed method will significantly improve high-throughput PCR-based molecular assays in animal systems and in common human sample types.

  17. Flavonoids content in extracts secang (Caesalpinia Sappan L.) maceration method infundation analysis and visible ultraviolet spectrophotometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Youstiana Dwi Rusita; Suhartono

    2016-01-01

    .... Analysis using univariate analysis. This study shows that there are types of flavonoids flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration method, and there are flavonoid types of flavones...

  18. Forward gated-diode method for parameter extraction of MOSFETs*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chenfei; Ma Chenyue; Guo Xinjie; Zhang Xiufang; He Jin; Wang Guozeng; Yang Zhang; Liu Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    The forward gated-diode method is used to extract the dielectric oxide thickness and body doping concentration of MOSFETs, especially when both of the variables are unknown previously. First, the dielectric oxide thickness and the body doping concentration as a function of forward gated-diode peak recombination-generation (R-G) current are derived from the device physics. Then the peak R-G current characteristics of the MOSFETs with different dielectric oxide thicknesses and body doping concentrations are simulated with ISE-Dessis for parameter extraction. The results from the simulation data demonstrate excellent agreement with those extracted from the forward gated-diode method.

  19. Method for Extracting Product Information from TV Commercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Television (TV Commercial program contains important product information that displayed only in seconds. People who need that information has no insufficient time for noted it, even just for reading that information. This research work focus on automatically detect text and extract important information from a TV commercial to provide information in real time and for video indexing. We propose method for product information extraction from TV commercial using knowledge based system with pattern matching rule based method. Implementation and experiments on 50 commercial screenshot images achieved a high accuracy result on text extraction and information recognition.

  20. Evaluation of DNA Extraction Methods Suitable for PCR-based Detection and Genotyping of Clostridium botulinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auricchio, Bruna; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient quality and quantity of extracted DNA is critical to detecting and performing genotyping of Clostridium botulinum by means of PCR-based methods. An ideal extraction method has to optimize DNA yield, minimize DNA degradation, allow multiple samples to be extracted, and be efficient...... in terms of cost, time, labor, and supplies. Eleven botulinum toxin–producing clostridia strains and 25 samples (10 food, 13 clinical, and 2 environmental samples) naturally contaminated with botulinum toxin–producing clostridia were used to compare 4 DNA extraction procedures: Chelex® 100 matrix, Phenol......-Cloroform-Isoamyl alcohol, NucliSENS® magnetic extraction kit, and DNeasy® Blood & Tissue kit. Integrity, purity, and amount of amplifiable DNA were evaluated. The results show that the DNeasy® Blood & Tissue kit is the best extraction method evaluated because it provided the most pure, intact, and amplifiable DNA. However...

  1. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Severino Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods : The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA and maceration dynamic (MD showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin.

  2. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandfar, Reza; Asnaashari, Maryam; Sayyad, Ruhollah

    2015-10-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μg α-tocopherol/ mL extract) indicated the highest antioxidant activity (80.36 % radical scavenging and 62.69 % β-carotene-linoleic bleaching) and thermal stability (4.95 h) at 120 °C in canola oil. Being high in antioxidant and antiradical potential and high content of phenolic and tocopherol compounds of ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic extract caused to evaluate its thermal stability at 180 °C in canola oil during frying process. So, different concentrations of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract (100, 800, and 1200 ppm) were added to canola oil. TBHQ at 100 ppm served as standard besides the control. Free fatty acids (FFAs), Peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV), total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability index (OSI) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract in stabilization of canola oil. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting that 800 ppm of the extract could act better than 100 ppm TBHQ in inhibition of lipid oxidation in canola oil during frying process and can be used as predominant alternative of synthetic antioxidants.

  3. A Circular Statistical Method for Extracting Rotation Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Sarala; Pankaj Jain

    2002-03-01

    We propose a new method for the extraction of Rotation Measures from spectral polarization data. The method is based on maximum likelihood analysis and takes into account the circular nature of the polarization data. The method is unbiased and statistically more efficient than the standard 2 procedure.

  4. An adaptive morphological impulses extraction method and its application to fault diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wei; Jiang Zhinong; Gao Jinji; Wang Hui

    2010-01-01

    An adaptive morphological impulses extraction method (AMIE) for beating fault diagnosis is proposed.This method uses the morphological closing operation with a flat structuring element (SE) to extract impulsive features from vibration signals with strong background noise.To optimize the flat SE, firstly, a theoretical study is carried out to investigate the effects of the length of the flat SE.Then, based on the theoretical findings, an adaptive algorithm for the flat SE optimization is proposed.The AMIE method is tested by the simulated signal and bearing vibration signals.The test results show that this method is effective and robust in extracting impulsive features.

  5. Seed oil polyphenols: rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution-mass spectrometry identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic content is a primary parameter for vegetables oil quality evaluation, and directly involved in the prevention of oxidation and oil preservation. Several methods have been reported in the literature for polyphenols extraction from seed oil but the approaches commonly used remain manually handled. In this work, we propose a rapid and sensitive method for seed oil polyphenols extraction and identification. For this purpose, polyphenols were extracted from Opuntia stricta Haw seed oil, using high frequency agitation, separated, and then identified using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. Our results showed good sensitivity and reproducibility of the developed methods.

  6. Flavonoids content in extracts secang (Caesalpinia Sappan L. maceration method infundation analysis and visible ultraviolet spectrophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youstiana Dwi Rusita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L has a component of a chemical compound essential oils, flavonoids, benzopyran, sapanin, brazilin, caesalpin S, caesalpin P, sapanon A, sapanon B. Flavonoids are chemical components that can be used in medical and industrial fields. This study aimed to determine the levels of flavonoids contained in extracts secang results maceration and extraction methods infundation. This study used quantitative and descriptive research design. This study using purposive sampling with two sample of Caesalpinia sappan L extract result of infundation and maceration. Analysis using univariate analysis. This study shows that there are types of flavonoids flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration method, and there are flavonoid types of flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results infundation method. Flavonoid content test results showed that the levels of flavonoids in extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration 0.0539% whereas the levels of flavonoids in the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L results infundation methods 0.1902%. Necessary standardization of botanicals Caesalpinia sappan L to determine the levels of flavonoids using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer, and the analysis of the levels of flavonoids in the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L using different solvents. As a follow-up is necessary to design the manufacture of dosage formulations of the active ingredient flavanoid compounds from the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L.

  7. Comparing extraction buffers to identify optimal method to extract somatic coliphages from sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, Poornima; Praveen, Chandni; Jesudhasan, Palmy R; Pillai, Suresh D

    2012-08-01

    Somatic coliphages are present in high numbers in sewage sludge. Since they are conservative indicators of viruses during wastewater treatment processes, they are being used to evaluate the effectiveness of sludge treatment processes. However, efficient methods to extract them from sludge are lacking. The objective was to compare different virus extraction procedures and develop a method to extract coliphages from sewage sludge. Twelve different extraction buffers and procedures varying in composition, pH, and sonication were compared in their ability to recover indigenous phages from sludges. The 3% buffered beef extract (BBE) (pH 9.0), the 10% BBE (pH 9.0), and the 10% BBE (pH 7.0) with sonication were short-listed and their recovery efficiency was determined using coliphage-spiked samples. The highest recovery was 16% for the extraction that involved 10% BBE at pH 9.0. There is a need to develop methods to extract somatic phages from sludges for monitoring sludge treatment processes.

  8. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTION METHODS REPRESENTING AVAILABLE AND TOTAL CONCENTRATIONS OF Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivezić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various extraction methods are used to predict plant uptake of trace metals. Most commonly it is total concentration that is used for risk assessment and evaluation of trace metal availability. However, recent studies showed that total concentration is a poor indicator of availability while concentrations in soil solution show good correlation with plant uptake. Present study was conducted on magricultural soils with low levels of trace metals where 45 soil samples were collected from different soil types. The main objective was to compare four different extraction methods and examine how total and reactive (EDTA trace metal concentrations correlate ,with soil solution concentration (in this study determined by water extraction. The samples were analyzed by four extraction methods: strong acid extraction (ultra-pure HNO3 extraction and aqua regia, weak acid extraction by EDTA and the most available fraction, fraction in soil solution, were represented by water extraction (weakest extractant. Five elements were investigated (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Water extraction significantly correlated with EDTA extraction for Cu, Fe and Mn, while total extraction (HNO3 extraction and aqua regia correlated significantly with water extraction only for Cu. No correlation between water extraction and total extraction confirmed poor role of total concentration as an indicator of availability. EDTA extraction can be used to represent reactive pool of trace metals in soil but it should be also taken with caution when using it to describe available fraction.

  9. An image segmentation based method for iris feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-zhu; ZHANG Zai-feng; MA Yi-de

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the local anomalistic blocks such ascrypts, furrows, and so on in the iris are initially used directly asiris features. A novel image segmentation method based onintersecting cortical model (ICM) neural network was introducedto segment these anomalistic blocks. First, the normalized irisimage was put into ICM neural network after enhancement.Second, the iris features were segmented out perfectly and wereoutput in binary image type by the ICM neural network. Finally,the fourth output pulse image produced by ICM neural networkwas chosen as the iris code for the convenience of real timeprocessing. To estimate the performance of the presentedmethod, an iris recognition platform was produced and theHamming Distance between two iris codes was computed tomeasure the dissimilarity between them. The experimentalresults in CASIA vl.0 and Bath iris image databases show thatthe proposed iris feature extraction algorithm has promisingpotential in iris recognition.

  10. Comparison of DNA extraction methods in analysis of salivary bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevic, Vladimir; Gaïa, Nadia; Girard, Myriam; François, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Culture-independent high-throughput sequencing-based methods are widely used to study bacterial communities. Although these approaches are superior to traditional culture-based methods, they introduce bias at the experimental and bioinformatics levels. We assessed the diversity of the human salivary microbiome by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-3 amplicons using metagenomic DNA extracted by two different protocols: a simple proteinase K digestion without a subsequent DNA clean-up step, and a bead-beating mechanical lysis protocol followed by column DNA purification. A high degree of congruence was found between the two extraction methods, most notably in regard to the microbial community composition. The results showed that for a given bioinformatics pipeline, all the taxa with an average proportion >0.12% in samples processed using one extraction method were also detected in samples extracted using the other method. The same taxa tended to be abundant and frequent for both extraction methods. The relative abundance of sequence reads assigned to the phyla Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes, TM7, Synergistetes, and Tenericutes was significantly higher in the mechanically-treated samples than in the enzymatically-treated samples, whereas the phylum Firmicutes showed the opposite pattern. No significant differences in diversity indices were found between the extraction methods, although the mechanical lysis method revealed higher operational taxonomic unit richness. Differences between the extraction procedures outweighed the variations due to the bioinformatics analysis pipelines used.

  11. Comparison of DNA extraction methods in analysis of salivary bacterial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lazarevic

    Full Text Available Culture-independent high-throughput sequencing-based methods are widely used to study bacterial communities. Although these approaches are superior to traditional culture-based methods, they introduce bias at the experimental and bioinformatics levels. We assessed the diversity of the human salivary microbiome by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-3 amplicons using metagenomic DNA extracted by two different protocols: a simple proteinase K digestion without a subsequent DNA clean-up step, and a bead-beating mechanical lysis protocol followed by column DNA purification. A high degree of congruence was found between the two extraction methods, most notably in regard to the microbial community composition. The results showed that for a given bioinformatics pipeline, all the taxa with an average proportion >0.12% in samples processed using one extraction method were also detected in samples extracted using the other method. The same taxa tended to be abundant and frequent for both extraction methods. The relative abundance of sequence reads assigned to the phyla Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes, TM7, Synergistetes, and Tenericutes was significantly higher in the mechanically-treated samples than in the enzymatically-treated samples, whereas the phylum Firmicutes showed the opposite pattern. No significant differences in diversity indices were found between the extraction methods, although the mechanical lysis method revealed higher operational taxonomic unit richness. Differences between the extraction procedures outweighed the variations due to the bioinformatics analysis pipelines used.

  12. A Karnaugh-Map based fingerprint minutiae extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint is one of the most promising method among all the biometric techniques and has been used for thepersonal authentication for a long time because of its wide acceptance and reliability. Features (Minutiae are extracted fromthe fingerprint in question and are compared with the features already stored in the database for authentication. Crossingnumber (CN is the most commonly used minutiae extraction method for fingerprints. In this paper, a new Karnaugh-Mapbased fingerprint minutiae extraction method has been proposed and discussed. In the proposed algorithm the 8 neighborsof a pixel in a 33 window are arranged as 8 bits of a byte and corresponding hexadecimal (hex value is calculated. Thesehex values are simplified using standard Karnaugh-Map (K-map technique to obtain the minimized logical expression.Experiments conducted on the FVC2002/Db1_a database reveals that the developed method is better than the crossingnumber (CN method.

  13. [DNA extraction methods of compost for molecular ecology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao-Hui; Xiao, Yong; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yun-Guo; Deng, Jiu-Hua

    2006-08-01

    Molecular ecology provides new techniques for studying compost microbes, and the DNA extraction is the basis of molecular techniques. Because of the contamination of humic acids, it turns to be more difficult for compost microbial DNA extraction. Three different approaches, named as lysozyme lysis, ultrasonic lysis and proteinase K lysis with CTAB, were used to extract the total DNA from compost. The detection performed on a nucleic acids and protein analyzer showed that all the three approaches produced high DNA yields. The agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the DNA fragments extracted from compost had a length of about 23 kb. A eubacterial 16S rRNA gene targeted primer pair (27F and 1 495R) was used for PCR amplification, and all the samples got almost the full length 16S rDNA sequence (about 1.5 kb). After digested by restriction endonucleases (Hae Ill and Alu I), the restriction map showed relatively identical microbial diversity in the DNA, which was extracted by the three different approaches. All the compost microbial DNA extracted by the three different approaches could be used for molecular ecological study, and researchers should choose the right approach for extracting microbial DNA from compost based on the facts.

  14. Efficient point cloud data processing in shipbuilding: Reformative component extraction method and registration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Sun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To survive in the current shipbuilding industry, it is of vital importance for shipyards to have the ship components’ accuracy evaluated efficiently during most of the manufacturing steps. Evaluating components’ accuracy by comparing each component’s point cloud data scanned by laser scanners and the ship’s design data formatted in CAD cannot be processed efficiently when (1 extract components from point cloud data include irregular obstacles endogenously, or when (2 registration of the two data sets have no clear direction setting. This paper presents reformative point cloud data processing methods to solve these problems. K-d tree construction of the point cloud data fastens a neighbor searching of each point. Region growing method performed on the neighbor points of the seed point extracts the continuous part of the component, while curved surface fitting and B-spline curved line fitting at the edge of the continuous part recognize the neighbor domains of the same component divided by obstacles’ shadows. The ICP (Iterative Closest Point algorithm conducts a registration of the two sets of data after the proper registration’s direction is decided by principal component analysis. By experiments conducted at the shipyard, 200 curved shell plates are extracted from the scanned point cloud data, and registrations are conducted between them and the designed CAD data using the proposed methods for an accuracy evaluation. Results show that the methods proposed in this paper support the accuracy evaluation targeted point cloud data processing efficiently in practice.

  15. Polyphenols: Extraction Methods, Antioxidative Action, Bioavailability and Anticarcinogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brglez Mojzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Being secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols represent a large and diverse group of substances abundantly present in a majority of fruits, herbs and vegetables. The current contribution is focused on their bioavailability, antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. An overview of extraction methods is also given, with supercritical fluid extraction highlighted as a promising eco-friendly alternative providing exceptional separation and protection from degradation of unstable polyphenols. The protective role of polyphenols against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, UV light, plant pathogens, parasites and predators results in several beneficial biological activities giving rise to prophylaxis or possibly even to a cure for several prevailing human diseases, especially various cancer types. Omnipresence, specificity of the response and the absence of or low toxicity are crucial advantages of polyphenols as anticancer agents. The main problem represents their low bioavailability and rapid metabolism. One of the promising solutions lies in nanoformulation of polyphenols that prevents their degradation and thus enables significantly higher concentrations to reach the target cells. Another, more practiced, solution is the use of mixtures of various polyphenols that bring synergistic effects, resulting in lowering of the required therapeutic dose and in multitargeted action. The combination of polyphenols with existing drugs and therapies also shows promising results and significantly reduces their toxicity.

  16. A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Fasahat Ullah; Teng, Shyh Wei; Awrangjeb, Mohammad; Lu, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE) method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality). Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state-of-the-art building

  17. A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasahat Ullah Siddiqui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state

  18. A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Fasahat Ullah; Teng, Shyh Wei; Awrangjeb, Mohammad; Lu, Guojun

    2016-07-19

    Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE) method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality). Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state-of-the-art building

  19. Phase extraction based on sinusoidal extreme strip phase shifting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Mei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    Multiple synthetic aperture imaging can enlarge pupil diameter of optical systems, and increase system resolution. Multiple synthetic aperture imaging is a cutting-edge topic and research focus in recent years, which is prospectively widely applied in fields like astronomical observations and aerospace remote sensing. In order to achieve good imaging quality, synthetic aperture imaging system requires phase extraction of each sub-aperture and co-phasing of whole aperture. In the project, an in-depth study about basic principles and methods of segments phase extraction was done. The study includes: application of sinusoidal extreme strip light irradiation phase shift method to extract the central dividing line to get segment phase extraction information, and the use of interference measurement to get the aperture phase extraction calibration coefficients of spherical surface. Study about influence of sinusoidal extreme strip phase shift on phase extraction, and based on sinusoidal stripe phase shift from multiple linear light sources of the illumination reflected image, to carry out the phase shift error for inhibiting the effect in the phase extracted frame.

  20. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  1. An unsupervised text mining method for relation extraction from biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Changqin; Wang, Meng; Ren, Fuji

    2014-01-01

    The wealth of interaction information provided in biomedical articles motivated the implementation of text mining approaches to automatically extract biomedical relations. This paper presents an unsupervised method based on pattern clustering and sentence parsing to deal with biomedical relation extraction. Pattern clustering algorithm is based on Polynomial Kernel method, which identifies interaction words from unlabeled data; these interaction words are then used in relation extraction between entity pairs. Dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing are combined for relation extraction. Based on the semi-supervised KNN algorithm, we extend the proposed unsupervised approach to a semi-supervised approach by combining pattern clustering, dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing rules. We evaluated the approaches on two different tasks: (1) Protein-protein interactions extraction, and (2) Gene-suicide association extraction. The evaluation of task (1) on the benchmark dataset (AImed corpus) showed that our proposed unsupervised approach outperformed three supervised methods. The three supervised methods are rule based, SVM based, and Kernel based separately. The proposed semi-supervised approach is superior to the existing semi-supervised methods. The evaluation on gene-suicide association extraction on a smaller dataset from Genetic Association Database and a larger dataset from publicly available PubMed showed that the proposed unsupervised and semi-supervised methods achieved much higher F-scores than co-occurrence based method.

  2. An unsupervised text mining method for relation extraction from biomedical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqin Quan

    Full Text Available The wealth of interaction information provided in biomedical articles motivated the implementation of text mining approaches to automatically extract biomedical relations. This paper presents an unsupervised method based on pattern clustering and sentence parsing to deal with biomedical relation extraction. Pattern clustering algorithm is based on Polynomial Kernel method, which identifies interaction words from unlabeled data; these interaction words are then used in relation extraction between entity pairs. Dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing are combined for relation extraction. Based on the semi-supervised KNN algorithm, we extend the proposed unsupervised approach to a semi-supervised approach by combining pattern clustering, dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing rules. We evaluated the approaches on two different tasks: (1 Protein-protein interactions extraction, and (2 Gene-suicide association extraction. The evaluation of task (1 on the benchmark dataset (AImed corpus showed that our proposed unsupervised approach outperformed three supervised methods. The three supervised methods are rule based, SVM based, and Kernel based separately. The proposed semi-supervised approach is superior to the existing semi-supervised methods. The evaluation on gene-suicide association extraction on a smaller dataset from Genetic Association Database and a larger dataset from publicly available PubMed showed that the proposed unsupervised and semi-supervised methods achieved much higher F-scores than co-occurrence based method.

  3. A Novel Method of Genomic DNA Extraction for Cactaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Fehlberg, Shannon D.; Jessica M. Allen; Kathleen Church

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Genetic studies of Cactaceae can at times be impeded by difficult sampling logistics and/or high mucilage content in tissues. Simplifying sampling and DNA isolation through the use of cactus spines has not previously been investigated. • Methods and Results: Several protocols for extracting DNA from spines were tested and modified to maximize yield, amplification, and sequencing. Sampling of and extraction from spines resulted in a simplified protocol overall and compl...

  4. Intercomparison of Lab-Based Soil Water Extraction Methods for Stable Water Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D.; Orlowski, N.; McDonnell, J.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of pore water extraction technique on resultant isotopic signature is poorly understood. Here we present results of an intercomparison of five common lab-based soil water extraction techniques: high pressure mechanical squeezing, centrifugation, direct vapor equilibration, microwave extraction, and cryogenic extraction. We applied five extraction methods to two physicochemically different standard soil types (silty sand and clayey loam) that were oven-dried and rewetted with water of known isotopic composition at three different gravimetric water contents (8, 20, and 30%). We tested the null hypothisis that all extraction techniques would provide the same isotopic result independent from soil type and water content. Our results showed that the extraction technique had a significant effect on the soil water isotopic composition. Each method exhibited deviations from spiked reference water, with soil type and water content showing a secondary effect. Cryogenic extraction showed the largest deviations from the reference water, whereas mechanical squeezing and centrifugation provided the closest match to the reference water for both soil types. We also compared results for each extraction technique that produced liquid water on both an OA-ICOS and IRMS; differences between them were negligible.

  5. A New Method to Extract Text from Natural Scenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for text detection, location and binarization fron natural scenes. Several morphological steps are used to detect the general positian of the text, including English, Chinese and Japanese characters. Next bounding boxes are processed by a new "Expand, Break and Merge" (EBM) method to get the precise text areas. Finally, text is binarized by a hybrid method based on Otsu and Niblack. This new approach can extract different kinds of text from complicated natural scenes. It is insensitive to noise, distortedness, and text orientation. It also has good performance on extracting texts in various sizes.

  6. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  7. An effective placental cotyledons proteins extraction method for 2D gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Niu J; Daim, Leona D J; Jamil, Amilia A M; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Thilakavathy, Karuppiah

    2017-03-01

    Effective protein extraction is essential especially in producing a well-resolved proteome on 2D gels. A well-resolved placental cotyledon proteome, with good reproducibility, have allowed researchers to study the proteins underlying the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy. The aim of this study is to determine the best protein extraction protocol for the extraction of protein from placental cotyledons tissues for a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). Based on widely used protein extraction strategies, 12 different extraction methodologies were carefully selected, which included one chemical extraction, two mechanical extraction coupled protein precipitations, and nine chemical extraction coupled protein precipitations. Extracted proteins were resolved in a one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and 2D-GE; then, it was compared with set criteria: extraction efficacy, protein resolution, reproducibility, and recovery efficiency. Our results revealed that a better profile was obtained by chemical extraction in comparison to mechanical extraction. We further compared chemical extraction coupled protein precipitation methodologies, where the DNase/lithium chloride-dense sucrose homogenization coupled dichloromethane-methanol precipitation (DNase/LiCl-DSH-D/MPE) method showed good protein extraction efficiency. This, however, was carried out with the best protein resolution and proteome reproducibility on 2D-gels. DNase/LiCl-DSH-D/MPE was efficient in the extraction of proteins from placental cotyledons tissues. In addition, this methodology could hypothetically allow the protein extraction of any tissue that contains highly abundant lipid and glycogen. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A silica gel based method for extracting insect surface hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Ramírez, Santiago R; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2012-02-01

    Here, we describe a novel method for the extraction of insect cuticular hydrocarbons using silica gel, herein referred to as "silica-rubbing". This method permits the selective sampling of external hydrocarbons from insect cuticle surfaces for subsequent analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The cuticular hydrocarbons are first adsorbed to silica gel particles by rubbing the cuticle of insect specimens with the materials, and then are subsequently eluted using organic solvents. We compared the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that resulted from extractions using silica-rubbing and solvent-soaking methods in four ant and one bee species: Linepithema humile, Azteca instabilis, Camponotus floridanus, Pogonomyrmex barbatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Euglossa dilemma (Hymenoptera: Apidae). We also compared the hydrocarbon profiles of Euglossa dilemma obtained via silica-rubbing and solid phase microextraction (SPME). Comparison of hydrocarbon profiles obtained by different extraction methods indicates that silica rubbing selectively extracts the hydrocarbons that are present on the surface of the cuticular wax layer, without extracting hydrocarbons from internal glands and tissues. Due to its surface specificity, efficiency, and low cost, this new method may be useful for studying the biology of insect cuticular hydrocarbons.

  9. Optimizing Fungal DNA Extraction Methods from Aerosol Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, G.; Mescioglu, E.; Paytan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Fungi and fungal spores can be picked up from terrestrial ecosystems, transported long distances, and deposited into marine ecosystems. It is important to study dust-borne fungal communities, because they can stay viable and effect the ambient microbial populations, which are key players in biogeochemical cycles. One of the challenges of studying dust-borne fungal populations is that aerosol samples contain low biomass, making extracting good quality DNA very difficult. The aim of this project was to increase DNA yield by optimizing DNA extraction methods. We tested aerosol samples collected from Haifa, Israel (polycarbonate filter), Monterey Bay, CA (quartz filter) and Bermuda (quartz filter). Using the Qiagen DNeasy Plant Kit, we tested the effect of altering bead beating times and incubation times, adding three freeze and thaw steps, initially washing the filters with buffers for various lengths of time before using the kit, and adding a step with 30 minutes of sonication in 65C water. Adding three freeze/thaw steps, adding a sonication step, washing with a phosphate buffered saline overnight, and increasing incubation time to two hours, in that order, resulted in the highest increase in DNA for samples from Israel (polycarbonate). DNA yield of samples from Monterey (quart filter) increased about 5 times when washing with buffers overnight (phosphate buffered saline and potassium phophate buffer), adding a sonication step, and adding three freeze and thaw steps. Samples collected in Bermuda (quartz filter) had the highest increase in DNA yield from increasing incubation to 2 hours, increasing bead beating time to 6 minutes, and washing with buffers overnight (phosphate buffered saline and potassium phophate buffer). Our results show that DNA yield can be increased by altering various steps of the Qiagen DNeasy Plant Kit protocol, but different types of filters collected at different sites respond differently to alterations. These results can be used as

  10. A Comparative Study of Contemporary Color Tongue Image Extraction Methods Based on HSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue image with coating is of important clinical diagnostic meaning, but traditional tongue image extraction method is not competent for extraction of tongue image with thick coating. In this paper, a novel method is suggested, which applies multiobjective greedy rules and makes fusion of color and space information in order to extract tongue image accurately. A comparative study of several contemporary tongue image extraction methods is also made from the aspects of accuracy and efficiency. As the experimental results show, geodesic active contour is quite slow and not accurate, the other 3 methods achieve fairly good segmentation results except in the case of the tongue with thick coating, our method achieves ideal segmentation results whatever types of tongue images are, and efficiency of our method is acceptable for the application of quantitative check of tongue image.

  11. Microbial protein in soil: influence of extraction method and C amendment on extraction and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erin B; Williams, Mark A

    2010-02-01

    The capacity to study the content and resolve the dynamics of the proteome of diverse microbial communities would help to revolutionize the way microbiologists study the function and activity of microorganisms in soil. To better understand the limitations of a proteomic approach to studying soil microbial communities, we characterized extractable soil microbial proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Two methods were utilized to extract proteins from microorganisms residing in a Quitman and Benfield soil: (1) direct extraction of bulk protein from soil and (2) separation of the microorganisms from soil using density gradient centrifugation and subsequent extraction (DGC-EXT) of microbial protein. In addition, glucose and toluene amendments to soil were used to stimulate the growth of a subset of the microbial community. A bacterial culture and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were added to the soil to qualitatively assess their recovery following extraction. Direct extraction and resolution of microbial proteins using SDS-PAGE generally resulted in smeared and unresolved banding patterns on gels. DGC-EXT of microbial protein from soil followed by separation using SDS-PAGE, however, did resolve six to 10 bands in the Benfield but not the Quitman soil. DGC-EXT of microbial protein, but not direct extraction following the addition of glucose and toluene, markedly increased the number of bands (approximately 40) on the gels in both Benfield and Quitman soils. Low recoveries of added culture and BSA proteins using the direct extraction method suggest that proteins either bind to soil organic matter and mineral particles or that partial degradation takes place during extraction. Interestingly, DGC may have been preferentially selected for actively growing cells, as gauged by the 10-100x lower cy19:0/18:1omega7 ratio of the fatty acid methyl esters in the isolated community compared to that for the whole soil. DGC can be used to

  12. Ilexgenin A, a novel pentacyclic triterpenoid extracted from Aquifoliaceae shows reduction of LPS-induced peritonitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weidong; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Yaqi; Qiu, Xia; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Hongxia; Rong, Yi; Sun, Yun

    2017-02-15

    Ilexgenin A (IA) is a novel pentacyclic triterpenoid, which extracted from leaves of Ilex hainanensis Merr. In the present study, we aim to explore anti-inflammatory activity of IA on LPS-induced peritonitis and its underlying molecular mechanism. The results determined that IA was capable of suppressing peritonitis in mice induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccaride (LPS). Furthermore, the results showed that IA dramatically inhibited levels of inflammatory cells infiltration in peritoneal cavity and serum in LPS-induced mice peritonitis model. Besides, IA could dramatically inhibit levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in peritoneal cavity in LPS-induced mice peritonitis model. In vitro study, the results showed that IA inhibited production of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α at transcriptional and translational levels in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS. Furthermore, IA could suppress the LPS-induced activation of Akt and downstream degradation and phosphorylation of kappa B-α (IκB-α). Moreover, IA could significantly inhibit ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS. These results were concurrent with molecular docking which revealed ERK1/2 inhibition. These results demonstrated that IA might as an anti-inflammatory agent candidate for inflammatory disease therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetosomes extracted from Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 showed enhanced peroxidase-like activity under visible-light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kefeng; Chen, Chuanfang; Chen, Changyou; Wang, Yuzhan; Wei, Zhao; Pan, Weidong; Song, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Magnetosomes are intracellular structures produced by magnetotactic bacteria and are magnetic nanoparticles surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. Magnetosomes reportedly possess intrinsic enzyme mimetic activity similar to that found in horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and can scavenge reactive oxygen species depending on peroxidase activity. Our previous study has demonstrated the phototaxis characteristics of Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 cells, but the mechanism is not well understood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between visible-light irradiation and peroxidase-like activity of magnetosomes extracted from M. magneticum strain AMB-1. We then compared this characteristic with that of HRP, iron ions, and naked magnetosomes using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as a peroxidase substrate in the presence of H2O2. Results showed that HRP and iron ions had different activities from those of magnetosomes and naked magnetosomes when exposed to visible-light irradiation. Magnetosomes and naked magnetosomes had enhanced peroxidase-like activities under visible-light irradiation, but magnetosomes showed less affinity toward substrates than naked magnetosomes under visible-light irradiation. These results suggested that the peroxidase-like activity of magnetosomes may follow an ordered ternary mechanism rather than a ping-pong mechanism. This finding may provide new insight into the function of magnetosomes in the phototaxis in magnetotactic bacteria.

  14. Development and validation of an extraction method for the analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Hye; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2017-02-16

    Human hair has many advantages as a non-invasive sample; however, analytical methods for detecting perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human hair are still in the development stage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for monitoring 11 PFASs in human hair. Solid-phase extraction (SPE), ion-pairing extraction (IPE), a combined method (SPE+IPE) and solvent extraction with ENVI-carb clean-up were compared to develop an optimal extraction method using two types of hair sample (powder and piece forms). Analysis of PFASs was performed using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Among the four different extraction procedures, the SPE method using powdered hair showed the best extraction efficiency and recoveries ranged from 85.8 to 102%. The method detection limits for the SPE method were 0.114-0.796 ng/g and good precision (below 10%) and accuracy (66.4-110%) were obtained. In light of these results, SPE is considered the optimal method for PFAS extraction from hair. It was also successfully used to detect PFASs in human hair samples.

  15. A NOVEL METHOD FOR ARABIC MULTI-WORD TERM EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadni Meryem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Multiword Terms (AMWTs are relevant strings of words in text documents. Once they are automatically extracted, they can be used to increase the performance of any Arabic Text Mining applications such as Categorization, Clustering, Information Retrieval System, Machine Translation, and Summarization, etc. Mainly the proposed methods for AMWTs extraction can be categorized in three approaches: Linguistic-based, Statistic-based, and hybrid-based approach. These methods present some drawbacks that limit their use. In fact they can only deal with bi-grams terms and their yield not good accuracies. In this paper, to overcome these drawbacks, we propose a new and efficient method for AMWTs Extraction based on a hybrid approach. This latter is composed by two main filtering steps: the Linguistic filter and the Statistical one. The Linguistic Filter uses our proposed Part Of Speech (POS Tagger and the Sequence identifier as patterns in order to extract candidate AMWTs. While the Statistical filter incorporate the contextual information, and a new proposed association measure based on Termhood and Unithood Estimation named NTC-Value. To evaluate and illustrate the efficiency of our proposed method for AMWTs extraction, a comparative study has been conducted based on Kalimat Corpus and using nine experiment schemes: In the linguistic filter, we used three POS Taggers such as Taani’s method based Rule-approach, HMM method based Statistical-approach, and our recently proposed Tagger based Hybrid –approach. While in the Statistical filter, we used three statistical measures such as C-Value, NC-Value, and our proposed NTC-Value. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed method for AMWTs extraction: it outperforms the other ones and can deal correctly with the tri-grams terms.

  16. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  17. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method for Nuclear Short Tandem Repeat Testing of Skeletal Remains from Mass Graves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Jon; Vanek, Daniel; Konjhodzić, Rijad; Crews, John; Huffine, Edwin; Parsons, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To quantitatively compare a silica extraction method with a commonly used phenol/chloroform extraction method for DNA analysis of specimens exhumed from mass graves. Methods DNA was extracted from twenty randomly chosen femur samples, using the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) silica method, based on Qiagen Blood Maxi Kit, and compared with the DNA extracted by the standard phenol/chloroform-based method. The efficacy of extraction methods was compared by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to measure DNA quantity and the presence of inhibitors and by amplification with the PowerPlex 16 (PP16) multiplex nuclear short tandem repeat (STR) kit. Results DNA quantification results showed that the silica-based method extracted on average 1.94 ng of DNA per gram of bone (range 0.25-9.58 ng/g), compared with only 0.68 ng/g by the organic method extracted (range 0.0016-4.4880 ng/g). Inhibition tests showed that there were on average significantly lower levels of PCR inhibitors in DNA isolated by the organic method. When amplified with PP16, all samples extracted by silica-based method produced 16 full loci profiles, while only 75% of the DNA extracts obtained by organic technique amplified 16 loci profiles. Conclusions The silica-based extraction method showed better results in nuclear STR typing from degraded bone samples than a commonly used phenol/chloroform method. PMID:17696302

  18. BMAA extraction of cyanobacteria samples: which method to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Sandra; Burian, Alfred; Rasmussen, Ulla; Costa, Pedro Reis; Annadotter, Heléne; Godhe, Anna; Rydberg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin reportedly produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, is proposed to be linked to the development of neurological diseases. BMAA has been found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, both in its phytoplankton producers and in several invertebrate and vertebrate organisms that bioaccumulate it. LC-MS/MS is the most frequently used analytical technique in BMAA research due to its high selectivity, though consensus is lacking as to the best extraction method to apply. This study accordingly surveys the efficiency of three extraction methods regularly used in BMAA research to extract BMAA from cyanobacteria samples. The results obtained provide insights into possible reasons for the BMAA concentration discrepancies in previous publications. In addition and according to the method validation guidelines for analysing cyanotoxins, the TCA protein precipitation method, followed by AQC derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis, is now validated for extracting protein-bound (after protein hydrolysis) and free BMAA from cyanobacteria matrix. BMAA biological variability was also tested through the extraction of diatom and cyanobacteria species, revealing a high variance in BMAA levels (0.0080-2.5797 μg g(-1) DW).

  19. Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Pacheco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., carrot (Daucus carota L., sweet potato with orange pulp (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. flour. Quantification of the total carotenoids was made by spectrophotometry. Quantification and determination of carotenoid profiles were formulated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with photodiode array detection. Microscale extraction was faster, cheaper and cleaner than the commonly used one, and advantageous for analytical laboratories.

  20. THE METHODS OF EXTRACTING WATER INFORMATION FROM SPOT IMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some techniques and methods for deriving water information from SPOT -4 (XI) image were investigatedand discussed in this paper. An algorithm of decision-tree (DT) classification which includes several classifiers based onthe spectral responding characteristics of water bodies and other objects, was developed and put forward to delineate wa-ter bodies. Another algorithm of decision-tree classification based on both spectral characteristics and auxiliary informa-tion of DEM and slope (DTDS) was also designed for water bodies extraction. In addition, supervised classificationmethod of maximum-likelyhood classification (MLC), and unsupervised method of interactive self-organizing dada analy-sis technique (ISODATA) were used to extract waterbodies for comparison purpose. An index was designed and used toassess the accuracy of different methods adopted in the research. Results have shown that water extraction accuracy wasvariable with respect to the various techniques applied. It was low using ISODATA, very high using DT algorithm andmuch higher using both DTDS and MLC.

  1. METHOD TO EXTRACT BLEND SURFACE FEATURE IN REVERSE ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Zhen; Ke Yinglin; Sun Qing; Kelvin W; Huang Xiaoping

    2003-01-01

    A new method of extraction of blend surface feature is presented. It contains two steps: segmentation and recovery of parametric representation of the blend. The segmentation separates the points in the blend region from the rest of the input point cloud with the processes of sampling point data, estimation of local surface curvature properties and comparison of maximum curvature values. The recovery of parametric representation generates a set of profile curves by marching throughout the blend and fitting cylinders. Compared with the existing approaches of blend surface feature extraction, the proposed method reduces the requirement of user interaction and is capable of extracting blend surface with either constant radius or variable radius. Application examples are presented to verify the proposed method.

  2. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves.

  3. A Novel Method of Genomic DNA Extraction for Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon D. Fehlberg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Genetic studies of Cactaceae can at times be impeded by difficult sampling logistics and/or high mucilage content in tissues. Simplifying sampling and DNA isolation through the use of cactus spines has not previously been investigated. Methods and Results: Several protocols for extracting DNA from spines were tested and modified to maximize yield, amplification, and sequencing. Sampling of and extraction from spines resulted in a simplified protocol overall and complete avoidance of mucilage as compared to typical tissue extractions. Sequences from one nuclear and three plastid regions were obtained across eight genera and 20 species of cacti using DNA extracted from spines. Conclusions: Genomic DNA useful for amplification and sequencing can be obtained from cactus spines. The protocols described here are valuable for any cactus species, but are particularly useful for investigators interested in sampling living collections, extensive field sampling, and/or conservation genetic studies.

  4. A novel method of genomic DNA extraction for Cactaceae1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlberg, Shannon D.; Allen, Jessica M.; Church, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Genetic studies of Cactaceae can at times be impeded by difficult sampling logistics and/or high mucilage content in tissues. Simplifying sampling and DNA isolation through the use of cactus spines has not previously been investigated. • Methods and Results: Several protocols for extracting DNA from spines were tested and modified to maximize yield, amplification, and sequencing. Sampling of and extraction from spines resulted in a simplified protocol overall and complete avoidance of mucilage as compared to typical tissue extractions. Sequences from one nuclear and three plastid regions were obtained across eight genera and 20 species of cacti using DNA extracted from spines. • Conclusions: Genomic DNA useful for amplification and sequencing can be obtained from cactus spines. The protocols described here are valuable for any cactus species, but are particularly useful for investigators interested in sampling living collections, extensive field sampling, and/or conservation genetic studies. PMID:25202521

  5. Increasing DNA extraction yield from saliva stains with a modified Chelex method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, D; Lorente, M; Valenzuela, A; Lorente, J A; Alvarez, J C

    1996-12-27

    Recovery, preservation and analysis of body fluid stains is an important aspect of forensic science. PCR-based typing of DNA extracted from recovered stains is often a crucial method to identify a perpetrator or exclude an innocent suspect. This paper reports an improved method of extracting genomic DNA from saliva stains deposited on human skin in simulated bite mark situations. Results of organic (phenol-chloroform) extraction and Chelex extraction were compared to a modified Chelex method developed by the authors. Modifications include pre-extraction preparation with proteinase K and incubations at 56 degrees C and 100 degrees C plus microconcentration of the solution. Quantification results using the classical Chelex extraction method showed that 31.9 +/- 4.22% of the deposited DNA was recovered, but using the modified Chelex extraction method DNA recovery was increased to 47.7 +/- 6.90%. The quantity and quality of extracted DNA was shown to be adequate for PCR-based typing at two STR loci.

  6. Optimization of the Phenol -Chloroform Silica DNA Extraction Method in Ancient Bones DNA Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: DNA extraction from the ancient bones tissues is currently very difficult. Phenol chloroform silica method is one of the methods currently used for this aim. The purpose of this study was to optimize the assessment method. Methods: DNA of 62 bone tissues (average 3-11 years was first extracted with phenol chloroform silica methods and then with changing of some parameters of the methods the extracted DNA was amplified in eight polymorphisms area including FES, F13, D13S317, D16, D5S818, vWA and CD4. Results from samples gained by two methods were compared in acrylamide gel. Results: The average of PCR yield for new method and common method in eight polymorphism regions was 75%, 78%, 81%, 76%, 85%, 71%, 89%, 86% and 64%, 39%, 70%, 49%, 68%, 76%, 71% and 28% respectively. The average of DNA in optimized (in 35l silica density and common method were 267.5 µg/ml with 1.12 purity and 192.76 g/ml with 0.84 purity respectively. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, it is estimated that longer EDTA attendance is an efficient agent in removing calcium and also adequate density of silica particles can be efficient in removal of PCR inhibitors.

  7. Quantitation of genistein and genistin in soy dry extracts by UV-Visible spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela da Costa César

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and validation of an UV-Visible spectrophotometric method for quantitation of genistein and genistin in soy dry extracts, after reaction with aluminum chloride. The method showed to be linear (r²= 0.9999, precise (R.S.D. < 2%, accurate (recovery of 101.56% and robust. Seven samples of soy dry extracts were analyzed by the spectrophotometric validated method and by RP-HPLC. Genistein concentrations determined by spectrophotometry (0.63% - 16.05% were slightly higher than values obtained by HPLC analysis (0.40% - 12.79%; however, the results of both methods showed a strong correlation.

  8. Background Extraction Method Based on Block Histogram Analysis for Video Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hua; Peng Qiang

    2005-01-01

    A novel method of histogram analysis for background extraction in video image is proposed, which is derived from the pixelbased histogram analysis. Not only the statistical property of pixels between temporal frames, but also the correlation of local pixels in a single frame is exploited in this method. When carrying out histogram analysis for background extraction, the proposed method is not based on a single pixel but on a 2×2 block that has much less computational quantities and can extract a sound background image from video sequence simultaneously. A comparative experiment between the proposed method and the pixel-based histogram analysis shows that the proposed method has a faster speed in background extraction and the obtained background image is better in quantity.

  9. Propagation source wavelet phase extraction using multi-taper method coherence estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2017-02-01

    It is possible to use statistical methods to extract the propagation source wavelet phase from seismic data without getting information from a well log. Using kurtosis as a high-order statistics can preserve the phase of the signal but it is highly sensitive to outliers. A new method is introduced here called the multi-taper method coherence estimation. Two steps are required: first, a cosine function that includes the dominant frequency and maximum amplitude of signal is chosen. Secondly, the maximum coherence in the frequency band of the signal, which shows the best phase matching between the time series is determined. To validate this new method real data sets were chosen and the extracted wavelet phases for noise free and noisy data sets were compared with data extracted from a well log. Extracted wavelets using Kurtosis were also generated for comparison, and demonstrate the improved results using the new method.

  10. Comparison of three DNA extraction methods for recovery of soil protist DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana S; Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Hansen, Lars H; Winding, Anne

    2015-08-01

    The use of molecular methods to investigate protist communities in soil is in rapid development this decade. Molecular analysis of soil protist communities is usually dependant on direct genomic DNA extraction from soil and inefficient or differential DNA extraction of protist DNA can lead to bias in downstream community analysis. Three commonly used soil DNA extraction methods have been tested on soil samples from three European Long-Term Observatories (LTOs) with different land-use and three protist cultures belonging to different phylogenetic groups in different growth stages. The methods tested were: ISOm-11063 (a version of the ISO-11063 method modified to include a FastPrep ®-24 mechanical lysis step), GnS-GII (developed by the GenoSol platform to extract soil DNA in large-scale soil surveys) and a commercial DNA extraction kit - Power Lyzer™ PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio). DNA yield and quality were evaluated along with DNA suitability for amplification of 18S rDNA fragments by PCR. On soil samples, ISOm-11063 yields significantly higher DNA for two of the three soil samples, however, MoBio extraction favors DNA quality. This method was also more effective to recover copies of 18S rDNA numbers from all soil types. In addition and despite the lower yields, higher DNA quality was observed with DNA extracted from protist cultures with the MoBio method. Likewise, a bead-beating step shows to be a good solution for DNA extraction of soil protists, since the recovery of DNA from protist cultures and from the different soil samples with the ISOm method proved to be efficient in recovering PCR-amplifiable DNA. This study showed that soil DNA extraction methods provide biased results towards the cyst stages of protist organism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A simple identification method for spore-forming bacteria showing high resistance against [gamma]-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko; Sone, Koji; Kobayashi, Toshikazu (Japan Radioisotope Association, Koka, Shiga (Japan). Koka Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    A simple identification method was developed for spore-forming bacteria which are highly resistant against [gamma]-rays. Among 23 species of Bacillus studied, the spores of Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. pumilus and B. aneurinolyticus showed high resistance against [gamma]-rays as compared with other spores of Bacillus species. Combination of the seven kinds of biochemical tests, namely, the citrate utilization test, nitrate reduction test, starch hydrolysis test, Voges-Proskauer reaction test, gelatine hydrolysis test, mannitol utilization test and xylose utilization test showed a characteristic pattern for each species of Bacillus. The combination pattern of each the above tests with a few supplementary test, if necessary, was useful to identify Bacillus species showing high radiation resistance against [gamma]-rays. The method is specific for B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis and B. pumilus, and highly selective for B. aneurinolyticus and B. cereus. (author).

  12. A comparison of protein extraction methods suitable for gel-based proteomic studies of aphid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, M; Fish, T; Yang, X; McLaughlin, M; Thannhauser, T W; Gray, S

    2009-09-01

    Protein extraction methods can vary widely in reproducibility and in representation of the total proteome, yet there are limited data comparing protein isolation methods. The methodical comparison of protein isolation methods is the first critical step for proteomic studies. To address this, we compared three methods for isolation, purification, and solubilization of insect proteins. The aphid Schizaphis graminum, an agricultural pest, was the source of insect tissue. Proteins were extracted using TCA in acetone (TCA-acetone), phenol, or multi-detergents in a chaotrope solution. Extracted proteins were solubilized in a multiple chaotrope solution and examined using 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis and compared directly using 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE). Mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins from each extraction type. We were unable to ascribe the differences in the proteins extracted to particular physical characteristics, cell location, or biological function. The TCA-acetone extraction yielded the greatest amount of protein from aphid tissues. Each extraction method isolated a unique subset of the aphid proteome. The TCA-acetone method was explored further for its quantitative reliability using 2-D DIGE. Principal component analysis showed that little of the variation in the data was a result of technical issues, thus demonstrating that the TCA-acetone extraction is a reliable method for preparing aphid proteins for a quantitative proteomics experiment. These data suggest that although the TCA-acetone method is a suitable method for quantitative aphid proteomics, a combination of extraction approaches is recommended for increasing proteome coverage when using gel-based separation techniques.

  13. Simultaneous extraction, optimization, and analysis of flavonoids and polyphenols from peach and pumpkin extracts using a TLC-densitometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemimi, Ammar; Watson, Dennis G; Kinsel, Mary; Lightfoot, David A

    2015-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants has been reported throughout human history. In the fight against illnesses, medicinal plants represent the primary health care system for 60 % of the world's population. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with active anti-microbial properties; they are produced in plants as pigments. Quercetin, myricetin, and rutin are among the most well-known and prevalent flavonoids in plants, with an antioxidant activity capable of decreasing the oxidation of low density lipoproteins [LDLs]. To date, this research is the first of its kind to employ a coupled thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and a densitometric quantification method with a Box-Behnken design (BBD) response surface methodology (RSM) for optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and determination of rutin and quercetin from peach and ellagic acid and myricetin from pumpkin fruits. The effect of process variables (extraction temperature (°C), extraction power (%) and extraction time (min)) on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were examined by using BBD and RSM. TLC followed by Quantity-One™ (BioRad) image analysis as a simple and rapid method was used for identification and quantification of the compounds in complex mixtures. The results were consistent under optimal conditions among the experimental values and their predicted values. A mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique was also used to confirm the identity of the natural products in the TLC spots resolved. The results show that the coupled TLC-densitometric methods & BBD can be a very powerful approach to qualitative and quantitative analysis of; rutin and quercetin from peach extracts; and ellagic acid and myricetin contents from pumpkin extracts.

  14. Determination of Polycyclic Arimatic Hydrocarbon (PAH on Foods using Numerous Extraction Methods: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premla Devi Chander

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Premla DeviChander, Chai Mee Kin College of Foundation and General Studies, UniversitiTenagaNasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor. Premla@uniten.edu.my     Fax:03-89287275     ABSTRACT   According to the European Union (EU legislation, a strong attention has been focused on the presence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH on the environment and also on foods. As known, the presence of PAH mainly on food leads to the activation of carcinogenic agent as the cause of the genotoxic and mutagenic production. Various analytical methods have been used to analyze the concentration of PAH on foods such as fruits and vegetables. The efficiency of PAH concentration on food samples depends on the types of extraction method implemented.The extraction methodswereAccelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE, QuEChERS (acronymic name from quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safeextraction,Supramolecular solvent extraction (SUPRAS,Ultrasonication Extraction, Soxhlet extraction method and Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction (DLLME. Most of the mentioned extraction methods use the High-Resolution Gas Chromatography (HRGC, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS to carry the analysis of PAH in fruits and vegetables. The percentage recoveries of each method have been discussed and it was known that SUPRAS showed the best result in percentage recovery and relative standard deviation.  In the present review, all the implemented extraction of PAHmethods on food were analyzed and discussed in terms of the advantages andthe limitations on each extraction methods as well as the analytical performances.   Keywords:PAH, Extraction Methods, Fruits and Vegetables.

  15. Comparison of RNA extraction methods in Thai aromatic coconut water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many researches have reported that nucleic acid in coconut water is in free form and at very low yields which makes it difficult to process in molecular studies. Our research attempted to compare two extraction methods to obtain a higher yield of total RNA in aromatic coconut water and monitor its change at various fruit stages. The first method used ethanol and sodium acetate as reagents; the second method used lithium chloride. We found that extraction using only lithium chloride gave a higher total RNA yield than the method using ethanol to precipitate nucleic acid. In addition, the total RNA from both methods could be used in amplification of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (Badh2 genes, which is involved in coconut aroma biosynthesis, and could be used to perform further study as we expected. From the molecular study, the nucleic acid found in coconut water increased with fruit age.

  16. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) cloning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15-52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost-effective and demonstrates the versatility as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. We established a DH10B-derived E. coli strain expressing an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system, termed PPY, which facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies.

  17. STUDIES ON METHOD FOR AQUEOUS EXTRACTION OF SOYBEAN OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱俊青

    2001-01-01

    Water extraction of soybean oil was studied to find the optimal conditions for recovery of oil pre-enriched protein and for aqueous extraction of soybean oil. Orthogonal tests were employed in the procedures of oil pre-enrichment and aqueous extraction. Soybeans were crushed to pass a 40 mesh sieve, soaked under the optimum conditions (solid/water=1/5(w/v), 40 ℃, pH 10, 3 h) and water-ground to 100 mesh, stirred in 65 ℃ water for 20 min, and centrifuged at 1400 g to separate oil pre-enriched protein. The protein yield was 17.8 g from 100 g soybeans, which contained 62.8% oil. The oil yield was 69.0%. Optimum conditions for the aqueous extraction procedure were: solid-to-water ratio 1∶2, pH 9.0, time 30 min, stirring in boiling water bath, stationary time 10 min, centrifuge at 3600 g for 10 min. Experimental values showed that the oil yield after aqueous extraction from oil pre-enriched protein reached 88.3%, so the total oil extraction rate was 60.8%.

  18. [Study on the extraction of total flavonoids from Mentha spicata by ultrasonic method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shao-Ying; Liu, Dong-Lian; Ma, Zuo-Dong; Liu, Yu-Jun

    2009-08-01

    The optimal conditions of total flavonoids extraction from Mentha spicata were identified by orthogonal test. The results showed that the ethanol concentration and the ultrasonic time had significant effect on the extraction of total flavonoids and the optimum conditions of extraction were A3B3C1D1, which were as follows: the ethanol concentration was 50%, the ultrasonic time was 40 min, the solid-liquid ratio was 1 g: 50 mL and the temperature of extraction was 60 degrees C, On the basis of the extracting method above, the content of total flavonoids in Mentha spicata was 0.0951 mg/mg. The linear equation was A = 11.51143C - 0.00029, r = 0.9999. This method is simple, quick and accurate with good prosperity.

  19. Single corn kernel aflatoxin B1 extraction and analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic compounds produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus is a phytopathogenic fungus that commonly infects crops such as cotton, peanuts, and maize. The goal was to design an effective sample preparation method and analysis for the extraction of afla...

  20. Solid phase extraction method for determination of mitragynine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mitragynine in urine and its application to mitragynine excretion ... Purpose: To develop a solid phase extraction (SPE) method that utilizes reverse-phase high performance .... solution of MG (1 mg/mL) which was further ... Facility, Prince of Songkla University and carried ..... d), which permit unrestricted use, distribution,.

  1. Extraction Methods of Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Katović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different extraction methods of the Spanish Broom shoots were measured and compared with the purpose of obtaining composite material. The content of cellulose, lignin, pentosan and ash in the Spanish Broom fibers was determined. SEM analyses were performed.

  2. Comparison of nine DNA extraction methods for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis by real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Moura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious disease with a high impact on the cattle industry, particularly in developing countries. PCR is a very sensitive method for detection of infectious agents, but the sensitivity of molecular diagnosis is largely dependent on the efficiency of the DNA extraction methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate DNA extraction methods for direct detection of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine tissue. Nine commercial kits for DNA extraction were evaluated when combined with two real time PCRs. The DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit from QIAGEN showed better performance and sensitivity followed by the DNA Mini Kit RBC and FTA Elute Micro Card. Results suggested that, even when the analytical sensitivity of the qPCR is very high, the extraction method can influence the diagnostic sensitivity.

  3. Facial Feature Extraction Method Based on Coefficients of Variances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Xi Song; David Zhang; Cai-Kou Chen; Jing-Yu Yang

    2007-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) are two popular feature ex- traction techniques in statistical pattern recognition field. Due to small sample size problem LDA cannot be directly applied to appearance-based face recognition tasks. As a consequence, a lot of LDA-based facial feature extraction techniques are proposed to deal with the problem one after the other. Nullspace Method is one of the most effective methods among them. The Nullspace Method tries to find a set of discriminant vectors which maximize the between-class scatter in the null space of the within-class scatter matrix. The calculation of its discriminant vectors will involve performing singular value decomposition on a high-dimensional matrix. It is generally memory- and time-consuming. Borrowing the key idea in Nullspace method and the concept of coefficient of variance in statistical analysis we present a novel facial feature extraction method, i.e., Discriminant based on Coefficient of Variance (DCV) in this paper. Experimental results performed on the FERET and AR face image databases demonstrate that DCV is a promising technique in comparison with Eigenfaces, Nullspace Method, and other state-of-the-art facial feature extraction methods.

  4. A Fast Feature Extraction Method Based on Integer Wavelet Transform for Hyperspectral Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUYanfeng; ZHANGYe; YUShanshan

    2004-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing provides high-resolution spectral data and the potential for remote discrimination between subtle differences in ground covers. However, the high-dimensional data space generated by the hyperspectral sensors creates a new challenge for conventional spectral data analysis techniques. A challenging problem in using hyperspectral data is to eliminate redundancy and preserve useful spectral information for applications. In this paper, a Fast feature extraction (FFE) method based on integer wavelet transform is proposed to extract useful features and reduce dimensionality of hyperspectral images. The FFE method can be directly used to extract useful features from spectral vector of each pixel resident in the hyperspectral images. The FFE method has two main merits: high computational efficiency and good ability to extract spectral features. In order to better testify the effectiveness and the performance of the proposed method, classification experiments of hyperspectral images are performed on two groups of AVIRIS (Airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer) data respectively. In addition, three existing methods for feature extraction of hyperspectral images, i.e. PCA, SPCT and Wavelet Transform, are performed on the same data for comparison with the proposed method. The experimental investigation shows that the efficiency of the FFE method for feature extraction outclasses those of the other three methods mentioned above.

  5. Efficient extraction of olive pulp and stone proteins by using an enzyme-assisted method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Barberán, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco

    2014-07-01

    An efficient protein extraction protocol for proteins from olive pulp and stone by using enzymes was developed. For this purpose, different parameters that affect the extraction process, such as enzyme type and content, pH, and extraction temperature and time, were tested. The influence of these factors on protein recovery was examined using the standard Bradford assay, while the extracted proteins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The best extraction conditions were achieved at pH 7.0 and 5% (v/v) Palatase® 20000 L (lipase) for pulp and Lecitase® Ultra (phospholipase) for stone proteins. The optimal extraction temperature and time were 30 and 40 °C for 15 min for pulp and stone tissues, respectively. Under these conditions, several protein extracts coming from olive fruits of different genetic variety were analyzed, their profiles being compared by SDS-PAGE. The developed enzyme-assisted extraction method showed faster extraction, higher recovery, and reduced solvent usage than the nonenzymatic methods previously described in the literature. In the case of stone proteins, different electrophoretic profiles and band intensities were obtained that could be helpful to distinguish samples according to their genetic variety.

  6. An Extended SPAC Method For Dispersion Curves Extraction From Microtremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Chen, X.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method is a useful tool for imaging subsurface structure from ambient noise. The traditional SPAC method assumes that the ambient noise consists of Rayleigh wave without higher modes. We propose an extended SPAC method to extract higher modes Rayleigh wave dispersion curves which contain useful information for improving the inverted S-wave velocity model. We use discrete wavenumber integral method and harmonic wave superposition to synthesize microtremor for 1-D layered model. We analyse the ambient noise include higher modes of surface waves, and the SPAC coefficients is composed of each component by its power fraction. We can extract higher mode dispersion curves using the orthogonality relations of Bessel function.

  7. Spindle extraction method for ISAR image based on Radon transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xia; Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xu, Gaogui

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a method of spindle extraction of target in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image is proposed which depends on Radon Transform. Firstly, utilizing Radon Transform to detect all straight lines which are collinear with these line segments in image. Then, using Sobel operator to detect image contour. Finally, finding all intersections of each straight line and image contour, the two intersections which have maximum distance between them is the two ends of this line segment and the longest line segment of all line segments is spindle of target. According to the proposed spindle extraction method, one hundred simulated ISAR images which are respectively rotated 0 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees in counterclockwise are used to do experiment and the proposed method and the detection results are more close to the real spindle of target than the method based on Hough Transform .

  8. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evalua...

  9. A Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods using Petunia hybrida Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Tamari, Farshad; Hinkley, Craig S.; Ramprashad, Naderia

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of DNA from plant tissue is often problematic, as many plants contain high levels of secondary metabolites that can interfere with downstream applications, such as the PCR. Removal of these secondary metabolites usually requires further purification of the DNA using organic solvents or other toxic substances. In this study, we have compared two methods of DNA purification: the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method that uses the ionic detergent hexadecyltrimethylammonium brom...

  10. Status of the Reactive Extraction as a Method of Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipaloy Datta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospective function of a novel energy efficient fermentation technology has been getting great attention in the past fifty years due to the quick raise in petroleum costs. Fermentation chemicals are still limited in the modern market in huge part because of trouble in recovery of carboxylic acids. Therefore, it is needed considerable development in the current recovery technology. Carboxylic acids have been used as the majority of fermentation chemicals. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on the reactive extraction of carboxylic acids from fermentation broths. This paper principally focuses on reactive extraction that is found to be a capable option to the proper recovery methods.

  11. The Effect of Sericin from Various Extraction Methods on Cell Viability and Collagen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornanong Aramwit

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Silk sericin (SS can accelerate cell proliferation and attachment; however, SS can be extracted by various methods, which result in SS exhibiting different physical and biological properties. We found that SS produced from various extraction methods has different molecular weights, zeta potential, particle size and amino acid content. The MTT assay indicated that SS from all extraction methods had no toxicity to mouse fibroblast cells at concentrations up to 40 μg/mL after 24 h incubation, but SS obtained from some extraction methods can be toxic at higher concentrations. Heat-degraded SS was the least toxic to cells and activated the highest collagen production, while urea-extracted SS showed the lowest cell viability and collagen production. SS from urea extraction was severely harmful to cells at concentrations higher than 100 μg/mL. SS from all extraction methods could still promote collagen production in a concentration-dependent manner, even at high concentrations that are toxic to cells.

  12. Development of Directly Suspended Droplet Micro Extraction Method for Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides in Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kamal Rajabi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient directly suspended droplet micro extraction in conjunction with gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD has been developed for extraction and determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs from water samples. In this technique a micro drop of 1-dodecanol is delivered to the surface of an aqueous sample while being agitated by a stirring bar in the bulk of solution. Factors relevant to the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. The optimized extraction conditions were extraction solvent: 1-dodecanol; extraction temperature: 60◦C; NaCl concentration: 0.5M; solvent extraction volume: 10 µL; stirring rate: 800rpm and the extraction time: 20 min. The detection limits of the method were in the range of 0.066–1.85 ngL−1, relation standard deviation (n=5 range were 0.102 - 0.964. A good linearity (r 2 ≥0.995 and a relatively broad dynamic linear range (25–2600ng.L−1 were obtained and recoveries of method were in the range of 90.729% - 102.343%. Finally, the proposedmethod was successfully utilized for pre concentration and determination of OCPs in different real samples.We successfully developed a method based on the DSDME technique combined with capillary GC-ECD for the analysis of OCPs in the water samples and compared with the conventional sample preparation method such as LPME. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso

  13. Evaluation of Five Methods for Total DNA Extraction from Western Corn Rootworm Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Tan, Sek Yee; Wang, Haichuan; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2010-01-01

    Background DNA extraction is a routine step in many insect molecular studies. A variety of methods have been used to isolate DNA molecules from insects, and many commercial kits are available. Extraction methods need to be evaluated for their efficiency, cost, and side effects such as DNA degradation during extraction. Methodology/Principal Findings From individual western corn rootworm beetles, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, DNA extractions by the SDS method, CTAB method, DNAzol® reagent, Puregene® solutions and DNeasy® column were compared in terms of DNA quantity and quality, cost of materials, and time consumed. Although all five methods resulted in acceptable DNA concentrations and absorbance ratios, the SDS and CTAB methods resulted in higher DNA yield (ng DNA vs. mg tissue) at much lower cost and less degradation as revealed on agarose gels. The DNeasy® kit was most time-efficient but was the costliest among the methods tested. The effects of ethanol volume, temperature and incubation time on precipitation of DNA were also investigated. The DNA samples obtained by the five methods were tested in PCR for six microsatellites located in various positions of the beetle's genome, and all samples showed successful amplifications. Conclusion/Significance These evaluations provide a guide for choosing methods of DNA extraction from western corn rootworm beetles based on expected DNA yield and quality, extraction time, cost, and waste control. The extraction conditions for this mid-size insect were optimized. The DNA extracted by the five methods was suitable for further molecular applications such as PCR and sequencing by synthesis. PMID:20730102

  14. Evaluation of five methods for total DNA extraction from western corn rootworm beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA extraction is a routine step in many insect molecular studies. A variety of methods have been used to isolate DNA molecules from insects, and many commercial kits are available. Extraction methods need to be evaluated for their efficiency, cost, and side effects such as DNA degradation during extraction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From individual western corn rootworm beetles, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, DNA extractions by the SDS method, CTAB method, DNAzol reagent, Puregene solutions and DNeasy column were compared in terms of DNA quantity and quality, cost of materials, and time consumed. Although all five methods resulted in acceptable DNA concentrations and absorbance ratios, the SDS and CTAB methods resulted in higher DNA yield (ng DNA vs. mg tissue at much lower cost and less degradation as revealed on agarose gels. The DNeasy kit was most time-efficient but was the costliest among the methods tested. The effects of ethanol volume, temperature and incubation time on precipitation of DNA were also investigated. The DNA samples obtained by the five methods were tested in PCR for six microsatellites located in various positions of the beetle's genome, and all samples showed successful amplifications. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These evaluations provide a guide for choosing methods of DNA extraction from western corn rootworm beetles based on expected DNA yield and quality, extraction time, cost, and waste control. The extraction conditions for this mid-size insect were optimized. The DNA extracted by the five methods was suitable for further molecular applications such as PCR and sequencing by synthesis.

  15. New Multipole Method for 3-D Capacitance Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Zhi Yang; Ze-Yi Wang

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an effcient improvement of the multipole accelerated boundary element method for 3-D capacitance extraction.The overall relations between the positions of 2-D boundary elements are considered instead of only the relations between the center-points of the elements,and a new method of cube partitioning is introduced.Numerical results are presented to demonstrate that the method is accurate and has nearly linear computational growth as O(n),where n is the number of panels/boundary elements.The proposed method is more accurate and much faster than Fastcap.

  16. EXTRACTION OF ASTAXANTHIN ESTERS FROM SHRIMP WASTE BY CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanafari, A. Saberi, M. Azar, Gh. Vosooghi, Sh. Jamili, B. Sabbaghzadeh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The carotenoid pigments specifically astaxanthin has many significant applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The goal of this research was the extraction of Astaxanthin from a certain Persian Gulf shrimp species waste (Penaeus semisulcatus, purification and identification of the pigment by chemical and microbial methods. Microbial fermentation was obtained by inoculation of two Lactobacillus species Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophilus in the medium culture containing shrimp waste powder by the intervention of lactose sugar, yeast extract, the composition of Both and the coolage (-20oC. The carotenoids were extracted by an organic solvent system. After purification of astaxanthin with the thin layer chromatography method by spectrophotometer, NMR and IR analysis the presence of astaxanthin esters was recognized in this specific species of Persian Gulf shrimp. Results obtained from this study showed that the coolage at –20 oC not only does not have an amplifying effect on the production of astaxanthin but also slightly reduces this effect. Also the effect of intervention of lactose sugar showed more effectiveness in producing astaxanthin than yeast extract or more than with the presence of both. The results also indicated that there is not much difference in the ability of producing the pigment by comparing both Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophillus. Also results showed the microbial method of extraction of astaxanthin is more effective than chemical method. The pigment extracted from certain amount of shrimp powder, 23.128 mg/g, was calculated.

  17. An Effective Concept Extraction Method for Improving Text Classification Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuntao; GONG Ling; WANG Yongcheng; YIN Zhonghang

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents anew way to extract concept that can beused to improve text classification per-formance (precision and recall). Thecomputational measure will be dividedinto two layers. The bottom layercalled document layer is concernedwith extracting the concepts of parti-cular document and the upper layercalled category layer is with findingthe description and subject concepts ofparticular category. The relevant im-plementation algorithm that dramatic-ally decreases the search space is dis-cussed in detail. The experiment basedon real-world data collected from Info-Bank shows that the approach is supe-rior to the traditional ones.

  18. Comparison of Three Methods of Protein Extraction from Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus for Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-lu Sun; Hong-yu Zhang; Zhi-yi Guo; Wan-tao Ying; Xiao-hong Qian; Jing-lan Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore an effective method of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus protein extraction suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Methods The extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were prepared with Coca's solution, lysis buffer of 2-DE, and Trizol reagent, respectively. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay was used to determine the total protein concentration of the samples. The efficiency of different protein extraction methods were evaluated with 2-DE analysis. Results The concentrations of extracted protein by methods of Coca's solution, lysis buffer, and Trizol reagent were 0.63 g/L, 0.90 g/L, and 0.80 g/L, respectively. The 2-DE analysis results showed that some protein spots in low molecular weight (LMW) range could be detected with the Coca's solution method. With the lysis buffer of 2-DE method, more protein spots in LMW range could be detected, while the medium molecular weight (MMW) protein spots were absent. Several MMW protein spots (174-178 kD and 133 kD) and more LMW protein spots were detected with Trizol reagent method. Conclusions Among Coca's solution, lysis buffer of 2-DE, and Trizol reagent, the concentration of extracted protein of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus by lysis buffer of 2-DE is the highest. However, most protein components of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus purified mite bodies can be extracted by Trizol reagent, which may generally reflect the whole profile of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens.

  19. Multifractal filtering method for extraction of ocean eddies from remotely sensed imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Yong; DU Yunyan; CHENG Qiuming; LI Ce

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods of extracting the ocean wave eddy information from remotely sensed imagery mainly use the edge detection technology such as Canny and Hough operators. However, due to the complexities of ocean eddies and image itself, it is sometimes difficult to successfully detect ocean eddies using these methods. A multifractal filtering technology is proposed for extraction of ocean eddies and demonstrated using NASA MODIS,SeaWiFS and NOAA satellite data set in the typical area, such as ocean west boundary current. Results showed that the new method has a superior performance over the traditional methods.

  20. Lipid extraction methods from microalgae: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Kumar eR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security has become a serious global issue and a lot of research is being carried out to look for economocially viable and environment-friendly alternatives. The only solution that appears to to meet the futuristic needs is the use of renewable energy. Although various forms of renewable energy are being currently used, the prospects of producing carbon-neutral biofuels from microalgae appears bright because of its unique features such as suitability of growing in open ponds required for production of a commodity product, high CO2-sequestering capability, ability to grow in wastewater/seawater/brackishwater and high lipid productivity. The major process constraint in the microalgal biofuel technology is the cost-effective and efficient extraction of lipids. The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on various methods of lipid extraction from microalgae available till date, as well as to discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The article covers all areas of lipid extraction procedures including solvent extraction procedures, mechanical approaches and solvent-free procedures apart from some of the latest extraction technologies. A lot more research efforts are required in this area for successful implementation of this technology at a production scale.

  1. Combination of heterogeneous EEG feature extraction methods and stacked sequential learning for sleep stage classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, L J; Fernandes, C M; Mora, A M; Migotina, D; Largo, R; Guillen, A; Rosa, A C

    2013-06-01

    This work proposes a methodology for sleep stage classification based on two main approaches: the combination of features extracted from electroencephalogram (EEG) signal by different extraction methods, and the use of stacked sequential learning to incorporate predicted information from nearby sleep stages in the final classifier. The feature extraction methods used in this work include three representative ways of extracting information from EEG signals: Hjorth features, wavelet transformation and symbolic representation. Feature selection was then used to evaluate the relevance of individual features from this set of methods. Stacked sequential learning uses a second-layer classifier to improve the classification by using previous and posterior first-layer predicted stages as additional features providing information to the model. Results show that both approaches enhance the sleep stage classification accuracy rate, thus leading to a closer approximation to the experts' opinion.

  2. A Hybrid Method of Domain Lexicon Construction for Opinion Targets Extraction Using Syntax and Semantics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun LiaoChong Feng∗Sen Yang; He-Yan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Opinion targets extraction of Chinese microblogs plays an important role in opinion mining. There has been a significant progress in this area recently, especially the method based on conditional random field (CRF). However, this method only takes lexicon-related features into consideration and does not excavate the implied syntactic and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel approach which incorporates domain lexicon with groups of syntactical and semantic features. The approach acquires domain lexicon through a novel way which explores syntactic and semantic information through Part-of-Speech, dependency structure, phrase structure, semantic role and semantic similarity based on word embedding. And then we combine the domain lexicon with opinion targets extracted from CRF with groups of features for opinion targets extraction. Experimental results on COAE2014 dataset show the outperformance of the approach compared with other well-known methods on the task of opinion targets extraction.

  3. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human PathogenPseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Ciric, A.; Glamoclija, J.; Nicolic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence,

  4. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Soković

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In this study, the effect of the sub-MICs of Agaricus blazei water extract on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Sub-MIC concentrations of the extract which did not kill P. aeruginosa nor inhibited its growth, demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa, such as pyocyanin production, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. Water extract of A. blazei is a promising source of antiquorum sensing and antibacterial compounds.

  5. Rapid methods to extract DNA and RNA from Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolano, A; Stinchi, S; Preziosi, R; Bistoni, F; Allegrucci, M; Baldelli, F; Martini, A; Cardinali, G

    2001-12-01

    Extraction of nucleic acids from the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is normally hampered by a thick and resistant capsule, accounting for at least 70% of the whole cellular volume. This paper presents procedures based on mechanical cell breakage to extract DNA and RNA from C. neoformans and other capsulated species. The proposed system for DNA extraction involves capsule relaxation by means of a short urea treatment and bead beating. These two steps allow a consistent extraction even from strains resistant to other procedures. Yield and quality of DNA obtained with the proposed method were higher than those obtained with two earlier described methods. This protocol can be extended to every yeast species and particularly to those difficult to handle for the presence of a capsule. RNA purification is accomplished using an original lysing matrix and the FastPrep System (Bio101) after a preliminary bead beating treatment. Yields range around 1 mg RNA from 15 ml overnight culture (10(9) cells), RNA appears undegraded, making it suitable for molecular manipulations.

  6. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances.

  7. Efficiency of solvent extraction methods for the determination of methyl mercury in forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J; Skyllberg, U; Tu, Q; Bleam, W F; Frech, W

    2000-07-01

    Methyl mercury was determined by gas chromatography, microwave induced plasma, atomic emission spectrometry (GC-MIP-AES) using two different methods. One was based on extraction of mercury species into toluene, pre-concentration by evaporation and butylation of methyl mercury with a Grignard reagent followed by determination. With the other, methyl mercury was extracted into dichloromethane and back extracted into water followed by in situ ethylation, collection of ethylated mercury species on Tenax and determination. The accuracy of the entire procedure based on butylation was validated for the individual steps involved in the method. Methyl mercury added to various types of soil samples showed an overall average recovery of 87.5%. Reduced recovery was only caused by losses of methyl mercury during extraction into toluene and during pre-concentration by evaporation. The extraction of methyl mercury added to the soil was therefore quantitative. Since it is not possible to directly determine the extraction efficiency of incipient methyl mercury, the extraction efficiency of total mercury with an acidified solution containing CuSO4 and KBr was compared with high-pressure microwave acid digestion. The solvent extraction efficiency was 93%. For the IAEA 356 sediment certified reference material, mercury was less efficiently extracted and determined methyl mercury concentrations were below the certified value. Incomplete extraction could be explained by the presence of a large part of inorganic sulfides, as determined by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Analyses of sediment reference material CRM 580 gave results in agreement with the certified value. The butylation method gave a detection limit for methyl mercury of 0.1 ng g(-1), calculated as three times the standard deviation for repeated analysis of soil samples. Lower values were obtained with the ethylation method. The precision, expressed as RSD for concentrations 20 times above the

  8. SAR Data Fusion Imaging Method Oriented to Target Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the difficulty for target outlines extracting precisely due to neglect of target scattering characteristic variation during the processing of high-resolution space-borne SAR data, a novel fusion imaging method is proposed oriented to target feature extraction. Firstly, several important aspects that affect target feature extraction and SAR image quality are analyzed, including curved orbit, stop-and-go approximation, atmospheric delay, and high-order residual phase error. Furthermore, the corresponding compensation methods are addressed as well. Based on the analysis, the mathematical model of SAR echo combined with target space-time spectrum is established for explaining the space-time-frequency change rule of target scattering characteristic. Moreover, a fusion imaging strategy and method under high-resolution and ultra-large observation angle range conditions are put forward to improve SAR quality by fusion processing in range-doppler and image domain. Finally, simulations based on typical military targets are used to verify the effectiveness of the fusion imaging method.

  9. Complementary methods for extracting road centerlines from IKONOS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Donna S.; Poulsen, Rick

    2003-03-01

    We present both semi-automated and automated methods for road extraction using IKONOS imagery. The automated method extracts straight-line, gridded road networks by inferring a local grid structure from initial information and then filling in missing pieces using hypothesization and verification. This can be followed by the semi-automated road tracker tool to approximate curvilinear roads and to fill in some of the remaining missing road structure. After a panchromatic texture analysis, our automated method incorporates an object-level processing phase which enables the algorithm to avoid problems arising from interference such as crosswalks and vehicles. It is limited, however, in that the logic is designed for reasoning concerning intersecting grid patterns of straight road segments. Many suburban areas are characterized by curving streets which may not be well-approximated using this automatic method. In these areas, missing content can be filled in using a semi-automated tool which tracks between user-supplied points. The semi-automated algorithm is based on measures derived from both the panchromatic and multispectral bands of IKONOS. We will discuss both of these algorithms in detail and how they fit into our overall solution strategy for road extraction. A presentation of current experimentation and test results will be followed by a discussion of advantages, shortcomings, and directions for future research and improvements.

  10. THE METHODS OF EXTRACTING WATER INFORMATION FROM SPOT IMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUJin-kang; FENGXue-zhi; 等

    2002-01-01

    Some techniques and methods for deriving water information from SPOT-4(XI) image were investigated and discussed in this paper.An algorithmoif decision-tree(DT) classification which includes several classifiers based on the spectral responding characteristics of water bodies and other objects,was developed and put forward to delineate water bodies.Another algorithm of decision-tree classification based on both spectral characteristics and auxiliary information of DEM and slope(DTDS) was also designed for water bodies extraction.In addition,supervised classification method of maximum-likelyhood classification(MLC),and unsupervised method of interactive self -organizing dada analysis technique(ISODATA) were used to extract waterbodies for comparison purpose.An index was designed and used to assess the accuracy of different methods abopted in the research.Results have shown that water extraction accuracy was variable with respect to the various techniques applied.It was low using ISODATA,very high using DT algorithm and much higher using both DTDS and MLC.

  11. Use of an enzyme-assisted method to improve protein extraction from olive leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Barberán, M; Lerma-García, M J; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F

    2015-02-15

    The improvement of protein extraction from olive leaves using an enzyme-assisted protocol has been investigated. Using a cellulase enzyme (Celluclast® 1.5L), different parameters that affect the extraction process, such as the influence and amount of organic solvent, enzyme amount, pH and extraction temperature and time, were optimised. The influence of these factors was examined using the standard Bradford assay and the extracted proteins were characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimum extraction parameters were: 30% acetonitrile, 5% (v/v) Celluclast® 1.5L at pH 5.0 and 55°C for 15min. Under these conditions, several protein extracts from olive leaves of different genetic variety (with a total protein amount comprised between 1.87 and 6.64mgg(-1)) were analysed and compared by SDS-PAGE, showing differences in their electrophoretic protein profiles. The developed enzyme-assisted extraction method has shown a faster extraction, higher recovery and reduced solvent usage with respect to the use of the non-enzymatic methods described in literature.

  12. Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2011-09-15

    The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 μg(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics.

  13. Antioxidant property of water-soluble polysaccharides from Poria cocos Wolf using different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nani; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xuping; Huang, Xiaowen; Fei, Ying; Yu, Yong; Shou, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Poria cocos Wolf is a popular traditional medicinal plant that has invigorating activity. Water-soluble polysaccharides (PCPs) are its main active components. In this study, four different methods were used to extract PCPs, which include hot water extraction (PCP-H), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (PCP-U), enzyme-assisted extraction (PCP-E) and microwave-assisted extraction (PCP-M). Their chemical compositions and structure characterizations were compared. In vitro antioxidant activities were studied on the basis of DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, reducing power and metal chelating ability. The results showed that PCPs were composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose, and had typical IR spectra characteristics of polysaccharides. Compared with other PCPs, PCP-M had lower neutral sugar content, higher mannose content and higher uronic acid content. The molecular weight were determined as PCP-Ecocos Wolf.

  14. Differential efficiency among DNA extraction methods influences detection of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletz, M C; Rebollar, E A; Harris, R N

    2015-02-10

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is responsible for massive declines and extinctions of amphibians worldwide. The most common method for detecting Bd is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR is a highly sensitive detection technique, but its ability to determine the presence and accurately quantify the amount of Bd is also contingent on the efficiency of the DNA extraction method used prior to PCR. Using qPCR, we compared the extraction efficiency of 3 different extraction methods commonly used for Bd detection across a range of zoospore quantities: PrepMan Ultra Reagent, Qiagen DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit, and Mobio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. We show that not all extraction methods led to successful detection of Bd for the low zoospore quantities and that there was variation in the estimated zoospore equivalents among the methods, which demonstrates that these methods have different extraction efficiencies. These results highlight the importance of considering the extraction method when comparing across studies. The Qiagen DNeasy kit had the highest efficiency. We also show that replicated estimates of less than 1 zoospore can result from known zoospore concentrations; therefore, such results should be considered when obtained from field data. Additionally, we discuss the implications of our findings for interpreting previous studies and for conducting future Bd surveys. It is imperative to use the most efficient DNA extraction method in tandem with the highly sensitive qPCR technique in order to accurately diagnose the presence of Bd as well as other pathogens.

  15. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Godlewska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.. Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%. It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants.

  16. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%). It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants. PMID:27366749

  17. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Michalak, Izabela; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%). It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants.

  18. A method for the extraction and quantitation of phycoerythrin from algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of a new technique for the extraction and quantitation of phycoerythrin (PHE) from algal samples is described. Results of analysis of four extracts representing three PHE types from algae including cryptomonad and cyanophyte types are presented. The method of extraction and an equation for quantitation are given. A graph showing the relationship of concentration and fluorescence units that may be used with samples fluorescing around 575-580 nm (probably dominated by cryptophytes in estuarine waters) and 560 nm (dominated by cyanophytes characteristics of the open ocean) is provided.

  19. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  20. Integrated Phoneme Subspace Method for Speech Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyunsin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech feature extraction has been a key focus in robust speech recognition research. In this work, we discuss data-driven linear feature transformations applied to feature vectors in the logarithmic mel-frequency filter bank domain. Transformations are based on principal component analysis (PCA, independent component analysis (ICA, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Furthermore, this paper introduces a new feature extraction technique that collects the correlation information among phoneme subspaces and reconstructs feature space for representing phonemic information efficiently. The proposed speech feature vector is generated by projecting an observed vector onto an integrated phoneme subspace (IPS based on PCA or ICA. The performance of the new feature was evaluated for isolated word speech recognition. The proposed method provided higher recognition accuracy than conventional methods in clean and reverberant environments.

  1. CTAB-silica Method for DNA Extraction and Purification from Castanea mollissima and Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Yongbao; Shi Jisen

    2003-01-01

    A new method CTAB-silica for DNA extraction and purification from the leaves and buds of Castanea mollissima and Ginkgo biloba was tested. The method is based on the silica-based purification protocol developed by Boom et al. (1990). By modifying the protocol, plant genome DNA could be extracted easily from dormant buds, mature leaves, and other parts of plant. Our results showed that the purified DNA was of high purity and could be analyzed by PCR. Furthermore, this CTAB-silica method took much less time for a successful DNA purification process compared to the traditional methods (CTAB and SDS). By our method, the suitable DNA can be extracted and purified from over 10 plant samples by one person in an hour.

  2. Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy.

  3. Extraction of lanthanides by polysulfone microcapsules containing EHPNA. I. Piercing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖宇; 王月; 侯海龙; 徐建鸿; 王运东

    2015-01-01

    Since the conventional liquid-liquid extraction method suffered from a series of problems such as inefficiency of one stage extraction, vast device occupation and severe emulsification, we adopted microcapsule (MC) technique to change the former liq-uid-liquid extraction to liquid-solid extraction. Firstly, the piercing method was performed to prepare the empty polysulfone (PSF) microcapsules, which was easy to implement and control. Secondly, the ultrasonic approach was utilized to prepare the functional microcapsules containing 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHPNA). We focused on a key factor of the molar ratio of PSF over 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), attaining a loading ratio as high as 7.21 g-EHPNA/g-PSF. Thirdly, we examined the kinetics and thermodynamics of extraction. Kinetic results demonstrated that equilibrium was reached within two hours, with an extraction rate of Sm3+≈Er3+>La3+; Thermodynamic results showed that the extraction of lanthanides complied with the Langmuir law, with an extraction capacity of 0.25–0.30 mmol/g-microcapsule. Fourthly, stripping experiment indicated that three hours were re-quired to accomplish equilibrium for La3+ and Sm3+ while longer hours for Er3+. Finally, seven extraction-stripping cyclic experiments were performed for three mixed elements, the results of which revealed that Sm3+ and Er3+ maintained constantly high extraction amount whilst La3+ leveled off at approximately 50%. This proposed polysulfone microcapsule containing EHPNA is suitable to be applied to extraction and concentration of rare earth metals.

  4. Extremophile extracts and enhancement techniques show promise for the development of a live vaccine against Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D.B.; Palm, R.C.; MacKenzie, A.P.; Winton, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of temperature, ionic strength, and new cryopreservatives derived from polar ice bacteria were investigated to help accelerate the development of economical, live attenuated vaccines for aquaculture. Extracts of the extremophile Gelidibacter algens functioned very well as part of a lyophilization cryoprotectant formulation in a 15-week storage trial. The bacterial extract and trehalose additives resulted in significantly higher colony counts of columnaris bacteria (Flavobacterium columnare) compared to nonfat milk or physiological saline at all time points measured. The bacterial extract combined with trehalose appeared to enhance the relative efficiency of recovery and growth potential of columnaris in flask culture compared to saline, nonfat milk, or trehalose-only controls. Pre-lyophilization temperature treatments significantly affected F. columnare survival following rehydration. A 30-min exposure at 0 ??C resulted in a 10-fold increase in bacterial survival following rehydration compared to mid-range temperature treatments. The brief 30 and 35 ??C pre-lyophilization exposures appeared to be detrimental to the rehydration survival of the bacteria. The survival of F. columnare through the lyophilization process was also strongly affected by changes in ionic strength of the bacterial suspension. Changes in rehydration constituents were also found to be important in promoting increased survival and growth. As the sodium chloride concentration increased, the viability of rehydrated F. columnare decreased. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Optimization of cloud point extraction and solid phase extraction methods for speciation of arsenic in natural water using multivariate technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, Jameel A., E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Q., E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Arain, Mohammad B. [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan I., E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam A., E-mail: gakandhro@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan)

    2009-09-28

    The simple and rapid pre-concentration techniques viz. cloud point extraction (CPE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) were applied for the determination of As{sup 3+} and total inorganic arsenic (iAs) in surface and ground water samples. The As{sup 3+} was formed complex with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114, after centrifugation the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} in methanol. While total iAs in water samples was adsorbed on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}); after centrifugation, the solid phase was prepared to be slurry for determination. The extracted As species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors for the recovery of As{sup 3+} and total iAs by CPE and SPE. The standard addition method was used to validate the optimized methods. The obtained result showed sufficient recoveries for As{sup 3+} and iAs (>98.0%). The concentration factor in both cases was found to be 40.

  6. Using cyclic liquid-liquid extraction method for isolation and identification of relative compounds during lignin biodegradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄峰; 高培基; 陈嘉翔

    1999-01-01

    By using the cyclic liquid-liquid extraction method the lignin biodegradated derivatives can be effectively extracted from the effluent liquors in ligninolytic enzymes treated kraft pulps. More than forty compounds were identified from the extractives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The result showed that lignin is treated with different ligninolytic enzymes, and the composition and content of the extractives differ obviously. These results suggest that the cyclic liquid-liquid extraction method can be used effectively as one new technique for the study of lignin biodegrada-tion mechanisms.

  7. Mechanomyographic Parameter Extraction Methods: An Appraisal for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity.

  8. Mechanomyographic parameter extraction methods: an appraisal for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Zuniga, Jorge M; Hasnan, Nazirah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul

    2014-12-03

    The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG) parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity.

  9. Preparing silica aerogel monoliths via a rapid supercritical extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mary K; Anderson, Ann M; Gorka, Caroline A

    2014-02-28

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10(-3) molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes.

  10. Comparison of two silica-based extraction methods for DNA isolation from bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Nagy, Marion

    2016-09-01

    One of the most demanding DNA extractions is from bones and teeth due to the robustness of the material and the relatively low DNA content. The greatest challenge is due to the manifold nature of the material, which is defined by various factors, including age, storage, environmental conditions, and contamination with inhibitors. However, most published protocols do not distinguish between different types or qualities of bone material, but are described as being generally applicable. Our laboratory works with two different extraction methods based on silica membranes or the use of silica beads. We compared the amplification success of the two methods from bone samples with different qualities and in the presence of inhibitors. We found that the DNA extraction using the silica membrane method results an in higher DNA yield but also in a higher risk of co-extracting impurities, which can act as inhibitors. In contrast the silica beads method shows decreased co-extraction of inhibitors but also less DNA yield. Related to our own experiences it has to be considered that each bone material should be reviewed independently regarding the analysis and extraction method. Therefore, the most ambitious task is determining the quality of the bone material, which requires substantial experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Texture Feature Extraction Method Combining Nonsubsampled Contour Transformation with Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan He

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM is an important method to extract the image texture features of synthetic aperture radar (SAR. However, GLCM can only extract the textures under single scale and single direction. A kind of texture feature extraction method combining nonsubsampled contour transformation (NSCT and GLCM is proposed, so as to achieve the extraction of texture features under multi-scale and multi-direction. We firstly conducted multi-scale and multi-direction decomposition on the SAR images with NSCT, secondly extracted the symbiosis amount with GLCM from the obtained sub-band images, then conducted the correlation analysis for the extracted symbiosis amount to remove the redundant characteristic quantity; and combined it with the gray features to constitute the multi-feature vector. Finally, we made full use of the advantages of the support vector machine in the aspects of small sample database and generalization ability, and completed the division of multi-feature vector space by SVM so as to achieve the SAR image segmentation. The results of the experiment showed that the segmentation accuracy rate could be improved and good edge retention effect could be obtained through using the GLCM texture extraction method based on NSCT domain and multi-feature fusion in the SAR image segmentation.

  12. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  13. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for freshwater eukaryotic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eland, Lucy E; Davenport, Russell; Mota, Cesar R

    2012-10-15

    The use of molecular methods to investigate microalgal communities of natural and engineered freshwater resources is in its infancy, with the majority of previous studies carried out by microscopy. Inefficient or differential DNA extraction of microalgal community members can lead to bias in downstream community analysis. Three commercially available DNA extraction kits have been tested on a range of pure culture freshwater algal species with diverse cell walls and mixed algal cultures taken from eutrophic waste stabilization ponds (WSP). DNA yield and quality were evaluated, along with DNA suitability for amplification of 18S rRNA gene fragments by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). QiagenDNeasy(®) Blood and Tissue kit (QBT), was found to give the highest DNA yields and quality. Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the diversity of communities from which DNA was extracted. No significant differences were found among kits when assessing diversity. QBT is recommended for use with WSP samples, a conclusion confirmed by further testing on communities from two tropical WSP systems. The fixation of microalgal samples with ethanol prior to DNA extraction was found to reduce yields as well as diversity and is not recommended.

  14. An Effective Vacuum Assisted Extraction Method for the Optimization of Labdane Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, the VAE technique gave shorter extraction times and remarkable higher extraction efficiency, which indicated that a certain degree of vacuum gave the solvent a better penetration of the solvent into the pores and between the matrix particles, and enhanced the process of mass transfer. The present results demonstrated that VAE is an efficient, simple and fast method for extracting bioactive components from A. paniculata, which shows great potential for becoming an alternative technique for industrial scale-up applications.

  15. A hybrid method for pancreas extraction from CT image based on level set methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huiyan; Tan, Hanqing; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel semiautomatic method to extract the pancreas from abdominal CT images. Traditional level set and region growing methods that request locating initial contour near the final boundary of object have problem of leakage to nearby tissues of pancreas region. The proposed method consists of a customized fast-marching level set method which generates an optimal initial pancreas region to solve the problem that the level set method is sensitive to the initial contour location and a modified distance regularized level set method which extracts accurate pancreas. The novelty in our method is the proper selection and combination of level set methods, furthermore an energy-decrement algorithm and an energy-tune algorithm are proposed to reduce the negative impact of bonding force caused by connected tissue whose intensity is similar with pancreas. As a result, our method overcomes the shortages of oversegmentation at weak boundary and can accurately extract pancreas from CT images. The proposed method is compared to other five state-of-the-art medical image segmentation methods based on a CT image dataset which contains abdominal images from 10 patients. The evaluated results demonstrate that our method outperforms other methods by achieving higher accuracy and making less false segmentation in pancreas extraction.

  16. Comparison of Conventional and Minerals, Extraction. Extraction Methods for Tio2 Recovery in Mineral Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nurdin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron sand as the source of many important minerals is one of natural resources in Southeast Sulawesi. The iron sand minerals that contain TiO2 has economic value and a number of application i.e. environmental protection, paint industries, sensor and photovoltaic. The extraction of TiO2 has been done from pseudorutile (Fe2Ti3O9 using dissolution of HCl 20% and the addition of Fe0 reductor to optimize the microwave and conventional process. The result showed the optimized yield value of TiO2 and Fe2O3 are 74.49% and 80.35%, respectively. The power used effect of microwave -assisted to the extraction process was obtained decreasing of 81%, and the extraction time could be efficiency from 6 to 2 hours. The microwave extraction process can increase a yield of TiO2 and significant decreasing the yield of Fe2O3 in a shorter time if compared to the conventional process.

  17. Displacement fields denoising and strains extraction by finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Optical full-field measurement methods are now widely applied in various domains. In general,the displacement fields can be directly obtained from the measurement,however in mechanical analysis strain fields are preferred.To extract strain fields from noisy displacement fields is always a challenging topic.In this study,a finite element method for smoothing displacement fields and calculating strain fields is proposed.An experimental test case on a holed aluminum specimen under tension is applied to vali...

  18. Comparison of three genomic DNA extraction methods to obtain high DNA quality from maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Amani; Osman, Gamal

    2017-01-01

    The world's top three cereals, based on their monetary value, are rice, wheat, and corn. In cereal crops, DNA extraction is difficult owing to rigid non-cellulose components in the cell wall of leaves and high starch and protein content in grains. The advanced techniques in molecular biology require pure and quick extraction of DNA. The majority of existing DNA extraction methods rely on long incubation and multiple precipitations or commercially available kits to produce contaminant-free high molecular weight DNA. In this study, we compared three different methods used for the isolation of high-quality genomic DNA from the grains of cereal crop, Zea mays, with minor modifications. The DNA from the grains of two maize hybrids, M10 and M321, was extracted using extraction methods DNeasy Qiagen Plant Mini Kit, CTAB-method (with/without 1% PVP) and modified Mericon extraction. Genes coding for 45S ribosomal RNA are organized in tandem arrays of up to several thousand copies and contain codes for 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA units separated by internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2. While the rRNA units are evolutionary conserved, ITS regions show high level of interspecific divergence and have been used frequently in genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies. In this study, the genomic DNA was then amplified with PCR using primers specific for ITS gene. PCR products were then visualized on agarose gel. The modified Mericon extraction method was found to be the most efficient DNA extraction method, capable to provide high DNA yields with better quality, affordable cost and less time.

  19. Synthesis of silica particles from rice straw waste using a simple extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Rahman, T.; Fadhlulloh, M. A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Hamidah, I.; Mulyanti, B.

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize silica particles from rice straw waste using a simple extraction method. The experiment was conducted by heating and extracting rice straw waste into basic solution. To get silica particles, the extracted solution was then put into acid solution and heated to remove the remained solvent. The experimental results showed that the aggregated silica particles with sizes of about 200 nm were successfully produced. The XRD and FTIR analysis showed that the final product was silica and free of graphite. However, we found that some KCl component in the final product in which this was possibly from the use of KOH as the extraction agent. Therefore, further studies are still required to synthesize high purity silica particles from rice straw waste.

  20. Entropy Analysis as an Electroencephalogram Feature Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Sotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate a possibility for using an entropy analysis as an electroencephalogram (EEG feature extraction method in brain-computer interfaces (BCI. The first section of the article describes the proposed algorithm based on the characteristic features calculation using the Shannon entropy analysis. The second section discusses issues of the classifier development for the EEG records. We use a support vector machine (SVM as a classifier. The third section describes the test data. Further, we estimate an efficiency of the considered feature extraction method to compare it with a number of other methods. These methods include: evaluation of signal variance; estimation of spectral power density (PSD; estimation of autoregression model parameters; signal analysis using the continuous wavelet transform; construction of common spatial pattern (CSP filter. As a measure of efficiency we use the probability value of correctly recognized types of imagery movements. At the last stage we evaluate the impact of EEG signal preprocessing methods on the final classification accuracy. Finally, it concludes that the entropy analysis has good prospects in BCI applications.

  1. Portable Rule Extraction Method for Neural Network Decisions Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius PLIKYNAS

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural network (NN methods are sometimes useless in practical applications, because they are not properly tailored to the particular market's needs. We focus thereinafter specifically on financial market applications. NNs have not gained full acceptance here yet. One of the main reasons is the "Black Box" problem (lack of the NN decisions explanatory power. There are though some NN decisions rule extraction methods like decompositional, pedagogical or eclectic, but they suffer from low portability of the rule extraction technique across various neural net architectures, high level of granularity, algorithmic sophistication of the rule extraction technique etc. The authors propose to eliminate some known drawbacks using an innovative extension of the pedagogical approach. The idea is exposed by the use of a widespread MLP neural net (as a common tool in the financial problems' domain and SOM (input data space clusterization. The feedback of both nets' performance is related and targeted through the iteration cycle by achievement of the best matching between the decision space fragments and input data space clusters. Three sets of rules are generated algorithmically or by fuzzy membership functions. Empirical validation of the common financial benchmark problems is conducted with an appropriately prepared software solution.

  2. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of using petroleum fuels has led to a quest to find a suitable alternative fuel source. In this study, microalgae were explored as a highly potential feedstock to produce biodiesel fuel. Firstly, algal oil is extracted from algal biomass by using organic solvents (n–hexan.  Lipid is contained in microalgae up to 60% of their weight. Then, Biodiesel is created through a chemical reaction known as transesterification between algal oil and alcohol (methanol with strong acid (such as H2SO4 as the catalyst. The extraction – transesterification method resulted in a high biodiesel yield (10 % of algal biomass and high FAMEs content (5.2 % of algal biomass. Biodiesel production from microalgae was studied through experimental investigation of transesterification conditions such as reaction time, methanol to oil ration and catalyst dosage which are deemed to have main impact on reaction conversion efficiency. All the parameters which were characterized for purified biodiesel such as free glycerin, total glycerin, flash point, sulfur content were analyzed according to ASTM standardDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9Citation:  Thao, N.T.P., Tin, N.T., and Thanh, B.X. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9

  3. Microalgae based biorefinery: evaluation of oil extraction methods in terms of efficiency, costs, toxicity and energy in lab-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Darío González-Delgado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several alternatives of microalgal metabolites extraction and transformation are being studied for achieving the total utilization of this energy crop of great interest worldwide. Microalgae oil extraction is a key stage in microalgal biodiesel production chains and their efficiency affects significantly the global process efficiency. In this study, a comparison of five oil extraction methods in lab-scale was made taking as additional parameters, besides extraction efficiency, the costs of method performing, energy requirements, and toxicity of solvents used, in order to elucidate the convenience of their incorporation to a microalgae-based topology of biorefinery. Methods analyzed were Solvent extraction assisted with high speed homogenization (SHE, Continuous reflux solvent extraction (CSE, Hexane based extraction (HBE, Cyclohexane based extraction (CBE and Ethanol-hexane extraction (EHE, for this evaluation were used the microalgae strains Nannochloropsis sp., Guinardia sp., Closterium sp., Amphiprora sp. and Navicula sp., obtained from a Colombian microalgae bioprospecting. In addition, morphological response of strains to oil extraction methods was also evaluated by optic microscopy. Results shows that although there is not a unique oil extraction method which excels in all parameters evaluated, CSE, SHE and HBE appears as promising alternatives, while HBE method is shown as the more convenient for using in lab-scale and potentially scalable for implementation in a microalgae based biorefinery

  4. Variations in the contents of gingerols and chromatographic fingerprints of ginger root extracts prepared by different preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Xia, Xinhua; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Dong; Zuberi, Aamir; Ye, Jianping; Liu, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an HPLC-DAD method was optimized for the quantitative determination of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol in ginger extracts. A chromatographic fingerprinting method was also established to differentiate and evaluate the ginger extracts for bioactivity. Twenty-one extracts were prepared by methods differing in ginger type (fresh versus dried), solvent, and extraction methods. The ANOVA analysis showed the methods' influence on the mean extraction yields of gingerols increased in the order of: high pressure-high temperature (HP)>blender (BD)>low pressure (LP). The optimal solvent to extract gingerols was found to be 95% ethanol. The type of ginger used had significant effects on the content of gingerols, but its overall influence depended on the solvent used. In order to maximize the extraction efficiency of gingerols, a combination of dry ginger, 95% ethanol, and the HP extraction method should be employed. The chromatographic fingerprints were obtained to differentiate the unknown components from all ginger extracts. The similarity of the chromatographic fingerprints was used to evaluate the differences among all extracts. It can be concluded that the chromatographic fingerprints are able to ensure the stability of each extract and have some correlation with the observed bioactivity.

  5. Efficient method for the extraction of genomic DNA from wormwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Faculty of Agro-technology and Food Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, ... showed high purity and high quantity in Sarkosyl method compare the other methods. ... Isolation of plant nucleic acids for use in Southen blot.

  6. Enzyme-treated Asparagus officinalis extract shows neuroprotective effects and attenuates cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takuya; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Arai, Takashi; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the number of patients with dementia involving Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen as a grave public health problem. In neurodegenerative disorders involving AD, biological stresses, such as oxidative and inflammatory stress, induce neural cell damage. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a popular vegetable, and an extract prepared from this reportedly possesses various beneficial biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) on neuronal cells and early cognitive impairment of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. The expression of mRNAs for factors that exert cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic functions, such as heat-shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, was upregulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by treatment with ETAS. Moreover, when release of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged NG108-15 cells was increased for cells cultured in medium containing either the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or the hypoxia mimic reagent cobalt chloride, ETAS significantly attenuated this cell damage. Also, when contextual fear memory, which is considered to be a hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, ETAS attenuated the cognitive impairment. These results suggest that ETAS produces cytoprotective effects in neuronal cells and attenuates the effects on the cognitive impairment of SAMP8 mice.

  7. A method to extract algae toxin of microcystin-LR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-ming; PAN Gang; YAN Hai; CHEN Hao

    2004-01-01

    A simple and Iow-cost method to obtain cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR(MC-LR) was developed. A new strain of Microcystis aeruginosa, named DC-1, producing microcystin-LR but not microcystin-RR, was separated from the field blooming algae samples of Dianchi Lake, in southwest of China. Following three times'freeze and thaw treatment, the cultivated DC-1 cells were extracted with 40% methanol in water. The extract was centrifuged and the supernatant applied to a Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance(HLB) SPE cartridge. Eluted impurities with a certain gradient from 30% to 50% methanol in water, MC-LR was finally eluted from the HLB cartridge with 60 % methanol in water, and samples containing 3.85 % to 14.8 % of MC-LR were obtained. These MC-LR samples may be used in adsorption and biodegradation experiments instead of using expensive standard reagents.

  8. Automatic extraction of candidate nomenclature terms using the doublet method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Jules J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New terminology continuously enters the biomedical literature. How can curators identify new terms that can be added to existing nomenclatures? The most direct method, and one that has served well, involves reading the current literature. The scholarly curator adds new terms as they are encountered. Present-day scholars are severely challenged by the enormous volume of biomedical literature. Curators of medical nomenclatures need computational assistance if they hope to keep their terminologies current. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of rapidly extracting new, candidate terms from huge volumes of biomedical text. The resulting lists of terms can be quickly reviewed by curators and added to nomenclatures, if appropriate. The candidate term extractor uses a variation of the previously described doublet coding method. The algorithm, which operates on virtually any nomenclature, derives from the observation that most terms within a knowledge domain are composed entirely of word combinations found in other terms from the same knowledge domain. Terms can be expressed as sequences of overlapping word doublets that have more specific meaning than the individual words that compose the term. The algorithm parses through text, finding contiguous sequences of word doublets that are known to occur somewhere in the reference nomenclature. When a sequence of matching word doublets is encountered, it is compared with whole terms already included in the nomenclature. If the doublet sequence is not already in the nomenclature, it is extracted as a candidate new term. Candidate new terms can be reviewed by a curator to determine if they should be added to the nomenclature. An implementation of the algorithm is demonstrated, using a corpus of published abstracts obtained through the National Library of Medicine's PubMed query service and using "The developmental lineage classification and taxonomy of neoplasms" as a reference

  9. Methanolic Extract of Dill Leaves Inhibits AGEs Formation and Shows Potential Hepatoprotective Effects in CCl4 Induced Liver Toxicity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at evaluating the antiglycation, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties of methanolic extract of Anethum graveolens (dill. The antioxidant properties, photochemical characteristics, and antiglycation effects of dill extract were measured. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxic rats were used to show the hepatoprotective activity of dill leaves. Different concentration of dill extract (0.032, 0.065, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL showed potential antioxidant ability. The extract of dill leaves significantly reduced AGEs formation and also fructosamine and protein carbonyl levels in rats’ liver. Thiol groups’ oxidation, amyloid cross-β, and protein fragmentation (P<0.001 significantly reduced in treated rats. Liver damage markers significantly reduced in dill-treated animals (P<0.05. Dill with potential antioxidant, antiglycation, and hepatoprotective effects can be suggested for treatment of diabetes complications.

  10. A new method for precursory information extraction: Slope-difference information method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new method for precursory information extraction, i.e.,slope-difference information method is proposed in the paper for the daily-mean-value precursory data sequence. Taking Tangshan station as an example, the calculation of full-time-domain leveling data is made, which is tested and compared with several other methods. The results indicate that the method is very effective for extracting short-term precursory information from the daily mean values after the optimization is made. Therefore, it is valuable for popularization and application.

  11. New learning subspace method for image feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jian-hai; LI Long; LU Chang-hou

    2006-01-01

    A new method of Windows Minimum/Maximum Module Learning Subspace Algorithm(WMMLSA) for image feature extraction is presented. The WMMLSM is insensitive to the order of the training samples and can regulate effectively the radical vectors of an image feature subspace through selecting the study samples for subspace iterative learning algorithm,so it can improve the robustness and generalization capacity of a pattern subspace and enhance the recognition rate of a classifier. At the same time,a pattern subspace is built by the PCA method. The classifier based on WMMLSM is successfully applied to recognize the pressed characters on the gray-scale images. The results indicate that the correct recognition rate on WMMLSM is higher than that on Average Learning Subspace Method,and that the training speed and the classification speed are both improved. The new method is more applicable and efficient.

  12. [A New Method of Accurately Extracting Spectral Values for Discrete Sampling Points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Zhen-zhen; Liu, Guang-ming; Yang, Jin-song

    2015-08-01

    values of all points were accurate. Experiment on OLI (Operational Land Imager), TM and ETM+ images showed that this method can accurately extract the discrete spectrum value, and as well, clear principle, simple and feasible operation, strong applicability, This paper provides a new idea for remote sensing image extraction of discrete point spectrum.

  13. A comprehensive benchmark of kernel methods to extract protein-protein interactions from literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikk, Domonkos; Thomas, Philippe; Palaga, Peter; Hakenberg, Jörg; Leser, Ulf

    2010-07-01

    The most important way of conveying new findings in biomedical research is scientific publication. Extraction of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) reported in scientific publications is one of the core topics of text mining in the life sciences. Recently, a new class of such methods has been proposed - convolution kernels that identify PPIs using deep parses of sentences. However, comparing published results of different PPI extraction methods is impossible due to the use of different evaluation corpora, different evaluation metrics, different tuning procedures, etc. In this paper, we study whether the reported performance metrics are robust across different corpora and learning settings and whether the use of deep parsing actually leads to an increase in extraction quality. Our ultimate goal is to identify the one method that performs best in real-life scenarios, where information extraction is performed on unseen text and not on specifically prepared evaluation data. We performed a comprehensive benchmarking of nine different methods for PPI extraction that use convolution kernels on rich linguistic information. Methods were evaluated on five different public corpora using cross-validation, cross-learning, and cross-corpus evaluation. Our study confirms that kernels using dependency trees generally outperform kernels based on syntax trees. However, our study also shows that only the best kernel methods can compete with a simple rule-based approach when the evaluation prevents information leakage between training and test corpora. Our results further reveal that the F-score of many approaches drops significantly if no corpus-specific parameter optimization is applied and that methods reaching a good AUC score often perform much worse in terms of F-score. We conclude that for most kernels no sensible estimation of PPI extraction performance on new text is possible, given the current heterogeneity in evaluation data. Nevertheless, our study shows that three

  14. A comprehensive benchmark of kernel methods to extract protein-protein interactions from literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domonkos Tikk

    Full Text Available The most important way of conveying new findings in biomedical research is scientific publication. Extraction of protein-protein interactions (PPIs reported in scientific publications is one of the core topics of text mining in the life sciences. Recently, a new class of such methods has been proposed - convolution kernels that identify PPIs using deep parses of sentences. However, comparing published results of different PPI extraction methods is impossible due to the use of different evaluation corpora, different evaluation metrics, different tuning procedures, etc. In this paper, we study whether the reported performance metrics are robust across different corpora and learning settings and whether the use of deep parsing actually leads to an increase in extraction quality. Our ultimate goal is to identify the one method that performs best in real-life scenarios, where information extraction is performed on unseen text and not on specifically prepared evaluation data. We performed a comprehensive benchmarking of nine different methods for PPI extraction that use convolution kernels on rich linguistic information. Methods were evaluated on five different public corpora using cross-validation, cross-learning, and cross-corpus evaluation. Our study confirms that kernels using dependency trees generally outperform kernels based on syntax trees. However, our study also shows that only the best kernel methods can compete with a simple rule-based approach when the evaluation prevents information leakage between training and test corpora. Our results further reveal that the F-score of many approaches drops significantly if no corpus-specific parameter optimization is applied and that methods reaching a good AUC score often perform much worse in terms of F-score. We conclude that for most kernels no sensible estimation of PPI extraction performance on new text is possible, given the current heterogeneity in evaluation data. Nevertheless, our study

  15. A Fault Feature Extraction Method for Rolling Bearing Based on Pulse Adaptive Time-Frequency Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock pulse method is a widely used technique for condition monitoring of rolling bearing. However, it may cause erroneous diagnosis in the presence of strong background noise or other shock sources. Aiming at overcoming the shortcoming, a pulse adaptive time-frequency transform method is proposed to extract the fault features of the damaged rolling bearing. The method arranges the rolling bearing shock pulses extracted by shock pulse method in the order of time and takes the reciprocal of the time interval between the pulse at any moment and the other pulse as all instantaneous frequency components in the moment. And then it visually displays the changing rule of each instantaneous frequency after plane transformation of the instantaneous frequency components, realizes the time-frequency transform of shock pulse sequence through time-frequency domain amplitude relevancy processing, and highlights the fault feature frequencies by effective instantaneous frequency extraction, so as to extract the fault features of the damaged rolling bearing. The results of simulation and application show that the proposed method can suppress the noises well, highlight the fault feature frequencies, and avoid erroneous diagnosis, so it is an effective fault feature extraction method for the rolling bearing with high time-frequency resolution.

  16. How Laboratory Sampling Techniques and Extraction Methods Affect Reproducibility of PAH Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    Original Extraction Soxhlet US Army Corps of Engineers 4th Serial Extraction by Sonication US Army Corps of Engineers 654321 250000 200000 150000 100000...n z o ( a ) p y r e n e Scatterplot of Benzo (a) pyrene vs Extraction US Army Corps of Engineers Skeet Serial Extraction in mg/Kg Analyte...Army Corps of Engineers Field Sample Serial Extraction Analyte Sample A Sample B Benzo (a) pyrene 0.12% 0.03% Extraction Efficiency Extraction Method

  17. Extract of a spice--omum (Trachyspermum ammi)-shows antiaggregatory effects and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, K C

    1988-07-01

    An ethereal extract of omum (Trachyspermum ammi; Hindustani: ajwan)--a frequently consumed spice--was found to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA), epinephrine and collagen; in this respect it was most effective against AA-induced aggregation. Inhibition of aggregation by omum could be explained by its effect on platelet thromboxane production as suggested by the following experimental observation. (i) Omum reduced TxB2 formation in intact platelet preparations from added arachidonate, and (ii) it reduced the formation of TxB2 from AA-labelled platelets after stimulation with Ca2+-ionophore A23187 by a direct action on cyclooxygenase as it did not affect the release of AA from labelled platelets. An increased formation of lipoxygenase-derived products from exogenous AA in omum-treated platelets was apparently due to redirection of AA from cyclooxygenase to the lipoxygenase pathway.

  18. Extraction time and temperature affect the extraction efficiencies of coumarin and phenylpropanoids from Cinnamomum cassia bark using a microwave-assisted extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2017-09-15

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), an efficient extraction tool, was employed to extract a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamadehyde, and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde) from Cinnamomum cassia bark using water as the extraction solvent. Six marker compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector using a validated analytical method. To investigate the influences of temperature and time on the extraction yields of the six marker compounds, the water extracts of C. cassia bark were prepared using a MAE method at six different extraction temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95°C) and times (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12min). Their influences were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained demonstrated that higher extraction temperature and longer extraction time positively affected coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol contents, but negatively affected extract contents of cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (all p-extraction of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde was affected by both positively and negatively by increasing temperature and time. These changes during MAE were assumed by the chemical natures of the marker compounds with various functional groups. In conclusion, temperature and times significantly affected the extraction efficiencies of a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids from C. cassia bark when a water-based MAE method was used. This study provides a novel approach to the preparation of the water extract of C. cassia bark using MAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chloroform extraction of iodine in seawater: method development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, H. B.; Glimme, A.; Tumey, S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    While 129I poses little to no radiological health hazard, the isotopic ratio of 129I to stable iodine is very useful as a nearly conservative tracer for ocean mixing processes. The unfortunate disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant released many radioactive materials into the environment, including 129I. The release allows the studying of oceanic processes through the tracking of 129I. However, with such a low iodine (~0.5 micromolar) and 129I concentrations (research and worked towards maximum efficiency of the process while boosting the recovery of iodine. During development, we assessed each methodological change qualitatively using a color scale (I2 in CHCl3) and quantitatively using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The "optimized method" yielded a 20-40% increase in recovery of the iodine compared to the base method (80-85% recovery vs. 60%). Lastly, the "optimized method" was tested by AMS for fractionation of the extracted iodine.

  20. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods of rumen microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Rivera, Gabriela; Vargas-Cabrera, Yevani; González-Silva, Napoleón; Aguilera-García, Florentino; Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Ernestina; Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor Manuel; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan José

    2013-02-01

    The dynamism of microbial populations in the rumen has been studied with molecular methods that analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms of ribosomal RNA gene fragments (rDNA). Therefore DNA of good quality is needed for this kind of analysis. In this work we report the evaluation of four DNA extraction protocols (mechanical lysis or chemical lysis with CTAB, ethylxanthogenate or DNAzol(®)) from ruminal fluid. The suitability of two of these protocols (mechanical lysis and DNAzol(®)) was tested on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of rDNA of rumen microbial populations. DNAzol(®) was a simple method that rendered good integrity, yield and purity. With this method, subtle changes in protozoan populations were detected in young bulls fed with slightly different formulations of a supplement of multinutritional blocks of molasses and urea. Sequences related to Eudiplodinium maggi and a non-cultured Entodiniomorphid similar to Entodinium caudatum, were related to major fluctuating populations in an SSCP assay.

  1. Spatial and Spectral Nonparametric Linear Feature Extraction Method for Hyperspectral Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinn-Min Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction (FE or dimensionality reduction (DR plays quite an important role in the field of pattern recognition. Feature extraction aims to reduce the dimensionality of the high-dimensional dataset to enhance the classification accuracy and foster the classification speed, particularly when the training sample size is small, namely the small sample size (SSS problem. Remotely sensed hyperspectral images (HSIs are often with hundreds of measured features (bands which potentially provides more accurate and detailed information for classification, but it generally needs more samples to estimate parameters to achieve a satisfactory result. The cost of collecting ground-truth of remotely sensed hyperspectral scene can be considerably difficult and expensive. Therefore, FE techniques have been an important part for hyperspectral image classification. Unlike lots of feature extraction methods are based only on the spectral (band information of the training samples, some feature extraction methods integrating both spatial and spectral information of training samples show more effective results in recent years. Spatial contexture information has been proven to be useful to improve the HSI data representation and to increase classification accuracy. In this paper, we propose a spatial and spectral nonparametric linear feature extraction method for hyperspectral image classification. The spatial and spectral information is extracted for each training sample and used to design the within-class and between-class scatter matrices for constructing the feature extraction model. The experimental results on one benchmark hyperspectral image demonstrate that the proposed method obtains stable and satisfactory results than some existing spectral-based feature extraction.

  2. Optimized protein extraction methods for proteomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Dilip K; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Lakshman, Sukla; Garrett, Wesley M; Dhar, Arun K

    2008-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani (Teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris, T. praticola) is a basidiomycetous fungus and a major cause of root diseases of economically important plants. Various isolates of this fungus are also beneficially associated with orchids, may serve as biocontrol agents or remain as saprophytes with roles in decaying and recycling of soil organic matter. R. solani displays several hyphal anastomosis groups (AG) with distinct host and pathogenic specializations. Even though there are reports on the physiological and histological basis of Rhizoctonia-host interactions, very little is known about the molecular biology and control of gene expression early during infection by this pathogen. Proteamic technologies are powerful tools for examining alterations in protein profiles. To aid studies on its biology and host pathogen interactions, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel-based global proteomic study has been initiated. To develop an optimized protein extraction protocol for R. solani, we compared two previously reported protein extraction protocols for 2-D gel analysis of R. solani (AG-4) isolate Rs23. Both TCA-acetone precipitation and phosphate solubilization before TCA-acetone precipitation worked well for R. solani protein extraction, although selective enrichment of some proteins was noted with either method. About 450 spots could be detected with the densitiometric tracing of Coomassie blue-stained 2-D PAGE gels covering pH 4-7 and 6.5-205 kDa. Selected protein spots were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Eleven protein spots were positively identified based on peptide mass fingerprinting match with fungal proteins in public databases with the Mascot search engine. These results testify to the suitability of the two optimized protein extraction protocols for 2-D proteomic studies of R. solani.

  3. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%.

  4. Method of extracting heat from dry geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, R.M.; Robinson, E.S.; Smith, M.C.

    1974-01-22

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to interconnect two or more holes that penetrate a previously dry geothermal reservoir, and to produce within the reservoir a sufficiently large heat-transfer surface so that heat can be extracted from the reservoir at a usefully high rate by a fluid entering it through one hole and leaving it through another. Introduction of a fluid into the reservoir to remove heat from it and establishment of natural (unpumped) convective circulation through the reservoir to accomplish continuous heat removal are important and novel features of the method. (auth)

  5. A feature extraction method for the signal sorting of interleaved radar pulse serial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qiang; ZHANG Xingzhou; LI Zheng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,a new feature extraction method for radar pulse sequences is presented based on structure function and empirical mode decomposition,In this method,2-D feature information was constituted by using radio frequency and time-of-arrival,which analyzed the feature of radar pulse sequences for the very first time by employing structure function and empirical mode decomposition.The experiment shows that the method can efficiently extract the frequency of a period-change radio frequency signal in a complex pulses environment and reveals a new feature for the signal sorting of interleaved radar pulse serial.This paper provides a novel way for extracting the new sorting feature of radar signals.

  6. Comparing the performance of three ancient DNA extraction methods for high-throughput sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamba, Cristina; Hanghøj, Kristian Ebbesen; Gaunitz, Charleen

    2016-01-01

    The DNA molecules that can be extracted from archaeological and palaeontological remains are often degraded and massively contaminated with environmental microbial material. This reduces the efficacy of shotgun approaches for sequencing ancient genomes, despite the decreasing sequencing costs...... of high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Improving the recovery of endogenous molecules from the DNA extraction and purification steps could, thus, help advance the characterization of ancient genomes. Here, we apply the three most commonly used DNA extraction methods to five ancient bone samples spanning...... a ~30 thousand year temporal range and originating from a diversity of environments, from South America to Alaska. We show that methods based on the purification of DNA fragments using silica columns are more advantageous than in solution methods and increase not only the total amount of DNA molecules...

  7. Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Hydrodistillation Methods for Extraction of Essential Oil from Achillea millefolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mollasalehi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD method has been compared with hydrodistillation (HD conventional technique for extraction of essential oil from Achillea millefolium. Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation were examined at three levels of microwave powers (300, 500, and 700 W. Obtained results show that MAHD offers important advantages over HD in terms of energy savings and extraction time (20 min against 2.5 h. Also, the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The amount of oxygenated compounds and monoterpene, such as 1,8 -Cineole, Lavandulyl acetate,Caryophylla-dien, Aromadendrene were increased in the microwave method. All these results suggest that MAHD represents an excellent alternative method for extraction of essential oils from plant materials.

  8. [Identification of special quality eggs with NIR spectroscopy technology based on symbol entropy feature extraction method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Hong, Wen-Xue

    2011-11-01

    Fast, nondestructive and accurate identification of special quality eggs is an urgent problem. The present paper proposed a new feature extraction method based on symbol entropy to identify near infrared spectroscopy of special quality eggs. The authors selected normal eggs, free range eggs, selenium-enriched eggs and zinc-enriched eggs as research objects and measured the near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectra in the range of 12 000-4 000 cm(-1). Raw spectra were symbolically represented with aggregation approximation algorithm and symbolic entropy was extracted as feature vector. An error-correcting output codes multiclass support vector machine classifier was designed to identify the spectrum. Symbolic entropy feature is robust when parameter changed and the highest recognition rate reaches up to 100%. The results show that the identification method of special quality eggs using near-infrared is feasible and the symbol entropy can be used as a new feature extraction method of near-infrared spectra.

  9. Comparison of methods for proanthocyanidin extraction from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles and biological activities of the extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Young; Jang, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Geun; Yu, Ki Hwan; Jang, Hyeji; Kim, Mihyang; Kim, Sung Gu; Yoo, Byung Hong; Lee, Sang-Hyeon

    2010-02-01

    Flavonoids are known to be effective scavengers of free radicals. In particular, proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that possess cardiovascular protection, antioxidative activities, and immunomodulatory activities. Here, we evaluated proanthocyanidin contents in the total polyphenolic compounds of pine needle extracts prepared by hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE). Analysis of each extract indicated that the ethanol extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. The HWH and hexane extracts also contained relatively high concentrations of proanthocyanidin. On the other hand, proanthocyanidin content analyses out of the total polyphenolic compounds indicated that the HWH extract contained the highest content. These results suggest that HWH extraction is a suitable method to obtain an extract with a high level of pure proanthocyanidins and a relatively high yield. The HWH extract possessed superior activity in diverse antioxidative analyses such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating (FIC), and ferric-ion reducing power (FRAP) assays. In addition, upon assessing the effects of the pine needle extracts on macrophages (Raw 264.7 cell), the HWH extract exhibited the highest activity. In this study, we discerned an efficient extraction method to achieve relatively pure proanthocyanidins from pine needles and evaluated the biological functions of the resulting extract, which could potentially be used for its efficacious components in functional food products.

  10. Comparison of four extraction/methylation analytical methods to measure fatty acid composition by gas chromatography in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, M; Polvillo, O; Contò, M; Ficco, A; Ballico, S; Failla, S

    2008-05-01

    Four different extraction-derivatization methods commonly used for fatty acid analysis in meat (in situ or one-step method, saponification method, classic method and a combination of classic extraction and saponification derivatization) were tested. The in situ method had low recovery and variation. The saponification method showed the best balance between recovery, precision, repeatability and reproducibility. The classic method had high recovery and acceptable variation values, except for the polyunsaturated fatty acids, showing higher variation than the former methods. The combination of extraction and methylation steps had great recovery values, but the precision, repeatability and reproducibility were not acceptable. Therefore the saponification method would be more convenient for polyunsaturated fatty acid analysis, whereas the in situ method would be an alternative for fast analysis. However the classic method would be the method of choice for the determination of the different lipid classes.

  11. Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected Indian medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mital Kaneria; Bhavana Kanani; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected Indian medicinal flora. Methods: Different parts of plants were extracted by hydroalcoholic and decoction methods using water and various concentrations of methanol (ME) viz. 75%, 50% and 25% ME. The antioxidant activity of all the different extracts was evaluated using two different antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Total phenol and flavonoid content was also estimated. Results: The results showed that the extracting solvent significantly altered the antioxidant property estimations of screened plants. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of extracts were observed. High levels of antioxidant activities were detected in Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) as compared with other screened plants.Conclusions:The results obtained appear to confirm the effect of different methods on extraction of antioxidants and antioxidant property of M. zapota.

  12. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters. PMID:26058012

  13. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰ containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE at 0 (control, 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen, and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs, granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells, total hemocyte count (THC, phenoloxidase (PO activity, respiratory bursts (RBs, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP, peroxinectin (PX, cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  14. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-06-05

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  15. Evaluation of extraction methods for hexavalent chromium determination in dusts, ashes, and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the difficulties in performing speciation analyses on solid samples is finding a suitable extraction method. Traditional methods for extraction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in soils, such as SW846 Method 3060A, can be tedious and are not always compatible with some determination methods. For example, the phosphate and high levels of carbonate and magnesium present in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 3060A digestion for Cr(VI) were found to be incompatible with the High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) detection method used by our laboratory. Modification of Method 3060A by eliminating the use of the phosphate buffer provided improved performance with the detection method, however dilutions are still necessary to achieve good chromatographic separation and detection of Cr(VI). An ultrasonic extraction method using a 1 mM Na2CO3 - 9 mM NaHCO3 buffer solution, adapted from Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Method ID215, has been used with good results for the determination of Cr(VI) in air filters. The average recovery obtained for BCR-545 - Welding Dust Loaded on Filter (IRMM, Belgium) using this method was 99 percent (1.2 percent relative standard deviation) with no conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during the extraction process. This ultrasonic method has the potential for use with other sample matrices, such as ashes and soils. Preliminary investigations using NIST 2701 (Hexavalent Chromium in Contaminated Soil) loaded onto quartz filters showed promising results with approximately 90 percent recovery of the certified Cr(VI) value. Additional testing has been done using NIST 2701 and NIST 2700 using different presentation methods. Extraction efficiency of bulk presentation, where small portions of the sample are added to the bottom of the extraction vessel, will be compared with supported presentation, where small portions of the sample are loaded onto a

  16. Research on The Mechanical State Parameter Extraction Method of High Voltage Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tianxu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High voltage circuit breakers play an important role in the power system. So it is necessary to implement the state detection of breakers in order to ensure stable and reliable running of the grid. The purpose of state detection is to provide reliable basis of maintenance by extracting mechanical state parameters accurately. This paper mainly focuses on the coil current signal feature extraction algorithm. To settle the problem of too much noise mixed with the current signal and signal distortion, the discrete wavelet transform algorithm is used to extract the coil current signal parameters. This paper also designs the FIR filter to extract stroke and speed parameters from travel-time waveform. The experiments show that the difference between the theoretical results and test results processed by the method in this paper is very small and the test results are able to accurately reflect operation states and mechanical features of high voltage circuit breakers.

  17. Assessing the impact of protein extraction methods for human gut metaproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Leyuan; Mayne, Janice; Ning, Zhibin; Stintzi, Alain; Figeys, Daniel

    2017-07-10

    Metaproteomics is a promising methodology for the functional characterizations of the gut microbiome. However, the performance of metaproteomic analysis is affected by protein extraction protocols in terms of the amount of protein recovered and the relative abundance of different bacteria observed in microbiome. Currently, there is a lack of consistency on protein extraction methods in published metaproteomics studies. Here we evaluated the effects of different protein extraction methods on human fecal metaproteome characterizations. We found that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-based lysis buffer obtained higher protein yields and peptide/protein group identifications compared to urea and the non-ionic detergent-based B-Per buffer. The addition of bead beating to any of the extraction buffers increased both protein yields and protein identifications. As well, bead beating led to a significant increase of the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. We also demonstrated that ultrasonication, another commonly used mechanical disruption approach, performed even better than bead beating for gut microbial protein extractions. Importantly, proteins of the basic metabolic pathways showed significantly higher relative abundances when using ultrasonication. Overall, these results demonstrate that protein extraction protocols markedly impact the metaproteomic results and recommend a protein extraction protocol with both SDS and ultrasonication for metaproteomic studies. The gut microbiome is emerging as an important factor influencing human health. Metaproteomics is promising for advancing the understanding of the functional roles of the microbiome in disease. However, metaproteomics suffers from a lack of consistent sample preparation procedures. In the present study, protein extraction protocols for fecal microbiome samples were evaluated for their effects on protein yields, peptide identifications, protein group identifications, taxonomic compositions and

  18. Different extraction methods of biologically active components from propolis: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankova Vassya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propolis is widely used in apitherapy, preparations, and food and beverage additives. Various extraction techniques were applied in the extraction of the biologically active constituents of poplar type propolis in order to compare their efficiency. The methods employed were: traditional maceration extraction, ultrasound extraction (UE, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE. Results The total amounts of extracted phenolics and flavonoids were determined, and the effectiveness of the methods compared. MAE was very rapid but led to the extraction of a large amount of non-phenolic and non-flavonoid material. UE gave the highest percentage of extracted phenolics. Conclusion Compared to the maceration extraction, MAE and UE methods provided high extraction yield, requiring short timeframes and less labour. UE was shown to be the most efficient method based on yield, extraction time and selectivity.

  19. Method Specific Calibration Corrects for DNA Extraction Method Effects on Relative Telomere Length Measurements by Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Rebecca; Underwood, Sarah; Fairlie, Jennifer; Psifidi, Androniki; Ilska, Joanna J.; Bagnall, Ainsley; Whitelaw, Bruce; Coffey, Mike; Banos, Georgios; Nussey, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in epidemiological, biomedical and ecological studies. A wide range of DNA extraction techniques have been used in telomere experiments and recent quantitative PCR (qPCR) based studies suggest that the choice of DNA extraction method may influence average relative TL (RTL) measurements. Such extraction method effects may limit the use of historically collected DNA samples extracted with different methods. However, if extraction method effects are systematic an extraction method specific (MS) calibrator might be able to correct for them, because systematic effects would influence the calibrator sample in the same way as all other samples. In the present study we tested whether leukocyte RTL in blood samples from Holstein Friesian cattle and Soay sheep measured by qPCR was influenced by DNA extraction method and whether MS calibration could account for any observed differences. We compared two silica membrane-based DNA extraction kits and a salting out method. All extraction methods were optimized to yield enough high quality DNA for TL measurement. In both species we found that silica membrane-based DNA extraction methods produced shorter RTL measurements than the non-membrane-based method when calibrated against an identical calibrator. However, these differences were not statistically detectable when a MS calibrator was used to calculate RTL. This approach produced RTL measurements that were highly correlated across extraction methods (r > 0.76) and had coefficients of variation lower than 10% across plates of identical samples extracted by different methods. Our results are consistent with previous findings that popular membrane-based DNA extraction methods may lead to shorter RTL measurements than non-membrane-based methods. However, we also demonstrate that these differences can be accounted for by using an extraction method-specific calibrator, offering researchers a simple means of accounting for

  20. Method Specific Calibration Corrects for DNA Extraction Method Effects on Relative Telomere Length Measurements by Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeker, Luise A; Holland, Rebecca; Underwood, Sarah; Fairlie, Jennifer; Psifidi, Androniki; Ilska, Joanna J; Bagnall, Ainsley; Whitelaw, Bruce; Coffey, Mike; Banos, Georgios; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in epidemiological, biomedical and ecological studies. A wide range of DNA extraction techniques have been used in telomere experiments and recent quantitative PCR (qPCR) based studies suggest that the choice of DNA extraction method may influence average relative TL (RTL) measurements. Such extraction method effects may limit the use of historically collected DNA samples extracted with different methods. However, if extraction method effects are systematic an extraction method specific (MS) calibrator might be able to correct for them, because systematic effects would influence the calibrator sample in the same way as all other samples. In the present study we tested whether leukocyte RTL in blood samples from Holstein Friesian cattle and Soay sheep measured by qPCR was influenced by DNA extraction method and whether MS calibration could account for any observed differences. We compared two silica membrane-based DNA extraction kits and a salting out method. All extraction methods were optimized to yield enough high quality DNA for TL measurement. In both species we found that silica membrane-based DNA extraction methods produced shorter RTL measurements than the non-membrane-based method when calibrated against an identical calibrator. However, these differences were not statistically detectable when a MS calibrator was used to calculate RTL. This approach produced RTL measurements that were highly correlated across extraction methods (r > 0.76) and had coefficients of variation lower than 10% across plates of identical samples extracted by different methods. Our results are consistent with previous findings that popular membrane-based DNA extraction methods may lead to shorter RTL measurements than non-membrane-based methods. However, we also demonstrate that these differences can be accounted for by using an extraction method-specific calibrator, offering researchers a simple means of accounting for

  1. Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65℃ was the highest, at 1...

  2. Coconut oil extraction by the traditional Java method : An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Moeis, Maelita R.; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w(-1) oil from grate

  3. Coconut oil extraction by the Java method: An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.; Moeis, M.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w-1 oil from grated

  4. Coconut oil extraction by the Java method: An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.; Moeis, M.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w-1 oil from grated

  5. Coconut oil extraction by the traditional Java method : An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Moeis, Maelita R.; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w(-1) oil from grate

  6. Fatty Acid Characteristics of Isochrysis galbana Lipids Extracted Using a Microwave-Assisted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipids were extracted from Isochrysis galbana using a microwave-assisted method accompanied by various types of organic solvents. The effects of organic solvent type and microwave input energy on the fatty acid characteristics of the extracted lipids and their biodiesel product were investigated. Variations in the characteristics of the lipids extracted using a combination of n-hexane and iso-propanol solvents in both emulsion and direct mixtures were also compared. The experimental results showed that greater quantities of Isochrysis galbana lipids, and fatty acid methyl esters transesterified from those lipids, were extracted when using microwave irradiation with an organic solvent mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol in a 2:1 volumetric ratio than when using either n-hexane or isopropanol as the sole solvent. A greater quantity of Isochrysis galbana lipids was extracted when an emulsion of isopropanol solvent evenly dispersed in the continuous phase of n-hexane solvent was used than when a direct mixture of the two solvents was used. In addition, the quantity of lipids extracted from the dried Isochrysis galbana powder with the assistance of microwave irradiation was 9.08 wt% greater than when using traditional Soxhlet extraction without microwave irradiation.

  7. Comparing DNA extraction methods for analysis of botanical materials found in anti-diabetic supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llongueras, Jose P; Nair, Saraswathy; Salas-Leiva, Dayana; Schwarzbach, Andrea E

    2013-03-01

    A comparative performance evaluation of DNA extraction methods from anti-diabetic botanical supplements using various commercial kits was conducted, to determine which produces the best quality DNA suitable for PCR amplification, sequencing and species identification. All plant materials involved were of suboptimal quality showing various levels of degradation and therefore representing real conditions for testing herbal supplements. Eight different DNA extraction methods were used to isolate genomic DNA from 13 medicinal plant products. Two methods for evaluation, DNA concentration measurements that included absorbance ratios as well as PCR amplifiability, were used to determine quantity and quality of extracted DNA. We found that neither DNA concentrations nor commonly used UV absorbance ratio measurements at A(260)/A(280) between 1.7 and 1.9 are suitable for globally predicting PCR success in these plant samples, and that PCR amplifiablity itself was the best indicator of extracted product quality. However, our results suggest that A(260)/A(280) ratios below about 1.3 and above 2.3 indicated a DNA quality too poor to amplify. Therefore, A(260)/A(280) measurements are not useful to identify samples that likely will amplify but can be used to exclude samples that likely will not amplify reducing the cost for unnecessarily subjecting samples to PCR. The two Nucleospin(®) plant II kit extraction methods produced the most pure and amplifiable genomic DNA extracts. Our results suggest that there are clear, discernable differences between extraction methods for low quality plant samples in terms of producing contamination-free, high-quality genomic DNA to be used for further analysis.

  8. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Grosso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  9. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  10. Impulse feature extraction method for machinery fault detection using fusion sparse coding and online dictionary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Sen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Impulse components in vibration signals are important fault features of complex machines. Sparse coding (SC algorithm has been introduced as an impulse feature extraction method, but it could not guarantee a satisfactory performance in processing vibration signals with heavy background noises. In this paper, a method based on fusion sparse coding (FSC and online dictionary learning is proposed to extract impulses efficiently. Firstly, fusion scheme of different sparse coding algorithms is presented to ensure higher reconstruction accuracy. Then, an improved online dictionary learning method using FSC scheme is established to obtain redundant dictionary and it can capture specific features of training samples and reconstruct the sparse approximation of vibration signals. Simulation shows that this method has a good performance in solving sparse coefficients and training redundant dictionary compared with other methods. Lastly, the proposed method is further applied to processing aircraft engine rotor vibration signals. Compared with other feature extraction approaches, our method can extract impulse features accurately and efficiently from heavy noisy vibration signal, which has significant supports for machinery fault detection and diagnosis.

  11. DNA extraction on bio-chip: history and preeminence over conventional and solid-phase extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoib, Adilah; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C B; Md Arshad, M K

    2017-09-23

    This review covers a developmental progression on early to modern taxonomy at cellular level following the advent of electron microscopy and the advancement in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction for expatiation of biological classification at DNA level. Here, we discuss the fundamental values of conventional chemical methods of DNA extraction using liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) followed by development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods, as well as recent advances in microfluidics device-based system for DNA extraction on-chip. We also discuss the importance of DNA extraction as well as the advantages over conventional chemical methods, and how Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) system plays a crucial role for the future achievements.

  12. GPR Signal Denoising and Target Extraction With the CEEMD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2015-04-17

    In this letter, we apply a time and frequency analysis method based on the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) method in ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signal processing. It decomposes the GPR signal into a sum of oscillatory components, with guaranteed positive and smoothly varying instantaneous frequencies. The key idea of this method relies on averaging the modes obtained by empirical mode decomposition (EMD) applied to several realizations of Gaussian white noise added to the original signal. It can solve the mode-mixing problem in the EMD method and improve the resolution of ensemble EMD (EEMD) when the signal has a low signal-to-noise ratio. First, we analyze the difference between the basic theory of EMD, EEMD, and CEEMD. Then, we compare the time and frequency analysis with Hilbert-Huang transform to test the results of different methods. The synthetic and real GPR data demonstrate that CEEMD promises higher spectral-spatial resolution than the other two EMD methods in GPR signal denoising and target extraction. Its decomposition is complete, with a numerically negligible error.

  13. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  14. An Efficient Method for Automatic Road Extraction Based on Multiple Features from LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Hu, X.; Guan, H.; Liu, P.

    2016-06-01

    The road extraction in urban areas is difficult task due to the complicated patterns and many contextual objects. LiDAR data directly provides three dimensional (3D) points with less occlusions and smaller shadows. The elevation information and surface roughness are distinguishing features to separate roads. However, LiDAR data has some disadvantages are not beneficial to object extraction, such as the irregular distribution of point clouds and lack of clear edges of roads. For these problems, this paper proposes an automatic road centerlines extraction method which has three major steps: (1) road center point detection based on multiple feature spatial clustering for separating road points from ground points, (2) local principal component analysis with least squares fitting for extracting the primitives of road centerlines, and (3) hierarchical grouping for connecting primitives into complete roads network. Compared with MTH (consist of Mean shift algorithm, Tensor voting, and Hough transform) proposed in our previous article, this method greatly reduced the computational cost. To evaluate the proposed method, the Vaihingen data set, a benchmark testing data provided by ISPRS for "Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction" project, was selected. The experimental results show that our method achieve the same performance by less time in road extraction using LiDAR data.

  15. An efficient RNA extraction method for estimating gut microbial diversity by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seungha; Denman, Stuart E; Morrison, Mark; Yu, Zhongtang; McSweeney, Chris S

    2009-05-01

    An extraction method was developed to recover high-quality RNA from rumen digesta and mouse feces for phylogenetic analysis of metabolically active members of the gut microbial community. Four extraction methods were tested on different amounts of the same samples and compared for efficiency of recovery and purity of RNA. Trizol extraction after bead beating produced a higher quantity and quality of RNA than a similar method using phenol/chloroform. Dissociation solution produced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in RNA recovery compared with phosphate-buffered saline during the dissociation of microorganisms from rumen digesta or fecal particles. The identity of metabolically active bacteria in the samples was analyzed by sequencing 87 amplicons produced using bacteria-specific 16S rDNA primers, with cDNA synthesized from the extracted RNA as the template. Amplicons representing the major phyla encountered in the rumen (Firmicutes, 43.7%; Proteobacteria, 28.7%; Bacteroidetes, 25.3%; Spirochea, 1.1%, and Synergistes, 1.1%) were recovered, showing that development of the RNA extraction method enables RNA-based analysis of metabolically active bacterial groups from the rumen and other environments. Interestingly, in rumen samples, about 30% of the sequenced random 16S rRNA amplicons were related to the Proteobacteria, providing the first evidence that this group may have greater importance in rumen metabolism than previously attributed by DNA-based analysis.

  16. Extraction, chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods for lipid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Sumitra; Nie, Ben; Arnold, Robert D; Cummings, Brian S

    2016-05-01

    Lipids make up a diverse subset of biomolecules that are responsible for mediating a variety of structural and functional properties as well as modulating cellular functions such as trafficking, regulation of membrane proteins and subcellular compartmentalization. In particular, phospholipids are the main constituents of biological membranes and play major roles in cellular processes like transmembrane signaling and structural dynamics. The chemical and structural variety of lipids makes analysis using a single experimental approach quite challenging. Research in the field relies on the use of multiple techniques to detect and quantify components of cellular lipidomes as well as determine structural features and cellular organization. Understanding these features can allow researchers to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms by which lipid-lipid and/or lipid-protein interactions take place within the conditions of study. Herein, we provide an overview of essential methods for the examination of lipids, including extraction methods, chromatographic techniques and approaches for mass spectrometric analysis.

  17. A method to extract soil water for stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, K.; Woods, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    A method has been developed to extract soil water for determination of deuterium (D) and 18O content. The principle of this method is based on the observation that water and toluene form an azeotropic mixture at 84.1??C, but are completely immiscible at ambient temperature. In a specially designed distillation apparatus, the soil water is distilled at 84.1??C with toluene and is separated quantitatively in the collecting funnel at ambient temperature. Traces of toluene are removed and the sample can be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Kerosene may be substituted for toluene. The accuracy of this technique is ?? 2 and ?? 0.2???, respectively, for ??D and ??18O. Reduced accuracy is obtained at low water contents. ?? 1990.

  18. Screening of Extraction Methods for Glycoproteins from Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) Oral-Arms by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Guoyan; LI Bafang; ZHAO Xue; ZHUANG Yongliang; YAN Mingyan; HOU Hu; ZHANG Xiukun; CHEN Li

    2009-01-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotcin. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against con-centration for TGP were linear (r=0.9984, y=4.5895x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400mgL-1. The mean extrac-tion recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish (R. esculentum) oral-arms bv four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water ex-traction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophtlized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and ana-lyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8mm×300mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.Kay words HPLC; glycoprotein; jellyfish; extraction method

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF SUCROSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Application of slanted diffusers is accompanied with irregular heating of juice- and chips mixture in the unit length, which reduces the degree of extraction of sucrose from chips and microorganisms intensive growth inside the apparatuses, increases the sucrose loss during the extraction and the time of the whole process. A method for preprocessing of beet chips prior to extraction with hot solutions of chemical agents was suggested. It was experimentally found out that the best quality indicators are inherent to the juice obtained from chips treated with a solution of 0.05 % aluminum sulfate or with 0.10% bleach solution. Thermal processing of beet chips with the solutions of Al2(SO43 with a concentration of 0.05% and bleach with a concentration of 0.10 % results in a gradual beet chips uniform heating and denaturation of the proteins, which increases the mass transfer coefficient of sugarbeet tissue, increasing its permeability. Beet chips surface washing aluminum sulfate solution reduces the solubility of the protein and pectin substances, increasing the strength and elasticity of beet chips. pH of the medium is stabilized, which reduces the transition of non-sugars from beet chips into the diffusion juice in the process of sucrose extraction. Combination of thermal and chemical treatment allows to stabilize the colloids of sugarbeet tissue and to heat beet chips to the optimum temperature of the diffusion process of 70-72 °C before entering the diffusion apparatus and to improve its structural and mechanical properties. The use of preliminary heat treatment of beet chips: improves the efficiency of diffusion processes; blocks the transition of substances of protein-pectin complex of beet chips into the raw juice, whereby their content in the diffusion juice is reduced; reduces the color of purified juice by 15.1 %, the content of calcium salts by 31.3 % in comparison with the standard method; -improves the purity of the purified

  20. Inhibition Kinetics of Sida rhombifolia L. Extract Toward Xanthine Oxidase by Electrochemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Iswantini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sida rhombifolia L. is a traditional medicinal plant that has been known with potential as antigout. The previous research suggested that flavonoids crude extract of S. rhombifolia had an inhibitory activity toward xanthine oxidase by 71% and a spectrophotometric measurement showed that the type of flavonoids crude extract inhibition was a competitive inhibition. The purpose of the research was to investigate the type of inhibition kinetic of S. Rhombifolia’s ethanol extract by electrochemical method and to compare the measurements of linearity and sensitivity between spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods. The results showed that the yield of S. Rhombifolia’s ethanol extract was 9.82% with the inhibitory activity ranging from 13.64% to 82.69% (5.00-200 mg L-1 and IC50 value was 91.15±5.74 mg L-1. Allopurinol as a control showed the inhibitory activity of 15.26-70.95% (0.10-4.00 mg L-1 and IC50 value was 2.45±2.21 mg L-1. Inhibition kinetics of the ethanol extract caused a KM increase and unchange of VMAX. Based on the data, the type of inhibition kinetics was a competitive inhibition, with an inhibitor affinity (α value of 3.18. Linearity of xanthine oxidase activity assay by electrochemical and spectrophotometric methods showed the range of 0.01-1.00 mM (R2 = 0.978 and 0.05-0.70 mM (R2 = 0.977 respectively. The sensitivity of electrochemical method was reported higher (0.95 μA mM-1 than the spectrophotometric method (0.007 min-1.

  1. Determination of urinary manganese by the direct chelation-extraction method and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T; Tokunaga, R; Iwahana, T; Tati, M; Ikeda, M

    1978-01-01

    The direct chelation-extraction method, originally developed by Hessel (1968) for blood lead analysis, has been successfully applied to urinalysis for manganese. The analyses of 35 urine samples containing up to 100 microgram/1 of manganese from manganese-exposed workers showed that the data obtained by this method agree well with those by wet digestion-flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and also by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. PMID:629893

  2. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  3. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  4. Quantification of total fatty acids in microalgae: comparison of extraction and transesterification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavonius, Lillie R; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar; Undeland, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Determination of microalgaes' fatty acid content is often done with chloroform and methanol according to the Bligh and Dyer extraction, though faster methods exist. A number of comparisons between the Bligh and Dyer and faster methods have resulted in contradicting data, possibly due to differences in algae used and the different versions of the Bligh and Dyer method applied. Here, various forms of direct-transesterification (D-TE) and two-step transesterification (2-TE), including three versions developed in our lab, are compared with the original Bligh and Dyer (Can J Biochem Physiol 37: 911-917, 1959) extraction and two modifications thereof (Lee et al. J AOAC Int 79:487-492, 1996, and our own acidified version) on microalgae with different cell walls: Isochrysis galbana, Nannochloropsis oculata, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. In total, fatty acid extracts from 11 methods were separated and quantified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Results show that, for N. oculata and P. tricornutum, methods based on chloroform-methanol underestimated the fatty acid content compared with the 2-TE and D-TE methods, which gave similar results. Moreover, D-TE methods are faster than chloroform-methanol methods and use chemicals that are less toxic. Of the D-TE methods, the ones using hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid recovered the most fatty acids, while boron trifluoride recovered slightly less. The main qualitative difference between the fatty acids recovered was that the chloroform-methanol methods recovered less saturated fatty acids in P. tricornutum.

  5. CEMS using hot wet extractive method based on DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Changku

    2011-11-01

    A continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) using hot wet extractive method based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is designed. The developed system is applied to retrieving the concentration of SO2 and NOx in flue gas on-site. The flue gas is carried along a heated sample line into the sample pool at a constant temperature above the dew point. In this case, the adverse impact of water vapor on measurement accuracy is reduced greatly, and the on-line calibration is implemented. And then the flue gas is discharged from the sample pool after the measuring process is complete. The on-site applicability of the system is enhanced by using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control each valve in the system during the measuring and on-line calibration process. The concentration retrieving method used in the system is based on the partial least squares (PLS) regression nonlinear method. The relationship between the known concentration and the differential absorption feature gathered by the PLS nonlinear method can be figured out after the on-line calibration process. Then the concentration measurement of SO2 and NOx can be easily implemented according to the definite relationship. The concentration retrieving method can identify the information and noise effectively, which improves the measuring accuracy of the system. SO2 with four different concentrations are measured by the system under laboratory conditions. The results proved that the full-scale error of this system is less than 2%FS.

  6. Turkish Scorzonera Species Extracts Attenuate Cytokine Secretion via Inhibition of NF-κB Activation, Showing Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Bahadır Acikara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scorzonera species are used in different folk medicines to combat many diseases, including the illnesses connected with inflammation. Previous experiments showed anti-inflammatory activity of Scorzonera extracts in vivo. S. latifolia, S. cana var. jacquiniana, S. tomentosa, S. mollis ssp. szowitsii, S. eriophora, S. incisa, S. cinerea, and S. parviflora extracts were, therefore, evaluated for their inhibitory activities of TNF-α and IL-1β production, and NF-κB nuclear translocation in THP-1 macrophages. The HPLC analysis was carried out to elucidate and to compare the composition of these extracts. Major compounds of the tested extracts have been isolated using different chromatographic techniques and further tested for their inhibitory activities on TNF-α and IL-1β production. Several extracts showed promising anti-inflammatory activity in these in vitro tests. Results of HPLC analysis revealed chlorogenic acid as a compound present in all tested extracts. Hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside and rutin were also present in varying amount in some Scorzonera species analyzed. Furthermore, eight phenolics which were identified as quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (1, hyperoside (2, hydrangenol-8-O-glucoside (3, swertisin (4, 7-methylisoorientin (5, 4,5-O-dicaffeoyl-quinic acid (6, 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-quinic acid (7, and chlorogenic acid (8 have been isolated as major phenolic compounds of the tested extracts and, together with eight terpenoids (9–16 previously obtained from different Scorzonera species, have been tested for the inhibition of TNF-α production, unfortunately with no activity comparable with standard.

  7. An optimal control method for maximizing the efficiency of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability.

  8. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CEPOI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC, radical-scavenging activity by DPPH method (DPPH, antioxidant activity by the ABTS+ radical cation assay (ABTS, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCRC. We showed the presence of antioxidative substances in ethanol extractions from 2 species of cyanobacteria, and possibility to increase their activity varying ethanol concentration. It facilitates the extraction both water- and lipid-soluble components from biomass. Regarding used methods for antioxidative activity determination, we have used only those based on reaction of electrons return (which widely used nowadays in vitro. Obtained in different ways results demonstrate high reduction capacity of the extracts and possibility to select suitable analytical methods for each case.

  9. Adaptive iteration method for star centroid extraction under highly dynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yushan; Qin, Shiqiao; Wang, Xingshu

    2016-10-01

    Star centroiding accuracy decreases significantly when star sensor works under highly dynamic conditions or star images are corrupted by severe noise, reducing the output attitude precision. Herein, an adaptive iteration method is proposed to solve this problem. Firstly, initial star centroids are predicted by traditional method, and then based on initial reported star centroids and angular velocities of the star sensor, adaptive centroiding windows are generated to cover the star area and then an iterative method optimizing the location of centroiding window is used to obtain the final star spot extraction results. Simulation results shows that, compared with traditional star image restoration method and Iteratively Weighted Center of Gravity method, AWI algorithm maintains higher extraction accuracy when rotation velocities or noise level increases.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of DNA Extraction Methods from Feces of Multiple Host Species for Downstream Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Marcia L; Meyer, Alexandra; Johnson, Philip J; Ericsson, Aaron C

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract contains a vast community of microbes that to this day remain largely unculturable, making studies in this area challenging. With the newly affordable advanced sequencing technology, important breakthroughs in this exciting field are now possible. However, standardized methods of sample collection, handling, and DNA extraction have yet to be determined. To help address this, we investigated the use of 5 common DNA extraction methods on fecal samples from 5 different species. Our data show that the method of DNA extraction impacts DNA concentration and purity, successful NGS amplification, and influences microbial communities seen in NGS output dependent on the species of fecal sample and the DNA extraction method used. These data highlight the importance of careful consideration of DNA extraction method used when designing and interpreting data from cross species studies.

  11. Extraction of mismatch negativity using a resampling-based spatial filtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanfei; Wu, Wei; Wu, Chaohua; Liu, Baolin; Gao, Xiaorong

    2013-04-01

    Objective. It is currently a challenge to extract the mismatch negativity (MMN) waveform on the basis of a small number of EEG trials, which are typically unbalanced between conditions. Approach. In order to address this issue, a method combining the techniques of resampling and spatial filtering is proposed in this paper. Specifically, the first step of the method, termed ‘resampling difference’, randomly samples the standard and deviant sweeps, and then subtracts standard sweeps from deviant sweeps. The second step of the method employs the spatial filters designed by a signal-to-noise ratio maximizer (SIM) to extract the MMN component. The SIM algorithm can maximize the signal-to-noise ratio for event-related potentials (ERPs) to improve extraction. Simulation data were used to evaluate the influence of three parameters (i.e. trial number, repeated-SIM times and sampling times) on the performance of the proposed method. Main results. Results demonstrated that it was feasible and reliable to extract the MMN waveform using the method. Finally, an oddball paradigm with auditory stimuli of different frequencies was employed to record a few trials (50 trials of deviant sweeps and 250 trials of standard sweeps) of EEG data from 11 adult subjects. Results showed that the method could effectively extract the MMN using the EEG data of each individual subject. Significance. The extracted MMN waveform has a significantly larger peak amplitude and shorter latencies in response to the more deviant stimuli than in response to the less deviant stimuli, which agreed with the MMN properties reported in previous literature using grand-averaged EEG data of multi-subjects.

  12. Development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction of waste with acidic extraction fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorini, S.S.

    1993-08-01

    Subject is characterization of waste materials. Since acid rain is increasingly prevalent throughout the world, a sequential batch extraction method was developed which uses a dilute acid solution as the extraction fluid. A collaborative study was conducted in which the draft method was used to treat a spray dryer waste from a clean coal technology process and a composite mining waste. Effects of filter pore size and digestion vs nondigestion on analytical concentrations in extracts were also studied. Elements determined included Al, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Si, Na, Sr, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Zn. The draft method will be published as ASTM Method D5284-92.

  13. Institutional Ethnography: A Method for Showing How the Context Shapes Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Observations and interviews over six months at seven adult mental health day programs in Canada showed how organizational context shapes occupational therapy practice. The social organization of knowledge forms an invisible controlling apparatus that constrains the empowerment of adult clients. (96 references) (JOW)

  14. Preparation of ZnO nanoparticles showing upconversion luminescence through simple chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjana, R.; Subha, P. P.; Markose, Kurias K.; Jayaraj, M. K., E-mail: mkj@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala, India-682022 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Upconversion luminescence is an interesting area while considering its applications in a vast variety of fields. Rare earth ions like erbium is the most studied and efficient candidate for achieving upconversion. Erbium and ytterbium co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared through co-precipitation method. A strong red emission has been obtained while exciting with 980 nm laser. Dependence of luminescence emission colour on ytterbium concentration has been studied.

  15. UAE, MAE, SFE-CO2 and classical methods for the extraction of Mitragyna speciosa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Laura; Alexandru, Lavinia; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Barge, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia, is well known for its psychoactive properties. Its leaves are traditionally chewed by Thai and Malaysian farmers and manual labourers as it causes a numbing, stimulating effect. The present study aims to evaluate alkaloid yield and composition in the leaf extracts. For this purpose we have compared several non-conventional extraction techniques with classic procedures (room temperature or under heating). Dried M. speciosa leaves belonging to three batches of different origin (from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia) were extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction SFE-CO(2), using methanol, ethanol, water and binary mixtures. The extracts were compared using an HPLC/ESI-MS analysis of mitragynine and four other related alkaloids which were present in the alkaloid fraction. The extraction technique influences both the raw product yield and the relative alkaloid content of M. speciosa leaves. Of the several methods tested, MAE in a closed vessel at 110 °C (60 W, methanol/water 1:1) gave the highest alkaloid fraction amount, while UAE with an immersion horn at 25 °C (21.4 kHz, 50 W, methanol) showed the best yield for mitragynine. This work may prove to be a useful contribution to forensic, toxicological and pharmacognosy studies. Although the potential applications of M. speciosa alkaloids clearly need further investigation, these results may facilitate the scaling-up of their extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Method of Evaluating Delayed Fracture Susceptibility of Tempered Martensitic Steel Showing Quasi-Cleavage Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Takai, Kenichi

    2017-02-01

    The difference in the hydrogen charging methods, immersion in a NH4SCN aqueous solution, and cathodic electrolysis in a NaOH aqueous solution, did not affect the hydrogen state present in the steel, but it did affect the surface state of the specimens through corrosion, causing fracture strength to fluctuate in tensile testes. As for stress application method, the fracture strength at lower crosshead speeds in tensile tests was consistent with that found for hydrogen precharging prior to stress application in CLTs as long as hydrogen charging was conducted by cathodic electrolysis. However, the fracture strength obtained with concurrent hydrogen charging without precharging prior to stress application in CLTs was higher than that with hydrogen precharging prior to stress application in CLTs regardless of the same hydrogen content. In other words, delayed fracture susceptibility was affected by the order of hydrogen charging and stress application for quasi-cleavage fracture associated with local plastic deformation, i.e., dislocation motion. Therefore, by taking into account the cathodic electrolysis in the NaOH solution, the low crosshead speed and the order of hydrogen charging and stress application, the fracture strength in CLTs, and tensile tests coincided with respect to quasi-cleavage fracture even though the stress application methods were different.

  17. A window-based time series feature extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu-Öztürk, Deniz; Güvenir, H Altay; Ravens, Ursula; Baykal, Nazife

    2017-08-09

    This study proposes a robust similarity score-based time series feature extraction method that is termed as Window-based Time series Feature ExtraCtion (WTC). Specifically, WTC generates domain-interpretable results and involves significantly low computational complexity thereby rendering itself useful for densely sampled and populated time series datasets. In this study, WTC is applied to a proprietary action potential (AP) time series dataset on human cardiomyocytes and three precordial leads from a publicly available electrocardiogram (ECG) dataset. This is followed by comparing WTC in terms of predictive accuracy and computational complexity with shapelet transform and fast shapelet transform (which constitutes an accelerated variant of the shapelet transform). The results indicate that WTC achieves a slightly higher classification performance with significantly lower execution time when compared to its shapelet-based alternatives. With respect to its interpretable features, WTC has a potential to enable medical experts to explore definitive common trends in novel datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A comprehensive method for extraction and quantitative analysis of sterols and secosteroids from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jeffrey G; Smith, Daniel D; Stiles, Ashlee R; Russell, David W

    2012-07-01

    We describe the development of a method for the extraction and analysis of 62 sterols, oxysterols, and secosteroids from human plasma using a combination of HPLC-MS and GC-MS. Deuterated standards are added to 200 μl of human plasma. Bulk lipids are extracted with methanol:dichloromethane, the sample is hydrolyzed using a novel procedure, and sterols and secosteroids are isolated using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Compounds are resolved on C₁₈ core-shell HPLC columns and by GC. Sterols and oxysterols are measured using triple quadrupole mass spectrometers, and lathosterol is measured using GC-MS. Detection for each compound measured by HPLC-MS was ∪ 1 ng/ml of plasma. Extraction efficiency was between 85 and 110%; day-to-day variability showed a relative standard error of <10%. Numerous oxysterols were detected, including the side chain oxysterols 22-, 24-, 25-, and 27-hydroxycholesterol, as well as ring-structure oxysterols 7α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol. Intermediates from the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway were also detected, including zymosterol, desmosterol, and lanosterol. This method also allowed the quantification of six secosteroids, including the 25-hydroxylated species of vitamins D₂ and D₃. Application of this method to plasma samples revealed that at least 50 samples could be extracted in a routine day.

  19. Evaluation of four protein extraction methods for proteomic analysis of mango peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, D J; Lu, X P; Chen, H S; Lu, Y; Mo, Z Y

    2016-08-30

    The peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a special plant tissue that contains many compounds that interfere with protein extraction. A successful separation with Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is the key step for proteomic analysis. To evaluate the efficiencies of mango peel protein extraction for 2-DE, four extraction methods were tested: 1) 2-D clean-up kit, 2) trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation, 3) phenol extraction, 4) phenol with methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation. The results showed that the phenol with methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation produced the best quality protein extraction and separation. Proteins were separated in 30-70 and >70 kDa ranges better than with the other methods. Acidic proteins had better resolution with fewer horizontal and vertical streaks. Sixteen proteins were identified by maxtrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/ TOF-MS/MS). The result demonstrated that each of these four methods can be used to prepare mango peel proteins. The phenol with methanol/ ammonium acetate precipitation was the best choice for proteomic analysis of mango peel.

  20. Comparison of eight methods of genomic DNA extraction from babassu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, J P G; Borges, A N C; Lopes, A C A; Gomes, R L F; Britto, F B; Lima, P S C; Valente, S E S

    2015-12-22

    Babassu (Orbignya phalerata Martius) is one of the most important palms in Brazil because of the largest morphological variation, wide geographic distribution, and high socio-economic importance. The diversity present in babassu germplasm should be protected against loss to ensure their use with high productivity. Study of the available variability in populations of babassu is necessary to develop conservation strategies. The study of genetic variability can be conducted using molecular markers and many of these studies require significant quantity of high-quality DNA. The present study aimed to effect comparison among eight DNA extraction methods in case of O. phalerata. The quality and concentration of nucleic acids were analyzed by spectrophotometry and integrity of DNA was ascertained by agarose gel electrophoresis. The spectrophotometry revealed that some methods resulted in high levels of concentration of nucleic acids, in which values of the ratio A260/280 and A260/230 were outside the range of purity. The agarose gel electrophoresis established the concentration and integrity of DNA. The methods of Murray and Thompson (1980) and Ferreira and Grattapaglia (1998) did not result in satisfactory quantities of DNA. Conversely, the method proposed by Khanuja et al. (1999) resulted in DNA of adequate quality and quantity that could be satisfactorily used for amplification reactions performed with two ISSR primers.

  1. The Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, a novel infrastructure for population health research: rationale and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedman Elliot M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based public health requires the existence of reliable information systems for priority setting and evaluation of interventions. Existing data systems in the United States are either too crude (e.g., vital statistics, rely on administrative data (e.g., Medicare or, because of their national scope (e.g., NHANES, lack the discriminatory power to assess specific needs and to evaluate community health activities at the state and local level. This manuscript describes the rationale and methods of the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, a novel infrastructure for population health research. Methods/Design The program consists of a series of independent annual surveys gathering health-related data on representative samples of state residents and communities. Two-stage cluster sampling is used to select households and recruit approximately 800-1,000 adult participants (21-74 years old each year. Recruitment and initial interviews are done at the household; additional interviews and physical exams are conducted at permanent or mobile examination centers. Individual survey data include physical, mental, and oral health history, health literacy, demographics, behavioral, lifestyle, occupational, and household characteristics as well as health care access and utilization. The physical exam includes blood pressure, anthropometry, bioimpedance, spirometry, urine collection and blood draws. Serum, plasma, and buffy coats (for DNA extraction are stored in a biorepository for future studies. Every household is geocoded for linkage with existing contextual data including community level measures of the social and physical environment; local neighborhood characteristics are also recorded using an audit tool. Participants are re-contacted bi-annually by phone for health history updates. Discussion SHOW generates data to assess health disparities across state communities as well as trends on prevalence of health outcomes and

  2. The Effect of Homogenization Pressures on Extraction of Avocado Oil by Wet Method

    OpenAIRE

    Basuni Hamzah

    2013-01-01

    Avocado tree usually planted by people of Indonesia in rural are small in scale. Mostly, in the modern and high scale industry especially company has a large avocado farm the extraction of avocado oil is extracted through vacuum drying in low temperature. However, in rural area avocado tree spread out in small number of tree, so it needs alternative method of avocado oil extraction. In this experiment, wet method of avocado extraction was applied similar to traditional extraction of coconut o...

  3. Methods for extracting climate indicator data from social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, M. Z.; Fuka, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    This paper shows how we've used the R software suite to extract climate indicator data from Twitter. In the course of this research we've collected extensive data sets of unsolicited observations ("tweets") for hundreds of climate-related phenological, biological, epidemiological and meteorological effects. R has proved itself in our work as a useful tool for manipulating those large data sets. Our experience from this effort has yielded a variety of insights on using R to extract geophysics-specific information from publicly accessible social media sources. We illustrate our methodology by mapping tweeted US armadillo sightings to explore the impact of climate variability on the extent of the animal's range. This example usefully demonstrates R's technical capabilities in collecting, time-stamping, geolocating, analyzing, visualizing and otherwise processing climate-related data derived from unsolicited social media postings. We also "mash-up" the data sets with those acquired by more traditional means, for example, temperature and precipitation data across the armadillo's US range. Our data-handling practice is extendable to social sharing services other than Twitter, providing the environmental modeling community an opportunity to access largely untapped resources of non-traditional climate indicator data to better understand the effects of climate change at local, regional and global scales.

  4. comparison of protein extraction methods for the leaves of ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. I. Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... degradation. Based on the results of ... Eze and Dumboff [30] reported that the addition of chlorophyll extract to the standard protein .... protein extraction from recalcitrant plants such as banana (Musa spp.), apple (Malus ...

  5. Novel Doppler Frequency Extraction Method Based on Time-Frequency Analysis and Morphological Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Shu-juan; WU Si-liang

    2006-01-01

    A novel method of Doppler frequency extraction is proposed for Doppler radar scoring systems. The idea is that the time-frequency map can show how the Doppler frequency varies along the time-line, so the Doppler frequency extraction becomes curve detection in the image-view. A set of morphological operations are used to implement curve detection. And a map fusion scheme is presented to eliminate the influence of strong direct current (DC) component of echo signal during curve detection. The radar real-life data are used to illustrate the performance of the new approach. Experimental results show that the proposed method can over come the shortcomings of piecewise-processing-based FFT method and can improve the measuring precision of miss distance.

  6. A HOS-based Blind Signal Extraction Method for Chaotic MIMO Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yun-rui; HE Di; HE Chen; JIANG Ling-ge

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to extract multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) chaotic signals was pro-posed using the blind neural algorithm after transmitting in nonideal channel. The MIMO scheme with different chaotic signal generators was presented. In order to separate the chaotic source signals only by using the sensor signals at receivers, a blind neural extraction algorithm based on higher-order statistic (HOS) technique was used to recover the primary chaotic signals. Simulation results show that the proposed approach has good performance in separating the primary chaotic signals even under nonideal channel.

  7. Enhancing the various solvent extraction method via microwave irradiation for extraction of lipids from marine microalgae in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Chee Loong; Idris, Ani

    2014-11-01

    The types of microalgae strains and the method used in lipid extraction have become crucial factors which influence the productivity of crude oil. In this paper, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were chosen as the strains and four different methods were used to extract the lipids: Hara and Radin, Folch, Chen and Bligh and Dyer. These methods were performed by using conventional heating and microwave irradiation methods. Results revealed that highest lipid yield from the different species was obtained using different extraction methods; both under microwave irradiation. The lipid yield for Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. was highest when Hara and Radin (8.19%), and Folch (8.47%) methods were used respectively under microwave irradiation. The lipids extracted were then transesterified to biodiesel and the quality of the biodiesel was analyzed using the gas chromatography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A method of extracting operating parameters of a quantum circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sete, Eyob A.; Block, Maxwell; Scheer, Michael; Zanoci, Cris; Vahidpour, Mehrnoosh; Thompson, Dane; Rigetti, Chad

    Rigorous simulation-driven design methods are an essential component of traditional integrated circuit design. We adapt these techniques to the design and development of superconducting quantum integrated circuits by combining classical finite element analysis in the microwave domain with Brune circuit synthesis by Solgun [PhD thesis 2014] and BKD Hamiltonian analysis by Burkard et al. [Phys. Rev. B 69, 064503 (2004)]. Using the Hamiltonian of the quantum circuit, constructed using the synthesized equivalent linear circuit and the nonlinear Josephson junctions' contributions, we extract operating parameters of the quantum circuit such as resonance coupling strength, dispersive shift, qubit anharmonicitiy, and decoherence rates for single-and multi-port quantum circuits. This approach has been experimentally validated and allows the closed-loop iterative simulation-driven development of quantum information processing devices.

  9. Comparison between several methods of total lipid extraction from Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Moreira, Daniel Mendonça; Kunigami, Claudete Norie; Aranda, Donato Alexandre Gomes; Teixeira, Cláudia Maria Luz Lapa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lipids obtained from microalgae biomass has been described as a promising alternative for production of biodiesel to replace petro-diesel. It involves steps such as the cultivation of microalgae, biomass harvesting, extraction and transesterification of lipids. The purpose of the present study was to compare different methods of extracting total lipids. These methods were tested in biomass of Chlorella vulgaris with the solvents ethanol, hexane and a mixture of chloroform:methanol in ratios 1:2 and 2:1. The solvents were associated with other mechanisms of cell disruption such as use of a Potter homogenizer and ultrasound treatment. The percentage of triglycerides in the total lipids was determinated by the glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase-p-chlorophenol method (triglycerides monoreagent K117; Bioclin). Among the tested methods, the mixture of chloroform:methanol (2:1) assisted by ultrasound was most efficient, extracting an average of 19% of total lipids, of which 55% were triglycerides. The gas chromatographic analysis did not show differences in methyl ester profiles of oils extracted under the different methods.

  10. Laser stripe extraction method in industrial environments utilizing self-adaptive convolution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Qia; Tao, Wei; Feng, Yi-Yang; Gao, Qiang; He, Qiao-Zhi; Zhao, Hui

    2017-04-01

    A line-structured laser scanner is widely applied for 3D reconstruction in industrial environments with ubiquitous various luminance, complicated background, diverse objects, and instable lasers. These elements will show up as noise in the obtained laser stripe images. Therefore, the basic and key point for a line-structured laser scanner is to accurately extract the laser stripe from noise. This paper proposes an effective laser stripe extraction procedure with two steps. First, a novel laser stripe center extraction method based on the geometry information and correlation in the laser stripe, is designed to significantly eliminate noise and accurately extract the laser stripe centers. In addition, the robustness, speed, and accuracy of this method are respectively analyzed in detail. Second, piecewise fitting is adopted to acquire a smooth and continuous laser stripe centerline. In order to select the optimal fitting method, the characteristics of two spline methods, Akima spline and cubic Hermite spline, are deeply analyzed and compared. Finally, an experiment is carried out by using a rough metal step and a line-structured laser scanning system. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed self-adaptive convolution-mass method can significantly eliminate noise in industrial environments. In addition, the cubic Hermite spline is a better choice for 3D reconstruction, rather than the Akima spline.

  11. A simultaneous extraction method for organophosphate, pyrethroid, and neonicotinoid insecticides in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perre, Chloé; Whiting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    A method was developed for the extraction and analysis of 2 organophosphate, 8 pyrethroid, and 5 neonicotinoid insecticides from the same water sample. A salted liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was optimized with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) step that separated the organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids from the neonicotinoids. Factors that were optimized included volume of solvent and amount of salt used in the LLE, homogenization time for the LLE, and type and volume of eluting solvent used for the SPE. The OPs and pyrethroids were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the neonicotinoids were quantified using liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Results showed that the optimized method was accurate, precise, reproducible, and robust; recoveries in river water spiked with 100 ng L(-1) of each of the insecticides were all between 86 and 114 % with RSDs between 2 and 8 %. The method was also sensitive with method detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 27.2 ng L(-1) depending on compounds and matrices. The optimized method was thus appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of 15 widely applied insecticides from three different classes and was shown to provide valuable information on their environmental fate from field-collected aqueous samples.

  12. A proposed method for enhanced eigen-pair extraction using finite element methods: Theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Almonte, J.; Mitchell, L. D.

    1988-01-01

    The paper covers two distinct parts: theory and application. The goal of this work was the reduction of model size with an increase in eigenvalue/vector accuracy. This method is ideal for the condensation of large truss- or beam-type structures. The theoretical approach involves the conversion of a continuum transfer matrix beam element into an 'Exact' dynamic stiffness element. This formulation is implemented in a finite element environment. This results in the need to solve a transcendental eigenvalue problem. Once the eigenvalue is determined the eigenvectors can be reconstructed with any desired spatial precision. No discretization limitations are imposed on the reconstruction. The results of such a combined finite element and transfer matrix formulation is a much smaller FEM eigenvalue problem. This formulation has the ability to extract higher eigenvalues as easily and as accurately as lower eigenvalues. Moreover, one can extract many more eigenvalues/vectors from the model than the number of degrees of freedom in the FEM formulation. Typically, the number of eigenvalues accurately extractable via the 'Exact' element method are at least 8 times the number of degrees of freedom. In contrast, the FEM usually extracts one accurate (within 5 percent) eigenvalue for each 3-4 degrees of freedom. The 'Exact' element results in a 20-30 improvement in the number of accurately extractable eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

  13. A proposed method for enhanced eigen-pair extraction using finite element methods: Theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Almonte, J.; Mitchell, L. D.

    1988-01-01

    The paper covers two distinct parts: theory and application. The goal of this work was the reduction of model size with an increase in eigenvalue/vector accuracy. This method is ideal for the condensation of large truss- or beam-type structures. The theoretical approach involves the conversion of a continuum transfer matrix beam element into an 'Exact' dynamic stiffness element. This formulation is implemented in a finite element environment. This results in the need to solve a transcendental eigenvalue problem. Once the eigenvalue is determined the eigenvectors can be reconstructed with any desired spatial precision. No discretization limitations are imposed on the reconstruction. The results of such a combined finite element and transfer matrix formulation is a much smaller FEM eigenvalue problem. This formulation has the ability to extract higher eigenvalues as easily and as accurately as lower eigenvalues. Moreover, one can extract many more eigenvalues/vectors from the model than the number of degrees of freedom in the FEM formulation. Typically, the number of eigenvalues accurately extractable via the 'Exact' element method are at least 8 times the number of degrees of freedom. In contrast, the FEM usually extracts one accurate (within 5 percent) eigenvalue for each 3-4 degrees of freedom. The 'Exact' element results in a 20-30 improvement in the number of accurately extractable eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

  14. Analysis of Lard in Lipstick Formulation Using FTIR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration: A Comparison of Three Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskitho, Dri; Lukitaningsih, Endang; Sudjadi; Rohman, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of lard extracted from lipstick formulation containing castor oil has been performed using FTIR spectroscopic method combined with multivariate calibration. Three different extraction methods were compared, namely saponification method followed by liquid/liquid extraction with hexane/dichlorometane/ethanol/water, saponification method followed by liquid/liquid extraction with dichloromethane/ethanol/water, and Bligh & Dyer method using chloroform/methanol/water as extracting solvent. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lard were performed using principle component (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) analysis, respectively. The results showed that, in all samples prepared by the three extraction methods, PCA was capable of identifying lard at wavelength region of 1200-800 cm(-1) with the best result was obtained by Bligh & Dyer method. Furthermore, PLS analysis at the same wavelength region used for qualification showed that Bligh and Dyer was the most suitable extraction method with the highest determination coefficient (R(2)) and the lowest root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) as well as root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values.

  15. A Novel Method for HBT Intrinsic Collector Resistance Extraction from S-parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor; Hadziabdic, Dzenan;

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the extraction of series resistances for high-speed InP DHBT devices is investigated. Known extraction methods based on measured S-parameters are reviewed and error terms are identified. A novel method for intrinsic collector resistance extraction is proposed. The method is based on S...

  16. An answer summarization method based on keyword extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Qiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the redundancy of answer summary generated from community q&a dataset without topic tags, we propose an answer summarization algorithm based on keyword extraction. We combine tf-idf with word vector to change the influence transferred ratio equation in TextRank. And then during summarizing, we take the ratio of the number of sentences containing any keyword to the total number of candidate sentences as an adaptive factor for AMMR. Meanwhile we reuse the scores of keywords generated by TextRank as a weight factor for sentence similarity computing. Experimental results show that the proposed answer summarization is better than the traditional MMR and AMMR.

  17. An Improved AAM Method for Extracting Human Facial Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Active appearance model is a statistically parametrical model, which is widely used to extract human facial features and recognition. However, intensity values used in original AAM cannot provide enough information for image texture, which will lead to a larger error or a failure fitting of AAM. In order to overcome these defects and improve the fitting performance of AAM model, an improved texture representation is proposed in this paper. Firstly, translation invariant wavelet transform is performed on face images and then image structure is represented using the measure which is obtained by fusing the low-frequency coefficients with edge intensity. Experimental results show that the improved algorithm can increase the accuracy of the AAM fitting and express more information for structures of edge and texture.

  18. Comparative Properties of Amazonian Oils Obtained by Different Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Galuppo Diniz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., babaçu (Orbignya phalerata Mart., buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis oils were studied to determine their antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, as well as their total phenol and carotenoid contents. The fatty acid contents were determined by GC-MS. The three types of passion fruit oils studied were refined, cold pressed or extracted from seeds in a Soxhlet apparatus. The oils thus obtained showed differences in antioxidant activity and carotenoid content, but were similar in regard to total phenols. Buriti and pequi had the highest carotenoid contents, while refined and cold pressed passion fruit oil displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Pequi oil was the only oil to display antibacterial and cytotoxic activity.

  19. System and method for preparing near-surface heavy oil for extraction using microbial degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, Frederick D.; Rollins, John B.; Noyes, Harold J.; Bush, James G.

    2011-04-12

    A system and method for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil in an oil extraction environment by feeding nutrients to a preferred microbial species (bacteria and/or fungi). A method is described that includes the steps of: sampling and identifying microbial species that reside in the oil extraction environment; collecting fluid property data from the oil extraction environment; collecting nutrient data from the oil extraction environment; identifying a preferred microbial species from the oil extraction environment that can transform the heavy oil into a lighter oil; identifying a nutrient from the oil extraction environment that promotes a proliferation of the preferred microbial species; and introducing the nutrient into the oil extraction environment.

  20. Cat's claw oxindole alkaloid isomerization induced by common extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat's claw oxindole alkaloids are prone to isomerization in aqueous solution. However, studies on their behavior in extraction processes are scarce. This paper addressed the issue by considering five commonly used extraction processes. Unlike dynamic maceration (DM and ultrasound-assisted extraction, substantial isomerization was induced by static maceration, turbo-extraction and reflux extraction. After heating under reflux in DM, the kinetic order of isomerization was established and equations were fitted successfully using a four-parameter Weibull model (R² > 0.999. Different isomerization rates and equilibrium constants were verified, revealing a possible matrix effect on alkaloid isomerization.

  1. A High-Performance Extraction Method for Public Opinion on Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanling; DAI Guanzhong; ZHU Yehang; QIN Sen

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the importance of the analysis for public opinion on Internet, the authors propose a high-performance extraction method for public opinion. In this method, the space model for classification is adopted to describe the relationship between words and categories. The combined feature selection method is used to remove noisy words from the original feature space effectively. Then the category weight of words is calculated by the improved formula combining the frequency of words and distribution of words. Finally, the class weights of the not-categorized documents based on the category weight of words are obtained for realizing opinion extraction. Experiment results show that the method has comparatively high classification and good stability.

  2. A new method of MR total spine imaging for showing the brace effect in scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.; Kandyba, J.; Koenig, R.; Jaeger, U.E.; Gieseke, J.; Schmitt, O. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Bracing is a method of early, nonsurgical treatment for scoliosis, but a hypokyphotic effect on the thoracic spine is reported. We developed a magnetic resonance tomography (MR) procedure presenting an image of the whole spine in the coronal and sagittal planes (MR total spine imaging), and studied the brace effect, using this technique. We examined 26 female patients with idiopathic scoliosis treated with a Cheneau brace (mean age, 13.2 years; mean duration of brace treatment at the time of investigation, 1.5 years). The MR examinations were performed with the patient in the supine position with and without the brace in direct sequence. As measured on the coronal MR images, the thoracic curve was corrected, on average, from 29 deg to 22 deg (mean correction, 24%). There was a slight reduction in the sagittal Cobb angle measured between T4 and T12 (mean sagittal Cobb angle without brace, 14 deg ; with brace, 12 deg), which was still a significant change. MR total spine imaging could be a useful tool for studying the brace effect in scoliosis in two planes. Using this technique, we found reduced sagittal Cobb angles for the thoracic kyphosis with brace. Because there is no radiation exposure, the MR procedure has a potential use in the monitoring of brace treatment. (author)

  3. Comparison of Three Methods for Extraction of Volatile Lipid Oxidation Products from Food Matrices for GC-MS Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Yesiltas, B.; Berner, Lis

    GC based methods are often used for determination of volatile oxidation products such as pentanal and hexanal. Different extraction methods for extracting volatiles before GC analysis can be used, e.g static headspace, dynamic headspace and solid phase microextraction (SPME). Traditionally, dynamic...... headspace extraction has been performed manually. Recently, automated dynamic headspace methods have become available. This presentation will summarize the principles of the different extraction methods. Moreover, results from fish oil, oil-in-water emulsion and milk obtained with SPME, manual dynamic...... headspace or automated dynamic headspace (TDU/DHS) extraction followed by GC-MS analysis will be compared. In all cases, concentrations of volatiles were quantified by calibration curves by addition of selected standards to oil, emulsion or milk. The results show that the linearity of calibration curves...

  4. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-07-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity.

  5. A study of an aroma extraction method and evaluation of the aroma extract contribution to the palatability and reinforcement effect of dried bonito using mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okamura, Maya; Shiibashi, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Tsukasa; Nammoku, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Japanese cuisine has provided satisfying meals by fully utilizing the characteristic aroma and taste of katsuodashi (dried bonito broth), though it is not rich in sugars or fats. Katsuodashi is a very basic and indispensable element in Japanese cuisine, and is a hot water extract of katsuobushi (dried bonito). It has been reported that a dextrin solution containing natural dried bonito broth has a significant reinforcement effect, and has been suggested that the olfactory stimulation is important for the reinforcement effect. We examined various source materials for broth and identified an optimal method of aroma extraction by two-bottle choice and conditioned place preference tests in mice. By two-bottle choice tests, a solution containing arabushi (a type of katsuobushi) aroma extract obtained by a supercritical CO2 extraction method showed a significantly high preference. The conditioned place preference test showed the dashi-taste solution with arabushi supercritical CO2 extract had a reinforcement effect. Our results suggest that the arabushi extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction contains components responsible for preference and reinforcement effects in mice; it could become conducive to making Japanese cuisine more satisfying and palatable.

  6. Use of real-time PCR to evaluate two DNA extraction methods from food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Branquinho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The DNA extraction is a critical step in Genetically Modified Organisms analysis based on real-time PCR. In this study, the CTAB and DNeasy methods provided good quality and quantity of DNA from the texturized soy protein, infant formula, and soy milk samples. Concerning the Certified Reference Material consisting of 5% Roundup Ready® soybean, neither method yielded DNA of good quality. However, the dilution test applied in the CTAB extracts showed no interference of inhibitory substances. The PCR efficiencies of lectin target amplification were not statistically different, and the coefficients of correlation (R² demonstrated high degree of correlation between the copy numbers and the threshold cycle (Ct values. ANOVA showed suitable adjustment of the regression and absence of significant linear deviations. The efficiencies of the p35S amplification were not statistically different, and all R² values using DNeasy extracts were above 0.98 with no significant linear deviations. Two out of three R² values using CTAB extracts were lower than 0.98, corresponding to lower degree of correlation, and the lack-of-fit test showed significant linear deviation in one run. The comparative analysis of the Ct values for the p35S and lectin targets demonstrated no statistical significant differences between the analytical curves of each target.

  7. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Garg, Sourabh; Adarme-Vega, Tania Catalina; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Ghafor, Wael Abdul; Tannock, Simon; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-01-24

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO₂ extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research.

  8. The Effect of Homogenization Pressures on Extraction of Avocado Oil by Wet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuni Hamzah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Avocado tree usually planted by people of Indonesia in rural are small in scale. Mostly, in the modern and high scale industry especially company has a large avocado farm the extraction of avocado oil is extracted through vacuum drying in low temperature. However, in rural area avocado tree spread out in small number of tree, so it needs alternative method of avocado oil extraction. In this experiment, wet method of avocado extraction was applied similar to traditional extraction of coconut oil in rural area. Avocado meat was added some water and 0.05% of phosphate acid then homogenization pressure of 7 kg/cm2, 71 kg/cm 2 and 176 kg/cm2, then heated at 100oC until the emulsion of water-oil broken down and avocado oil, then, can be separated. Yield and characteristics of avocado oil were determined. The results showed when homogenization pressures increased from 7 kg/cm2 to 71 kg/cm2, the yield, Iodine value and Free fatty Acid of avocado oil were also increased, however, when homogenization pressures increased from 71 kg/cm2 to 176 kg/cm2 (p>0.05 there were no significant increased of Yield, Iodine value and Free Fatty Acid of avocado oil.

  9. A realistic assessment of methods for extracting gene/protein interactions from free text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Adrian J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The automated extraction of gene and/or protein interactions from the literature is one of the most important targets of biomedical text mining research. In this paper we present a realistic evaluation of gene/protein interaction mining relevant to potential non-specialist users. Hence we have specifically avoided methods that are complex to install or require reimplementation, and we coupled our chosen extraction methods with a state-of-the-art biomedical named entity tagger. Results Our results show: that performance across different evaluation corpora is extremely variable; that the use of tagged (as opposed to gold standard gene and protein names has a significant impact on performance, with a drop in F-score of over 20 percentage points being commonplace; and that a simple keyword-based benchmark algorithm when coupled with a named entity tagger outperforms two of the tools most widely used to extract gene/protein interactions. Conclusion In terms of availability, ease of use and performance, the potential non-specialist user community interested in automatically extracting gene and/or protein interactions from free text is poorly served by current tools and systems. The public release of extraction tools that are easy to install and use, and that achieve state-of-art levels of performance should be treated as a high priority by the biomedical text mining community.

  10. A method for automatically extracting infectious disease-related primers and probes from the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Rey David

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primer and probe sequences are the main components of nucleic acid-based detection systems. Biologists use primers and probes for different tasks, some related to the diagnosis and prescription of infectious diseases. The biological literature is the main information source for empirically validated primer and probe sequences. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important for researchers to navigate this important information. In this paper, we present a four-phase method for extracting and annotating primer/probe sequences from the literature. These phases are: (1 convert each document into a tree of paper sections, (2 detect the candidate sequences using a set of finite state machine-based recognizers, (3 refine problem sequences using a rule-based expert system, and (4 annotate the extracted sequences with their related organism/gene information. Results We tested our approach using a test set composed of 297 manuscripts. The extracted sequences and their organism/gene annotations were manually evaluated by a panel of molecular biologists. The results of the evaluation show that our approach is suitable for automatically extracting DNA sequences, achieving precision/recall rates of 97.98% and 95.77%, respectively. In addition, 76.66% of the detected sequences were correctly annotated with their organism name. The system also provided correct gene-related information for 46.18% of the sequences assigned a correct organism name. Conclusions We believe that the proposed method can facilitate routine tasks for biomedical researchers using molecular methods to diagnose and prescribe different infectious diseases. In addition, the proposed method can be expanded to detect and extract other biological sequences from the literature. The extracted information can also be used to readily update available primer/probe databases or to create new databases from scratch.

  11. Evaluation of methods for the extraction and purification of DNA from the human microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanqing Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA extraction is an essential step in all cultivation-independent approaches to characterize microbial diversity, including that associated with the human body. A fundamental challenge in using these approaches has been to isolate DNA that is representative of the microbial community sampled. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we statistically evaluated six commonly used DNA extraction procedures using eleven human-associated bacterial species and a mock community that contained equal numbers of those eleven species. These methods were compared on the basis of DNA yield, DNA shearing, reproducibility, and most importantly representation of microbial diversity. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from a mock community showed that the observed species abundances were significantly different from the expected species abundances for all six DNA extraction methods used. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Protocols that included bead beating and/or mutanolysin produced significantly better bacterial community structure representation than methods without both of them. The reproducibility of all six methods was similar, and results from different experimenters and different times were in good agreement. Based on the evaluations done it appears that DNA extraction procedures for bacterial community analysis of human associated samples should include bead beating and/or mutanolysin to effectively lyse cells.

  12. Ultrasound-assisted extraction method for the simultaneous determination of emerging contaminants in freshwater sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Diana Nara Ribeiro; Grosseli, Guilherme Martins; Mozeto, Antonio Aparecido; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim; Fadini, Pedro Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Sediments are the fate of several emerging organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products and hormones, and therefore an important subject in environmental monitoring studies. In the present work, a simple and sensitive method was developed, validated and applied for the simultaneous extraction of atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, propranolol, triclosan, estrone, 17-β-estradiol and 17-α-ethinylestradiol using ultrasound-assisted extraction from freshwater sediment samples followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. The solvent type and extraction pH were evaluated to obtain the highest recoveries of the compounds. The best method shows absolute recoveries between 54.0 and 94.4% at 50 ng/g concentration. The method exhibits good precision with relative standard deviation ranging from 1.0-16%. The detection and quantification limits ranged from 0.006-0.067 and 0.016-0.336 ng/g, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to freshwater sediment samples collected from different sites in Jundiaí River basin of São Paulo State, Brazil. The compounds atenolol, caffeine, propranolol and triclosan were detected in all the sampling sites with concentrations of 13.8, 41.0, 28.5 and 176 ng/g, respectively.

  13. A New Skeleton Feature Extraction Method for Terrain Model Using Profile Recognition and Morphological Simplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is always difficul to reserve rings and main truck lines in the real engineering of feature extraction for terrain model. In this paper, a new skeleton feature extraction method is proposed to solve these problems, which put forward a simplification algorithm based on morphological theory to eliminate the noise points of the target points produced by classical profile recognition. As well all know, noise point is the key factor to influence the accuracy and efficiency of feature extraction. Our method connected the optimized feature points subset after morphological simplification; therefore, the efficiency of ring process and pruning has been improved markedly, and the accuracy has been enhanced without the negative effect of noisy points. An outbranching concept is defined, and the related algorithms are proposed to extract sufficient long trucks, which is capable of being consistent with real terrain skeleton. All of algorithms are conducted on many real experimental data, including GTOPO30 and benchmark data provided by PPA to verify the performance and accuracy of our method. The results showed that our method precedes PPA as a whole.

  14. Modified method for extraction of watershed boundary with digital elevation modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDian-zhong; HAOZhan-qing; XIONGZai-ping

    2004-01-01

    Boundary extraction of watershed is an important step in forest landscape research. The boundary of the upriver watershed of the Hunhe River in the sub-alpine Qingyuan County of eastern Liaoning Province, China was extracted by digital elevation modeling (DEM) data in Arclnfo8.1. Remote sensing image of the corresponding region was applied to help modify its copy according to Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) image's profuse geomorphological structure information. Both the DEM-dependent boundary and modified copy were overlapped with county map and drainage network map to visually check the effects of result. Overlap of county map suggested a nice extraction of the boundary line since the two layers matched precisely,which indicated the DEM-dependent boundary by program was effective and precise. Further upload of drainage network showed discrepancies between the boundary and the drainage network. Altogether, there were three sections of the extraction result that needed to correct. Compared with this extraction boundary, the modified boundary had a better match to the drainage network as well as to the county map. Comprehensive analysis demonstrated that the program extraction has generally fine precision in position and excels the digitized result by hand. The errors of the DEM-dependant extraction are due to the fact that it is difficult for program to recognize sections of complex landform especially altered by human activities, but these errors are discernable and adjustable because the spatial resolution of ETM image is less than that of DEM. This study result proved that application of remote sensing information could help obtain better result when DEM method is used in extraction of watershed boundary.

  15. Comparison of RNA extraction methods from biofilm samples of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    França Angela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial biofilms are communities of bacteria adhered to a surface and surrounded by an extracellular polymeric matrix. Biofilms have been associated with increased antibiotic resistance and tolerance to the immune system. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the major bacterial species found in biofilm-related infections on indwelling medical devices. Obtaining high quality mRNA from biofilms is crucial to validate the transcriptional measurements associated with the switching to the biofilm mode of growth. Therefore, we selected three commercially available RNA extraction kits with distinct characteristics, including those using silica membrane or organic extraction methods, and enzymatic or mechanical cell lysis, and evaluated the RNA quality obtained from two distinct S. epidermidis bacterial biofilms. Results RNA extracted using the different kits was evaluated for quantity, purity, integrity, and functionally. All kits were able to extract intact and functional total RNA from the biofilms generated from each S. epidermidis strain. The results demonstrated that the kit based on mechanical lysis and organic extraction (FastRNA® Pro Blue was the only one that was able to isolate pure and large quantities of RNA. Normalized expression of the icaA virulence gene showed that RNA extracted with PureLink™ had a significant lower concentration of icaA mRNA transcripts than the other kits tested. Conclusions When working with complex samples, such as biofilms, that contain a high content extracellular polysaccharide and proteins, special care should be taken when selecting the appropriate RNA extraction system, in order to obtain accurate, reproducible, and biologically significant results. Among the RNA extraction kits tested, FastRNA® Pro Blue was the best option for both S. epidermidis biofilms used.

  16. An Accurate Integral Method for Vibration Signal Based on Feature Information Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of current integral methods, a novel vibration signal integral method based on feature information extraction was proposed. This method took full advantage of the self-adaptive filter characteristic and waveform correction feature of ensemble empirical mode decomposition in dealing with nonlinear and nonstationary signals. This research merged the superiorities of kurtosis, mean square error, energy, and singular value decomposition on signal feature extraction. The values of the four indexes aforementioned were combined into a feature vector. Then, the connotative characteristic components in vibration signal were accurately extracted by Euclidean distance search, and the desired integral signals were precisely reconstructed. With this method, the interference problem of invalid signal such as trend item and noise which plague traditional methods is commendably solved. The great cumulative error from the traditional time-domain integral is effectively overcome. Moreover, the large low-frequency error from the traditional frequency-domain integral is successfully avoided. Comparing with the traditional integral methods, this method is outstanding at removing noise and retaining useful feature information and shows higher accuracy and superiority.

  17. An improved facile method for extraction and determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris by focused microwave-assisted extraction coupled with GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianlin; Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhang, Lan; Huang, Xinjian; Lin, Junwei; Chen, Guonan

    2009-12-01

    An improved fast method for extraction of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris based on the use of focus microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE) is proposed. Under optimized conditions, four steroidal saponins were extracted from Tribulus terrestris and identified by GC-MS, which are Tigogenin (TG), Gitogenin (GG), Hecogenin (HG) and Neohecogenin (NG). One of the most important steroidal saponins, namely TG was quantified finally. The recovery of TG was in the range of 86.7-91.9% with RSDTribulus terrestris from different areas of occurrence. The difference in chromatographic characteristics of steroidal saponins was proved to be related to the different areas of occurrence. The results showed that FMAE-GC-MS is a simple, rapid, solvent-saving method for the extraction and determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris.

  18. Improved method to extract nucleon helicity distributions using event weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, J.

    2017-02-01

    An improved analysis method to extract quark helicity distributions in leading order (LO) QCD from semi-inclusive double spin asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering is presented. The method relies on the fact that fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a quark into a hadron, have a strong dependence on the energy fraction z of the observed hadron. Hadrons with large z contain more information about the struck quark. This can be used in a weighting procedure to improve the figure of merit (= inverse of variance). In numerical examples it is shown that one could gain 15–39% depending on the quark flavor and cut on z. Mathematically the problem can be described as finding an optimal solution in terms of the figure of merit for parameters Θ determined from a system of linear equations B(x) Θ =Y(x), where the measured input vector Y(x) is given as event distributions depending on a random variable x, the coefficients of the matrix B(x) depend as well on x, whereas the parameter vector Θ to be determined does not.

  19. Improved Method to extract Nucleon Helicity Distributions using Event Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    Pretz, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    An improved analysis method to extract quark helicity distributions from semi-inclusive double spin asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering is presented. The method relies on the fact that fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a quark into a hadron, have a strong dependence on the energy fraction $z$ of the observed hadron. Hadrons with large $z$ contain more information about the struck quark. This can be used in a weighting procedure to improve the figure of merit (= inverse of the statistical uncertainty). In numerical examples it is shown that one could gain 15-39\\% depending on the quark flavor and cut on $z$. Mathematically the problem can be described as finding an optimal solution in terms of the figure of merit for parameters $\\bf X$ determined from a system of linear equations ${\\bf B}(z) {\\bf X} ={\\bf Y}(z)$, where the measured input vector ${\\bf Y}(z)$ is given as event distributions depending on a random variable $z$, the coefficients of the matrix $\\bf {B}(z)$ depend as well ...

  20. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  1. Extracting oscillating components from nonstationary time series: A wavelet-induced method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliège, Adrien; Nicolay, Samuel

    2017-09-01

    This paper consists in the description and application of a method called wavelet-induced mode extraction (WIME) in the context of time-frequency analysis. WIME aims to extract the oscillating components that build amplitude modulated-frequency modulated signals. The essence of this technique relies on the successive extractions of the dominant ridges of wavelet-based time-frequency representations of the signal under consideration. Our tests on simulated examples indicate strong decomposition and reconstruction skills, trouble-free handling of crossing trajectories in the time-frequency plane, sharp performances in frequency detection in the case of mode-mixing problems, and a natural tolerance to noise. These results are compared with those obtained with empirical mode decomposition. We also show that WIME still gives meaningful results with real-life data, namely, the Oceanic Niño Index.

  2. AUTOMATIC TEXT EXTRACTION FROM COMPLEX COLORED IMAGES USING GAMMA CORRECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Sumathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to propose a new methodology for text region extraction and non text region removal from complex background colored images. This study presents a new approach based on Gamma correction by determining a gamma value for enhancing the foreground details in an image. The approach also uses gray level co-occurrence matrices, texture measures, threshold concepts. The proposed method is a useful preprocessing technique to remove non text region and to show the text region in the image. Experiments were on various images from the datasets collected and tagged by the ICDAR robust reading dataset collection team. Experimental results show that the proposed method has a good performance on extracting text regions in an image.

  3. Mild and Moderate Extraction Methods to Assess Potentially Available Soil Organic Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Boscov Braos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of chemical methods to assess the soil organic nitrogen (N potentially available to plants is not a common practice in Brazil. However, associated with others, this tool might improve efficiency in the use of waste and nitrogen fertilizers. In our study, chemical methods were tested to assess potentially available soil N in samples of 17 representative soils of the western plateau of the state of São Paulo (10 Oxisols and 7 Ultisols. Available soil N was extracted from the collected soil samples using moderate (ISNT-Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test and mild (hot water and heated solutions of 2 mol L-1 KCl and 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 extraction methods. The levels of potentially available N obtained from these chemical methods were correlated with dry matter (DM and N uptake (Nup by corn plants grown in pots in a greenhouse experiment carried out with the same 17 soil samples. The ISNT method showed the highest available N extraction capacity, whereas hot water showed the lowest capacity, followed closely by the hot 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 solution. Despite the differences among the quantities of available N extracted, the methods correlated with each other and with DM and Nup, but the values from the ISNT method showed the lowest correlation with plant variables (rDM = 0.67** and rNup = 0.81**. Procedures of extraction with water or 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 heated for 16 h, and 2 mol L-1 KCl heated for 4 h, resulted in similar correlation values (r with plant DM and Nup. Thus, water (rDM = 0.77** and rNup = 0.90** and 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 (rDM = 0.82** and rNup = 0.93** heated for 16 h can be recommended as the best options for N extraction.considering the possibility for predicting N availability, lower generation of waste, and lower cost of analysis.

  4. Simple, rapid and cost-effective method for high quality nucleic acids extraction from different strains of Botryococcus braunii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hyuk Kim

    Full Text Available This study deals with an effective nucleic acids extraction method from various strains of Botryococcus braunii which possesses an extensive extracellular matrix. A method combining freeze/thaw and bead-beating with heterogeneous diameter of silica/zirconia beads was optimized to isolate DNA and RNA from microalgae, especially from B. braunii. Eukaryotic Microalgal Nucleic Acids Extraction (EMNE method developed in this study showed at least 300 times higher DNA yield in all strains of B. braunii with high integrity and 50 times reduced working volume compared to commercially available DNA extraction kits. High quality RNA was also extracted using this method and more than two times the yield compared to existing methods. Real-time experiments confirmed the quality and quantity of the input DNA and RNA extracted using EMNE method. The method was also applied to other eukaryotic microalgae, such as diatoms, Chlamydomonas sp., Chlorella sp., and Scenedesmus sp. resulting in higher efficiencies. Cost-effectiveness analysis of DNA extraction by various methods revealed that EMNE method was superior to commercial kits and other reported methods by >15%. This method would immensely contribute to area of microalgal genomics.

  5. Shocking fault component of abnormal sound signal in the fault engine extract method based on linear superposition method and cross-correlation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Ning

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An extracted fault component of an abnormal sound is useful for faulty diagnosis. The existing fault component extracting approaches based on time–frequency analysis should filter the original signal to eliminate the background noise. However, these approaches will significantly change the fault component. In this article, a method for extracting the fault component of an abnormal sound signal is presented. This method is based on the linear superposition method and cross-correlation analysis. The method can eliminate the background noise and acquire the waveform of fault component. According to the feature of the shocking fault component, the acquired signal was intercepted into several segments, and the cross-correlation analysis was adopted to remove the wrong segment without the fault shocking component. The correct components were then linearly superposed together to eliminate the background noise. Finally, two experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed fault component extracting method. The results show that the approach satisfactorily extracts the fault shocking component. The precise faulty component can be extracted by this method, which judges the engine condition precisely. The fault type can be diagnosed easily by this method. This method can be used in other fields to extract a particular component from a complicated signal.

  6. A Modified Time-Delay Addition Method to Extract Resistive Leakage Current of MOSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodsuz, Masume; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Metal oxide surge arresters are one of the most important equipment for power system protection against switching and lightning over-voltages. High-energy stresses and environmental features are the main factors which degrade surge arresters. In order to verify surge arresters good condition, their monitoring is necessary. The majority of surge arrester monitoring techniques is based on total leakage current decomposition of their capacitive and resistive components. This paper introduces a new approach based on time-delay addition method to extract the resistive current from the total leakage current without measuring voltage signal. Surge arrester model for calculating leakage current has been performed in ATP-EMTP. In addition, the signal processing has been done using MATLAB software. To show the accuracy of the proposed method, experimental tests have been performed to extract resistive leakage current by the proposed method.

  7. A Simplified Method for the Microscale Extraction of Pigments from Spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Kimberley R.; Pierson, Kathleen M.

    1998-10-01

    A method is presented for microscale sample preparation for the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the pigments in spinach. A commercial vegetable juicer is used for the initial extraction from spinach. This is followed by filtration, liquid/liquid extraction, centrifugation, and evaporation. The new sample preparation technique is significantly more efficient than present methods and minimizes solvents used for extraction.

  8. High Efficient Extraction of Phthalates in Aquatic Products by a Modified QuEChERS Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-wen; GAO Fu-kai; LI Gui-zhi; LIU Zhen-bo; LIU Yong-ming

    2013-01-01

    A simple,environmentally friendly and high efficient extraction method was proposed for the determination of five phthalates in aquatic products by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS).When this method was adopted,samples were pretreated by modified QuEChERS(quick,easy,cheap,effective,rugged and safe) method.An environmentally friendly extractant(ethanol aqueous solution) replaced toxic acetonitrile for extracting phthalates in the protein-matrix samples.Fluorescence quenching spectra of bovine serum albumin(BSA) with phthalates show that there was a high-affinity interaction between phthalate and protein,decreasing the extraction efficiency of phthalates from fish samples.However,in the 80%(volume fraction,(ψ)) ethanol aqueous solution,a slow but full protein denaturation takes place,which would cause the unfolding of protein and the release of phthalates.Meanwhile,the fat-soluble impurities are extracted less in (ψ)(ethanol) 80% aqueous solution than in either (ψ)(ethanol) 100% or hydrophobic solvents in the liquid-liquid extraction procedure.Therefore the purification steps were greatly simplified.Overall recoveries were 81.77%-90.5% with limits of detection between 2.53 and 9.61 μg/L,and relative standard deviation values at 1.15%-4.85%.The proposed approach was satisfactorily applied to the determination of phthalates in real aquatic products,such as fish,shrimp and oyster.

  9. Evaluation of simplified dna extraction methods for EMM typing of group a streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose JJM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Simplified methods of DNA extraction for amplification and sequencing for emm typing of group A streptococci (GAS can save valuable time and cost in resource crunch situations. To evaluate this, we compared two methods of DNA extraction directly from colonies with the standard CDC cell lysate method for emm typing of 50 GAS strains isolated from children with pharyngitis and impetigo. For this, GAS colonies were transferred into two sets of PCR tubes. One set was preheated at 94oC for two minutes in the thermal cycler and cooled while the other set was frozen overnight at -20oC and then thawed before adding the PCR mix. For the cell lysate method, cells were treated with mutanolysin and hyaluronidase before heating at 100oC for 10 minutes and cooling immediately as recommended in the CDC method. All 50 strains could be typed by sequencing the hyper variable region of the emm gene after amplification. The quality of sequences and the emm types identified were also identical. Our study shows that the two simplified DNA extraction methods directly from colonies can conveniently be used for typing a large number of GAS strains easily in relatively short time.

  10. Comparison of three phenotypic and deoxyribonucleic acid extraction methods for isolation and Identification of Nocardia spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Faghri

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: These bacteria are important in immune deficient patients such as cancer patients, transplant recipients, tuberculosis; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome etc., Their affluence is unsteady in different zones of the world. In this study, among the three phenotypic methods for the isolation of Nocardia slip-buried method was better than other methods. Among DNA extraction techniques, DNA extraction by microwave method would be selective method for DNA extraction of Nocardia spp. compared with others techniques.

  11. Enhanced method for microbial community DNA extraction and purification from agricultural yellow loess soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiravan, Mathur Nadarajan; Gim, Geun Ho; Ryu, Jaewon; Kim, Pyung Il; Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Si Wouk

    2015-11-01

    In this study, novel DNA extraction and purification methods were developed to obtain high-quantity and reliable quality DNA from the microbial community of agricultural yellow loess soil samples. The efficiencies of five different soil DNAextraction protocols were evaluated on the basis of DNA yield, quality and DNA shearing. Our suggested extraction method, which used CTAB, EDTA and cell membrane lytic enzymes in the extraction followed by DNA precipitation using isopropanol, yielded a maximum DNA content of 42.28 ± 5.59 µg/g soil. In addition, among the five different purification protocols, the acid-treated polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) spin column purification method yielded high-quality DNA and recovered 91% of DNA from the crude DNA. Spectrophotometry revealed that the ultraviolet A 260/A 230 and A 260/A 280 absorbance ratios of the purified DNA were 1.82 ± 0.03 and 1.94 ± 0.05, respectively. PCR-based 16S rRNA amplification showed clear bands at ~1.5 kb with acid-treated PVPP-purified DNA templates. In conclusion, our suggested extraction and purification protocols can be used to recover high concentration, high purity, and high-molecular-weight DNA from clay and silica-rich agricultural soil samples.

  12. Robust Speech Recognition Method Based on Discriminative Environment Feature Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jiqing; GAO Wen

    2001-01-01

    It is an effective approach to learn the influence of environmental parameters,such as additive noise and channel distortions, from training data for robust speech recognition.Most of the previous methods are based on maximum likelihood estimation criterion. However,these methods do not lead to a minimum error rate result. In this paper, a novel discrimina-tive learning method of environmental parameters, which is based on Minimum ClassificationError (MCE) criterion, is proposed. In the method, a simple classifier and the Generalized Probabilistic Descent (GPD) algorithm are adopted to iteratively learn the environmental parameters. Consequently, the clean speech features are estimated from the noisy speech features with the estimated environmental parameters, and then the estimations of clean speech features are utilized in the back-end HMM classifier. Experiments show that the best error rate reduction of 32.1% is obtained, tested on a task of 18 isolated confusion Korean words, relative to a conventional HMM system.

  13. Ultrasonication: An effective pre-treatment method for extracting lipid from Salvinia molesta for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mubarak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is considered as one of the promising alternative fuels for diesel engines due its renewability and environment friendly nature. As the process of lipid extraction from the biomass consumes about 90% of the total energy spent for biodiesel production, an efficient and economic method is very important. The amount of lipid extracted from the biomass could be increased if it is pre-treated before the extraction process. This work was an attempt to compare the various pre-treatment methods before extracting lipids from dried Salvinia molesta (aquatic weed, such as autoclaving, microwaving, ultrasonication, sand, and glass grinding. After each pre-treatment method, Bligh and Dyer's method was used to measure the total lipid content in percentage dry weight (% dwt, which was then compared with the untreated S. molesta. It was found experimentally that the lipid yield was 19.97% dwt for ultrasonication > 16.60% dwt for microwaving > 16.46% dwt for glass grinding >16.26% dwt for sand grindin, > 15.72% dwt for autoclaving > 15.36% dwt for untreated. The one-way ANOVA with Tukey's test was then used to validate the experimental results and showed that ultrasonication method of pre-treatment was the most efficient and had resulted in the highest lipid yield among all the methods used which was followed by the microwaving method. The Taguchi method with L9 orthogonal array was then used for the optimization of ultrasonic assisted pre-treatment method before extracting lipid from S. molesta and showed a maximum lipid of 20.86% using 100% amplitude and sonication time of 15 min. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME of S. molesta lipid was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS with flame ionization detector. It showed fatty acids such as C14:0, C14:1, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C20:1, C20:4, C22:0 which contributed 97.38% weight of the total fatty acids. FAME consisted of 63.59% monounsaturated, 33.18% saturated and 0

  14. A method suitable for DNA extraction from humus-rich soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Tianjin; Gao, Song; Jiang, Shengwei; Kan, Guoshi; Liu, Pengju; Wu, Xianming; An, Yingfeng; Yao, Shuo

    2014-11-01

    A rapid and convenient method for extracting DNA from soil is presented. Soil DNA is extracted by direct cell lysis in the presence of EDTA, SDS, phenol, chloroform and isoamyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) followed by precipitation with 2-propanol. The extracted DNA is purified by modified DNA purification kit and DNA gel extraction kit. With this method, DNA extracted from humus-rich dark brown forest soil was free from humic substances and, therefore, could be used for efficient PCR amplification and restriction digestion. In contrast, DNA sample extracted with the traditional CTAB-based method had lower yield and purity, and no DNA could be extracted from the same soil sample with a commonly-used commercial soil DNA isolation kit. In addition, this method is time-saving and convenient, providing an efficient choice especially for DNA extraction from humus-rich soils.

  15. Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16 are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012 cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18 μg/mL and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41 μg/mL. Ethyl acetate (EA fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21 μg/mL against EV71 and 9.08 μg/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39 μM and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24 μM. Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection.

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO METHODS FOR EVALUATING FIVE-CARBON SUGARS IN EUCALYPTUS EXTRACTION LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Chi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline pre-extraction and hydrothermal hydrolysis were carried out with eucalyptus chips. Two methods were used to determine and calculate the extraction yield of five-carbon sugars. One is an indirect method, based on the difference of pentosan content between the chips before and after pre-extraction. The other method is to directly measure the content of five-carbon sugars in the extracting solution. The results indicated that there was a defined relationship between the two methods. For alkaline pre-extraction, a good logarithmic relationship was shown. There was a good linear relationship for hot water prehydrolysis. So the pentosan content of the extracted chips could be predicted from the results of the latter method, referring to the two relational expressions. In this study, a simple and rapid method of spectrophotometry was introduced, which will help in the evaluation of extraction yield of five-carbon sugars during biomass processing.

  17. Watermark Detection and Extraction Using Independent Component Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Dan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new image watermarking technique, which adopts Independent Component Analysis (ICA for watermark detection and extraction process (i.e., dewatermarking. Watermark embedding is performed in the spatial domain of the original image. Watermark can be successfully detected during the Principle Component Analysis (PCA whitening stage. A nonlinear robust batch ICA algorithm, which is able to efficiently extract various temporally correlated sources from their observed linear mixtures, is used for blind watermark extraction. The evaluations illustrate the validity and good performance of the proposed watermark detection and extraction scheme based on ICA. The accuracy of watermark extraction depends on the statistical independence between the original, key and watermark images and the temporal correlation of these sources. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system is robust to several important image processing attacks, including some geometrical transformations—scaling, cropping and rotation, quantization, additive noise, low pass filtering, multiple marks, and collusion.

  18. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scherer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH, and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtained with the methanol extract. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity, and the chlorogenic and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Assays of Seeds from Balanites aegyptiaca: Compounds of the Extract Show Growth Inhibition and Activity against Plasmodial Aminopeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kusch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae is a widely grown desert plant with multiuse potential. In the present paper, a crude extract from B. aegyptiaca seeds equivalent to a ratio of 1 : 2000 seeds to the extract was screened for antiplasmodial activity. The determined IC50 value for the chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain was 68.26 g/L±3.5. Analysis of the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 6-phenyl-2(H-1,2,4-triazin-5-one oxime, an inhibitor of the parasitic M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase as one of the compounds which is responsible for the in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The crude plant extract had a of 2.35 g/L and showed a dose-dependent response. After depletion of the compound, a significantly lower inhibition was determined with a of 4.8 g/L. Moreover, two phenolic compounds, that is, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol, with determined IC50 values of 50.29 M±3 and 47.82 M±2.5, respectively, were detected. These compounds may contribute to the in vitro antimalarial activity due to their antioxidative properties. In an in vivo experiment, treatment of BALB/c mice with the aqueous Balanite extract did not lead to eradication of the parasites, although a reduced parasitemia at day 12 p.i. was observed.

  20. Comparisons of metal leachability for various wastes by extraction and leaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E E; Chiang, P C; Lu, P H; Ko, Y W

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate three extraction tests, i.e., toxicity characteristic leaching procedures (TCLP), extraction procedure (EP), and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods, for their ability to extract metals in chemical sludge and incineration bottom ash, in terms of the precision of analytical results. Typical chemical sludges, including the electroplating and dye-stuff sludges, the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, the leather debris, and the steel-mill bottom residue containing Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were prepared for the lysimetry test (dynamic testing) to compare with the extraction results. Results show that for bottom residue and dye-stuff sludge, the concentration of metal leached was almost the same between the lysimetry leaching and the TCLP tests. The metal concentration followed the order: TCLP approximately = EP > ASTM. TCLP and EP exhibited almost the same relative standard deviation (RSD) value. Therefore, the results of the TCLP tests for bottom residue and dye-stuff sludge, which have a low metal content and alkalinity, can be used to estimate the metal concentration leached by typical acid rain in Taiwan; whereas the ASTM extraction test may be a better indicator of the lysimetry test.

  1. Assessment of extraction methods with fowl manure for the production of liquid organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A; Arusi, R; Fine, P; Nejidat, A

    2008-01-01

    Supplementary nitrogen (N) side-dressing via the irrigation system is needed in organic cropping. The aim here was to improve N-extraction efficiency, by testing five extraction protocols with guano, layer and broiler manures. The manure-N released by the different methods and manures was mainly in the form of ammonia and ranged from 50% to 85% with no differences among extraction methods. Volatilised ammonia from the extract solution was trapped. At the end of the extraction period, the pH of the extract solution was raised and the rest of the volatilised ammonia was trapped. In the case of guano, about 89% of the manure-N that was mineralised to the extract solution volatilised (after a pH increase), whereas in the layer and broiler manures, 59% and 54% were volatilised, respectively. Extraction of ammonia, its volatilisation and entrapment could provide a significantly more efficient N source than using the extract solution as currently recommended.

  2. Extraction Optimization and Characterization of Collagen from Yellow Pike Conger Swimbladder with Acid-Hydro-Exctraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandy Djailani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Swim bladder is one of marine potential byproducts for alternative source of collagen. This study aimedto optimize hydro-extraction and characterized collagen. Extraction optimization of collagen was determinedusing Box-behnken design response surface method with three variables: CH3COOH concentration, soakingtime and extraction time to yield response. Hydro-extraction collagen was characterization based on theamino acid content, SDS-PAGE, FT-IR and DSC. Acording to the result, the concentration had significantlyinfluence yield. Optimum extraction conditions were variable combinations of acetic acid concentration of0.1 M, for 1 h and hydro-extraction time of 1 h to produce the highest yield 63.35%. collagen was classifiedas type I collagen by amino acid content, electrophoresis patterns and fourier transform infrared (FTIRspectra. The glass transition of collagen was 67.23oC, showed high thermal stability that can be applied tothe cosmetics industry and nutraceutical.

  3. Determination of an efficient and reliable method for DNA extraction from ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Jamal, Taoufik; Vial, Laurence; Maillard, Renaud; Suau, Antonia; Le Menach, Arnaud; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2004-01-01

    Molecular detection of pathogenic microorganisms in ticks is based on DNA amplification of the target pathogen; therefore, extraction of DNA from the tick is a major step. In this study, we compared three different tick DNA extraction protocols based on an enzymatic digestion by proteinase K followed by DNA extraction by a commercial kit (method 1), or on mortar crushing, proteinase K digestion and phenol/chloroform DNA extraction (method 2) and fine crushing with a beads beater, proteinase K digestion and DNA extraction using a commercial kit (method 3). The absence of PCR inhibitors and the DNA quality were evaluated by PCR amplification of the tick mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene using tick-specific primers. With method 1, 23/30 (77%) of the samples were extracted; with method 2, 30/31 (97%) of the samples were extracted and with method 3, 30/30 (100%) of the samples were extracted. DNA extraction efficiency using method 3 is significantly higher than DNA extraction efficiency using method 1 (100% versus 77%, P DNA extraction and applicable to the treatment of small samples such as nymphs and soft ticks with 100% efficiency.

  4. Novel Approaches to Extraction Methods in Recovery of Capsaicin from Habanero Pepper (CNPH 15.192).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Frederico S; Borges, Leonardo L; Ribeiro, Claudia S C; Reifschneider, Francisco J B; Conceição, Edemilson C

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare three capsaicin extraction methods: Shoxlet, Ultrasound-assisted Extraction (UAE), and Shaker-assisted Extraction (SAE) from Habanero pepper, CNPH 15.192. The different parameters evaluated were alcohol degree, time extraction, and solid-solvent ratio using response surface methodology (RSM). The three parameters found significant (p extraction time for SAE. The optimum conditions for the capsaicin UAE and SAE were similar 95% alcohol degree, 30 minutes and solid-liquid ratio 2 mg/mL. The Soxhlet increased the extraction in 10-25%; however, long extraction times (45 minutes) degraded 2% capsaicin. The extraction of capsaicin was influenced by extraction method and by the operating conditions chosen. The optimized conditions provided savings of time, solvent, and herbal material. Prudent choice of the extraction method is essential to ensure optimal yield of extract, thereby making the study relevant and the knowledge gained useful for further exploitation and application of this resource. Habanero pepper, line CNPH 15.192, possess capsaicin in higher levels when compared with others speciesHigher levels of ethanolic strength are more suitable to obtain a higher levels of capsaicinBox-Behnken design indicates to be useful to explore the best conditions of ultrasound assisted extraction of capsaicin. Abbreviations used: Nomenclature UAE: Ultrasound-assisted Extraction; SAE: Shaker-assisted Extraction.

  5. [Component analysis and acute hepatotoxicity of volatile oils from argy wormwood leaf extracted by different methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Bai, Yang; Hong, Yanlong; Zhang, Xun

    2010-06-01

    To analyze the chemical composition and compare acute hepatotoxicity of essential oils extracted from argy wormwood leaf in Guangdong by four different methods. Four extraction methods, including hydrodistillation extraction, supercritical fluid CO2 extraction, petroleum ether ultrasonic extraction and petroleum ether microwave extraction, were employed to prepare essential oil from argy wormwood leaf in Guangdong. The products were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using GC-MS and GC-FID. Sixty mice were divided into 5 groups according to different essential oils and took the same dose orally, then after 5 hours, hepatic functional parameters in serum were detected such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and so on, and morphologic change of hepatic tissues was observed. The extraction rate of the four methods and identified compounds was 1.02%, 80 (hydrodistillation extraction), 2.46%, 56 (supercritical fluid CO2 extraction), 3.17%, 45 (petroleum ether ultrasonic extraction) and 3.32%, 78 (petroleum ether microwave extraction) respectively. Totally 153 compounds were identified from those essential oils. Compared with that of the control group, some hepatic functional parameters of hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid CO2 extraction groups rose significantly (P extracted from argy wormwood leaf by different methods may have not only different chemical composition, but also different acute hepatotoxicity, and monoterpenes and benzenes in the essential oils might induce acute hepatotoxicity.

  6. Epigallocatechin gallate content change of the fresh tea leaf homogenates ex-tracted by different methods in extraction and preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; GAO Yan-hua; ZU Yuan-gang; LIU Xiao-na; WANG Lei; ZU Shu-chong

    2006-01-01

    The fresh leaves of China green tea, Camellia sinensis, were collected from Fuyang, Zhejiang Province, China, in April. The tea polyphenols was extracted by four different methods (homogenized with distilled water at room temperature, homogenized with 0.3% citric acid (w/v) at room temperature, 5- min boiling and homogenized with distilled water at room temperature, homogenized with 85℃ distilled water), and after preserving at room temperature, the change of the Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) contents of the extracts was investigated. Results indicated that the EGCG content of homogenate extracted with 85℃ distilled water was the highest before the extract was preserved, followed by that of the extract homogenized with 0.3% citric acid at room temperature. During preservation, EGCG content changed obviously. The EGCG contents of homogenates extracted with distilled water at room temperature and 85℃ distilled water declined quickly and separately reduced to 21.52% and 54.6% of their initial contents after preservation for 12 h. The EGCG contents extracted by 0.3% citric acid (w/v) solvent at room temperature and 5- min boiling/homogenized with distilled water at room temperature declined relatively slowly ,and separately reduced to 76.9% and 85.16% of their initial contents after preservation for 12 h. It was also found that the citric acid can prevent the degradation of EGCG and the extract solution color is light green

  7. Comparison of different extraction methods for giberelic acid obtention from corn (Zea mays L. germinated seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Rivera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is the second most cultivated cereal in the world and is use as raw material for different kind of industries. To date no reports about obtaining giberellic acid (GA3 from corn have been found. In the present study two methods for extracting solid samples were evaluated: lixiviation and dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE, for obtaining giberellic acid from corn germinated seeds. In lixiviation, the physical method (agitation and sonication, solvent, and time were the parameters analyzed; while in DSASE the variables were: solvent, flow, and time. The most efficient technique was DSASE employing acetonitrile-formic acid 5% (80:20, v:v as solvent at a flow of 0.4 mL/min for 25,0 min, obtaining a concentration 30.012 mg/kg giberellic acid. The identification and quantification were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with diode array detector (DAD. These results showed that dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE is a novel and powerful alternative technique for obtaining giberellic acid, because of its high efficiency; low solvent consumption and simplicity in obtaining the extract.

  8. DSA Image Blood Vessel Skeleton Extraction Based on Anti-concentration Diffusion and Level Set Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wu, Jian; Feng, Daming; Cui, Zhiming

    Serious types of vascular diseases such as carotid stenosis, aneurysm and vascular malformation may lead to brain stroke, which are the third leading cause of death and the number one cause of disability. In the clinical practice of diagnosis and treatment of cerebral vascular diseases, how to do effective detection and description of the vascular structure of two-dimensional angiography sequence image that is blood vessel skeleton extraction has been a difficult study for a long time. This paper mainly discussed two-dimensional image of blood vessel skeleton extraction based on the level set method, first do the preprocessing to the DSA image, namely uses anti-concentration diffusion model for the effective enhancement and uses improved Otsu local threshold segmentation technology based on regional division for the image binarization, then vascular skeleton extraction based on GMM (Group marching method) with fast sweeping theory was actualized. Experiments show that our approach not only improved the time complexity, but also make a good extraction results.

  9. Extraction of lanthanides by polysulfone microcapsules containing EHPNA. II. Coaxial microfluidic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月; 靖宇; 侯海龙; 徐建鸿; 王运东

    2015-01-01

    Controllable preparation of small-size polysulfone microcapsules (MC) containing 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2- ethylhexyl ester (EHPNA) by coaxial microfluidic method was focused on. N2 gas was used as continuous phase to disperse the polymer solution. The influence of polysulfone (PSF) content in the polymer solution and N2 gas flow rate on the structural properties and loading ratio of microcapsules was investigated. The mean diameter of prepared microcapsules was between 0.90 and 1.60 mm. Ultrasound method was adopted to import EHPNA into microcapsules. A very high extractant loading ratio of 6.21 g-EHPNA/g-PSF was achieved when the pore volume was 6.89 mL/g. The extraction performance was determined with lanthanides as the recovered components and with the prepared microcapsules as the separation agent. Close-packed microcapsules enjoyed a fast extraction ki-netics. The maximum uptakes of La3+, Sm3+ and Er3+ were 3.02×10–4 mol/g, 8.05×10–4 mol/g and 5.58×10–4 mol/g, respectively. Microcapsules were reused seven times and showed very good stability. It is promising to apply the microcapsules into the extraction column and realize continuous operation.

  10. [Method for Extracting Vascular Perfusion Region Based on Ultrasound Contrast Agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xin; Wen, Yingang; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Xinjian

    2015-10-01

    Vascular perfusion distribution in fibroids contrast-enhanced ultrasound images provides useful pathological and physiological information, because the extraction of the vascular perfusion area can be helpful to quantitative evaluation of uterine fibroids blood supply. The pixel gray scale in vascular perfusion area of fibroids contrast-enhanced ultrasound image sequences is different from that in other regions, and, based on this, we proposed a method of extracting vascular perfusion area of fibroids. Firstly, we denoised the image sequence, and then we used Brox optical flow method to estimate motion of two adjacent frames, based on the results of the displacement field for motion correction. Finally, we extracted vascular perfusion region from the surrounding background based on the differences in gray scale for the magnitude of the rich blood supply area and lack of blood supply area in ultrasound images sequence. The experimental results showed that the algorithm could accurately extract the vascular perfusion area, reach the precision of identification of clinical perfusion area, and only small amount of calculation was needed and the process was fairly simple.

  11. RNA extraction method is crucial for human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogenes detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha, Nerea; Nieto, Maria Carmen; Andía, Daniel; Cisterna, Ramón; Basaras, Miren

    2017-03-09

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing plays a main role in the management of cervical cancer, however to improve the specificity in cervical screening, there is a need to develop and validate different approaches that can identify women at risk for progressive disease. Nowadays, mRNA expression of viral E6 and E7 HPV oncogenes stands up as a potential biomarker to improve cervical screening. We aimed to validate a method for RNA extraction, detect HPV mRNA expression and, assess the relationship between E6/E7 mRNA expression and pathology of patients' lesions and progression. This study included 50 specimens that had been previously genotyped as HPV16, 18, 31, 33 and/or 45. Cervical swabs were extracted with three different RNA extraction methods -Nuclisens manual extraction kit (bioMérieux), High Pure Viral RNA Kit (Roche) and RNeasy Plus Mini kit (Qiagen)-, and mRNA was detected with NucliSens EasyQ HPV version 1 test (bioMérieux) afterwards. Association of oncogene expression with pathology and lesion progression was analyzed for each extraction method. E6/E7 mRNA positivity rate was higher in samples analyzed with bioMérieux (62%), followed by Roche (24%) and Qiagen (6%). Women with lesions and lesion progression showed a higher prevalence of viral RNA expression than women that had not lesions or with lesion persistence. While bioMérieux revealed a higher sensitivity (77.27%), Roche presented a higher PPV (75%) and an increased specificity (89.28%). Extraction methods based on magnetic beads provided better RNA yield than those based in columns. Both Nuclisens manual extraction kit (bioMérieux) and High Pure Viral RNA Kit (Roche) seemed to be adequate for E6/E7 mRNA detection. However, none of them revealed both high sensitivity and specificity values. Further studies are needed to obtain and validate a standard gold method for RNA expression detection, to be included as part of the routine cervical screening program.

  12. A Method for Extracting Important Segments from Documents Using Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Utsumi, Akira

    In this paper we propose an extraction-based method for automatic summarization. The proposed method consists of two processes: important segment extraction and sentence compaction. The process of important segment extraction classifies each segment in a document as important or not by Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The process of sentence compaction then determines grammatically appropriate portions of a sentence for a summary according to its dependency structure and the classification result by SVMs. To test the performance of our method, we conducted an evaluation experiment using the Text Summarization Challenge (TSC-1) corpus of human-prepared summaries. The result was that our method achieved better performance than a segment-extraction-only method and the Lead method, especially for sentences only a part of which was included in human summaries. Further analysis of the experimental results suggests that a hybrid method that integrates sentence extraction with segment extraction may generate better summaries.

  13. Detecting and extracting clusters in atom probe data: a simple, automated method using Voronoi cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfer, P; Ceguerra, A V; Ringer, S P; Cairney, J M

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of the formation of clusters in solid solutions is one of the most common uses of atom probe tomography. Here, we present a method where we use the Voronoi tessellation of the solute atoms and its geometric dual, the Delaunay triangulation to test for spatial/chemical randomness of the solid solution as well as extracting the clusters themselves. We show how the parameters necessary for cluster extraction can be determined automatically, i.e. without user interaction, making it an ideal tool for the screening of datasets and the pre-filtering of structures for other spatial analysis techniques. Since the Voronoi volumes are closely related to atomic concentrations, the parameters resulting from this analysis can also be used for other concentration based methods such as iso-surfaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Grosso; Patrícia Valentão; Federico Ferreres; Paula B. Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extracti...

  15. Antioxidant activity of various parts of Cinnamomum cassia extracted with different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Li, Rong-Xian; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2012-06-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of various parts (barks, buds, and leaves) of Cinnamomum cassia extracted with ethanol and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). For the antioxidant activity comparison, IC50 values of the SFE and ethanol extracts in the DPPH scavenging assay were 0.562-10.090 mg/mL and 0.072-0.208 mg/mL, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values were 6.789-58.335 mmole Trolox/g and 133.039-335.779 mmole Trolox/g, respectively. In addition, the total flavonoid contents were 0.031-1.916 g/ 100 g dry weight of materials (DW) and 2.030-3.348 g/ 100 g DW, and the total phenolic contents were 0.151-2.018 g/ 100 g DW and 6.313-9.534 g/ 100 g DW in the SFE and ethanol extracts, respectively. Based on the results, the ethanol extracts of Cinnamon barks have potential value as an antioxidant substitute and this study also provide a better technique to extract the natural antioxidant substances from C. cassia.

  16. Assessment of the Extraction Methods for Monitoring Phthalate Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto, I.; Padilla, I. Y.; De Jesús, N. H.; Torres, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Trace organic contaminants such as phthalates, among other chemicals of emerging concerns, have not historically been considered as pollutants but are being detected in water, posing a potential risk to public health and the environment. One of the most common phthalates of particular concern is di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer normally found in plastics and consumer products, including: cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, food packages, water bottles, and wiring cables. DEHP has been associated with preterm birth, a major cause of neonatal mortality and health complications. This study aims at monitoring the presence and concentration of DEHP and other phthalates in groundwater and tap water systems in Puerto Rico, which has one of the highest rates of preterm birth in the U.S. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests a liquid-liquid extraction method that uses methylene chloride as the preferred organic solvent for the extractions. This work presents modified EPA methods that reduce the volume of sample and solvent used, lower the time of analysis, increase productivity, and decrease hazards and waste. Distribution coefficient of DEHP between methylene chloride and water are estimated and related to sample extraction efficiency. Research results indicate that DEHP is in fact distributed between water and methylene chloride with a distribution coefficient average value of 1.24. The study concludes that the sample and solvent volumes have influence on the efficiency but have not an effect on the distribution coefficient. The tests show higher extraction efficiencies for lower DEHP concentrations and higher extraction volumes. Results from the water analysis show presence of DEHP in 55% of groundwater and 44% of tap water samples, indicating a potential exposure through water.

  17. Extraction of β-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Comparison of different extraction methods and in vivo assessment of immunomodulatory effect in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat PENGKUMSRI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-glucan (BG is a conserved cell wall components of bacteria, fungi, and yeast. BG is an immunomodulator and stimulates the host immune system. This study was performed to screen Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with high BG, extraction of BG using different chemical extraction methods, composition analysis of BG, and evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of high-quality BG using mice model. Ten yeast strains were screened for high BG content using total glucan extraction kit and were subjected to FT-IR analysis. The kit based extraction revealed that HII31 showed a high content of total glucan and BG. HII31 cells were subjected to four different acid/base extractions, which indicated that combination of a strong base (NaOH and weak acid (CH3COOH extraction recovered high BG and a high ratio of polysaccharide, protein, and lipid. Further, the immunomodulatory effect of the selected BG was evaluated using mice, which suggested that low dose of HII31-BG induces the expression of selected pro-inflammatory (IL-17, IFN-γ and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 significantly, whereas relatively high dose was required to alter the IL-6 and TGF-β expression. Overall, the present study revealed that BG extracted from HII31 cells alters the expression of studied cytokines, which can be used as a potent immunomodulator in pharmaceutical products.

  18. Auditory-model-based Feature Extraction Method for Mechanical Faults Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yungong; ZHANG Jinping; DAI Li; ZHANG Zhanyi; LIU Jie

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the human auditory system possesses remarkable capabilities to analyze and identify signals. Therefore, it would be significant to build an auditory model based on the mechanism of human auditory systems, which may improve the effects of mechanical signal analysis and enrich the methods of mechanical faults features extraction. However the existing methods are all based on explicit senses of mathematics or physics, and have some shortages on distinguishing different faults, stability, and suppressing the disturbance noise, etc. For the purpose of improving the performances of the work of feature extraction, an auditory model, early auditory(EA) model, is introduced for the first time. This auditory model transforms time domain signal into auditory spectrum via bandpass filtering, nonlinear compressing, and lateral inhibiting by simulating the principle of the human auditory system. The EA model is developed with the Gammatone filterbank as the basilar membrane. According to the characteristics of vibration signals, a method is proposed for determining the parameter of inner hair cells model of EA model. The performance of EA model is evaluated through experiments on four rotor faults, including misalignment, rotor-to-stator rubbing, oil film whirl, and pedestal looseness. The results show that the auditory spectrum, output of EA model, can effectively distinguish different faults with satisfactory stability and has the ability to suppress the disturbance noise. Then, it is feasible to apply auditory model, as a new method, to the feature extraction for mechanical faults diagnosis with effect.

  19. Comparing the performance of three ancient DNA extraction methods for high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Cristina; Hanghøj, Kristian; Gaunitz, Charleen; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Bradley, Daniel G; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    The DNA molecules that can be extracted from archaeological and palaeontological remains are often degraded and massively contaminated with environmental microbial material. This reduces the efficacy of shotgun approaches for sequencing ancient genomes, despite the decreasing sequencing costs of high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Improving the recovery of endogenous molecules from the DNA extraction and purification steps could, thus, help advance the characterization of ancient genomes. Here, we apply the three most commonly used DNA extraction methods to five ancient bone samples spanning a ~30 thousand year temporal range and originating from a diversity of environments, from South America to Alaska. We show that methods based on the purification of DNA fragments using silica columns are more advantageous than in solution methods and increase not only the total amount of DNA molecules retrieved but also the relative importance of endogenous DNA fragments and their molecular diversity. Therefore, these methods provide a cost-effective solution for downstream applications, including DNA sequencing on HTS platforms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Genomic DNA extraction methods using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, Keerti; Mahas, Ahmed; Kent, Michael N; Naik, Sameep; Markey, Michael

    2015-10-01

    As new technologies come within reach for the average cytogenetic laboratory, the study of chromosome structure has become increasingly more sophisticated. Resolution has improved from karyotyping (in which whole chromosomes are discernible) to fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, with which specific megabase regions are visualized), array-based CGH (aCGH, examining hundreds of base pairs), and next-generation sequencing (providing single base pair resolution). Whole genome next-generation sequencing remains a cost-prohibitive method for many investigators. Meanwhile, the cost of aCGH has been reduced during recent years, even as resolution has increased and protocols have simplified. However, aCGH presents its own set of unique challenges. DNA of sufficient quantity and quality to hybridize to arrays and provide meaningful results is required. This is especially difficult for DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Here, we compare three different methods for acquiring DNA of sufficient length, purity, and "amplifiability" for aCGH and other downstream applications. Phenol-chloroform extraction and column-based commercial kits were compared with adaptive focused acoustics (AFA). Of the three extraction methods, AFA samples showed increased amplicon length and decreased polymerase chain reaction (PCR) failure rate. These findings support AFA as an improvement over previous DNA extraction methods for FFPE tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An efficient extraction method for quantitation of adenosine triphosphate in mammalian tissues and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Junji; Yamane, Kazuhiko; Takei, Tunetomo; Kido, Hiroshi

    2012-05-21

    Firefly bioluminescence is widely used in the measurement of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels in biological materials. For such assays in tissues and cells, ATP must be extracted away from protein in the initial step and extraction efficacy is the main determinant of the assay accuracy. Extraction reagents recommended in the commercially available ATP assay kits are chaotropic reagents, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), perchloric acid (PCA), and ethylene glycol (EG), which extract nucleotides through protein precipitation and/or nucleotidase inactivation. We found that these reagents are particularly useful for measuring ATP levels in materials with relatively low protein concentrations such as blood cells, cultured cells, and bacteria. However, these methods are not suitable for ATP extraction from tissues with high protein concentrations, because some ATP may be co-precipitated with the insolubilized protein during homogenization and extraction, and it could also be precipitated by neutralization in the acid extracts. Here we found that a phenol-based extraction method markedly increased the ATP and other nucleotides extracted from tissues. In addition, phenol extraction does not require neutralization before the luciferin-luciferase assay step. ATP levels analyzed by luciferase assay in various tissues extracted by Tris-EDTA-saturated phenol (phenol-TE) were over 17.8-fold higher than those extracted by TCA and over 550-fold higher than those in EG extracts. Here we report a simple, rapid, and reliable phenol-TE extraction procedure for ATP measurement in tissues and cells by luciferase assay.

  2. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chang-Liang; Dong, Xiao-Fang; Tong, Jian-Ming

    2015-08-26

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD), was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was strongest. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts, which represents the amounts of antioxidants in alfalfa, was determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. The results showed good fit with the proposed models for the total flavonoid extraction (R² = 0.9849), for the antioxidant extraction assayed by ABTS method (R² = 0.9764), and by DPPH method (R² = 0.9806). Optimized extraction conditions for total flavonoids was a ratio of liquid to solid of 57.16 mL/g, 62.33 °C, 57.08 min, and 52.14% ethanol. The optimal extraction parameters of extracts for the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was a ratio of liquid to solid 60.3 mL/g, 54.56 °C, 45.59 min, and 46.67% ethanol, and by ABTS assay was a ratio of liquid to solid 47.29 mL/g, 63.73 °C, 51.62 min, and 60% ethanol concentration. Our work offers optimal extraction conditions for total flavonoids and antioxidants from alfalfa.

  3. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Jing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM, based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD, was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was strongest. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts, which represents the amounts of antioxidants in alfalfa, was determined by using 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid (ABTS and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH methods. The results showed good fit with the proposed models for the total flavonoid extraction (R2 = 0.9849, for the antioxidant extraction assayed by ABTS method (R2 = 0.9764, and by DPPH method (R2 = 0.9806. Optimized extraction conditions for total flavonoids was a ratio of liquid to solid of 57.16 mL/g, 62.33 °C, 57.08 min, and 52.14% ethanol. The optimal extraction parameters of extracts for the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was a ratio of liquid to solid 60.3 mL/g, 54.56 °C, 45.59 min, and 46.67% ethanol, and by ABTS assay was a ratio of liquid to solid 47.29 mL/g, 63.73 °C, 51.62 min, and 60% ethanol concentration. Our work offers optimal extraction conditions for total flavonoids and antioxidants from alfalfa.

  4. Estimation of mercury speciation in soil standard reference materials with different extraction methods by ion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Misun; Yoon, Hyeon; Yoon, Cheolho; Yu, Jae-Young

    2011-01-01

    Analytical methods for the speciation of mercury, based on microwave extraction and sonication extraction, have been tested to determine the inorganic mercury and methyl mercury contents in two standard soil reference materials: SRM 2710 Montana Soil and BCR 580 estuarine sediment. Prior to applying the speciation extraction methods, the mineral compositions were analyzed via XRD analysis, with SRM 2710 shown to be composed mostly of aluminum silicate minerals, while carbonate minerals were the major constituent in BCR 580. Two extraction methods, microwave and sonication, were tested for the analysis and recovery efficiency of total mercury. The accuracy and efficiency of each extraction method was also compared. In the analysis of total mercury, the microwave extraction method, with using methanol and HCl as extractants, was better for SRM2710, while the application of the sonication extraction method was more efficient for the calcite-based BCR 580. The results showed good separation and recovery efficiencies, with values reaching 100% of those estimated. The sonication method was selected for the speciation of mercury, especially in BCR 580. An extraction solution comprising of a 1:1 mixture of methanol and HCl was used for the sonication extraction of BCR 580, with the resulting extractants analyzed by IC-HG-ICP-MS for methyl mercury and inorganic mercury. As a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method, sonication extraction was found to be satisfactory.

  5. Potato tuber proteomics: Comparison of two complementary extraction methods designed for 2-DE of acidic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Wal, van der F.; Dierick, J.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Jardin, du P.; America, A.H.P.

    2006-01-01

    Two protein extraction procedures were tested in order to remove interfering compounds prior to 2-DE of potato tubers. These methods using SDS lysis buffer and phenol-phase extraction were compared regarding the quality of the resulting 2-D gel. While the resolution of SDS extracts on semipreparativ

  6. The efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract on some bacterial and a fungal strain by well diffusion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baskaran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening Ethanol, methanol, Ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, Petroleum ether, hexane, hot water, and extracts of Carica papaya. Methods: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the qualitative analysis of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts of Carica papaya. The antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracts of Carica papaya were tested against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and fungus by observing the zone of inhibition. The Gram-positive bacteria used in the test were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus, and the Gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, fungus like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida kefyr. Results: It was observed that ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, aceton, chloroform, petroleum ether, hexane and aquas extracts showed activity against bacteria and fungus. The chloroform extract of Carica papaya showed more activity against Micrococcus luteus, zone of diameter 15.17暲0.29mm and acetone extract of Carica papaya showed more activity against Candida albicans, zone of diameter 11.23暲0.25mm compared to other solvent extracts. Conclusions: In this study chloroform extract in bacteria and acetone extract in fungus showed a varying degree of inhibition to the growth of tested organism, than Ethanol, methanol, Ethyl acetate, Petroleum ether, hexane and hot water extracts. The results confirmed the presence of antibacterial and antifungal activity of Carica papaya extract against various human pathogenic bacteria. Presences of phytochemical and antimicrobial activity are confirmed.

  7. Innovative method for boron extraction from iron ore containing boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Wang, Jing-song; Yu, Xin-yun; Shen, Ying-feng; Zuo, Hai-bin; Xue, Qing-guo

    2016-03-01

    A novel process for boron enrichment and extraction from ludwigite based on iron nugget technology was proposed. The key steps of this novel process, which include boron and iron separation, crystallization of boron-rich slag, and elucidation of the boron extraction behavior of boron-rich slag by acid leaching, were performed at the laboratory. The results indicated that 95.7% of the total boron could be enriched into the slag phase, thereby forming a boron-rich slag during the iron and slag melting separation process. Suanite and kotoite were observed to be the boron-containing crystalline phases, and the boron extraction properties of the boron-rich slag depended on the amounts and grain sizes of these minerals. When the boron-rich slag was slowly cooled to 1100°C, the slag crystallized well and the efficiency of extraction of boron (EEB) of the slag was the highest observed in the present study. The boron extraction property of the slow-cooled boron-rich slag obtained in this study was much better than that of szaibelyite ore under the conditions of 80% of theoretical sulfuric acid amount, leaching time of 30 min, leaching temperature of 40°C, and liquid-to-solid ratio of 8 mL/g.

  8. Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed

    OpenAIRE

    OKUDA, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; NISHIJIMA, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0 mol l-1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500 ml of low turbid water (50 NTU). Coagulation efficiencies were evaluated based on the dosage required to remove kaolinite...

  9. A new green chemistry method based on plant extracts to synthesize gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Castillo, Milka Odemariz

    Extraordinary chemical and physical properties exhibited by nanomaterials, as compared to their bulk counterparts, have made the area of nanotechnology a growing realm in the past three decades. It is the nanoscale size (from 1 to 100 nm) and the morphologies of nanomaterials that provide several properties and applications not possible for the same material in the bulk. Magnetic and optical properties, as well as surface reactivity are highly dependent on the size and morphology of the nanomaterial. Diverse nanomaterials are being widely used in molecular diagnostics as well as in medicine, electronic and optical devices. Among the most studied nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles are of special interest due to their multifunctional capabilities. For instance, spherical gold nanoparticles measuring 15-20 nm in diameter have been studied due to their insulin binding properties. Also, thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles between 5 and 30 nm are used in the detection of DNA. Thus, harnessing the shape and size of gold nanoparticles plays an important role in science and technology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles via the reduction of gold salts, using citrate or other reducing agents, has been widely studied. In recent years, algae, fungi, bacteria, and living plants have been used to reduce trivalent gold (Au3+) to its zero oxidation state (Au 0) forming gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. In addition, plant biomasses have also been studied for their gold-reducing power and nanoparticle formation. Although there is information about the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles by biologically based materials; to our knowledge, the study of the use of alfalfa extracts has not been reported. This innovation represents a significant improvement; that is an environmentally friendly method that does not use toxic chemicals. Also, the problem of extracting the formed gold nanoparticles from biomaterials is addressed in this research but still remains to be

  10. DNA analysis of molluscs from a museum wet collection: a comparison of different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, Katharina; Eschner, Anita; Rintelen, Thomas V; Haring, Elisabeth

    2016-07-18

    DNA isolation and PCR amplification from molluscan taxa is considered as problematic because polysaccharides in tissue and mucus presumably co-precipitate with the DNA and inhibit the activity of DNA polymerase. In the present study we tested two common extraction methods on specimens from the mollusc collection of the Natural History Museum Vienna (NHMW). We analysed a broad variety of taxa covering a large temporal span (acquisition years 1877 to 1999), which distinguishes our study from previous ones where mostly fresh material was used. We also took other factors into account: effects of sample age, effects of formaldehyde treatment and taxon-specific problems. We used several primer combinations to amplify amplicons of different lengths of two mitochondrial genes: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and 16S rRNA gene (16S). Overall PCR success was 43 % in the 576 extractions (including all primer combinations). The smallest amplicon (~240 bp) showed the best results (49 % positive reactions), followed by the 400 bp amplicon (40.5 %). Both short sections yielded significantly better results than the 700 bp long amplicon (27 %). Comparatively, the Gen-ial-First, All-tissue DNA-Kit-extraction method performed significantly better than Promega-Tissue and Hair Extraction Kit. Generally, PCR success is age-dependent. Nonetheless, we were able to obtain the longest amplicon even from 137-year-old material. Importantly, formaldehyde traces did not totally inhibit amplification success, although very high concentrations did. Museum material has gained importance for DNA analysis in recent years, especially for DNA barcoding projects. In some cases, however, the amplification of the standard barcoding region (partial sequence of the COI) is problematic with old material. Our study clearly shows that the COI barcoding region could be amplified in up to 49 % of PCRs (varying with amplicon length), which is, for museum samples, quite a high percentage. The

  11. The effects of three different grinding methods in DNA extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uwerhiavwe

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... downstream PCR analysis without liquid nitrogen, the cowpea DNA was extracted by ... obtained by three grinding methods both in CTAB method and SDS method. Without ..... the proteins and lipids that form the membranes.

  12. A simple, rapid, sensitive method detecting homoserine lactone (HSL)-related compounds in microbial extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Maya Prakash; Greenstein, Michael

    2006-04-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive microtiter plate method detecting N-acyl homoserine lactone (HSL)-related compounds was established using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a traG::lacZ/traR reporter gene responsive to HSLs. This strain did not produce its own HSL, but the traG::lacZ reporter gene was induced only when its transcription activator TraR detected a cognate exogenous HSL. Therefore, the assay was expected to be highly specific for HSL-related compounds. Induction of the reporter gene, leading to production of beta-galactosidase enzyme, was measured by using two different beta-galactosidase substrates, X-gal and Galacton-Star, for colorimetric and chemiluminometric detection, respectively. The screen was validated in both the 96-well and 384-well plate formats, and extracts derived from 696 different microbial isolates, mostly unidentified actinomycetes isolated from diverse locations, were tested. Crude extracts of 81 (11.64%) cultures tested positive for HSL-related compounds, and an additional 34 (4.8%) crude extracts showed a moderate to weak signal for HSLs. Data from the fractionated samples, however, suggested a much higher prevalence of HSL signals in these extracts. Of 144 crude extracts fractionated into 10 individual samples at a 10x concentration, 72 (50%) cultures tested positive for HSLs. Six cultures were active only in the crude extract, 18 were active both in crude and one or more of their fractions, and an additional 48 were active in just one or more of their fractions. This finding may be the first to suggest such a high prevalence of HSL-signals found in nature, and a large number of actinomycetes in our collection appeared to produce HSL-related compounds.

  13. Development of soft extraction method for structural characterization of boreal forest soil proteins with MALDI-TOF/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Sanna; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kitunen, Veikko; Smolander, Aino; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) is usually the nutrient restricting productivity in boreal forests. Forest soils contain a great amount of nitrogen, but only a small part of it is in mineral form. Most part of soil N is bound in the structures of different organic compounds such as proteins, peptides, amino acids and more stabilized, refractory compounds. Due to the fact that soil organic N has a very important role in soil nutrient cycling and in plant nutrition, there is a need for more detailed knowledge of its chemistry in soil. Conventional methods to extract and analyze soil organic N are usually very destructive for structures of higher molecular weight organic compounds, such as proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize proteins extracted from boreal forest soil by "soft" extraction methods in order to maintain their molecular structure. The organic layer (F) from birch forest floor containing 78% of organic matter was sieved, freeze dried, pulverized, and extracted with a citrate or phosphate buffer (pH 6 or 8). Sequential extraction with the citrate or phosphate buffer and an SDS buffer (pH 6.8), slightly modified from the method of Chen et al. (2009, Proteomics 9: 4970-4973), was also done. Proteins were purified from the soil extract by extraction with buffered phenol and precipitated with methanol + 0.1M ammonium acetate at -20°C. Characterization of proteins was performed with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the concentration of total proteins was measured using Bradford's method. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a positive control in the extractions and as a standard protein in Bradford's method. Our results showed that sequential extraction increased the amount of extracted proteins compared to the extractions without the SDS-buffer; however, it must be noted that the use of SDS-buffer very probably increased denaturization of proteins. Purification of proteins from crude soil extracts

  14. Method for extracting bioinsecticide deriv atives from the plant artemisia absinthium L

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Burillo Alquézar, Jesús; Urieta Navarro, José Antonio; Sanz Perucha, Jesús; Díaz, Carmen E.; Fraga González, Manuel; Reina, Matías; Cabrera, Raimundo; Martínez Díaz, Rafael; Mainar Fernández, Ana M

    2010-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for the extraction of bioinsecticide derivatives from the plant Artemisia absinthimn L, characterised by agronomic and economic parameters relating to the organic production ofthe plant with a specific chemotype in order to produce organic extracts consisting of essential oil and a non-volatile extract, and in another phase supercritical extracts of characterised chemical composition, obtained with pressurised CO2 as the main solvent. The main industr...

  15. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for detection of citrus huanglongbing in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Evelio Ángel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Four DNA citrus plant tissue extraction protocols and three methods of DNA extraction from vector psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae were compared as part of the validation process and standardization for detection of huanglongbing (HLB. The comparison was done using several criterias such as integrity, purity and concentration. The best quality parameters presented in terms of extraction of DNA from plant midribs tissue of citrus, were cited by Murray and Thompson (1980 and Rodríguez et al. (2010, while for the DNA extraction from psyllid vectors of HLB, the best extraction method was suggested by Manjunath et al.(2008.

  16. Suitability of the boiling method of DNA extraction in mosquitoes for routine molecular analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Sarma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This communication deals with the experience on suitability of the boiling method of DNA extraction from mosquito tissues. The DNA extracted by this method was found, by and large, stable after 30 months of storage. The method is useful for routine molecular entomological applications.

  17. [Research advances on DNA extraction methods from peripheral blood mononuclear cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Chen-Xi

    2014-10-01

    DNA extraction is a basic technology of molecular biology. The purity and the integrality of DNA structure are necessary for different experiments of gene engineering. As commonly used materials in the clinical detection, the fast, efficient isolation and extraction of genomic DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells is very important for the inspection and analysis of clinical blood. At present, there are many methods for extracting DNA, such as phenol-chloroform method, salting out method, centrifugal adsorption column chromatography method (artificial methods), magnetic beads (semi-automatic method) and DNA extraction kit. In this article, a brief review of the principle for existing DNA blood extraction method, the specific steps and the assessment of the specific methods briefly are summarized.

  18. Determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental and biological matrices using pressurised liquid extraction--are we developing sound extraction methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runnqvist, Hannah; Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is now a well established and extensively applied extraction technique in environmental analysis for pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). During the past decade, an emerging group of environmentally interesting analytes are pharmaceuticals...... that are continuingly released into the environment. This class is comprised with compounds of various properties. As the field of the analysis of these compounds grows, an increasing number of PLE methods for pharmaceuticals of varying quality are developed and published. This review summarises the critical PLE...... parameters during PLE method development and highlight them with examples from recently published papers utilising pressurised liquid extraction for the determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental and biological matrices. These recent methods are summarised and critically discussed with the aim...

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Manilkara zapota L. (chiku) leaves by sequential soxhlet extraction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mital Kaneria; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Manilkara zapota L. (chiku) leaves was studied. Methods: The antioxidant property of different solvent extracts of Manilkara zapota L. leaves was evaluated by DPPH free radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing capacity assessment, while the antimicrobial property was evaluated by agar well diffusion method against some of the tested food borne, spoilage, pathogenic and skin disease causing microorganisms. Results: The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of acetone extract was better than that of standard ascorbic acid and superoxide anion scavenging activity of acetone extract was better than that of standard gallic acid. It showed good reducing capacity assessment also. Maximum phenol content was also present in acetone extract thus supporting the idea that phenolic content and antioxidant activity show a direct correlation. Acetone extract showed significant antimicrobial activity amongst all the different solvent extracts. Conclusion:Result presented here suggest that acetone extract of M. zapota leaves possess strong antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, and it may be considered as an interesting and economic source of antioxidants and antimicrobics for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries and for food manufactures or pharmaceuticals.

  20. Comparison of four extraction methods for analysis of volatile hop-derived aroma compounds in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias M; Eyres, Graham T; Silcock, Patrick; Bremer, Phil J

    2017-09-09

    The volatile organic compound profile in beer is derived from hops, malt, yeast, and interactions between the ingredients, making it very diverse and complex. Due to the range and diversity of the volatile organic compounds present, the choice of the extraction method is extremely important for optimal sensitivity and selectivity. This study compared four extraction methods for hop-derived compounds in beer late hopped with Nelson Sauvin. Extraction capacity and variation were compared for headspace solid phase micro extraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, headspace sorptive extraction, and solvent assisted flavour evaporation. Generally, stir bar sorptive extraction was better suited for acids, headspace sorptive extraction for esters and aldehydes, while headspace solid phase micro extraction was less sensitive overall, extracting 40% fewer compounds. Solvent assisted flavour evaporation with dichloromethane was not suitable for the extraction of hop-derived volatile organic compounds in beer, as the profile was strongly skewed towards alcohols and acids. Overall, headspace sorptive extraction found to be best suited, closely followed by stir bar sorptive extraction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Field turbidity method for the determination of lead in acid extracts of dried paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studabaker, William B; McCombs, Michelle; Sorrell, Kristen; Salmons, Cynthia; Brown, G Gordon; Binstock, David; Gutknecht, William F; Harper, Sharon L

    2010-07-01

    Lead, which can be found in old paint, soil, and dust, has been clearly shown to have adverse health effects on the neurological systems of both children and adults. As part of an ongoing effort to reduce childhood lead poisoning, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program (RRP) rule requiring that paint in target housing built prior to 1978 be tested for lead before any renovation, repair, or painting activities are initiated. This rule has led to a need for a rapid, relatively easy, and an inexpensive method for measuring lead in paint. This paper presents a new method for measuring lead extracted from paint that is based on turbidimetry. This method is applicable to paint that has been collected from a surface and extracted into 25% (v/v) of nitric acid. An aliquot of the filtered extract is mixed with an aliquot of solid potassium molybdate in 1 M ammonium acetate to form a turbid suspension of lead molybdate. The lead concentration is determined using a portable turbidity meter. This turbidimetric method has a response of approximately 0.9 NTU per microg lead per mL extract, with a range of 1-1000 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTUs). Precision at a concentration corresponding to the EPA-mandated decision point of 1 mg of lead per cm(2) is measurement using the new turbidimetric method, and the other half was analyzed using microwave extraction and measurement by ICP-AES. The average relative percent difference between the turbidimetric method and the ICP-AES method for the 24 sets measured as milligrams of lead per cm(2) is -0.63 +/- 32.5%; the mean difference is -2.1 +/- 7.0 mg lead per cm(2). Non-parametric and parametric statistical tests on these data showed no difference in the results for the two procedures. At the federal regulated level of 1 mg of lead per cm(2) paint, this turbidimetric method meets the performance requirements for EPA's National Lead Laboratory Accreditation Program (NLLAP

  2. Critical assessment of extracellular polymeric substances extraction methods from mixed culture biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Domingo Felez, Carlos; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem

    2013-01-01

    . This study presents a rigorous and critical assessment of existing physical and chemical EPS extraction methods applied to mixed-culture biomass samples (nitrifying, nitritation-anammox, and activated sludge biomass). A novel fluorescence-based method was developed and calibrated to quantify the lysis...... potential of different EPS extraction protocols. We concluded that commonly used methods to assess cell lysis (DNA concentrations or G6PDH activities in EPS extracts) do not correlate with cell viability. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of certain chemicals in EPS extracts results in severe...... underestimation of protein and carbohydrate concentrations by using standard analytical methods. Keeping both maximum EPS extraction yields and minimal biomass lysis as criteria, it was identified a sonication-based extraction method as the best to determine and compare tightly-bound EPS fractions in different...

  3. Extraction method for high free radical scavenging activity of Siamese neem tree flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worarat Chaisawangwong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton is a medicinal plant found in Thailand. Youngleaves and young flowers of this plant are commonly consumed as a bitter tonic vegetable. The flowers are also used fortreatment of fever. The flower extract has been reported to exhibit in vitro free radical scavenging activity and can inhibitlipid peroxidation of bronchogenic cancer cell line. Active compounds in the flowers are flavonoids such as rutin andquercetin. The content of these compounds in the crude extract depends on the method of extraction. Therefore, the appropriateextraction method promoting high yield of total flavonoids and high free radical scavenging activity was investigated inthis study. Six different extraction methods, i.e. maceration, percolation, decoction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction(UE, and microwave assisted extraction (MA were carried out for extracting dried powder of Siamese neem tree young flowers. The solvent used for maceration, percolation, and soxhlet extraction was 50% ethanol, while distilled water was used for decoction and MA, and both solvents were used for UE. The content of crude extract, free radical scavenging activity, and total flavonoids content of each extract were investigated and compared. Comparing the various extraction methods, decoction provided an extract containing a high amount of total flavonoids (17.54 mgRE/g extract and promoting the highest scavenging activity at EC50 11.36 g/ml. Decoction is also simple, cheap, and convenient and could be used in developing countries. Thus, it should be the recommended extraction method for the flowers of Siamese neem tree for furtherdevelopment of antioxidant pharmaceutical preparations.

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction as a clean-up method for the extraction of pesticides from wool wax. A preliminary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespi, M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presented is a preliminary study for the development of a method for the extraction of pesticides from wax samples by means of superficial fluid extraction. The novelty of the study is the direct extraction of the pesticides from raw wool wax without any cleanup, as direct extraction has been considered almost impossible by many authors.Este trabajo es un estudio preliminar para el desarrollo de un método de extracción de pesticidas directamente de las muestras de cera mediante extracción con fluido supercrítico. La novedad del estudio consiste en la extracción directa de los pesticidas de la cera de lana cruda sin ninguna limpieza previa, cuando muchos autores han considerado casi imposible la extracción directa.

  5. The Hybrid KICA-GDA-LSSVM Method Research on Rolling Bearing Fault Feature Extraction and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rolling element bearings are widely used in high-speed rotating machinery; thus proper monitoring and fault diagnosis procedure to avoid major machine failures is necessary. As feature extraction and classification based on vibration signals are important in condition monitoring technique, and superfluous features may degrade the classification performance, it is needed to extract independent features, so LSSVM (least square support vector machine based on hybrid KICA-GDA (kernel independent component analysis-generalized discriminate analysis is presented in this study. A new method named sensitive subband feature set design (SSFD based on wavelet packet is also presented; using proposed variance differential spectrum method, the sensitive subbands are selected. Firstly, independent features are obtained by KICA; the feature redundancy is reduced. Secondly, feature dimension is reduced by GDA. Finally, the projected feature is classified by LSSVM. The whole paper aims to classify the feature vectors extracted from the time series and magnitude of spectral analysis and to discriminate the state of the rolling element bearings by virtue of multiclass LSSVM. Experimental results from two different fault-seeded bearing tests show good performance of the proposed method.

  6. Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction from human bones with different degrees of degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, Joanna; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Pawłowski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    There is a necessity for deceased identification as a result of many accidents and sometimes bones are the only accessible source of DNA. So far, a universal method that allows for extraction of DNA from materials at different stages of degradation does not exist. The aims of this study were: the comparison of three methods of DNA extraction from bones with different degree of degradation and an evaluation of the usefulness of these methods in forensic genetics. The efficiency of DNA extraction, the degree of extract contamination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors and the possibility of determining the STR loci profile were especially being compared. Nuclear DNA from bones at different states of degradation was isolated using three methods: classical, organic phenol-chloroform extraction, DNA extraction from crystal aggregates and extraction by total demineralisation. Total demineralisation is the best method for most cases of DNA extraction from bones, although it does not provide pure DNA. DNA extraction from aggregates removes inhibitors much better and is also a good method of choice when identity determination of exhumed remains is necessary. In the case of not buried bones (remains found outside) total demineralisation or phenol-chloroform protocols are more efficient for successful DNA extraction.

  7. Determination of Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Sambucus nigra Fruit Extract Using Alternative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Doroftei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro antioxidant activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra fruit extract and to study its toxicity in a plant model system with regard to its possible application in food and agricultural industry. The antioxidant capacity of Sambucus nigra fruit powder was quantified by a photochemiluminescence method. The study of phytotoxicity of aqueous solutions of powder extract was performed using Allium cepa as a test organism. Photochemiluminescence determinations showed a very high antioxidant capacity of the product but also revealed its cytotoxic effect, along with mitodepressive activity and even inhibiton of mitosis at the preprophase stage when the fruit extract was used at higher concentrations. Aqueous solutions of the fruit powder have a reasonably expressed mutagenic activity in vivo on the radicles of Allium cepa, especially when they are used at a concentration of 1 g/dL for a prolonged time (48 h. At lower concentrations (0.1 g/dL, however, the mutagenic effect was not observed any more. The conclusion of our study is that Sambucus nigra fruit extract powder has a very high in vitro antioxidant activity and no mutagenic effects at low concentrations, which makes it recommendable for applications in the food industry.

  8. Extraction and labeling methods for microarrays using small amounts of plant tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Alexander J; Pereira, Rhea S; Kiss, John Z; Correll, Melanie J

    2009-03-01

    Procedures were developed to maximize the yield of high-quality RNA from small amounts of plant biomass for microarrays. Two disruption techniques (bead milling and pestle and mortar) were compared for the yield and the quality of RNA extracted from 1-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings (approximately 0.5-30 mg total biomass). The pestle and mortar method of extraction showed enhanced RNA quality at the smaller biomass samples compared with the bead milling technique, although the quality in the bead milling could be improved with additional cooling steps. The RNA extracted from the pestle and mortar technique was further tested to determine if the small quantity of RNA (500 ng-7 microg) was appropriate for microarray analyses. A new method of low-quantity RNA labeling for microarrays (NuGEN Technologies, Inc.) was used on five 7-day-old seedlings (approximately 2.5 mg fresh weight total) of Arabidopsis that were grown in the dark and exposed to 1 h of red light or continued dark. Microarray analyses were performed on a small plant sample (five seedlings; approximately 2.5 mg) using these methods and compared with extractions performed with larger biomass samples (approximately 500 roots). Many well-known light-regulated genes between the small plant samples and the larger biomass samples overlapped in expression changes, and the relative expression levels of selected genes were confirmed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, suggesting that these methods can be used for plant experiments where the biomass is extremely limited (i.e. spaceflight studies).

  9. A New Keyphrases Extraction Method Based on Suffix Tree Data Structure for Arabic Documents Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam SAHMOUDI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Document Clustering is a branch of a larger area of scientific study kn own as data mining .which is an unsupervised classification using to find a structu re in a collection of unlabeled data. The useful information in the documents can be accompanied b y a large amount of noise words when using Full Tex t Representation, and therefore will affect negativel y the result of the clustering process. So it is w ith great need to eliminate the noise words and keeping just the useful information in order to enhance the qual ity of the clustering results. This problem occurs with di fferent degree for any language such as English, European, Hindi, Chinese, and Arabic Language. To o vercome this problem, in this paper, we propose a new and efficient Keyphrases extraction method base d on the Suffix Tree data structure (KpST, the extracted Keyphrases are then used in the clusterin g process instead of Full Text Representation. The proposed method for Keyphrases extraction is langua ge independent and therefore it may be applied to a ny language. In this investigation, we are interested to deal with the Arabic language which is one of th e most complex languages. To evaluate our method, we condu ct an experimental study on Arabic Documents using the most popular Clustering approach of Hiera rchical algorithms: Agglomerative Hierarchical algorithm with seven linkage techniques and a varie ty of distance functions and similarity measures to perform Arabic Document Clustering task. The obtain ed results show that our method for extracting Keyphrases increases the quality of the clustering results. We propose also to study the effect of using the stemming for the testing dataset to cluster it with the same documents clustering techniques and similarity/distance measures.

  10. A Method for Group Extraction in Complex Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bródka, Piotr; Musial, Katarzyna; Kazienko, Przemysław

    The extraction of social groups from social networks existing among employees in the company, its customers or users of various computer systems became one of the research areas of growing importance. Once we have discovered the groups, we can utilise them, in different kinds of recommender systems or in the analysis of the team structure and communication within a given population.

  11. STUDIES ON INOSINE EXTRACTION BY ION EXCHANGE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangXiwen; ShiFang; 等

    1998-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of inosine from fermentation solution on anion exchange resin under the condition of different pH,resin type are investigated.Besides,the desorption conditions are studied under different temperature.The adsorption and desorption mechanism are described to obtain the optimum technological condition of inosine extraction.

  12. Extraction of oilseeds by SFE - a comparison with other methods for the determination of the oil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruehl, L.; Matthaeus, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Getreide- Kartoffel- und Fettforschung, Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie und Physik der Fette

    1999-08-01

    Rapeseed, soybean and sunflower seeds are used for a comparison of solvent extractions by SFE, ASE, fexIKA and Soxtherm apparatus with the official standard method B-I 5 (87) by the DGF. The optimal extraction parameters for each method are evaluated. The extracts are analysed regarding the composition of tocopherols, as a parameter for mild extraction conditions and the content of free fatty acids and diglycerides, as a parameter for the recovery of more polar lipids. The obtained results for oil content using the optimised methods agree well with the standard method. Differences occur in the results of tocopherol composition and free fatty acid and diglyceride contents. The SFE method shows the highest recovery regarding the tocopherol content. The extraction period by SFE is reduced to about 40 min in contrast to 4 h of the DGF standard method. The other methods also provide considerable time reductions, but showed lower tocopherols and free fatty acid contents. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs.

  13. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Rhee, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Sang-Yoon; Cho, Chang-Won; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the fermentation of ginseng seeds was hypothesized to produce useful physiologically-active substances, similar to that observed for fermented ginseng root. Ginseng seed was fermented using Bacillus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus strains to extract ginseng seed oil, and the extraction yield, color, and quantity of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and phytosterol were then analyzed. The ginseng seed was fermented inoculating 1% of each strain on sterilized ginseng seeds and incubating the seeds at 30°C for 24 h. Oil was extracted from the fermented ginseng seeds using compression extraction, solvent extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction. The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI) 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  14. Ball mill assisted rapid mechanochemical extraction method for natural products from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Bi, Wentao; Huang, Xiaohua; Chen, David Da Yong

    2016-06-03

    A ball mill assisted mechanochemical extraction method was developed to extract compounds of natural product (NP) from plant using ionic liquid (IL). A small volume ball mill, also known as PastPrep(®) Homogenizer, which is often used for high-speed lysis of biological samples and for other applications, was used to dramatically increase the speed, completeness and reproducibility of the extraction process at room temperature to preserve the chemical integrity of the extracted compounds. In this study, tanshinones were selected as target compounds to evaluate the performance of this extraction method. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the duration, IL concentration and solid/liquid ratio were systematically optimized using the response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the described method was more efficient and much faster than the conventional extraction methods such as methanol based ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and heat reflux extraction (HRE) that consumes a lot more organic solvent. In addition, the natural products of interest were enriched by anion metathesis of ionic liquids, combining extraction and preconcentration in the same process. The extractant was analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS. The reproducibility (RSD, n=5), correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curve, and the limit of detection, were determined to be in the range of 4.7-5.2%, 0.9992-0.9995, and 20-51ng/mL, respectively.

  15. Fault Feature Extraction of Rolling Bearing Based on an Improved Cyclical Spectrum Density Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; YANG Jianhong; WANG Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    The traditional cyclical spectrum density(CSD) method is widely used to analyze the fault signals of rolling bearing. All modulation frequencies are demodulated in the cyclic frequency spectrum. Consequently, recognizing bearing fault type is difficult. Therefore, a new CSD method based on kurtosis(CSDK) is proposed. The kurtosis value of each cyclic frequency is used to measure the modulation capability of cyclic frequency. When the kurtosis value is large, the modulation capability is strong. Thus, the kurtosis value is regarded as the weight coefficient to accumulate all cyclic frequencies to extract fault features. Compared with the traditional method, CSDK can reduce the interference of harmonic frequency in fault frequency, which makes fault characteristics distinct from background noise. To validate the effectiveness of the method,experiments are performed on the simulation signal, the fault signal of the bearing outer race in the test bed, and the signal gathered from the bearing of the blast furnace belt cylinder. Experimental results show that the CSDK is better than the resonance demodulation method and the CSD in extracting fault features and recognizing degradation trends. The proposed method provides a new solution to fault diagnosis in bearings.

  16. Evaluating the Impact of DNA Extraction Method on the Representation of Human Oral Bacterial and Fungal Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesty, Anna; Biswas, Kristi; Taylor, Michael W; Gear, Kim; Douglas, Richard G

    2017-01-01

    The application of high-throughput, next-generation sequencing technologies has greatly improved our understanding of the human oral microbiome. While deciphering this diverse microbial community using such approaches is more accurate than traditional culture-based methods, experimental bias introduced during critical steps such as DNA extraction may compromise the results obtained. Here, we systematically evaluate four commonly used microbial DNA extraction methods (MoBio PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit, QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit, Zymo Bacterial/Fungal DNA Mini PrepTM, phenol:chloroform-based DNA isolation) based on the following criteria: DNA quality and yield, and microbial community structure based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 region of fungi. Our results indicate that DNA quality and yield varied significantly with DNA extraction method. Representation of bacterial genera in plaque and saliva samples did not significantly differ across DNA extraction methods and DNA extraction method showed no effect on the recovery of fungal genera from plaque. By contrast, fungal diversity from saliva was affected by DNA extraction method, suggesting that not all protocols are suitable to study the salivary mycobiome.

  17. A Two-Step Double Filter Method to Extract Open Water Surfaces from Landsat ETM+ Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijing; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    , which were taken within a few days of Landsat passing dates and which will serve here as ground truth information. On their basis the new method was compared to other available methods for extracting water pixels. Compared to the other methods, the new method can extract water surface not only from deep lakes/reservoirs and wetlands but also from small mud ponds in alkali flats and irrigation ponds in the fields. For the big and deep lakes, the extracted boundary of the lakes fits accurately the observed boundary. Five test sites in the study area in Northeast China with only shallow water surfaces were chosen and tested. The extracted water surfaces were compared with each site's digital globe maps, respectively to determine the accuracy of the method. The comparison shows that the method could extract all completely wet pixels (water area covering 100% of the pixel area) in all test sites. For partially wet pixels (50-100% of pixel area), the model can detect 91% of all pixels. No dry pixels were mistaken by the model as water pixels. Keywords: Remote sensing, Landsat ETM+ imaginary, Water Surface, NDVI, MNDWI, and SDD

  18. [Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and steam distillation methods for the extraction of essential oils from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qin; Ling, Jianya; Ding, Yuping; Chang, Hongwen; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Tingli

    2005-11-01

    Essential oil was extracted from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and steam distillation (SD). The components extracted were determined by gas chromatography with area normalization method and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The optimal chromatographic conditions were: capillary column, SE-54 (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 microm); column temperature, 50 degrees C (3 min) --> (5 degrees c/min) 180 degrees C (2 min --> (10 degrees C/ min) 260 degrees C 50 min); split injection, split ratio 1: 50; injector temperature, 280 degrees C. Fifty-four components were identified for the essential oils extracted by SFE, and its main components were found to be pulegone, menthone, linoleic acid chloride etc. Thirty-nine components were identified for the essential oil obtained by SD, and its main components were found to be pulegone, menthone, limonene etc. The SFE method is better than the SD method in reliability stability and reproducibility, and is thus well suitable for similar applications involving for extraction of other traditional Chinese herbal medicines.

  19. IndexFinder: a method of extracting key concepts from clinical texts for indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qinghua; Chu, Wesley W; Morioka, Craig; Leazer, Gregory H; Kangarloo, Hooshang

    2003-01-01

    Extracting key concepts from clinical texts for indexing is an important task in implementing a medical digital library. Several methods are proposed for mapping free text into standard terms defined by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). For example, natural language processing techniques are used to map identified noun phrases into concepts. They are, however, not appropriate for real time applications. Therefore, in this paper, we present a new algorithm for generating all valid UMLS concepts by permuting the set of words in the input text and then filtering out the irrelevant concepts via syntactic and semantic filtering. We have implemented the algorithm as a web-based service that provides a search interface for researchers and computer programs. Our preliminary experiment shows that the algorithm is effective at discovering relevant UMLS concepts while achieving a throughput of 43K bytes of text per second. The tool can extract key concepts from clinical texts for indexing.

  20. Evaluating DNA Extraction Methods for Community Profiling of Pig Hindgut Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Hugenholtz, Philip; Batstone, Damien John

    2015-01-01

    Recovery of high quality PCR-amplifiable DNA has been the general minimal requirement for DNA extraction methods for bulk molecular analysis. However, modern high through-put community profiling technologies are more sensitive to representativeness and reproducibility of DNA extraction method. Here, we assess the impact of three DNA extraction methods (with different levels of extraction harshness) for assessing hindgut microbiomes from pigs fed with different diets (with different physical properties). DNA extraction from each sample was performed in three technical replicates for each extraction method and sequenced by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Host was the primary driver of molecular sequencing outcomes, particularly on samples analysed by wheat based diets, but higher variability, with one failed extraction occurred on samples from a barley fed pig. Based on these results, an effective method will enable reproducible and quality outcomes on a range of samples, whereas an ineffective method will fail to generate extract, but host (rather than extraction method) remains the primary factor.

  1. Excavation-drier method of energy-peat extraction reduces long-term climatic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, N.; Silvan, K.; Laine, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland)], e-mail: niko.silvan@metla.fi; Vaisanen, S.; Soukka, R. [Lappeenranta Univ.of Techology (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    Climatic impacts of energy-peat extraction are of increasing concern due to EU emissions trading requirements. A new excavation-drier peat extraction method has been developed to reduce the climatic impact and increase the efficiency of peat extraction. To quantify and compare the soil GHG fluxes of the excavation drier and the traditional milling methods, as well as the areas from which the energy peat is planned to be extracted in the future (extraction reserve area types), soil CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured during 2006-2007 at three sites in Finland. Within each site, fluxes were measured from drained extraction reserve areas, extraction fields and stockpiles of both methods and additionally from the biomass driers of the excavation-drier method. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), described at a principal level in ISO Standards 14040:2006 and 14044:2006, was used to assess the long-term (100 years) climatic impact from peatland utilisation with respect to land use and energy production chains where utilisation of coal was replaced with peat. Coal was used as a reference since in many cases peat and coal can replace each other in same power plants. According to this study, the peat extraction method used was of lesser significance than the extraction reserve area type in regards to the climatic impact. However, the excavation-drier method seems to cause a slightly reduced climatic impact as compared with the prevailing milling method. (orig.)

  2. [Genomic DNA extraction from hair sacs of pigs using modified phenol-chloroform method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Ying; Yu, Ying; Feng, Li-Xia; Wang, Huai-Zhong; Zhang, Qin

    2010-07-01

    In referring to various methods for genomic DNA extraction from different tissues, we modified the classical phenol-chloroform procedure and reaction system for use in genomic DNA extraction from pig hair sacs. With the modified the phenol-chloroform method we successfully obtained high quality genomic DNA from pig hair sacs. Genomic DNA can be extracted from sacs of one to six pig hairs with satisfied quantity and quality for the need of PCR-based molecular ex-periment.

  3. Bridging the gap between comprehensive extraction protocols in plant metabolomics studies and method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Foubert, Kenn; Voorspoels, Stefan; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2016-09-07

    It is vital to pay much attention to the design of extraction methods developed for plant metabolomics, as any non-extracted or converted metabolites will greatly affect the overall quality of the metabolomics study. Method validation is however often omitted in plant metabolome studies, as the well-established methodologies for classical targeted analyses such as recovery optimization cannot be strictly applied. The aim of the present study is to thoroughly evaluate state-of-the-art comprehensive extraction protocols for plant metabolomics with liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS) by bridging the gap with method validation. Validation of an extraction protocol in untargeted plant metabolomics should ideally be accomplished by validating the protocol for all possible outcomes, i.e. for all secondary metabolites potentially present in the plant. In an effort to approach this ideal validation scenario, two plant matrices were selected based on their wide versatility of phytochemicals: meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) for its polyphenols content, and spicy paprika powder (from the genus Capsicum) for its apolar phytochemicals content (carotenoids, phytosterols, capsaicinoids). These matrices were extracted with comprehensive extraction protocols adapted from literature and analysed with a generic LC-PDA-amMS characterization platform that was previously validated for broad range phytochemical analysis. The performance of the comprehensive sample preparation protocols was assessed based on extraction efficiency, repeatability and intermediate precision and on ionization suppression/enhancement evaluation. The manuscript elaborates on the finding that none of the extraction methods allowed to exhaustively extract the metabolites. Furthermore, it is shown that depending on the extraction conditions enzymatic degradation mechanisms can occur. Investigation of the fractions obtained with the different extraction methods

  4. DNA extract characterization process for microbial detection methods development and validation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays used in pathogen detection require rigorous methods development including characterizing DNA extraction products. A DNA extract characterization process is demonstrated using DNA extracted from five different cells types (two Gram-negatives: Escherichia coli, and Burkholderia thailandensis, spores and vegetative cells from the Gram-positive Bacillus cereus, and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with six different methods. Results D...

  5. Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods for Microbial Community Analysis in Indonesian Tempe Employing Amplified Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA ANNA SEUMAHU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tempe fermentation involved complex microbial communities which are only revealed partially through culture dependent methods. Culture-independent methods would be potential to unravel this complex microbial fermentation. Appropriate DNA extraction is an essential tool to obtain reliable data from culture independent method. In this study, we employed two commercial DNA extraction methods to find the best one for microbial community characterization employing amplified ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA. Our result showed that PowerFood Microbial DNA Isolation Kit-MOBIO (PFMDIK is an excellent method for microbial DNA extraction from tempe. It gave high quantity and quality of DNA suitable for PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer to yield a diverse and reproducible ARISA profile.

  6. Extraction methods and food uses of a natural red colorant from dye sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akogou, Folachodé Ug; Kayodé, Ap Polycarpe; den Besten, Heidy Mw; Linnemann, Anita R

    2017-06-10

    The interest in stable natural colorants for food applications continues to grow. A red pigment extracted from the leaf sheaths of a sorghum variety (Sorghum bicolor) with a high content of apigeninidin is widely used as a biocolorant in processed foods in West Africa. This study compared the colour and anthocyanin composition from traditional extraction methods to determine options for improvement and use of the red biocolorant from dye sorghum in the food sector. Sorghum biocolorant was commonly applied in fermented and heated foods. Traditional extraction methods predominantly differed in two aspects, namely the use of an alkaline rock salt (locally known as kanwu) and the temperature of the extraction water. Cool extraction using the alkaline ingredient was more efficient than hot alkaline and hot aqueous extractions in extracting anthocyanins. The apigeninidin content was three times higher in the cool and hot alkaline extracts than in the aqueous extract. Cool and hot alkaline extractions at pH 8-9 were the most efficient methods for extracting apigeninidin from dye sorghum leaf sheaths. Broader use of the sorghum biocolorant in foods requires further research on its effects on nutrient bioavailability and antioxidant activity. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Comparative evaluation of different DNA extraction methods for HPV genotyping by linear array and INNO-LiPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Benevolo, Maria; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Battista, Mara; Rollo, Francesca; Stivali, Francesca; Moscarelli, Antonella; Giuliani, Massimo; Di Carlo, Aldo; Vocaturo, Amina

    2011-06-01

    In order to investigate the influence of DNA extraction on two PCR-based HPV genotyping tests (Linear Array, Roche and INNO-LiPA Extra, Innogenetics), three different procedures were used to purify DNA from 28 cervico-vaginal samples tested previously by the Hybrid Capture 2: the AmpliLute Liquid Media Extraction kit (Roche), the QIAamp DNA Blood mini kit (QIAGEN), and the NucliSENS EasyMAG automated platform (bioMérieux). All HC2-positive samples were found positive by both assays, independently of the extract used. Type-specific concordance (i.e., identical HPV type-specific profile in all the extracts of the same sample) was observed in 55% and 75% of the cases testing samples by the Linear Array and the INNO-LiPA, respectively. Using the DNA extracted with the two manual methods the results were concordant in 75% of the cases both for the Linear Array and the INNO-LiPA. When comparing the Linear Array results obtained on either of the two manual extracts with those obtained following automated extraction, 65% of the samples showed type-specific concordance in both cases. The INNO-LiPA results were concordant in 80% of the cases comparing the AmpliLute versus the automated extract, while concordant results were observed in 90% of the cases when comparing the QIAGEN versus the automated extract. In conclusion, the Linear Array and INNO-LiPA results are affected by the method of DNA extraction. Consequently, different HPV type-specific profiles may be observed using different extracts of the same sample. The use of consistent protocols for DNA purification is a priority to guarantee intra-assay reproducibility over time.

  8. A novel microalgal lipid extraction method using biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) as an extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Can; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2017-02-01

    Although microalgae are considered promising renewable sources of biodiesel, the high cost of the downstream process is a significant obstacle in large-scale biodiesel production. In this study, a novel approach for microalgal biodiesel production was developed by using the biodiesel as an extractant. First, wet microalgae with 70% water content were incubated with a mixture of biodiesel/methanol and penetration of the mixture through the cell membrane and swelling of the lipids contained in microalgae was confirmed. Significant increases of lipid droplets were observed by confocal microscopy. Second, the swelled lipid droplets in microalgae were squeezed out using mechanical stress across the cell membrane and washed with methanol. The lipid extraction efficiency reached 68%. This process does not require drying of microalgae or solvent recovery, which the most energy-intensive step in solvent-based biodiesel production.

  9. Solvent extraction of rubidium from gold waste using conventional SX and new CFE methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza Tavakoli Mohammadi; Seyed Mohammad Javad Koleini; Sepideh Javanshir; Hossein Abolghasemi; Mahmoud Abdollahy

    2015-01-01

    Solvent extraction (SX) of rubidium (Rb) from leaching filtrate of gold waste (GW) in Mouteh Processing Plant by 18-crown-6 (18C6) was studied.High potential of new column flotoextraction (CFE) method in extraction of Rb from dilute solutions was also demonstrated.First,the factors affecting SX of Rb from a synthetic rubidium sulfate solution (containing 100 mg·L-1 Rb) were identified.0.05 mol·L-1 18C6 in kerosene,0.02 mol·L-1 picric acid in aqueous phase,aqueous to organic (A/O) ratio of 1,pH 7 and mixing time of 15 min are the optimum values for affective factors.The three-stage precipitation with sodium carbonate,pH adjustment with sulfuric acid and two-stage evaporation and crystallization were conducted to purify the leaching from impurities such as Fe,Al,Mn,Ca and especially competing cations of K and Na.Almost complete extraction of Rb and K from final filtrate containing 0.08 mol·L-1 picric acid was performed using 0.2 mol·L-1 18C6 in kerosene.The Rb and K strippings of 99.12 % and 9.93 %,respectively,are obtained with 2 mol·L-1 nitric acid with A/O ratio of 2.Finally,the performance comparison of the CFE and SX methods in similar conditions shows increased extraction of K and Rb by 16 % and 5 %,respectively,using CFE method.

  10. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of red ginseng extracts produced with different processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, E K; Hong, J H; Lê, S; Kim, K O

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were: to develop objective and effective sample preparation and presentation procedures for the sensory analysis of red ginseng extracts (RGE); to identify their sensory attributes in relation with the consumer acceptability of RGEs produced with different processing techniques. The samples included 7 different types of RGE, among which 2 samples were of commercial products and the other samples were specially prepared for the study. The samples differed in processing methods (traditional method, high-hydrostatic pressure [HHP], and fermentation) and extraction solvents (ethanol, water). For the descriptive analysis, 7 trained panelists developed and evaluated 30 attributes. Principal component analysis was conducted to summarize the relationships between the sensory attributes and to get a representation of the samples according to those attributes. Consumers evaluated the appearance and flavor acceptability of the extracts. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on consumer acceptability of flavor. The results showed that the clear differences among the RGEs in terms of sensory perceptions were explained by the processing methods. Consumers were segmented into 3 distinct groups in terms of preference: a consumer cluster that likes the RGEs produced with HHP or fermentation, a cluster that likes a product with strong ginseng flavor, and a cluster that likes a RGE with sweet taste and jujube flavor. These 3 clusters differed somewhat in their consumption frequency and purchase factors, also. The red ginseng extract (RGE) market is rapidly growing due to the consumer awareness of its superior health-promoting effects. However, little attention has been given to sensory properties that are a critical factor in determining quality and consumer preference. The results of this study will be helpful for researchers and manufacturers to understand the sensory characteristics of RGEs and to detect the driving factors of consumer acceptability

  11. A Feature Extraction Method Based on Information Theory for Fault Diagnosis of Reciprocating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Peng

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a feature extraction method based on information theory for fault diagnosis of reciprocating machinery. A method to obtain symptom parameter waves is defined in the time domain using the vibration signals, and an information wave is presented based on information theory, using the symptom parameter waves. A new way to determine the difference spectrum of envelope information waves is also derived, by which the feature spectrum can be extracted clearly and machine faults can be effectively differentiated. This paper also compares the proposed method with the conventional Hilbert-transform-based envelope detection and with a wavelet analysis technique. Practical examples of diagnosis for a rolling element bearing used in a diesel engine are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The verification results show that the bearing faults that typically occur in rolling element bearings, such as outer-race, inner-race, and roller defects, can be effectively identified by the proposed method, while these bearing faults are difficult to detect using either of the other techniques it was compared to. PMID:22574021

  12. A Feature Extraction Method Based on Information Theory for Fault Diagnosis of Reciprocating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqing Wang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a feature extraction method based on information theory for fault diagnosis of reciprocating machinery. A method to obtain symptom parameter waves is defined in the time domain using the vibration signals, and an information wave is presented based on information theory, using the symptom parameter waves. A new way to determine the difference spectrum of envelope information waves is also derived, by which the feature spectrum can be extracted clearly and machine faults can be effectively differentiated. This paper also compares the proposed method with the conventional Hilbert-transform-based envelope detection and with a wavelet analysis technique. Practical examples of diagnosis for a rolling element bearing used in a diesel engine are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The verification results show that the bearing faults that typically occur in rolling element bearings, such as outer-race, inner-race, and roller defects, can be effectively identified by the proposed method, while these bearing faults are difficult to detect using either of the other techniques it was compared to.

  13. Effect of extraction method on structure and antioxidant activity of Hohenbuehelia serotina polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lu

    2016-02-01

    The impacts of four extraction methods (hot water, enzyme assistance, ultrasonic assistance and ultrasonic-enzyme assistance) on the extraction yields, preliminary structure and antioxidant activities of the Hohenbuehelia serotina polysaccharides (HW-HSP, EA-HSP, UA-HSP and UEA-HSP) were systematically investigated. The yield of the polysaccharides (20.70±0.17%) obtained by ultrasonic-enzyme assistance was higher than the polysaccharides by other methods'. Four kinds of polysaccharides possessed the different preliminary structural characteristics including molecular weight distributions, monosaccharide compositions, crystallization and spiral structures, while different surface morphology. Through the measurements of antioxidant activities in vitro, UEA-HSP exhibited the most significant scavenging capacities on non-physiological ABTS free radicals and physiological hydroxyl radicals. These data showed that ultrasonic-enzyme assistance was more beneficial to enhance the extraction yields of the polysaccharides, and obtain higher bioactive polysaccharides. The results also suggested that H. serotina polysaccharides possessed potential healthcare application in food field due to their antioxidant activities.

  14. The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by HPLC. The hexane extracted sample accounts for high content of γ-oryzanol and tocols. Besides, all of RBO extracts contain a significantly high amount of γ-tocotrienol. In vitro antioxidant assay results indicated that superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction. The temperature in the extraction process also affects the value of the oil. Superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction, in terms of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties compared to other tested extraction methods. Further, thorough study of factors compromising the quality and quantity of RBO recovery is required for the development of enhanced functional foods and other related products.

  15. Methods for producing extracted and digested products from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo Da Costa; Cheh, Albert M.; Balan; , Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce

    2017-05-16

    Methods for producing extracted and digested products from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass are provided. The methods include converting native cellulose I.sub..beta. to cellulose III.sub.I by pretreating the lignocellulosic biomass with liquid ammonia under certain conditions, and performing extracting or digesting steps on the pretreated/converted lignocellulosic biomass.

  16. A new Color Feature Extraction method Based on Dynamic Color Distribution Entropy of Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alamdar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the important requirements in image retrieval, indexing, classification, clustering and etc. is extracting efficient features from images. The color feature is one of the most widely used visual features. Use of color histogram is the most common way for representing color feature. One of disadvantage of the color histogram is that it does not take the color spatial distribution into consideration. In this paper dynamic color distribution entropy of neighborhoods method based on color distribution entropy is presented, which effectively describes the spatial information of colors. The image retrieval results in compare to improved color distribution entropy show the acceptable efficiency of this approach.

  17. [Evaluation of remote sensing extraction methods for vegetation phenology based on flux tower net ecosystem carbon exchange data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Min-Jie; Zhu, Wen-Quan; Wang, Ling-Li; Xu, Ying-Jun; Liu, Jian-Hong

    2012-02-01

    Taking the vegetation phenological metrics derived from the net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) data of 72 flux towers in North America as the references, a comprehensive evaluation was conducted on the three typical classes of remote sensing extraction methods (threshold method, moving average method, and function fitting method) for vegetation phenology from the aspects of feasibility and accuracy. The results showed that the local midpoint threshold method had the highest feasibility and accuracy for extracting vegetation phenology, followed by the first derivative method based on fitted Logistic function. The feasibility and accuracy of moving average method were determined by the moving window size. As for the MODJS 16 d composited time-series normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the moving average method had preferable performance when the window size was set as 15. The global threshold method performed quite poor in the feasibility and accuracy. Though the values of the phenological metrics extracted by the curvature change rate method based on fitted Logistic function and the corresponding ones derived from NEE data had greater differences, there existed a strong correlation between them, indicating that the vegetation phenological metrics extracted by the curvature change rate method could reflect the real temporal and spatial variations of vegetation phenology.

  18. Edge-Based Feature Extraction Method and Its Application to Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ohashi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel feature extraction method for content-bases image retrieval using graphical rough sketches. The proposed method extracts features based on the shape and texture of objects. This edge-based feature extraction method functions by representing the relative positional relationship between edge pixels, and has the advantage of being shift-, scale-, and rotation-invariant. In order to verify its effectiveness, we applied the proposed method to 1,650 images obtained from the Hamamatsu-city Museum of Musical Instruments and 5,500 images obtained from Corel Photo Gallery. The results verified that the proposed method is an effective tool for achieving accurate retrieval.

  19. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on Carissa congesta, Polyalthia longifolia, and Benincasa hispida extracts by Sulforhodamine B assay method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Mahesh Doshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indian medicinal plants have contributed to the growth of world′s ethnopharmacological heritage. Roots of Carissa congesta (CC powder are mixed with horse urine, lime juice, and camphor and used as remedies for relieving itching conditions, Polyalthia longifolia (PL leaves are aromatic and used for decoration in festivals as sonamukhi and Benincasa hispida (BH seeds provide treatment for cough and vitiated conditions of pitta. Aims of the Study: In the current studies, crude petroleum ether extracts (BH and CC and ethanolic extract of (PL were screened for in vitro cytotoxicity activity using different cell lines. Settings and Design: In the experiment, human colon cancer HCT15, human breast cancer MCF7 and human leukemia MOLT4 cell lines were studied on the extracts. Materials and Methods: The method used was Sulforhodamine B (SRB assay method in which growth inhibition of 50% (GI 50 was analyzed by comparing it with standard drug Adriamycin (ADR (doxorubicin. Results: The CC and PL extracts showed equivalent activity to ADR (doxorubicin for human breast cancer cell line MCF7 and human leukemia cell line MOLT4 respectively. BH extract did not show satisfactory activity on selected cell lines. Conclusion: In the future, new cell lines may be screened in order to check the potency of CC, PL, and BH extracts.

  20. Comparison of different methods for extraction from Tetraclinis articulata: yield, chemical composition and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzi, Nejia; Bouajila, Jalloul; Camy, Séverine; Romdhane, Mehrez; Condoret, Jean-Stéphane

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, three techniques of extraction: hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (conventional 'Soxhlet' technique) and an innovative technique, i.e., the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), were applied to ground Tetraclinis articulata leaves and compared for extraction duration, extraction yield, and chemical composition of the extracts as well as their antioxidant activities. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using two methods: ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•). The yield obtained using HD, SFE, hexane and ethanol Soxhlet extractions were found to be 0.6, 1.6, 40.4 and 21.2-27.4 g/kg respectively. An original result of this study is that the best antioxidant activity was obtained with an SFE extract (41 mg/L). The SFE method offers some noteworthy advantages over traditional alternatives, such as shorter extraction times, low environmental impact, and a clean, non-thermally-degraded final product. Also, a good correlation between the phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity was observed with extracts obtained by SFE at 9 MPa.

  1. Preparation method and stability of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate fruit peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Itsuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak

    2010-02-01

    A simple one-step purification using liquid-liquid extraction for preparing pomegranate peel extract rich in ellagic acid has been demonstrated. The method involved partitioning of the 10% v/v water in methanol extract of pomegranate peel between ethyl acetate and 2% aqueous acetic acid. This method was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content of the extract from 7.06% to 13.63% w/w. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was also increased (ED(50) from 38.21 to 14.91 micro/mL). Stability evaluations of the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract in several conditions through a period of four months found that the extracts were stable either kept under light or protected from light. The extracts were also stable under 4 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, 30 degrees +/- 2 degrees C and accelerated conditions at 45 degrees C with 75% relative humidity. However, study on the effect of pH on stability of the extract in the form of solution revealed that the extract was not stable in all tested pH (5.5, 7 and 8). These results indicated that the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract was stable when it was kept as dried powder, but it was not stable in any aqueous solution.

  2. Evaluation of Extraction and Degradation Methods to Obtain Chickpeasaponin B1 from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun; Gao, Hua; Wang, Rong-Rong; Liu, Yang; Hou, Yu-Xue; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-21

    The objective of this research is to implement extraction and degradation methods for the obtainment of 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl] soyasapogenol B (chickpeasaponin B1) from chickpea. The effects of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) processing parameters-such as ethanol concentration, solvent/solid ratio, extraction temperature, microwave irradiation power, and irradiation time-were evaluated. Using 1g of material with 8 mL of 70% aqueous ethanol and an extraction time of 10 min at 70 °C under irradiation power 400W provided optimal extraction conditions. Compared with the conventional extraction techniques, including heat reflux extraction (HRE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), and ultrasonic extraction (UE), MAE produced higher extraction efficiency under a lower extraction time. DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin can be degraded to structurally stable saponin B by the loss of its DDMP group. The influence of pH and the concentration of potassium hydroxide on transformation efficiency of the target compound was investigated. A solution of 0.25 M potassium hydroxide in 75% aqueous ethanol was suitable for converting the corresponding DDMP saponins of chickpeasaponin B1. The implementation by the combining MAE technique and alkaline hydrolysis method for preparing chickpeasaponin B1 provides a convenient technology for future applications.

  3. Evaluation of Extraction and Degradation Methods to Obtain Chickpeasaponin B1 from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to implement extraction and degradation methods for the obtainment of 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-d-galactopyranosyl] soyasapogenol B (chickpeasaponin B1 from chickpea. The effects of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE processing parameters—such as ethanol concentration, solvent/solid ratio, extraction temperature, microwave irradiation power, and irradiation time—were evaluated. Using 1g of material with 8 mL of 70% aqueous ethanol and an extraction time of 10 min at 70 °C under irradiation power 400W provided optimal extraction conditions. Compared with the conventional extraction techniques, including heat reflux extraction (HRE, Soxhlet extraction (SE, and ultrasonic extraction (UE, MAE produced higher extraction efficiency under a lower extraction time. DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one saponin can be degraded to structurally stable saponin B by the loss of its DDMP group. The influence of pH and the concentration of potassium hydroxide on transformation efficiency of the target compound was investigated. A solution of 0.25 M potassium hydroxide in 75% aqueous ethanol was suitable for converting the corresponding DDMP saponins of chickpeasaponin B1. The implementation by the combining MAE technique and alkaline hydrolysis method for preparing chickpeasaponin B1 provides a convenient technology for future applications.

  4. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for polymerase chain reaction amplification of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) fecal DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, M I; Bertin, A; Squeo, F A; Cortés, A; Gouin, N

    2015-01-23

    Feces-based population genetic studies have become increasingly popular. However, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rates from fecal material vary depending on the species, populations, loci, and extraction protocols. Here, we assessed the PCR amplification success of three microsatellite markers and a segment of the mitochondrial control region of DNA extracted from field-collected feces of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) using two protocols - Qiagen DNA Stool Kit and 2 cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (2CTAB/PCI) method. Chelex resin treatment to remove inhibitors was also tested. Our results show that the mitochondrial locus was the most difficult to amplify. PCR success rates improved for all markers after Chelex treatment of extracted DNA, and 2CTAB/PCI method (95.83%) appeared to perform slightly better than stool kit (91.67%) for the nuclear markers. Amplification success was significantly influenced by the extraction method, Chelex treatment, and locus (P 0.89), but they decreased slightly after treatment for amplification of nuclear markers and markedly after treatment for amplification of the mitochondrial control region. Thus, we showed that Chelex treatment gives high PCR success, especially for nuclear markers, and adequate DNA extraction rates can be achieved from L. guanicoe feces even from non-fresh fecal material. Although not significant, 2CTAB/PCI method tended to provide higher successful amplification rates on a whole set of samples, suggesting that the method could be particularly useful when using small sample sizes.

  5. A High Accuracy Method for Semi-supervised Information Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tratz, Stephen C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2007-04-22

    Customization to specific domains of dis-course and/or user requirements is one of the greatest challenges for today’s Information Extraction (IE) systems. While demonstrably effective, both rule-based and supervised machine learning approaches to IE customization pose too high a burden on the user. Semi-supervised learning approaches may in principle offer a more resource effective solution but are still insufficiently accurate to grant realistic application. We demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome by integrating fully-supervised learning techniques within a semi-supervised IE approach, without increasing resource requirements.

  6. A Novel Lipid Extraction Method from Wet Microalga Picochlorum sp. at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method using ethanol was proposed for extracting lipids from wet microalga Picochlorum sp. at room temperature and pressure. In this study, Central Composite design (CCD was applied to investigate the optimum conditions of lipid extraction. The results revealed that the solvent to biomass ratio had the largest effect on lipid extraction efficiency, followed by extraction time and temperature. A high lipid extraction yield (33.04% of the dry weight was obtained under the following extraction conditions: 5 mL solvents per gram of wet biomass for 37 min with gentle stirring at room temperature. The extraction yield was comparable to that obtained by the widely used Bligh-Dyer method. Furthermore, no significant differences in the distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition were observed according to different extraction methods. In conclusion, these results indicated that the proposed procedure using ethanol could extract lipids from wet biomass efficiently and had giant potential for lipid extraction at large scale.

  7. Optimization of Method to Extract Collagen from "Emperor" Tissue of Soft-shelled Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Sawashi, Yuki; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) are widely distributed in some Asian countries, and parts of this turtle contain abundant collagen. In this study, we optimized a method for extracting collagen from the soft-shelled turtle. We used three types of solvent and four extraction conditions to determine an effective collagen extraction method, which was extraction at 37°C with acetic acid after hydrochloric acid pretreatment. Next, we extracted collagen from three regions in the soft-shelled turtle: muscle, skin, and an area of soft tissue in the periphery of the turtle shell known in Japan and China as the "emperor." We determined that emperor tissue yielded the highest concentration and purity of collagen. We then optimized the pretreatment method for extraction from emperor tissue by using formic acid instead of hydrochloric acid, and the amount of extracted collagen increased by approximately 1.3-fold. Finally, we identified the optimal solvent out of four types of organic acid for collagen extraction from emperor tissue; the amount of extracted collagen from emperor tissue increased approximately 3-fold when citric acid was used as the extraction solvent instead of acetic acid. Emperor tissue can regenerate; thus, it is possible to obtain collagen from the emperor repeatedly without killing the turtle. Our findings suggest that the emperor tissue of softshelled turtles may be a good source of collagen for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.

  8. PCR-fingerprint profiles of mitochondrial and genomic DNA extracted from Fetus cervi using different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jinxia; Wang, Xuesong; Gao, Lijun; Xia, Wei; Li, Mingcheng; Yuan, Guangxin; Niu, Jiamu; Zhang, Lihua

    2016-06-01

    The use of Fetus cervi, which is derived from the embryo and placenta of Cervus Nippon Temminck or Cervs elaphus Linnaeus, has been documented for a long time in China. There are abundant species of deer worldwide. Those recorded by China Pharmacopeia (2010 edition) from all the species were either authentic or adulterants/counterfeits. Identification of their origins or authenticity became a key in the preparation of the authentic products. The traditional SDS alkaline lysis and salt-outing methods were modified to extract mt DNA and genomic DNA from fresh and dry Fetus cervi in addition to Fetus from false animals, respectively. A set of primers were designed by bioinformatics to target the intra-and inter-variation. The mt DNA and genomic DNA extracted from Fetus cervi using the two methods meet the requirement for authenticity. Extraction of mt DNA by SDS alkaline lysis is more practical and accurate than extraction of genomic DNA by salt-outing method. There were differences in length and number of segments amplified by PCR between mt DNA from authentic Fetus cervi and false animals Fetus. The distinctive PCR-fingerprint patterns can distinguish the Fetus cervi from adulterants and counterfeit animal Fetus.

  9. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  10. Protein extraction method for the proteomic study of Zymomonas mobilis during production of ethanol and levans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, D R; Malafaia, C B; Silva, T D; Santos, B S; Calazans, G M T; Silva, M V

    2015-11-19

    Zymomonas mobilis has aroused considerable interest owing to its rapid metabolism and efficiency in producing ethanol and by-products such as levans, sorbitol, and gluconic acid from simple sugars. We performed a proteomic analysis of Z. mobilis UFPEDA241 to provide a global profile of regulatory proteins. The choice of the methods of extraction and cell lysis are fundamental steps and of great importance for the detection and identification of intra- and extracellular proteins of a proteome. Strains were subjected to protein extraction methods using three different reagents: TRIzol, lysis buffer, and phenol. The optimum method was taken to be the one that produced the greatest quantity and quality of proteins in one dimension for further analysis in two dimensions during the production of ethanol and levans over 72 h. The results showed that the greatest amount of protein was obtained by the phenol method (1.44 ± 0.07 mg/mL), which was significantly different (P 0.05). Fermentation at 20°C produced the highest level of levans, and using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry it was possible to identify 34 differentially expressed spots.

  11. HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Ten Annonaceous Acetogenins after Supercritical Fluid CO2 Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haijun; Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Qingqi; Yu, Qiping; Ke, Shihuai; Li, Xiang

    2010-09-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) isolated from Annonaceae plants exhibited a broad range of biological bioactivities such as cytotoxic, antitumoral, antiparasitic, pesticidal and immunosuppresive activities. However, their structures were liable to change at more than 60°C and their extraction yields were low using traditional organic solvent extraction. In the present study, all samples from Annona genus plant seeds were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide under optimized conditions and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established for simultaneously determining ten ACGs. All of the ten compounds were simultaneously separated on reversed-phase C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with the column temperature at 30°C. The mobile phase was composed of (A) methanol and (B) distilled water, the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the detection wavelength was set at 220 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (γ>0.9995) within the test range. The established method showed good precision and accuracy with overall intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.99-2.56% and 1.93-3.65%, respectively, and overall recoveries of 95.16-105.01% for the ten compounds analyzed. The established method can be applied to evaluate the intrinsic quality of Annonaceae plant seeds. The determination results recover the content-variation regularities of various ACGs in different species, which are helpful to choose the good-quality Annonaceae plant seeds for anticancer lead compound discovery.

  12. Extraction Yield Efficiency And Loss Of The Traditional Hot Water Floatation HWF Method Of Oil Extraction From The Seeds Of Allanblackia Floribunda

    OpenAIRE

    Alenyorege E. A.; Hussein Y. A.; Adongo T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The research was conducted to determine the Extraction Yield Extraction Efficiency and Extraction Loss associated with the traditional Hot Water Floatation method of oil extraction. Matured dry seeds of Allanblackia floribunda 50 Kg were used. Allanblackia floribunda a tree species of the Guttiferae family grows naturally in tropical rainforests zones. In Ghana Allanblackia floribunda is quite unknown hence little production of oil is carried out. However the oil extracted can have d...

  13. Texture based feature extraction methods for content based medical image retrieval systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Burhan; Baykara, Muhammet

    2014-01-01

    The developments of content based image retrieval (CBIR) systems used for image archiving are continued and one of the important research topics. Although some studies have been presented general image achieving, proposed CBIR systems for archiving of medical images are not very efficient. In presented study, it is examined the retrieval efficiency rate of spatial methods used for feature extraction for medical image retrieval systems. The investigated algorithms in this study depend on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray level run length matrix (GLRLM), and Gabor wavelet accepted as spatial methods. In the experiments, the database is built including hundreds of medical images such as brain, lung, sinus, and bone. The results obtained in this study shows that queries based on statistics obtained from GLCM are satisfied. However, it is observed that Gabor Wavelet has been the most effective and accurate method.

  14. White bread enriched with polyphenol extracts shows no effect on glycemic response or satiety, yet may increase postprandial insulin economy in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Shelly; Ryan, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Extracts from different plant sources have been shown to modify starch digestion from carbohydrate-rich foods and lower resulting glycemia. It was hypothesized that extracts rich in polyphenols, added to white bread, would improve the glycemic response and insulin response and increase satiety in healthy participants. An in vitro dose-response analysis was performed to determine the optimal dose of a variety of extracts (baobab fruit extract, green tea extract, grape seed extract, and resveratrol) for reducing rapidly digestible starch in white bread. The 2 extracts with the greatest sugar reducing potential were then used for the human study in which 13 volunteers (9 female and 4 male) were recruited for a crossover trial of 3 different meals. On separate days, participants consumed a control white bread, white bread with green tea extract (0.4%), and white bread with baobab fruit extract (1.88%). Glycemic response, insulin response, and satiety were measured 3 hours postprandially. Although enriched breads did not reduce glycemic response or hunger, white bread with added baobab fruit extract significantly (P bread to improve insulin economy in healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Image Prediction Method with Nonlinear Control Lines Derived from Kriging Method with Extracted Feature Points Based on Morphing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Method for image prediction with nonlinear control lines which are derived from extracted feature points from the previously acquired imagery data based on Kriging method and morphing method is proposed. Through comparisons between the proposed method and the conventional linear interpolation and widely used Cubic Spline interpolation methods, it is found that the proposed method is superior to the conventional methods in terms of prediction accuracy.

  16. Optimal Fixation Conditions and DNA Extraction Methods for MLPA Analysis on FFPE Tissue-Derived DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanesyan, Lilit; Steenkamer, Maryvonne J; Horstman, Anja; Moelans, Cathy B; Schouten, Jan P; Savola, Suvi P

    2017-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is of great importance both for research and diagnostics. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a widely used technique for gene copy number determination, and it has been successfully used for FFPE tissue-extracted DNA analysis. However, there have been no studies addressing the effect of tissue fixation procedures and DNA extraction methods on MLPA. This study therefore focuses on selecting optimal preanalytic conditions such as FFPE tissue preparation conditions and DNA extraction methods. Healthy tissues were fixed in buffered or nonbuffered formalin for 1 hour, 12 to 24 hours, or 48 to 60 hours at 4 °C or at room temperature. DNA extracted from differently fixed and subsequently paraffin-embedded tissues was used for MLPA. Four commercial DNA extraction kits and one in-house method were compared. Tissues fixed for 12 to 24 hours in buffered formalin at room temperature produced DNA with the most optimal quality for MLPA. The in-house FFPE DNA extraction method was shown to perform as efficient as or even superior to other methods in terms of suitability for MLPA, time and cost-efficiency, and ease of performance. FFPE-extracted DNA is well suitable for MLPA analysis, given that optimal tissue fixation and DNA extraction methods are chosen.

  17. A review of the extraction and chromatographic determination methods for the analysis of parabens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chunying; Chen, Ligang; Wang, Yu

    2014-10-15

    Parabens are a family of most widely used antimicrobial preservatives in food ingredients, cosmetic consumer products and pharmaceutical preparations. But several recent studies have cautioned that exposure to parabens may have more harmful consequences on animal and human health than what we realized previously, which made the analysis of parabens necessary. In this paper, we reviewed main sample preparation methods and chromatographic analysis methods proposed in formerly published works dealing with the analysis of parabens in different matrices. The sample preparation methods included ultrasonic assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, liquid phase microextraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, stir bar sorptive extraction and matrix solid phase dispersion. The chromatographic analysis methods involved liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid using the selective inclusion complex method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Parisa; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Lycopene, a precursor of β-carotene with well-known antioxidant activity and powerful health properties, can be found in many natural products such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), watermelon, red pepper, and papaya. Many separation methods have been reported for extracting lycopene from its sources. The inclusion complex is an effective method for extraction and purification of organic chemicals. This procedure has 2 main components: host and guest molecules. In this study, lycopene (guest) was extracted from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid, the inclusive agent (host). The molecular structure of the extracted lycopene was then confirmed by (1) HNMR and its purity was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods, in comparison with a standard product. The results indicated that the proposed separation method was very promising and could be used for the extraction and purification of lycopene from tomato paste.

  19. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Lee

    2017-07-01

    Results and Conclusion: The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  20. Solvent and extraction methods effects on the quality of eel (Anguilla bicolor) oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasongko, H.; Efendi, N. R.; Budihardjo, A.; Farida, Y.; Amartiwi, T.; Rahmawati, A. A.; Wicaksono, A.; Sugiyarto

    2017-01-01

    Eel (Anguilla bicolor) is a general fish consumption in many countries, especially Japan, China, Germany, and France. Besides its vitamin rich, eel oil is also known to contain fatty acids that are necessary for pharmaceutical purposes and as food a supplement. This research was aimed to evaluate the quality of eel oil by different solvent and extraction methods. In this study, fresh eels were extracted using maceration and reflux methods.Chloroform was used as the solvent in the maceration while water used in the reflux method. The oil quality was examined based on the Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC).The result showed that the yield of eel oil using maceration method was 5.44% ± 0.64 with a specific gravity of 0.915 g/mL, while reflux method obtained the yield of 5.33 % ± 0.84 and specific gravity of 0.8575 g/mL. The physicochemical parameters of oil quality used in this study were acid, peroxide, saponification, and iodine value. The maceration method obtained the acid value of 17.389 mgKOH/g, the peroxide value of 7.021meqO2/kg, the saponification value of 111.16mgKOH/g, and the iodine value of 65.14 WIJS. While the reflux method produced the acid value of 9.116 mgKOH/g, the peroxide value of 6.088 meqO2/kg, the saponification value of 70 mgKOH/g, and the iodine value of 87.74 WIJS.

  1. Current Physical and SDS Extraction Methods Do Not Efficiently Remove Exosporium Proteins from Bacillus anthracis spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian M.; Binkley, Jana M.; Stewart, George C.

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical studies of the outermost spore layers of the Bacillus cereus family are hindered by difficulties in efficient dispersal of the external spore layers and difficulties in dissociating protein complexes that comprise the exosporium layer. Detergent and physical methods have been utilized to disrupt the exosporium layer. Herein we compare commonly used SDS extraction buffers used to extract spore proteins and demonstrate the incomplete extractability of the exosporium layer by these methods. Sonication and bead beating methods for exosporium layer removal were also examined. A combination of genetic and physical methods is the most effective for isolating proteins found in the spore exosporium. PMID:21338631

  2. Method for extraction of beta-endorphines from plasma for radiommunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleeva, A.; Kurtev, I.; Koparanova, O.; Kehkajova, M. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1982-01-01

    Proceeding from the major importance of determination of beta-endorphines in blood plasma and the shortcommings of all methods now at use, the authors developed a new method for extraction and separation of beta-endorphines from blood plasma. The new method requires 2.5 ml of blood plasma, instead of 80 ml of blood; the extracting agent (glass powder with 1500 A in diameter) has a higher percentage of extraction (80 per cent instead of 50 per cent of talc or silicic acid). The new method was used in determining plasma beta-endorphine concentrations in normal individuals, which will serve as control group in all further developments.

  3. Current physical and SDS extraction methods do not efficiently remove exosporium proteins from Bacillus anthracis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian M; Binkley, Jana M; Stewart, George C

    2011-05-01

    Biochemical studies of the outermost spore layers of the Bacillus cereus family are hindered by difficulties in efficient dispersal of the external spore layers and difficulties in dissociating protein complexes that comprise the exosporium layer. Detergent and physical methods have been utilized to disrupt the exosporium layer. Herein we compare commonly used SDS extraction buffers used to extract spore proteins and demonstrate the incomplete extractability of the exosporium layer by these methods. Sonication and bead beating methods for exosporium layer removal were also examined. A combination of genetic and physical methods is the most effective for isolating proteins found in the spore exosporium.

  4. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  5. A Novel Method for PD Feature Extraction of Power Cable with Renyi Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD detection can effectively achieve the status maintenance of XLPE (Cross Linked Polyethylene cable, so it is the direction of the development of equipment maintenance in power systems. At present, a main method of PD detection is the broadband electromagnetic coupling with a high-frequency current transformer (HFCT. Due to the strong electromagnetic interference (EMI generated among the mass amount of cables in a tunnel and the impedance mismatching of HFCT and the data acquisition equipment, the features of the pulse current generated by PD are often submerged in the background noise. The conventional method for the stationary signal analysis cannot analyze the PD signal, which is transient and non-stationary. Although the algorithm of Shannon wavelet singular entropy (SWSE can be used to analyze the PD signal at some level, its precision and anti-interference capability of PD feature extraction are still insufficient. For the above problem, a novel method named Renyi wavelet packet singular entropy (RWPSE is proposed and applied to the PD feature extraction on power cables. Taking a three-level system as an example, we analyze the statistical properties of Renyi entropy and the intrinsic correlation with Shannon entropy under different values of α . At the same time, discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT is taken instead of discrete wavelet transform (DWT, and Renyi entropy is combined to construct the RWPSE algorithm. Taking the grounding current signal from the shielding layer of XLPE cable as the research object, which includes the current pulse feature of PD, the effectiveness of the novel method is tested. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that compared to SWSE, RWPSE can not only improve the feature extraction accuracy for PD, but also can suppress EMI effectively.

  6. Different methods evaluation of antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis extract and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus communis L. is a plant traditionally used as an antiseptic and disinfectant drug. In this research, the antioxidant activity of Myrtus communis was assayed by evaluating radical scavenging activity, reducing power, FRAP method and determination of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract of leaves of Myrtus communis was fractionated by using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol. In reducing power, different concentrations of samples were mixed with phosphate buffer, ferrocyanate, TCA and ferric chloride. Different concentrations of samples were mixed with DPPH and after 30 min the absorbances were measured. For determination of phenolic content, 500 μl of sample was mixed with Folin-Ciocalteu and sodium carbonate. For determination of flavonoids, 500 μl of sample was mixed with 2 ml of distilled water, NaNO2 and NaOH. In reducing power method, chloroform fraction showed the highest reducing capacity. In the DPPH radical scavenging method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in buthanol fraction (IC50=84.42±1.8 μg/ml. In FRAP method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in crude extract (5.4±0.3 mg/ml and buthanol fractions (5.51±0.4 mg/ml, respectively. The highest amount of phenolic compounds was detected in ethyl acetate fraction of Myrtus communis (17.5±0.001 μg/g. The highest amount of flavonoids was found in crude extract of Myrtus communis (171.9±7.3 μg/ml. Overall, we can suggest that the leaves of Myrtus communis can be used as antioxidant and as a food additives to avoid oxidative degradation of foods.

  7. In-Vitro Anti fungal Screening of Embelia Ribes Plant Extract through EUCAST Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjesh G Rathi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the Embelia ribes plant extracts using standard in vitro antifungal susceptibility test method like EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing M27-A2 Protocol.Antifungal screening of Embelia ribes not studied in detail and not extended to the different spectrum of fungal which are causing human diseases. Thus different types of extracts were prepared using different solvents and TLC characterized. Assays were performed in 96 well plates and detection was carried out with colorimetric plate reader at 530nm.To obtain the MIC50 with the help of the graph pad prism software.The petroleum ether extract, solvent ether extract and methanol extract had low MIC50 values against the Candida species than the other species. Solvent ether extract and petroleum ether extract were highly effective against the c.albicans (MTCC NO 183 with the 65 mg/L and 32mg/L MIC50 values. The methanol extract were more active against c.albican (MTCC NO 183 species with 300-500 mg/L MIC50 value. The solvent ether extract, petroleum ether extract, methanol extract, potassium embelate and Embelin have reported the MIC50 values in range of 800-1600 mg/L against c.tropicalis (MTCC NO 184 and c.parapsilosis (MTCC NO 1744. The petroleum ether extract and potassium embelate was found to have MIC50 between range 300-700 mg/L against c.parapsilosis (MTCC NO 1744 and a.fumigatus (MTCC NO 2550 .Other extracts required higher concentrations against c.parapsilosis and a.fumigatus. Water extract was found to have MIC50 values greater than 2000 mg/L against all fungus. Most of the results for the Embelin could not obtain by EUCAST method due to having higher fluctuation in results.

  8. Successively separation