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Sample records for extraction fraction oef

  1. Noninvasive Assessment of Oxygen Extraction Fraction in Chronic Ischemia Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwano, Ikuko; Kudo, Kohsuke; Sato, Ryota; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kameda, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Jun-Ichi; Mori, Futoshi; Yamashita, Fumio; Ito, Kenji; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Sasaki, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    The oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is an effective metric to evaluate metabolic reserve in chronic ischemia. However, OEF is considered to be accurately measured only when using positron emission tomography (PET). Thus, we investigated whether OEF maps generated by magnetic resonance quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) at 7 Tesla enabled detection of OEF changes when compared with those obtained with PET. Forty-one patients with chronic stenosis/occlusion of the unilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery were examined using 7 Tesla-MRI and PET scanners. QSM images were obtained from 3-dimensional T2*-weighted images, using a multiple dipole-inversion algorithm. OEF maps were generated based on susceptibility differences between venous structures and brain tissues on QSM images. OEF ratios of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery territory against the contralateral side were calculated on the QSM-OEF and PET-OEF images, using an anatomic template. The OEF ratio in the middle cerebral artery territory showed significant correlations between QSM-OEF and PET-OEF maps (r=0.69; P1.09, as determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, showed a sensitivity and specificity of 0.82 and 0.86, respectively, for the substantial increase in the PET-OEF ratio. Absolute QSM-OEF values were significantly correlated with PET-OEF values in the patients with increased PET-OEF. OEF ratios on QSM-OEF images at 7 Tesla showed a good correlation with those on PET-OEF images in patients with unilateral steno-occlusive internal carotid artery/middle cerebral artery lesions, suggesting that noninvasive OEF measurement by MRI can be a substitute for PET. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, College of Aivil Aviation, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe [Medical School of Nanjing University, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lu, Hanzhang [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, Wei [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Liu, Hui [Siemens MR NEA Collaboration, Siemens Ltd., Shanghai (China); Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-06-15

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO{sub 2} was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO{sub 2} (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O{sub 2} min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO{sub 2}. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO{sub 2}. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO{sub 2}. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  3. Quantitative measurement of cerebral oxygen extraction fraction using MRI in patients with MELAS.

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    Lei Yu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the cerebral OEF at different phases of stroke-like episodes in patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS by using MRI. METHODS: We recruited 32 patients with MELAS confirmed by gene analysis. Conventional MRI scanning, as well as functional MRI including arterial spin labeling and oxygen extraction fraction imaging, was undertaken to obtain the pathological and metabolic information of the brains at different stages of stroke-like episodes in patients. A total of 16 MRI examinations at the acute and subacute phase and 19 examinations at the interictal phase were performed. In addition, 24 healthy volunteers were recruited for control subjects. Six regions of interest were placed in the anterior, middle, and posterior parts of the bilateral hemispheres to measure the OEF of the brain or the lesions. RESULTS: OEF was reduced significantly in brains of patients at both the acute and subacute phase (0.266 ± 0.026 and at the interictal phase (0.295 ± 0.009, compared with normal controls (0.316 ± 0.025. In the brains at the acute and subacute phase of the episode, 13 ROIs were prescribed on the stroke-like lesions, which showed decreased OEF compared with the contralateral spared brain regions. Increased blood flow was revealed in the stroke-like lesions at the acute and subacute phase, which was confined to the lesions. CONCLUSION: MRI can quantitatively show changes in OEF at different phases of stroke-like episodes. The utilization of oxygen in the brain seems to be reduced more severely after the onset of episodes in MELAS, especially for those brain tissues involved in the episodes.

  4. Non-invasive multiparametric qBOLD approach for robust mapping of the oxygen extraction fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domsch, Sebastian; Mie, Moritz B.; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Wenz, Frederik [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-10-01

    Introduction: The quantitative blood oxygenation level-dependent (qBOLD) method has not become clinically established yet because long acquisition times are necessary to achieve an acceptable certainty of the parameter estimates. In this work, a non-invasive multiparametric (nimp) qBOLD approach based on a simple analytical model is proposed to facilitate robust oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) mapping within clinically acceptable acquisition times by using separate measurements. Methods: The protocol consisted of a gradient-echo sampled spin-echo sequence (GESSE), a T{sub 2}-weighted Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence, and a T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted multi-slice multi-echo gradient echo (MMGE) sequence. The GESSE acquisition time was less than 5 minutes and the extra measurement time for CPMG / MMGE was below 2 minutes each. The proposed nimp-qBOLD approach was validated in healthy subjects (N = 5) and one patient. Results: The proposed nimp-qBOLD approach facilitated more robust OEF mapping with significantly reduced inter- and intra-subject variability compared to the standard qBOLD method. Thereby, an average OEF in all subjects of 27 ± 2 % in white matter (WM) and 29 ± 2 % in gray matter (GM) using the nimp-qBOLD method was more stable compared to 41 ± 10 % (WM) and 46 ± 10 % (GM) with standard qBOLD. Moreover, the spatial variance in the image slice (i.e. standard deviation divided by mean) was on average reduced from 35 % to 25 %. In addition, the preliminary results of the patient are encouraging. Conclusion: The proposed nimp-qBOLD technique provides a promising tool for robust OEF mapping within clinically acceptable acquisition times and could therefore provide an important contribution for analyzing tumors or monitoring the success of radio and chemo therapies. (orig.)

  5. Antibacterial Curcuma xanthorrhiza Extract and Fractions

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    Hartiwi Diastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An acetone extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizomes and the nhexane and chloroform fractions obtained from it were tested on eight pathogenic bacteria. The results showed that the acetone extract and the nhexane fraction exhibited significant activities against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and weak activities against Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae. They were inactive against Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella thypi, while the chloroform fraction was devoid of activities. NMR analysis disclosed the presence of α-curcumene, xanthorrhizol and an unknown monoterpene in the nhexane fraction. In the chloroform fraction, curcumin was found to be the main compound, together with xanthorrhizol as a minor compound. These results suggest that the antibacterial potency of acetone extract of C. xanthorrhiza is contained in the n-hexane fraction, in which the active constituents are terpenoid compounds. This is the first report of the use of NMR analysis for compound identification contained in an extract or fractions of C. xanthorrhiza.

  6. Antimicrobial efficacy of the extract, fractions and essential oils from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial efficacy of the extract, fractions and essential oils from the leaves of ... by maceration with methanol followed by a mild liquid/liquid fractionation process. ... Keywords: Antimicrobial efficacy, essential oil, extracts, Eugenia uniflora, ...

  7. Regional Reproducibility of BOLD Calibration Parameter M, OEF and Resting-State CMRO2 Measurements with QUO2 MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, Isabelle; Tancredi, Felipe B.; Hoge, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    The current generation of calibrated MRI methods goes beyond simple localization of task-related responses to allow the mapping of resting-state cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in micromolar units and estimation of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Prior to the adoption of such techniques in neuroscience research applications, knowledge about the precision and accuracy of absolute estimates of CMRO2 and OEF is crucial and remains unexplored to this day. In this study, we addressed the question of methodological precision by assessing the regional inter-subject variance and intra-subject reproducibility of the BOLD calibration parameter M, OEF, O2 delivery and absolute CMRO2 estimates derived from a state-of-the-art calibrated BOLD technique, the QUantitative O2 (QUO2) approach. We acquired simultaneous measurements of CBF and R2* at rest and during periods of hypercapnia (HC) and hyperoxia (HO) on two separate scan sessions within 24 hours using a clinical 3 T MRI scanner. Maps of M, OEF, oxygen delivery and CMRO2, were estimated from the measured end-tidal O2, CBF0, CBFHC/HO and R2*HC/HO. Variability was assessed by computing the between-subject coefficients of variation (bwCV) and within-subject CV (wsCV) in seven ROIs. All tests GM-averaged values of CBF0, M, OEF, O2 delivery and CMRO2 were: 49.5 ± 6.4 mL/100 g/min, 4.69 ± 0.91%, 0.37 ± 0.06, 377 ± 51 μmol/100 g/min and 143 ± 34 μmol/100 g/min respectively. The variability of parameter estimates was found to be the lowest when averaged throughout all GM, with general trends toward higher CVs when averaged over smaller regions. Among the MRI measurements, the most reproducible across scans was R2*0 (wsCVGM = 0.33%) along with CBF0 (wsCVGM = 3.88%) and R2*HC (wsCVGM = 6.7%). CBFHC and R2*HO were found to have a higher intra-subject variability (wsCVGM = 22.4% and wsCVGM = 16% respectively), which is likely due to propagation of random measurement errors, especially for CBFHC due to the low

  8. Antioxidant Activities of Extracts and Fractions from Eupatorium lindleyanum DC

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    Yonghong Hu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of water extract (WE, ethanol extract (EE, residue water extract (RWE and petroleum ether (PF, ethyl acetate (EF, n-BuOH (BF and water (WF fractions of the ethanol extract from Eupatorium Lindley DC were investigated for the first time. Total phenolics content, DPPH radical scavenging activities, superoxide radical scavenging activities, total reduction capability, and ferrous ions chelating activities were determined for all the extracts and fractions. The results showed that all the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities with different magnitudes of potency. Among all the samples, WE and RWE exhibited the best antioxidant capacities, the BF also exhibited high antioxidant abilities in all tests except for the metal chelating activity, while the other extracts and fractions were relatively weak antioxidants. The BF had the highest total phenolics contents in all extracts and fractions, and the WE and RWE were found to be rich in tannins. Furthermore, the content of total phenolics showed good correlation with DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, and the reducing power. Phenolic composition of all the extracts and fractions was identified and quantified by HPLC. The results indicate that the extracts of E. Lindley DC might be a useful potential source of natural antioxidant ingredients.

  9. T2’-Imaging to Assess Cerebral Oxygen Extraction Fraction in Carotid Occlusive Disease: Influence of Cerebral Autoregulation and Cerebral Blood Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Ralf; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud; Hattingen, Elke; Singer, Oliver C.; Wagner, Marlies

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Quantitative T2'-mapping detects regional changes of the relation of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) by using their different magnetic properties in gradient echo imaging and might therefore be a surrogate marker of increased oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in cerebral hypoperfusion. Since elevations of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with consecutive accumulation of Hb might also increase the fraction of deoxygenated Hb and, through this, decrease the T2’-values in these patients we evaluated the relationship between T2’-values and CBV in patients with unilateral high-grade large-artery stenosis. Materials and Methods Data from 16 patients (13 male, 3 female; mean age 53 years) with unilateral symptomatic or asymptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis/occlusion were analyzed. MRI included perfusion-weighted imaging and high-resolution T2’-mapping. Representative relative (r)CBV-values were analyzed in areas of decreased T2’ with different degrees of perfusion delay and compared to corresponding contralateral areas. Results No significant elevations in cerebral rCBV were detected within areas with significantly decreased T2’-values. In contrast, rCBV was significantly decreased (pperfusion delay and decreased T2’. Furthermore, no significant correlation between T2’- and rCBV-values was found. Conclusions rCBV is not significantly increased in areas of decreased T2’ and in areas of restricted perfusion in patients with unilateral high-grade stenosis. Therefore, T2’ should only be influenced by changes of oxygen metabolism, regarding our patient collective especially by an increase of the OEF. T2’-mapping is suitable to detect altered oxygen consumption in chronic cerebrovascular disease. PMID:27560515

  10. Extraction and fractionation of wheat flour proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, A.; Bosveld, P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Moonen, H.H.E.; Scheepstra, A.

    1982-01-01

    Extraction of wheat flour with 1.5% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solution dissolved 65–67% of the total flour nitrogen. The SDS‐insoluble proteinaceous material was separated into glycoproteins‐I, II and III by ultracentrifugation. Part of the SDS‐soluble proteinaceous material was precipitated by

  11. Fractionated Marine Invertebrate Extract Libraries for Drug Discovery

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    Chris M. Ireland

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The high-throughput screening and drug discovery paradigm has necessitated a change in preparation of natural product samples for screening programs. In an attempt to improve the quality of marine natural products samples for screening, several fractionation strategies were investigated. The final method used HP20SS as a solid support to effectively desalt extracts and fractionate the organic components. Additionally, methods to integrate an automated LCMS fractionation approach to shorten discovery time lines have been implemented.

  12. Fractionation of five technical lignins by selective extraction in green solvents and characterization of isolated fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeriu, C.G.; Fitigau, F.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Frissen, A.E.; Stoutjesdijk, J.H.; Peter, F.

    2014-01-01

    Lignins from softwood, hardwood, grass and wheat straw were fractionated by selective extraction at ambient temperature using green solvents like acetone/water solutions of 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% (v/v) acetone and ethyl acetate. A comparison between the isolated fractions and unfractionated lignins

  13. Study of Constituents of Fractionated Extraction from Datong Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; WEI Xian-yong

    2005-01-01

    Datong coal was extracted with CS2, n-hexane, benzene, methanol, acetone, tetrahydro-furan(THF) and THF/methanol(1:3,v/v) mixed solvent sequentially. The extracts were analyzed with GC/MS. It is presented that group seperation of soluble organic compounds in the coal can be achieved by fractionated extraction using different solvents. The results show that CS2 was effective for extracting arenes from the coal sample. n-Hexane extractable fraction from Datong coal mainly consists of n-alkanes. A great variety of oxygen-containing compounds are dominant in the components of methanol-soluble fraction. Acyclic isoprenoids, pentecyclic triterpanes and a series of cyclohexanes with long-chain alkyl-substitutes are detected in acetone-soluble fraction. Dicyclic aramatic hydrocarbons are identified in benzene-soluble fraction and 4-6 cyclic condensed aramatic hydrocarbons are identified in THF-soluble fraction. The molecular structures detection of 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 2,4-dibromophnol, 2,4,6-tribromophenol and 4-chlorobenzophe-none firstly provide information for existence form of bromine and chlorine in coal.

  14. Nootropic Effects of Filipendula Vulgaris Moench Water Extract Fractions.

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    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Amelchenko, V P

    2015-07-01

    Nootropic activity of water extract fractions from aerial parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench was demonstrated on the models of hermetic volume hypoxia, conditioned passive avoidance response, open field test, and forced swimming with a load. The fractions stimulated hypoxic resistance, normalized orientation and exploratory behavior, improved conditioned response reproduction during testing after hypoxic injury, and increased exercise tolerance. Fractionation of the extract led to dissociation of the effect components, which suggests that individual constituents have specific characteristics. Ethylacetate fraction exhibited most pronounced nootropic activity and was superior to plant extract by some characteristics. The detected effects seemed to be caused by modulation of the hippocampus activity the under the effects of phenol and triterpene compounds.

  15. Antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extract and fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okokon Jude E; Antia Bassey S; Udobang John A

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic activities of ethanolic root extract/fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis (A. djalonensis) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods:A. djalonensis root extract/fractions (37-111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGLs) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of hours and days throughout the duration of the treatment. Results: Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting BGLs of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. Conclusions:These results suggest that the root extract/fractions of A. djalonensis possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  16. [Studies on extraction of active fraction from Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici by supercritical CO2 extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Cai-Ni; He, Wei; Li, Yong; Yuan, Wan-Rui

    2008-10-01

    To study the conditions of extraction of active fraction in Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici by supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE). Using the content of ferulic acid as the index, conditions for the extraction including extracting pressure, extracting temperature, temperature of resolution and extracting time were optimized by uniform design. The best SFE conclusions were as follows: cosolvent was 50% ethanol (ml/g), extracting pressure was 40 MPa, extracting temperature was 50 degrees C, pressure of resolution was 6 MPa, temperature of resolution was 50 degrees C, extracting time was 3.5 hours. The optimum extraction has high extraction ratio of active fraction in Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici, so it is reasonable and practicable.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract and fractions from Sarcochlamys pulcherrima

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    Afjal Hussain Mazumder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial evaluation of methanol extract of Sarcochlamys pulcherrima leaf and its hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions against 31 strains of microorganisms, using agar well, agar disc diffusion, and broth microdilution methods, revealed the activity of methanol extract against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escheracia coli (zone of inhibition: 21-40 mm, 200 mg/mL, and MIC: 6.25-50 mg/mL. All fractions also displayed antimicrobial activity (5-20 mg/mL, indeed ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed better activity (MIC: 0.156 to 2.5 mg/mL. C. albicans was most sensitive to n-butanol fraction (15 mm, 2.5 mg/mL. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were more active against T. mentagrophytes (12 mm at 1.25 mg/mL and S. aureus (ethyl acetate-16 mm, n-butanol-14 mm at 0.625 mg/mL. E. coli was inhibited by n-butanol fraction (13 mm at 2.5 mg/mL. Further, n-butanol fraction (400 µg/disc exhibited promising activity against 14 bacteria, 2 dermatophytes and 2 yeasts strains.

  18. Effects of fractionation on antibacterial activity of crude extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... TiA showed activity against 100% of the test gram negative bacterial strains and 60% of the ... Key words: Fractionation, chromatography, plant extract, Tamarindus indica, antibacterial activity, .... The phytochemical analysis showed that TiA, .... Alleviating Soil Acidity through Plant Organic Compounds. Braz ...

  19. Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, M; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed protein fraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissue lipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile of rats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50 +/- 1 degree C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residual chlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed the sunflower seed protein fraction had a similar body weight gain and food efficiency ratios in comparison to those fed casein. Rats fed SSPF in contrast had a significantly higher growth and food efficiency ratio than the rats fed sunflower meal (SM), extracted with hexane. However, dietary proteins exerted a separate effect on plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio and triglyceride content. Sunflower seed protein fraction resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) levels compared to the casein fed rats. Membrane phospholipid profile also showed a marked variation with the type of dietary protein. Rats fed SSPF and SM did not show much variation in plasma lipids, plasma proteins, liver and brain lipids and membrane phospholipid concentrations. Protein content, liver and brain lipid profile of the groups fed SSPF and casein were comparable, suggesting that the nutritional value of SSPF is better than SM and equivalent to that of casein.

  20. Antioxidant activity of different fractions of Spirulina platensis protean extract.

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    Piñero Estrada, J E; Bermejo Bescós, P; Villar del Fresno, A M

    2001-01-01

    Spirulina platensis, planktonic blue-green algae, is gaining increasing attention because of its nutritional and medicinal properties. This microalgae contains phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin and allophycocyanin). Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that a protean extract of S. platensis is a potent free-radical scavenger (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) and inhibits microsomal lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize phycocyanin of S. platensis. Besides, we tried to demonstrate that one of the main components responsible for this antioxidant activity is a biliprotein phycocyanin. For this purpose, we studied the antioxidant activity of different fractions obtained during the phycocyanin purification process, through the scavenger activity of hydroxyl radical. We also observed that an increase in phycocyanin content was related to an increase in the antioxidant activity in different fractions, and therefore phycobiliprotein phycocyanin is the component mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  1. Fractionation of the Hypericum perforatum L. extract: PMF, and PDT effects of the fractions against HL-60 leukemic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsontou, M.; Dimitriou, H.; Filippidis, G.; Tsimaris, I.; Kalmanti, M.; Skalkos, D.

    2007-02-01

    In the last three years we have prepared and studied the polar methanolic extract PMF, of the herb Hypericum perforatum L, and studied as a new, alternative photosensitizing substance for PDT. Hypericum perforatum L., as well as PMF, contains a number of naphthodianthrone derivatives (hypericins), such as hypericin and pseudohypericin, as its main photosensitizing constituents. PMF has been tested as a PDT agent in vitro in bladder cancer cells, leukemia cells, and in vivo in rat tumor bearing urinary bladder. In order to evaluate the contribution of the hypericins in the overall PDT action, and prepare a better photosensitizing extract than PMF, we have separated the extract in four main fractions (1,2,3,4), and tested their PDT effects against the HL-60 leukemic cells. The concentration of hypericins in the extracts was found 0.08% for fraction 1, 0.09% for fraction 2, 0.8% for fraction 3, and 2,8% for fraction 4. The PDT activity observed among the fractions was proportional to their hypericins concentration, thus increasing in the order of increasing number: fraction 4 > fraction 3 > fraction 2 > fraction 1. Fraction 4 proved to be the most powerful fraction. However, despite its relatively high hypericins concentration (2.8%), compared with the total extract PMF (1.37%), fraction 4 proved to be less active in the cell line tested. This result indicates that there are other photosensitizing constituents within the PMF extract which contribute significantly in the overall PDT action, and therefore the extract should be used as it is for further PDT studies, without any further purification.

  2. Fractionation of commercial hexane and use of its fractions as extracting solvent of cottonseed oil

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    Megahed, Ola A.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of producing off-graded cottonseed oil using locally produced commercial hexane as extracting solvent has explored this research. It was aimed in this work to investigate whether this problem can be solved by controlling the boiling range of the extracting solvent. Four different hexane fractions of different boiling ranges were prepared from commercial hexane. The boiling range of commercial hexane was 62-68ºC while the boiling ranges of the four fractions were 62- 64, 64-65, 65-66 and 66-68ºC. Commercial hexane and the prepared four hexane fractions were then used to extract cottonseed oil from a fixed seed sample. The five crude oil samples were then refined and bleached and their colours were measured. The results have shown that the heaviest hexane fraction ( b.r 66-68ºC produced the lightest coloured oils. The colour index of the bleached oil using this heavy cut was 190 compared to 350 using the original commercial hexane. However, the production of a commercial hexane cut having a narrow boiling range will be costly. Therefore, this research has been extended to investigate the suitability of a heavy petroleum cut which has a boiling range as wide as that of commercial hexane to extract cottonseed oil. The boiling range of this cut was 66-72ºC. The obtained results proved that the extraction of cottonseed oil using that heavy petroleum fraction produces much lighter oil than the use of conventional hexane solvent.En esta investigación se ha examinado el problema de producir aceite de semilla de algodón sin-clasificar usando hexano comercial producido localmente como disolvente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar si este problema puede ser solucionado controlando el rango de ebullición del disolvente extractante. Cuatro fracciones diferentes de hexano de diversos rangos de ebullición fueron preparadas del hexano comercial. El rango al que ebullía el hexano comercial era 62-68ºC mientras que los

  3. Extraction and characterisation of protein fractions from five insect species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liya; Lakemond, Catriona M M; Sagis, Leonard M C; Eisner-Schadler, Verena; van Huis, Arnold; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2013-12-15

    Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio, Alphitobius diaperinus, Acheta domesticus and Blaptica dubia were evaluated for their potential as a future protein source. Crude protein content ranged from 19% to 22% (Dumas analysis). Essential amino acid levels in all insect species were comparable with soybean proteins, but lower than for casein. After aqueous extraction, next to a fat fraction, a supernatant, pellet, and residue were obtained, containing 17-23%, 33-39%, 31-47% of total protein, respectively. At 3% (w/v), supernatant fractions did not form stable foams and gels at pH 3, 5, 7, and 10, except for gelation for A. domesticus at pH 7. At 30% w/v, gels at pH 7 and pH 10 were formed, but not at pH 3 and pH 5. In conclusion, the insect species studied have potential to be used in foods due to: (1) absolute protein levels; (2) protein quality; (3) ability to form gels.

  4. Protein precipitating capacity and antioxidant activity of Turkish Tombul hazelnut phenolic extract and its fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvan Pelitli, Ebru; Janiak, Michał Adam; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2017-03-01

    Natural (raw) hazelnut was extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone to obtain crude phenolic extract that was then fractionated for elution of low-molecular weight (LMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions. LMW fraction was further purified (LWM-FP) to remove sugars and organic acids. The crude extract and its fractions were determined by measuring their protein precipitating capacity (PPC) using two different proteins [bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gelatin], molecular weights, total phenolics, condensed tannins, and various antioxidant activities. Significant differences (p<0.05) existed in the contents of total phenolics, condensed tannins, antioxidant activities, and PPC among the crude extract and fractions, albeit to different extends. BSA and gelatin was effectively precipitated by HMW fraction. HMW fraction had the highest total phenolics, condensed tannins, and antioxidant activities, followed by crude extract, LWM-FP, and LMW, respectively. The present study suggests that HMW fraction could be utilised as a source of polyphenols for the food industry.

  5. Application of the Algorithm of Fractional Dimension to Extraction Image Edge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Luo; Qingli Ren

    2006-01-01

    The idea of fractional dimension was stated in brief firstly. Then, adopting the fractional statistical similar principle,the method of the least square minimum error was applied to evaluate the fractional dimension of per image pixel depending on the fractional property of image. And the image edge is extracted by magnitude of fractional dimension of image pixel. We presented the algorithm of the local fractional dimension, which made the rule of window size and sentencing the fractional dimension of edge. Although this algorithm was waste time, it is better than the classical ones in extraction edge and anti-jamming.

  6. Phytotoxicity and biodirected fractionation of extracts of barks of Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O.Berg. (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Habermann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of barks of Blepharocalyx salicifolius on elongation of etiolated coleoptiles of Triticum aestivum (wheat. The extracts hexane (Hx, ethyl acetate (AcOET, and aqueous (H2O were obtained by means of exhaustive extraction with CH2Cl2/CH3OH and subsequent fractionation by partition chromatography coefficient. The extracts AcOET and Hx were fractionated by column chromatography by using organic solvents in increasing order of polarity, yielding 7 hexanic fractions and 6 ethylic acetate fractions. Subsequently, the fractions Hx1 and Hx5 were subfractionated by column chromatography. The extracts AcOET and Hx inhibited elongation of coleoptiles. Four ethylic acetate fractions inhibited elongation of coleoptiles at all concentrations. Five hexanic fractions inhibited elongation of coleoptiles, the fractions Hx5 and Hx1 fractions showed phytotoxic effects equivalent or superior to those observed by the herbicide GOAL® at the same concentrations. All subfractions obtained by means of fractionation of Hx1 inhibited elongation of coleoptiles. Six fractions obtained by means of fractionation of Hx5 inhibited elongation of coleoptiles at all concentrations. This study proves the phytotoxicity of extracts of barks of B. salicifolius, providing indications that they may act as promising natural herbicides.

  7. Database of normal human cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, cerebral oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen measured by positron emission tomography with {sup 15}O-labelled carbon dioxide or water, carbon monoxide and oxygen: a multicentre study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Division of Brain Sciences, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-Machi, 980-8575, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Kanno, Iwao [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Kato, Chietsugu [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Sasaki, Toshiaki [Cyclotoron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Morioka (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo (Japan); Ouchi, Yasuomi [Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamakita (Japan); Iida, Akihiko [Nagoya City Rehabilitation Center, Nagoya (Japan); Okazawa, Hidehiko [PET Unit, Research Institute, Shiga Medical Center, Moriyama (Japan); Hayashida, Kohei [Department of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Division of Imaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Kuwabara, Yasuo [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Senda, Michio [Department of Image-based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) by positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide (C{sup 15}O{sub 2}) or {sup 15}O-labelled water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O), {sup 15}O-labelled carbon monoxide (C{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O-labelled oxygen ({sup 15}O{sub 2}) is useful for diagnosis and treatment planning in cases of cerebrovascular disease. The measured values theoretically depend on various factors, which may differ between PET centres. This study explored the applicability of a database of {sup 15}O-PET by examining between-centre and within-centre variation in values. Eleven PET centres participated in this multicentre study; seven used the steady-state inhalation method, one used build-up inhalation and three used bolus administration of C{sup 15}O{sub 2} (or H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O{sub 2}. All used C{sup 15}O for measurement of CBV. Subjects comprised 70 healthy volunteers (43 men and 27 women; mean age 51.8{+-}15.1 years). Overall mean{+-}SD values for cerebral cortical regions were: CBF=44.4{+-}6.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}; CBV=3.8{+-}0.7 ml 100 ml{sup -1}; OEF=0.44{+-}0.06; CMRO{sub 2}=3.3{+-}0.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}. Significant between-centre variation was observed in CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} by one-way analysis of variance. However, the overall inter-individual variation in CBF, CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} was acceptably small. Building a database of normal cerebral haemodynamics obtained by the{sup 15}O-PET methods may be practicable. (orig.)

  8. Antiulcer activity of methanolic extract and fractions of Picralima nitida seeds(Apocynacaea) in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okonta Jegbefume Mathew; Adibe Maxwell Ogochukwu; Ubaka Chukwuemeka Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the antisecrectory activities of the methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction of Picralima nitida seeds. Methods: The methanol extract of Picralima nitida seeds was fractionated into chloroform fraction and methanol fraction. They were evaluated for antiulcer activity and gastric emptying time in rats using aspirin-pylorus-ligation model. Results: Oral administration of the methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction at 1 000 mg/kg reduced gastric ulcer by 56.4%, 40.0% and 56.3%, respectively; and the fractions of the extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced gastric emptying time when compared to the control. Gastric acidity was significantly decreased when compared with saline group, 40.25 mEq/L in methanol extract, 50.0 mEq/L in chloroform fraction 51.25 mEq/L in methanol fration but had no significant effect on the gastric secretion volume. Conclusions: These findings showed that methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction of the seeds of Picralima possessed potent antiulcer properties and some antisecretory properties.

  9. Inhibition of thermal induced protein denaturation of extract/fractions of Withania somnifera and isolated withanolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad Ali; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdul; Ben Hadda, Taibi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the in vitro inhibition of protein denaturation of extract/fractions of Withania somnifera and isolated withanolides including 20β hydroxy-1-oxo(22R)-witha-2,5,24 trienolide (1), (20R,22R-14α,20α)-dihydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,5,16,24 tetraenolide (2). The results showed that the extract/fractions of the plant evoked profound inhibitory effect on thermal-induced protein denaturation. The chloroform fraction caused the most dominant attenuation of 68% at 500 μg/mL. The bioactivity-guided isolation from chloroform fraction led to the isolation of compounds 1 and 2 that showed profound protein inhibition with 78.05% and 80.43% effect at 500 μg/mL and thus strongly complimented the activity of extract/fractions. In conclusion, extract/fractions of W. somnifera possessed strong inhibition of protein denaturation that can be attributed to these isolated withanolides.

  10. Fractionation of extracts from paper and board food contact materials forin vitroscreening of toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtström, Linda; Trier, Xenia; Granby, Kit;

    2014-01-01

    Paper and board used as food contact materials (FCMs) are chemically complex matrices, partly due to the naturally occurring substances in paper and board, but also due to the chemical treatment of the paper used to make it suitable for food contact. In order to assure the safety of packaging......% after extraction and fractionation. The fractionation both reduces the number of compounds to be identified and works as a sample clean-up by reducing matrix effects. Raw extracts and fractions from two paper and board FCMs were furthermore tested in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) reporter gene...... assay. Both raw extracts and two of the fractions of the raw extracts gave a positive response in the AhR assay. The strategy of extraction followed by fractionation offers a powerful tool in order to make the workflow for screening FCMs for potentially adverse effects more efficient....

  11. Cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic evaluation of crude extracts and fractions from Piper jericoense with trypanocidal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedt, A L; Ortiz, I C; García-Huertas, P A; Sáenz, J; de Araujo, A Caldeira; De Mattos, J C P; Rodríguez-Gazquez, M A; Triana-Chávez, O

    2014-03-01

    The current Chagas disease treatment is based on two drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole, which is considered unsatisfactory, not only because of the narrow therapeutic range but also because of the associated toxicity. Natural products are considered an important source of biologically active compounds against various infectious organisms. Numerous Piper species are used in traditional medicine to treat parasitic diseases. In this paper, we study the activity of extracts and fractions obtained from Piper jericoense plant against epimastigote, trypomastigote and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. In addition, we evaluated the cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic activities of the F4 fraction obtained from one of the more promising extracts. We obtained four extracts, one of which presented low toxicity and high trypanocidal activity. This extract was separated into eight fractions, and the F4 fraction presented better results than the other extracts and had a higher selectivity index than the reference drug, benznidazole. This fraction was not cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic.

  12. Extraction and Characterization of Humic Acids and Humin Fractions from a Black Soil of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Bao-Shan; LIU Ju-Dong; LIU Xiao-Bing; HAN Xiao-Zeng

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three progressive extractions were performed to study individual humic acids (Has) and humin fractions from a typical black soil (Mollisol) in Heilongjiang Province, China using elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques. After 23 HA extractions the residue was separated into high and low organic carbon humin fractions. HA yield was the highest for the first extraction and then gradually decreased with further extractions. Organic carbon (OC) of the humin fractions accounted for 58% of total OC even after 23 successive HA extractions. In addition, the atomic C/H ratio decreased during the course of extraction while C/O increased; the E4/E6 ratio from the UV analysis decreased with further extraction while E2/Ea increased; the band assigned to aliphatic carbon (2 930 cm-1) in the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) spectra gradually increased with progressive extraction; the calculated ratio of the sum of aromatic carbon peak heights to that of aliphatic carbon peak heights from DRIFTS spectra declined with extractions; and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data suggested that HA aliphatic carbons increased with extractions while aromatic carbons decreased. Thus, hydrophobicity and aliphaticity of Has increased with extractions while polarity and aromaticity decreased. These data showed substantial chemical, structural, and molecular differences among the 23 Has and two humin fractions. Therefore, these results may help explain why soil and sediment humin fractions have high sorption capacity for organic contaminants.

  13. (Convolvulaceae) extracts and fractions on larvae of Spodoptera f

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Phytochemical analysis through GC-MS and H1 NMR revealed the presence of fatty acids and aldehydes in the active .... coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ..... In summary, the obtained results suggest that the extracts.

  14. Anti-fertility effects of different fractions of Anethum graveolens L. extracts on female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malihezaman, Monsefi; Mojaba, Masoudi; Elham, Hosseini; Farnaz, Gramifar; Ramin, Miri

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies showed the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Anethum graveolens L. (dill) on female infertility. In the present study we investigated whether different fractions of this herb extract can cause infertility in rats. Female rats were divided into the control groups, the groups receiving either a low (0.5 g/kg)) or a high dose (5g/kg) of water, N-butanol, chloroform and ether fractions of the aqueous plant extract, and the groups receiving either a low (0.045 g/kg) or a high dose (0.45 g/kg) of the same fractions of ethanol extract. The mentioned doses were gavaged in 1mL for 10 days. Vaginal smears were prepared daily. Estradiol and progesterone levels were measured. The left oviduct and ovary were removed, their tissue subsequently being prepared in form of histology slides and stained using haematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. Female rats assigned to each group were mated with males; after that, crown-rump lengths and weights of newborn rats were measured. Results showed that each fraction produced some changes such as hormonal level reduction (chloroform fraction), diestrus phase prolongation and infertility (water fraction), and increase in pregnancy duration (chloroform and ether fractions). We concluded that each fraction comprises only some of the mentioned components and therefore recommended the usage of crude extract, especially the aqueous one, in case infertility aims to be induced.

  15. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents.

  16. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enomfon J Akpan; Jude E Okokon; Emem Offong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fraction of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods:M. scandens leaf extract/fractions (37-111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of 7 hours for acute study and 14 days for prolonged study. Lipid profiles of the treated diabetic rats were determined after the period of treatment. Results: Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting bloodglucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. The extract/fractions exerted a significant reduction in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL of extract with increases in HDL levels of the diabetic rats. Conclusions:These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  17. ANALGESIC AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF TOTAL EXTRACT, FLAVONOID FRACTION AND VOLATILE OIL OF SALVIA HYDRANGEA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V.A HAJ HASHEMI; A GHANADI; D MOSAVI

    2000-01-01

    .... At first, total extract, flavonoid fraction and volatile oil was prepared. Analgesic effect was assessed using light tail flick and acetic acid writhing test. Male wistar rats (180-220g) and mice (25±2g...

  18. Comparison of two sequential extraction procedures for uranium fractionation in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Duquène, Lise; Antunes, Kenny; Wannijn, Jean

    2014-11-01

    Two sequential extraction procedures were carried out on six soils with different chemical properties and contamination history to estimate the partitioning of uranium (U) between different soil fractions. The first standard method (method of Schultz) was specifically developed for actinides, while the second one (method of Rauret) was initially created for heavy metals. Reproducibility of both methods was compared by means of the coefficient of variation (CV). A soil-to-plant transfer experiment was also carried out with ryegrass to verify if one of the extracted fractions efficiently predicted plant uptake. In artificially contaminated soils, most of the U was retrieved from the exchangeable and the carbonates fractions. In soils with high natural levels of U or contaminated by industrial activity, most of the U was found in the less available fractions. Different U concentrations were found in the fractions which were supposed to be comparable in the two methods. Extracted fractions following Schultz differentiated more strongly between the tested soils but no relationships with soil parameters could be established. As expected, the highest U transfer factors (TF) were observed for ryegrass grown on artificially contaminated soils and the lowest on soils with high natural concentrations or industrial contamination, in agreement with the extraction procedures. No good relation was found between the soil-to-shoot TF and the extracted U concentrations. On the other hand, the U concentration in the roots, the U concentration in the shoots and the soil-to-root TF are well correlated to the U concentration determined in the first extracted fractions (so called exchangeable fractions) from the method of Schultz. We conclude that the extraction method according to Schultz should be preferably used for U, and that the exchangeable fraction can be proposed as a potential indicator to evaluate plant uptake in soils.

  19. Determination of Bioactive Components of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Punica granatum Rind Extract

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sangeetha; K. Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Punica granatum belongs to a Punicaceae family. The Punica granatum is valued as a powerful medicinal plant and used in folk medicines. Hence the present investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract by GC-MS Technique. This analysis revealed that ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract contain Pyrogallol (41.88%), 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (14.10%), D-Allose (9.17%), 2-Methoxy-1, 4-Benzened...

  20. Ultraviolet-visible absorptive features of water extractable and humic fractions of animal manure and compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    UV-vis spectroscopy is a useful tool for characterizing water extractable or humic fractions of natural organic matter (WEOM). Whereas the whole UV-visible spectra of these fractions are more or less featureless, the specific UV absorptivity at 254 and 280 nm as well as spectral E2/E3 and E4/E6 rat...

  1. Preliminary isolation and in vitro antiyeast activity of active fraction from crude extract of Gracilaria changii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasidharan Sreenivasan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate the active fraction from crude extract of Gracilaria changii and to determine its in vitro antifungal activity. Materials and Methods: The active fraction was isolated from the crude extract of G. changii by various purification procedures such as column chromatography, thin layer chromatography, bioauthograph etc. The in vitro antifungal activity (Candida albicans of the active fraction (1.00, 0.50, and 0.25 mg/ml was studied by disc diffusion method and the effect of the active fraction on the morphology of yeast was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM studies. Results: An active fraction with remarkable antifungal activity was separated from the crude extract. The active fraction was effective as a fungicide against C. albicans and showed a dose-dependent antifungal activity. A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM study confirmed the fungicidal effect of G. changii active fraction on C. albicans, by changing the normal morphology of C. albicans. Conclusion: From G. changii crude extract, an active fraction with remarkable in vitro antifungal activity has been isolated.

  2. Investigation of Ethyl Acetate Extract/Fractions of Acacia nilotica willd. Ex Del as Potent Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajbir Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extract/fractions of Acacia nilotica Willd. Ex. Del extracted with different solvents of increasing and decreasing order of solvent polarity. The antioxidative activities, including the 1’-1’ diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging effects, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, chelating ability, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition in rat tissue homogenate were studied in vitro. It was found that the antioxidative effect provided by extract/fractions was strongly concentration dependent and increased on fractionating the extract into water and ethyl acetate fractions. In general, the antioxidative activity increased with increasing extract/fractions concentration to a certain extent, and then leveled off with further increase in antioxidant activity. From a comparison of the antioxidant potential and IC 50 values for different antioxidative reactions, it seemed that extract/fractions were more effective in scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radicals than reducing, chelating heavy metals and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential.

  3. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts and fractions from Erythrina mulungu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana S. G. de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth., Fabaceae, popularly known as mulungu, is used for the treatment of insomnia and disorders of the central nervous system. This study examined the antinociceptive effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts (HAE, the ethyl acetate and chloroformic fractions from E. mulungu in four experimental models of nociception using laboratory mice. The extracts and fractions were administered orally to mice at doses of 100 mg/kg. Inhibition of abdominal contractions were observed for all the extracts and fractions tested, as compared to controls. All extracts and fractions from E. mulungu reduced the nociception activity produced by formalin in the 2nd phase. In the hot plate test no significant effect was observed for any extract or fraction. In the peritonitis test induced by Zymosan, all of the tested extracts and the chloroformic fraction, except for the ethyl acetate phase, reduced cell migration of the peritoneal cavity. We concluded that E. mulungu shows antinociceptive effects, which are independent of the opioid system.

  4. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf solid phase extraction fraction and its anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Li Teng; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Abas, Faridah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-02-24

    The aims of this study were to examine the bioactive component(s) responsible for the anticoagulant activity of M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract via bioassay-guided fractionation and to evaluate the effect of bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. The active anticoagulant fraction of F3 was subjected to a series of chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the effect of the bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway was studied through immediate and time incubation mixing studies. Through Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assay-guided fractionation, Subfraction B was considered the most potent anticoagulant fraction. Characterisation of Subfraction B indicated that anticoagulant activity could partly be due to the presence of cinnamic acid and a cinnamic acid derivative. APTT assays for both the immediate and time incubation mixing were corrected back into normal clotting time range (35.4-56.3 s). In conclusion, cinnamic acid and cinnamic acid derivative from Subfraction B were the first such compounds to be discovered from M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract that possess anticoagulant activity. This active anticoagulant Subfraction B prolonged blood clotting time by causing factor(s) deficiency in the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway.

  5. Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Umeda Grisi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce and Allium cepa L. (onion, as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml of distilled water, resulting in a concentration of 10.0%. Distilled water was added in order to obtain dilutions of 7.5%, 5.0%, and 2.5%. The extraction was carried out with young leaves (in powder form and organic solvents of various polarities. We fractioned the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. The phytotoxic potential of the aqueous extract of young leaves S. saponaria varied according to the receiving species and the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. The ethyl acetate extract, specifically fraction 6 (57-70, had the greatest inhibitory effect on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles, indicating that the compounds responsible for the phytotoxic effect reside within this fraction.

  6. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) for the 3D Visualization of Integrated Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, David; Moreland, John; Baru, Chaitan; Crosby, Chris

    2010-05-01

    seismic tomography may be sliced by multiple oriented cutting planes and isosurfaced to create 3D skins that trace feature boundaries within the data. Topography may be overlaid with satellite imagery, maps, and data such as gravity and magnetics measurements. Multiple data sets may be visualized simultaneously using overlapping layers within a common 3D coordinate space. Data management within the OEF handles and hides the inevitable quirks of differing file formats, web protocols, storage structures, coordinate spaces, and metadata representations. Heuristics are used to extract necessary metadata used to guide data and visual operations. Derived data representations are computed to better support fluid interaction and visualization while the original data is left unchanged in its original form. Data is cached for better memory and network efficiency, and all visualization makes use of 3D graphics hardware support found on today's computers. The OpenEarth Framework project is currently prototyping the software for use in the visualization, and integration of continental scale geophysical data being produced by EarthScope-related research in the Western US. The OEF is providing researchers with new ways to display and interrogate their data and is anticipated to be a valuable tool for future EarthScope-related research.

  7. Fractionation of plutonium in environmental and bio-shielding concrete samples using dynamic sequential extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Fractionation of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239,240Pu) in environmental samples (i.e. soil and sediment) and bio-shielding concrete from decommissioning of nuclear reactor were carried out by dynamic sequential extraction using an on-line sequential injection (SI) system combined with a specially...... designed extraction column. Plutonium in the fractions from the sequential extraction was separated by ion exchange chromatography and measured using alpha spectrometry. The analytical results show a higher mobility of plutonium in bio-shielding concrete, which means attention should be paid...

  8. Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabueze, Celestina Ifeoma; Adesegun, Sunday Adeleke; Coker, Herbert Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Petersianthus macrocarpus (Lecythidaceae) is widely used in the folk medicine in Nigeria to relieve pain and fever associated with malaria. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was determined in mice using hotplate and acetic acid-induced writhing models. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aspirin (100 mg/ml, p.o.) were used as reference analgesic agents. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; reducing power, iron chelating properties and determination of total phenolic content. Results: The extract at 200 and 500 mg/kg, produced an insignificant (P > 0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate but a significant (P < 0.05) increase at 1000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose dependent manner. Fractionation increased the analgesic activities significantly (P < 0.05) in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (200 mg/kg). The extract demonstrated strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 0.05 mg/ml, good reducing power and weak iron chelating activities. The total phenol content was 142.32 mg/gin term of gallic acid. The antioxidant effects were more pronounced in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract has strong analgesic and antioxidant activities which reside mainly in the polar fractions thus confirming the traditional use of the plant to alleviate pains. SUMMARY Analgesic and antioxidant activities of extract and solvent fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus investigated indicated that extract has analgesic and antioxidant properties that reside mainly in the polar fractions. Abbreviations Used: DMSO: Dimethyl sulphoxide, ANOVA: analysis of variance, EDTA: ethylene diamne tetraacetic acid, SDM: standard deviation of mean

  9. MECHANISMS OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE LEAF EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF MILLETTIA ABOENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaghaku Daniel Lotanna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The acute and chronic anti-inflammatory effect of the crude extracts and fractions of Millettia aboensis leaves, a popular Nigerian traditional anti-inflammation remedy and possible mechanism of effect was investigated. Phytochemical analysis of the crude and fraction revealed the presence of anti-inflammatory phyto-compounds – terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and glycosides. No death was recorded from acute toxicity study. The crude and methanol fraction at 300 and 200 mg/kg showed significant (p < 0.05 inhibition of egg albumin induced paw edema. Effect of the extract and fraction on topical oedema induced by xylene on mouse ear revealed that methanol fraction at 5 mg/ear had the highest activity with percentage inhibition of 61.90 % compared to the 54.76 % inhibition produced by Indomethacin. Methanol fraction at 300 mg/kg produced a significant (p < 0.05 inhibition of formaldehyde induced arthritis with percentage inhibition of 40.93 %. Result of the ulcergenic effect in rat demonstrated that both the crude and methanol fraction possess ulcergenic effect though lower than that produced by Indomethacin. Methanol fraction at 400 mg/kg also produced significant (p < 0.05 inhibition of leucocytes migration compared with the control. Both extract and methanol fraction produced stabilization effect on the heat-induced and hypotonicity induced red blood cell haemolysis. These results suggest that the ethanol leaf extract of M. aboensis possess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity that is most active in the methanol fraction. The activity may be as a result of combined inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, leukocyte migration and membrane stabilization effect.

  10. Antimicrobial and antispasmodic activity of leaf extract and fractions of Stachytarpheta cayennensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okoye TC; Akah PA; Okoli CO; Ezike AC; Mbaoji FN

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the methanol leaf extract (ME), n-hexane fraction (HF), ethylacetate fraction (EF) and methanol fraction (MF), ofStachytarpheta cayennensis C. Rich (verbenaceae) as well as to ascertain the antispasmodic effects of the ME and the various fractions (HF, EF and MF) on acetylcholine (Ach) and histamine (H) induced contractions on isolated guinea pig ileum.Methods: Thein vitroagar well diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial studies while the isolated tissue method was employed for the antispasmodic test. Organisms used were all clinical isolates ofBacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Candida albicans andAspergillus niger.Results: The extract and fractions exhibited dose dependent inhibition against all the bacteria tested and also exhibited insignificant antifungal activity againstCandida albicansandAspergillus niger. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract and fractions (mg/mL) onBacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella paratyphi respectively were ME 5.62, 14.12, 22.38, 2.11; EF 1.25, 6.30, 9.40, 9.40 and MF 3.98, 8.81, 39.80, 21.13. The n-hexane fraction exhibited MIC of 1.07 mg/mL against onlyBacillus subtilis. The extract and fractions exhibited significant (P< 0.05) dose dependent attenuation of contractions induced by acetylcholine and histamine on isolated guinea pig ileum. Concentrations of the extract and fractions (μg/mL) which evoked 50% inhibition of maximal response exhibited by Ach were ME 0.64, HF 0.16, EF 0.08 and MF 0.15, while that of histamine included ME 5.12, HF 0.16, EF 0.04 and MF 0.64. Preliminary phytochemical studies on the extract and fractions indicated the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids.Conclusions:The extract and fractions ofStachytarpheta cayennensis possessed both antibacterial and antispasmodic effects confirming

  11. Effectivity of Beta vulgaris L. Extract with various Solvent Fractions to Aedes aegypti Larval Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Widawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue vector control is mostly done by using plant-based insecticides. Insecticides from the vegetable and fruit extracts of the leaves of plants that contain compounds alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, and polyphenols can be used as an alternative to naturally control Ae. aegypti. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the B. vulgaris L. extract larvacide against larvae of Ae. aegypti. The materials that been used was B. vulgaris L. fruit parts which was milled and dried to become a powder form. 800 g of dry powder was extracted by 70% methanol by percolation method with occasional stirring for 3 days. The extract was concentrated using an evaporator. 60 g remaining residue was dissolved in distilled water and re-extracted with diethyl ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. Each fraction extract was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate and the solvent was distilled. The extract was tested qualitatively to determine the content of secondary metabolites. Larvacide test performed by dissolving each extracts in dimetilsulphoxide (DMSO at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1%. The larvae used was larval of Ae. aegypti age of seven days. Death larvae counted every day for seven days to determine the effect of the contact. Tests carried out at a temperature of 27±1°C by immersing 25 larvae at each concentration of the extract with 50 mL volume and three replications was performed. The data obtained were analyzed further with different test. The results showed that fruit extract contains flavonoids, alkoloid, sterols, triterpenes, saponins and tannins. Highest mortality happened which was 82.5% and the lowest mortality happened with a concentration of 0.1% diethyl ether extract fraction. The extracts that are dissolved in various solvent fractions have not been effective as a larvacide until the highest concentration which was 1%. Methanol and polar solvent extracts of the fruit has a larvacide potency a bit

  12. NPCARE: database of natural products and fractional extracts for cancer regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwanho; Cho, Sun Young; Pak, Ho Jeong; Kim, Youngsoo; Choi, Jung-Yun; Lee, Yoon Jae; Gong, Byung Hee; Kang, Yeon Seok; Han, Taehoon; Choi, Geunbae; Cho, Yeeun; Lee, Soomin; Ryoo, Dekwoo; Park, Hwangseo

    2017-01-01

    Natural products have increasingly attracted much attention as a valuable resource for the development of anticancer medicines due to the structural novelty and good bioavailability. This necessitates a comprehensive database for the natural products and the fractional extracts whose anticancer activities have been verified. NPCARE (http://silver.sejong.ac.kr/npcare) is a publicly accessible online database of natural products and fractional extracts for cancer regulation. At NPCARE, one can explore 6578 natural compounds and 2566 fractional extracts isolated from 1952 distinct biological species including plants, marine organisms, fungi, and bacteria whose anticancer activities were validated with 1107 cell lines for 34 cancer types. Each entry in NPCARE is annotated with the cancer type, genus and species names of the biological resource, the cell line used for demonstrating the anticancer activity, PubChem ID, and a wealth of information about the target gene or protein. Besides the augmentation of plant entries up to 743 genus and 197 families, NPCARE is further enriched with the natural products and the fractional extracts of diverse non-traditional biological resources. NPCARE is anticipated to serve as a dominant gateway for the discovery of new anticancer medicines due to the inclusion of a large number of the fractional extracts as well as the natural compounds isolated from a variety of biological resources.

  13. Effects of Acmella oleracea methanolic extract and fractions on the tyrosinase enzyme

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    Alan F. Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of Acmella oleracea (L. R.K. Jansen, Asteraceae, methanolic extract, hexane (84.28% spilanthol and dichloromethane (approximately 100% spilanthol fractions on the tyrosinase enzyme. The dehydrated jambu extract was obtained through maceration using methanol. The extract residue was solubilized in MeOH/H2O (8:2 and subjected to liq.–liq. partition in organic solvents. Both the extraction and the partition procedures were conducted with three replicates. The analyses were performed using GC–MS, 1H and 13C NMR. The hexane fraction provided samples containing 84.28, 82.91 and 62.83% spilanthol in repetitions 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The dichloromethane fraction showed 88.55% spilanthol in repetition 1, and approximately 100% spilanthol in repetitions 2 and 3. The jambu extract as well as the hexane fraction (84.28% spilanthol were able to activate the oxidizing activity of the tyrosinase enzyme for L-DOPA. The dichloromethane fraction (approximately 100% spilanthol showed stronger inhibition effect on the tyrosinase enzyme in the first 10 min. The results raise the interest in study in spilanthol formulations for topical use, since it may prevent and/or slow skin hyperpigmentation or depigmentation processes. Furthermore, spilanthol may be used to control the enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables.

  14. HEHEHP fractional extraction process with three outlets for separation of Am from rare earths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何培炯; 焦荣洲; 等

    1996-01-01

    Americium is similar to light rare earths in solvent extraction by HEHEHP.So the fractional extraction process with three outlets,which is widely used on rare earth industrial scale,can be applied to separate Am from La,Ce,Pr,Nd and Sm.The better process parameters can be calculated by the material and distribution balance equations stage by stage with given organic loading.In order to recover 0.99 mole fraction of Am and remove 0.90 mole fraction of light rare earths from the feed solution,in which the mole ratios of La Ce,Am,Pr,Nd,Sm are 0.140,0.199,0.005,0.109,0.487,0.060,the total number of stages needed is 43,that is the extraction sector 18,first scrubbing sector 2 and second scrubbing sector 23.The fractional extraction process with three outlets is simpler and more convenient than two fractional extraction processes with two outltes.

  15. Extracts and Fractions from Edible Roots of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. with Antihypertensive Activity

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    Galia Lombardo-Earl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sechium edule is traditionally used in Mexico as a therapeutic resource against renal diseases and to control high blood pressure. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the roots of this plant, including its fractions and subfractions, on different hypertension models induced with angiotensin II (AG II. The hydroalcoholic extract was tested on an in vitro study of isolated aorta rings denuded of endothelial cells, using AG II as the agonist; this assay proved the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Vagotomized rats were administered different doses of AG II as well as the Hydroalcoholic extract, which reduced blood pressure in 30 mmHg approximately; subsequently this extract was separated into two fractions (acetone and methanol which were evaluated in the acute hypertension mouse model induced with AG II, where the acetone fraction was identified as the most effective one and was subsequently subfractioned using an open chromatographic column packed with silica gel. The subfractions were also evaluated in the acute hypertension model. Finally, the extract, fraction, and active subfraction were analyzed by MS-PDA-HPLC, identifying cinnamic derivative compounds like cinnamic acid methyl ester.

  16. Some Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) leaf extracts and fractions have good antimicrobial activities and low cytotoxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Adamu Imam; Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Aliyu, Mohammed; Magaji, Rabiu AbduSsalam; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2014-11-27

    Strychnos spinosa Lam. is a deciduous tree used in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. This study is designed to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts and fractions from leaves of S. spinosa. Extracts were obtained by maceration with acetone, methanol and dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) while fractions were prepared by liquid-liquid fractionation of the acetone extract. A broth serial microdilution method with tetrazolium violet as growth indicator was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antioxidant activity was determined using free-radical-scavenging assays, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay was used to determine cytotoxicity. Four extracts and five fractions had good to weak antimicrobial activity with MICs ranging from 0.04 to >1.25 mg/ml against both fungi and bacteria. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions had an MIC of 0.08 mg/ml against Aspergillus fumigatus. The n-butanol fraction had an MIC of 0.04 mg/ml against Cryptococcus neoformans. The hexane and chloroform fractions had an MIC of 0.08 mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus. The antioxidant activities were much lower than that of the positive controls. Except for the alkaloid extract, all the extracts and fractions had free-radical-scavenging activity (IC50 ranging from 33.66 to 314.30 μg/ml). The cytotoxicity on Vero cells was reasonable to low with LC50 values ranging between 30.56 and 689.39 μg/ml. The acetone extract and the chloroform fraction had the highest antibacterial activity. By solvent-solvent fractionation it was possible to increase the activity against A. fumigatus and to decrease the cytotoxicity leading to a potentially useful product to protect animals against aspergillosis. Our results therefore support the use of S. spinosa leaves in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases.

  17. Ethanol extract and chromatographic fractions of Tamarindus indica stem bark inhibits Newcastle disease virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Omobola O; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-12-01

    The plethora of ethnomedicinal applications of Tamarindus indica Linn. (Leguminosae), tamarind, includes treatment of human and livestock ailments; preparations are recognized antipyretics in fevers, laxatives and carminatives. African folklore has various applications of tamarind. However, in Nyasaland, domestic fowl are fed with preparations for prophylactic properties. The objective of this study is to evaluate the antiviral properties of T. indica extract. Tamarindus indica stem bark was extracted through ethanol maceration over 24 h, and the crude extract was fractionated by gravity-propelled column chromatography. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inhibitory activity of extract and fractions were evaluated in vivo using 10-d-old embryonated chicken egg (ECE) as the medium for virus cultivation and antivirus assay. About 240 ECE were grouped into eight (three controls and five experimental) and, 200 μL of the extract and fractions respectively inoculated into NDV pre-infected eggs and incubated at 37 °C. Allantoic fluid was harvested 5 d post-virus infection and assayed for haemagglutination (HA). Anti-NDV assessment showed 62.5 mg/mL of crude extract and fractions: TiA, TiC and TiD to yield a HA titre of 1:128 each, while TiB showed 1:64 HA titre. At 125 mg/mL, a titre of 1:16 was recorded against TiB and TiD and, 1:8 against TiA. Similarly, crude extract and TiC, each recorded 1:4 HA titre. However, the minimum concentrations of extract and fraction for virus inactivation were 0.24 mg/mL and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively. The antiviral activity shown by T. indica portends novel antiviral drugs and, perhaps, as scaffold for new drugs.

  18. Antioxidant potential of n-butanol fraction from extract of Jasminum mesnyi Hance leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borar, Sakshi; Punia, Priyanka; Kalia, A N

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Jasminum mesnyi Hance leaves having antidiabetic activity was subjected to fractionation to obtain antioxidant and antihyperglycemic rich fraction. Different concentrations of ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were subjected to antioxidant assay by DPPH method, nitric oxide scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The fractions showed dose dependent free radical scavenging property in all the models. IC50 values for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were 153.45 +/- 6.65 and 6.22 +/- 0.25 microg/ml, respectively, as compared to L-ascorbic acid and rutin (as standards; IC50 values 6.54 +/- 0.24 and 5.43 +/- 0.21 microg/ml, respectively) in DPPH model. In nitric oxide scavenging activity, IC50 values were 141.54 +/- 9.95 microg/ml, 35.12 +/- 1.58 microg/ml, 21.06 +/- 0.95 microg/ml and 29.93 +/- 0.32 microg/ml for ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions, L-ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. n-Butanol fraction showed a good reducing potential and better free radical scavenging activity as compared to ethyl acetate fraction. Potent antioxidant n-butanol fraction showed better oral glucose tolerance test (antihyperglycemic) at par with metformin (standard drug), n-Butanol fraction contained secoiridoid glycosides which might be responsible for both antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity.

  19. Fractionation and sequential extraction of heavy metals in the soil of scrapyard of discarded vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Qasem M; Massadeh, Adnan M; Zaitoun, Mohammed A; Maitah, Baheyah M

    2006-01-01

    Chemical and physical size fractionation of heavy metals were carried out on 20 soil samples from the scrap yard area. Tessier method was used in sequential extraction. Cadmium showed the highest levels among the other elements studied in the exchangeable fraction (about 33%), while other elements showed low levels in this fraction (> or =1%). Lead and manganese were mostly found in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, zinc and iron were mostly in residual fraction, while copper was mostly found in the organic fraction of the soil. Soil samples were size-fractionated into four sizes: 1000-500, 500-125, 125-53, and less than 53 microm. The highest levels of Fe, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Cd were found in the medium fraction (500-125 mum), while zinc showed its highest levels in the fine fraction (125-53 microm). The order of heavy metal load in the size fractions was found to be medium > fine > coarse > silt for Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, where it was found as fine > medium > coarse > silt for zinc.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions of hexanic fruits of Campomanesia species (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Claudia Andréa Lima; Salmazzo, Gustavo Ruivo; Honda, Neli Kika; Prates, Crislaine Batista; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Coelho, Roberta Gomes

    2010-10-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the hexanic extracts and fractions of fruits of Campomanesia pubescens pubescens (D.C) O. Berg and Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess.) O. Berg were assayed against six microorganisms. The hexanic extracts of C. pubescens and C. adamantium fruits were also investigated in their composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The results of this study showed the presence of 34 volatile compounds and flavonoids in the hexanic extract of C. pubescens and 33 volatile compounds and flavonoids in the hexanic extract of C. adamantium.

  1. Molecular Characteristics of Kraft-AQ Pulping Lignin Fractionated by Sequential Organic Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Kraft-AQ pulping lignin was sequentially fractionated by organic solvent extractions and the molecular properties of each fraction were characterized by chemical degradation, GPC, UV, FT-IR, 13C-NMR and thermal analysis. The average molecular weight and polydispersity of each lignin fraction increased with its hydrogen-bonding capacity (Hildebrand solubility parameter. In addition, the ratio of the non-condensed guaiacyl/syringyl units and the content of β-O-4 linkages increased with the increment of the lignin fractions extracted successively with hexane, diethylether, methylene chloride, methanol, and dioxane. Furthermore, the presence of the condensation reaction products was contributed to the higher thermal stability of the larger molecules.

  2. Molecular characteristics of Kraft-AQ pulping lignin fractionated by sequential organic solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Runcang

    2010-08-16

    Kraft-AQ pulping lignin was sequentially fractionated by organic solvent extractions and the molecular properties of each fraction were characterized by chemical degradation, GPC, UV, FT-IR, (13)C-NMR and thermal analysis. The average molecular weight and polydispersity of each lignin fraction increased with its hydrogen-bonding capacity (Hildebrand solubility parameter). In addition, the ratio of the non-condensed guaiacyl/syringyl units and the content of β-O-4 linkages increased with the increment of the lignin fractions extracted successively with hexane, diethylether, methylene chloride, methanol, and dioxane. Furthermore, the presence of the condensation reaction products was contributed to the higher thermal stability of the larger molecules.

  3. Antidepressant properties of bioactive fractions from the extract of Crocus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Han, Ting; Zhu, Yu; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Ming, Qian-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant properties of stigmas and corms of Crocus sativus L. The aqueous ethanol extract of C. sativus corms was fractionated on the basis of polarity. Among the different fractions, the petroleum ether fraction and dichloromethane fraction at doses of 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg showed significant antidepressant-like activities in dose-dependent manners, by means of behavioral models of depression. The immobility time in the forced swimming test and tail suspending test was significantly reduced by the two fractions, without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in the open-field test. By means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique, twelve compounds of the petroleum ether fraction were identified. These data show that administration of C. sativus corms extract produces antidepressant-like effects. Aqueous stigmas extract also exerted antidepressive effects in the behavioral models. Crocin 1 and crocin 2 of the aqueous stigmas extract were identified by a reversed-phase HPLC analysis. In addition, the bioactive compound crocin 1 in this herb was quantitatively determined. The data indicate that antidepressant-like properties of aqueous stigma extracts may be due to crocin 1, giving support to the validity of the use of this plant in traditional medicine. All these results suggest that the low polarity parts of C. sativus corms should be considered as a new plant material for curing depression, which merit further studies regarding antidepressive-like activities of chemical compounds isolated from the two fractions and mechanism of action.

  4. Antimicrobial effects of Piper hispidum extract, fractions and chalcones against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G M; Endo, E H; Cortez, D A G; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2016-09-01

    Three chalcones, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-tetramethoxychalcone, and 3,2'-dihydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, were isolated from the leaves of Piper hispidum in a bioguided fractionation of crude extract. The antimicrobial activity of crude extract of P. hispidum leaves was determined against bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. Fractions and chalcones were tested against C. albicans and S. aureus. The checkerboard assay was performed to assess synergic interactions between extract and antifungal drugs, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay was used to evaluate anti-biofilm effects of extract. The extract was active against yeasts, S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values between 15.6 and 62.5μg/mL. Synergistic effects of extract associated with fluconazole and nystatin were observed against C. albicans, with fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.37 and 0.24, respectively. The extract was also effective against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilm cells at concentrations of 62.5 and 200μg/mL, respectively. Thus, P. hispidum may be a possible source of bioactive substances with antimicrobial properties.

  5. Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Crude Extracts and Fractions from Phyllanthus amarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tang Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P. amarus were determined using spectrophotometric method. Results: The P. amarus methanol (PAM extract had lower levels of residual moisture (7.40% and water activity (0.24 and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (1657.86 mg escin equivalents, 250.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, 274.73 mg rutin equivalents and 61.22 mg catechin equivalents per g dried extract, respectively than those of the P. amarus water (PAW extract. The antioxidant activity of PAM extract was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that of the PAW extract, PAM fractions, and phyllanthin (known as a major compound in the P. amarus. Higher cytotoxic activity of PAM extract based on MTT assay on different cell lines including MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas, HT29 (colon, A2780 (ovarian, H460 (lung, A431 (skin, Du145 (prostate, BE2-C (neuroblastoma, MCF-7 (breast, MCF-10A (normal breast, and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma was observed in comparison to the PAW extract and PAM fractions. The cytotoxic potential of the PAW extract (200 μg/mL, based on the CCK-8 assay on a pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaCaPa2 was significantly lower (p < 0.05 than those of gemcitabine (50 nM and a saponin-enriched extract from quillajia bark at 200 μg/mL (a commercial product, but was significantly higher than that of phyllanthin at 2 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results achieved from this study reveal that the PA extracts are a potential source for the development of natural antioxidant products and/or novel anticancer drugs.

  6. Simulation and analysis of multi-stage centrifugal fractional extraction process of 4-nitrobenzene glycine enantiomers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wen; Kewen Tang; Jicheng Zhou; Panliang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the interfacial ligand exchange model and the law of conservation of mass, the multi-stage enantioselective liquid–liquid extraction model has been established to analyze and discuss on multi-stage centrifugal fractional extraction process of 4-nitrobenzene glycine (PGL) enantiomers. The influence of phase ratio, extractant concentra-tion, and PF6−concentration on the concentrations of enantiomers in the extract and raffinate was investigated by experiment and simulation. A good agreement between model and experiment was obtained. On this basis, the influence of many parameters such as location of stage, concentration levels, extractant excess, and number of stages on the symmetric separation performance was simulated. The optimal location of feed stage is the middle of fractional extraction equipment. The feed flow must satisfy a restricted relationship on flow ratios and the liquid throughout of centrifugal device. For desired purity specification, the required flow ratios decrease with extractant concentration and increase with PF6−concentration. When the number of stages is 18 stages at extractant excess of 1.0 or 14 stages at extractant excess of 2.0, the eeeq (equal enantiomeric excess) can reach to 99%.

  7. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

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    Antonella Gori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cistus incanus (Cistaceae is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction, AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions, were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2. These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations.

  8. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  9. Effects of Nidus Vespae extract and chemical fractions on the growth and acidogenicity of oral microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Liu, Yuan; Zuo, Yu Ling; Li, Ji Yao; Ye, Ling; Zhou, Xue Dong

    2006-09-01

    Nidus Vespae is the honeycomb of Polistes Olivaceous (De Geer), P. Japonicus Saussure, and Parapolybiavaria Fabricius. It is known to have a number of pharmacological effects, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus, anti-tumor and anesthetic properties. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and acid inhibition properties of extracts and chemical fractions of Nidus Vespae. The raw material was first extracted using 95% ethanol/water. Subsequent fractions were prepared from this extract using cyclohexane/ethyl acetate, petroleum ether/ethyl acetate, and chloroform/methanol. For the antimicrobial activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined using the microdilution method. The chloroform/methanol (Chl/MeOH) fraction showed the highest antibacterial activities with a MIC of 8-16mg/ml and an MBC of 16-32mg/ml. In addition, the extract and chemical fractions of Nidus Vespae showed a remarkable capacity for inhibiting the acid production of common oral bacteria at sub-MIC concentrations. Sub-MIC levels of the petroleum ether/ethyl acetate fraction significantly inhibited acid production by Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. The significant antiacidogenic activity demonstrated by Nidus Vespae shows it to be a promising source of novel anticariogenic agents.

  10. Effect of Potent Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ- induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200?mg/kg. Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200?mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine.

  11. Comparative radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of methanolic extract and fractions from Achillea ligustica ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Filomena; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Menichini, Francesco

    2005-09-01

    The yield of methanolic extract and total phenol and non polar content of flowered parts from Achillea ligustica ALL. are reported. GC-MS analysis of the non polar fraction showed that the triterpene moretenol was the major constituent (17.228%) followed by stigmast-6-en-3beta-ol, veridiflorol and beta-amyrin (7.524%, 5.078% 4.470%, respectively). The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract and its fractions from A. ligustica were carried out using two different in vitro assays, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and lipid peroxidation of liposomes assay. Methanolic extract showed higher radical scavenging activity on DPPH (IC50 of 50 microg/ml). This activity is probably due to the phenolic fraction which shown an IC50 value of 22 microg/ml. A different result was obtained from the methanolic extract on the lipid peroxidation of liposomes (IC50 of 416 microg/ml). The alpha-amylase inhibition assay was applied to evaluate antidiabetic activity. The methanolic extract showed weak activity (28.18% at 1 mg/ml) while the n-hexane fraction showed 74.96% inhibition at 250 microg/ml.

  12. Extractable Fractions of Metals in Sewage Sludges from Five Typical Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; LI Xiao-Chen; WANG Pei-Fang; ZOU Li-Min; MA Hai-Tao

    2006-01-01

    Metal content and bioavailability are often the limiting factors for application of sewage sludge in agricultural fields.Sewage sludge samples were collected from five typical urban wastewater treatment plants in China to investigate their contents and distribution of various chemical fractions of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb and Mo by using the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. The sludges contained considerable amounts of organic matter (31.8%-48.0%), total N (16.3-26.4 g kg-1) and total P (15.1-23.9 g kg-1), indicating high potential agricultural benefits of their practical applications. However, total Zn and Ni contents in the sludge exceeded the values permitted in China's control standards for pollutants in sludges from agricultural use (GB 4284-1984). The residual fraction was the predominant fraction for Mo, Ni and Cr, the oxidizable fraction was the primary fraction for Cu and Pb, and the exchangeable and reducible fractions were principal for Zn. The distribution of different chemical fractions among the sludge samples reflected differences in their physicochemical properties, especially pH. The sludge pH was negatively correlated with the percentages of reducible fraction of Cu and exchangeable fraction of Zn. The sludges from these plants might not be suitable for agricultural applications due to their high contents of Zn, Ni and Cr, as well as high potential of mobility and bioavailability of Zn.

  13. Tissue subcellular fractionation and protein extraction for use in mass-spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian; Emili, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    We have shown that sample fractionation is an effective method for increasing the detection coverage of the proteome of complex samples, such as organs, by mass-spectrometric techniques. Further fractionating a sample based on subcellular compartments can generate molecular information on the state of a tissue and the distribution of its protein components. Although many methods exist for fractionating proteins, the method described here can capture the majority of subcellular fractions simultaneously at reasonable purity. The scalability of this method makes it amenable to small samples, such as embryonic tissues, in addition to larger tissues. The protocol described is for the general fractionation and extraction of proteins from organs or tissues for subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry. It uses differential centrifugation in density gradients to isolate nuclear, cytosolic, mitochondrial and mixed microsomal (Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, other vesicles and plasma membrane) fractions. Once the fractions are isolated, they are extracted for protein and the samples can then be frozen for processing and analysis at a later date. The procedure can typically be completed in 5 h.

  14. Fractionation of enzymatic hydrolysis lignin by sequential extraction for enhancing antioxidant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Liangliang; Wang, Guanhua; Jia, Hongyu; Liu, Cuiyun; Sui, Wenjie; Si, Chuanling

    2017-06-01

    The heterogeneity of lignin chemical structure and molecular weight results in the lignin inhomogeneous properties which also covers the antioxidant performance. In order to evaluate the effects of lignin heterogeneity on its antioxidant activity, four lignin fractions from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin were classified by sequential organic solvent extraction and further evaluated by DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging capacity and reducing power analysis. The characterization including FTIR, (1)H NMR and GPC showed that the fractionation process could effectively separate lignin fractions with distinctly different molecular weight and weaken the heterogeneity of unfractionated lignin. The antioxidant performance comparison of lignin fractions indicated that the dichloromethane fraction (F1) with lowest molecular weight (4585g/mol) and highest total phenolics content (246.13mg GAE/g) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity whose value was close to commercial antioxidant BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene). Moreover, the relationship between the antioxidant activity and the structure of lignin was further discussed to elucidate the mechanism of antioxidant activity improvement of lignin fractionation. Consequently, this study suggested that the sequential extraction was an effective way to obtain relatively homogeneous enzymatic hydrolysis lignin fractions which showed the potential for the value-added antioxidant application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antidermatophytic and Toxicological Evaluations of Dichloromethane-Methanol Extract, Fractions and Compounds Isolated from Coula edulis

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    Jean De Dieu Tamokou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae, is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25-38 m. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it. Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v. The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents. Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F3 (MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml. Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F2 and F3 gave respectively 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml. The median lethal doses (LD50 of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW, there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05 changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (≥ 200 mg/kg BW, the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities

  16. Immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcuma longa extract and its polysaccharide fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekaran, Chinampudur V.; Kannan Sundarajan; Edwin, Jothie R.; Giligar M Gururaja; Deepak Mundkinajeddu; Amit Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Background: While curcuminoids have been reported to possess diverse biological activities, the anti-inflammatory activity of polar extracts (devoid of curcuminoids) of Curcuma longa (C. longa) has seldom been studied. In this study, we have investigated immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous based extract of C. longa (NR-INF-02) and its fractions in presence and absence of mitogens. Materials and Methods: Effects of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin TM , Natural Remedies Pvt. Lt...

  17. Antibacterial activity of crude methanolic extract and fractions obtained from Larrea tridentata leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Silvia; Mussatto, Solange I.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Amorim,Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu; Saraiva, Antonio M.; Teixeira, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Larrea tridentata (Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as creosote bush, is a plant that grows in semiarid areas of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico and was traditionally used for medicinal purposes. This plantis a notable source of natural compounds with approximately 50% of the leaves (dry weight) being extractable matter. This study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extract (CME) and fractions [hexane (H), dicloromethane (DCM), ethyl acet...

  18. Extraction/fractionation and deacidification of wheat germ oil using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zacchi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat germ oil was obtained by mechanical pressing using a small-scale screw press and by supercritical extraction in a pilot plant. With this last method, different pressures and temperatures were tested and the tocopherol concentration in the extract was monitored during extraction. Then supercritical extracted oil as well as commercial pressed oil were deacidified in a countercurrent column using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent under different operating conditions. Samples of extract, refined oil and feed oil were analyzed for free fatty acids (FFA and tocopherol contents. The results show that oil with a higher tocopherol content can be obtained by supercritical extraction-fractionation and that FFA can be effectively removed by countercurrent rectification while the tocopherol content is only slightly reduced.

  19. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan CG; Deepak M; Viswanatha GL; Savinay G; Hanumantharaju V; Rajendra CE; Praveen D Halemani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica in in vitro conditions. Methods: In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were used to evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities respectively. Methanolic extract (MEMI), successive water extract (SWMI) and ethyl acetate fraction (EMEMI), n-butanol fraction (BMEMI) and water soluble fraction (WMEMI) of methanolic extract were evaluated along with respective reference standards. Results: In in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have offered significant antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 13.37, 3.55 and 14.19 μg/mL respectively. Gallic acid, a reference standard showed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 1.88 and found to be more potent compared to all the extracts and fractions. In in vitro LOX inhibition assay, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have showed significant inhibition of LOX enzyme activity with IC50 values of 96.71, 63.21 and 107.44 μg/mL respectively. While, reference drug Indomethacin also offered significant inhibition against LOX enzyme activity with IC50 of 57.75. Furthermore, MEMI was found to more potent than SWMI and among the fractions EMEMI was found to possess more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the MEMI and EMEMI possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro conditions.

  20. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  1. Identification and characterization of a potent anticancer fraction from the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Praveen T; Vardarajalu, Ambalika; Wadhwani, Ashish; Patel, Viral

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer potential of Moringa oleifera L. extracts have been well established. However, there are no reports on the isolated molecules/fractions from these extracts which are responsible for the anticancer/cytotoxic activity. Thus, in the present study, we explored the same. The n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol extracts of the M. oleifera leaves and 15 fractions (F1 to F15) of ethyl acetate extract were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity using Hep-2 cell lines and Dalton's lymphoma ascites model in mice, respectively. Among the tested samples, the F1 fraction showed potential cytotoxic effect in Hep-2 cell lines with a CTC50 value of 12.5 ± 0.5 μg/ml. In vivo studies with the doses 5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o. demonstrated significant reduction in body weight and increased the mean survival time compared to the control group. These results were also comparable to the standard, 5-Fluorouracil, treated animals. We have also successfully isolated and characterized the anticancer fraction, F1 from the leaves of M. oleifera L.

  2. Evaluation of antiherpetic activity of crude extract and fractions of Avicenna marina, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana; Zadeh, Mehrnaz Shanehsaz; Mohabatkar, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out to check antiherpetic substances of crude methanol leaf extract of Avicenna marina and its column chromatographic fractions. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a harmful pathogen especially in highly susceptible individuals. The antiherpetic activity of crude methanol extract and sub-fractions was performed in different concentrations (20, 2, 0.2, and 0.02μg/ml) by use of plaque-forming unit (PFU) assay and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The most active fraction analyzed by NMR contained luteolin 7-O-methylether 3'-O-beta-d-glucoside (LMEG). The other active fraction was detected by HPLC as luteolin. The apparent effective concentrations for 50% plaque reduction (EC50) of crude methanol extract, LMEG, luteolin and ACV were 10, 5, 16.6 and 2.97μg/ml, respectively. The three extracts showed no cytotoxic effect on Vero cell line at concentrations of 32μg/ml or below. According to the consequences of time-of-addition studies, antiherpetic compound LMEG exerted an inhibitory effect on the early stage of HSV-2 infection during which it was added. In conclusion, LMEG isolated from A. marina could probably inhibit HSV attachment to the cell membrane and its entry into the cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Binding characteristics of Cu(2+) to natural humic acid fractions sequentially extracted from the lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, En; Lü, Changwei; He, Jiang; Zhao, Boyi; Wang, Jinghua; Zhang, Ruiqing; Ding, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Humic acids (HAs) determine the distribution, toxicity, bioavailability, and ultimate fate of heavy metals in the environment. In this work, ten HA fractions (F1-F10) were used as adsorbent, which were sequentially extracted from natural sediments of Lake Wuliangsuhai, to investigate the binding characteristics of Cu(2+) to HA. On the basis of the characterization results, differences were found between the ten extracted HA fractions responding to their elemental compositions and acidic functional groups. The characterization results reveal that the responses of ten extracted HA fractions to their elemental compositions and acidic functional groups were different. The O/C and (O + N)/C ratio of F1-F8 approximately ranged from 0.66 to 0.53 and from 0.72 to 0.61, respectively; the measured results showed that the contents of phenolic groups and carboxyl groups decreased from 4.46 to 2.60 mmol/g and 1.60 to 0.58 mmol/g, respectively. The binding characteristics of Cu(2+) to the ten HA fractions were well modeled by the bi-Langmuir model; the binding behavior of Cu(2+) to all the ten HA fractions were strongly impacted by pH and ionic strength. The FTIR and SEM-EDX image of HA fractions (pre- and post-adsorption) revealed that carboxyl and phenolic groups were responsible for the Cu(2+) sorption on the ten sequentially extracted HA fractions process, which is the same with the analysis of the ligand binding and bi-Langmuir models Accordingly, the adsorption capacity of the former HA fractions on Cu(2+) were higher than the latter ones, which may be attributed to the difference of carboxyl and phenolic group contents between the former and latter extracted HA fractions. Additionally, the functional groups with N and S should not be neglected. This work is hopeful to understand the environmental effect of humic substances, environmental geochemical behavior, and bioavailability of heavy metals in lakes.

  4. Antidiabetic effect of an active fraction extracted from dragon's blood (Dracaena Cochinchinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hui-Juan; Lv, Jing-Ci; Yong, Ke-Lan; Chen, Xu; Liu, Pei-Pei; Zhang, Xia-Bing

    2009-02-01

    The active fraction extracted from dragon's blood displayed an inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase activity with an IC50 of 0.152 microg/mL, which is nearly half of the crude material. Its inhibition on alpha-glucosidase was noncompetitive. In addition, when this fraction was orally administered to mice dosed with Acarbose (20 mg/kg), the active fraction (100, 300, 500 mg/kg) significantly suppressed increase of blood glucose levels after sucrose loading in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that this extract from dragon's blood exerts an anti-diabetic effect by suppressing intestinal carbohydrate absorption and thereby reducing the postprandial increase of blood glucose.

  5. Evaluation of the antipsychotic potential of aqueous fraction of Securinega virosa root bark extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, M G; Mohammed, M; Magaji, R A; Musa, A M; Abdu-Aguye, I; Hussaini, I M

    2014-03-01

    Securinega virosa (Roxb ex. Willd) Baill. is a plant which is commonly used in African traditional medicine in management of mental illness. Previous study showed that the crude methanolic root bark extract of the plant possesses antipsychotic activity. In this study, the antipsychotic potential of the residual aqueous fraction of the plant was evaluated using two experimental models, apomorphine induced stereotypic climbing behaviour and swim induced grooming, all in mice. The effect of the fraction on haloperidol-induced catalepsy was also evaluated. The fraction significantly reduced the mean climbing score at the highest dose tested (500 mg/kg). In the swim-induced grooming test, the fraction significantly and dose-dependently (125-500 mg/kg) decreased the mean number and mean duration of swim-induced grooming activity in mice. Similarly, the standard haloperidol (1 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.001) decreased the mean grooming episodes and duration. However, the fraction did not significantly potentiate haloperidol-induced catalepsy. These results suggest that the residual aqueous fraction of methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa contains biological active principle with antipsychotic potential.

  6. Microwave Acid Extraction to Analyze K and Mg Reserves in the Clay Fraction of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Extraction of K and Mg with boiling 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an open system for predicting K and Mg uptake by plants is a method of low reproducibility. The aim of this study was to compare the extraction capacity of different acid methods relative to hydrofluoric acid extraction for K and Mg. A further objective was to develop a chemical extraction method using a closed system (microwave for nonexchangeable and structural forms of these nutrients in order to replace the traditional method of extraction with boiling HNO3 on a hot plate (open system. The EPA 3051A method can be used to estimate the total content of K in the clay fraction of soils developed from carbonate and phyllite/mica schist rocks. In the clay fraction of soils developed from basalt, recoveries of K by the EPA 3051A (pseudo-total method were higher than for the EPA 3052 (total hydrofluoric extraction method. The relative abundance of K and Mg for soils in carbonate rocks, phyllite/mica schist, granite/gneiss, and basalt determined by aqua regia digestion is unreliable. The method using 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an closed system (microwave showed potential for replacing the classical method of extraction of nonexchangeable forms of K (boiling 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an open system - hot plate and reduced the loss of Si by volatilization.

  7. Comparison of Two Methods for the Extraction of Fractionated Rice Bran Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different methods for extracting fractionated rice bran protein (FRBP from defatted rice bran were investigated according to the solubility of protein in different extraction solvents. The yields of the obtained proteins and their purity were first compared. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, differential scanning calorimetry, protein surface hydrophobicity, and protein secondary molecular structure analyses were subsequently applied to identify and compare the compositional, structural, and functional characteristics of the obtained proteins. The highest yield (13.8%, w/w and purity (45–47% of FRBP products were obtained using 0.4 M NaCl, 80% ethanol, and 0.01 M NaOH as extraction solvents to fractionate albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin. Several good properties were exhibited, including good functionality, specific denaturation temperature, and enthalpy values, for FRBP products prepared by the above method.

  8. Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Fly Ash from Wood Biomass Using the BCR Sequential Extraction Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Mirela; Ćurković, Lidija; Šabarić, Jasenka; Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone

    2017-08-20

    The aim of this study was to extract the wood biomass fly ash fractions by a three-stage sequential extraction method for acetic acid and ion exchangeable (BCR 1), hydroxylamine hydrochloride reduction (BCR 2), and hydrogen peroxide oxidation (BCR 3) fractions in order to access the leaching behavior of this residue. The fly ash was collected as a by-product from the processing of mixed wood biomass in Udbina combustion facility, Croatia. Concentrations of several elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in all extracts were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The acidic exchangeable form of the metals was used to evaluate the potential ecological risk of biomass fly ash. According to calculated potential ecological risk index, it is confirmed that mobility of Ni and As has major environmental impact. However the results of potential ecological risk show that biomass fly ash had a low risk.

  9. HPTLC profile of aqueous extract of different chromatographic fractions of Aloe barbadensis Miller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Kumar Ojha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the fingerprint profile of Aloe barbadensis Miller by using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC technique. Methods: after optimization of solvent system by Thin Layer Chromatography, different fractions of aqueous extract of Aloe was collected by column chromatography and the fingerprinting was done by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC Results: solvent system of methanol:chloroform :: 1:1 was found appropriate for fractionation by column chromatography. Total seven fractions were collected and they were analysed by HPTLC. Distinct spectra of different constituents were obtained for each fraction. Conclusions: HPTLC fingerprinting of Aloe barbadensis Miller may be useful in characterization of different phytochemicals found in this species. It may also be useful in differentiating the species from the adulterant and act as a biochemical marker for this medicinally important plant in the pharmaceutical industry.

  10. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FRACTIONS OF DELONIX ELATA BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabbithi Sathya Chethan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potential of bark of Delonix elata. Antibacterial activity of various fractions obtained from methanolic extract (PE, DM , EA, MR of bark were carried out against three Gram positive bacteria – Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Enterococus faceialis and three Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebesiela. The antifungal activity of the fractions was evaluated on two common pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Cryptcocus neoframens. The testing was done by the disc diffusion method. Zones of inhibition of fractions were compared with that of standard Amikacin for antibacterial activity and Ketoconazole for antifungal activity. The EA and MR fractions showed significant antibacterial activity but did not exhibit anti-fungal activities comparable with that of standard against the organisms tested.

  11. Enhancing Extraction and Detection of Veterinary Antibiotics in Solid and Liquid Fractions of Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joshua S; Aga, Diana S

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of veterinary antibiotics in separated liquid and solid fractions of animal manures is vital because of wide variations in the composition of agriculturally applied manure. Differentiation of antibiotic concentrations is important between liquid and solid manures, as their sorption onto the solid fraction depends on physicochemical properties of each antibiotic and manure composition (e.g., organic content, pH) and because each fraction may be treated and reused differently. Here, an efficient and sensitive method for the analysis of 22 veterinary antibiotics in the liquid and solid fractions of manure is reported. Tetracycline (TC), macrolide, and sulfonamide antibiotics were extracted from liquid manure by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with methanol following acidification with acetic acid. Extraction from solids was performed by sonication with acetonitrile, methanol, and 0.1 M EDTA-McIlvaine buffer. Cleanup of extracts was achieved by solid-phase extraction with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges or tandem amino (NH2) and HLB cartridges. Quantification of antibiotics was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) under wrong-way-round (WWR) ionization for sulfonamides and TCs and right-way-round ionization for macrolides. Recoveries of 58 to 94.7% and 62 to 94.3% were obtained in liquid and solid manure, respectively. Method detection limits range from 1.2 to 12 ng L and 0.5 to 7.9 μg kg dry wt. in liquids and solids, respectively. This method allows for extraction and analysis of both mobile antibiotics in liquid phase and hydrophobic antibiotics adsorbed on the solids. Without separate analysis, antibiotic concentrations may be improperly estimated by analyzing whole manure, as reported in many studies to date.

  12. Preservation of collagen and bioapatite fractions extracted from bison teeth in permafrost conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkinsky, Alexander [Center for Applied Isotope Studies, University of Georgia, GA (United States); Glassburn, Crystal L. [Anthropology Department, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Reuther, Joshua [Anthropology Department, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); University of Alaska, Museum of the North, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This research addresses the stability of bioapatite and collagen fractions of AMS dated steppe bison (Bison priscus) teeth. Through the course of other research, 8 prehistoric bison molars were submitted for AMS dating of fractions of collagen extracted from the dentine of each tooth. Because the teeth were well preserved and collagen yields were relatively high during the initial analysis, it provided an opportunity to further research differences between AMS dates produced on collagen from dentine and bioapatite fractions from enamel. The specimens were recovered from late Quaternary sediments of the Lost Chicken Creek drainage in east-central Alaska. All of the samples were very well preserved and gave high enough yield of carbon from both fractions. The {sup 14}C/{sup 13}C ratio was measured using 0.5 MV tandem AMS system. The {sup 14}C age of the samples varied across age ranges between 17,360 ± 50 and 43,370 ± 300 non-calibrated years BP. Such a wide range of ages allows us estimate the stability of each fraction in subarctic permafrost conditions. The results of analyses have shown that {sup 14}C ages of bioapatite fraction are rejuvenated as a result of isotopic exchange with the younger carbon from the soil solutions. The dating of bioapatite from the samples collected in the boreal climate of Alaska is possible only with a certain correction for the isotope fractionation.

  13. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Different Fractions of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal*, Wasim Babar, Zia ud Din Sindhu, Rao Zahid Abbas and Muhammad Sohail Sajid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at determination of anthelmintic activity of different fractions of Azadirachta indica seed prepared from the crude aqueous methanol extract (CAME. For this purpose, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to aqueous, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum spirit fractions of A. indica seeds employing standard bioassays. All the fractions of A. indica seeds exhibited dose and/or time dependent ovicidal and wormicidal effects against H. contortus. The best ovicidal activity was demonstrated by the ethyl acetate fraction with LC50=21.32 µg/ml; whereas, it was 6-14 times lower for the other fractions. Likewise, ethyl acetate fraction @ 50 mg ml-1 exhibited the best wormicidal effects by killing 83% adult H. contortus one hour post-exposure. For in vivo anthelmintic activity faecal egg count reduction test was perform on sheep naturally infected with helminthes. Maximum reduction (98.9% was observed with CAME. Therefore, it is concluded that future studies aimed at identification of active anthelmintic principles of A. indica may be focused on ethyl acetate fraction of the plant.

  14. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of different solution fractions of ethanol extract from Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-yu; TAO Jun-yan; ZHAO Lei; HUANG Zhi-jun; XIONG Fu-liang; ZHANG Shu-ling; LI Chong-ming; XIAO Fei

    2007-01-01

    Background Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb (M. suaveolens Ledeb) has long been used as a folk medicine in inflammation-related therapy. This study was undertaken to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of the plant.Methods Petroleum ether fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, n-butanol fraction, aqueous fraction were obtained from ethanol extract of M. suaveolens Ledeb and evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). While dexamethasone (DM) was used as a positive control, the effects of different solution fractions of ethanol extract on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) mRNA, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA, COX-2 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7cells were studied by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical assay, respectively.Results Coumarin was one of the main ingredients in different solution fractions of ethanol extract except the aqueous fraction with no inflammatory effect. The petroleum ether fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and n-butanol fraction of ethanol extract could inhibit the production of TNF-α mRNA, COX-2 mRNA and NF-κB to some extent.Conclusions Different solution fractions of ethanol extract from M. suaveolens Ledeb had similar anti-inflammatory effect as did dexamethasone except the aqueous fraction. Coumarin was likely to be essential to the anti-inflammatory effect, and other ingredients might attribute to their different anti-inflammatory effects from the HPLC fingerprint.

  15. Effect of different doses of un-fractionated green and black tea extracts on thyroid physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amar K; De, Neela; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy

    2011-08-01

    Tea is a rich source of polyphenolic flavonoids including catechins, which are thought to contribute to the health benefits of it. Flavonoids have been reported to have antithyroid and goitrogenic effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether high doses of green and black tea have a harmful effect on thyroid physiology. Un-fractionated green and black tea extracts were administered orally to male rats for 30 days at doses of 1.25 g%, 2.5 g% and 5.0 g%. The results showed that green tea extract at 2.5 g% and 5.0 g% doses and black tea extract only at 5.0 g% dose have the potential to alter the thyroid gland physiology and architecture, that is, enlargement of thyroid gland as well as hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles and inhibition of the activity of thyroid peroxidase and 5(')-deiodinase I with elevated thyroidal Na+, K+-ATPase activity along with significant decrease in serum T3 and T4, and a parallel increase in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This study concludes that goitrogenic/antithyroidal potential of un-fractionated green tea extract is much more than black tea extract because of the differences in catechin contents in the tea extracts.

  16. The impact of inspired oxygen levels on calibrated fMRI measurements of M, OEF and resting CMRO2 using combined hypercapnia and hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, Isabelle; Tancredi, Felipe B; Hoge, Richard D

    2017-01-01

    Recent calibrated fMRI techniques using combined hypercapnia and hyperoxia allow the mapping of resting cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in absolute units, oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and calibration parameter M (maximum BOLD). The adoption of such technique necessitates knowledge about the precision and accuracy of the model-derived parameters. One of the factors that may impact the precision and accuracy is the level of oxygen provided during periods of hyperoxia (HO). A high level of oxygen may bring the BOLD responses closer to the maximum M value, and hence reduce the error associated with the M interpolation. However, an increased concentration of paramagnetic oxygen in the inhaled air may result in a larger susceptibility area around the frontal sinuses and nasal cavity. Additionally, a higher O2 level may generate a larger arterial blood T1 shortening, which require a bigger cerebral blood flow (CBF) T1 correction. To evaluate the impact of inspired oxygen levels on M, OEF and CMRO2 estimates, a cohort of six healthy adults underwent two different protocols: one where 60% of O2 was administered during HO (low HO or LHO) and one where 100% O2 was administered (high HO or HHO). The QUantitative O2 (QUO2) MRI approach was employed, where CBF and R2* are simultaneously acquired during periods of hypercapnia (HC) and hyperoxia, using a clinical 3 T scanner. Scan sessions were repeated to assess repeatability of results at the different O2 levels. Our T1 values during periods of hyperoxia were estimated based on an empirical ex-vivo relationship between T1 and the arterial partial pressure of O2. As expected, our T1 estimates revealed a larger T1 shortening in arterial blood when administering 100% O2 relative to 60% O2 (T1LHO = 1.56±0.01 sec vs. T1HHO = 1.47±0.01 sec, P < 4*10-13). In regard to the susceptibility artifacts, the patterns and number of affected voxels were comparable irrespective of the O2 concentration. Finally, the model

  17. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae) wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Francisco; Hilje, Luko; Mora, Gerardo A; Carballo, Manuel

    2011-03-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp.) and cedars (Cedrela spp.) are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae) had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether) of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length) caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata). Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics.

  18. Efficacy of Desmodium gangeticum extract and its fractions against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nasib; Mishra, Pushpesh Kumar; Kapil, Aruna; Arya, Kamal Ram; Maurya, Rakesh; Dube, Anuradha

    2005-04-08

    Crude ethanolic extract of Indian medicinal plant, Desmodium gangeticum (A001) and its three fractions-hexane (F002), n-butanol (F003) and aqueous (F004) were evaluated chemoprophylactically and chemotherapeutically against experimental visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters. Ethanolic extract showed 41.2+/-5.3% inhibition of parasite multiplication when administered at a dose of 250 mg/kgx2 on day -7 and +7 of Leishmania donovani challenge. Its n-butanol fraction exhibited better efficacy than the ethanolic extract to the tune of 66.7+/-6.1% inhibition when administered at similar dose schedule. But the other two fractions failed to exert any action prophylactically. F003 also imparted significant (P<0.001) non-specific resistance to peritoneal macrophages against Leishmania infection. F003 also showed moderate antileishmanial activity when tested against established infection of Leishmania donovani in hamsters but the rest three fractions failed to show any significant inhibition of parasite multiplication. These findings revealed that this plant has potential prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against Leishmania infection and warrants detailed investigations on its possible immunopotentiatory actions.

  19. Elemental and spectroscopic characterization of fractions of an acidic extract of oil sands process water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D; Scarlett, A G; West, C E; Frank, R A; Gieleciak, R; Hager, D; Pureveen, J; Tegelaar, E; Rowland, S J

    2013-11-01

    'Naphthenic acids' (NAs) in petroleum produced water and oil sands process water (OSPW), have been implicated in toxicological effects. However, many are not well characterized. A method for fractionation of NAs of an OSPW was used herein and a multi-method characterization of the fractions conducted. The unfractionated OSPW acidic extract was characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and an esterified extract by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV) absorption spectroscopy and by comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography-MS (GCxGC-MS). Methyl esters were fractionated by argentation solid phase extraction (Ag(+) SPE) and fractions eluting with: hexane; diethyl ether: hexane and diethyl ether, examined. Each was weighed, examined by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV, GC-MS and GCxGC-MS (both nominal and high resolution MS). The ether fraction, containing sulfur, was also examined by GCxGC-sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GCxGC-SCD). The major ions detected by ESI-MS in the OSPW extract were assigned to alicyclic and aromatic 'O2' acids; sulfur was also present. Components recovered by Ag(+) SPE were also methyl esters of alicyclic and aromatic acids; these contained little sulfur or nitrogen. FTIR spectra showed that hydroxy acids and sulfoxides were absent or minor. UV spectra, along with the C/H ratio, further confirmed the aromaticity of the hexane:ether eluate. The more minor ether eluate contained further aromatics and 1.5% sulfur. FTIR spectra indicated free carboxylic acids, in addition to esters. Four major sulfur compounds were detected by GCxGC-SCD. GCxGC-high resolution MS indicated these were methyl esters of C18 S-containing, diaromatics with ≥C3 carboxylic acid side chains. Copyright © 2013 Crown Copyright and Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence of non extractable pesticide residues in physical and chemical fractions of two soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Kostas; Semple, Kirk; Jones, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Soils are considered to be a significant sink for organic contaminants, including pesticides, in the environment. Understanding the distribution and localisation of aged pesticide residues in soil is of great importance for assessing the mobility and availability of these chemicals in the environment. This study aimed to characterise the distribution of radiolabeled herbicide isoproturon and the radiolabeled insecticides diazinon and cypermethrin in two organically managed soils. The soils were spiked and aged under laboratory conditions for 17 months. The labile fraction of the pesticides residues was recovered in CaCl2 (0.01M) and then subjected to physical size fractionation using sedimentation and centrifugation steps, with >20μm, 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm soil factions collected. Further, the distribution of the pesticide residues in the organic matter of the fractionated soil was investigated using a sequential alkaline extraction (0.1N NaOH) into humic and fulvic acid and humin. Soil fractions of 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm had the largest burden of the 14C-residues. Different soil constituents have different capacities to form non-extractable residues. Soil solid fractions of 20-2 µm and pesticide residues than the coarser fraction (>20 µm). Fulvic acid showed to play a vital role in the formation and stabilisation of non-extractable 14C-pesticide residues in most cases.Assessment of the likelihood of the pesticide residues to become available to soil biota requires an understanding of the structure of the SOM matrix and the definition of the kinetics of the pesticide residues in different SOM pools as a function of the time.

  1. Fractions of aqueous and methanolic extracts from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) present platelet antiaggregant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduado J; Astudillo, Luis A; Gutiérrez, Margarita I; Contreras, Samuel O; Bustamante, Luis O; Rubio, Pia I; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Alarcón, Marcelo A; Fuentes, Jaime A; González, Daniel E; Palomo, Iván F

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Its prevention emphasizes three aspects: not smoking, physical activity and a healthy diet. Recently, we screened the antithrombotic activity of a selected group of fruits and vegetables. Among them, tomato showed an important effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the platelet antiaggregatory activity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). For this, we obtained aqueous and methanolic tomato extracts and evaluated the effect of pH (2 and 10) and temperature (22, 60 and 100°C) on this activity. Furthermore, in order to isolate the antiaggregant principle, we separated tomato extracts into several fractions (A-D) by size exclusion chromatography. In addition, we evaluated the platelet antiaggregating activity ex vivo in Wistar rats. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of tomato treated at 22, 60 and 100°C and pH 2 and 10 still inhibited platelet aggregation (in vitro). Moreover, it was noted that one of the fractions (fraction C), from both aqueous and methanolic extracts, presented the highest activity (∼70% inhibition of platelet aggregation) and concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation significantly compared with control (P lycopene but presented two peaks of absorption, at 210 and 261 nm, compatible with the presence of nucleosides. In rats treated with tomato macerates, a mild platelet antiaggregating effect ex vivo was observed. Further studies are required to identify the molecules with platelet antiaggregating activity and antiplatelet mechanisms of action.

  2. Anticonvulsant potential of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from Flemingia strobilifera root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Gahlot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flemingia strobilifera (FS R.Br. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant. In wealth of India it has been reported that roots of FS are used by santals in epilepsy, hysteria, insomnia, and to relieve pain. In Burma also the roots of F. strobilifera are used to treat epilepsy. Objective: To investigate anticonvulsant potential of 95% ethanol extract and four subsequent fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the roots of FS against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ and maximal electroshock (MES induced convulsions. Material and Methods: All the fractions and crude ethanol extract were administered (i.e., 200, 400, 600 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days and at the end of the treatment convulsions were induced experimentally using pentylenetetrazole and Maximal electroshock Test. Diazepam and phenytoin (4 mg/kg, i.p. and 20 mg/kg, i.p., respectively were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs against experimentally induced convulsions. The latency of tonic convulsions and the numbers of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results: High doses (200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. of ethyl acetate fraction and 95% ethanol crude extract (400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reduced the duration of seizure induced by maximal electroshock (MES. The same dose also protected from pentylenetetrzole-induced tonic seizures and significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures. However, pet, ether, chloroform, and aqueous fraction at any of the doses used (i.e., 100, 200, 300 mg/kg, p.o. did not show any significant effect on PTZ and MES induced convulsions. The treatment with crude ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction caused signs of central nervous system depressant action in the locomotor activity test, confirmed by the potentiation of sodium pentobarbital sleeping time. Both did not cause disturbance in motor coordination assessed by rotarod test. Conclusion: The data suggest that crude ethanol extract and ethyl

  3. Bioactivity-guided fractionation to identify β-glucuronidase inhibitors in Nymphaea pubescens flower extract

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    Jayashree Acharya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Nymphaea pubescens Willd. (Family: Nymphaeaceae is edible having medicinal importance. The objective of the study was to analyze the potential hepatoprotective properties of the flowers and pedicels of N. pubescens by inhibiting the enzyme β-glucuronidase. Crude methanol extracts of flower and pedicel as well as chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the flower extract were tested for their activities against the enzyme in vitro. The extracts and the fractions were analyzed by GC–MS to identify metabolites present in them. Flower (IC50 value = 270.27 ± 4.67 μg/ml and pedicel (IC50 value = 868.46 ± 28.21 μg/ml extracts have shown to inhibit the β-glucuronidase activity. Chloroform (IC50 value = 147.16 ± 6.68 μg/ml, ethyl acetate (IC50 value = 183.94 ± 2.37 μg/ml, and aqueous (IC50 value = 339.43 ± 5.34 μg/ml fractions showed significantly stronger activity than that of silymarin (IC50 value = 792.62 ± 10.01 μg/ml, the known inhibitor of the enzyme. GC–MS-based analysis of the flower extract and solvent fractions led to the identification of kaempferol having 79-fold stronger activity than that of silymarin, IC50 value of kaempferol being 10.44 ± 0.084 μg/ml or 0.0037 mM ± 0.0001.

  4. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Euphorbia wallichii Root Extract and its Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Ullah, Nazif; Bibi, Gulnaz; Kanwal, Simab; Sheeraz Ahmad, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Euphorbia wallichii a perennial herb growing mainly in Himalayas has been widely used in folk medicines for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the crude methanolic root extract (CME) and its fractions; n-Hexane Fraction (NHF), n-Butanol Fraction (NBF), Chloroform Fraction (CHF), Ethyl acetate Fraction (EAF) and Aqueous Fraction (AQF) of this plant specie were investigated for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical analysis. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and DNA protection assay performed on pBR322 plasmid DNA. In both these assays, promising results were obtained for CME as well as other fractions. The IC50 values for DPPH assay were in a range of 7.89 to 63.35 μg/ml in which EAF showed the best anti-oxidant potential and almost all the tested samples showed certain level of DNA protection. The cytotoxic activity was assessed by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay on human cell lines; H157 (Lung Carcinoma) and HT144 (Malignant Melanoma). The IC50 values of the tested samples ranged from 0.18 to 1.4 mg/mL against H157 cell line whereas against HT144 cell line the IC50 values ranged from 0.46 to 17.88 mg/mL with NBF fraction showing maximum potential for both. Furthermore, the phytochemical analysis of CME and its fractions showed the presences of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoides and cardiac glycosides with varying concentrations.

  5. Fractionation of bagasse into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin with ionic liquid treatment followed by alkaline extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wu; Liu, Chuan-Fu; Sun, Run-Cang

    2011-08-24

    Lignocellulose materials are potentially valuable resources for transformation into biofuels and bioproducts. However, their complicated structures make it difficult to fractionate them into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, which limits their utilization and economical conversion into value-added products. This study proposes a novel and feasible fractionation method based on complete dissolution of bagasse in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(4)mim]Cl) followed by precipitation in acetone/water (9:1, v/v) and extraction with 3% NaOH solution. The ionic liquid [C(4)mim]Cl was easily recycled after concentration and treatment with acetonitrile. (1)H NMR analysis confirmed that there was no obvious difference between the recycled [C(4)mim]Cl and fresh material. Bagasse was fractionated with this method to 36.78% cellulose, 26.04% hemicelluloses, and 10.51% lignin, accounting for 47.17 and 33.85% of the original polysaccharides and 54.62% of the original lignin, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the isolated fractions were characterized by chemical analysis, high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and (1)H and 2D (13)C-(1)H correlation (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that the acetone-soluble lignin and alkaline lignin fractions had structures similar to those of milled wood lignin (MWL). The easy extraction of the noncellulose components from homogeneous bagasse solution and amorphous regenerated materials resulted in the relatively high purity of cellulosic fraction (>92%). The hemicellulosic fraction was mainly 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronoxylans with some α-L-arabinofuranosyl units substituted at C-2 and C-3.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of the basolateral fraction of Caco-2 cells exposed to a rosemary supercritical extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arranz, E.; Mes, J.J.; Wichers, H.J.; Jaime, L.; Reglero, G.; Santoyo, S.

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the basolateral fraction of Caco-2 cells exposed to a rosemary supercritical extract was examined. Uptake of rosemary extract fractions was tested on Caco-2 cell monolayers (2–12 h incubation times) and the quantification of carnosic acid and carnosol was performed

  7. New methodologies for the extraction and fractionation of bioactive carbohydrates from mulberry (Morus alba) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, María L; Soria, Ana C

    2013-05-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was applied for the first time to extract bioactive low molecular weight carbohydrates (iminosugars and inositols) from mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaves. Under optimized conditions, PLE provided a similar yield to the conventional process used to extract these bioactives, but in less time (5 vs 90 min). To remove carbohydrates that interfere with the bioactivity of iminosugars from PLE extracts, two fractionation treatments were evaluated: yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) incubation and cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Both methods allowed complete removal of major soluble carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, galactose, and sucrose), without affecting the content of mulberry bioactives. As an advantage over CEC, the yeast treatment preserves bioactive inositols, and it is an affordable methodology that employs food grade solvents. This work found PLE followed by yeast treatment to be an easily scalable and automatable procedure that can be implemented in the food industry.

  8. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Matsumura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to the research article entitled, “Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.” (Matsumura et al., 2016 [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables.

  9. GC/MS Analysis of Organic Compounds in Hot Water-Extractable Fraction from Shenfu Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bao-min; YUAN Cheng; ZONG Zhi-min; CAO Jing-pei; LIU Guang-feng; WEI Xian-yong

    2007-01-01

    Shenfu Coal was extracted with hot pure water and slurry was isolated. The concentrated benzene-soluble fraction (CBSF) was analyzed with GC/MS and four types of organic compounds (OCs) were detected: HACOCs, DTEs, DMDT and LCAs. The amount of benzyl benzoate which is the most abundant OC was calculated by an internal standard method with an indicated amount of BP. The broken hydrogen bonds and ether bonds were responsible for the extraction of OCs from the coal .DTEs, DMDT and LCAs are essentially insoluble in water, whereas they are soluble, probably owing to intermolecular interaction of OCs with HACOCs.

  10. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Orthosiphon Stamineus Benth Leaves Extract and Its Bioassay-Guided Fractions

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    Elsnoussi Ali Hussin Mohamed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary investigations were carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the leaves of O. stamineus extracted serially with solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water; bioassay-guided purification of plant extracts using the subcutaneous glucose tolerance test (SbGTT was also carried out. Only the chloroform extract, given at 1 g/kg body weight (b.w., significantly reduced (P < 0.05 the blood glucose level of rats loaded subcutaneously with 150 mg/kg (b.w. glucose. The active chloroform extract of O. stamineus was separated into five fractions using a dry flash column chromatography method. Out of the five fractions tested, only chloroform fraction 2 (Cƒ2, at the dose of 1 g/kg (b.w. significantly inhibited (P < 0.05 blood glucose levels in SbGTT. Active Cƒ2 was split into two sub-fractions Cƒ2-A and Cƒ2-B, using a dry flash column chromatography method. The activities Cƒ2-A and Cƒ2-B were investigated using SbGTT, and the active sub-fraction was then further studied for anti-diabetic effects in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. The results clearly indicate that Cƒ2-B fraction exhibited a blood glucose lowering effect in fasted treated normal rats after glucose-loading of 150 mg/kg (b.w.. In the acute streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, Cƒ2-B did not exhibit a hypoglycemic effect on blood glucose levels up to 7 hours after treatment. Thus, it appears that Cƒ2-B functions similarly to metformin, which has no hypoglycemic effect but demonstrates an antihyperglycemic effect only in normogycemic models. The effect of Cƒ2-B may have no direct stimulatory effects on insulin secretion or on blood glucose levels in diabetic animal models. Verification of the active compound(s within the active fraction (Cƒ2-B indicated the presence of terpenoids and, flavonoids, including sinensitin.

  11. Different methods evaluation of antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis extract and its fractions

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    Soheila Moein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus communis L. is a plant traditionally used as an antiseptic and disinfectant drug. In this research, the antioxidant activity of Myrtus communis was assayed by evaluating radical scavenging activity, reducing power, FRAP method and determination of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract of leaves of Myrtus communis was fractionated by using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol. In reducing power, different concentrations of samples were mixed with phosphate buffer, ferrocyanate, TCA and ferric chloride. Different concentrations of samples were mixed with DPPH and after 30 min the absorbances were measured. For determination of phenolic content, 500 μl of sample was mixed with Folin-Ciocalteu and sodium carbonate. For determination of flavonoids, 500 μl of sample was mixed with 2 ml of distilled water, NaNO2 and NaOH. In reducing power method, chloroform fraction showed the highest reducing capacity. In the DPPH radical scavenging method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in buthanol fraction (IC50=84.42±1.8 μg/ml. In FRAP method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in crude extract (5.4±0.3 mg/ml and buthanol fractions (5.51±0.4 mg/ml, respectively. The highest amount of phenolic compounds was detected in ethyl acetate fraction of Myrtus communis (17.5±0.001 μg/g. The highest amount of flavonoids was found in crude extract of Myrtus communis (171.9±7.3 μg/ml. Overall, we can suggest that the leaves of Myrtus communis can be used as antioxidant and as a food additives to avoid oxidative degradation of foods.

  12. Antiulcer Effect of Extract/Fractions of Eruca sativa : Attenuation of Urease Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Khan, Murad Ali

    2014-07-01

    Eruca sativa (Rocket salad) is known for its antiulcer properties in the traditional system of treatment. The present study was, therefore, designed to scrutinize its effect on urease activity in vitro. The results demonstrated marked attenuation of urease by the crude extract of various test concentrations with IC50 value of 7.77 mg/mL. On fractionation, marked change in inhibitory profile was observed. The ethyl acetate fraction was the most potent urease inhibitor with IC50 value of 4.17 mg/mL followed by the aqueous fraction with an IC50 value of 5.83 mg/mL. However, hexane did not show significant urease inhibition. In conclusion, the present study illustrated strong antagonism of urease activity and thus validated scientifically the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of ulcers.

  13. Antibacterial activity of extract and fractions from branches of Protium spruceanum and cytotoxicity on fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo, Tatiane Roquete; Rodrigues, Ivanildes Vasconcelos; Seibert, Janaína Brandão; Souza, Rafaella Hilda Zaniti; Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro de; Cabral, Vivette Appolinário Rodrigues; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Okuma, Adriana Akemi; Filho, Sidney Augusto Vieira; Teixeira, Luiz Fernando Medeiros; Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco de

    2017-07-20

    The crude ethanol extract (CEE) and fractions from branches of Protium spruceanum were subjected to antibacterial and cytotoxicity assays. Compounds of the most active fraction were identified by GC-MS and LC-MS. CEE was active against 19 bacteria and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) showed the lowest minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC 0.3-80.0 mg/mL). Through time-kill assay was observed that EAF induced rapid bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The cytotoxicity tests against L929 fibroblasts showed great potential of EAF on the treatment of infections caused by five bacteria (MBC < IC50). The results provide in vitro scientific support to the possible application of branches of P. spruceanum as antimicrobial agent that may contribute for treatment of infections.

  14. Different methods evaluation of antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis extract and its fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Soheila Moein; Mahmoodreza Moein; Fatemeh Farmani

    2015-01-01

    Myrtus communis L. is a plant traditionally used as an antiseptic and disinfectant drug. In this research, the antioxidant activity of Myrtus communis was assayed by evaluating radical scavenging activity, reducing power, FRAP method and determination of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract of leaves of Myrtus communis was fractionated by using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol. In reducing power, different concentrations of samples were mixed with phosphate buffer...

  15. Antibacterial activity of crude methanolic extract and fractions obtained from Larrea tridentata leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Silvia; Amorim,Elba L.C.; Sobrinho, Tadeu J. S. Peixoto; Saraiva, Antonio M.; Pisciottano, Maria N. C.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Teixeira, J.A.; Mussatto, Solange I.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and increase of bacteria drug-resistance rise up the urgent need for the development of new antibacterial agents from natural sources. This study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extract (CME) and fractions [hexane (H), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA) and ethanol (Et)] obtained from Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. Ex DC.) Coville leaves. The antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method a...

  16. Fractionation and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenol-enriched extracts from apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianli Yue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple pomace, an agro-industrial byproduct in apple juice processing. The present work focused on fractionation of ethanol extract of apple pomace using macroporous absorbent resin chromatography and HPLC analysis of all fractions recovered from polyphenol-enriched extract and their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in lipo-polysaccharides (LPS -induced mouse RAW 264.7 cell line. Six fractions API-VI were achieved through fractionation eluting with aqueous alcohol. HPLC analysis indicated that APIII eluted by 40% ethanol had the highest content of total phenolics, which was 148.1 ± 3.11 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry apple pomace. Anti-inflammatory assays showed that APIII had the strongest activity against COX-2 expression at 5 ?g mL-1 and procyanidin B2 and quercetin exhibited positive correlation with their anti-inflammatory effects. Our data suggested that phenolics could be prepared from apple pomace and applied in the management of inflammatory diseases.

  17. Antibacterial and Phytochemical Evaluation of the crude extract and Fractions of Fagonia cretica.

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    Rumana Saeed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential and phytochemical profile of Fagonia cretica plant to look into possible natural therapy agents. The shade-dried whole plant material of Fagonia cretica was soaked in methanol for 10 days. The powdered drug was extracted with 80 % methanol three times and filtered at room temperature. The filtrate was evaporated in rotary to get a dark-greenish residue (extract, which was further suspended in water and partitioned successively with n-hexane, chloroform, distill water and n-butanol to obtain n-hexane-soluble, chloroform-soluble, distill water-soluble, n-butanol-soluble and aqueous fractions, respectively. Different fractions (chloroform, n-hexane, butanol, water and ethyl acetate of the plant were tested against various bacterial strains namely E.coli, S.aureus, S.typheae, P.auriginosa.The extracted fractions of the plant exhibit moderate activities showing 9mm to 14mm inhibition against different strains of bacteria as compared to the control, which gave maximum inhibition up to 30mm.The Fagonia cretica was found to be good source of alkaloids, flavonoids, tennins, resins, carbohydrate, starch, proteins, glycosides, coumarin, terponides, steroids and saponine. Anthranol glycosides and starch were absent in the plant. The above results revealed that Fagonia cretica have an excellent anti-bacterial activity and can be used for disease therapy.

  18. Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of phenolic compounds in plants with hepatoprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-15

    The liver is one of the most important organs of human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. Given its pivotal role in the excretion of waste metabolites and drugs detoxification, the liver is often subjected to oxidative stress that leads to lipid peroxidation and severe cellular damage. The conventional treatments of liver diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis are frequently inadequate due to side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemical drugs. To overcome this problematic paradox, medicinal plants, owing to their natural richness in phenolic compounds, have been intensively exploited concerning their extracts and fraction composition in order to find bioactive compounds that could be isolated and applied in the treatment of liver ailments. The present review aimed to collect the main results of recent studies carried out in this field and systematize the information for a better understanding of the hepatoprotective capacity of medicinal plants in in vitro and in vivo systems. Generally, the assessed plant extracts revealed good hepatoprotective properties, justifying the fractionation and further isolation of phenolic compounds from different parts of the plant. Twenty-five phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, lignan compounds, phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds, have been isolated and identified, and proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of chemically induced liver damage. In this perspective, the use of medicinal plant extracts, fractions and phenolic compounds seems to be a promising strategy to avoid side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemicals.

  19. Mercury and trace element fractionation in Almaden soils by application of different sequential extraction procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, D.M.; Quejido, A.J.; Fernandez, M.; Hernandez, C.; Schmid, T.; Millan, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Aldea, M.; Martin, R.; Morante, R. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-04-01

    A comparative evaluation of the mercury distribution in a soil sample from Almaden (Spain) has been performed by applying three different sequential extraction procedures, namely, modified BCR (three steps in sequence), Di Giulio-Ryan (four steps in sequence), and a specific SEP developed at CIEMAT (six steps in sequence). There were important differences in the mercury extraction results obtained by the three procedures according to the reagents applied and the sequence of their application. These findings highlight the difficulty of setting a universal SEP to obtain information on metal fractions of different mobility for any soil sample, as well as the requirement for knowledge about the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the samples. The specific six-step CIEMAT sequential extraction procedure was applied to a soil profile (Ap, Ah, Bt1, and Bt2 horizons). The distribution of mercury and major, minor, and trace elements in the different fractions were determined. The results indicate that mercury is mainly released with 6 M HCl. The strong association of mercury with crystalline iron oxyhydroxides, present in all the horizons of the profile, and/or the solubility of some mercury compounds in such acid can explain this fact. Minor mercury is found in the fraction assigned to oxidizable matter and in the final insoluble residue (cinnabar). (orig.)

  20. Fractionation of honey carbohydrates using pressurized liquid extraction with activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Matute, A I; Ramos, L; Martínez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2008-09-24

    This article describes the development of a new procedure that combines the use of activated charcoal and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to obtain enriched fractions of di- and trisaccharides from honey. Honey was adsorbed onto activated charcoal and packed into a PLE extraction cell. Optimum results were obtained at 10 MPa and 40 degrees C using two consecutive PLE cycles: first, 1:99 (v/v) ethanol/water for 5 min and second, 50:50 (v/v) ethanol/water for 10 min. Di- and trisaccharide fractions were enriched after PLE treatment, accounting for 73% and 8% of total carbohydrates, respectively. This procedure was also compared with other methodologies reported in the literature for the fractionation of honey carbohydrates (yeast treatment and extraction from activated charcoal). While the removal of monosaccharides was more efficient with yeast treatment, recovery of di- and trisaccharides was higher when either the PLE or the activated charcoal treatment was used. PLE was found to be the faster technique; it also required less solvent volume and minimized handling of the sample.

  1. Soluble/insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable fractionation of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic snow and its relationship with metal fractionations in the aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annibaldi A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A chemical fractionation methodology for determination of the (water soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic snow was set-up and verified for the additivity of the two fractions detected. Molten samples were filtrated and the water-insoluble fraction was extracted by dilute ultrapure HCl (pH ~1.5. Metal determinations were carried out in the two fractions by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The total metal concentrations in samples collected in the 2000–2001 austral summer in a clean area (Faraglione Camp in the neighbourhood of the Mario Zucchelli Italian Station were of the order of Cd 10-20 pg g−1, Pb 20–40 pg g−1, Cu 60–120 pg g−1 with an approximate equidistribution between soluble and insoluble fractions. These fractionations compare well (and show a quite consistent temporal trend with those observed in the aerosol samples collected in the same area/period and confirm the close relationship between metal distributions in snow/ice and in the aerosol. At the station metal concentrations increase due to anthropic contribution and the distribution changes with Cd predominantly present in the soluble fraction (~80%, while Pb and Cu are more concentrated in the insoluble fraction, 70–80% and ~70%, respectively.

  2. The isolation of soyasaponins by fractional precipitation, solid phase extraction, and low pressure liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, D M; Reynolds, W F; Rao, A V

    2005-11-01

    Bioactive soyasaponins are present in soybean (Glycine max). In this study, the isolation of soyasaponins in relatively pure form (>80%) using precipitation, solid phase extraction and reverse phase low pressure liquid chromatography (RP-LPLC) is described. Soy flour soyasaponins were separated from non-saponins by methanol extraction and precipitation with ammonium sulphate. Acetylated group A soyasaponins were isolated first by solid phase extraction followed by RP-LPLC (solvent: ethanol-water). Soyasaponins, from a commercial preparation, were saponified and fractionated into deacetylated group A and group B soyasaponins by solid phase extraction (methanol-water). Partial hydrolysis of group B soyasaponins produced a mixture of soyasaponin III and soyasapogenol B monoglucuronide. RP-LPLC of deacetylated group A soyasaponins separated soyasaponin A1 and A2 (38% methanol); of group B soyasaponins isolated soyasaponin I (50% ethanol); and of the partial hydrolysate separated soyasaponin III from soyasapogenol B monoglucuronide (50% ethanol). This methodology provides soyasaponin fractions that are suitable for biological evaluation.

  3. Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycaemic Action of Different Fractions and Sub-fractions from Aqueous Extract of Aloe vera Linn. Leaf on Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alok Maithani; Versha Parcha; Geeta Pant; Deepak Kumar; Ishan Dhulia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the fasting serum glucose (FSG) lowering potential of different fractions (C & D) and subfraction (D1 & D2) from aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf on normal and alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Two fractions (C & D) obtained by common chemical treatment of the aqueous extract of Aleo vera leaf and subfraction (D1 & D2) from fraction D were administered to the alloxan induced (150mg/kg i.p.) diabetic rats. The FSG lowering capacity, of different fractions and subfractions, was then evaluated in terms of percentage reduction in blood glucose level. Results: Oral administration of fractions C & D and subfraction D1 & D2 for 15 days led significant (P<0.05) reduction to the elevated FSG level of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Percentage reduction in blood glucose level and comparison with standard drug glibenclamide suggest the superiority of fraction D and subfraction D1 in hypoglycaemic potential. Conclusions:The results suggest that fraction D and subfraction D1 from aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf possesses the maximum FSG lowering capacity and further investigation is required for determination of anti-diabetic principal(s) and exact mechanism of their hypoglycaemic action.

  4. Extraction of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Information from Various Types of Clinical Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjun; Garvin, Jennifer H; Goldstein, Mary K; Hwang, Tammy S; Redd, Andrew; Bolton, Dan; Heidenreich, Paul A; Meystre, Stéphane M

    2017-02-02

    Efforts to improve the treatment of congestive heart failure, a common and serious medical condition, include the use of quality measures to assess guideline-concordant care. The goal of this study is to identify left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) information from various types of clinical notes, and to then use this information for heart failure quality measurement. We analyzed the annotation differences between a new corpus of clinical notes from the Echocardiography, Radiology, and Text Integrated Utility package and other corpora annotated for natural language processing (NLP) research in the Department of Veterans Affairs. These reports contain varying degrees of structure. To examine whether existing LVEF extraction modules we developed in prior research improve the accuracy of LVEF information extraction from the new corpus, we created two sequence-tagging NLP modules trained with a new data set, with or without predictions from the existing LVEF extraction modules. We also conducted a set of experiments to examine the impact of training data size on information extraction accuracy. We found that less training data is needed when reports are highly structured, and that combining predictions from existing LVEF extraction modules improves information extraction when reports have less structured formats and a rich set of vocabulary.

  5. Antibacterial and antispasmodic activities of a dichloromethane fraction of an ethanol extract of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Banga N′Guessan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study presents the antispasmodic and antibacterial properties of an ethanol extract and fractions the of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum. Materials and Methods: The antispasmodic effects of the extract and its fractions were performed on isolated rabbit duodenum. The antibacterial properties were determined as minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of the extract and fractions of P. reticulatum on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella tiphymurium. Results: The ethanol extract of P. reticulatum and fractions (except for heptane produced concentration-dependent relaxant effects on isolated duodenum preparations. The IC 50 of the extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions are 0.88452, 0.2453, 0.2909, 0.3946 and 0.3231 mg/ml respectively. The extract was found to significantly antagonize acetylcholine-induced contraction. The susceptible strains E. coli and V. cholerae were the most inhibited by the dichloromethane fraction at 60 mg/mL, as shown by their diameter of inhibition of 13.2 ± 0.76 and 13.3 ± 0.67 mm respectively. Conversely, the dichloromethane fraction, the most active antibacterial fraction, did not inhibit the resistant strains S. dysenteriae and S. tiphymurium. Conclusion: The results showed that P. reticulatum stem bark possesses spasmolytic and antibacterial properties and this may contribute to its traditional medicinal use for the treatment of diarrhea.

  6. Biochemical evaluation of the hypoglycemic effects of extract and fraction of Cassia fistula linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Jarald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae such as petroleum ether (60-80°, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05 to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg.

  7. Antitrypanosomal potentials of the extract and fractions of Abrus precatorius seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwodo NJ; Nwodo OFC

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vivo trypanocidal activity of the methanol extract and fractions of Abrus precatorius seeds in mice. Methods: Parasiteamia was induced unto mice by intraperitoneal injection of 1.25×105 Trypanosoma in normal saline. Five days when a high level of parasiteamia was established treatment commenced until ten days. The mice were treated with 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg bt. of the extract and 5 and 10 mg/kg bt. of the fraction (F2), respectively for 5 days. Diminazene aceturate at the dose of 3.5 mg/kg bt. for two days was used as the reference drug. The level of parasitaemia and packed cell volume (PCV) of the animals estimated. Results:At doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg the crude extract showed a sharp reduction in the level of parasitaemia in mice compared with the untreated group. The mice treated with F2 at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg showed a sharp reduction in the level of parasitamia to zero in day 9, and a gradual recovery from the 12th day of treatment. This effect is comparable to that of the mice treated with 7 mg/kg of standard drug diminazene aceturate. The PCV of the treated showed a gradual decrease with time, but not as much as the untreated group. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins and proteins in the Abrus precatorius powder while F2 was rich in alkaloids. Conclusions:This study shows that both the extract and the fractions of Abrus precatorius seeds exhibited a promising trypanocidal property. Alkaloids may be responsible for the observed activity.

  8. Multiple traumatic limb loss: a comparison of Vietnam veterans to OIF/OEF servicemembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Paul J; McFarland, Lynne V; Smith, Douglas G; Esquenazi, Alberto; Blake, Donna Jo; Reiber, Gayle E

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-limb loss due to war-theater injuries results in a unique group of servicemembers requiring intensive rehabilitation and diverse prosthetic devices. This article compares the Vietnam and the Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) groups with war-theater-associated multiple-limb loss to document significant changes in health status, prosthetic-device use, and long-term prognosis. During 2007 and 2008, a national survey queried 73 Vietnam veterans and 61 OIF/OEF servicemembers sustaining multiple-limb loss. Average years since limb loss are 39 for Vietnam veterans and 3 for OIF/OEF servicemembers. Self-rated health status was excellent or very good in 38.9% of the Vietnam group and 60.7% of the OIF/OEF group (p = 0.01). More of the OIF/OEF group than the Vietnam group reported performing high-impact aerobic activities, 18% versus 3% (p = 0.005). The OIF/OEF group currently uses more diverse prosthetic-device types than the Vietnam group. Based on Vietnam veterans' 39-year experience, the long-term prognosis for OIF/OEF servicemembers with multiple-limb loss is an active, fulfilling life. The healthcare team caring for these patients should carefully address proper prosthesis fit and maintenance of good health and function.

  9. Flourensia cernua: Hexane Extracts a Very Active Mycobactericidal Fraction from an Inactive Leaf Decoction against Pansensitive and Panresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria María Molina-Salinas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of decoction in extracting mycobactericidal compounds from Flourensia cernua (Hojasé leaves and fractionation with solvents having ascending polarity was compared with that of (i ethanol extraction by still maceration, extraction with a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration, followed by fractionation with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol; (ii sequential extraction with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, by still maceration, using a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration. The in vitro mycobactericidal activity of each preparation was measured against drug-sensitive (SMtb and drug-resistant (RMtb Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The results of which were expressed as absolute mycobactericidal activity (AMA. These data were normalized to the ΣAMA of the decoction fraction set. Although decoction was inactive, the anti-RMtb normalized ΣAMA (NAMA of its fractions was comparable with the anti-RMtb NAMA of the still maceration extracts and significantly higher than the anti-SMtb and anti-RMtb NAMAs of every other ethanol extract and serial extract and fraction. Hexane extracted, from decoction, material having 55.17% and 92.62% of antituberculosis activity against SMtb and RMtb, respectively. Although the mycobactericidal activity of decoction is undetectable; its efficacy in extracting F. cernua active metabolites against M. tuberculosis is substantially greater than almost all pharmacognostic methods.

  10. Antioxidant Activities of Extract and Fractions from Receptaculum Nelumbinis and Related Flavonol Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of ethanolic crude extract (ECE and its four different solvent sub-fractions (namely, petroleum ether fraction (PEF, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, n-butanol fraction (BF and the aqueous fraction (AF from the receptacles of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Receptaculum Nelumbinis were investigated using two in vitro antioxidant assays. BF showed the highest total phenolic content (607.6 mg/g gallic acid equivalents, total flavonoid content (862.7 mg/g rutin equivalents and total proanthocyanidin content (331.0 mg/g catechin equivalents, accompanied with the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assays. Five flavonol glycosides, namely hyperoside (1, isoquercitrin (2, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside (4 and syringetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (5 were isolated from the Receptaculum Nelumbinis. Compounds 25 were isolated for the first time from the Receptaculum Nelumbinis. The five isolated flavone glycosides, particularly compounds 13, demonstrated significant DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, with IC50 values of 8.9 ± 0.2, 5.2 ± 0.2, 7.5 ± 0.1 for DPPH and 114.2 ± 1.7, 112.8 ± 0.8, 172.5 ± 0.7 µg/mL for ABTS, respectively. These results suggest that Receptaculum Nelumbinis has strong antioxidant potential and may be potentially used as a safe and inexpensive bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  11. Impact of green tea extract addition on oxidative changes in the lipid fraction of pastry products

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    Anna Żbikowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alongside flour, fat is the key ingredient of sponge cakes, including those with long shelf lives. It is an unstable food component, whose quality and nutritional safety depend on the composition and pres- ence of oxidation products. Consumption of fat oxidation products adversely affects the human body and contributes to the incidence of a number of medical conditions. Qualitative changes in fats extracted from thermostat sponge cakes with and without antioxidant additions were determined in this study. Material and methods. In the study, two types of antioxidant were used: natural – green tea extract in three doses (0.02%; 0.2% and 1.0% and synthetic BHA (0.02% and 100%, solid bakery shortening. Sponge-cakes were thermostatted at temperatures 63°C after twenty-eight days. In this study, the quality of the lipid fraction was analyzed. The amount of primary (PV and secondary (AnV oxidation products was determined, and   a Rancimat test was performed. Results. Adding antioxidants to fats varied in the degree to which oxidation processes of lipids fractions were inhibited. The peroxide value after twenty-eight days of thermostatting ranged from 3.57 meq O/kg (BHA and 11.14 O meq/kg (extract content – 1% to 62.85 meq O/kg (control sample. In turn, the value of AnV after the storage period ranged from 4.84 (BHA and 6.71 (extract content – 1% to 16.83 (control sample. Conclusion. The best protective effects in the process of oxidation was achieved by BHA. The longest in- duction time and the lowest peroxide value and anisidine value were obtained for this antioxidant. It was achieved after twenty-eight days of fat thermostatting. Nonetheless, the results demonstrated it is possible to use the commercially available green tea extract to slow the adverse process of fat oxidation in sponge cake products.

  12. Computer-Aided (13)C NMR Chemical Profiling of Crude Natural Extracts without Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakiri, Ali; Hubert, Jane; Reynaud, Romain; Lanthony, Sylvie; Harakat, Dominique; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc

    2017-05-26

    A computer-aided, (13)C NMR-based dereplication method is presented for the chemical profiling of natural extracts without any fractionation. An algorithm was developed in order to compare the (13)C NMR chemical shifts obtained from a single routine spectrum with a set of predicted NMR data stored in a natural metabolite database. The algorithm evaluates the quality of the matching between experimental and predicted data by calculating a score function and returns the list of metabolites that are most likely to be present in the studied extract. The proof of principle of the method is demonstrated on a crude alkaloid extract obtained from the leaves of Peumus boldus, resulting in the identification of eight alkaloids, including isocorydine, rogersine, boldine, reticuline, coclaurine, laurotetanine, N-methylcoclaurine, and norisocorydine, as well as three monoterpenes, namely, p-cymene, eucalyptol, and α-terpinene. The results were compared to those obtained with other methods, either involving a fractionation step before the chemical profiling process or using mass spectrometry detection in the infusion mode or coupled to gas chromatography.

  13. Investigating Potential Modes of Actions of Mimusops kummel Fruit Extract and Solvent Fractions for Their Antidiarrheal Activities in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Mulugeta; Gemeda, Negero; Abay, Solomon M

    2017-01-01

    Fruits of Mimusops kummel A. DC. (Sapotaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea. The present study aimed at investigating modes of actions of this fruits for antidiarrheal action to guide future drug development process. Fractions of chloroform, n-butanol, and water were obtained from 80% methanol extract, which was prepared by maceration. Antidiarrheal activities and the modes of actions were investigated in mice. In castor oil induced diarrheal model, the extract delayed onset of diarrhea and reduced number and weight of feces at all tested doses significantly. In this model all fractions significantly delayed onset of diarrhea at all tested doses. Charcoal meal test showed that the extract and all the fractions produced a significant antimotility effect at all tested doses. Enteropooling test showed that the extract as well as n-butanol and aqueous fractions at all tested doses produced a significant decline in volume and weight of intestinal contents, whereas chloroform fraction had substantial effect only at high dose. This study demonstrated that the extract and solvent fractions produced antidiarrheal activities due to dual inhibitory effect, intestinal motility, and fluid secretion, with the aqueous fraction being the most active among fractions in three models.

  14. Investigating Potential Modes of Actions of Mimusops kummel Fruit Extract and Solvent Fractions for Their Antidiarrheal Activities in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Molla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fruits of Mimusops kummel A. DC. (Sapotaceae are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea. The present study aimed at investigating modes of actions of this fruits for antidiarrheal action to guide future drug development process. Methods. Fractions of chloroform, n-butanol, and water were obtained from 80% methanol extract, which was prepared by maceration. Antidiarrheal activities and the modes of actions were investigated in mice. Results. In castor oil induced diarrheal model, the extract delayed onset of diarrhea and reduced number and weight of feces at all tested doses significantly. In this model all fractions significantly delayed onset of diarrhea at all tested doses. Charcoal meal test showed that the extract and all the fractions produced a significant antimotility effect at all tested doses. Enteropooling test showed that the extract as well as n-butanol and aqueous fractions at all tested doses produced a significant decline in volume and weight of intestinal contents, whereas chloroform fraction had substantial effect only at high dose. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that the extract and solvent fractions produced antidiarrheal activities due to dual inhibitory effect, intestinal motility, and fluid secretion, with the aqueous fraction being the most active among fractions in three models.

  15. Investigation of extraction fraction in confined impinging jet reactors for tri-butyl-phosphate extracting butyric acid process☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengming Gao; Manting Zhao; Yun Yu; Zhipeng Li; Jing Han

    2016-01-01

    The extraction fraction E and overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa of TBP extracting butyric acid pro-cess in confined impinging jet reactors (CIJR) with two jets were investigated. The main variables tested were the concentration of tri-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and butyric acid, the impinging velocity V, the impinging velocity ratio of two phases Vorg/Vaq, the nozzle inner diameter di and the distance L between the jet axes and the top wall of the impinging chamber. The results showed that E and kLa increase with an increase of the impinging ve-locity V, the concentration of TBP Corg, and the impinging velocity ratio Vorg/Vaq. However, E and kLa decrease with an increase of the inner diameter di from 1 to 2 mm, the concentration of butyric acid Caq from 0.5%(v/v) to 2%(v/v). The factor L ranging from 3 to 11 mm has a negligible effect on E and kLa. A correlation on these variables and kLa was proposed based on the experimental data. These results indicated good mass transfer performance of CIJR in the extraction operation.

  16. Sperm Quality and Testicular Histomorphometry of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Extract and Fractions of Fruit of Tribulus terrestris L.

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    Nelma Neylanne Pinho Muniz Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess the sperm quality and testicular histomorphometry of Wistar rats supplemented with extract and fractions of fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The ethanolic extract was obtained by dynamic maceration of spray-dried fruit. This extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition, using increasing polarity solvents. Twenty male rats were separated in four groups, with five rats in each group. The control was supplemented with distilled water, while the others were daily given the ethanolic extract, hexanic or aqueous fraction soluble in methanol in a dose of 42 mg.kg-1.day-1 for 70 days. Sperm was obtained from the right epididymal tail for the analysis of motility, count, morphology and viability. The testicular weight of groups supplemented with ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction soluble in methanol was higher when compared to the control. The gonadosomatic index increased in the group supplemented with ethanolic extract. The nuclear, cytoplasmic and individual volume of Leydig cells increased in supplementation with hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol. It was concluded that the extract influenced the spermatogenesis, while hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol promoted the changes in the intertubular compartment. Therefore, Tribulus terrestris did not improve the sperm quality of the rats.

  17. Recovery of the Decorin-Enriched Fraction, Extract (D, From Human Skin: An Accelerated Protocol

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    Denys N. Wheatley

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The original extraction procedure of Engel and Catchpole [1] has often been used to recover decorin-enriched material from the skin. This material has a strong inhibitory effect on fibroblast proliferation, and clearly suppresses it in skin except after the first 5–6 days of wounding when new scaffold material is required. The aim of our present study has been to find and evaluate the product of a faster recovery method, and to check its consistency as a more reliable means of regularly obtaining sufficient material for topical application in wounds that might become hypertrophic. Modifications of the original Toole and Lowther [2] extraction procedure have been carefully evaluated in an attempt to cut preparation time without compromising biological activity of the inhibitory extract. We have devised a faster recovery procedure without compromising biological activity, even if initial recovery has been somewhat reduced. The latter problem could be offset by repeated cycles of the final extraction step. The main inhibitory activity is shown to be within the decorin-enriched “extract D,” as the core protein and DSPG II. Adjustment of the extract towards neutrality after dialysis against water keeps most of the extracted protein in solution and yielded a decorin-enriched preparation that had a specific activity equivalent to that of the old method. It also yielded a fraction that was readily lyophilised to give a small amount of material that could be stored indefinitely without loss of activity and readily redissolved in aqueous solution. A reliable and relatively quick method is presented for the production, from human skin, of a decorin-enriched preparation that has strong fibroblast inhibitory action. The value of the procedure is that it is inexpensive and can produce the quantities that might be used topically in reducing hypertrophic scarring of wounds.

  18. Addition Sequence Method of Scalar Multiplication of Elliptic Curve over OEF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Duo; DAI Yi-qi

    2005-01-01

    A new elliptic curve scalar multiplication algorithm is proposed. The algorithm uses the Frobenius map on optimal extension field (OEF) and addition sequence. We introduce a new algorithm on generating addition sequence efficiently and also give some analysis about it. Based on this algorithm, a new method of computing scalar multiplication of elliptic curve over an OEF is presented. The new method is more efficient than the traditional scalar multiplication algorithms of elliptic curve over OEF. The comparisons of traditional method and the new method are also given.

  19. Immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcuma longa extract and its polysaccharide fraction

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    Chinampudur V Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While curcuminoids have been reported to possess diverse biological activities, the anti-inflammatory activity of polar extracts (devoid of curcuminoids of Curcuma longa (C. longa has seldom been studied. In this study, we have investigated immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous based extract of C. longa (NR-INF-02 and its fractions in presence and absence of mitogens. Materials and Methods: Effects of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin TM , Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India on proliferation, nitric oxide (NO, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukins (ILs and prostaglandin (PGE 2 levels of mouse splenocytes and mouse macrophage (RAW264.7 cells were determined. Results: NR-INF-02 increased splenocytes number in presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or concanavalin A. Treatment of NR-INF-02 showed a significant increase of NO, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha and MCP-1 production in unstimulated mouse splenocytes and mouse macrophages. Interestingly, NR-INF-02 showed potent inhibitory effect towards release of PGE 2 and IL-12 levels in LPS stimulated mouse splenocytes. Further, NR-INF-02 was fractionated into polysaccharide fraction (F1 and mother liquor (F2 to study their immune-modulatory effects. F1 was found to be more potent than F2 toward inhibiting PGE 2 and IL-12 in LPS stimulated splenocytes. Conclusion: Present findings revealed the novel anti-inflammatory property of NR-INF-02 and its polysaccharide fraction by inhibiting the secretion of IL-12 and PGE 2 in vitro.

  20. Hepatoprotective activity of extracted anthocyanins fraction of red radish (Raphanus sativus L on albino rats

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    Mohammed Habibuddin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of extracted anthocyanins fraction of red radish for the first time. Methods: Anthocyanins fraction of red radish (Raphanus sativus; AFRS was selectively extracted by employment of polymeric ion-exchange resin. AFRS was evaluated for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The animals were divided into seven groups of six animals each. Group I (control received vehicle. Group II (drug control received AFRS. Group III (toxicant received CCl4. Group IV, V and VI received AFRS at doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg po, respectively. Group VII (standard received silymarin. Various biochemical parameters like alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin (TB and direct bilirubin (DB levels in serum as well as the glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the liver were determined. Histopathological changes in the liver were also studied. The activity of AFRS was compared with the reference drug silymarin. Results: The yield of AFRS was found to be 0.084% (w/w. AFRS treated group did not show any significant change in the activity of serum ALT, AST, ALP, TB, DB, MDA and GSH level compared to control group. CCl4 significantly raised the serum level of all biochemical parameters (except GSH in the toxicant group. The pre-treatment of AFRS for seven days had reversed the alteration of biochemical parameters towards normal, and the effects were comparable to standard drug (silymarin 100 mg/kg. The animals received pre-treatment of AFRS showed amelioration in necrotic zones and hepatocellular degeneration. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanins fraction isolated from Raphanus sativus and thus scientifically supports the usage of it as food colorant and also justifies the use of the crude extracts

  1. A rapid fractionation method for heavy metals in soil by continuous-flow sequential extraction assisted by focused microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Tetsuya; Akasaka, Mikio; Tao, Hiroaki

    2006-11-01

    A microwave-assisted continuous-flow sequential extraction system was developed for rapid fractionation analysis of heavy metals in soil. Insertion of pressure-adjusted air between the extractants provided stable flows of the extractants without mutual mixing and back-pressure influence of a column packed with soil, thereby facilitating reliable continuous-flow extractions. In addition, use of pure water as a pumping solvent removed metal contamination because of direct contact between corrosive extractants and the pump containing metallic materials. Focused microwave irradiation to the soil accelerated the selective extractions of the acid-soluble and reducible fractions of heavy metals in soil in the first and second steps of the sequential extraction conditions, as defined by the Commission of the European Bureau of Reference (BCR). The microwave-assisted continuous-flow extraction provided high correlations in amounts of six heavy metals except Zn in the first step and Cu in the second step extracted from a reference sludge soil, BCR CRM 483, with a conventional batchwise extraction proposed by BCR; continuous-flow extraction assisted by conductive heating provided lower correlations for all the six metals. The proposed method drastically reduced the time required for the sequence extraction to ca. 65 min without losing accuracy and precision of the fractionation analysis of heavy metals in soil, whereas the BCR batchwise method requires ca. 33 h.

  2. Antibacterial activities of the extracts, fractions and compounds from Dioscorea bulbifera

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    Kuete Victor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dioscorea bulbifera is an African medicinal plant used to treat microbial infections. In the present study, the methanol extract, fractions (DBB1 and DBB2 and six compounds isolated from the bulbils of D. bulbifera, namely bafoudiosbulbins A (1, B (2, C (3, F (4, G (5 and 2,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenanthrene (6, were tested for their antimicrobial activities against Mycobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria involving multidrug resistant (MDR phenotypes expressing active efflux pumps. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of the above samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicated that when tested alone, the crude extract, fractions DBB1 and DBB2 as well as compounds 2 to 5 were able to prevent the growth of all the fifteen studied microorganisms, within the concentration range of 8 to 256 μg/mL. The lowest MIC value for the methanol extract and fractions (16 μg/mL was obtained with DBB1 and DBB2 on E, coli AG100A and DBB2 on Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTCS2. The lowest value for individual compounds (8 μg/mL was recorded with compound 3 on M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis ATCC and MTCS2 strains respectively. The activity of the samples on many MDR bacteria such as Enterobacter aerogenes EA289, CM64, Klebsiella pneumoniae KP63 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA124 was better than that of chloramphenicol. When tested in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor against MDR Gram-negative bacteria, the activity of most of the samples increased. MBC values not greater than 512 μg/mL were recorded on all studied microorganisms with fraction DBB2 and compounds 2 to 5. Conclusions The overall results of the present investigation provided evidence that the crude extract D. bulbifera as well as some of the compounds and mostly compounds 3 could be considered as potential

  3. Fractionation of Gibberellins in plant extracts by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.G.; Metzger, J.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1980-02-01

    In studies on endogenous plant gibberellins (GAs), reverse phase (Bondapak C/sub 18/) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has proved to be a useful method for the fractionation of plant extracts. The behavior of 18 authentic GAs in such a chromatographic system is described. The main factors determining chromatographic behavior are the degree and the position of hydroxylation of the GA. As an illustration of the use of reverse phase HPLC, the endogeneous GAs of immature seeds of Pharbitis nil L., strain Violet, were reinvestigated. The presence of gibberellins A/sub 3/, A/sub 5/, A/sub 17/, A/sub 20/, and A/sub 29/ was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, two other GAs, A/sub 19/ and A/sub 44/, were also identified in extracts of this material.

  4. A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Linlin; Wang, Yanji; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Li, Rui; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-10-01

    A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation was developed for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata. In the developed technology, the powder of A. bidentata was loaded in a nylon filter cloth pocket with bore diameter of 180 µm. The pocket was fixed in the bulk liquid phase for continuously releasing saponins. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration and the extraction rate of the total saponins in the foamate by the developed technology were 73.5% and 416.2% higher than those by the traditional technology, respectively. The foamates obtained by the traditional technology and the developed technology were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their ingredients, and the results appeared that the developed technology exhibited a better performance for separating saponins than the traditional technology. The study is expected to develop a novel technology for cost effectively separating plant-derived materials with surface activity.

  5. Solvent-solvent fractionations of Combretum erythrophyllum (Burch.) leave extract: Studies of their antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and cytotoxicity potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanyana M. Mtunzi; Ikechukwu P. Ejidike; Imelda Ledwaba; Aroke Ahmed; Vusumzi E. Pakade; Michael J. Klink; Sekomeng J. Modise

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological activities of Combretum erythrophyllum (C. erythrophyllum) leaf extracts against infectious diseases' pathogenesis and their cytotoxicity potentials. Methods: Powdered leaf material (300 g) of C. erythrophyllum was extracted (1:10 w/v) using acetone to obtain the crude extract. Liquid-liquid fractionation was performed on the crude acetone extract (30 g) using solvents of different polarity. The bioautographic method was used to detect the inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth by active compounds present in the crude and fractions. The extracts were then tested on bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; fungal strains: Candida albicans (C. albicans), Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus, by microtitre dilution method for MIC determination. Results: The extracts MIC values ranged between 0.08–2.50 mg/mL against the tested pathogens. Water fraction had the highest activity against bacteria strains, while the fungal assay revealed crude acetone extract and ethyl acetate fraction to be active against C. albicans (1.25 mg/mL), dichloromethane extract against C. albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus (0.16 mg/mL). Extract fractions showed a good antioxidant activity via DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays, in the order: ethyl acetate > water >acetone > dichloromethane > hexane. The toxicity level of crude extract and fractions evaluated in Vero monkey kidney cells ranged from 34–223 μg/mL, while doxorubicin (IC50 = 7.19 μg/mL) served as the positive control. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the extracts of C. erythrophyllum are safe for medicinal use in folk medicine for treating infectious and stress related diseases.

  6. Pressurized-fluid extraction (PFE) of chlorinated paraffins from the biodegradable fraction of source-separated household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, M L; Waldebäck, M; Liljegren, G; Kulin, H; Markides, K E

    2001-08-01

    A method is presented in which pressurized-fluid extraction (PFE) is used for the extraction of chlorinated paraffins (CP) from the biodegradable fraction of source-separated household waste. The conditions that were optimized for high recovery in the extraction procedure were extraction time, temperature, and the use of different solvents and different sample particle sizes, Recoveries of CP from fortified household waste material were over 90%, with only few interferences when cyclohexane was used as solvent. Extraction yields from contaminated samples containing CP were further compared with recoveries obtained by use of Soxtec extraction. The results showed that PFE is a rapid, low-solvent-consuming technique, giving high yields.

  7. Antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic and fractionated extracts of Punica granatum Linn. fruit peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverton Silva Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is clear the need to develop new antimicrobial seeking to solve problems such as antibiotic resistance, in this context medicinal plants has been using a prominent place, and knowledge of popular medicine shows itself to be a promising search tool. Peel of Punica granatum fruits are popularly used for the treatment of diarrhea, eye and upper airway inflammation, and in the external treatment of infectious sores. Thus, this study had the objective to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of the crude ethanol extract of peels of P. granatum, three organic fractions and also fractions obtained by column chromatography, on reference microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by disk diffusion method. The obtained results evidenced that the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions facing S. aureus and E. coli showed significant antimicrobial activity, close to the antimicrobial gentamicin and penicillin, respectively. In its turn the crude ethanolic extract of P. granatum and aqueous fraction showed inhibitory effect similar to the antimicrobial tetracycline facing P. aeruginosa. It was observed an increase in the inhibition of the microorganisms with increasing extract volume (from 10 to 30 μL, being S. aureus and P. aeruginosa the most susceptible microorganisms. Differences in activity between the extracts and fractions can be partly explained by qualitative and quantitative variations in the secondary metabolites present in the extracts and fractions.Keywords: Pomegranade. Medicinal plants. Antimicrobial action. RESUMO Atualmente está clara a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos antimicrobianos buscando resolver problemas como a resistência a antibióticos, neste contexto, as plantas medicinais vem utilizando um lugar de destaque, e os conhecimentos da medicina popular mostram-se uma ferramenta de busca promissora. Cascas dos frutos de Punica granatum s

  8. Evaluation of In Vitro Antimalarial Activity of Different Extracts of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and A. armeniaca Lam. and Fractions of the Most Potent Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mojarrab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten extracts with different polarity from two Iranian Artemisia species, A. armeniaca Lam. and A. aucheri Boiss, were screened for their antimalarial properties by in vitro  β-hematin formation assay. Dichloromethane (DCM extracts of both plants showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 1.36 ± 0.01 and 1.83 ± 0.03 mg/mL and IC90 values of 2.12 ± 0.04 and 2.62 ± 0.09 mg/mL for A. armeniaca and A. aucheri, respectively. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of DCM extracts of both plants by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC over silica gel with solvent mixtures of increasing polarities afforded seven fractions. Two fractions from DCM extract of A. armeniaca and four fractions from DCM extract of A. aucheri showed potent antimalarial activity with reducing IC50 and IC90 values compared to extracts. The most potent fraction belonged to DCM extract of A. armeniaca with IC50 and IC90 values of 0.47 ± 0.006 and 0.71 ± 0.006 mg/mL, respectively.

  9. Application of molecular sieves in the fractionation of lemongrass oil from high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Paviani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of simultaneous process of high-pressure extraction and fractionation of lemongrass essential oil using molecular sieves. For this purpose, a high-pressure laboratory-scale extraction unit coupled with a column with four different stationary phases for fractionation: ZSM5 zeolite, MCM-41 mesoporous material, alumina and silica was employed. Additionally, the effect of carbon dioxide extraction variables on the global yield and chemical composition of the essential oil was also studied in a temperature range of 293 to 313 K and a pressure range of 100 to 200 bar. The volatile organic compounds of the extracts were identified by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer detector (GC/MS. The results indicated that the extraction process variables and the stationary phase exerted an effect on both the extraction yield and the chemical composition of the extracts.

  10. GC/MS Analysis of Fractional Extraction of Fusain from Tongting Bituminous Coal in CS2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fusain from Tongting (Huaibei, Anhui Province) bituminous (FTTB) coal was fractionally extracted using Soxhlet extractor with CS2. Then the extracts were analyzed with GC/MS. Comparison of experimental data between FTTB coal and clarain from Tongting bituminous (CTTB) coal was carried out. The results show that the kinds of small molecule components detected by GC/MS of FTTB are less than those of CTTB. Long-chain alkanes exist mostly in the extracts of fusain. Macromolecular networks are predominant in the FTTB coal mainly composed of inertinite in the coal petrography. The size of micropores in the FTTB coal is relatively small, and the development of micropores is relatively low. Thus the content of aromatic compounds with affinity for micropores is relative low in FTTB, while the content of long-chain alkanes with affinity for macromolecule networks is relatively high. Sub-components in exinite determine the distribution of long-chain alkanes extracted in the last stage. Odd-numbered carbon distribution appears when resin is most in exinite, while high carbon alkane distribution appears when exinite is dominant in cutinite. Small aromatic molecules are firstly packed in micropores, and exist in a free state after micropores are saturated.

  11. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shaibu Auwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod.

  12. Real-time implementation of optimized maximum noise fraction transform for feature extraction of hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanfeng; Gao, Lianru; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Haina; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We present a parallel implementation of the optimized maximum noise fraction (G-OMNF) transform algorithm for feature extraction of hyperspectral images on commodity graphics processing units (GPUs). The proposed approach explored the algorithm data-level concurrency and optimized the computing flow. We first defined a three-dimensional grid, in which each thread calculates a sub-block data to easily facilitate the spatial and spectral neighborhood data searches in noise estimation, which is one of the most important steps involved in OMNF. Then, we optimized the processing flow and computed the noise covariance matrix before computing the image covariance matrix to reduce the original hyperspectral image data transmission. These optimization strategies can greatly improve the computing efficiency and can be applied to other feature extraction algorithms. The proposed parallel feature extraction algorithm was implemented on an Nvidia Tesla GPU using the compute unified device architecture and basic linear algebra subroutines library. Through the experiments on several real hyperspectral images, our GPU parallel implementation provides a significant speedup of the algorithm compared with the CPU implementation, especially for highly data parallelizable and arithmetically intensive algorithm parts, such as noise estimation. In order to further evaluate the effectiveness of G-OMNF, we used two different applications: spectral unmixing and classification for evaluation. Considering the sensor scanning rate and the data acquisition time, the proposed parallel implementation met the on-board real-time feature extraction.

  13. Continuous-flow fractionation of selenium in contaminated sediment and soil samples using rotating coiled column and microcolumn extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonina, Elena Yu; Fedotov, Petr S; Wennrich, Rainer

    2012-01-15

    Dynamic fractionation is considered to be an attractive alternative to conventional batch sequential extraction procedures for partitioning of trace metals and metalloids in environmental solid samples. This paper reports the first results on the continuous-flow dynamic fractionation of selenium using two different extraction systems, a microcolumn (MC) packed with the solid sample and a rotating coiled column (RCC) in which the particulate matter is retained under the action of centrifugal forces. The eluents (leachants) were applied in correspondence with a four-step sequential extraction scheme for selenium addressing "soluble", "adsorbed", "organically bound", and "elemental" Se fractions extractable by distilled water, phosphate buffer, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, and sodium sulphite solutions, respectively. Selenium was determined in the effluent by using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Contaminated creek sediment and dumped waste (soil) samples from the abandoned mining area were used to evaluate resemblances and discrepancies of two continuous-flow methods for Se fractionation. In general, similar trends were found for Se distribution between extractable and residual fractions. However, for the dumped waste sample which is rich in organic matter, the extraction in RCC provided more effective recovery of environmentally relevant Se forms (the first three leachable fractions). The most evident deviation was observed for "adsorbed" Se (recoveries by RCC and MC are 43 and 7 mg kg(-1), respectively). The data obtained were correlated with peculiarities of samples under investigation and operational principles of RCC and MC.

  14. Fractionation study in bioleached metallurgy wastes using six-step sequential extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnodebska-Ostrega, Beata; Pałdyna, Joanna; Kowalska, Joanna; Jedynak, Łukasz; Golimowski, Jerzy

    2009-08-15

    The stored metallurgy wastes contain residues from ore processing operations that are characterized by relatively high concentrations of heavy metals. The bioleaching process makes use of bacteria to recover elements from industrial wastes and to decrease potential risk of environmental contamination. Wastes were treated by solutions containing bacteria. In this work, the optimized six-stage sequential extraction procedure was applied for the fractionation of Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in iron-nickel metallurgy wastes deposited in Southern Poland (Szklary). Fractionation and total concentrations of elements in wastes before and after various bioleaching treatments were studied. Analyses of the extracts were performed by ICP-MS and FAAS. To achieve the most effective bioleaching of Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Fe the usage of both autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria in sequence, combined with flushing of the residue after bioleaching is required. 80-100% of total metal concentrations were mobilized after the proposed treatment. Wastes treated according to this procedure could be deposited without any risk of environmental contamination and additionally the metals could be recovered for industrial purposes.

  15. Antioxidant, prooxidant, and cytotoxic activities of solvent-fractionated dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun; Kitts, David D

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical antioxidant and bioactive properties of the water (WF) and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) derived from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract (DFE). HPLC analysis showed the presence of both luteolin and luteolin 7-glucoside in the DFE, which contributed to noted in vitro antioxidant and Caco-2 cell cytotoxic activities. Both WF and EAF of DFE exhibited free radical scavenging activities in a stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical model and reduced the breakage of supercoiled DNA strand induced by both non-site-specific and site-specific hydroxyl radical. Oxidation of structured phosphatidylcholine liposome induced by peroxyl radical was reduced in the presence of both EAF and WF. EAF had greater (p < 0.05) affinity to scavenge peroxyl radical than WF, as measured by the formation of conjugated diene. At low concentration, prooxidant activity of both fractions was observed in Cu(2+)-induced structured liposome and hLDL oxidation models, thus indicating that the reducing power of the DFE had resulted in generation of reactive cuprous ion. However, at high concentrations the EAF did not promote oxidation in the presence of Cu(2+), suggesting that the free radical scavenging activity of this fraction was sufficient to minimize the potential oxidative mechanism attributed to the metal ion reducing activity associated with prooxidant activity.

  16. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a hepatoprotective and antioxidant extract of pea by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seida, Ahmed A; El Tanbouly, Nebal D; Islam, Wafaa T; Eid, Hanaa H; El Maraghy, Shohda A; El Senousy, Amira S

    2015-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the hydroalcoholic extract (PE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by-product were evaluated, using CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatic damage in rats. These activities were assessed via measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein and albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), protein thiols (PSH), nitrite/nitrate levels, glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as, histopathological evaluation. PE revealed significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities mostly found in n-butanol fraction. Chromatographic fractionation of this active fraction led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides namely, quercetin-3-O-sophorotrioside (1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E sinapoyl)-sophorotrioside (3), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E feruloyl)-sophorotrioside (4) and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). The isolated compounds were quantified in PE, using a validated HPLC method and the nutritional composition of pea by-product was also investigated. Our results suggest that pea by-product contained biologically active constituents which can be utilised to obtain high value added products for nutraceutical use.

  17. Bronchospasmolytic activity of the extract and fractions of Asystasia gangetica leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Ezike

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The bronchospasmolytic constituent of leaves of Asystasia gangetica (L. T. Anderson, sub-specie micrantha (Nees Ensermu (Acanthaceae was isolated by bio-activity-guided technique. The bronchospasmolytic effect of the fractions of the leaf extract as well as the isolate AG-1 was evaluated using histamine-induced contraction of the guinea pig trachea and pre-contracted trachea (pathological tissue. The results showed that the fractions and AG-1 inhibited contractions of the guinea pig trachea induced by histamine in a dose dependent manner. The isolated constituent, (AG-1 caused 82% inhibition of maximal contraction produced by histamine at a concentration of 400μg/ml. On histamine (8μg/ml pre-contracted trachea, cumulative doses of the fractions evoked a dose dependent relaxation.  Phytochemical analysis showed that the isolated compound (AG-1 tested positive to terpenoids while the fractions contained typical constituents such as carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and glycosides. These findings suggest that the usefulness of leaves of A. gangetica in the treatment of asthma may derive from bronchospasmolytic effect of terpenoid compounds in the leaves.   Industrial relevance: Asthma is currently a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in both children and adults; a prevalence rate of 5 – 10% has been reported for Nigeria.  Drugs used in the management include bronchodilators which are short-term relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs which are long-term controllers. Despite the availability of oral and inhaled medications, the prevalence of asthma is on the rise (NHLBI/WHO 1995. The challenge of developing new effective, safe and long lasting antiasthmatic drugs from natural products appears inevitable. The leaves of Asystasia gangetica L. (T. (Acanthaceae, a traditional anti-asthma remedy, offer great potential for the development of a novel anti-asthmatic agent. The leaves have been shown to possess

  18. Efficient method for finding square roots for elliptic curves over OEF

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Elliptic curve cryptosystems like others public key encryption schemes, require computing a square roots modulo a prime number. The arithmetic operations in elliptic curve schemes over Optimal Extension Fields (OEF) can be efficiently computed...

  19. Anticonvulsant activity of the fractionated extract of Crinum jagus bulbs in experimental animals

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    Azikiwe CCA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the bulbs of Crinum jagus in experimental animals. Methods: The uprooted bulbs were air dried for a week and ground into creamy-paste. 200g of paste was macerated each in 2 litres of water, ethanol and petroleum ether and filtered after 48 h. The obtained filtrates were each evaporated at the appropriate temperature to solid residue. The residues were further fractionated with successive changes of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol into a pooled filtrate which was further evaporated to dry solid brown-paste. Phytochemistry was carried out based on Treas and Evans method of 1987. The acute toxicity study (LD50 was carried based on Lorke ’s 1983 method. Convulsion was induced using maximum electric shock (MEST, pentylenetetrazole(PTZ, strychnine and Picrotoxin in the appropriate animal models. Seizures onset time and death time were used as successful induction of convulsion while prolongations of these features were taken as anticonvulsant activity. Results where possible, were statistically analyzed using SPSS-16.0 version. Results: The LD 50 was got at 1118.003mg/kg (IP in mice using Lorke ’s 1983 method. Fractionated extract of Crinum jagus exhibited dose dependent antiseizure against MEST induced seizure (P<0.001 and comparable to that of phenytoin, a standard anti generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There were also observable antiseizure activity of the fractionated extracts against PTZ, strychnine and Picrotoxin induced seizure and comparable to their standard corresponding antiseizures. Conclusions: We conclude that the bulbs of Crinum jagus possess proven broad spectrum antiseizure and perhaps antiepileptogenic activity thus justifies its use in traditional medicine. Clinical trial in man is recommended.

  20. Evaluation of antiviral activity of fractionated extracts of sage Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmidling Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity and extracellular and intracellular antiviral activity of frac­tionated extracts of wild and cultivated sage Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae in vitro using the WISH-VSV model system. Extracts were obtained by fractionating depigmented ethanol extracts of sage plants with supercritical CO2 at different pressures. Cytotoxicity was determined by examining cellular morphology in situ with the aid of a colorimetric micromethod and by cell staining with trypan blue. The fraction of distilled cultivated sage obtained at CO2 pressure of 300 bars and temperature of 60°C (149/3 was the most cytotoxic, with CTD10 44 μg/ml. That of non-distilled cultivated sage obtained at CO2 pressure of 500 bars and temperature of 100°C (144/5 was the least toxic (CTD10 199 μg/ml. Moreover, 144/5 had an antiviral effect at the intracellular level: when added 5 hours before VSV infection, it caused 100% reduction of CPE at concentrations of 99.5 and 199.0 μg/ml; when added after virus penetration had occurred, the same concentrations caused 35 and 60% reduction, respectively. The obtained results indicate that antiviral activity of 144/5 involves inhibition of the early steps of the virus infective cycle without a direct virucidal effect. Abbreviations: WISH - human amnion epithelial cells, VSV - vesicular stomatitis virus, HSV - herpes simplex virus, CPE - cytopathic effect, IS - selectivity index, TCID50 - tissue culture infective dose, CTD10 - 10% cytotoxic concentrations.

  1. Potent anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of methanol fraction of Otostegia persica extract and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tofighi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Otostegia persica (Labiatae is an endemic plant of Iran and is used for its anti-inflammatory properties in folk medicine of Sistan and Baluchestan province. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of O. Persica different fractions and identification of the natural compounds from the most active fraction. Methods: Total extract of O. Persica was fractionated with petroleum ether (PE, chloroform (CL, ethyl acetate (EA, n-butanol (BU and methanol (ME. The analgesic activities of different fractions were determined by formalin test. Then, activity of effective fractions was investigated on carrageenan-induced paw edema assay. Finally, the compounds of effective fraction were isolated and their structures were elucidated. Results: Anti-nociceptive activity of EA and BU fractions (100 mg/kg and ME fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg demonstrated significant difference with normal saline during the second phase of the formalin test. ME fraction showed higher analgesic effects in comparison to indomethacin (p0.05. Vicenin-2 and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside were elucidated from ME as the effective anti-inflammatory fraction. Conclusion: It was concluded that the existence of flavonoids in O. persica extract could play an important role for its anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects similar to various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS and inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS.

  2. Multiple traumatic limb loss: A comparison of Vietnam veterans to OIF/OEF servicemembers

    OpenAIRE

    Gayle E. Reiber, MPH, PhD; Donna Jo Blake, MD; Alberto Esquenazi, MD; Douglas G. Smith, MD; Paul J. Dougherty, MD; Lynne V. McFarland, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-limb loss due to war-theater injuries results in a unique group of servicemembers requiring intensiverehabilitation and diverse prosthetic devices. This article compares the Vietnam and the Operation Iraqi Freedom/OperationEnduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) groups with war-theater-associated multiple-limb loss to document significant changes in health status, prosthetic-device use, and long-term prognosis.During 2007 and 2008, a national survey queried 73 Vietnamveterans and 61 OIF/OEF servi...

  3. Antinociceptive activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions, and aggregatin D isolated from Sinningia aggregata tubers.

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    Geórgea V Souza

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa, fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE and ethyl acetate (EA fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs.

  4. Antinociceptive activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions, and aggregatin D isolated from Sinningia aggregata tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Geórgea V; Simas, Alex S; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L; Frois, Gisele R A; Ribas, João L C; Verdan, Maria H; Kassuya, Cândida A L; Stefanello, Maria E; Zampronio, Aleksander R

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa), fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction) reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs.

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Calotropis procera (Ait. roots against human cancer cell lines

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    Bhagat Madhulika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the antiproliferative activity of three extracts (alcoholic, hydro-aqueous and aqueous and their fractions from the root part of Calotropis procera using human oral (KB and central nervous system (SNB-78 cancer cell lines as a model system. KB and SNB-78 cells were cultured in the presence of extracts and fractions at various concentrations (10, 30 and100 µg/ml for 48 h, and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by the sulforhodamine-B (SRB assay. Our result indicates that out of the three extracts of C. procera (root, alcoholic extract had shown greater potential for growth inhibition followed by hydro-aqueous extract at three different concentration of 10 µg/ml, 30 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml in a dose-dependent manner, whereas aqueous extract was found to be least active against both oral and CNS human cancer lines. On evaluation of the fractions prepared from alcoholic and hydro-aqueous extracts, it was observed that chloroform fraction from alcoholic extract was antiproliferative for oral (KB cancer cell line and n-butanol fraction from alcoholic extract was antiproliferative for CNS cancer cell line than remaining fractions at three different concentration of 10 µg/ml, 30 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our result indicates that the root part of C. procera possess in vitro cytotoxicity against oral and CNS human cancer cell lines. Further investigations are required to obtain the clinically important lead molecules for the drug development.

  6. Cytotoxicity, Fractionation and Dereplication of Extracts of the Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum, a Producer of Pinnatoxin G

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    Philipp Hess

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G is a marine toxin belonging to the class of cyclic imines and produced by the dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum. In spite of its strong toxicity to mice, leading to the classification of pinnatoxins into the class of “fast-acting toxins”, its hazard for human health has never been demonstrated. In this study, crude extracts of V. rugosum exhibited significant cytotoxicity against Neuro2A and KB cells. IC50 values of 0.38 µg mL−1 and 0.19 µg mL−1 were estimated on Neuro2A cells after only 24 h of incubation and on KB cells after 72 h of incubation, respectively. In the case of Caco-2 cells 48 h after exposure, the crude extract of V. rugosum induced cell cycle arrest accompanied by a dramatic increase in double strand DNA breaks, although only 40% cytotoxicity was observed at the highest concentration tested (5 µg mL−1. However, PnTX-G was not a potent cytotoxic compound as no reduction of the cell viability was observed on the different cell lines. Moreover, no effects on the cell cycle or DNA damage were observed following treatment of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells with PnTX-G. The crude extract of V. rugosum was thus partially purified using liquid-liquid partitioning and SPE clean-up. In vitro assays revealed strong activity of some fractions containing no PnTX-G. The crude extract and the most potent fraction were evaluated using full scan and tandem high resolution mass spectrometry. The dereplication revealed the presence of a major compound that could be putatively annotated as nakijiquinone A, N-carboxy-methyl-smenospongine or stachybotrin A, using the MarinLit™ database. Further investigations will be necessary to confirm the identity of the compounds responsible for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the extracts of V. rugosum.

  7. GC/MS analyses of fractionated extraction of Shenfu coal with CS2, n-hexane, benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; WEI Xian-yong

    2008-01-01

    Shenfu coal was extracted with CS2,n-hexane,benzene sequentially.The extracts were analyzed with GC/MS.It is presented that group seperation of soluble organic compounds in the coal can be achieved by fractionated extraction using different solvents.Main components in CS2 soluble fraction from Shenfu coal are alkyl-substituted arenes.Aliphatic hydrocarbons are overwhelmingly predominant in n-hexane-soluble fraction.Dito tricyclic aramatic hydrocarbons are identified in benzene-soluble fraction.The molecular structures detection of 2,4,6-trichlorobenzenamine and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachloro-1,1'-biphenyl and 2-chiorocyclohexanol firstly provide information for existence form of chlorine in coal.

  8. GC/MS analyses of fractionated extraction of Shenfu coal with CS2, n-hexane, benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; WEI Xian-yong

    2008-01-01

    Shenfu coal was extracted with CS2, n-hexane, benzene sequentially. The ex-tracts were analyzed with GC/MS. It is presented that group seperation of soluble organic compounds in the coal can be achieved by fractionated extraction using different solvents. Main components in CS2 soluble fraction from Shenfu coal are alkyl-substituted arenes. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are overwhelmingly predominant in n-hexane-soluble fraction. Di-to tricyclic aramatic hydrocarbons are identified in benzene-soluble fraction. The molecular structures detection of 2, 4, 6-trichlorobenzenamine and 3, 3', 4, 4', 5, 5'-hexachloro-1, 1'-biphenyl and 2-chlorocyclohexanol firstly provide information for existence form of chlorine in coal.

  9. Delivering Mental Health Services to OEF/OIF Veterans: A VHA Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoracci, Gina M; Bahraini, Nazanin H; Matarazzo, Bridget B; Olson-Madden, Jennifer H; Brenner, Lisa A

    2014-09-01

    Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health (MH) professionals are providing care to increasing numbers of veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). This study aimed to describe MH clinicians' views of OEF/OIF veteran needs and how providers meet those needs within a large system of care. Qualitative research methodology, specifically qualitative description, was used to explore VHA MH clinicians' experiences providing MH services to OEF/OIF veterans. Thirteen VA MH providers participated in semistructured interviews, which included questions regarding the following areas: psychiatric needs of OEF/OIF veterans; collaboration and referral; needs and resources; and the personal/professional impact of providing services to this cohort. Themes emerged which highlighted complex challenges faced by OEF/OIF veterans, barriers associated with matching the unique needs of these veterans with existing treatments, and the challenges and rewards associated with providing care to members of this population. Capturing provider perspectives within MH services suggest potential areas for innovation aimed at providing patient-centered care to this cohort of veterans. Results may also inform future work aimed at meeting the needs of both OEF/OIF veterans and MH providers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Bioguided Fractionation Shows Cassia alata Extract to Inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Takashi Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have a long history to be used in folk medicine. Cassia alata extracts are known to exert antibacterial activity but details on compounds and mechanism of action remain poorly explored. We purified and concentrated the aqueous leaf extract of C. alata by reverse phase-solid phase extraction and screened the resulting CaRP extract for antimicrobial activity. CaRP extract exhibited antimicrobial activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. CaRP also inhibited biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Several bacterial growth-inhibiting compounds were detected when CaRP extract was fractionated by TLC chromatography coupled to bioautography agar overlay technique. HPLC chromatography of CaRP extract yielded 20 subfractions that were tested by bioautography for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Five bioactive fractions were detected and chemically characterized, using high-resolution mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS. Six compounds from four fractions could be characterized as kaempferol, kaempferol-O-diglucoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucoside, rhein, and danthron. In the Salmonella/microsome assay CaRP showed weak mutagenicity (MI<3 only in strain TA98, pointing to a frameshift mutation activity. These results indicate that C. alata leaf extract contains a minimum of 7 compounds with antimicrobial activity and that these together or as single substance are active in preventing formation of bacterial biofilm, indicating potential for therapeutic applications.

  11. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of extracts and fractionates of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, P; Lalitha, P; Aarthi, N

    2012-11-01

    Petroleum ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, aqueous extract, methanol and ethanol fractionate of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms was tested for their larvicidal efficacy against the different instars (I, II, III and IV) and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of the treatment. The extracts showed a dose-dependent toxicity to larvae. The toxicity of the extracts decreased with increase in larval stage. Ethanol fractionate of E. crassipes showed the highest larvicidal and pupicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus compared to other solvent extracts and fractionates with LC(50) 71.43, 94.68,120.42, 152.15 and 173.35 ppm for I, II, III, IV and pupae, respectively. Presence of metabolites like flavonoids, alkaloids, anthroquinones and anthocyanins in the tested extracts might be the reason for the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of the plant extracts and fractionates of waterhyacinth. Mosquito-repellent activity was not exhibited by these extracts at the tested concentrations. The results demonstrated the potential of the aquatic plant E. crassipes in the successful control of the filarial vector C. quinquefasciatus.

  12. Efficacy of Plectranthus glandulosus (Lamiaceae) and Callistemon rigidus (Myrtaceae) Leaf Extract Fractions to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Younoussa, Lame; Adler, Cornel; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, methanol crude extracts of Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus leaves were sequentially fractionated in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol to establish the most active fraction(s) against Callosobruchus maculatus in cowpea. Cowpea seeds (25 g) were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 g/kg of extract to evaluate the contact toxicity and F1 progeny production of the beetles in the laboratory. Mortality was recorded 1, 3, and 7 d postexposure. P. glandulosus hexane fraction was more toxic than the other fractions recording 100% mortality at 4 g/kg, within 7 d with LC50 of 0.39 g/kg. Hexane fraction of C. rigidus showed superior toxicity, causing 100% mortality at 4 g/kg within only 1 d of exposure with LC50 of 1.02 g/kg. All the fractions greatly reduced progeny emergence, with C. rigidus hexane fraction being the best progeny inhibitor. Fractions of P. glandulosus and C. rigidus leaves had sufficient efficacy to be a component of storage pest management package for C. maculatus.

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Shailesh Kumar Choudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt. showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects.

  14. Semiautomatic sequential extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elemental bio-accessible fraction by accelerated solvent extraction on a single particulate matter sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Di Filippo, Patrizia; Gentili, Alessandra; Canepari, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    We describe the optimization and validation of a sequential extractive method for the determination of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn) that are chemically fractionated into bio-accessible and mineralized residual fractions on a single particulate matter filter. The extraction is performed by automatic accelerated solvent extraction (ASE); samples are sequentially treated with dichloromethane/acetone (4:1) for PAHs extraction and acetate buffer (0.01M; pH 4.5) for elements extraction (bio-accessible fraction). The remaining solid sample is then collected and subjected to acid digestion with HNO3:H2O2 (2:1) to determine the mineralized residual element fraction. We also describe a homemade ASE cell that reduces the blank values for most elements; in this cell, the steel frit was replaced by a Teflon pierced disk and a Teflon cylinder was used as the filler. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of recovery from standard reference material (SRM 1648 and SRM 1649a) and repeatability. The equivalence between the new ASE method and conventional methods was verified for PAHs and for bio-accessible and mineralized residual fractions of elements on PM10 twin filters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chromatographic finger print analysis of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris by HPTLC technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mona Salih Mohammed; Mohamed Fahad Alajmi; Perwez Alam; Hassan Subki Khalid; Abelkhalig Muddathir Mahmoud; Wadah Jamal Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop HPTLC fingerprint profile of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae). Methods:The anti-inflammatory activity was tested for the methanol and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) and chloroform extract of Tribulus terrestris (aerial parts) by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with carrageenan in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1, 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 200 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software for the active fractions of chloroform fraction of methanol extract. Results:The methanol extract showed good antiedematous effect with percentage of inhibition more than 72%, indicating its ability to inhibit the inflammatory mediators. The methanol extract was re-dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water and fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The four fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were subjected to anti-inflammatory activity. Chloroform fraction showed good anti-inflammatory activity at dose of 200 mg/kg. Chloroform fraction was then subjected to normal phase silica gel column chromatography and eluted with petroleum ether-chloroform, chloroform-ethyl acetate mixtures of increasing polarity which produced 15 fractions (F1-F15). Only fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 were found to be active, hence these were analyzed with HPTLC to develop their finger print profile. These fractions showed different spots with different Rf values. Conclusions:The different chloroform fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 revealed 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7 and 6 major spots, respectively. The

  16. Anti-diarrhoea and analgesic activities of the methanol extract and its fractions of Jasminum amplexicaule Buch.-Ham. (Oleaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qiang; Su, Weiwei; Peng, Wei; Li, Peibo; Wang, Yonggang

    2008-09-26

    Jasminum amplexicaule Buch.-Ham. (Oleaceae) has been commonly used in the traditional medicine in dysentery, diarrhoea and bellyache in China. In the present work, the methanol extract of Jasminum amplexicaule and different fractions of this extract were studied for anti-diarrhoea and analgesic activities. The anti-diarrhoea activities were investigated using castor oil-induced, magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea models, antienteropooling assay and gastrointestinal motility models in mice. The analgesic activities were studied using hot-plate, writhing and formalin models in mice. At the doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg, the methanol extract (ME) showed significant and dose-dependent anti-diarrhoea and analgesic activity in these models. The chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and the residual methanol fraction (RMF) exhibited similar activity using a dose of 200mg/kg in these models. The pharmacological activities of the n-butanol fraction (BUF) were lesser than the ME extract and other fractions. These results may support the fact that this plant is traditionally used to cure diarrhoea and pain.

  17. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata flower extract separated fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Karuppiah; Priya, Sethuraman

    2017-05-01

    Cassia auriculata L., the flower aqueous extract was fractionated by separating funnel using n-hexane (A1), chloroform (A2), ethyl acetate (A3) and triple distilled water (A4). The A4 fraction was concentrated and determined the presence of preliminary phytochemicals such as tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates and polyphenolic compounds. These phytochemical compounds acted as reducing as well as a stabilizing agent in the green synthesis of Ag NPs from aqueous silver ions. Initially, the colour change and UV-vis absorbance surface Plasmon resonance strong, wide band located at 435 nm has confirmed the synthesis of Ag NPs. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of Ag NPs shows a face-centered cubic crystal structure. The observed values were calculated by Debye-Scherrer equation to theoretical confirms the particle size of 18 nm. The surface morphology of Ag NPs was viewed by HRTEM, the particles are spherical and triangle shapes with sizes from 10 to 35 nm. Further, the Ag NPs was effective catalytic activity in the reduction of highly environmental polluted organic compounds of 4-nitrophenol and methyl orange. The green synthesis of Ag NPs seems to eco-friendly, cost-effective, conventional one spot synthesis and greater performance of catalytic degradation of environmentally polluted organic dyes.

  18. The Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Hypoxic Fraction of C3H Mouse Fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yi, Chun Ja; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    Purpose : To investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on hypoxic cell fraction and metabolic status in fibrosarcoma (FSa II) of C3H mouse. Materials and Methods : Fibrosarcoma (Fsa II), 6mm in diameter, growing in the right hind leg muscle of C3H mouse was used for estimation of hypoxic cell fraction using comparison of TCD{sub 50}. Radiation was given one hour after administration of GBE (100 mg/Kg, i.p.) with or without priming dose of GBE (100 mg/Kg, i.p.) given 24 hours earlier. Radiation was also given under air breathing condition or clamp hypoxia without GBE as controls. {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy was performed before and one hour after administration of GBE with or without priming dose of GBE. Results : TCD{sub 50/120's} were 81.7(77.7-86.0) Gy when irradiated under clamped hypoxia, 69.6 (66.8-72.5) Gy under air breathing condition,67.5(64.1-71.1) Gy with a single dose of GBE (100 mg/kg) given one hour before irradiation, and 62.2(59.1-65.5) Gy with two doses of GBE given at 25 hours and one hour before irradiation. The hypoxic cell fractions, estimated from TCD50/120's were 1.6% under air breathing condition, 7.2% after single dose of GBE, and 2.7% after two doses of GBE. Metabolic status of tumor, probably by increasing the blood flow and delivery of oxygen and nutrients, resulting in increased radiosensitivity of tumor.

  19. Molluscicidal activity of Physalis angulata L. extracts and fractions on Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835 under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos José Augusto A dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to evaluate the molluscicide activity of Physalis angulata L. Biomphalaria tenagophila specimens under laboratory conditions. Extracts and fractions were supplied by the Laboratório de Química de Produtos Naturais, Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz. Experiments were performed according to the methodology described by the World Health Organization for molluscicide tests using the concentrations from 0.1 to 500 mg/l of the extracts, fractions and of a pool of physalins modified steroids present in this species. The results show that ethyl acetate and acetone extracts from the whole plant, the ethanolic extracts of the roots and the physalins pool from stems and leaves were active. Only the whole plant extracts were available in sufficient quantity for the determination of LD50 and LD90 values.

  20. Antioxidant-Enhancing Property of the Polar Fraction of Mangosteen Pericarp Extract and Evaluation of Its Safety in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numpraphrut, Pornpayom; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Neungton, Neelobol; Tunrungruangtavee, Vachara; Jaisupa, Nattapon; Charoensak, Suwit

    2016-01-01

    Crude extract from the pericarp of the mangosteen (mangosteen extract [ME]) has exhibited several medicinal properties in both animal models and human cell lines. Interestingly, the cytotoxic activities were always observed in nonpolar fraction of the extract whereas the potent antioxidant was often found in polar fraction. Although it has been demonstrated that the polar fraction of ME exhibited the antioxidant activity, the safety of the polar fraction of ME has never been thoroughly investigated in humans. In this study, we investigated the safety of oral administration of the polar fraction of ME in 11 healthy Thai volunteers. During a 24-week period of the study, only minor and tolerable side effects were reported; no serious side effects were documented. Blood chemistry studies also showed no liver damage or kidney dysfunction in all subjects. We also demonstrated antioxidant property of the polar fraction of ME both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oral administration of the polar fraction of ME enhanced the antioxidant capability of red blood cells and decreased oxidative damage to proteins within red blood cells and whole blood. PMID:27703599

  1. Antioxidant-Enhancing Property of the Polar Fraction of Mangosteen Pericarp Extract and Evaluation of Its Safety in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichit Suthammarak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract from the pericarp of the mangosteen (mangosteen extract [ME] has exhibited several medicinal properties in both animal models and human cell lines. Interestingly, the cytotoxic activities were always observed in nonpolar fraction of the extract whereas the potent antioxidant was often found in polar fraction. Although it has been demonstrated that the polar fraction of ME exhibited the antioxidant activity, the safety of the polar fraction of ME has never been thoroughly investigated in humans. In this study, we investigated the safety of oral administration of the polar fraction of ME in 11 healthy Thai volunteers. During a 24-week period of the study, only minor and tolerable side effects were reported; no serious side effects were documented. Blood chemistry studies also showed no liver damage or kidney dysfunction in all subjects. We also demonstrated antioxidant property of the polar fraction of ME both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oral administration of the polar fraction of ME enhanced the antioxidant capability of red blood cells and decreased oxidative damage to proteins within red blood cells and whole blood.

  2. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  3. Chromatographic finger print analysis and lysosomal membrane stabilisation activity of active fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf extract in arthritic rats

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    Swapnil Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Object: The present study was aimed to assess the anti-arthritic activity of chloroform fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf extract against Freund′s complete adjuvant (FCA-induced arthritis in rats. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of various fractions of ethanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris at concentration of 100 mg/kg was studied using the carrageenan-induced inflammatory models. The chloroform fraction shows significant anti-inflammatory activity. The chloroform fraction was further studied for anti-arthritic activity and HPTLC fingerprint analysis. For anti-arthritic activity, the active chloroform fraction was administered at the concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The effect of chloroform fraction on liver ALP, ACP and LDH levels of lysosomal enzymes of FCA arthritic animals were studied. Indomethacin and prednisolone (10 mg/kg was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner; Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. Results: The chloroform fraction at 100 mg/kg, showed maximum inhibition (34.16% of inflammation induced by carrageenan. In FCA-induced arthritis, the chloroform fraction showed a highly significant reduction in paw volume (50 mg/kg-72.71%; 100 mg/kg-74.35%. The levels of lysosomal enzymes were significantly decreased in the chloroform fraction-treated groups. Conclusion: The possible mechanism of action of the chloroform fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf extract may be through its stabilising action on lysosomal membranes. Future studies will provide new insights into the anti-arthritic activity of Alstonia scholaris and isolation of compound from it may eventually lead to development of a new class of anti-arthritic agent.

  4. SELECTIVE SEPARATION AND RECOVERY PROCESS —Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A selective separation and recovery process has been developed based on the supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation (SFEF) technology. The solvent used varies from C3 to C5, depending on process objective. Basic research work has been done on the phase behavior, phase equilibria and modeling of a number of systems including petroleum residue, polymers, waxes and lubricants with the light hydrocarbon solvents. Semi-batch pilot and continuous pilot experiments were performed to establish data base for the process design of industrial scale. The effects of operation para-meters, such as temperature, pressure, ratio of solvent to oil and residence time, on separation selectivity and yield of extracts were studied in a wide range. Industrial demonstration plant with a capacity of 15 kt/a was setup and has run for a sufficient long period of time to confirm the design and to obtain the energy cost and economic analysis data for further commercial scale up. It was found that the process offers high efficient products and solvent recovery.

  5. Extraction and fractionation of RNA and DNA from single cells using selective lysing and isotachophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Santiago, Juan G.

    2015-03-01

    Single cell analyses of RNA and DNA are crucial to understanding the heterogeneity of cell populations. The numbers of approaches to single cells analyses are expanding, but sequence specific measurements of nucleic acids have been mostly limited to studies of either DNA or RNA, and not both. This remains a challenge as RNA and DNA have very similar physical and biochemical properties, and cross-contamination with each other can introduce false positive results. We present an electrokinetic technique which creates the opportunity to fractionate and deliver cytoplasmic RNA and genomic DNA to independent downstream analyses. Our technique uses an on-chip system that enables selective lysing of cytoplasmic membrane, extraction of RNA (away from genomic DNA and nucleus), focusing, absolute quantification of cytoplasmic RNA mass. The absolute RNA mass quantification is performed using fluorescence observation without enzymatic amplification in genomic DNA amount in the nucleus can be measured. We demonstrate the technique using single mouse B lymphocyte cells, for which we extracted an average of 14.1 pg total cytoplasmic RNA per cell. We also demonstrate correlation analysis between the absolute amount of cytoplasmic RNA and relative amount of genomic DNA, showing heterogeneity associated with cell cycle.

  6. Extraction of cocoa proanthocyanidins and their fractionation by sequential centrifugal partition chromatography and gel permeation chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedan, Vasilisa; Fischer, Norbert; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-08-01

    Cocoa beans contain secondary metabolites ranging from simple alkaloids to complex polyphenols with most of them believed to possess significant health benefits. The increasing interest in these health effects has prompted the need to develop techniques for their extraction, fractionation, separation, and analysis. This work provides an update on analytical procedures with a focus on establishing a gentle extraction technique. Cocoa beans were finely ground to an average particle size of centrifugal partition chromatography (SCPC) and gel permeation column chromatography using Sephadex LH-20. For SCPC, a two-phase solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (4:1:5, v/v/v) was successfully applied for the separation of theobromine, caffeine, and representatives of the two main phenolic compound classes flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 using a stepwise elution sequence with aqueous acetone has been shown for effectively separating individual flavan-3-ols. Separation was obtained for (-)-epicatechin, proanthocyanidin dimer B2, trimer C1, and tetramer cinnamtannin A2. The purity of alkaloids and phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC analysis and their chemical identity was confirmed by mass spectrometry.

  7. Antilithic effects of extracts from different polarity fractions of Desmodium styracifolium on experimentally induced urolithiasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Songtao; Zhou, Jianfu; Li, Jing; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Qiuhong; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shusheng

    2015-10-01

    Desmodium styracifolium (D. styracifolium) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of urolithiasis. This work was undertaken to investigate extracts from different polarity fractions of D. styracifolium for possible antilithic effects as well as antioxidant potential to explore the underlying phytochemically active constituents of this plant. The extracts of D. styracifolium were divided into four different polarity fractions by petroleum ether (Fr. PE), chloroform (Fr. CH), ethyl acetate (Fr. EA), and n-butyl alcohol (Fr. NB). The antilithic and antioxidant effects were evaluated and compared in vivo on an animal model of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, which was established by administration of 1 % ethylene glycol along with 2 % ammonium chloride in drinking water for 28 days. A total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, lithogenic group, and four different polarity fractions of D. styracifolium-treated groups. At the end of the study, urine, blood, and kidney tissue samples were all collected for evaluation. Among the four polarity fractions of D. styracifolium extracts, the Fr. PE and Fr. NB treatment significantly reduced the CaOx crystal deposition in kidneys, prevented the renal toxic changes like pH, Cr, and BUN. In addition, Fr. PE and Fr. NB treatment significantly decreased urinary excretion of oxalate along with a increase of citrate excretion. The increased amounts of malondialdehyde and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were detected in lithogenic group, D. styracifolium extracts treatment prevented the oxidative stress changes especially for the Fr. PE and Fr. NB extracts. In conclusion, our data suggest that the extracts from D. styracifolium possess the antiurolithic activity, possibly mediated through the inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation as well as the alleviation of oxidative injury in the kidney, and

  8. Comparison of biological activity of phenolic fraction from roots of Alhagi maurorum with properties of commercial phenolic extracts and resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds have different biological properties, including antioxidative activities, but they may also be prooxidants. The effect of phenolic fraction from roots of Alhagi maurorum on oxidative protein/lipid damages (determined by such parameters as levels of protein thiol groups and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive species--TBARS) in human blood platelets and human plasma after treatment with hydrogen peroxide--H2O2 (which is the strong biologic oxidant and inflammatory mediator) was studied in vitro. We also studied the effect of A. maurorum extract on blood platelet activation corresponding to thrombin-induced arachidonic acid pathway. Moreover, the present work was designed to study the effect of A. maurorum extract on selected physiological function of blood platelets--adhesion of blood platelets to collagen in vitro. The action of phenolic fraction from A. maurorum was compared with the selected commercial phenolic extracts: extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox®), extract from bark of Yucca schidigera and monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). Exposure of blood platelets or plasma to H2O2 resulted in a decrease of the level of thiol groups in proteins, and an increase of TBARS. In the presence of phenolic fraction from A. maurorum (0.5-50 µg/ml), a reduction of thiol groups oxidation together with the decrease of autoperoxidation of lipids and lipid peroxidation caused by H2O2 or thrombin was observed. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of A. maurorum extract on adhesion of thrombin-activated platelets to collagen were also found. The phenolic fraction from A. maurorum acts as an antioxidant and can be useful as the natural factor protecting against diseases associated with oxidative stress. Tested fraction from A. maurorum has more effective antioxidative activity and antiplatelet properties than aronia extract or other commercial extract, however differences between their actions

  9. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Soto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp. and cedars (Cedrela spp. are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata. Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 487-499. Epub 2011 March 01.En América Latina y el Caribe, algunas especies que son fuente de maderas preciosas, como las caobas (Swietenia spp. y cedros (Cedrela spp., son seriamente dañadas por la larva de Hypsipyla grandella, la cual barrena el brote principal de los árboles. En experimentos previos orientados

  10. [Traditional and microwave acid extraction of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash and their redistribution of fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qun-hui

    2008-02-01

    HCl was used as extractant to leach Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash under traditional and microwave acid extraction conditions. The redistributions of heavy metals were determined using the sequential extraction procedure before and after extraction. The extraction efficiencies and speciation transformation of heavy metals were investigated. The result indicated that acid extraction can extract heavy metals effectively and extraction efficiencies of heavy metals following the sequence of Zn approximately Pb > Cd > Mn > Cu > Cr > Ni. The microwave energy can improve the extraction efficiencies evidently. By the treatment with 1 mol/L HCl, 80.17% of Cd, 15.05% of Cr, 58.25% of Cu, 62.42% of Mn, 8.88% of Ni, 89.25% of Pb and 93.03% of Zn were extracted under the condition of L/S at 25 mL/g fly ash, radiation time at 7 min. The results of sequential extraction procedure reveal that fractions of exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide decreased significantly after acid extraction and the remaining heavy metals mostly bound to residual form. Acid extraction process can increase the environmental safety of fly ash.

  11. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

  12. Evaluating the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of air particulate matter: A comparison of two extraction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Isabel C; Oliveira, Ivo F; Franklin, Robson L; Barros, Silvia B M; Roubicek, Deborah A

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have focused on assessing the genotoxic potential of the organic fraction of airborne particulate matter. However, the determination of water-soluble compounds, and the evaluation of the toxic effects of these elements can also provide valuable information for the development of novel strategies to control atmospheric air pollution. To determine an appropriate extraction method for assessing the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of PM, we performed microwave assisted (MW) and ultrasonic bath (US) extractions, using water as solvent, in eight different air samples (TSP and PM10). Mutagenicity and extraction performances were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98 and TA100, followed by chemical determination of water-soluble metals. Additionally, we evaluated the chemical and biological stability of the extracts testing their mutagenic potential and chemically determining elements present in the samples along several periods after extraction. Reference material SRM 1648a was used. The comparison of MW and US extractions did not show differences on the metals concentrations, however positive mutagenic responses were detected with TA98 strain in all samples extracted using the MW method, but not with the US bath extraction. The recovery, using reference material was better in samples extracted with MW. We concluded that the MW extraction is more efficient to assess the mutagenic activity of the soluble fraction of airborne PM. We also observed that the extract freezing and storage over 60 days has a significant effect on the mutagenic and analytical results on PM samples, and should be avoided.

  13. LPS-induced NO inhibition and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from four brown seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung Lae; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; You, Sang Guan

    2013-12-01

    The nitric oxide inhibitory (NOI) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging effects with reducing power) activities of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts and solvent partitioned fractions from Scytosiphon lomentaria, Chorda filum, Agarum cribrosum, and Desmarestia viridis were investigated, and the correlation between biological activity and total phenolic (TP) and phlorotannin (TPT) content was determined by PCA analysis. The yield of EtOH extracts from four brown seaweeds ranged from 2.6 to 6.6% with the highest yield from D. viridis, and the predominant compounds in their solvent partitioned fractions had medium and/or less polarity. The TP and TPT content of the EtOH extracts were in the ranges of 25.0-44.1 mg GAE/g sample and 0.2-4.6 mg PG/g sample, respectively, which were mostly included in the organic solvent partitioned fractions. Strong NOI activity was observed in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from D. viridis and C. filum. In addition, the EtOH extract and its solvent partitioned fractions of D. viridis exhibited little cytotoxicity to Raw 264.7 cells. The most potent ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was shown in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from S. lomentaria and C. filum, and both also exhibited strong reducing ability. In the PCA analysis the content of TPT had a good correlation with DPPH ( r = 0.62), ABTS ( r = 0.69) and reducing power ( r = 0.65), however, an unfair correlation was observed between the contents of TP and TPT and NOI, suggesting that the phlorotannins might be responsible for the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities.

  14. Collection and Identification of a Medicinal Mushroom, Phellinus Conchatus in Iran and Investigation of the Antibacterial Activity of Total Methanol Extract and Fractional Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hokmollahi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Macromycetes are considered as new resources for medicine with various biological properties. One of the most important medicinal fungi in Iran is Phellinus conchatus. This genus contains 359 species around the world of which 12 species are reported from the north regions of Iran. Phellinus species have anticancer, antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Moreover, they have been used in traditional medicines for treatment of several diseases. Due to the increasing bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics, it seems that research for new sources of antibiotics is necessary. Methods: The purpose of this research was to collect and identify the species with respect to hosts, dispersal, macromorphological and micromorphological characters of the species, and their biological effect against Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was evaluated using total methanol extract and it’s fractional extracts(chloroform, butanol and water extracts using disk diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations(MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations(MBCs. Results: The results of disk diffusion tests showed that all extracts except aqueous extract had growth inhibitory effects on three bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The butanolic extract showed the best result in growth inhibition against the bacteria, especially on Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The MICs and MBCs of the butanol extract of these bacteria were(1, 2mg.disk, (2, 4 mg.disk and(8, 16mg.disk, respectively. Conclusion: The results show that different extracts, especially butanol extract have high antibacterial activities which indicate the presence of active components in this fraction. More fractionation studies are under way to isolate the antibacterial components in the butanolic extract.

  15. Residual aqueous fraction of stem bark extract of Xeromphis nilotica and behavioral effects in mice

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    N M Danjuma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Xeromphis nilotica is a lowland shrub widespread in Northern Nigeria where it is used for treatment of mental disorders. This study aimed at evaluating the behavioral effects of the residual aqueous fraction of the stem bark extract of X. nilotica which is of relevance to its application in folklore medicine. The tests conducted were diazepam induced sleep in mice, beam walk assay in mice, hole-board test as well as acute toxicity test and Phytochemical analysis. The results revealed a high yield of the extract (3.02%. The LD50 was calculated to be 471.2 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Phytochemical analysis revealed tannins. The extract also showed a dose dependent prolongation of diazepam induced sleep which was significant (p≤ 0.05 at 40 mg/kg (from 75±4.0 min in normal saline to 130.2±10.2 min. No significant effect on onset of sleep was however observed. In the hole-board test, an overall increase in exploratory activity was observed (22.0±1.2 mean number of head dips at 40 mg/kg compared to diazepam 2 mg/kg (8.6±1.4 mean number of head dips. The extract had no effect on time spent on beam in the beam walk assay in mice but a significant (p≤ 0.05 difference was observed in the number of foot slips compared to diazepam 1 mg/kg, used as a standard reference drug. The extract showed 0.8±0.2, 1.0±0.4 and 1.2±0.2 mean number of slips at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg compared to diazepam with 7.2±2.0 mean number of slips. The overall results of this study revealed sedative effect of this fraction which might have contributed to the application of the stem bark of Xeromphis nilotica in ethno-medicine for treatment of mental disorders.   Industrial relevance: According to the World Health Organization (WHO about 450 million people suffer from a mental or behavioral disorder. Only a few of this population receives basic treatment. Many of them in the developing countries still rely on traditional healing practices and medicinal plants for

  16. Biological activity of ethanolic extract fractions of Dracaena arborea against infestation of stored grains by two storage insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidi, T T; Udo, I O

    2009-07-01

    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link (Dragon tree; Dracaenaceae) dissolved in distilled water and partitioned between equal volumes of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol was assessed in the laboratory against infestation by Sitophillus zeamais Motsch. and Callosobruchus maculatus Walp. in stored maize and cowpea, respectively. One hundred grams each of maize grains and cowpea seeds were treated with 400 mg kg(-1) of each extract fraction to evaluate contact toxicity, damage assessment, effect on eggs and immature stages and progeny production in both insect species. Contact toxicity by topical application, toxicity upon filter paper application and repellency using area preference method were carried out on the two insect species. Results showed that the extract fraction caused significant (p against S. zeamais. Grain damage was significantly (p grains were inhibited. The extract fractions evoked a strong repellent action against S. zeamais but moderate action against C. maculatus. The full potentials of using extract fractions of D. arborea as grain protectant against infestation by insect pests is discussed.

  17. Comparative antiadhesive properties of crude extract and phenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of Tribulus pterocarpus during severe hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczynska, Malgorzata; Malinowska, Joanna; Morel, Agnieszka; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Olas, Beata

    2013-06-01

    The phenolic fraction and the crude extract from Tribulus pterocarpus have different biological activity, including antiplatelet-antiadhesive properties. Since it is demonstrated that hyperhomocysteinemia may act as stimulator of blood platelet activation (platelet adhesion, aggregation, and secretion), but various antiplatelet compounds are able to reduce hyperactivation of blood platelets induced by hyperhomocysteinemia. The aim of our present experiments was to investigate in vitro one of the step in platelet activation process - platelet adhesion to collagen induced by the model of severe hyperhomocyateinemia in the presence of the phenolic fraction and the crude extract from T. pterocarpus. Severe hyperhomocysteinemia was induced by reduced form of Hcy in the concentrations 0.1mM and 1mM, or using HTL in the concentrations 0.1, 0.5 and 1 μM. Adhesion of blood platelets to collagen was determined according to Tuszynski and Murphy. We observed that the phenolic fraction and the crude extract from T. pterocarpus have the inhibitory effect on platelet adhesion during severe hyperhomocysteinemia. The action of tested phenolic and crude extract was concentration-dependent, but the phenolic fraction was stronger antiadhesive action than the crude extract. We suggest that T. pterocarpus may be good source of antiplatelet compounds during hyperhomocysteinemia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF STEPHANIA JAPONICA STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajit Bokshi , S.M. Abdur Rahman*, S. K. Sadhu , Ashif Muhammad and Hemayet Hossain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The different fractions of crude methanolic extract of stem of Stephania japonica (Thunb. Miers was evaluated for antioxidant, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. The various fractions of S. japonica Stem i.e. Ethyl Acetate (EAJS, CHCl3 (CFJS, CCl4 (CTJS and Petroleum ether (PEJS were subjected to free radical scavenging activity. In this investigation, CFJS showed the most significant free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 119.0µg/ml for S. japonica stem. Cytotoxic activity was investigated by brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality assay. The LC50 value of sample CTJS (Carbon Tetrachloride fraction of S. japonica Stem, was 3.0µg/ml is highly most significant. Antibacterial activity was tested by disk diffusion method. The Carbon Tetrachloride soluble fraction showed good antibacterial activity against different species of bacteria at different doses. The Ethyl Acetate soluble fraction shows good activity only against E. coli at different doses.

  19. Ultrasound-enhanced extraction of lignin from bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis): characterization of the ethanol-soluble fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Fei; Sun, Shao-Ni; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2012-03-01

    Bamboo was submitted to ultrasound-assisted extraction in aqueous ethanol to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the dissolution of lignin. In this case, the dewaxed bamboo culms were subjected to ball milling for 48 h, and then were suspended in 95% ethanol followed by ultrasonic irradiations for varied times at 20 °C to obtain ethanol-soluble fractions. The structural and thermal properties of the ethanol-soluble fractions were comparatively investigated by chemical analysis including alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation, bound carbohydrate determination, FT-IR spectra, HSQC spectra, TG, and DTA. The results showed that the yields of the ethanol-soluble fractions were between 4.29% and 4.76% for the fractions prepared with ultrasonic irradiation time ranging from 5 to 55 min, as compared to 4.02% for the fraction prepared without ultrasonic irradiation. It was found that the lignin content of the fraction increased with the increase of the ultrasonic irradiation time. There was a slight increase of the molecular weight of the lignin with the increase of the ultrasonic irradiation time. Alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation coupled with HSQC analysis indicated that the lignin in the fractions was mainly composed of GSH type units as well as minor amounts of ferulic acids. In addition, the fraction prepared with ultrasonic irradiation exhibited a slightly higher thermal stability as compared to the fraction prepared without ultrasonic irradiation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the toxicity and molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis stem bark extract and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clisiane C.S. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever and schistosomiasis are major public health issues for which vector control using larvicide and molluscicide substances present in plants provides a promising strategy. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of the extract of hydroethanol Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., Anacardiaceae, stem bark and its chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanol fractions against Artemia salina and Aedes Aegypti larvae and snails Biomphalaria glabrata. All of the assays were performed in triplicate and the mean mortality rates were used to determine the LC50and LC90 values using the probit method. The hydroethanol hydromethanol extract and fraction were free of toxicity towards A. salina(LC50 > 1000 µg/ml, while chloroform fraction was moderately toxic (LC50313 µg/ml; ethyl acetate and hexane fractions displayed low toxicity, with LC50 557 and 582 µg/ml, respectively. Chloroform, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions showed larvicidal potential towards A. aegypti (LC50 values of 345, 527 and 583 µg/ml, respectively, while chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were highly toxic to B. glabrata (LC90values of 68 and 73 µg/ml, respectively. Based on these findings, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane fractions should be further investigated for their potential use against the vectors of dengue and schistosomiasis.

  1. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglia, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.scaglia@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy); Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira [Laboratório de Química Ambiental, Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Avenida Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, São Carlos (Brazil); Tambone, Fulvia [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy); Adani, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.adani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100–6000 mg carbon L{sup −1}. {sup 13}C CPMAS-NMR and GC–MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS {sup 13}CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R{sup 2} = − 0.85; p < 0.01, n = 6). - Highlights: • Vermicomposting converts waste into organic fertilizer. • Vermicomposts can have biostimulating effect for the presence of hormone-like molecules. • Auxine-like activity was associated to the vermicompost humic acid fraction (HA). • HA carboxylic acids and amino acids, were reported to act as auxin-like molecules. • A linear regression was found between molecules and auxin-like activity.

  2. Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3) of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhi...

  3. In vivo screening for anti-osteoporotic fraction from extract of herbal formula Xianlinggubao in ovariectomized mice.

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    Xinluan Wang

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM Fufang or formula Xianlinggubao (XLGB is a prescribed TCM drug in China registered for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Fufang in TCM is comprised of a group of herbal compounds contributing in group to the treatment efficacy. The present study aims to identify the bioactive fraction(s in XLGB extract that account(s dominantly for its osteogenic effects.The extract of XLGB formula was separated into three fractions using chromatography, i.e., XLGB-A, XLGB-B and XLGB-C. They were administrated to 4-month old ovariectomized (OVX mice for 6 weeks to determine which bioactive fraction(s were more effective for preventing OVX-induced bone loss evaluated by microCT, biomechanical testing and biochemical markers. The main peaks of the key fraction were identified using reference compounds isolated from the fraction. In addition, the effects of the composite compounds in XLGB-B on osteoblasts' proliferation and mineralization were evaluated in UMR 106 cells.XLGB-B with a yield of 13.0% from herbal Fufang XLGB was identified as the most potential one among the three fractions for prevention of OVX-induced bone loss confirmed with bone mass, bone microarchitecture, bone strength and bone turnover markers. Nine compounds in HPLC fingerprint were identified in the XLGB-B fraction, including phenylpropanoids from Herba Epimedii, terpenes from Radix Dipsaci and coumarins from Fructus Psoraleae. In addition, the identified compounds effectively promoted proliferation and/or mineralization of osteoblast-like UMR 106 cells in vitro.XLGB-B with defined phytochemical structures was screened as the key fraction that demonstrated preventive effects on OVX-induced bone loss in mice. The present study laid down a foundation towards a new generation of herbal Fufang characterized with "less herbal materials for achieving equal treatment efficacy" in development strategy of TCM for prevention of OVX-induced osteoporosis.

  4. Effect of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) crude extract and chromatographic fractions on multiple activities in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S R; Carey, R A; Crofoot, K M; Proteau, P J; Filtz, T M

    2006-11-01

    Extracts of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) have become popular herbal supplements for their well-recognized cardiotonic effects. Many commercial preparations have been used successfully in the treatment of congestive heart failure, although the active principles within these extracts have yet to be conclusively identified. Several hawthorn preparations were studied and found to have negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay using unpaced cells. As compared to conventional cardiac drugs (i.e., epinephrine, milrinone, ouabain, or propranolol), hawthorn extract has a unique activity profile. Hawthorn extract appears to be anti-arrhythmic and capable of inducing rhythmicity in quiescent cardiomyocytes. Hawthorn extract does not cause beta-adrenergic receptor blockade at concentrations which cause negative chronotropic effects. Commercial hawthorn preparations, extracts prepared from dried leaves and those made from dried berries have similar chronotropic activities. When crude extracts are separated using size-exclusion chromatography, several fractions retain multiple cardiac activities. Assays with chromatographic fractions reveal that multiple dissimilar cardioactive components may exist within the extract, making the identification of individual active constituents more challenging.

  5. Composition of Chicory Root, Peel, Seed and Leaf Ethanol Extracts and Biological Properties of Their Non-Inulin Fractions

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    Joanna Milala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the ethanol extracts of chicory root, peel, seed and leaf has been determined, in particular their inulin and phenolic fractions. The root and peel extracts were characterized by large mass fractions of inulin (60.1 and 46.8 g per 100 g of fresh mass, respectively, predominantly with degree of polymerization in the range from 3 to 10, while phenolics, determined as caffeoylquinic acids, made up 0.5 and 1.7 g per 100 g of fresh mass, respectively. The leaf and seed extracts had decidedly lower mass fractions of inulin (1.7 and 3.2 g per 100 g of fresh mass, respectively and higher mass fractions of phenolics (9.6 and 4.22 g per 100 g of fresh mass, respectively recognized as caffeoylquinic acids, chicoric acid and quercetin glucuronide. The biological properties of a non-inulin fraction from each extract were determined on Wistar rats fed with diets rich in fructose and saturated fat, as a model of metabolic changes related to westernization of human eating habits. The diets contained the same amount of inulin (6 % with various phenolic fractions. Some changes were noted in the microbial enzymatic activity of the caecum after feeding for 4 weeks with the diet containing the highest mass fraction of phenolics (0.208 %, derived from the mixture of peel and seed extracts (decreased activity of β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase, as well as with the diet containing leaf extract (decreased β-glucuronidase activity. All the diets showed no essential influence on the caecal concentration and profile of short-chain fatty acids, except acetate, whose concentration decreased significantly in rats fed with the diet enriched with root extract. The addition of peel and leaf extracts to the fructose diets significantly increased the serum antioxidant capacity of lipophilic substances. The study indicates that parts of chicory and its byproducts might be a source of valuable compounds to improve the physiological activity of

  6. Neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous leaf extract and fractions of Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum Rubiaceae in mice

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    Moses W. Bariweni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: In Northern Nigeria, Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum Rubiaceae leaf extracts are used in the treatment of convulsion, pain and mental illness; however, there is paucity of information on its neuropharmacological effects. Aims: To evaluate the neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous leaf extract and fractions of Pavetta crassipes. Methods: Pavetta crassipes leaves were harvested, dried and powdered using an electric mill. Hot aqueous extraction was done with 250 g powdered leaf in 1000 mL distilled water. The dry extract was partitioned in various solvents with only the aqueous fraction (AF, and butanol fraction (BF giving significant yields. Neuropharmacological effects including anticonvulsant, behavioural, antipsychotic, muscle relaxant and sedative effects were evaluated in the extract and fractions at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, using standard methods. Results: The onset of strychnine induced convulsions was significantly (p<0.01 delayed by doses of AE and BF. Pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions were significantly (p<0.01 delayed by doses of AF and BF while AE at 400 mg/kg offered 100% protection. The duration of maximum electroshock induced tonic hind limb extension was reduced significantly (p<0.01 by AE, AF and BF. There were also significant reductions in motor coordination (p<0.01, rearing (p<0.05, locomotor activity (p<0.01, grooming (p<0.01, time of sleep onset (p<0.01, and an increase in sleeping time (p<0.01 by doses of AE, AF and BF. Conclusions: The extract and fractions of P. crassipes possess anxiolytic, sedative, anticonvulsant, antipsychotic and muscle relaxant effects to varying degrees.

  7. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca roots and its fractions and compounds isolated from the most active ethyl acetate fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dildar; Ahmed; Ramsha; Saeed; Nasir; Shakeel; Khaizran; Fatima; Aneela; Arshad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanolic extract of roots of Carissa opaca and its fractions in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, and the isolated compounds.Methods: The zones of inhibition of the samples against test microorganisms were determined by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the samples were determined by agar well dilution method. Test microorganisms included four standard bacteria [Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633(B. subtilis), Escherichia coli ATCC 8739(E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027(P. aeruginosa), and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538], two standard fungi [Candida albicans ATCC 10231(C. albicans)] and Aspergillus niger, and six clinical isolates(B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterobacter cloacae). The most active fraction was investigated to isolate compounds. The chemical compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer.Results: E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans were the most susceptible. Less polar fractions exhibited stronger efficacy than polar ones, and ethyl acetate fraction proved to be the most potent. Zones of inhibition of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions, and amoxil against C. albicans were 19.96, 22.01, 23.10 and 19.20 mm, respectively. Ethyl acetate faction was the most toxic to all the test microorganisms, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 8.0, 7.8 and 7.78 μg/m L against P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Isolated compounds, limonene, 2’-hydroxyacetophenone, vanillin, naphthalenone, 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-6-methylenecyclohexanone, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, β-sitosterol, vitamin E, rutin, quercetin, lupeol, epigallocatechin, showed considerable

  8. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca roots and its fractions and compounds isolated from the most active ethyl acetate fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dildar Ahmed; Ramsha Saeed; Nasir Shakeel; Khaizran Fatima; Aneela Arshad

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanolic extract of roots of Carissa opaca and its fractions in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, and the isolated compounds. Methods:The zones of inhibition of the samples against test microorganisms were determined by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the samples were determined by agar well dilution method. Test microorganisms included four standard bacteria [Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 (B. subtilis), Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (P. aeruginosa), and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538], two standard fungi [Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (C. albicans)] and Aspergillus niger, and six clinical isolates (B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterobacter cloacae). The most active fraction was investigated to isolate compounds. The chemical compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results:E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans were the most susceptible. Less polar fractions exhibited stronger efficacy than polar ones, and ethyl acetate fraction proved to be the most potent. Zones of inhibition of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions, and amoxil against C. albicans were 19.96, 22.01, 23.10 and 19.20 mm, respectively. Ethyl acetate faction was the most toxic to all the test microorganisms, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 8.0, 7.8 and 7.78 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Isolated compounds, limonene, 2'-hydroxyacetophenone, vanillin, naphthalenone, 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-6-methylenecyclohexanone, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester,β-sitosterol, vitamin E, rutin, quercetin, lupeol, epigallocatechin, showed considerable

  9. Oxidative Stability of Lipid Fraction of Cookies Enriched with Chokeberry Polyphenols Extract

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    Bialek Malgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of incorporation of different contents of chokeberry polyphenols extract (CPE into cookie recipe on the oxidative stability of the lipid fraction of cookies was determined in the study. Margarine and butter cookies with different contents of CPE were prepared. Contents of primary (Peroxide value, PV and secondary (Anisidine value, AV; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS lipid oxidation products and fatty acids profile were measured during storage. Different course of lipid degradation depending on both polyphenols content and storage time was shown. Cookies were characterised by a low PV (1.45 and 4.90 meq of O/kg of fat in margarine and butter cookies, respectively. The AV increased during storage both in margarine and in butter cookies. Losses of PUFA in margarine cookies (0.34% apply mainly to α-linolenic acid. It appears safe to incorporate 100 mg and 250 mg of CPE into margarine cookies stored for 9 weeks and 1000 mg of CPE into butter cookies stored for 9 weeks. The incorporation of 1000 mg CPE into cookies resulted in a significant increase in the intensity of astringent taste, acidic taste, off-taste and off-flavour.

  10. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6).

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction of Curcuma longa Extract (NR-INF-02).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Murugan, Sasikumar; Joseph, Joshua A; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit; Chandrasekaran, C V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fraction (F1) of Curcuma longa extract (NR-INF-02) in classical rodent models of inflammation. F1 was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity and found to be safe upto 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of F1 was evaluated in acute (carrageenan - induced paw edema; xylene - induced ear edema) and chronic (cotton pellet - induced granuloma) models of inflammation. The results of the study demonstrated that F1 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1 h and 3 h at doses of 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg body weight in rats. Also, F1 at doses of 15.75, 31.5 and 63 mg/kg significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema in mice. In a chronic model, F1 at 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg doses produced significant reduction of wet and dry weights of cotton pellets in rats. Overall results indicated that F1 of NR-INF-02 significantly attenuated acute and chronic inflammation in rodent models. This study emphasizes on the importance of Curcuma longa polysaccharide's role in acute and chronic inflammation.

  12. Gastroprotective Effect of the Ethanolic Extract and Fractions obtained from Syngonanthus bisulcatus Rul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônia Maria Batista

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syngonanthus bisulcatus Rul., popularly known in Brazil as “sempre-vivas chapadeira”, is a plant of the family Eriocaulaceae, it is found in the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia. In this work, the ethanolic extract (EtOHE, flavonoid-rich (FRF, and flavonoid-deficient (FDF fractions obtained from scapes of S. bisulcatus were investigated for gastroprotection in both rats and mice. The activity was evaluated in models for induced gastric ulcer (absolute ethanol, stress, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and pylorus ligation. The participation of mucus and prostaglandin E 2 were also investigated. Sb-EtOHE (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg, p.o., Sb-FRF (100 mg/kg, p.o., and Sb-FDF (100 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reduced gastric injuries in all models. Sb- FRF altered gastric juice parameters after pylorus ligation. Sb-FRF and Sb-FDF (100 mg/kg each, p.o. significantly increased the amount of adherent mucus in the gastric mucosa. Sb-FRF maintained the mucosal levels of prostaglandin after the administration of indomethacin. The results indicate that Sb-EtOHE, Sb-FRF and Sb-FDF have significant gastroprotective activity. The observed gastroprotective effects of S.bisulcatus probably involve the participation of both mucus and prostaglandins, integral parts of the gastrointestinal mucosa’s cytoprotective mechanisms against aggressive factors.

  13. The antiproliferative effects of Uncaria tomentosa extracts and fractions on the growth of breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, L; Coradini, D; Di Fronzo, G; De Feo, V; De Tommasi, N; De Simone, F; Pizza, C

    2001-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa, also known as "Uña de gato", is a Rubiaceae species widely used in South-American folk medicine for the treatment of cancer, arthritis, gastritis and epidemic diseases. Extracts of the plant have been shown to possess cytostatic and anti-inflammatory activity as well as mutagenic and antimutagenic properties. However, to date no studies have been carried out to verify the direct antitumor activity of the extracts. The present study investigates the effects of some extracts and their chromatographic fractions from the bark of U. tomentosa on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Our data indicated that, in addition to the antimutagenic activity, U. tomentosa extracts and fractions exert a direct antiproliferative activity on MCF7. The bioassay-directed fractionation from barks and leaves resulted in the isolation of two active fractions, which displayed an IC50 of 10 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml, respectively and an antiproliferative effect, with about 90% of inhibition at a concentration of 100 mg/ml.

  14. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, Verena; Sendker, Jandirk; Petereit, Frank; Liebau, Eva; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-08-14

    Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1) extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1), oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins) and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP) revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  15. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Spiegler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1 extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  16. Chemical composition and antidermatophytic properties of volatile fractions of hexanic extract from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Bessière, Jean Marie; Zollo, Paul Henri Amvam; Kuate, Serge Philibert

    2006-01-16

    The chemical composition of five column fractions of hexanic leaf extract of Cupressus lusitanica were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and then tested for their antidermatophytic activities using the agar dilution method. The first fraction (F(1)) has only hydrocabon monoterpenes with alpha-pinene (80.0%) as major component. The main constituents of the second fraction (F(2)) were epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (35.3%), epi-zonarene (10.3%), 1S, cis-calamenene (13.1%) and beta-himachalene (10.4%). The third fraction (F(3)) was rich in hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (45.4%) and a relatively high amount of diterpenes (29.8%) with epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (14.3%), pimaric acid (7.5%), kaurenoic acid (6.9%) and 8-beta-hydroxysandaracopimarane (3.5%) as main components. The last two fractions contain high molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbons, their main constituents been eicosane (41.1%) and tricosane (37.3%) and heptacosane (22.1%). The agar dilution method was used to evaluate the antifungal properties of the crude extract and its fractions. These fractions showed several degrees of antidermatophytic activities against Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum Langeronii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans. Fractions F(1) and F(3) exhibited the highest antidermatophytic activities with repective MICs of 250 and 125 mug/ml while the fractions F(4) and F(5) did not prevent the growth of the tested fungi up to dose 2,500 mug/ml.

  17. Cytotoxicity evaluation of extracts and fractions of ifve marine sponges from the Persian Gulf and HPLC ifngerprint analysis of cytotoxic extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davood Mahdian; Milad Iranshahy; Abolfazl Shakeri; Azar Hoseini; Hoda Yavari; Melika Nazemi; Mehrdad Iranshahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To screen the cytotoxic effects of some marine sponges extracts on HeLa and PC12 cells. Methods: Five marine sponges including Ircinia echinata (I. echinata), Dysidea avara, Axinella sinoxea, Haliclona tubifera and Haliclona violacea were collected from the Persian Gulf (Hengam Island). The cytotoxic effect of these sponges was evaluated by using MTT assay. The metabolic high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint of I. echinata was also carried out at two wavelengths (254 and 280 nm). Results:Among the sponges tested in this study, the extracts of I. echinata and Dysidea avara possessed the cytotoxic effect on HeLa and PC12 cells. The obtained fractions from high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties against the cell lines. The isolated fractions did not show significant cytotoxic properties. Conclusions:I. echinata could be considered as a potential extract for chemotherapy. Further investigation is needed to determine the accuracy of mechanism.

  18. Cytotoxicity evaluation of extracts and fractions of five marine sponges from the Persian Gulf and HPLC fingerprint analysis of cytotoxic extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davood; Mahdian; Milad; Iranshahy; Abolfazl; Shakeri; Azar; Hoseini; Hoda; Yavari; Melika; Nazemi; Mehrdad; Iranshahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the cytotoxic effects of some marine sponges extracts on HeLa and PC12 cells.Methods: Five marine sponges including Ircinia echinata(I. echinata), Dysidea avara,Axinella sinoxea, Haliclona tubifera and Haliclona violacea were collected from the Persian Gulf(Hengam Island). The cytotoxic effect of these sponges was evaluated by using MTT assay. The metabolic high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint of I. echinata was also carried out at two wavelengths(254 and 280 nm).Results: Among the sponges tested in this study, the extracts of I. echinata and Dysidea avara possessed the cytotoxic effect on HeLa and PC12 cells. The obtained fractions from high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties against the cell lines. The isolated fractions did not show significant cytotoxic properties.Conclusions: I. echinata could be considered as a potential extract for chemotherapy.Further investigation is needed to determine the accuracy of mechanism.

  19. Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dellai Afef

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3 of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhibited interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Similarly the fraction F2 showed a partial protection of mice from PTZ-induced seizure and interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. The purification and the determination of chemical structure(s of compound(s of this active fraction are under investigation.

  20. In vivo antiplasmodial activity of extract and fractions of Trema orientalis in P. berghei-induced malaria in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oludele Olanlokun; Moses David; Tolulope Ilori; Victoria Abe

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the in vivo antimalarial potential of various solvent extracts and fractions of Trema orientalis. Methods: In this study, the animal model of antimalarial activity was employed using Plasmodium berghei-induced mice. The crude methanol extract was fractionated using vacuum liquid chromatography in the order of increasing polarity using dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol. Percentages of parasitemia and clearance were used as indices for antiplasmodial activities. The full blood count was also assayed while the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of the most potent fraction was carried out to detect the active compounds presenting in it. Results:Dichloromethane fraction had the least percentage of parasitemia [(0.19 ± 0.07)%] and the highest percentage of clearance [(91.74 ± 8.38)%] at the highest dose used (200 mg/kg body weight) after day 7 relative to the artemisinin control which cleared the parasite after day 3. The ethylacetate fraction showed the least percentage of clearance [(70.52 ± 5.64)%] at the highest dose used (200 mg/kg body weight) after day 7. Conclusions:The results obtained showed that purification enhanced the antiplasmodial activity of Trema orientalis in Plasmodium berghei-induced malaria in mice. The antiplasmodial activity of the dichloromethane is a strong indication that the fraction, if purified further, may contain drug candidates for the treatment of malaria in the nearest future.

  1. The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss hydroalcoholic extract and fractions in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: At present, there are many antiepileptic drugs with a wide range of side effects on the human body. It was assumed that Zataria multiflora Boiss (Z. multiflora with sedative, anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity may be effective in the treatment of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract and its fraction extracts on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced chemical kindling. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, eight separate groups of male albino mice were used. All groups received 11 separate intraperitoneal injections of PTZ (35 mg/kg with two-day intervals. 30 min before the injection of PTZ, mice received vehicle, Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract (300 and 600 mg/kg, n-hexane, acetone, methanol fraction extracts (150 mg/kg, or diazepam (10 mg/kg. Results: The kindled mice that were pretreated with vehicle showed a gradual increase in their seizure scores up to the end of the study. The hydroalcoholic extract of Z. multiflora (300 and 600 mg/kg reduced seizure scores significantly. However, n-hexane, acetone and methanol extracts did not affect seizure scores significantly. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate that the hydroalcoholic extract of Z. multiflora did reduce the severity of seizure attacks in PTZ-induced chemical kindling in mice.

  2. TOXIC ACTIVITIES OF HEXANE EXTRACT AND COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY FRACTIONS OF RODENT TUBER PLANT (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. ON Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesti F. Sianipar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodent tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. is a medicinal plant  particularly found in Java. The plant is used as an ingredient for  conventional cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the toxic activities of crude extracts and column chromatography fractions of  rodent tuber on Artemia salina larvae. Rodent tuber plant was obtained  from the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute in  Bogor, West Java. The experiment was conducted in the Biology  Laboratory of Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang, Banten. Leaves and petioles of the plant were macerated with acetone and the filtrates were evaporated (40°C to obtain crude extracts. The crude extracts were partitioned with ethyl acetate, followed with hexane, chloroform and  butanol. Toxicity test of the extracts was performed using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT method on A. salina larvae. Extract showing the most toxic was fractioned using column chromatography and then tested on the larvae. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized  factorial, four replicates for crude extracts and two replicates for the fractions. Treatments were different types of extracts (hexane, chloroform and butanol at various concentrations (500, 1,000 and 1,500 μg ml-1 of 5% Tween solution. Fractions of the column chromatography used were taken from the column number 1, 3 and 10, and tested their toxicities at 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 μg ml-1 of 5% Tween solution. Parameters observed were the death of A. salina expressed as LC50. The study  showed that hexane extract of the petioles had the most toxic to A. salina (LC50 = 762.08 μg ml-1. Fraction number 10 showed the highest toxic (LC50 = 381.07 μg ml-1, whereas the lowest was fraction number 3 (LC50 = 653.13 μg ml-1. The study indicates that rodent tuber plant from Bogor is toxic to A. salina and further test for its cytotoxic activity is justified.

  3. Bioactivity-guided fractionation identifies amygdalin as a potent neurotrophic agent from herbal medicine Semen Persicae extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  4. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanbin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  5. Research on OEF geometry control algorithm in dual-galvanometric laser scanning manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huilai Sun; Shuzhong Lin; Tao Wang

    2005-01-01

    For the dual-galvanometric laser scanning manufacturing, the traditional geometry algorithm-fθ only considered the distance between the two swaying mirrors, the distance between the swaying mirror and the convex lens, the mirror swaying angle, and the lens focal length. And it could not correctly express the manufacturing track which was made geometry distorted. Based on analysis, a creative geometry control algorithm - optical entire factors (OEF) was brought forward. From the creative algorithm it can be known that OEF geometry control algorithm was concerned with not only the distance of the two swaying mirrors, distance between the swaying mirror and the convex lens, mirror swaying angle, and lens focal length, but also the lens central height, lens convex radius, and medium refractive index. The manufacturing system can manufacture satisfied geometry with the creative double ends approach (DEA) control model based on OEF in the experiments.

  6. Evaluating the effects of different fractions obtained from Gundelia tournefortii extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Niknahad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Xenobiotics-induced liver injury is a major challenge for clinicians and pharmaceutical industry. Hence, finding new therapeutic molecules against this complication has clinical value. The current investigation aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of different fractions obtained from Gundelia tournefortii (GT hydroalcoholic extract in a rat model of acute hepatic injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 250 g were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg, i.p. Then ethanol, water, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-Butanol fractions of GT extract were administered. Biochemical and histopathological markers of hepatic injury were assessed, and glutathione (GSH and lipid peroxidation were monitored in liver samples. CCl4 administration caused hepatotoxicity as revealed by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity, as well as pathological changes of the liver. Furthermore, a significant reduction in hepatic glutathione content and an elevation in lipid peroxidation were observed in CCl4 treated rats. It was found that the n butanol (200 mg/kg and the ethyl acetate (300 mg/kg fractions of GT extract protected liver against CCL4 induced damage as judged by lower AST, ALT, LDH and lipid peroxidation, prevention of tissue glutathione depletion, and alleviation of histopathological damages of liver in the extract treated animals. As n butanol and the ethyl acetate fractions of GT effectively alleviated the liver injury induced by CCl4 and provided antioxidant properties, we might be able to propose that the hepatoprotective chemicals of GT extract are present in these fractions.

  7. Hot Water Extraction of Corn Stover: Hemicellulose Fractionation and its Effect on Subsequent Soda-AQ Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass is an important process in producing biofuels. In this study, hot water extraction of corn stover hemicellulose was carried out at 150, 160, and 170 °C. Variations of sugar content in the hydrolysate under different holding time were detected. The contents of furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde generated during the extraction were also determined. Results showed that the main composition of the hydrolysate was xylo-oligosaccharide; the yield of oligosaccharides first increased as holding time was prolonged. After extraction at 160 °C for 210 min, 70.2% of the total xylan was dissolved, with the generation of furfural (0.90 g/L and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (0.10 g/L. The effects of extraction on alkali pulping and bleaching were also investigated. Results indicated that soda-AQ pulp obtained from the extracted material had poorer tensile and burst strengths but better tear strength.

  8. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-02-26

    Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation.

  9. Analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract and its saponin-containing fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia Osama; Kassem, Iman; Melek, Farouk Rasmy

    2016-01-01

    Gleditsia triacanthos L. (Leguminosae) pods are used in folk medicine for pain relief as anodyne and narcotic. The objective of this study is to evaluate analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract (MEGT) and its saponin-containing fraction (SFGT). Peripheral analgesic activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice at doses of 140, 280, and 560 mg/kg and formalin test in rats at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses. Central analgesic activity was evaluated using the hotplate method in rats (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). In the writhing test, six mice groups treated with MEGT and SFGT found ED50 values 268.2 and 161.2 mg/kg, respectively, displayed a significant decrease in writhing count compared with the group treated with standard drug indomethacin (14 mg/kg). SFGT (280 and 560 mg/kg) showed 64.94 and 70.78% protection, respectively, which are more than double % protection caused by indomethacin (31.82%). In the formalin test, MEGT and SFGT (ED50 values 287.6 and 283.4 mg/kg for phase I as well as 295.1 and 290.4 mg/kg for phase II, respectively) at 400 mg/kg showed significant % inhibition in both phase I (18.86 and 52.57%) and phase II (39.36 and 44.29%) with reference to 10 mg/kg indomethacin (56.0 and 32.29%). MEGT and SFGT caused significant delay in responses in hotplate model (ED50 values 155.4 and 200.6 mg/kg, respectively) compared with that of 10 mg/kg indomethacin at 30, 60, and 120 min. Central and peripheral analgesic activities induced by Gleditsia triacanthos fruits might account for its uses in folk medicine.

  10. Salvia officinalis L.: composition and antioxidant-related activities of a crude extract and selected sub-fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koşar, Müberra; Dorman, H J Damien; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2010-09-01

    The composition and antioxidant properties of a methanol: acetic acid (99:1, v/v) soluble crude extract isolated from S. officinalis L. leaves through maceration and selected fractions isolated thereof are presented in this study. The total phenol content was estimated as gallic acid equivalents, whilst qualitative-quantitative phenolic content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Antioxidant evaluation consisted of ferric reductive capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging determinations. The crude extract contained hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids and diterpenoids, whilst caffeic acid, carnosic acid, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and rosmarinic acid were identified from their chromatographic and spectral characteristics and quantified from their respective calibration curves. The crude extract and sub-fractions demonstrated varying degrees of efficacy in the antioxidant-related assays used, except the n-hexane fraction, which was unable to reduce iron(III) at reasonable concentrations. Although the positive controls, ascorbic acid, BHA and BHT, were more potent than the S. officinalis samples, two fractions were significantly (p < 0.05) more potent iron(III) reducing agents than pycnogenol, a proanthocyanidin-rich commercial preparation.

  11. The Cytotoxic Effect of Small and Large Molecules of PMF Fraction Extracted from Camel Urine on Cancer Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Khorshid, Faten

    2015-01-10

    Aim of the work: Animal urine, including that of camels, has long been used for the therapeutic management of human ailments. In this study, we sought to characterize the cytotoxic properties of newly derived purified fractions from previously described camel urine extract (PMF) on various cancer cell lines. Methodology: Two new size dissimilar fractions of PMF (large and small) were obtained by fractionalizing PMF using 3kD and 50kD membrane filters. A SRB cytotoxicity assay of the PMF fractions was performed on cancer cell lines (A549, HCT116, HepG2, MCF-7, U251 and Hela) as well as normal cell lines (human fibroblast cell line and Vero). Results: This study showed that the newly derived and more purified fraction of PMF (new PMF) possesses effective and selective anti-cancer properties against several types of cancer cell lines. Conclusion: This study, as well as previous ones, suggests that camel urine extracts (old and new PMF) may provide newer therapeutic alternatives to clinically manage cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to verify these positive preliminary results.

  12. Comparative Microbicidal Efficacy of Fractionated Extracts from In Vitro and In Vivo Raised Cells of Tinosporacordifolia Against MDR Pathogens

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    Jitendra Mittal

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to explore the hidden potential of natural products synthesized in the medicinal plant Tinosporacordifolia. This plantis prioritized by National Medicinal Plant Board, New Delhi. Leaf and inter nodal segments were inoculated on MS Medium fortified with IBA (1.0 mg/L produced callus after four weeks. The calli were brown due to phenolic substance secreted by the explant. This problem was overcome by using adjuvant PVP (0.1%. Further, secondary metabolites were isolated from callus and field leaf through soxhlet extractor and fractionated by using column chromatography. The antibacterial activity of these fractioned extracts from Tinosporacordifolia callus and leaf were seen against multi drug resistance bacteria viz., Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (ATCC 27853 & Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213 and against plant pathogenic fungus Fuseriumoxisporum(MTCC 8608 and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum (MTCC 8785. All fractionated extracts showed antimicrobial activity but callus extracts were proved to be best in compare to leaf extracts. Furthermore, we are trying to analyze different bio active compounds through GCMS.

  13. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  14. LC-MS-MS and GC-MS analyses of biologically active extracts and fractions from Tunisian Juniperus phoenice leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskes, Henda; Belhadj, Sahla; Jlail, Lobna; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Damak, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami; Allouche, Noureddine

    2017-12-01

    Despite some studies related to Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), phytochemical and biological investigations of this plant remain unexplored. This work is the first report dealing with the identification and characterization of volatile components and flavonoids in hexane and methanol extracts from J. phoenicea leaves Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of hexane, and methanol extracts from J. phoenicea leaves were determined by DPPH-radical scavenging assay. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was evaluated by enzyme inhibition using in vitro assay (each extract was dissolved in DMSO to give concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/mL). The chemical composition of fractions (Fr1-Fr3) from methanol extract was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS) analysis. The hexane extract was analyzed by GC-MS technique which allowed the identification of 32 compounds. The main constituents were α-humulene (16.9%), pentadecane (10.2%) and α-cubebene (9.7%). Fraction Fr 2 exhibited a strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50 = 20.1 μg/mL) compared to that of BHT as well as the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 28.4 μg/mL). Three flavonoids were identified in these fractions using HPLC-MS analysis: Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, isoscutellarein 7-O-pentoside and quercetin 3-O-pentoside. In addition, the more active fraction (Fr 2) was purified with semi-preparative HPLC affording one pure compound (amentoflavone) using (1)H NMR analysis. This compound exhibited powerful DPPH radical-scavenging (IC50 = 14.1 μg/mL) and α-amylase inhibition (IC50 = 20.4 μg/mL) effects. This study provides scientific support to some medicinal uses of J. phoenicea found in North Africa.

  15. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the stem bark extract of Pterocarpus dalbergioides Roxb. ex Dc growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia Michel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A bioactivity-guided investigation of the ethanolic extract (70% of the stem bark of Pterocarpus dalbergioides Roxb. ex DC revealed that the butanol fraction possessed potent antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt. compared to metformin (150 mg/kg b.wt. and indomethacin (20 mg/kg b.wt. respectively. Two phenolic acids viz: gentisic (1 and gallic (3 acids and isoflavone genistin (2 were isolated for the first time from the studied plant adopting a bioactivity-guided fractionation. Identification of the isolated compounds was achieved using physical, chemical and spectroscopic data.

  16. Inhibition of haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle and cod protein isolates by Fucus vesiculosus extract and fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tao; Jonsdottir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Fucus vesiculosus extract and fractions towards haemoglobin- (Hb-) catalysed lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle system and cod protein isolates during ice storage were examined. The extract and fractions were characterised in terms of total phlorotannin content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl...

  17. Inhibition of haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle and cod protein isolates by Fucus vesiculosus extract and fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tao; Jonsdottir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Fucus vesiculosus extract and fractions towards haemoglobin- (Hb-) catalysed lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle system and cod protein isolates during ice storage were examined. The extract and fractions were characterised in terms of total phlorotannin content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl...

  18. In vitro antibacterial efficacy of crude ethanolic leaf extract and alkaloidal fractions of phyllanthus amarus on URO-pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Joseph Akinjogunla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemistry and in vitro antibacterial efficacy of crude ethanolic leaf extract and alkaloidal fractions of Phyllanthus amarus on the Gram positive (Streptococcus sp, Staphylococcus aureus; Coagulase negative Staphylococcus sp and Enterococcus faecalis and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sp.; Serratia marcescens; Klebsiella sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from mid stream urine were carried out using standard microbiological and disc diffusion techniques. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic leaf extracts of P. amarus revealed the presence of phyto-constituents such as alkaloids (+++, tannins (+++, saponins (++, flavonoids (++, cardiac glycoside (+, free anthraquinones (++, deoxy-Sugar test (+ and phlobatanins (+, while combined anthraquinones was not detected. The results showed that P. amarus extracts exhibited varying degrees of inhibitory effects against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolated from urine samples. Highest mean zones of inhibition (14.3+1.0 mm and activity index (0.97 were obtained at 40.0mgml-1 among the Gram positive bacteria, while the highest mean zones of inhibition (14.5 + 0.5mm and activity index (1.12 at 40.0mgml-1 were obtained among the Gram negative. The results also showed that Coagulase negative Staphylococcus sp (CS03 was not sensitive to both 20.0mg/ml-1 of crude extracts of P. amarus and alkaloidal fractions. Among the Gram negative, Enterobacter sp (ES03 was not sensitive to 20.0mg/ml-1 of crude extracts of P. amarus, alkaloidal fractions and Streptomycin. Therefore, there is a need to consider the use of this potent ethanolic leaf extracts and the alkaloids for developing synthetic drugs against uro-pathogens.

  19. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial properties of crude stem bark extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Emmanuel O; Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Adegboye, Mobolaji F; Oni, Matthew O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-07-18

    A methanolic crude extract of Parkia biglobosa was prepared and later partitioned in succession with different solvents of increasing polarity ranging from n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to butanol. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycoside and sugars. The inhibition zones exhibited by the extract against the tested bacteria ranged between 14 ± 0.00 mm (against Escherichia coli) and 28 ± 0.71 mm (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The MIC of the methanolic extract of P. biglobosa against isolates ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, while the MIC values exhibited by the n-hexane and aqueous fractions ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Overall the extract and fractions of P. biglobosa used in this work were found to possess antimicrobial properties which compared favourably with those of streptomycin. These observations make this plant a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be used in management of bacterial infections. The use of this plant as herbal medicaments in African countries and the reports on the toxicity of the plant further show that the plant is non-toxic to humans.

  20. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Properties of Crude Stem Bark Extracts and Fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A methanolic crude extract of Parkia biglobosa was prepared and later partitioned in succession with different solvents of increasing polarity ranging from n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to butanol. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycoside and sugars. The inhibition zones exhibited by the extract against the tested bacteria ranged between 14 ± 0.00 mm (against Escherichia coli and 28 ± 0.71 mm (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC of the methanolic extract of P. biglobosa against isolates ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, while the MIC values exhibited by the n-hexane and aqueous fractions ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Overall the extract and fractions of P. biglobosa used in this work were found to possess antimicrobial properties which compared favourably with those of streptomycin. These observations make this plant a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be used in management of bacterial infections. The use of this plant as herbal medicaments in African countries and the reports on the toxicity of the plant further show that the plant is non-toxic to humans.

  1. Investigation of the properties of fully reacted unstoichiometric polydimethylsiloxane networks and their extracted network fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl; Jensen, Mette Krog; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    qualitatively and by rheology and the properties of the two fractions became more and more different. At the gel point, the sol fraction and the washed network have more or less identical properties which our data also shows. The storage and loss moduli, G′ and G′′, were analysed with the gel equation...

  2. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in three labile fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields in southern Italy and the light fraction (LF), the 500–53-µm particulate organic matter (POM) and the mobil...

  3. Protein from the fraction remaining after RNA extraction is useful for proteomics but care must be exercised in its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Esumi, Mariko

    2013-08-01

    Simultaneous isolation of mRNA and proteins from a single small biopsy specimen can be useful for integrated omics studies. Here, we have improved the method for extracting protein from the fraction remaining after RNA isolation by TRIzol reagent, for application in protein and proteome analyses. Protein yield was reduced by half, but the patterns developed on 2D gels were equivalent to conventional urea extractions. Thus, although quantitative profiles of individual proteins were different from conventionally-isolated samples, overall profiles were similar. Therefore, this particular protein source is useful for proteomics but care must be exercised in its application.

  4. Antinociception of petroleum ether fraction derived from crude methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves and its possible mechanisms of action in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Z. A.; Jaios, E. S.; Omar, M. H.; Abd. Rahman, S.; Hamid, S. S. A.; Ching, S. M.; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.; Deny, S.; Taher, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Melastoma malabathricum L. (family Melastomaceae) has been traditionally used as remedies against various ailments including those related to pain. The methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves has been proven to show antinociceptive activity. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the most effective fraction among the petroleum ether- (PEMM), ethyl acetate- (EAMM) and aqueous- (AQMM) fractions obtained through successive fractionation of crude, dried methanol extract of M. m...

  5. Bioactivity-guided fractionation identifies amygdalin as a potent neurotrophic agent from herbal medicine semen persicae extract

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanbin Yang; Jia Zhao; Yuanyuan Cheng; Xuechen Li; Jianhui Rong

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae...

  6. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A β-Induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with Aβ and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction.

  7. PURIFICATION AND FRACTIONAL ANALYSIS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WEDELIA TRILOBATA POSSESSING APOPTOTIC AND ANTI-LEUKEMIC ACTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Uday; Javarasetty, Chethan; Murari, Satish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch (WT), commonly known as yellow dots or creeping daisy, is a shrub possessing potent biological activities, and is traditionally used a medicinal plant in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems of medicines, and it has also been tried against leukemia cell line MEG- 01. In the present study, purification and screening of the plant was done for bioactive compounds in methanolic extract of WT for apoptotic and anti-leukemia activity. The methanolic extract of WT was initially purified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and screened for the apoptotic and anti-leukemia activities. The positive band of TLC was subjected to silica gel column chromatography for further purification and the fractions obtained from it were screened again for anti-leukemia activity through thymidine uptake assay and apoptotic activity by DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining and flow cytometry assays. The fraction with positive result was subjected to HPLC for analysis of bioactive components. Out of many combinations of solvents, the methanol and dichloromethane combination in the ratio 6:4 has revealed two bands in TLC, among which the second band showed positive results for apoptotic and anti-leukemic activities. Further purification of second band through silica gel chromatography gave five fractions in which the 3(rd) fraction gave positive results and it shows single peak during compositional analysis through HPLC. The single peak revealed through HPLC indicates the presence of pure compound with apoptotic and anti-leukemia activities encouraging for further structural analysis.

  8. From soil to leaves--aluminum fractionation by single step extraction procedures in polluted and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Siepak, Jerzy

    2013-09-30

    The paper presents the fractionation of aluminum in the samples of soil and plants of different species using a selective single-step extraction method. The study was conducted in the area located near a chemical plant, which for many years served as a post-crystallization leachate disposal site storing chemical waste (sector I), and in the area around the site: in Wielkopolski National Park, Rogalin Landscape Park and toward the infiltration ponds at the "Dębina" groundwater well-field for the city of Poznań (Poland) (sector II). The results of aluminum fractionation in samples of soil, leaves and plants showed heavy pollution with aluminum, especially in the water soluble aluminum fraction - Alsw (maximum concentration of aluminum in soil extract was 234.8 ± 4.8 mg kg(-1), in the leaves of Betula pendula it was 107.4 ± 1.8 mg kg(-1) and in the plants of Artemisia vulgaris (root) and Medicago sativa (leaves) it amounted to 464.7 ± 10.7 mg kg(-1)and 146.8 ± 1.2 mg kg(-1) respectively). In addition, the paper presents the problem of organic aluminum fractionation in biological samples and it shows the relationship between aluminum concentration in soil and the analysed woody and herbaceous species.

  9. Panax ginseng Fraction F3 Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Protects against Oxidative Stress in ARPE-19 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Wu, Chun-Chi; Koo, Malcolm; Yu, Zer-Ran; Wang, Be-Jen

    2016-10-13

    In our previous work, the ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer was successively partitioned using supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures in series to yield residue (R), F1, F2, and F3 fractions. Among them, F3 contained the highest deglycosylated ginsenosides and exerted the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of P. ginseng fractions against cellular oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Viability of adult retinal pigment epithelium-19 (ARPE-19) cells was examined after treatments of different concentrations of fractions followed by exposure to H₂O₂. Oxidative levels (malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and levels of activity of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Results showed that F3 could dose-dependently protected ARPE-19 cells against oxidative injury induced by H₂O₂. F3 at a level of 1 mg/mL could restore the cell death induced by H₂O₂ of up to 60% and could alleviate the increase in cellular oxidation (MDA, 8-OHdG, and ROS) induced by H₂O₂. Moreover, F3 could restore the activities of antioxidant enzymes suppressed by H₂O₂. In conclusion, F3 obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide fractionation could significantly increase the antioxidant capacity of P. ginseng extract. The antioxidant capacity was highly correlated with the concentration of F3.

  10. Central Antinociceptive and Mechanism of Action of Pereskia bleo Kunth Leaves Crude Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds

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    Carolina Carvalho Guilhon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae is a plant commonly used in popular medicine in Malaysia. In this work, we evaluate the antinociceptive effect of P. bleo leaf extracts and isolated compounds in central antinociceptive model. Ethanol extract (E, hexane (H, ethyl acetate (EA, or butanol (B fractions (30, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o., sitosterol (from hexane and vitexin (from ethyl acetate, were administered to mice. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate and capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking models. Morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. was used as reference drug. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p., atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p., and L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.p. were administered 30 min earlier (100 mg/kg, p.o. in order to evaluate the mechanism of the antinociceptive action. Higher dose of B developed an effect significantly superior to morphine-treated group. Naloxone prevented the antinociceptive effect of all fractions. L-NAME demonstrated effect against E, EA, and B. In all fractions, sitosterol and vitexin reduced the licking time after capsaicin injection. Glutamate-induced licking response was blocked by H, EA, and B. Our results indicate that Pereskia bleo fractions, sitosterol and vitexin, possessed a central antinociceptive effect. Part of this effect is mediated by opioid receptors and nitrergic pathway.

  11. Antinociceptive effects of an extract, fraction and an isolated compound of the stem bark of Maytenus rigida

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    Marina V. Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antinociceptive activity of the Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae ethanol extract and its ethyl acetate fraction as well as of (--4'-methylepigallocatechin (1, a previously isolated compound, was demonstrated in vivo. ED50 for 1 in the writhing test was 14.14 mg/kg. The acetic acid-induced writhing was inhibited by 98.4, 84.4, and 58.3%, respectively, when mice were treated with the ethanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and 1. In the hot plate test, mice pretreated with 1 showed significantly increased reaction times (60-89%. Oral administration of 1 significantly inhibited first and second phases of the formalin-induced pain (50 and 26.5%, respectively, whereas indomethacin inhibited only the second phase of the test (41.2%. Ethanol extract and its fraction showed effects on inflammatory pain, while neurogenic and inflammatory pain suppression by 1 is a strong indication of the presence of both central and peripheral effects and suggests its analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential.

  12. Modulation of B lymphocyte function by an aqueous fraction of the ethanol extract of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl (Menispermaceae

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    M.S. Alexandre-Moreira

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl species are used in folk medicine for the treatment of asthma, arthritis and rheumatism. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of an aqueous fraction of a 70% (v/v ethanol extract of C. sympodialis leaves on B lymphocyte function. The hydroalcoholic extract inhibited the in vitro proliferative response of resting B cells induced by LPS (IC50 = 17.2 µg/ml, anti-delta-dextran (IC50 = 13.9 µg/ml and anti-IgM (IC50 = 24.3 µg/ml but did not affect the anti-MHC class II antibody-stimulated proliferative response of B cell blasts obtained by stimulation with IL-4 and anti-IgM. Incubation with the hydroalcoholic extract used at 50 µg/ml induced a 700% increase in intracellular cAMP levels. IgM secretion by resting B cells (obtained from normal mice and polyclonally activated B cells (obtained from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected animals was inhibited by the hydroalcoholic extract. The latter were more sensitive to the hydroalcoholic extract since 6.5 µg/ml induced a 20% inhibition in the response of cells from normal mice while it inhibited the response of B cells from infected animals by 75%. The present data indicate that the alcoholic extract of C. sympodialis inhibited B cell function through an increase in intracellular cAMP levels. The finding that the hydroalcoholic extract inhibited immunoglobulin secretion suggests a therapeutic use for the extract from C. sympodialis in conditions associated with unregulated B cell function and enhanced immunoglobulin secretion. Finally, the inhibitory effect of the hydroalcoholic extract on B cells may indicate an anti-inflammatory effect of this extract.

  13. Comparative study of two methods of fractionation bromelain from pineapple core extract (Ananas comosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriani, K.; Wahyuni, I.; Setiasih, S.; Hudiyono, S.

    2017-07-01

    The enzyme can be purified by fractional precipitation. This can be done by salt or organic solvent. In this research, purification of bromelain from pineapple core by fractional precipitation was done by 2 compounds, ammonium sulfate, and ethanol. Fractional precipitation by ammonium sulfate proved to be more effective as it yielded a higher specific activity. Specific activity by ethanol and ammonium sulfate is 4.6480 U/mg at 0-60 % saturation and 8.2243 U/mg at 50-80 % saturation.

  14. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity.

  15. Evaluation of an Odour Emission Factor (OEF) to estimate odour emissions from landfill surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucernoni, Federico; Tapparo, Federica; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-11-01

    Emission factors are fundamental tools for air quality management. Odour Emission Factors (OEFs) can be developed in analogy with the emission factors defined for other chemical compounds, which relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the atmosphere to a given associated activity. Landfills typically represent a common source of odour complaint; for this reason, the development of specific OEFs allowing the estimation of odour emissions from this kind of source would be of great interest both for the landfill design and management. This study proposes an up-to-date methodology for the development of an OEF for the estimation of odour emissions from landfills, thereby focusing on the odour emissions related to the emissions of landfill gas (LFG) from the exhausted landfill surface. The proposed approach is an "indirect" approach based on the quantification of the LFG emissions from methane concentration measurements carried out on an Italian landfill. The Odour Emission Rate (OER) is then obtained by multiplying the emitted gas flow rate by the LFG odour concentration. The odour concentration of the LFG emitted through the landfill surface was estimated by means of an ad hoc correlation investigated between methane concentration and odour concentration. The OEF for the estimation of odour emissions from landfill surfaces was computed, considering the landfill surface as the activity index, as the product between the mean specific LFG flux emitted through the surface resulting from the experimental campaigns, equal to 0.39 l/m2/h, and its odour concentration, which was estimated to be equal to 105‧000 eq. ouE/m3, thus giving an OEF of 0.011 ouE/m2/s. This value, which is considerably lower than those published in previous works, should be considered as an improved estimation based on the most recent developments of the research in the field of odour sampling on surface sources.

  16. The influence of maize residues on the mobility and binding of benazolin: Investigating physically extracted soil fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnitzler, Frauke [Agrosphere, ICG IV, Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: f.schnitzler@fz-juelich.de; Lavorenti, Arquimedes [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' , Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Padua Dias, 11, Caixa Postal 9, CEP 13418-900 Piracicaba (SP) (Brazil); Berns, Anne E. [Agrosphere, ICG IV, Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Drewes, Norbert [Agrosphere, ICG IV, Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Vereecken, Harry [Agrosphere, ICG IV, Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Burauel, Peter [Agrosphere, ICG IV, Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    The amount of non-extractable residues and the distribution of benazolin and its metabolites were evaluated three months after herbicide application ({sup 14}C-labelled) in physically extracted soil fractions of topsoil layers of undisturbed soil columns with and without incorporated maize straw ({sup 14}C-labelled). In addition, a variety of wet-chemical and spectroscopic methods were used to characterise the structure of organic carbon within the different soil fractions. The addition of crop residues increased the amount of dissolved organic carbon, enhanced the aromaticity of the organic carbon structure and enforced the aggregation of organomineral complexes. After incorporation of crop residues, an increase in the formation of metabolic compounds of benazolin and of non-extractable residues was detected. These results indicate that the addition of crop residues leads to a decrease in mobility and bioaccessibility of benazolin and its metabolites. - Addition of crop residues increases the amount of non-extractable residues and decreases the mobility of benazolin and its metabolites.

  17. Antihyperglycemic Effect on Chronic Administration of Butanol Fraction of Ethanol Extract of Moringa Stenopetala Leaves in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alemayehu Toma; Eyasu Makonnen; Asfaw Debella; Birhanu Tesfaye

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity on chronic administration of the butanol fraction of the ethanol extract of Moringa Stenopetala leaves in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Methods: The mice were grouped in four groups; Normal control, Diabetic control, Butanol fraction treated and standard drug treated groups. The Diabetic mice received the butanol fraction of Moringa stenopetala daily for 28 days. Results: The butanol fraction of Moringastenopetala treatment resulted in significant reduction of fasting blood glucose level, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides level. This fraction also showed a tendency to improve body weight gain in diabetic mice. Its oral LD50 was found to be greater than 5000mg/Kg indicating its safety in mice. Conclusions: Though the mechanism of action of Moringa stenopetala seems to be similar to that of sulfonylureas, further studies should be done to confirm its mechanism of antidiabetic action. Furthermore the active principle(s) responsible for the antidabetic effects should also be identified.

  18. Releasing Pattern of Applied Phosphorus and Distribution Change of Phosphorus Fractions in the Acid Upland Soils with Successive Resin Extraction

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    Arief Hartono

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The releasing pattern of applied P in the acid upland soils and the soil properties influencing the pattern were studied. Surface horizons of six acid upland soils from Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan were used in this study. The releasing pattern of applied P (300 mg P kg-1 of these soils were studied by successive resin extraction. P fractionation was conducted to evaluate which fractions released P to the soil solution after successive resin extraction. The cumulative of resin-Pinorganic (Pi release of soils was fitted to the first order kinetic. Regression analyses using factor scores obtained from the previous principal components analyses was applied to determine soil properties influencing P releasing pattern. The results suggested that the maximum P release was significantly (P < 0.05 increased by acidity plus 1.4 nm mineral-related factor (PC2 i.e. exchangeable Al and 1.4 nm minerals (smectite and vermiculite and decreased by oxide related factor (PC1 i.e. aluminum (Al plus 1/2 iron (Fe (by ammonium oxalate, crystalline Al and Fe oxides, cation exchange capacity, and clay content. P fractionation analysis after successive resin extraction showed that both labile and less labile in the form of NaHCO3-Pi and NaOH-Pi fractions, respectively, can be transformed into resin-Pi when in the most labile resin-Pi is depleted. Most of P released in high oxides soils were from NaOH-Pi fraction while in low oxides soils were from NaHCO3-Pi. P release from the former fraction resulted in the maximum P release lower than that of the latter one. When NaHCO3-Pi was high, NaOH-Pi was relatively more stable than NaHCO3-Pi despite resin-Pi removal. NaHCO3-Pi and NaOH-Pi are very important P fractions in replenishing resin-Pi in these acid upland soils.

  19. Bioactivities of Ethanolic Extract and its Fractions of Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Osman; Berrin-Ozcelik; Baykal, Turhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) have been used for treatment of some illnesses in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, the ethanolic extract and its fractions obtained using re-extraction by hexane (Hx), chloroform (CHCl3), butanol, and remaining-water (r-H2O) of C. laurifolius were screened for their in vitro bioactivities. Materials and Methods: Activities were determined against both standard and the isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as yeasts such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis by microdilution method. Also, antiviral activity of C. laurifolius and S. wiedemannii extracts were tested on herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and vero cell lines. Results: Tested extracts of C. laurifolius (minimum inhibitory concentration 32 μg/mL) exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii. Conclusion: The Hx extract of C. laurifolius (cytopathogenic effect of 32–8 μg/mL) had antiviral activity on PI-3. Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16–MDBK and Vero cell linesExtracts of C. laurifolius exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii(MIC; 32 μg/mL)The Hx extract of C. laurifolius had antiviral activity on PI-3 (CPE; 32–8 μg/mL). Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16–<0.25 μg/mL) of S. wiedemannii had significant antiviral activity PMID:27041865

  20. Phytochemical Profiling of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, Terpenoids, and Volatile Fraction of a Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract

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    Pedro Mena

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile of a proprietary rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract rich in carnosic acid. A characterization of the (polyphenolic and volatile fractions of the extract was carried out using mass spectrometric techniques. The (polyphenolic composition was assessed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MSn and a total of 57 compounds were tentatively identified and quantified, 14 of these being detected in rosemary extract for the first time. The rosemary extract contained 24 flavonoids (mainly flavones, although flavonols and flavanones were also detected, 5 phenolic acids, 24 diterpenoids (carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol derivatives, 1 triterpenoid (betulinic acid, and 3 lignans (medioresinol derivatives. Carnosic acid was the predominant phenolic compound. The volatile profile of the rosemary extract was evaluated by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME linked to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Sixty-three volatile molecules (mainly terpenes, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and ketones were identified. This characterization extends the current knowledge on the phytochemistry of Rosmarinus officinalis and is, to our knowledge, the broadest profiling of its secondary metabolites to date. It can assist in the authentication of rosemary extracts or rosemary-containing products or in testing its bioactivity. Moreover, this methodological approach could be applied to the study of other plant-based food ingredients.

  1. Comparison of three sequential extraction procedures to describe metal fractionation in anaerobic granular sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullebusch, van E.D.; Sudarno, S.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2005-01-01

    In the last few decades. several sequential extraction procedures have been developed to quantify the chemical status of metals in the solid phase. In this study. three extraction techniques (modified [A. Tessier, P.G.C. Campbell, M. Bisson, Anal. Chem. 51 (1979) 844]: [R.C. Stover. L.E. Sommers, D.

  2. Comparison of three sequential extraction procedures to describe metal fractionation in anaerobic granular sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullebusch, van E.D.; Sudarno, S.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2005-01-01

    In the last few decades. several sequential extraction procedures have been developed to quantify the chemical status of metals in the solid phase. In this study. three extraction techniques (modified [A. Tessier, P.G.C. Campbell, M. Bisson, Anal. Chem. 51 (1979) 844]: [R.C. Stover. L.E. Sommers, D.

  3. Antimicrobial Effects of a Lipophilic Fraction and Kaurenoic Acid Isolated from the Root Bark Extracts of Annona senegalensis

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    Theophine Chinwuba Okoye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Root bark preparation of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae is used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for treatment of infectious diseases. Extraction of the A. senegalensis powdered root bark with methanol-methylene chloride (1 : 1 mixture yielded the methanol-methylene extract (MME which was fractionated to obtain the ethyl acetate fraction (EF. The EF on further fractionation gave two active subfractions, F1 and F2. The F1 yielded a lipophilic oily liquid while F2 on purification, precipitated white crystalline compound, AS2. F1 was analyzed using GC-MS, while AS2 was characterized by proton NMR and X-ray crystallography. Antibacterial and antifungal studies were performed using agar-well-diffusion method with 0.5 McFarland standard and MICs calculated. GC-MS gave 6 major constituents: kaur-16-en-19-oic acid; 1-dodecanol; 1-naphthalenemethanol; 6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-ethanol; 3,3-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienylcyclohexane-1-methanol; 3-hydroxyandrostan-17-carboxylic acid. AS2 was found to be kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. The MICs of EF, F1, and AS2 against B. subtilis were 180, 60, and 30 μg/mL, respectively. AS2 exhibited activity against S. aureus with an MIC of 150 μg/mL, while F1 was active against P. aeruginosa with an MIC of 40 μg/mL. However, the extracts and AS2 exhibited no effects against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Therefore, kaurenoic acid and the lipophilic fraction from A. senegalensis root bark exhibited potent antibacterial activity.

  4. Antimicrobial Effects of a Lipophilic Fraction and Kaurenoic Acid Isolated from the Root Bark Extracts of Annona senegalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Theophine Chinwuba; Akah, Peter Achunike; Okoli, Charles Ogbonnaya; Ezike, Adaobi Chioma; Omeje, Edwin Ogechukwu; Odoh, Uchenna Estella

    2012-01-01

    Root bark preparation of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) is used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for treatment of infectious diseases. Extraction of the A. senegalensis powdered root bark with methanol-methylene chloride (1 : 1) mixture yielded the methanol-methylene extract (MME) which was fractionated to obtain the ethyl acetate fraction (EF). The EF on further fractionation gave two active subfractions, F1 and F2. The F1 yielded a lipophilic oily liquid while F2 on purification, precipitated white crystalline compound, AS2. F1 was analyzed using GC-MS, while AS2 was characterized by proton NMR and X-ray crystallography. Antibacterial and antifungal studies were performed using agar-well-diffusion method with 0.5 McFarland standard and MICs calculated. GC-MS gave 6 major constituents: kaur-16-en-19-oic acid; 1-dodecanol; 1-naphthalenemethanol; 6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-ethanol; 3,3-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)cyclohexane-1-methanol; 3-hydroxyandrostan-17-carboxylic acid. AS2 was found to be kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. The MICs of EF, F1, and AS2 against B. subtilis were 180, 60, and 30 μg/mL, respectively. AS2 exhibited activity against S. aureus with an MIC of 150 μg/mL, while F1 was active against P. aeruginosa with an MIC of 40 μg/mL. However, the extracts and AS2 exhibited no effects against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Therefore, kaurenoic acid and the lipophilic fraction from A. senegalensis root bark exhibited potent antibacterial activity.

  5. IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF SOLVENT FRACTIONS OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF VERNONIA COLORATA AGAINST SELECTED HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

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    Oseni Lateef Adebayo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vernonia colorata has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases related to certain bacteria. Crude leaf extracts of the plant have also been reported to contain antibacterial agents in previous in vitro studies. Fractionation of crude solvent extracts may lead to isolation and subsequent characterization of the active compound(s. In the current research, crude aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of V. colorata were evaluated for antibacterial activity against five human pathogenic bacteria. The crude extracts were further fractionated by solvent-solvent partitioning using petroleum ether, chloroform and diethyl ether. The various fractions were tested against selected bacteria using the agar-well diffusion method. Crude ethanolic extract showed MIC ranging between 5-6 mg/ml while aqueous extract showed MIC between 6-7.5 mg/ml. All fractions from the aqueous extract at 10 mg/ml did not show zone of inhibition against the bacteria tested. However, the chloroform fraction of the ethanolic extract showed activity only against S. aureus at 10 mg/ml with zone of inhibition of 15.00 ± 0.20 mm. The antibacterial activity of the chloroform fraction of the ethanolic extract was significant in comparison with control (P < 0.05. The results suggested that the crude ethanolic leaf extract of V. colorata possess superior antibacterial activity as compared with aqueous extract. The result further suggests that chloroform fraction of the ethanolic leaf extract possesses antibacterial activity hence turn out to be a good candidate for further isolation and characterization of antibacterial agents.

  6. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects of Crude Extract, Fractions and 4-Nerolidylcathecol from Aerial Parts of Pothomorphe umbellata L. (Piperaceae

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    Andrey P. Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Pothomorphe umbellata L. (Piperaceae and fractions obtained by partitions sequentially among water-methanol, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate, as well as the major constituent, 4-nerolidylcatechol, were, respectively, evaluated and evidenced for antioxidant and cytotoxic effects through fluorometric microplate and microculture tetrazolium assays in HL-60 cells. The crude ethanolic extract demonstrated the preeminent antioxidant activity (IC50=1.2 μg/mL against exogenous cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species, followed by the water-methanolic (IC50=4.5 μg/mL, methylene chloride (IC50=5.9 μg/mL, ethyl acetate (IC50=8.0 μg/mL, 4-nerolidylcatechol (IC50=8.6 μg/mL, and the sterol fractions (IC50>12.5 μg/mL. Vitamin C, the positive control used in this assay, presented IC50 value equivalent to 1.7 μg/mL. 4-Nerolidylcatechol (IC50=0.4 μg/mL and methylene chloride fraction (IC50=2.3 μg/mL presented considerable cytotoxicity probably because of the presence of an o-quinone, an auto-oxidation by product of the catechol. Polar compounds, present in the ethanol extract, appear to increase the solubility and stability of the major active constituent, acting synergistically with 4-nerolidylcatechol, improving its pharmacokinetic parameters and increasing significantly its antioxidant activity which, in turn, suggests that the aqueous-ethanolic extract, used in folklore medicine, is safe and effective.

  7. Antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of crude extract, fractions and 4-nerolidylcathecol from aerial parts of Pothomorphe umbellata L. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Andrey P; Bagatela, Bianca S; Rosa, Paulo C P; Nanayakkara, Dhammika N P; Tavares Carvalho, José Carlos; Maistro, Edson L; Bastos, Jairo K; Perazzo, Fábio F

    2013-01-01

    The crude ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Pothomorphe umbellata L. (Piperaceae) and fractions obtained by partitions sequentially among water-methanol, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate, as well as the major constituent, 4-nerolidylcatechol, were, respectively, evaluated and evidenced for antioxidant and cytotoxic effects through fluorometric microplate and microculture tetrazolium assays in HL-60 cells. The crude ethanolic extract demonstrated the preeminent antioxidant activity (IC50 = 1.2  μg/mL) against exogenous cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species, followed by the water-methanolic (IC50 = 4.5  μg/mL), methylene chloride (IC50 = 5.9  μg/mL), ethyl acetate (IC50 = 8.0  μg/mL), 4-nerolidylcatechol (IC50 = 8.6  μg/mL), and the sterol fractions (IC50 > 12.5  μg/mL). Vitamin C, the positive control used in this assay, presented IC50 value equivalent to 1.7  μg/mL. 4-Nerolidylcatechol (IC50 = 0.4  μg/mL) and methylene chloride fraction (IC50 = 2.3  μg/mL) presented considerable cytotoxicity probably because of the presence of an o-quinone, an auto-oxidation by product of the catechol. Polar compounds, present in the ethanol extract, appear to increase the solubility and stability of the major active constituent, acting synergistically with 4-nerolidylcatechol, improving its pharmacokinetic parameters and increasing significantly its antioxidant activity which, in turn, suggests that the aqueous-ethanolic extract, used in folklore medicine, is safe and effective.

  8. Inflammation response and cytotoxic effects in human THP-1 cells of size-fractionated PM10 extracts in a polluted urban site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilirò, T; Alessandria, L; Bonetta, S; Carraro, E; Gilli, G

    2016-02-01

    To contribute to a greater characterization of the airborne particulate matter's toxicity, size-fractionated PM10 was sampled during different seasons in a polluted urban site in Torino, a northern Italian city. Three main size fractions (PM10 - 3 μm; PM3 - 0.95 μm; PM fraction PMfractionated PM10 extracts, sampled in an urban traffic meteorological-chemical station produced size-related toxicological effects in relation to season and particles extraction. The PM summer extracts induced a significant release of LDH compared to winter and produced a size-related effect, with higher values measured with PM10-3. Exposure to size-fractionated PM10 extracts did not induce significant expression of TNFα. IL-8 expression was influenced by exposure to size-fractionated PM10 extracts and statistically significant differences were found between kind of extracts for both seasons. The mean fold increases in CYP1A1 expression were statistically different in summer and in winter; winter fraction extracts produced a size-related effect, in particular for organic samples with higher values measured with PM<0.95 extracts. Our results confirm that the only measure of PM can be misleading for the assessment of air quality moreover we support efforts toward identifying potential effect-based tools (e.g. in vitro test) that could be used in the context of the different monitoring programs.

  9. Changes in Soil Hot-Water Extractable C, N and P Fractions During Vegetative Restoration in Zhifanggou Watershed on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Sha; LIPeng; LIU Guo-bin; LI Zhan-bin; ZHANG Chao

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in Zhifanggou Watershed, Shaanxi Province, China, to evaluate the effect of different vegetation types on hot-water extractable C, N and P fractions, with the aim to determine whether hot-water extractable fractions could be used as indicators of soil quality change in Loess Plateau. The six vegetation types established in 1975 were (i)Robinia pseudoacacia L., (ii)Caragana korshinkiiKom., (iii)Pinus tabulaeformis Carr., (iv)P. tabulaeformis-Amorpha fruticosaL., (v)R. pseudoacacia-A. fruticosa, and (vi) grassland. A cropped hillslope plot and aPlatycladus orientalis L. native forest plot were used as references. The results indicated that the conversion of native forest to cropland resulted in a signiifcant decline in the hot-water extractable C, N and P fractions. Hot-water extractable C, N, and P increased when cultivated land was revegetated, but after 30 years the amount of hot-water extractable C, N, and P in revegetated ifelds was still much lower compared to native forest. Hot-water extractable fractions increased more under mixed-forest than under pure-forest stands. Furthermore, there was a signiifcant correlation between the hot-water extractable fractions and soil chemical and microbiological properties. The results showed that hot-water extractable fractions could be used as indicators of soil quality change on the Loess Plateau.

  10. Metal fractionation of atmospheric aerosols via sequential chemical extraction: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smichowski, Patricia; Gomez, Dario [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina); Polla, Griselda [Unidad de Actividad Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)

    2005-01-01

    This review surveys schemes used to sequentially chemically fractionate metals and metalloids present in airborne particulate matter. It focuses mainly on sequential chemical fractionation schemes published over the last 15 years. These schemes have been classified into five main categories: (1) based on Tessier's procedure, (2) based on Chester's procedure, (3) based on Zatka's procedure, (4) based on BCR procedure, and (5) other procedures. The operational characteristics as well as the state of the art in metal fractionation of airborne particulate matter, fly ashes and workroom aerosols, in terms of applications, optimizations and innovations, are also described. Many references to other works in this area are provided. (orig.)

  11. Peer Support, Self-efficacy, and Combat-related Trauma Symptoms among Returning OIF/OEF Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of PTSD and other combat-related trauma symptoms among more than 2 million veterans returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan suggests that many will experience psychological challenges in adjusting to civilian life. However, the literature is sparse about this new group of veterans. This study examined the relationships between peer support, self-efficacy, and PTSD symptoms among 216 OIF/OEF veterans who had attended 1 of 1...

  12. Fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropins.5: Small scale chromatographic fractionation of pituitary extracts into components with different steroidogenic activities using homologous bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrino Teresa R

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fractionation and characterization of gonadotropins (GtH from Fundulus heteroclitus pituitary extracts were carried out using a biocompatible liquid chromatographic procedure (Pharmacia FPLC system. Chromatographic fractions were monitored for gonadotropic activities (induction of oocyte maturation and steroid production using homologous follicle bioassays in vitro. Size-exclusion chromatography eluted gonadotropic activity in one major protein peak (Mr ~ 30,000. Anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC yielded two distinct peaks of 17beta-estradiol (E2- and 17alpha-hydroxy,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography (chromatofocusing followed by HIC resolved pituitary extracts into two active fractions; both induced E2 synthesis, but one was relatively poor in eliciting DHP and testosterone production. Thus, using homologous bioassays, at least two quantitatively different gonadotropic (steroidogenic activities: an E2-promoting gonadotropin (GtH I-like and a DHP-promoting gonadotropin (GtH II-like, which has a lower isoelectric point but greater hydrophobicity than the former, can be distinguished from F. heteroclitus pituitaries by a variety of chromatographic procedures. This study complements previous biochemical and molecular data in F. heteroclitus and substantiates the duality of GtH function in a multiple-spawning teleost.

  13. Fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropins.5: Small scale chromatographic fractionation of pituitary extracts into components with different steroidogenic activities using homologous bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wai Peter; Petrino, Teresa R; Wallace, Robin A

    2004-01-01

    Fractionation and characterization of gonadotropins (GtH) from Fundulus heteroclitus pituitary extracts were carried out using a biocompatible liquid chromatographic procedure (Pharmacia FPLC system). Chromatographic fractions were monitored for gonadotropic activities (induction of oocyte maturation and steroid production) using homologous follicle bioassays in vitro. Size-exclusion chromatography eluted gonadotropic activity in one major protein peak (Mr ~ 30,000). Anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC) yielded two distinct peaks of 17beta-estradiol (E2)- and 17alpha-hydroxy,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP)-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography (chromatofocusing followed by HIC) resolved pituitary extracts into two active fractions; both induced E2 synthesis, but one was relatively poor in eliciting DHP and testosterone production. Thus, using homologous bioassays, at least two quantitatively different gonadotropic (steroidogenic) activities: an E2-promoting gonadotropin (GtH I-like) and a DHP-promoting gonadotropin (GtH II-like), which has a lower isoelectric point but greater hydrophobicity than the former, can be distinguished from F. heteroclitus pituitaries by a variety of chromatographic procedures. This study complements previous biochemical and molecular data in F. heteroclitus and substantiates the duality of GtH function in a multiple-spawning teleost. PMID:15040801

  14. STANDARDIZING THE EXTRACTION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL FRACTION FROM STREPTOMYCES SP. TC1 AGAINST XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANJUNDAN JAIVEL*, RAMASAMY RAJESH AND PONNUSAMY MARIMUTHU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces are prokaryotic microorganisms capable of producing a wide range of secondary metabolites has the capacity to fight with the competing plant pathogens and suppress the growth of them. A promising Streptomyces sp. TC1 isolate exhibited antimicrobial activity against bacterial leaf blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae under in vitro conditions. The antimicrobial activity of TC1 culture filtrate was found to be higher at seven days of incubation. The optimized extraction of antimicrobial fractions from the culture filtrate was obtained with ethyl acetate solvent. Adjusting the pH of the culture filtrate to 3 prior to extraction process resulted in increased recovery of antimicrobial fractions. The crude antimicrobial fraction obtained from the TC1 fermentation broth exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 300 µg/ml against the test pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The antimicrobial activity results including agar well diffusion assay and MIC experiments strongly recommend that the Streptomyces sp. TC1 can be explored for antimicrobial metabolites for bacterial blight disease control in rice.

  15. Rice bran extract containing acylated steryl glucoside fraction decreases elevated blood LDL cholesterol level in obese Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Nakashima, Yuri; Matsuoka, Sayuri

    2015-01-01

    People who frequently consume whole grains show a lower incidence of arteriosclerotic disease than people who consume primarily refined grains. We examined whether or not rice bran extract containing the acylated steryl glucosides (ASG) fraction decreases blood LDL cholesterol levels in obese Japanese men with high blood levels of LDL cholesterol. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind design. A total of 51 subjects were randomly allocated to either a rice bran extract containing ASG fraction (RB-ASG) group or a placebo group. Subjects in the RB-ASG group received 30-50 mg/day of RB-ASG, and the placebo group took 9 capsules/day for 12 weeks. Before and after intake, height, weight, body fat percentage, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured, blood was collected, and visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, and abdominal circumference were determined based on umbilical computed tomography. Percentage decreases in blood LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL ratio, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat area were significantly better in the RB-ASG group than in the placebo group. These findings suggest that RB-ASG fraction may reduce blood LDL cholesterol levels and the risk of arteriosclerosis in obese Japanese men with high LDL cholesterol levels.

  16. Anti-emetic activity of Grewia lasiodiscus root extract and fractions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... in folkloric medicine for the management of fever, pains and emesis. ... Qualitative phytochemical analysis was carried out on extract and the most bioactive .... through excitation of visceral afferent nerve fibres of the. GIT.

  17. The effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the fractionated radiation therapy in C3H mouse fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    A gingko biloba extract (GBE) has been known as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer. Its mechanisms of action are increase of the red blood cell deformability, decrease the blood viscosity, and decrease the hypoxic cell fraction in the tumor. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of GBE on fractionated radiotherapy and to clarify the mechanism of action of the GBE by estimating the blood flow in tumor and normal muscle. Fibrosarcoma (FSall) growing in a C3H mouse leg muscle was used as the tumor model. When the tumor size reached 7 mm in diameter, the GBE was given intraperitoneally at 1 and 25 hours prior to irradiation. The tumor growth delay was measured according to the various doses of radiation (3, 6, 9, 12, Gy and 15 Gy) and to the fractionation (single and fractionated irradiation) with and without the GBE injection. The radiation dose to the tumor the response relationships and the enhancement ratio of the GBE were measured. In addition, the blood flow of a normal muscle and a tumor was compared by laser Doppler flowmetry according to the GBE treatment. When the GBE was used with single fraction irradiation with doses ranging from 3 to 12 Gy, GBE increased the tumor growth delay significantly ({rho} < 0.05) and the enhancement ratio of the GBE was 1.16. In fractionated irradiation with 3 Gy per day, the relationships between the radiation dose (D) and the tumor growth delay (TGD) were TGD (days) = 0.26 x D (Gy)+0.13 in the radiation alone group, and the TGD (days) = 0.30 x D (Gy) + 0.13 in the radiation with GBE group. As a result, the enhancement ratio was 1.19 (95% confidence interval; 1.13 {approx} 1.27). Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure the blood flow. The mean blood flow was higher in the muscle (7.78 mL/100 g/min in tumor and the 10.15 mL/100 g/min in muscle, {rho} = 0.0001) and the low blood flow fraction (less than 2 mL/100 g/min) was higher in the tumor (0.5% vs. 5.2%, {rho} = 0.005). The blood flow was not changed with the GBE

  18. The Dual Edema-Preventing Molecular Mechanism of the Crataegus Extract WS 1442 Can Be Assigned to Distinct Phytochemical Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Simone; Bischoff, Iris; Willer, Elisabeth A; Bräutigam, Jacqueline; Bubik, Martin F; Erdelmeier, Clemens A J; Koch, Egon; Faleschini, Maria T; De Mieri, Maria; Bauhart, Milena; Zahler, Stefan; Hensel, Andreas; Hamburger, Matthias; Potterat, Olivier; Fürst, Robert

    2017-05-01

    The hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) extract WS 1442 is used against mild forms of chronic heart failure. This disease is associated with endothelial barrier dysfunction and edema formation. We have recently shown that WS 1442 protects against this dysfunction by a dual mechanism: it both promotes endothelial barrier integrity by activation of a barrier-enhancing pathway (cortactin activation) and inhibits endothelial hyperpermeability by blocking a barrier disruptive pathway (calcium signaling). In this study, we aimed to identify the bioactive compounds responsible for these actions by using a bioactivity-guided fractionation approach. From the four fractions generated from WS 1442 by successive elution with water, 95 % ethanol, methanol, and 70 % acetone, only the water fraction was inactive, whereas the other three triggered a reduction of endothelial hyperpermeability. Analyses of intracellular calcium levels and cortactin phosphorylation were used as readouts to estimate the bioactivity of subfractions and isolated compounds. Interestingly, only the ethanolic fraction interfered with the calcium signaling, whereas only the methanolic fraction led to an activation of cortactin. Thus, the dual mode of action of WS 1442 could be clearly assigned to two distinct fractions. Although the identification of the calcium-active substance(s) was not successful, we could exclude an involvement of phenolic compounds. Cortactin activation, however, could be clearly attributed to oligomeric procyanidins with a distinct degree of polymerization. Taken together, our study provides the first approach to identify the active constituents of WS 1442 that address different cellular pathways leading to the inhibition of endothelial barrier dysfunction. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Dry vs soaked wood: modulating the volatile extractible fraction of oak wood by heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Charlie J; Sok, Nicolas; Laroche, Jérémy; Gourrat, Karine; Prida, Andréi; Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Gougeon, Régis D

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the water content of wood on the concentrations of volatile compounds which can be extracted after heat treatments. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME GC-MS) has been used to compare the concentrations of six aroma compounds (vanillin, furfural, eugenol, guaïacol and cis- and trans-whisky lactones) in hydroalcoholic extracts of heated oak wood samples either previously soaked in hot water or not. Except for eugenol, concentrations of extracted aromas appeared to be lower in soaked woods than in dry woods for temperatures up to 200 °C. If a delaying effect of water could explain such overall lower extracted concentrations from soaked woods, a PCA analysis revealed that for the longer duration (25 min of heat treatment), the adsorbed water could promote a higher impact of furfural, eugenol and both whisky lactones on the composition of hydroalcoholic extracts, suggesting that alternative mechanisms of thermal modifications of the wood macromolecular network could exist at high temperatures in presence of adsorbed water.

  20. A Single In-Vial Dual Extraction Strategy for the Simultaneous Lipidomics and Proteomics Analysis of HDL and LDL Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godzien, Joanna; Ciborowski, Michal; Armitage, Emily Grace; Jorge, Inmaculada; Camafeita, Emilio; Burillo, Elena; Martín-Ventura, Jose Luis; Rupérez, Francisco J; Vázquez, Jesús; Barbas, Coral

    2016-06-03

    A single in-vial dual extraction (IVDE) procedure for the subsequent analysis of lipids and proteins in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions derived from the same biological sample is presented. On the basis of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction, IVDE leads to the formation of three phases: a protein pellet at the bottom, an aqueous phase with polar compounds, and an ether phase with lipophilic compounds. After sample extraction, performed within a high-performance liquid chromatography vial insert, the ether phase was directly injected for lipid fingerprinting, while the protein pellet, after evaporation of the remaining sample, was used for proteomics analysis. Human HDL and LDL isolates were used to test the suitability of the IVDE methodology for lipid and protein analysis from a single sample in terms of data quality and matching composition to that of HDL and LDL. Subsequently, HDL and LDL fractions isolated from ApoE-KO and wild-type mice were used to validate the capacity of IVDE for revealing changes in lipid and protein abundance. Results indicate that IVDE can be successfully used for the subsequent analysis of lipids and proteins with the advantages of time saving, simplicity, and reduced sample amount.

  1. In-vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Adiantum caudatum Linn. and Celosia argentea Linn. extracts and fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan Telagari

    2015-01-01

    Materials and Methods: The plant extracts were prepared, first with cold maceration (70% v/v ethanol and then by Soxhlation techniques (95% v/v ethanol. Subsequently, the combined extracts were subjected for fractionation. Different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mg/ml of extract and fractions were subjected to α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. The absorbance was measured at 540 and 405 nm using multiplate reader and the percentage of α- amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitory activity and IC 50 values of extract and fractions were calculated. Results: Fraction 2 of A. caudatum and fraction 4 of C. argentea has shown highest α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential with IC 50 values of 0.241, 0.211 and 0.294, 0.249 mg/ml, respectively, which was comparable with acarbose (0.125 and 0.93 mg/ml. Whereas, extracts and remaining fractions of both the plants have shown lesser activity. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that, fraction 2 of A. caudatum, rich in triterpenoids and phenolics and fraction 4 of C. argentea, rich in flavonoids, are effective α- amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitors, which may be helpful to reduce the postprandial glucose levels. Hence, further studies may throw light on the antidiabetic potential of A. caudatum and C. argentea, especially in the management of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Synergistic Effects of n-Hexane Fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Bark Extract and Selected Antibiotics on Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatayo E. Abioye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents by microbial pathogens demands increased effort in the development of effective ways of treating infections and diseases. The n-hexane fraction of lyophilized crude bark extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. was prepared and, in combination with selected antibiotics, assayed for antimicrobial activity against some selected bacterial pathogens using time-kill assay. Protein leakage analysis of the combined agents was performed using Bradford protein quantification method. Determination of active compounds present in the n-hexane fraction was done using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. While time-kill assay detected 43.33% synergy; 56.67% indifference and no antagonism at 1/2 × minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 1 × MIC exhibited 55% synergy, 45% indifference and no antagonism. Protein leakages from the cells of selected bacteria ranged from 1.20 µg/mL to 256.93 µg/mL. The presence of a phenyl group, an aromatic ring and phenolic compounds in the n-hexane fraction was confirmed at 2162 cm−1–2020 cm−1, 1605 cm−1–1533 cm−1 and 1438 cm−1–1444 cm−1 spectra peaks, respectively. The observed antibiotic−n-hexane fraction synergistic interaction revealed the improved antibacterial activity of the selected antibiotics. Hence, exploration of a combination of antibiotics with plant secondary metabolites is hereby advocated in the global quest for means of combating infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  3. nduced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four sub-fractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Sub-fractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity guided subfraction isolated from total methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. leaves on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four subfractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Subfractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level in the blood were checked. Results: Sub-fraction D showed significant reduction (P<0.05 among four sub-fraction in comparison with standard drug fenofibrate. Conclusions: From the above study it could be concluded that butanol sub-fraction D of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. not only have resulted in significant reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level but also increases the HDL level at a reduced dose level.

  4. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of Alchornea floribunda leaf extract, fractions and isolated bioactive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Obasi, Okechukwu; Umeokoli, Blessing Ogechukwu; Ogbuatu, Peter; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Alchornea floribunda leaves are widely used in ethnomedicine for the management of immuno-inflammatory disorders. We investigated the in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity of the leaf extract, fractions and isolated compounds of A. floribunda. Materials and Methods: The ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol leaf extract was subjected to several chromatographic separations to isolate compounds 1-4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. Oxidative stress was induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Further analysis on the isolated phenolic compounds were done using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity tests. Results: The ethyl acetate fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (pcatalase enzyme activity and a significant (p<0.05) reduction in serum malondialdehyde. The chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate fraction led to the isolation of three flavans, (-) cathechin (1), (-) epicathechin (2), (+) epicathechin (3) and a flavanone, 2R, 3R dihydroquercitin (4). In hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, (-) epicathechin exhibited an EC50 value of 8 μg/ml, similar to the standard ascorbic acid (EC50 = 8 μg/ml). (-) epicathechin showed scavenging of DPPH radical with EC50 value of 19 μg/ml while in the FRAP assay, it had EC50 value of 46 μg/ml which was lower than that of the standard, ascobic acid (EC50 = 66 μg/ml). Conclusion: The medicinal uses of A. floribunda may be due to the antioxidant activities of its phenolic compounds. PMID:28265550

  5. Mass spectral characterisation of a polar, esterified fraction of an organic extract of an oil sands process water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, S J; Pereira, A S; Martin, J W; Scarlett, A G; West, C E; Lengger, S K; Wilde, M J; Pureveen, J; Tegelaar, E W; Frank, R A; Hewitt, L M

    2014-11-15

    Characterising complex mixtures of organic compounds in polar fractions of heavy petroleum is challenging, but is important for pollution studies and for exploration and production geochemistry. Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) stored in large tailings ponds by Canadian oil sands industries contains such mixtures. A polar OSPW fraction was obtained by silver ion solid-phase extraction with methanol elution. This was examined by numerous methods, including electrospray ionisation (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (uHPLC)/Orbitrap MS, in multiple ionisation and MS/MS modes. Compounds were also synthesised for comparison. The major ESI ionisable compounds detected (+ion mode) were C15-28 SO3 species with 3-7 double bond equivalents (DBE) and C27-28 SO5 species with 5 DBE. ESI-MS/MS collision-induced losses were due to water, methanol, water plus methanol and water plus methyl formate, typical of methyl esters of hydroxy acids. Once the fraction was re-saponified, species originally detected by positive ion MS, could be detected only by negative ion MS, consistent with their assignment as sulphur-containing hydroxy carboxylic acids. The free acid of a keto dibenzothiophene alkanoic acid was added to an unesterified acid extract of OSPW in known concentrations as a putative internal standard, but attempted quantification in this way proved unreliable. The results suggest the more polar acidic organic SO3 constituents of OSPW include C15-28  S-containing, alicyclic and aromatic hydroxy carboxylic acids. SO5 species are possibly sulphone analogues of these. The origin of such compounds is probably via further biotransformation (hydroxylation) of the related S-containing carboxylic acids identified previously in a less polar OSPW fraction. The environmental risks, corrosivity and oil flow assurance effects should be easier to assess, given that partial structures are now known

  6. Using DTPA-extractable soil fraction to assess the bioconcentration factor of plants in phytoremediation of urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bocanegra, Javier; Roca, Núria; Tume, Pedro; Bech, Jaume

    2017-04-01

    Urban soils may be highly contaminated with potentially toxic metals, as a result of intensive anthropogenic activities. Developing cities are increasing the number of lands where is practiced the urban agriculture. In this way, it is necessary to assess the part of heavy metals that is transferred to plants in order to a) know the potential health risk that represent soils and b) know the relation soil-plant to assess the ability of these plants to remove heavy metals from soil. Nowadays, to assess the bioconcentration factor (BF) of plants in phytoremediation, the pseudototal o total concentration has been used by many authors. Two different urban soils with similar pH and carbonates content but with different pollution degree were phytoremediated with different plant species. Urban soil from one Barcelona district (Spain), the most contaminated soil, showed an extractability of Cu, Pb and Zn of 9.6, 6.7 and 5.8% of the total fraction respectively. The soil from Talcahuano city (Chile), with contents of heavy metals slightly above the background upper limit, present values of 15.5, 13.5 and 12% of the total fraction of studied heavy metals. Furthermore, a peri-urban analysed soil from Azul (Argentina) also showed an elevated extractability with values of 24, 13.5 and 14% of the Cu, Pb and Zn contents respectively. These soils presented more extractability than other disturbed soils, like for example, soils from mine areas. The urban soils present more developed soil with an interaction between solution and solid phase in polluted systems. The most important soil surface functional groups include the basal plane of phyllosilicates and metal hydroxyls at edge sites of clay minerals, iron oxyhydroxides, manganese oxyhydroxides and organic matter. The interaction between solution and solid phase in polluted urban systems tends to form labile associations and pollutants are more readily mobilized because their bonds with soil particles are weaker. Clay and organic

  7. EKSTRAKSI DAN FRAKSINASI FOSFOLIPID DARI LIMBAH PENGOLAHAN MINYAK SAWIT [Extraction and Fractionation of Phospholipids from the Waste of Palm Oil Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to extract and fractionate phospholipids from the most potential source of phospholipids of the waste of palm oil processing i.e. palm pressed fiber, sludge, and spent bleaching earth (adsorbent. The extraction process was performed by using chloroform-methanol, followed by polar lipid separation by solubilization in choloroform (to eliminate neutral lipid and methanol (to extract phospholipids. Fractionation was performed based on the solubility in ethanol and acetone. There were 5 phospholipd fractions obtained, i.e. crude phospholipids (without fractionation, ethanol soluble, ethanol insloluble, ethanol soluble-acetone soluble, and ethanol soluble-acetone insoluble fractions. Each fraction was characterized for phospholipid composition and fatty acid profile. The result showed that palm pressed fiber had the highest content of phospholipids of 10,222.19 ppm. Extraction and separation of phospholipids from palm pressed fiber produced phospholipids with a purity of 61.67%. Phospholipids found in palm pressed fiber were phosphatidylinositol (PI, phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidyletanolamin (PE, phosphatidylglycerol (PG, diphosphatidylglyerol (DPG, and phosphatidic acid (PA, while the impurities consisted of fatty acids and neutral lipids. Oleic acid is the most dominant fatty acid ini crude palm pressed fiber phospholipids. Fractionation increased the purity of phospholipids. Different phospholipids fractions showed different phospholipid composition and fatty acid profile. Ethanol soluble fraction had more PI, PC, PG, and PA, but less PE and DPG as compared to crude phospholipids. The ratio of PC to PE also increased after ethanol fractionation. The amount of more non polar phospholipids (PG, DPG, PA were less in ethanol soluble-acetone insoluble fractions compared to ethanol soluble-acetone soluble fraction. The solubilization in ethanol increased total unsaturated fatty acids in ethanol soluble fractions, meanwhile the

  8. Phenolic contents, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of crude extract, subsequent fractions and crude saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L

    OpenAIRE

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Jawad; Ullah,Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Ahmad, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated Polygonum hydropiper L. (P. hydropiper) for phenolic contents, antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities, in an attempt to rationalize its use in neurological disorders. Methods Plant crude extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions: n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq) and saponins (Ph.Sp) were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)...

  9. Comparison of antioxidant activities of fractionated extracts from seedlings and herb of Chelidonium majus L. using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ożarowski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study is a part of a trend of studies on the antioxidative properties of Chelidonium majus extracts or their fractions suggesting that antioxidant activities may depend on total flavonoid and/or alkaloid contents.

  10. A systematic approach for the chromatographic fractionation and purification of major steroid saponins in commercial extracts of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, F; Ferreira, F; Pedreschi, F

    2017-03-01

    Yucca schidigera Roezl. (yucca) is one of the major industrial sources of steroid saponins used as animal and human food additives. This work describes a new, systematic and reproducible three-step method by medium and high-pressure liquid chromatography (under RP, NP and RP conditions), for the isolation and purification of three groups of saponins, which were further purified in six sub-fractions, and finally into twelve individual steroid saponins previously reported in Y. schidigera. In accordance to the increasing applications of yucca extracts, further analytical, biological and physicochemical studies are still required. The presented method is applicable to the preparation of steroids saponins previously reported in commercial extracts of Y. schidigera, both as highly purified mixtures of defined composition, including twelve pure components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug.

  12. Inhibition of cholinesterase activity by extracts, fractions and compounds from Calceolaria talcana and C. integrifolia (Calceolariaceae: Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes, Carlos L; Muñoz, Evelyn; Salazar, Juan R; Yamaguchi, Lydia; Werner, Enrique; Alarcon, Julio; Kubo, Isao

    2013-10-25

    Extracts, fractions and compounds from Calceolaria talcana and C. integrifolia exhibited strong inhibitory effects of the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes using the in vitro Ellmańs method. The most active samples were from the ethyl acetate extract, which caused a mixed-type inhibition against AChE (69.8% and 79.5% at 100 and 200 μg/ml, respectively) and against BChE (98.5% and 99.8% at 100 and 200 μg/ml, respectively) and its major components verbascoside 8 (50.9 and 70.0% at 200 μg/ml, against AChE and BChE, respectively), martynoside 9, and fraction F-7 (which corresponds to a mixture of 8, 9, and other phenylethanoids and phenolics that remain unidentified) (80.2 and 85.3% at 100 and 200 μg/ml, against AChE, respectively and 99.1 and 99.7% at 100 and 200 μg/ml, against BChE, respectively) inhibited the acetylcholinesterase enzyme competitively. The most polar fraction F-5 from n-hexane extract (a mixture of naphthoquinones: 2-hydroxy-3-(1,1-dimethylallyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) 6, α-dunnione 7 and other polar compounds that remain unidentified) showed a mixed-type inhibition (71.5 and 72.1% against AChE and BChE at 200 μg/ml, respectively). Finally, the methanol-soluble residue presented a complex, mixed-type inhibition (39.9 and 67.9% against AChE and BChE at 200 μg/ml, respectively). The mixture F-3 with diterpenes was obtained from the n-hexane extract: (1,10-cyclopropyl-9-epi-ent-isopimarol) 1, 19-α-hydroxy-abietatriene 2, and F-4 a mixture of triterpenes α-lupeol 3, β-sitosterol 4, ursolic acid 5 together with a complex mixture of terpenes that did not show activity. In summary, extracts and natural compounds from C. talcana and C. integrifolia were isolated, identified and characterized as cholinesterase inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand

    2016-03-01

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913μg/g) was significantly higher than the whole (664-715μg/g) and refined wheat (109-112μg/g) flour samples by both extraction methods as analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The recovery of phenolic acids from the spiked wheat bran sample was higher than from either the whole or refined wheat flour samples by both extraction procedures. The recovery of TPA (74-89%) from whole and refined wheat flours by MAE was significantly lower than that of UAE (90-98%). This difference was attributed to the gelatinization of starch present in the wheat flours caused by MAE. Gelatinization reduces the extractability of phenolic acids from wheat flour samples. Furthermore, both spectrometric assays (total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacities) showed similar trend as compared to LC-MS analyses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  15. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-12-30

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  16. Enhanced characterization of oil sands acid-extractable organics fractions using electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anthony E; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark; Dixon, D George

    2015-05-01

    The open pit oil sands mining operations north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, are accumulating tailings waste at a rate approximately equal to 4.9 million m(3) /d. Naphthenic acids are among the most toxic components within tailings to aquatic life, but structural components have largely remained unidentified. In the present study, electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) were used to characterize fractions derived from the distillation of an acid-extractable organics (AEO) mixture isolated from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). Mean molecular weights of each fraction, and their relative proportions to the whole AEO extract, were as follows: fraction 1: 237 Da, 8.3%; fraction 2: 240 Da, 23.8%; fraction 3: 257 Da, 26.7%; fraction 4: 308 Da, 18.9%; fraction 5: 355 Da, 10.0%. With increasing mean molecular weight of the AEO fractions, a concurrent increase occurred in the relative abundance of nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing ions, double-bond equivalents, and degree of aromaticity. Structures present in the higher-molecular-weight fractions (fraction 4 and fraction 5) suggested the presence of heteroatoms, dicarboxyl and dihydroxy groups, and organic acid compounds with the potential to function as estrogens. Because organic acid compositions become dominated by more recalcitrant, higher-molecular-weight acids during natural degradation, these findings are important in the context of oil sands tailings pond water remediation.

  17. Metal extractability patterns to evaluate (potentially) mobile fractions in periurban calcareous agricultural soils in the Mediterranean area-analytical and mineralogical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada; Quintana, Jose R; Vázquez, Antonio; Lafuente, Antonio L; González-Huecas, Concepción

    2013-09-01

    A set of periurban calcareous agricultural Mediterranean soils was spiked with a mixture of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at two levels within the limit values proposed by current European legislation, incubated for up to 12 months, and subjected to various one-step extraction procedures to estimate mobile (neutral salts) and potentially mobile metal fractions (complexing and acidic extraction methods). The results obtained were used to study metal extractability patterns according to the soil characteristics. The analytical data were coupled with mineralogical investigations and speciation modelling using the Visual Minteq model. The formation of soluble metal-complexes in the complexing extracts (predicted by the Visual Minteq calculations) led to the highest extraction efficiency with complexing extractants. Metal extractability patterns were related to both content and composition of carbonate, organic matter, Fe oxide and clay fractions. Potentially mobile metal fractions were mainly affected by the finest soil fractions (recalcitrant organic matter, active lime and clay minerals). In the case of Pb, scarce correlations between extractable Pb and soil constituents were obtained which was attributed to high Pb retention due to the formation of 4PbCO3·3PbO (corroborated by X-ray diffraction). In summary, the high metal proportion extracted with complexing agents highlighted the high but finite capacity to store potentially mobilizable metals and the possible vulnerability of these soils against environmental impact from metal accumulation.

  18. GC/MS ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIETHYL ETHER FRACTION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM THE STEM BARK OF ANNONA SENEGALENSIS PERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Awa*, S. Ibrahim and D. A. Ameh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Diethyl ether fraction of the Methanolic extract of Annona senegalensis (Pers stem bark was prepared in yield of (0.16%. Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography analysis of the fraction resulted in the identification of two spots with antimicrobial activity. Subsequent GC/MS analysis of these spots resulted in the identification of ten components (spot one and fourteen components (spot two. The fraction showed significant antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of E. coli, S. enteriditis and S. dysenteriae.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Ethanol Extract from Rhus verniciflua Stokes Wood on the Activity of Mushroom Tyrosinase

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    Hong Xia Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extracts of Rhus verniciflua Stokes wood were made using decompressing inner ebullition, and a Box-Behnken design was used to optimize extraction conditions to produce an extract that inhibited tyrosinase activity. The chemical compositions and inhibition rates were determined in extracts made with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and an aqueous fractionation. The ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenolic content and inhibition rates. The main flavonoids in this fraction were 0.531% fisetin, 7.582% fustin, 0.848% sulfuretin, and 0.272% butein. The effects of the extract on the monophenolase and diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase were studied using the Lineweaver-Burk equation to determine the effect of the extract on inhibition of tyrosinase activity. The results showed that the extract inhibited both the monophenolase and diphenolase activity of the enzyme. The IC50 of the ethyl acetate extract was 308 μg/mL, with the lag period of the enzyme being obviously lengthened; it was estimated to be 2.45 min in the absence of the inhibitor and extended to 9.63 min in the presence of 500 μg/mL of extract. The ethyl acetate extract acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The KI was less than the KIS, which demonstrates that the [ESI] is less stable than [EI], suggesting that the extract could easily combine with free enzyme in the enzyme catalysis system, thus affecting enzyme catalysis on the substrate.

  20. Bioactivities of Ethanolic Extract and its Fractions of Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Osman; Berrin-Ozcelik; Baykal, Turhan

    2016-01-01

    Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) have been used for treatment of some illnesses in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, the ethanolic extract and its fractions obtained using re-extraction by hexane (Hx), chloroform (CHCl3), butanol, and remaining-water (r-H2O) of C. laurifolius were screened for their in vitro bioactivities. Activities were determined against both standard and the isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as yeasts such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis by microdilution method. Also, antiviral activity of C. laurifolius and S. wiedemannii extracts were tested on herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and vero cell lines. Tested extracts of C. laurifolius (minimum inhibitory concentration 32 μg/mL) exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii. The Hx extract of C. laurifolius (cytopathogenic effect of 32-8 μg/mL) had antiviral activity on PI-3. Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16-Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) were screened against both standard and the isolated strains of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, S. aureus, E. faecalis, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis by microdilution methodAntiviral activity were tested on HSV-1 and PI-3 using MDBK and Vero cell linesExtracts of C. laurifolius exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii(MIC; 32 μg/mL)The Hx extract of C. laurifolius had antiviral activity on PI-3 (CPE; 32-8 μg/mL). Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16-<0.25 μg/mL) of S. wiedemannii had significant antiviral activity.

  1. A Two-Step Nanofiltration Process for the Production of Phenolic-Rich Fractions from Artichoke Aqueous Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cassano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial nanofiltration (NF membranes in spiral-wound configuration (NP030 from Microdyn Nadir and Desal DK from GE Water & Process Technologies were used in a sequential design in order to produce a separated fraction of phenolic and sugar compounds from an aqueous artichoke extract. For both membranes, the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP on the permeation flux was evaluated. In optimized conditions of TMP, the NP030 membrane exhibited high rejections of apigenin, cynarin and chlorogenic acid (higher than 85%; on the other hand, very low rejections of fructose, glucose and sucrose (lower than 4% were measured. Starting from an extract with a total antioxidant activity (TAA of 5.28 mM trolox a retentate fraction with a TAA of 47.75 mM trolox was obtained. The NF permeate from the NP030 membrane was processed with the Desal DK membrane in optimized conditions of TMP producing a permeate stream free of phenolic and sugar compounds. Accordingly, as most part of phenolic compounds was removed in the first NF step, the concentration of sugar compounds in the NF retentate had much higher results than that of phenolic compounds.

  2. Fractionation of heavy metals in liquefied chromated copper arsenate 9-treated wood sludge using a modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui; Hse, Chung-Yun; Gambrell, Robert; Shupe, Todd F

    2009-09-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was liquefied with polyethylene glycol/glycerin and sulfuric acid. After liquefaction, most CCA metals (98% As, 92% Cr, and 83% Cu) were removed from liquefied CCA-treated wood by precipitation with calcium hydroxide. The original CCA-treated wood and liquefied CCA-treated wood sludge were fractionated by a modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure. The purpose of the BCR-sequential extraction used in this study was to examine the availability of CCA metals in treated wood for reuse. Both As and Cr had a slightly higher concentration in the sludge sample than in original CCA-treated wood. The sequential extraction showed that As and Cr were principally existed in an oxidizable fraction (As, 67%; Cr, 88%) in original CCA-treated wood. Only 1% of both As and Cr were extracted by hot nitric acid with the last extraction step. The distribution of As and Cr changed markedly in liquefied CCA-treated wood sludge. The amount of As in the exchangeable/acid extractable fraction increased from 16% to 85% while the amount of Cr increased from 3% to 54%. Only about 3% of As was present in the oxidizable fraction. However, there was still about 34% of Cr in the same fraction. Based on these results from sequential extraction procedures, it can be concluded that the accessibilities of CCA metals increase markedly by the liquefaction-precipitation process.

  3. First-pass extraction fraction of iodine-123 labeled perfusion tracers in living primate brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerlein, S.M.; Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Edward Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology]|[Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). School of Medicine; Welch, M.J. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Edward Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology

    1994-08-01

    The cerebral extraction and retention of three radioiodinated SPECT perfusion tracers were measured using residue detection in a baboon. A permeability-surface area product PS` with special relevance to SPECT was calculated from the retention of tracer in the brain after 10 min. PS` differs from the traditional PS value, which is calculated from the tracer clearance curve at 2 min. The PS` values ranged from 50 to 95 mL/min/100 g, decreased in the order [{sup 123}I]IMP > [{sup 123}I]iodoperidol=[{sup 123}I] HIPDM, and did not differ for specific activities of 10 MBq/mmol to 74 TBq/mmol. These radioiodinated compounds exhibited extraction characteristics superior to those of [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO but underestimated cerebral blood flow when flows were above 20-30 mL/min/100 g, underscoring the need for development of a more ideal SPECT perfusion tracer. (author).

  4. Prosthetic cost projections for servicemembers with major limb loss from Vietnam and OIF/OEF

    OpenAIRE

    David K. Blough, PhD; Sharon Hubbard, MS; Lynne V. McFarland, PhD; Douglas G. Smith, MD; Jeffrey M. Gambel, MD, MPH, MSW; Gayle E. Reiber, PhD

    2010-01-01

    This study projects prosthetic- and assistive-device costs for veterans with limb loss from Vietnam and injured servicemembersreturning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) to inform the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for these veterans’ future care. The 2005 Medicare prosthetic device component prices were applied to current prosthetic and assistive-device use obtained from a national survey of 581 veterans and servicemembers with major traumatic amput...

  5. Mental Health Advisory Team 9 (MHAT 9) Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) 2013 Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    standardized, validated scales, including the PTSD Checklist (PCL), Patient Health Questionnaire -9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7...using a single item in the depression scale on the MHAT 9 OEF survey. This item [item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer et al., 1999...down from higher leadership….there are set ‘mission abort criteria’ that have been ignored when abort conditions were presented.” “Seems like leaders

  6. Infertility Care Among OEF/OIF/OND Women Veterans in the Department of Veterans Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattocks, Kristin; Kroll-Desrosiers, Aimee; Zephyrin, Laurie; Katon, Jodie; Weitlauf, Julie; Bastian, Lori; Haskell, Sally; Brandt, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing number of young women Veterans seek reproductive health care through the VA, yet little is known regarding the provision of infertility care for this population. The VA provides a range of infertility services for Veterans including artificial insemination, but does not provide in vitro fertilization. This study will be the first to characterize infertility care among OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans using VA care. Methods We analyzed data from the OEF/OIF/OND roster file from the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC)—Contingency Tracking System Deployment file of military discharges from October 1, 2001–December 30, 2010, which includes 68,442 women Veterans between the ages of 18 and 45 who utilized VA health care after separating from military service. We examined the receipt of infertility diagnoses and care using ICD-9 and CPT codes. Results Less than 2% (n = 1323) of OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans received an infertility diagnosis during the study period. Compared with women VA users without infertility diagnosis, those with infertility diagnosis were younger, obese, black, or Hispanic, have a service-connected disability rating, a positive screen for military sexual trauma, and a mental health diagnosis. Overall, 22% of women with an infertility diagnosis received an infertility assessment or treatment. Thirty-nine percent of women Veterans receiving infertility assessment or treatment received this care from non-VA providers. Conclusions Overall, a small proportion of OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans received infertility diagnoses from the VA during the study period, and an even smaller proportion received infertility treatment. Nearly 40% of those who received infertility treatments received these treatments from non-VA providers, indicating that the VA may need to examine the training and resources needed to provide this care within the VA. Understanding women’s use of VA infertility services is an important component of understanding VA

  7. A Heuristic Method of Scalar Multiplication of Elliptic Curve over OEF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Duo; LUO Ping; DAI Yi-qi

    2006-01-01

    Elliptic curve cryptosystem is the focus of public key cryptology nowadays, for it has many advantages RSA lacks. This paper introduced a new heuristic algorithm on computing multiple scalar multiplications of a given point. Based on this algorithm, a new method of computing scalar multiplication of elliptic curve over optimal extension field (OEF) using Frobenius map was presented. The new method is more efficient than the traditional ones. In the last part of this paper, the comparison was given in the end.

  8. Evaluation of antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract and its fractions from the Mediterranean sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dellai Afef

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Without doubt, natural products have been, and still are, the cornerstone of the health care armamentarium. Of all natural sources, the marine environment is clearly the last great frontier for pharmaceutical and medical research. Methods This work progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with pharmacological activities. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of methanol extract and its semi-purified fractions (F2, F3 from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and their in vitro antiproliferative effects by their potential cytotoxic activity using the MTT colorimetric method and clonogenic inhibition against three human cancer cell lines (A549, lung cell carcinoma, HCT15, colon cell carcinoma and MCF7, breast adenocarcinoma. Results The fractions F2 and F3 showed interesting anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions The present study indicates that the methanolic extrac and its fractions from Spongia officinalis are a significant source of compounds with the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances.

  9. Study of the Gastroprotective Effect of Extracts and Semipurified Fractions of Chresta martii DC. and Identification of Its Principal Compounds

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    E. S. Franco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chresta martii (Asteraceae is a species widely used by the population of the Xingu region of Sergipe, Brazil, in the form of a decoction (aerial parts for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. The study aims to assess the gastroprotective activity of organic extracts and semipurified fractions and identify the principal compounds present in C. martii responsible for such activity. The organic extracts (cyclohexane: ECCm, ethyl acetate: EACm, and ethanol: EECm were obtained from the dried aerial parts (500 g of C. martii. For evaluation of the gastroprotective activity of extracts (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg; p.o., male Swiss Webster mice (25–30 g were used which had gastric ulcers induced by indomethacin (40 mg/kg, s.c. or ethanol (0.2 mL/animal; p.o.. Among the extracts evaluated, EACm exhibited significant (P<0.05 gastroprotective activity in the models used. The fractionation of EACm was performed in a silica gel column 60 eluted with the following compounds: [chloroform—F1 yield (10%], [chloroform/ethyl acetate (1/1—F2 yield (6%], [ethyl acetate—F3 yield (8%], and [ethyl/methanol acetate (1/1—F4 yield (5%]. Of the fractions described above, the F1 (25 mg/kg; p.o. had greater gastroprotective activity (P<0.05 than that displayed by ranitidine (80 mg/kg; p.o. in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The refractionation of F1 produced 23 subfractions and from these two yellow amorphous compounds were obtained by recrystallization, Rf: 0.46 and 0.31 (ethyl acetate : chloroform 5 : 5. The compounds isolated were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR and identified as flavones: chrysoeriol (yield: 0.43% and 3′,4′-dimethoxyluteolin (yield: 0.58%. Conclusion. Flavone 3′,4′-dimethoxyluteolin is the principal compound present in the species C. martii and is probably responsible for gastroprotective activity observed in this species.

  10. Fractionation of metals by sequential extraction procedures (BCR and Tessier) in soil exposed to fire of wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajkovic, Hana; Rončević, Sanda; Nemet, Ivan; Prohić, Esad; Leontić-Vazdar, Dana

    2017-04-01

    Forest fire presents serious problem, especially in Mediterranean Region. Effects of fire are numerous, from climate change and deforestation to loss of soil organic matter and changes in soil properties. One of the effects, not well documented, is possible redistribution and/or remobilisation of pollutants previously deposited in the soil, due to the new physical and chemical soil properties and changes in equilibrium conditions. For understanding and predicting possible redistribution and/or remobilisation of potential pollutants from soil, affected by fire different in temperature, several laboratory investigations were carried out. To evaluate the influence of organic matter on soil under fire, three soil samples were analysed and compared: (a) the one with added coniferous organic matter; (b) deciduous organic matter (b) and (c) soil without additional organic matter. Type of organic matter is closely related to pH of soil, as pH is influencing the mobility of some pollutants, e.g. metals. For that reason pH was also measured through all experimental steps. Each of mentioned soil samples (a, b and c) were heated at 1+3 different temperatures (25°C, 200°C, 500°C and 850°C). After heating, whereby fire effect on soil was simulated, samples were analysed by BCR protocol with the addition of a first step of sequential extraction procedure by Tessier and analysis of residual by aqua regia. Element fractionation of heavy metals by this procedure was used to determine the amounts of selected elements (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). Selected metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Further on, loss of organic matter was calculated after each heating procedure as well as the mineral composition. The mineral composition was determined using an X-ray diffraction. From obtained results, it can be concluded that temperature has an influence on concentration of elements in specific step of

  11. Leishmanicidal activity of the crude extract, fractions and major piperidine alkaloids from the flowers of Senna spectabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Melo, Gabriela Muniz; Silva, Marcela Campelo Rodrigues; Guimarães, Thaís Pereira; Pinheiro, Kátia Mantovani; da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Pivatto, Marcos; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana; Viegas, Claudio

    2014-02-15

    Senna spectabilis (sin. Cassia excelsa, C. spectabilis) is an endemic tree of South America and Africa, very common in Brazil, where it is known as "canafistula-de-besouro" and "cassia-do-nordeste". In folk medicine, this plant is indicated for the treatment of constipation, insomnia, anxiety, epilepsy, malaria, dysentery and headache. Phytopharmacological studies have also confirmed anticonvulsive, sedative, anti-malarial, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of many parts of S. spectabilis. In this communication, we present a comparative study of the leishmanicidal activity of the crude ethanolic extract, its fractions and also the two major alkaloidal metabolites (-)-cassine/(-)-spectaline, trying to establish a relationship between the presence of piperidine alkaloidal constituents and leishmanicidal activity. The growth inhibitory effect of promastigote forms of Leishmania major was determined for the crude extract, fractions of the flowers of S. spectabilis and a mixture of (-)-cassine/(-)-spectaline in comparison to pentamidine used as standard drug. The cytotoxic effects were assessed on macrophage strain J774 by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Fractions dichloromethane (FL-DCM) and n-butanol (FL-Bu) and a mixture of (-)-cassine/(-)-spectaline (∼7:3) exhibited significant activity against the parasite Leishmania major (IC50 values of 0.6±0.1 μg/ml, 1.6±0.9 μg/ml and 24.9±1.4 μg/ml, respectively), without toxic effects on murine macrophages. Due to the promising results elicited, further studies in vivo need to be performed to confirm the therapeutic potential of Senna spectabilis.

  12. Studies on the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and fractions of Alchornea floribunda leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Festus BC.Okoye; Patience O.Osadebe

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Alchornea floribunda leaves are widely used in ethnomedicinal management of inflammatory disor-ders.The present work is aimed at investigating this folkloric use.Methods:The anti-inflammatory effect of the leaf extracts and fractions was investigated in experimental animal models of acute and chronic inflamma-tion.The possible mechanisms by which the two most active fractions,hexane (HE)and ethyl acetate (EF) exert their effects were also investigated.Results:The crude extract (200 mg/kg)showed moderate inhibition of egg albumen-induced edema in rats (% edema inhibition =54.69)at 4 h.HE and EF showed very high activity (% edema inhibition of 81.25 and 67.19 respectively at 200 mg/kg)at 4h as compared to the con-trol.Both fractions ameliorated arthritis induced by formaldehyde in rats.At 400 mg/kg,HE evoked a signifi-cant irritation of gastric mucosa in rats.EF (200 mg/kg,p.o.)significantly inhibited leucocytes (% inhibi-tion =36.79)migration in vivo,but could not stabilize heat and hypotonicity-induced lysis of human erythro-cyte at 200 and 400 μg/mL in vitro.Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of terpenoids and ster-oids in HE and flavonoids,tannins and saponins in EF.Conclusion:These results suggest that the leaves of Alchornea floribunda possess anti-inflammatory activity in acute and chronic inflammation.The activity may de-rive from a combination of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and leucocytes migration.The phytochemical constituents detected in HE and EF may account for the anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. Application of GC–MS chromatography for the analysis of the oil fractions extracted by supercritical CO2 at high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Spirov, Pavel; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    GC–MS chromatographic analysis has been applied for the investigation of the fractions of oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide at a temperature of 60 °C and at pressure values ranging from 22 to 56 MPa. The observations revealed, that the whole extraction process is clearly reflected...... of the chromatographic method for the quantitative evaluation of oil recovery. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

  14. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Investigations of the Extracts and Fractions from the Stem Bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and Effect on Ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus Induced by Hydroalcoholic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Santiago Dimech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE, hydroalcoholic (HE, and aqueous fraction (AF showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity.

  15. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill. Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Akinpelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL–12.5 mg/mL and 1.25–10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract’s butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  16. Arsenic fractionation in agricultural soil using an automated three-step sequential extraction method coupled to hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Castor, J M; Portugal, L; Ferrer, L; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Cerdà, V; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2015-05-18

    A fully automated modified three-step BCR flow-through sequential extraction method was developed for the fractionation of the arsenic (As) content from agricultural soil based on a multi-syringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) system coupled to hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Critical parameters that affect the performance of the automated system were optimized by exploiting a multivariate approach using a Doehlert design. The validation of the flow-based modified-BCR method was carried out by comparison with the conventional BCR method. Thus, the total As content was determined in the following three fractions: fraction 1 (F1), the acid-soluble or interchangeable fraction; fraction 2 (F2), the reducible fraction; and fraction 3 (F3), the oxidizable fraction. The limits of detection (LOD) were 4.0, 3.4, and 23.6 μg L(-1) for F1, F2, and F3, respectively. A wide working concentration range was obtained for the analysis of each fraction, i.e., 0.013-0.800, 0.011-0.900 and 0.079-1.400 mg L(-1) for F1, F2, and F3, respectively. The precision of the automated MSFIA-HG-AFS system, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD), was evaluated for a 200 μg L(-1) As standard solution, and RSD values between 5 and 8% were achieved for the three BCR fractions. The new modified three-step BCR flow-based sequential extraction method was satisfactorily applied for arsenic fractionation in real agricultural soil samples from an arsenic-contaminated mining zone to evaluate its extractability. The frequency of analysis of the proposed method was eight times higher than that of the conventional BCR method (6 vs 48 h), and the kinetics of lixiviation were established for each fraction.

  17. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae adults: I. Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Flores

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is an important virus vector on a number of crops worldwide. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period. Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water:methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether of mother-of-cocoa (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages, three fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (methanol, 0.5% (water:methanol and 1.5% (diethyl ether. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2099-2113. Epub 2008 December 12.Mundialmente, Bemisia tabaci es un importante vector de virus en numerosos cultivos. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría ser el empleo de sustancias repelentes o fagodisuasivas en las etapas tempranas del desarrollo de las plantas (período crítico. Así, tanto el extracto crudo como cuatro fracciones (agua, agua:metanol, metanol y éter dietílico del madero negro (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta revelaron que el extracto crudo y algunas fracciones mostraron dicha actividad. En los primeros experimentos (en jaulas de manga, tres fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (metanol, 0.5% (agua:metanol y

  18. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir (Leguminosae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluze P Cruz

    Full Text Available The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret (Leguminosae family, popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test; and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test. Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8, with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg, in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg, and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg. EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg, reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg, respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B and anti-inflammation (H, D, E. Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg. Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies

  19. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mariluze P; Andrade, Cassya M F; Silva, Kelle O; de Souza, Erika P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M; David, Juceni P; David, Jorge M; Napimoga, Marcelo H; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T

    2016-01-01

    The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminosae family), popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil) for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT) and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B) of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin) and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test); and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test). Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8), with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg), in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg), and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg). EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg), reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg), respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B) and anti-inflammation (H, D, E). Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg). Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies

  20. Antioxidant activity of membrane-fractionated coffee extracts in dependence of the storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, D.; Peshev, D.; Peev, G.; Peeva, L.

    2016-10-01

    Present paper aims at one of the important aspects of the application of products with antioxidant activity: namely the preservation and change of their properties during the storage in different conditions, as well as their reliable characterisation. The tests of antioxidant properties were conducted with membrane-separated coffee extracts, isolated using a “Microdyn Nadir NP030P” type of commercial nanofiltration membrane (30% retention of NaCl; MWCO∼400). Prepared coffee permeates and retentates were stored 0÷10 days in cool/warm conditions, with/without air access and at different illumination conditions. The kinetics of content changes was evaluated according to Folin-Ciocalteu method of total phenolic/reducing content determination.

  1. EVALUATION OF THE CHELATING EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM AND ITS FRACTIONS ON WISTAR RATS POISONED WITH LEAD ACETATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-López, Miguel Ángel; Mora-Tovar, Gabriela; Ceniceros-Méndez, Iromi Marlen; García-Lujan, Concepción; Puente-Valenzuela, Cristo Omar; Vega-Menchaca, María Del Carmen; Serrano-Gallardo, Luis Benjamín; Garza, Rubén García; Morán-Martínez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The rate of lead poisoning has decreased in recent years due to increased health control in industries that use this metal. However, it is still a public health problem worldwide. The use of various plants with chelating properties has been a topic of research today. In traditional medicine, it is said that Coriandrum sativum has chelating properties, but there is no scientific evidence to support this fact. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the chelating effect of methanol extract of coriander and its fractions on Wistar rats intoxicated with lead. In this research, male Wistar rats were poisoned with 50 mg/kg of lead acetate and treated with 50 mg/kg of methanol extract and its fractions. The extract and its fractions were administered to four treatment groups. Positive and negative controls were established. Hemoglobin, hematocrit and lead concentrations were analyzed; liver was evaluated histologically in control and treatment groups. The methanol extract of coriander presented a LD50 >1000 mg/dL. The group administered with the methanol extract showed significant difference in the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to the negative control group. Lead concentration in treatment groups showed a decrease compared to the positive control. Histological evaluation of tissue showed less damage in groups administered with methanolic extract and its fractions compared to the positive control which presented structural alterations. Coriander extracts protect liver and lower lead concentration in rats intoxicated with lead in contrast to the positive control group.

  2. Measurement of the Partial Branching Fraction for Inclusive Charmless Semileptonic B Decays and Extraction of |Vub|

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.

    2005-07-06

    Charmless semileptonic decays, {bar B} {yields} X{sub u}{ell}{bar {nu}}, are studied in a sample of 232 million B{bar B} decays recorded with the BABAR detector, in events where the decay of the second B meson is fully reconstructed. Inclusive charmless decays are selected in kinematic regions where the dominant background from semileptonic B decays to charm is reduced by requirements on the hadronic mass M{sub X} and the momentum transfer q{sup 2}. The partial branching fraction for {bar B} {yields} X{sub u}{ell}{bar {nu}} decays for M{sub X} < 1.7 GeV/c{sup 2} and q{sup 2} > 8 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} is measured to be {Delta}{Beta}({bar b} {yields} X{sub u}{ell}{bar {nu}}) = (0.87 {+-} 0.09{sub stat} {+-} 0.09{sub sys} {+-} 0.01{sub th}) x 10{sup -3}. The CKM matrix element|V{sub ub}| is determined by using theoretical calculations of phase space acceptances. Theoretical uncertainties in this extrapolation are reduced by using the inclusive b {yields} s{gamma} photon spectrum and moments of the b {yields} c{ell}{bar {nu}} lepton energy and hadronic invariant mass.

  3. CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND CARBON TETRACHLORIDE FRACTIONS OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES AND STEMS OF BACCAUREA RAMIFLORA (LOUR..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Sarker Apu et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride fractions of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora (Lour.. Ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora were subjected to solvent-solvent partitioning using n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride to obtain n-hexane leaves fraction, chloroform leaves fraction, n-hexane stems fraction, chloroform stems fraction and carbon tetrachloride stems fraction. Each fraction was assayed for their cytotoxic effect using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among the fractions, the n-hexane fractions of leaves and stems showed significant cytotoxic effects having LC50 values of 7.79 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 6.48-9.37 and 5.78 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 4.76-6.99 respectively as compared to vincristine sulfate (LC50= 2.81 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 1.97-4.01 which was used as positive control. The results support the traditional uses of B. ramiflora for various medicinal purposes and thus demand the isolation and identification of active principles and thorough bioassay.

  4. Protective effects of fractions from Artemisia biennis hydro-ethanolic extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mojarrab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study was designed to indicate whether different fractions from Artemisia biennis hydroethanolic extract could provide cytoprotection against oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by doxorubicin (DOX in rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12. Material and Methods:Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Also, activation of caspase-3 and superoxide dismutase were evaluated by spectrophotometry. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS and measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP were performed by flowcytometry. Results:  Treatment of PC12 cells with DOX reduced viability dose dependently. For evaluation of the effect of fractions (A-G on DOX-induced cytotoxicity, PC12 cells were pretreated for 24 hr with the A. biennis fractions and then cells were treated with DOX.  The fractions C and D increased PC12 cells viability significantly compared to DOX treated cells.  Moreover, pretreatment with fractions C and D for 24 hr attenuated DOX-mediated apoptosis and the anti-apoptotic action of A. biennis fractions was partially dependent on inhibition of caspase 3 activity and also increasing the  mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. Selected A. biennis fractions also suppressed the generation of ROS and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Conclusion: Taken together our observation indicated that subtoxic concentration of aforementioned fractions of A. biennis hydroetanolic extract has protective effect against apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 cell. The results highlighted that fractions C and D may exert cytoprotective effects through their antioxidant actions.

  5. Bioactivity of mango flesh and peel extracts on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ [PPARγ] activation and MCF-7 cell proliferation: fraction and fruit variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ashley S; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Shaw, P Nicholas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Mangos are a source of bioactive compounds with potential health promoting activity. Biological activities associated with mango fractions were assessed in cell-based assays to develop effective extraction and fractionation methodologies and to define sources of variability. Two techniques were developed for extraction and fractionation of mango fruit peel and flesh. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to assess compositional differences between mango fractions in flesh extracts. Many of the extracts were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. All fractions showed bioactivity in PPAR activation assays, but quantitative responses showed marked fruit-to-fruit variability, highlighting the need to bulk fruit prior to extraction for activity-guided fractionation of bioactive components. This study also suggests that combinations of diverse molecular components may be responsible for cell-level bioactivities from mango fractions, and that purification and activity profiling of individual components may be difficult to relate to whole fruit effects. Practical Application: Although the health benefits of fruits are strongly indicated from studies of diet and disease, it is not known what role individual fruit types can play, particularly for tropical fruits. This study shows that there is a diversity of potentially beneficial bioactivities within the flesh and peel of mango fruit, although fruit-to-fruit variation can be large. The results add to the evidence that the food approach of eating all components of fruits is likely to be more beneficial to health than consuming refined extracts, as the purification process would inevitably remove components with beneficial bioactivities.

  6. Neutralization of pharmacological and toxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and isolated myotoxins by Serjania erecta methanolic extract and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the snakebites recorded in Brazil are caused by the Bothrops genus. Given that the local tissue damage caused by this genus cannot be treated by antivenom therapy, numerous studies are focusing on supplementary alternatives, such as the use of medicinal plants. Serjania erecta has already demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and healing properties. In the current study, the aerial parts of S. erecta were extracted with methanol, then submitted to chromatographic fractionation on a Sephadex LH20 column and eluted with methanol, which resulted in four main fractions. The crude extract and fractions neutralized the toxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and isolated myotoxins (BthTX-I and II. Results showed that phospholipase A2, fibrinogenolytic, myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities were inhibited by the extract. Moreover, the myotoxic and edematous activities induced by BthTX-I, and phospholipase A2 activity induced by BthTX-II, were inhibited by the extract of S. erecta and its fraction. The clotting time on bovine plasma was significantly prolonged by the inhibitory action of fractions SF3 and SF4. This extract is a promising source of natural inhibitors, such as flavonoids and tannins, which act by forming complexes with metal ions and proteins, inhibiting the action of serineproteases, metalloproteases and phospholipases A2.

  7. Microcystin-LR Detected in a Low Molecular Weight Fraction from a Crude Extract of Zoanthus sociatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Pérez, Dany; Alexei Rodríguez, Armando; Osorio, Hugo; Azevedo, Joana; Castañeda, Olga; Vasconcelos, Vítor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2017-01-01

    Cnidarian constitutes a great source of bioactive compounds. However, research involving peptides from organisms belonging to the order Zoanthidea has received very little attention, contrasting to the numerous studies of the order Actiniaria, from which hundreds of toxic peptides and proteins have been reported. In this work, we performed a mass spectrometry analysis of a low molecular weight (LMW) fraction previously reported as lethal to mice. The low molecular weight (LMW) fraction was obtained by gel filtration of a Zoanthus sociatus (order Zoanthidea) crude extract with a Sephadex G-50, and then analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) in positive ion reflector mode from m/z 700 to m/z 4000. Afterwards, some of the most intense and representative MS ions were fragmented by MS/MS with no significant results obtained by Protein Pilot protein identification software and the Mascot algorithm search. However, microcystin masses were detected by mass-matching against libraries of non-ribosomal peptide database (NORINE). Subsequent reversed-phase C18 HPLC (in isocratic elution mode) and mass spectrometry analyses corroborated the presence of the cyanotoxin Microcystin-LR (MC-LR). To the best of our knowledge, this finding constitutes the first report of MC-LR in Z. sociatus, and one of the few evidences of such cyanotoxin in cnidarians. PMID:28257074

  8. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions.Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis.Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability and chloroform (03.67% hatchability fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with Nhexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm, chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively.Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  9. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lame, Younoussa; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Elijah, Ajaegbu Eze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions. Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis. Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with N-hexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively. Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control. PMID:26623434

  10. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwa Baek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 μg/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent.

  11. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Nam, In-Jeong; Kwak, Hyeong Seob; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-04-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA) on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 μg/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent.

  12. Field-flow fractionation: An efficient approach for matrix removal of soil extract for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsawong, Supharart; Waiyawat, Weerawan; Shiowatana, Juwadee; Siripinyanond, Atitaya

    2011-06-01

    An on-line coupling between a continuous-flow sequential extraction (CFSE) unit and flow field-flow fractionation with cross flow matrix removal (FlFFF/CFM) with ICP-OES detection was developed for determination of metal leachability from soil. The use of high concentration of Mg(NO 3) 2 in exchangeable phase can cause undesirable matrix effects by shifting ionization equilibrium in the plasma, etc., resulting in a clear need for matrix removal. Therefore, the capability of FlFFF/CFM to remove Mg matrix ion from soil extract was evaluated. Poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) having molecular weight of 25,000 Da was added to form complexes with analyte elements (Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) but not the matrix element (Mg). The free Mg matrix ions were then removed by filtering off through the ultrafiltration membrane, having a 1000-Da molecular weight cut-off, inside the FlFFF channel. With the use of FlFFF/CFM, matrix removal efficiency was approximately 83.5%, which was equivalent to approximately 6-fold dilution of the matrix ion. The proposed hyphenated system of CFSE and FlFFF/CFM with ICP-OES detection was examined for its reliability by checking with SRM 2710 (a highly contaminated soil from Montana). The metal contents determined by the proposed method were not significantly different (at 95% confidence) from the certified values.

  13. Large volume TENAX {sup registered} extraction of the bioaccessible fraction of sediment-associated organic compounds for a subsequent effect-directed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, K.; Brack, W. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre or Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Effect-Directed Analysis

    2007-06-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is a powerful tool for the identification of key toxicants in complex environmental samples. In most cases, EDA is based on total extraction of organic contaminants leading to an erroneous prioritization with regard to hazard and risk. Bioaccessibility-directed extraction aims to discriminate between contaminants that take part in partitioning between sediment and biota in a relevant time frame and those that are enclosed in structures, that do not allow rapid desorption. Standard protocols of targeted extraction of rapidly desorbing, and thus bioaccessible fraction using TENAX {sup registered} are based only on small amounts of sediment. In order to get sufficient amounts of extracts for subsequent biotesting, fractionation, and structure elucidation a large volume extraction technique needs to be developed applying one selected extraction time and excluding toxic procedural blanks. Materials and Methods: Desorption behaviour of sediment contaminants was determined by a consecutive solid-solid extraction of sediment using TENAX {sup registered} fitting a tri-compartment model on experimental data. Time needed to remove the rapidly desorbing fraction trap was calculated to select a fixed extraction time for single extraction procedures. Up-scaling by about a factor of 100 provided a large volume extraction technique for EDA. Reproducibility and comparability to small volume approach were proved. Blanks of respective TENAX {sup registered} mass were investigated using Scenedesmus vacuolatus and Artemia salina as test organisms. Results: Desorption kinetics showed that 12 to 30 % of sediment associated pollutants are available for rapid desorption. t{sub r}ap is compound dependent and covers a range of 2 to 18 h. On that basis a fixed extraction time of 24 h was selected. Validation of large volume approach was done by the means of comparison to small method and reproducibility. The large volume showed a good

  14. Arsenic fractionation in agricultural soil using an automated three-step sequential extraction method coupled to hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Castor, J.M. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 Nuevo León (Mexico); Group of Analytical Chemistry, Automation and Environment, University of Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Portugal, L.; Ferrer, L. [Group of Analytical Chemistry, Automation and Environment, University of Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Guzmán-Mar, J.L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 Nuevo León (Mexico); Cerdà, V. [Group of Analytical Chemistry, Automation and Environment, University of Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hinojosa-Reyes, L., E-mail: laura.hinojosary@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 Nuevo León (Mexico)

    2015-05-18

    Highlights: • A fully automated flow-based modified-BCR extraction method was developed to evaluate the extractable As of soil. • The MSFIA–HG-AFS system included an UV photo-oxidation step for organic species degradation. • The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were found satisfactory. • The time analysis can be reduced up to eight times by using the proposed flow-based BCR method. • The labile As (F1 + F2) was <50% of total As in soil samples from As-contaminated-mining zones. - Abstract: A fully automated modified three-step BCR flow-through sequential extraction method was developed for the fractionation of the arsenic (As) content from agricultural soil based on a multi-syringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) system coupled to hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Critical parameters that affect the performance of the automated system were optimized by exploiting a multivariate approach using a Doehlert design. The validation of the flow-based modified-BCR method was carried out by comparison with the conventional BCR method. Thus, the total As content was determined in the following three fractions: fraction 1 (F1), the acid-soluble or interchangeable fraction; fraction 2 (F2), the reducible fraction; and fraction 3 (F3), the oxidizable fraction. The limits of detection (LOD) were 4.0, 3.4, and 23.6 μg L{sup −1} for F1, F2, and F3, respectively. A wide working concentration range was obtained for the analysis of each fraction, i.e., 0.013–0.800, 0.011–0.900 and 0.079–1.400 mg L{sup −1} for F1, F2, and F3, respectively. The precision of the automated MSFIA–HG-AFS system, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD), was evaluated for a 200 μg L{sup −1} As standard solution, and RSD values between 5 and 8% were achieved for the three BCR fractions. The new modified three-step BCR flow-based sequential extraction method was satisfactorily applied for arsenic fractionation in real agricultural

  15. Methanolic soluble fractions of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) extract inhibit neuraminidase activity in Newcastle disease virus (LaSota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaki, Bala U; Sandabe, Umar K; Ogbe, Adamu O; Abdulrahman, Fanna I; El-Yuguda, Abdul-Dahiru

    2014-01-01

    The antineuraminidase activity of different organic soluble fractions of Ganoderma lucidum extract was investigated using inhibition of hemagglutination and elution of chicken erythrocytes by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Fractions of methanol, ethylacetate, and normal butanol (n-butanol) of the G. lucidum were tested against neuraminidase producing NDV as antigen. Different dilutions of the organic soluble fractions inhibited elution of 1% red blood cells by neuraminidase of NDV While the methanolic and n-butanol extracts inhibited neuraminidase activity even at a dilution of 1:16 and that of ethylacetate fraction inhibited even at 1:32 respectively. This finding indicates that G. lucidum has some antineuraminidase activity against NDV and may be exploited in the management of NDV infection.

  16. THE EFFECTIVENES OF ETANOL EXTRACT, PARTITION N-HEKSANA, AND CROMATHOGRAPHY FRACTION OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L. TO LOWER BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Kusuma Clara Dewinda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the ethanol extract, partition n-hexane, and chromatography fractions Momordica charantia L. in lowering blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic male rats.  This study used 25 male rats were divided into five treatment groups P0 (negative control, P1 (positive control, P2 (ethanol extract, P3 (partition n-hexane, and P4 (chromatographic fraction the variable observed glucose levels blood for 21 days. Blood glucose levels were analyzed on days -1, 0, 4, 11, 18. The bill, which is used in the form of a completely randomized design (CRD. The data obtained and analyzed by using Split in Time. The results showed of giving chromatographic fractions bitter melon 50 mg / kg body weight can reduce blood glucose levels in hyperglycemic rats better than the ethanol extract 200 mg / kg body weight and partition n-hexane 50 mg / kg body weight.

  17. Anticancer activity of chloroform extract and sub-fractions of nepeta deflersiana on human breast and lung cancer cells: an in vitro cytotoxicity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai M Al-Oqail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. The plant-derived natural products have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. Nepeta deflersiana (ND is used in the folk medicine as antiseptic, carminative, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and for treating rheumatic disorders. However, the anticancer activity of ND chloroform extract has not been explored so far. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the anticancer activities of chloroform Nepeta deflersiana extract and various sub-fractions (ND-1-ND-15 of ND against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and human lung cancer cells (A-549. Materials and Methods: The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays, and cellular morphological alterations using phase contrast light microscope were studied. Cells were exposed with 10-1000 mg/ml of sub-fractions of ND for 24 h. Results: Results showed that selected sub-fractions of the chloroform extract significantly reduced the cell viability of MCF-7 and A-549 cells, and altered the cellular morphology in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the sub-fractions, ND-10 fraction showed relatively higher cytotoxicity compared to other fractions whereas, ND-1 did not cause any cytotoxicity even at higher concentrations. The A-549 cells were found to be more sensitive to growth inhibition by all the extracts as compared to the MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: The present study provides preliminary screening of anticancer activities of chloroform extract and sub-fractions of ND, which can be further used for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent.

  18. Creams Formulated with Ocimum gratissimum L. and Lantana camara L. Crude Extracts and Fractions as Mosquito Repellents Against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Keziah, Ezeike Amarachi; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Younoussa, Lame; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most deadly vectors of parasites that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and filariasis. In view of the recent increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, the objective of this study was to determine the repellent activity of creams formulated with methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane fraction (HF), and ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of Ocimum gratissimum and Lantana camara leaves in single and combined a...

  19. Anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract of Bryonia laciniosa seeds and its saponins rich fraction in neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip B Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. Aim: This study evaluated the anti-diabetic action of the ethanol extract of B. laciniosa seeds and saponin fraction of it through its effect on hyperglycemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in neonatally streptozotocin (n-STZ-induced diabetic rats (n-STZ diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o., saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o. and standard drug glibenclamide (3 mg/kg; p.o. were administered to diabetic rats when the rats were 6 weeks old and continued for 10 consecutive weeks. Effects of ethanol extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Results: The treatment with ethanol extract and saponin fraction for 10 weeks decrease in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, serum urea, serum creatinine and diminished activities of aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. The anti-hyperglycemic nature of B. laciniosa is probably brought about by the extra- the pancreatic mechanism as evidenced from unchanged levels of plasma insulin. B. laciniosa modulated effect of diabetes on the liver malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activity. Administration of ethanol extract and saponin fraction to diabetic rats showed a significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status. Significant increase in SOD, CAT, and levels of GSH was observed in treated n-STZ diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of n-STZ diabetic rats.

  20. Comparison of the extraction efficiencies of different leaching agents for reliable assessment of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In present study, an in-vitro physiologically based extraction test has been applied for extraction of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter (APM samples collected from different urban sites in Austria and Pakistan using the leaching agents H2O, sodium chloride, ammonium acetate, ammonium citrate, synthetic gastric juice and artificial lung fluids. Obtained extracts were then measured using an ETV-ICP-OES procedure which allowed highly sensitive measurement of dissolved analytes even in the presence of leaching agents. Derived results indicated that the investigated leaching agents extract different amounts of trace metals. In general, leaching agents with organic nature yielded comparatively greater extractable and thus bio-accessible trace metal fractions to that of simple solvents like H2O or aqueous NaCl solution. With water, only 26.3±4.0% of Cd was found to be bio-accessible whereas 88.4±24.8 of Cd was obtained as bio-accessible fraction with the use of synthetic gastric juice. The concentrations of bio-accessible metal fractions varied from 0.4 ng m−3 (Cd to 714 ng m−3 (Zn and 0.3 ng m−3 (Cd to 190 ng m−3 (Zn for PM10 samples collected from Karachi (Pakistan and Graz (Austria respectively.

  1. Chemical characterization of a polar portion in the neutral fraction derived from airborne particulate extracts responsible for the embryotoxicity in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected with a high-volume air sampler between June 1984 and May 1985 on the roof top of the authors institute. The tar material extracted was separated into six fractions by liquid-liquid partition and silica gel column chromatography. These fractions were then tested for their embryotoxicities by a chicken embryo assay. A moderately polar fraction per weight and a fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) had the greatest toxicity for chicken embryos. When the polar fraction was purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography, the purified fraction was 3.7 times more toxic than the original polar fraction. To determine the responsible components for the toxicity, the purified fraction as well as the original fraction was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The characterized components were classified into oxygenated PAHs (containing ketones, quinones, and aldehydes), nitrogen-containing PAHS, diphenyl-substituted aliphatic ketones (or diketones), and esters of aliphatic acids.

  2. Research on PTSD prevalence in OEF/OIF Veterans: expanding investigation of demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette A. Averill

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A series of recent articles has reported on well-designed studies examining base rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD screenings within the Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan conflict/Operation Iraqi Freedom (Iraq conflict (OEF/OIF military population. Although these studies have a number of strengths, this line of research points out several key areas in need of further examination. Objective: Many OEF/OIF Veterans do not use available Veterans Affairs (VA services, especially mental health care. This highlights the need to understand the differences between those who use and do not use the VA, especially as research with pre-OEF/OIF Veterans suggests that these two groups differ in significant ways. The high rates of PTSD-related concerns in non-VA users also points to a need to understand whether—and where—Veterans are seeking care outside the VA and the accessibility of evidence-based, trauma-focused treatments in the community and private sectors. Careful examination of relationship status is also paramount as little research has examined relationship status or other relationship context issues. Social support, especially from a spouse, can buffer the development of PTSD; however, relationship discord has the potential to greatly exacerbate PTSD symptomatology. Furthermore, given the additional risk factors for sexual minority Veterans to be exposed to trauma, the 2011 repeal of the US Military “Don't Ask, Don't Tell” policy, and the emergence of the VA as likely the largest health care provider for sexual minority Veterans, it will be critically important to study the trauma and mental health experiences of this group. Conclusions: Studies that examine prevalence rates of PTSD in the returning cohort contribute significantly to our understanding of the US OEF/OIF military population. Further study of PTSD in relation to demographic variables such as VA and non-VA use, relationship status, and sexual

  3. Using Motivational Enhancement among OIF / OEF Veterans Returning to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-25

    Public mpM!ng burden for lhfs colleclion of Information is esllmated 10 average 1 l1otir per response, Including tho time for reviewing lnslrucllons...Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for lnlormetion Opera11ons and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Su 1e...34Using Motivational Enhancement among OI F I OEF Veterans Returning to the Comm u n ity" 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W8lXWH-11-1-0726 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  4. Biochemical methane potential of fractions of organic matter extracted from a municipal solid waste leachate: Impact of their hydrophobic character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccot, Camille; Pallier, Virginie; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève

    2016-12-05

    Many data on anaerobic digestion (AD) and co-digestion of municipal solid waste leachate (MSWL) are already available in literature. They mainly deal with its performances to decrease the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of MSWL and no information is given on the impact of the specific characteristics of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in leachate on these performances. DOM in leachate evolves towards more aromatic and hydrophobic compounds during landfilling with increasing specific ultra-violet absorbance index (SUVA) and hydrophobic character. However, according to the humification stages, this DOM would not present the same aptitude for AD. This research thus focused on (i) optimizing a biochemical methane potential (BMP) test applied to MSWL by using the Taguchi method and (ii) evaluating the impact of the hydrophobic character of the DOM in leachate on the BMP of MSWL to finally define the humification degree more suitable for AD. Hydrophobic-like (HPO(∗)) and transphilic-like (TPH(∗)) compounds extracted from leachate by a fractionation protocol were tested because of their high content in MSWL during acetogenesis and methanogenesis steps. After 275days of AD, the content in hydrophobic compounds and the SUVA indexes increased in the digestates. Moreover, even if the biogas and methane productions were not significantly different during the whole tests (4072±350mLgDOC(-1) and 2370±95mLgDOC(-1) respectively), the volume of biogas produced directly correlated with the TPH(∗) fraction content in the initial digestates. On the contrary, the methane percentage in biogas was anti-correlated with the hydrophilic-like compounds content. The hydrophobic-like molecules seem thus not to be directly involved in the methanogenic step, however they promote the increase of the methane percent in the biogas.

  5. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lucarini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP. It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05, respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05 and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05, respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05, respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1.

  6. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, R.; Tozatti, M.G.; Silva, M.L.A.; Gimenez, V.M.M.; Pauletti, P.M.; Groppo, M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Cunha, W.R.; Martins, C.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  7. Isolation, fractionation and identification of chemical constituents from the leaves crude extracts of Mentha piperita L grown in Sultanate of Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Seham Salim Al-Hdhrami; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and identify the chemical compositions of different organic plants crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita) grown in Sultanate of Oman by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods: The powder sample was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of M. piperita and its derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were prepared.Results:MS showed that majority of these compounds are bioactive.Conclusions:According to the results of the present study, the plant crude extracts could be Qualitative analyses of various organic plant crude extracts of M. piperita by using GC-used as medicine for the treatment of different diseases. The analysis and identification of the chemical compounds in the plant crude extracts by using GC-MS was the first time.

  8. In vivo wound healing activity and phytochemical screening of the crude extract and various fractions of Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich (Crassulaceae) leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Awol; Sidamo, Temesgen; Asres, Kaleab; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2013-01-30

    The leaves of Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich (Crassulaceae) are used in Ethiopian folk medicine for treatment of evil eye, fractured surface for bone setting and several skin disorders including for the treatment of sores, boils, and malignant wounds. In order to scientifically prove the claimed utilization of the plant, the effects of the extracts and the fractions were investigated using in vivo excision, incision and dead space wound models. Mice were used for wound healing study, while rats and rabbit were used for skin irritation test. For studying healing activity 80% methanolic extract and the fractions were formulated in strength of 5% and 10%, either as ointment (hydroalcoholic extract, aqueous and methanol fractions) or gel (chloroform fraction). Oral administration of the crude extract was used for dead space model. Negative controls were treated either with simple ointment or sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose xerogel, while positive controls with nitrofurazone (0.2 w/v) skin ointment. Negative controls for dead space model were treated with 1% carboxy methyl cellulose. Parameters, including rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelializtion, hydroxyproline contents and skin breaking strength were evaluated. Significant wound healing activity was observed with ointment formulated from the crude extract at both 5% and 10% concentration (p<0.01) compared to controls in both excision and incision models. In dead space model, 600 mg/kg (p<0.01) but not 300 mg/kg significantly increased hydroxyproline content. Fractions showed variable effect, with the chloroform fraction lacking any significant effect. Both 5% and 10% formulations of the aqueous and methanolic fractions significantly increased wound contraction, decreased epithelializtion time and increased hydroxyproline content in excision wound model (p<0.05) as compared to controls. These fractions were also endowed with higher skin breaking strength in incision wound model (p<0.01). The present

  9. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of vanadium in extracts of soil and sewage sludge certified reference materials after fractionation by means of the Communities Bureau of Reference modified sequential extraction procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žemberyová, M.; Jankovič, R.; Hagarová, I.; Kuss, H.-M.

    2007-05-01

    A modified three-step sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Commission of European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) was applied to certified reference materials of three different soil groups (rendzina, luvisol, cambisol) and sewage sludge of different composition originating from a municipal water treatment plant in order to assess potential mobility and the distribution of vanadium in the resulting fractions. Analysis of the extracts was carried out by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction using transversely heated graphite atomizers. Extracts showed significant matrix interferences which were overcome by the standard addition technique. The original soil and sludge certified reference materials (CRMs) and the extraction residue from the sequential extraction were decomposed by a mixture of HNO 3-HClO 4-HF in an open system. The content of V determined after decomposition of the samples was in very good agreement with the certified total values. The accuracy of the sequential extraction procedure was checked by comparing the sum of the vanadium contents in the three fractions and in the extraction residue with the certified total content of V. The amounts of vanadium leached were in good correlation with the certified total contents of V in the CRMs of soils and sewage sludge. In the soils examined, vanadium was present almost entirely in the mineral lattice, while in the sewage sludge samples 9-14% was found in the oxidizable and almost 25% in the reducible fractions. The recovery ranged from 93-106% and the precision (RSD) was below 10%.

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction of apple skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Mendoza-Wilson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The apple is a food rich in diverse classes of polyphenols (PP, among which the proanthocyanidins (PCs, which are primarily concentrated in the skin, are one of the most abundant. These compounds are of considerable interest for their possible positive health effects because of their antioxidant properties. However, depending on the classes of PP present (chemical composition and their relative concentrations in the apple skin, their antioxidant effects vary and some of their components can even generate prooxidant effects. This work determined the chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract (PPE and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF of apple skin, along with the contribution of their most abundant individual compounds, based on their copper chelating ability, ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals and TEAC (Trolox-Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity assay. For this purpose, chromatographic and colorimetric methods were used. The majority compounds identified in PPE were flavan-3-ols (44.58%, flavonols (42.89% and dihydrochalcones (11.60%. In PRF, we detected monomers and oligomers from dimers to heptamers, which were composed of 97% (−-epicatechin and 3% (+-catechin. The antioxidant potential was notably higher in PRF than in PPE. The (−-epicatechin monomer and the procyanidin B2 dimer showed more ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals compared to other compounds of the apple skin, whereas phloridzin dihydrochalcone produced prooxidant effects.

  11. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract from Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Its Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rodrigo; Nascimento, Marcus Vinícius Mariano; de Carvalho, Adryano Augustto Valladão; Valadares, Marize Campos; de Paula, José Realino; Costa, Elson Alves; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Synadenium umbellatum Pax., popularly known in Brazil as “cola-nota,” “avelós,” “cancerola,” and “milagrosa”, is a plant species used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and several diseases. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract from Synadenium umbellatum Pax. leaves (EES) and its hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), and methanol/water (MF) fractions using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, formalin-induced paw licking test, tail flick test, croton oil-induced ear edema test, and carrageenan-induced peritonitis test. EES and MF reduced the number of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes, while CF and HF did not. EES effect on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing was reversed with a pretreatment with naloxone. EES reduced licking time in both phases of the formalin-induced paw licking test, but did not prolong the latency in the tail flick test. These results show that EES presented antinociceptive activity, probably involving the opioid system, anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced ear edema test, and leukocyte migration into the intraperitoneal cavity. MF also presented anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced ear edema test. In conclusion, EES and MF have antinociceptive activity involving the opioid system and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23401717

  12. Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luciano de Sousa; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Silva, Renan Oliveira; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Ponte; Aragão, Karoline Sabóia; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Barbosa, André Luiz dos Reis; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

    2013-02-01

    Many algal species contain relatively high concentrations of polysaccharide substances, a number of which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction (PLS) extracted from the algae Gracilaria caudata. The antiinflammatory activity of PLS was evaluated using several inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, bradykinin, and histamine) to induce paw edema and peritonitis in Swiss mice. Samples of the paw tissue and peritoneal fluid were removed to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or TNF-α and IL-1β levels, respectively. Mechanical hypernociception was induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan into the plantar surface of the paw. Pretreatment of mice by intraperitoneal administration of PLS (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.05) compared to vehicle-treated mice. Similarly, PLS 10 mg/kg effectively inhibited edema induced by dextran and histamine; however, edema induced by bradykinin was unaffected by PLS. PLS 10 mg/kg inhibited total and differential peritoneal leukocyte counts following carrageenan-induced peritonitis. Furthermore, PLS reduced carrageenan-increased MPO activity in paws and reduced cytokine levels in the peritoneal cavity. Finally PLS pretreatment also reduced hypernociception 3-4 h after carrageenan. We conclude that PLS reduces the inflammatory response and hypernociception in mice by reducing neutrophil migration and cytokines concentration.

  13. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Lee, Suyong

    2015-06-01

    Extraction conditions of rutin from buckwheat milling fractions were established and a rutin-enriched material (REM, 31.8g/100g of rutin) was successfully obtained by the ultrasonic-assisted ethanol method (steaming, 16-150 mesh particle size, 70% ethanol, and ultrasonication at 40°C for 30min). When REM was applied to instant fried noodles (1% and 2% by weight of wheat flour) for rutin fortification, the levels of rutin in the noodles were determined to be about 250-500mg/100g which corresponded to the recommended daily dose of rutin. While frying temperatures (150-190°C) and times (1-3min) did not negatively affect the level of rutin in the instant fried noodles, the distinct loss of rutin was observed after cooking. Furthermore, REM did not significantly affect the oil uptake and mechanical property of instant fried noodles. The strong antioxidant activity of rutin in REM contributed to retarding the oxidative deterioration of the noodles during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening of plant extracts and fractions on Aedes aegypti larvae found in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (linnaeus, 1762) (culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Karla R DE Andrade; Motti, Priscilla R; Yano, Mami; Roel, Antonia R; Cardoso, Claudia A L; Matias, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    The constant use of chemical insecticides for Aedes aegypti control has caused resistance in the mosquito populations. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the larvicidal potential of extracts and fractions of plants on A. aegypti larvae. The analysis included sixty one extracts and twenty five fractions of fifty botanical species at concentrations of 0.25; 0.12; 0.06 to 0.03 mg mL-1; 4 replications and one negative control of dechlorinate water and 1% DMSO; and a positive control with rotenone. The toxicity index in descending order with LC50 for the most active of the extracts selected were ethanol extract of Ormosea arborea (0.111 mg mL-1) seeds and ethanol extracts of leaves such as Piper hispidum (0.169 mg mL-1), Solanum variabile (0.188 mg mL-1), O. arborea (0.238 mg mL-1), Turnera umifolia (0.242 mg mL-1) and Piper hispidum (0.567 mg mL-1). For plant fractions, the most active were chloroform (0.192 mg mL-1) and hexane (0.342 mg mL-1) P. aduncum leaves, hexane fraction (0.415 mg mL-1) and methanol extract (0.625 mg mL-1) of Spermacocea latifolia leaves. Regarding the extract of T. umifolia single species, there is no bibliographic report on their degree of efficiency as an insecticide.

  15. Screening of plant extracts and fractions on Aedes aegypti larvae found in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (linnaeus, 1762 (culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARLA R. DE ANDRADE PORTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The constant use of chemical insecticides for Aedes aegypti control has caused resistance in the mosquito populations. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the larvicidal potential of extracts and fractions of plants on A. aegypti larvae. The analysis included sixty one extracts and twenty five fractions of fifty botanical species at concentrations of 0.25; 0.12; 0.06 to 0.03 mg mL-1; 4 replications and one negative control of dechlorinate water and 1% DMSO; and a positive control with rotenone. The toxicity index in descending order with LC50 for the most active of the extracts selected were ethanol extract of Ormosea arborea (0.111 mg mL-1 seeds and ethanol extracts of leaves such as Piper hispidum (0.169 mg mL-1, Solanum variabile (0.188 mg mL-1, O. arborea (0.238 mg mL-1, Turnera umifolia (0.242 mg mL-1 and Piper hispidum (0.567 mg mL-1. For plant fractions, the most active were chloroform (0.192 mg mL-1 and hexane (0.342 mg mL-1 P. aduncum leaves, hexane fraction (0.415 mg mL-1 and methanol extract (0.625 mg mL-1 of Spermacocea latifolia leaves. Regarding the extract of T. umifolia single species, there is no bibliographic report on their degree of efficiency as an insecticide.

  16. Effect of fractionated extracts and isolated pure compounds of Spondias mombin (L. Anacardiaceae) leaves on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoka, Abiodun O; Owolabi, Rotimi A; Bamitale, Samuel K; Akomolafe, Rufus O; Aladesanmi, Joseph A; Ukponmwan, Eghe O

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to elucidate the neurotransmitter systems involved in the neurophysiological properties of ethanolic extract, fractions and pure isolates of Spondias mombin leaves in mice (n = 6) after intraperitoneal (i.p.) route of administration.The crude ethanolic extract of Spondian mombin leaves was fractionated using the partitioning method to obtain the ethylacetate, butanolic and aqueous fractions. Open column chromatographic fractionation of the ethylacetate fraction yielded seven sub-fractions, out of which the pure coumaroyl, quercetin and gallic acid derivatives were obtained after purification on Sephadex LH 20. The ethanolic extract, butanolic fraction, ethylacetate subfractions and pure isolates of the Spondian mombin leaves were tested on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice with standard pharmacological tools using the open field method. The extract and its fractions decreased novelty-induced rearing in a dose-dependent manner. While the Coumaroyl derivative had no effect on novelty-induced rearing, it significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of yohimbine, propranolol and haloperidol on novelty-induced rearing. Quercetin significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone significantly potentiated the quercetin-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing. Gallic acid derivative significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone, atropine and haloperidol pretreatments significantly potentiated gallic acid derivative-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing.The extract and its fractions had biphasic effect on novelty-induced grooming in mice. Coumaroyl derivative significantly increased novelty-induced grooming, while quercetin and gallic acid derivative decreased novelty-induced grooming significantly. The three pure isolates significantly reversed the effects of yohimbine and atropine on the novelty-induced grooming in

  17. Peer Support, Self-efficacy, and Combat-related Trauma Symptoms among Returning OIF/OEF Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann MacEachron

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of PTSD and other combat-related trauma symptoms among more than 2 million veterans returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF in Afghanistan suggests that many will experience psychological challenges in adjusting to civilian life. However, the literature is sparse about this new group of veterans. This study examined the relationships between peer support, self-efficacy, and PTSD symptoms among 216 OIF/OEF veterans who had attended 1 of 17 Vets4Vets peer support weekend retreats. Vets4Vets is a national grassroots program whose mission is to improve the psychological well-being of returning OIF/OEF veterans. Analysis of posttest changes indicate the generalizability of previous research findings, based on other groups of trauma-affected groups, to OIF/OEF veterans. As predicted, increased perceived peer support and self-efficacy reduced PTSD symptoms. From a theoretical perspective, we found that both models of self-efficacy, situation-specific (Bandura, 1997; Benight & Bandura, 2004 and general self-efficacy (Schwarzer & Fuchs, 1996, mediated or explained the relationship between peer support and PTSD symptoms. Implications for social work are discussed.

  18. Determinants of utilization and cost of VHA care by OEF/OIF Veterans screened for mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Jomana; Pogoda, Terri K; Krengel, Maxine; Iverson, Katherine M; Baker, Errol; Hendricks, Ann

    2014-09-01

    To determine the demographic and service characteristics that differentially impact utilization and cost of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraq Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans screened or evaluated for traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined Department of Defense (DoD) and VHA administrative records of OEF/OIF Veterans who were screened or evaluated for TBI. Our study population was OEF/OIF Veterans who separated from DoD in Fiscal Years 2003-2009 and who were screened or evaluated in VHA for TBI between October 2008 and July 2009. We describe the demographics and service characteristics of separated Veterans and those who accessed the VHA. We report the cost of VHA utilization and estimate a probit regression model to assess determinants of VHA utilization and costs by OEF/OIF Veterans screened and evaluated for TBI by VHA. Females and Veterans older than 37 years utilize VHA services more intensely. Across all services, the Reserve Components utilize health services more than the Active Components placing more demand on VHA for services. VHA utilization and costs is impacted by the demographic and service characteristics of Veterans. The variation in Veteran groups incurring higher costs and utilization indicates different usage patterns of VHA services by each group with implications for patient load as the DoD deploys higher numbers of females and the Reserve Components. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Prazosin for Prophylaxis of Chronic Post Traumatic Headaches in OEF/OIF/OND Service Members and Veterans with Mild TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0060 TITLE: Prazosin for Prophylaxis of Chronic Post -Traumatic Headaches in OEF/OIF/OND Service Members and Veterans...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sept 2015 – 29 Sept 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prazosin for Prophylaxis of Chronic Post -Traumatic...5 5. Changes/Problems...................................................................................... 5 6. Products

  20. Bioactive compounds from Carissa opaca roots and xanthine oxidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions in different solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsha Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carissa opaca is known for its many ethnomedicinal uses. There was a need to study its bioactivities and identify its phytochemicals. Objective: The objective was to isolate and identify phytochemicals from roots of C. opaca and to evaluate xanthine oxidase (XO and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of finely divided powder of roots of C. opaca was obtained by cold maceration, followed by its fractionation to obtain hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic, and aqueous fractions. Phytochemicals screening was done by standard protocols. XO and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of the methanolic extract and its fractions were studied. The most active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to the column and thin layer chromatography to isolate its compounds, which were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography comparison. Results: Methanolic extract displayed significant activity against both the enzymes with IC 50 of 156.0 mg/mL and 5.6 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction showed highest activity against both the enzymes with IC 50 of 129 mg/mL and 4.9 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Chloroform fraction had IC 50 of 154.2 mg/mL and 5.5 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Aqueous fraction exhibited significant efficacy against alpha-amylase (IC 50 5.0 mg/mL. Hexane fraction showed good activity against alpha-amylase in a dose-dependent manner but exhibited opposite trend against XO. The compounds isolated from ethyl acetate fraction included limonene, vanillin, lupeol, rutin, quercetin, b-sitosterol, Vitamin E, 2-hydroxyacetophenone, naphthalenone, 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl-6-methylenecyclohexanone, and 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl ester. Conclusions: Moderately polar phytochemicals of C. opaca roots

  1. Traumatic brain injury, posttraumatic stress disorder, and pain diagnoses in OIF/OEF/OND Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David X. Cifu, MD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and pain in Veterans from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OIF/OEF/OND, Veterans who received any inpatient or outpatient care from Veterans Health Administration (VHA facilities from 2009 to 2011 were studied. A subset of Veterans was identified who were diagnosed with TBI, PTSD, and/or pain (head, neck, or back as determined by their International Classification of Diseases-9th Revision-Clinical Modification codes. Between fiscal years 2009 and 2011, 613,391 Veterans accessed VHA services at least once (age: 31.9 +/– 9.6 yr. TBI diagnosis in any 1 year was slightly less than 7%. When data from 3 years were pooled, 9.6% were diagnosed with TBI, 29.3% were diagnosed with PTSD, and 40.2% were diagnosed with pain. The full polytrauma triad expression (TBI, PTSD, and pain was diagnosed in 6.0%. Results show that increasing numbers of Veterans from OIF/OEF/OND accessed VHA over a 3 year period. Among those with a TBI diagnosis, the majority also had a mental health disorder, with approximately half having both PTSD and pain. While the absolute number of Veterans increased by over 40% from 2009 to 2011, the proportion of Veterans diagnosed with TBI and the high rate of comorbid PTSD and pain in this population remained relatively stable.

  2. Purif ied Protein Fraction of Garlic Extract Modulates Cellular Immune Response against Breast Transplanted Tumors in BALB/c Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Zare Mehrjardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Garlic (Allium sativum has anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenesis, and immunomodulatory properties that modulate anti-tumor immunity and inhibit tumor growth. In this study we have examined the effect of a protein fraction isolated from fresh garlic on anti-tumor response and intra-tumor lymphocyte infiltration.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study a protein fraction was purified from fresh garlic bulbs using ultra-filtration, followed by chromatofocusing, and SDS-PAGE analysis. Anti-tumor activity was assessed by intra-tumor injection of the protein fraction and garlic extract, itself, into groups of 5 mice each. The percentage of peripheral blood and intra-tumor CD4+ and CD8+ cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Unpaired student’s t test using the SPSS program was applied for all statistical analyses.Results: Garlic extract included different type of proteins with different molecular weight. One of protein’s fraction was immunomodeulator and was composed of three single polypeptides, with molecular masses of ~10-13 kDa and different isoelectric points (pI. These molecules augmented the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH response compared to the control group. Intra-tumor injection of the fraction provoked a significant increase in the CD8+ subpopulation of T-lymphocytes, as well as a decrease in tumor size. The fraction increased peripheral blood CD8+ T-lymphocytes in treated animals.Conclusion: The data confirms that protein fractions purified from fresh garlic bulbs augment CD8+ T-cell infiltration into the tumor site, inhibiting tumor growth more efficiently than garlic extract. These fi ndings provide a basis for further investigations on the purified polypeptide as a useful candidate for immunomodulation and tumor treatment.

  3. Purif ied Protein Fraction of Garlic Extract Modulates Cellular Immune Response against Breast Transplanted Tumors in BALB/c Mice Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Mohammad Hassan, Zuhair; Mostafaie, Ali; Zare Mehrjardi, Narges; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Garlic (Allium sativum) has anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenesis, and immunomodulatory properties that modulate anti-tumor immunity and inhibit tumor growth. In this study we have examined the effect of a protein fraction isolated from fresh garlic on anti-tumor response and intra-tumor lymphocyte infiltration. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study a protein fraction was purified from fresh garlic bulbs using ultra-filtration, followed by chromatofocusing, and SDS-PAGE analysis. Anti-tumor activity was assessed by intra-tumor injection of the protein fraction and garlic extract, itself, into groups of 5 mice each. The percentage of peripheral blood and intra-tumor CD4+ and CD8+ cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Unpaired student’s t test using the SPSS program was applied for all statistical analyses. Results: Garlic extract included different type of proteins with different molecular weight. One of protein’s fraction was immunomodeulator and was composed of three single polypeptides, with molecular masses of ~10-13 kDa and different isoelectric points (pI). These molecules augmented the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response compared to the control group. Intra-tumor injection of the fraction provoked a significant increase in the CD8+ subpopulation of T-lymphocytes, as well as a decrease in tumor size. The fraction increased peripheral blood CD8+ T-lymphocytes in treated animals. Conclusion: The data confirms that protein fractions purified from fresh garlic bulbs augment CD8+ T-cell infiltration into the tumor site, inhibiting tumor growth more efficiently than garlic extract. These findings provide a basis for further investigations on the purified polypeptide as a useful candidate for immunomodulation and tumor treatment. PMID:23700562

  4. An OpenEarth Framework (OEF) for Integrating and Visualizing Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, J. L.; Nadeau, D. R.; Baru, C.; Crosby, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The integration of data is essential to make transformative progress in understanding the complex processes operating at the Earth’s surface and within its interior. While our current ability to collect massive amounts of data, develop structural models, and generate high-resolution dynamics models is well developed, our ability to quantitatively integrate these data and models into holistic interpretations of Earth systems is poorly developed. We lack the basic tools to realize a first-order goal in Earth science of developing integrated 4D models of Earth structure and processes using a complete range of available constraints, at a time when the research agenda of major efforts such as EarthScope demand such a capability. Among the challenges to 3D data integration are data that may be in different coordinate spaces, units, value ranges, file formats, and data structures. While several file format standards exist, they are infrequently or incorrectly used. Metadata is often missing, misleading, or relegated to README text files along side the data. This leaves much of the work to integrate data bogged down by simple data management tasks. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) being developed by GEON addresses these data management difficulties. The software incorporates file format parsers, data interpretation heuristics, user interfaces to prompt for missing information, and visualization techniques to merge data into a common visual model. The OEF’s data access libraries parse formal and de facto standard file formats and map their data into a common data model. The software handles file format quirks, storage details, caching, local and remote file access, and web service protocol handling. Heuristics are used to determine coordinate spaces, units, and other key data features. Where multiple data structure, naming, and file organization conventions exist, those heuristics check for each convention’s use to find a high confidence interpretation of the data. When

  5. Acute toxicity of aromatic and non-aromatic fractions of naphthenic acids extracted from oil sands process-affected water to larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, A G; Reinardy, H C; Henry, T B; West, C E; Frank, R A; Hewitt, L M; Rowland, S J

    2013-09-01

    The toxicity of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) has regularly been attributed to naphthenic acids, which exist in complex mixtures. If on remediation treatment (e.g., ozonation) or on entering the environment, the mixtures of these acids all behave in the same way, then they can be studied as a whole. If, however, some acids are resistant to change, whilst others are not, or are less resistant, it is important to establish which sub-classes of acids are the most toxic. In the present study we therefore assayed the acute toxicity to larval fish, of a whole acidified OSPW extract and an esterifiable naphthenic acids fraction, de-esterified with alkali: both fractions were toxic (LC50 ∼5-8mgL(-1)). We then fractionated the acids by argentation solid phase extraction of the esters and examined the acute toxicity of two fractions: a de-esterified alicyclic acids fraction, which contained, for example, adamantane and diamantane carboxylic acids, and an aromatic acids fraction. The alicyclic acids were toxic (LC50 13mgL(-1)) but the higher molecular weight aromatic acids fraction was somewhat more toxic, at least on a weight per volume basis (LC50 8mgL(-1); P<0.05) (for comparison, the monoaromatic dehydroabietic acid had a LC50 of ∼1mgL(-1)). These results show how toxic naphthenic acids of OSPW are to these larval fish and that on a weight per volume basis, the aromatic acids are at least as toxic as the 'classical' alicyclic acids. The environmental fates and other toxic effects, if any, of the fractions remain to be established. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo anti-tumor activity of the alcoholic stem bark extract/fractions of Mimusops elengi Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harish; Savaliya, Mihir; Biswas, Subhankar; Nayak, Pawan G; Maliyakkal, Naseer; Manjunath Setty, M; Gourishetti, Karthik; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath

    2016-08-01

    Various parts of Mimusops elengi Linn. (Sapotaceae) have been used widely in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of pain, inflammation and wounds. The study was conducted to explore the use of stem bark of M. elengi on pharmacological grounds and to evaluate the scientific basis of cytotoxic and anti-tumor activity. Extract/fractions were prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using SRB assay. Most effective fractions were subjected to fluorescence microscopy based acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and Hoechst 33342 staining to determine apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation assay. Comet and micronuclei assay were performed to assess genotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis was also performed. In vivo anti-tumor potential was evaluated by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in mice. The alcoholic stem bark extract of M. elengi along with four fractions showed potential in vitro cytotoxicity in SRB assay. Of these, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were selected for further studies. The fractions revealed apoptosis inducing potential in AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining, which was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay. Genotoxic potential was revealed by comet and micronuclei assay. Fractions also exhibited specific cell cycle inhibition in G0/G1 phase. In EAC model, ethyl acetate fraction along with the standard (cisplatin) effectively reduced the increase in body weight compared to control and improved mean survival time. Both fractions were able to restore the altered hematological and biochemical parameters. Hence, M. elengi stem bark may be a possible therapeutic candidate having cytotoxic and anti-tumor potential.

  7. Cytotoxic Effect and Constituent Profile of Alkaloid Fractions from Ethanolic Extract of Ficus septica Burm. f. Leaves on T47D Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Akbar, Fiki Fatihah; Wiyani, Anggie; Sudarsono

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the profile of alkaloids in two ethyl acetate soluble fractions, namely fractions A and B from an ethanolic extract of Ficus septica leaves and cytotoxic effect on T47D breast cancer cells. Preparation of both fractions involved maceration of leaves with 70% (v/v) ethanol, filtration with Al2O3, precipitation with 0.1 N HCl, Mayer reagent, and 0.1 N NaOH, and also partition with ethyl acetate. Qualitative thin layer chromatography (TLC) was conducted to determine the profile of alkaloids in the two fractions, using alkaloid specific reagents such as Dragendorff, sodium nitrite, and Van Urk-Salkowski. Cytotoxic effects of both fractions on T47D cells were evaluated using MTT assay with a concentration series of 1.56; 3.12; 6.25; 12.5; 25 and 50 μg/mL. The TLC test showed that fractions A and B contained alkaloids with Rx values of 0.74 and 0.80 for fraction A and 0.74, 0.84, 0.92 for fraction B with regard to yohimbine using the mobile phase of n-buthanol:glacial acetic acid:distilled water (3:1:1 v/v/v). Moreover, an indole alkaloid was detected with Rx values of 0.80 and 0.84, respectively. Fractions A and B exhibited high cytotoxic effects on T47D cells with IC50 values of 2.57 and 2.73 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, overall the results of this study showed that fractions of Ficus septica contain alkaloids including indole alkaloid or its derivatives and possess a cytotoxic effect on T47D cells. This research supports the idea that alkaloids in F. septica have anticancer activity.

  8. In vitro assessment of Tribulus terrestris aqueous extract and Benzoxacin fraction against Helicobacter pylori isolates from biopsy samples of Iranian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Hakemi vala

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives:  Helicobacter pylori (Hp is related to gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and mucosal carcinoma. Emergence of multidrug resistant Hp strains encouraged the researchers to find new effective drugs. Especially medicinal herbs and plants which usually shows less side effects. The aim of this study was in vitro assessment of anti Hp activity of total extract of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris Benzoxacin, a local Iranian medicinal plant and its fraction Benzoxacin.Methods: total aqueous extract of aerial parts of the plant was prepared and liquid extraction with petroleum ether was used to separate its components. LC/MS system proved the existence of Benzoxazine derivative in the water fraction and the third's fraction. Anti (Hp effects of total extract and its third fraction were examined by cup plate method and using standard MacFarland. 50 biopsy samples of antrum were detected from patients who were endoscopic candidates in Milad and Fayazbakhsh  hospitals of Tehran during 2011. All samples were isolated, diagnosed based on standard methods and biochemical tests and confirmed by PCR method for ureC gene, too.  Different dilutions (250, 500,750 and 1000 mg/ml of total extract were prepared. Clarythromycin (Clr E-test strips and an identified Hp OC1096 was used, simultaneously.Results: Of 50 biopsy samples, 12 Hp strains were isolated. Rapid urease test were positive in all expect one biopsy sample. Existence of ureC gene in all isolates were confirmed expect one strain by PCR. By cup plate method, resistant to concentrations of 1000 and 750mg/ml were detected in 50% of Hp isolates and 66.6% of them were resistant to concentrations 250 and 500 mg/ml .Also, 83.3% of Hp strains were resistant to Benzoxacin fraction. Clarythromycin sensitivity detected in 83% of Hp isolates, simultaneously.Conclusion: This study was done as a pilot study for in vitro evaluation of antibacterial effect of total extract of T

  9. Anti-tumor and pro-apoptotic activity of ethanolic extract and its various fractions from Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw in L1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoxia; Xiao, Yaping; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Pan; Li, Hongxia; Yan, Han; Liu, Quanhong

    2012-08-30

    Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw is a traditional Chinese herb for treatment of fever, hemostatic, uterine prolapse and especially for lymphocytic leukemia, but the antitumor effect and its potential mechanism remains unclear. The present study was to investigate the possible anti-proliferative activity of ethanolic extract and the organic fractions from P. commune on murine leukemia L1210 cells. The content of ethanolic extract and its fractions was performed on HPLC analysis with gradient elution. L1210 cells were treated with different concentrations of ethanolic extract and its fractions at different time intervals. Cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was monitored by nuclear condensation and confirmed by exposure of phosphatidylserine to outer leaflet of plasma membrane. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed by flow cytometry using rhodamine 123 staining. The obtained results showed that the cell viability of L1210 cells was reduced by ethanolic extract of P. commune in a concentration-dependent manner, and the IC(50) value was about 77.22 μg/ml at 24h post treatment. The ethylacetate fraction displayed higher anti-tumor effect than that of chloroform and butanol fractions with 32.29 μg/ml (IC(50) value, 48 h). Microscopy studies revealed that ethanolic extract and ethylacetate fraction treated cells showed morphological characteristics of apoptosis such as chromatin condensation and DNA aggregation. Further, Annexin V-PE/ 7-AAD double staining showing the out leaflet of phosphatidylserine and the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry confirmed that the extracts do, in fact, induce apoptosis in L1210 cells. This is the first report on anti-tumor and pro-apoptotic effect of P. commune in cultured leukemia cells, which provides scientific basis for its usefulness as traditional medicine. Further studies are needed to confirm the precise mechanism not only the crude extract but as well the

  10. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF THE DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (L. MERR. IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saiful Islam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic effects of Ethyl acetate (Et Ac, Petroleum-ether (Pet ether, and Chloroform fractions from methanolic extract of the seeds of Entada phaseoloides were investigated in alloxan induced diabetic mice (AIDM. The effect of these fractions (200 mg/kg body weight i.p was observed on fasting blood glucose (FBG level and active fraction was further investigated for its dose dependent activity (250 and 350 mg/kg b. w. on fasting blood glucose level and also on total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT level in AIDM and found significant effects. The most significant reduction of FBG level of around 72.02% was observed for Et-Ac fraction in AIDM. A significant reduction (*p< 0.05 in serum TC and TG level of 53.00% and 57.25% respectively was also found for Et-Ac fraction of E. phaseoloides. The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities were comparable to metformin HCl (150 mg/kg. In diabetic mice, SGOT and SGPT levels were significantly elevated that were further reduced after intraperitoneal administration of this fraction. These results indicate that Et-Ac fraction of E. phaseoloides have favorable effects in bringing down the severity of diabetes together with hepatoprotectivity.

  11. Activation of apoptosis by ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Dianthus superbus in HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Qing; Yin, Yan; Lei, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiu-Qiao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Cheng-Li; Wu, Shan; He, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yan-Wen; Zou, Guo-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Dianthus superbus L. is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine. We recently showed that ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from ethanol extract of D. superbus exhibited the strongest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. In this study, we examined apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS, and the mechanism underlying apoptosis was also investigated. Treatment of HepG2 cells with EE-DS (20-80 μg/ml) for 48 h led to a significant dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase by analysis of the content of DNA in cells, and a large number of apoptotic bodies containing nuclear fragments were observed in cells treated with 80 μg/ml of EE-DS for 24 h by using Hoechst 33258 staining. These data show that EE-DS can induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that EE-DS significantly suppressed the expressions of Bcl-2 and NF-κB. Treatment of cells with EE-DS (80 μg/ml) for 48 h resulted in significant increase of cytochrome c in the cytosol, which indicated cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Activation of caspase-9 and -3 were also determined when the cells treated with EE-DS. The results suggest that apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS could be through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data showed that the composition of EE-DS is complicated. Further studies are needed to find the effective constituents of EE-DS.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds In Extract and Fraction of Star Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. Leaves Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

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    Nanang Yunarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L. is potential as raw material for medicine, native in tropic areas, including Indonesia. According to other study report, starfruit leaves containing flavonoids apigenin and quercetin as potential anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. The raw material for the drug in Indonesia mostly obtained through imports from other countries. In order to support the independence of traditional medicine raw materials, it is important to standardize the quality of traditional medicine raw materials, in this case is star fruit leaves by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method. The sample used is star fruit leaves extract obtained from maceration process using ethanol 70%; water fraction, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions obtained from fractionation process of the ethanolic extract. Physical parameters analyzed in sample include appearance, color, odor, taste, extract yield, water content, loss of drying, total ash content, residual solvent. Chemical parameters analyzed include apigenin and quercetin contents. The results shows that star fruit leaves used in this study meet the standards of Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia with highest apigenin and quercetin content are in ethyl acetate fraction.

  13. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction from brown marine macroalgae Padina sp. from Gulf of Mannar of Peninsular India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kajal Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction from two brown marine macroalga, Padina gymnospora (P.gymnospora ) and Padina tetrastomatica (P. tetrastomatica) harvested from Gulf of Mannar of peninsular India.Methods:The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems, viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2′-azino-bis-3ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS), H2O2/ HO. radical scavenging, Fe2+ ion chelating ability, and reducing potential. Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GE). Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation inhibition assay was employed to assess the ability of the samples to inhibit lipid oxidation in a model system. COXI and LOXV inhibition assays were employed to assess the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction.Results:The aqueous extract fraction of P. tetrastomatica realized high total phenolic content (288 mg GE/g), and its activity towards scavenging short-lived radicals (OH. and H2O2) (27.8% and 68.3%, respectively; 0.6 mg/mL) are higher than those registered for Padina gymnospora. Aqueous extract and polysaccharide fractions of P. gymnospora showed higher anti-inflammatory activities against LOXV (56% and 53%, respectively) and COXI (30% and 35%, respectively; 1 mg/mL) enzymes. The correlation studies confirmed that polysaccharides present with the Padina sp. are responsible for their anti-inflammatory potential. IR spectral data of polysaccharide fraction revealed the presence of polysaccharide in alginate form and also confirmed the presence of sulphated polysaccharides as principle bioactive constituents.Conclusions:The study revealed that these seaweeds possess beneficial value as human food or health additives and can be used as a natural green remedy against

  14. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction from brown marine macroalgae Padina sp. from Gulf of Mannar of Peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha Praveen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction from two brown marine macroalga, Padina gymnospora (P. gymnospora and Padina tetrastomatica (P. tetrastomatica harvested from Gulf of Mannar of peninsular India. Methods: The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems, viz., 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2, 2′-azino-bis-3ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, H2O2/ HO. radical scavenging, Fe2+ ion chelating ability, and reducing potential. Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GE. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation inhibition assay was employed to assess the ability of the samples to inhibit lipid oxidation in a model system. COXII and LOXV inhibition assays were employed to assess the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction. Results: The aqueous extract fraction of P. tetrastomatica realized high total phenolic content (288 mg GE/g, and its activity towards scavenging short-lived radicals (OH. and H2O2 (27.8% and 68.3%, respectively; 0.6 mg/mL are higher than those registered for Padina gymnospora. Aqueous extract and polysaccharide fractions of P. gymnospora showed higher anti-inflammatory activities against LOXV (56% and 53%, respectively and COXII (30% and 35%, respectively; 1 mg/mL enzymes. The correlation studies confirmed that polysaccharides present with the Padina sp. are responsible for their anti-inflammatory potential. IR spectral data of polysaccharide fraction revealed the presence of polysaccharide in alginate form and also confirmed the presence of sulphated polysaccharides as principle bioactive constituents. Conclusions: The study revealed that these seaweeds possess beneficial value as human food or health additives and can be used as a natural green

  15. Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

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    Ching-Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16 are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012 cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18 μg/mL and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41 μg/mL. Ethyl acetate (EA fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21 μg/mL against EV71 and 9.08 μg/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39 μM and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24 μM. Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection.

  16. In Vitro Antioxidant and Enzymes Inhibitory activity of Chloroform Fraction of Hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Argemone mexicana

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    Nayak P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation antioxidant and alphaamylase inhibitory activity of chloroform fraction of Argemone mexicana were evaluated. The antioxidant activity of chloroform fraction of A. mexicana was evaluated by DPPH, Super oxide radical Scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity and Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of chloroform fraction was evaluated by DNS method respectively. The observed resultant antioxidant activity of chloroform fraction in all studied models was moderate as compared with reference standard Ascorbic acid. The chloroform fraction exhibited appreciable α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value 48.92μg/ml respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50 value 83.33μg/ml.In conclusion, from the results of present study it is confirmed that antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of chloroform fraction of A. mexicana may contribute in its earlier observed antidiabetic potential.

  17. Activity-guided separation of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract reveals fractions with rice disease-reducing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Algaba, Julian; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Hilmer

    2015-01-01

    An aqueous extract from the plant Chromolaena odorata [syn Eupatorium odoratum], Eupatorieae, Asteraceae, protected rice against sheath blight by induced resistance. As an initial step towards identification of the specific disease-reducing compounds, leaves from C. odorata were extracted...

  18. Comparison of Conventional and Ultrasound-assisted Extraction Techniques on Mass Fraction of Phenolic Compounds from Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An innovative ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is the rapid non-thermal extraction technique, which in comparison to conventional extraction (CE), offers high reproducibility in a short time with simplified manipulation, reduced solvent consumption and lower energy. Optimization of ultrasonic conditions was conducted for devices with nominal output power of 100 and 400 W, including the influence of geometrical parameters of probes regarding ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results show...

  19. In vitro vasodilatory activity and possible mechanisms of the crude extracts and fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. leaves in isolated thoracic aorta of guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleta, Bekesho; Makonnen, Eyasu; Debella, Asfaw; Abebe, Abiy; Fekadu, Netsanet

    2016-01-01

    Moringa stenopetala, a plant belonging to the family of Moringaceae, is traditionally used for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes in Ethiopia. This study evaluates the in vitro vasodilatory effect of the extract of M. stenopetala leaves and the possible mechanisms in precontracted isolated thoracic aorta of guinea pigs. A guinea pig was sacrificed by gentle cervical dislocation, and the thoracic aortic ring was removed, cut spirally, and mounted in an organ bath containing Krebs–Henseleit physiological solution maintained at 37°C, and then the solution was aerated with carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2). The vasodilatory activity of cumulative doses of M. stenopetala extracts and fractions was evaluated on intact and denuded endothelium of isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs precontracted with potassium chloride (80 mM), epinephrine (1 μM), methylene blue (10 μM), and glibenclamide (10 μM) using polygraph. All extracts showed a relaxant effect in precontracted isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the greater percentage of relaxant effect was shown with the addition of crude extracts in 80 mM of potassium chloride (99.10% and 95.56% for ethanol and aqueous crude extracts, respectively), and 1 μM of epinephrine (82.85% and 90.16% for ethanol and aqueous crude extracts, respectively) in precontracted isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs. Hence, the possible mechanism of relaxation might be mediated through the blockade of receptor-operated calcium influx and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. The aqueous extract showed more significant in vitro vasodilatory effect than its fractions and 70% ethanol extract. PMID:27785112

  20. In vitro vasodilatory activity and possible mechanisms of the crude extracts and fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. leaves in isolated thoracic aorta of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleta, Bekesho; Makonnen, Eyasu; Debella, Asfaw; Abebe, Abiy; Fekadu, Netsanet

    2016-01-01

    Moringa stenopetala, a plant belonging to the family of Moringaceae, is traditionally used for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes in Ethiopia. This study evaluates the in vitro vasodilatory effect of the extract of M. stenopetala leaves and the possible mechanisms in precontracted isolated thoracic aorta of guinea pigs. A guinea pig was sacrificed by gentle cervical dislocation, and the thoracic aortic ring was removed, cut spirally, and mounted in an organ bath containing Krebs-Henseleit physiological solution maintained at 37°C, and then the solution was aerated with carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2). The vasodilatory activity of cumulative doses of M. stenopetala extracts and fractions was evaluated on intact and denuded endothelium of isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs precontracted with potassium chloride (80 mM), epinephrine (1 μM), methylene blue (10 μM), and glibenclamide (10 μM) using polygraph. All extracts showed a relaxant effect in precontracted isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the greater percentage of relaxant effect was shown with the addition of crude extracts in 80 mM of potassium chloride (99.10% and 95.56% for ethanol and aqueous crude extracts, respectively), and 1 μM of epinephrine (82.85% and 90.16% for ethanol and aqueous crude extracts, respectively) in precontracted isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs. Hence, the possible mechanism of relaxation might be mediated through the blockade of receptor-operated calcium influx and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. The aqueous extract showed more significant in vitro vasodilatory effect than its fractions and 70% ethanol extract.

  1. Effects of aqueous fraction of Anethum graveolens L. (dill extracts on fertility and terminal sugar of female rat\\\\\\'s reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihezaman Monsefi

    2013-02-01

    Results: Duration of diestrus phase under high dose of aqueous extract increased 2 times compared to the control group. Uterus thickness, longitudinal and transverse diameters of ovaries, granulosa cells of corpus luteum diameters of the experimental groups decreased 1.5 to 2 times compared to the control group's. Female rats of the experimental groups did not get pregnant. Intensity of reactions of α-mannose, N-acetyl glucosamine, and N-acetyl galactoseamine of endometrium and ovarian cell surfaces changed after being stained by ConA, DBA and SBA. Conclusion: Oral administration of ethanol fraction and aqueous dill seeds extracts can induce infertility in female rats.

  2. The relationship between visible light emission and species fraction of the hydrogen ion beams extracted from 2.45 GHz microwave discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Cortázar, O D; Tarvainen, O; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between Balmer-α and Fulcher-band emissions with extracted H +, H+2 , and H+3 ions is demonstrated for a 2.45 GHz microwave discharge. Ion mass spectra and optical measurements of Balmer-α and Fulcher-band emissions have been obtained with a Wien Filter having an optical view-port on the plasma chamber axis. The beam of approximately 1 mA is analyzed for different plasma conditions simultaneously with the measurement of light emissions both with temporal resolution. The use of visible light emissions as a valuable diagnostic tool for monitoring the species fraction of the extracted beams is proposed.

  3. Evaluation of the Toxicity of Virola sebifera Crude Extracts, Fractions and Isolated Compounds on the Nest of Leaf-Cutting Ants

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    Keylla Utherdyany Bicalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of Virola sebifera leaves led to the isolation of three lignans: (+-sesamin, (−-hinokinin, and (−-kusunokinin and three flavonoids: quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside, and quercetin-3-methoxy-7-O-β-D-glucoside by using techniques as high-speed counter-current chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The crude extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated for their insecticidal and fungicidal potential against Atta sexdens rubropilosa and its symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The bioassay results showed a high insecticidal activity for the methanol crude extract of the leaves of V. sebifera and its n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. The fungicidal bioassay revealed high toxicity of the lignans against L. gongylophorus.

  4. The ultrasound assisted extraction of matrix elements and heavy metal fractions associated with Fe, Al and Mn oxyhydroxides from soil

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    Stanišić Svetlana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The single agent extractions of major and trace metals from soil sample were conducted by means of rotary mixer and ultrasonic bath with sonication time of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min. The sequential extraction according to the BCR scheme was undertaken. The obtained soil extracts were analyzed by ICP-OES and according to the results the rotary mixer assisted extraction was more efficient in the case of alkaline-earth elements. However, by the use of ultrasound several times higher amounts of matrix elements (Fe, Al and Mn and heavy metals predominantly associated with Fe, Al and Mn oxyhydroxides were extracted. The increase of the sonication time failed to improve extraction yields. The changes of the conductivity, pH, oxidoreduction potential, particle size diameter and zeta potential of colloid particles, with the sonication time increase were measured. The extraction mechanism and expressed selectivity of ultrasound is discussed and explanation is suggested.

  5. Data Fusion and Visualization with the OpenEarth Framework (OEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, D. R.; Baru, C.; Fouch, M. J.; Crosby, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Data fusion is an increasingly important problem to solve as we strive to integrate data from multiple sources and build better models of the complex processes operating at the Earth’s surface and its interior. These data are often large, multi-dimensional, and subject to differing conventions for file formats, data structures, coordinate spaces, units of measure, and metadata organization. When visualized, these data require differing, and often conflicting, conventions for visual representations, dimensionality, icons, color schemes, labeling, and interaction. These issues make the visualization of fused Earth science data particularly difficult. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) is an open-source data fusion and visualization suite of software being developed at the Supercomputer Center at the University of California, San Diego. Funded by the NSF, the project is leveraging virtual globe technology from NASA’s WorldWind to create interactive 3D visualization tools that combine layered data from a variety of sources to create a holistic view of features at, above, and beneath the Earth’s surface. The OEF architecture is cross-platform, multi-threaded, modular, and based upon Java. The OEF’s modular approach yields a collection of compatible mix-and-match components for assembling custom applications. Available modules support file format handling, web service communications, data management, data filtering, user interaction, and 3D visualization. File parsers handle a variety of formal and de facto standard file formats. Each one imports data into a general-purpose data representation that supports multidimensional grids, topography, points, lines, polygons, images, and more. From there these data then may be manipulated, merged, filtered, reprojected, and visualized. Visualization features support conventional and new visualization techniques for looking at topography, tomography, maps, and feature geometry. 3D grid data such as seismic tomography may be

  6. 分馏萃取动态纯化倍数的研究%Study on Dynamic Purification Factor of Fractional Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟学明

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic purification factors of fractional extraction were investigated. Both perfect and approximate formulae of dynamic purification factors of fractional extraction were presented. The perfect formulae indicate the best feeding for technology control of fractional extraction, so as to avoid appearing ineffective separation zone nearby the feeding stage. The approximate formulae are able to calculate the theoretical number of stages of fractional extraction. The calculation results show that number of stages from dynamic purification factors is in good accord with that from static purification factors, the absolute errors of number of stages are in the range of ± 0. 2 stage. The number of extraction stages for aqueous feed and number of scrubbing stages for organic feed are all minima from dynamic or static purification factors. Static purification factors are equivalent to dynamic purification factors under best feeding for technology control of fractional extraction.%提出了分馏萃取动态纯化倍数的精确公式和近似公式.精确公式揭示了分馏萃取工艺的最佳进料,以避免在进料级附近产生无效区.近似公式可以用于计算分馏萃取的理论级数.计算结果表明,动态纯化倍数计算的理论级数与静态纯化倍数计算的理论级数是十分吻合的,绝对误差在±0.2级之内;两者获得的水相进料时萃取段级数和有机相进料时洗涤段级数均为最小值.静态纯化倍数等价于分馏萃取工艺处于最佳进料状态下的动态纯化倍数.

  7. Effect of rural residence on use of VHA mental health care among OEF/OIF veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Teresa J; Fortney, John C; Williams, James Silas; Austen, Mark A; Pope, Sandra K; Hayes, Corey J

    2014-12-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has worked to increase availability of mental health treatment for rural veterans. The objective was to understand the impact of rural residence on screening for, diagnosis of, and treatment for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) using VHA care. A cohort of veterans from a five-state region was identified whose first VHA clinic visit occurred between January 1, 2008, and March 17, 2009. The cohort was retrospectively followed for three months to identify a cohort who used VHA care at least twice. The sample included 4,782 OEF/OIF veterans known to be using VHA care; mean age was 31 years (range 18-64); most were male (88%). Screening rates were 85% for depression and 84% for PTSD. Compared with veterans in small or isolated rural towns, those in urban areas were less likely to be diagnosed as having PTSD (odds ratio [OR]=.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]=.66-.95, p<.05) and less likely to receive psychotropic medications (OR=.52, CI=.33-.79, p<.01) or psychotherapy (OR=.61, CI=.40-.94, p<.05) for PTSD. Veterans living in urban areas were also less likely to receive antidepressants (OR=.56, CI=.32-.98, p<.05) or psychotherapy (OR=.61, CI=.40-.93, p<.05) for treatment of depression. Among veterans who used VHA care at least twice, those living in urban areas were less likely than those living in rural areas to receive diagnoses of and treatment for PTSD and depression.

  8. The Water Fraction of Calendula officinalis Hydroethanol Extract Stimulates In Vitro and In Vivo Proliferation of Dermal Fibroblasts in Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Manikarna; Mazumdar, Swagata; Das, Saurabh; Ganguly, Durba; Dasgupta, Uma B; Dutta, Ananya; Jana, Kuladip; Karmakar, Parimal

    2016-10-01

    The active fraction and/or compounds of Calendula officinalis responsible for wound healing are not known yet. In this work we studied the molecular target of C. officinalis hydroethanol extract (CEE) and its active fraction (water fraction of hydroethanol extract, WCEE) on primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). In vivo, CEE or WCEE were topically applied on excisional wounds of BALB/c mice and the rate of wound contraction and immunohistological studies were carried out. We found that CEE and only its WCEE significantly stimulated the proliferation as well as the migration of HDF cells. Also they up-regulate the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in vitro. In vivo, CEE or WCEE treated mice groups showed faster wound healing and increased expression of CTGF and α-SMA compared to placebo control group. The increased expression of both the proteins during granulation phase of wound repair demonstrated the potential role of C. officinalis in wound healing. In addition, HPLC-ESI MS analysis of the active water fraction revealed the presence of two major compounds, rutin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. Thus, our results showed that C. officinalis potentiated wound healing by stimulating the expression of CTGF and α-SMA and further we identified active compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Estrogen-like effect of a Cimicifuga racemosa extract sub-fraction as assessed by in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, P; Mastrangelo, S; Perrone, F; Evandri, M G

    2007-01-01

    Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) is used in the treatment of painful menstruation and menopausal symptoms. Data about the nature of the active compounds and mechanism(s) of action are still controversial, chiefly with respect to its estrogenic activity. This work aimed to assess the possible estrogenic activity of a commercial dry hydro-alcoholic extract of C. racemosa and its hydrophilic and lipophilic sub-fractions on in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro assays. In a yeast estrogen screen, only the lipophilic sub-fraction was able to activate the human estrogen receptor alpha, with a lower potency but comparable efficacy to that of 17 beta-estradiol. Neither the total extract nor the lipophilic sub-fraction showed an in vivo uterotrophic effect in 21-day-old rats. Uterine tissues obtained ex vivo from C. racemosa treated animals were generally much less sensitive to oxytocin, prostaglandin F(2alpha,) and bradykinin than tissues obtained from estradiol valerate treated rats. The lipophilic sub-fraction, instead, induced a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on the in vitro response to oxytocin, prostaglandin F(2alpha,) and bradykinin of uterine horns from naïve 28-day-old rats, with a potency rate close to 1:30 of that of 17 beta-estradiol. Reported results confirm the effectiveness of C. racemosa in menstrual distress and further emphasize the possibility that lipophilic constituents bind to an as yet not identified estrogen receptor, likely inversely involved in inflammation.

  10. Antioxidative activities of white rose flower extract and pharmaceutical advantages of its hexane fraction via free radical scavenging effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dongsun; Jeon, Jeong Hee; Kwon, Sang-Chul; Shin, Sunhee; Jang, Ja Young; Jeong, Heon Sang; Lee, Do Ik; Kim, Yun-Bae; Joo, Seong Soo

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we determined the antioxidant activities of two different solvent fractions(butanol and hexane) obtained from white Rosa rugosa flowers by employing various assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging and inhibition activity in S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) in the RAW264.7 model. In addition, more advanced antioxidant assays were conducted, including lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation, DNA fragmentation, apoptosis, and cell growth. The results revealed that the hexane fraction, which contained a significant amount of polyphenols and volatile components, had excellent antioxidant potency and could scavenge free radicals of DPPH and ABTS. Interestingly, the hexane fraction inhibited lipid peroxidation to almost the same degree as a chemical antioxidant. In the NO assay, the hexane fraction effectively scavenged free radicals at all dose ranges and is expected to inhibit NO production in mammalian cells. The hexane fraction effectively prevented oxidative damage, which was induced by Cu2+/H2O2, to target proteins at lower concentrations (>1 microg x mL(-1)). The DNA fragmentation and the cell-level assays suggest that the hexane fraction may play a crucial role in inhibiting peroxynitrite and H2O2 attack. Based on the findings described in this study, the hexane fraction holds promise for use as a novel pharmaceutical antioxidant.

  11. Strawberry (cv. Romina Methanolic Extract and Anthocyanin-Enriched Fraction Improve Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL are recognized as critical factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Healthy dietary patterns, with abundant fruit and vegetable consumption, may prevent the onset of these risk factors due to the presence of phytochemical compounds. Strawberries are known for their high content of polyphenols; among them, flavonoids are the major constituents, and it is presumed that they are responsible for the biological activity of the fruit. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies that actually evaluate the effects of different fractions isolated from strawberries. In order to assess the effects of two different strawberry extracts (whole methanolic extract/anthocyanin-enriched fraction on the lipid profile and antioxidant status in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells, the triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol content, lipid peroxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS content and antioxidant enzymes’ activity on cell lysates were determined. Results demonstrated that both strawberry extracts not only improved the lipid metabolism by decreasing triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol contents, but also improved the redox state of HepG2 cells by modulating thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production, antioxidant enzyme activity and ROS generation. The observed effects were more pronounced for the anthocyanin-enriched fraction.

  12. Inhibitory Effect of the Hexane Fraction of the Ethanolic Extract of the Fruits of Pterodon pubescens Benth in Acute and Chronic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Hoscheid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Pterodon pubescens Benth have been used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatism, sore throat, and respiratory disorders, and also as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, depurative, tonic, and hypoglycemic agent. The study was aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane fraction of an ethanolic extract of P. pubescens fruits. The oil from P. pubescens fruits was extracted with ethanol and partitioned with hexane. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured with increasing doses of the hexane fraction (FHPp by using a carrageenan-induced rat model of pleurisy and a rat model of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis by using an FHPp dose of 250 mg/kg for 21 days. Treatment with an FHPp resulted in anti-inflammatory activity in both models. The results of biochemical, hematological, and histological analyses indicated a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (18.32%, 34.20%, and 41.70%, resp. and reduction in the numbers of total leukocytes and mononuclear cells. The FHPp dose of 1000 mg/kg induced no changes in behavioral parameters, and no animal died. The results of this study extend the findings of previous reports that have shown that administration of extracts and fractions obtained from species of the genus Pterodon exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and lacks toxicity.

  13. Nanocarriers for the delivery of active ingredients and fractions extracted from natural products used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Feng, Nianping

    2015-07-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years with a recent increase in popularity. Despite promising biological activities of active ingredients and fractions from TCM, their poor solubility, poor stability, short biological half-life, ease of metabolism and rapid elimination hinder their clinical application. Therefore, overcoming these problems to improve the therapeutic efficacy of TCM preparations is a major focus of pharmaceutical sciences. Recently, nanocarriers have drawn increasing attention for their excellent and efficient delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions. This review discusses problems in the delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions; focuses on recent advances in nanocarriers that represent potential solutions to these problems, including lipid-based nanoparticles and polymeric, inorganic, and hybrid nanocarriers; and discusses unanswered questions in the field and criteria for the development of better nanocarriers for the delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions to be focused on in future studies.

  14. Hydrophobic features of EPS extracted from anaerobic granular sludge: an investigation based on DAX-8 resin fractionation and size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feishu; Bourven, Isabelle; Lens, Piet N L; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Pechaud, Yoan; Guibaud, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    The hydrophobic fractionation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from anaerobic granular sludge was performed on the DAX-8 resin (two elution pH conditions, i.e., pH 2 and pH 5 were tested). The impact of seven different EPS extraction methods on EPS hydrophobicity features was assessed. The results showed that the extraction methods and bulk solution pH influenced dramatically the biochemical composition of the EPS, and in turn, the hydrophobicity determined. Besides, EPS extracting reagents i.e., formaldehyde, ethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and Tween 20 not only introduced extra carbon content in the total organic carbon (TOC) measurement but also interacted with the DAX-8 resin. By comparing the apparent molecular weight (aMW) distribution of untreated and pH-adjusted EPS samples, more complete EPS aMW information was preserved at pH 5. Thus, elution at pH 5 was preferred in this study for the qualitative analysis of EPS hydrophobic features. The hydrophobic fraction of EPS retained by the resin at pH 5 was ascribed to a wide aMW range, ranging from >440 to 0.3 kDa. Within this range, EPS molecules ranging from 175 to 31 kDa were mostly retained by the DAX-8 resin, which indicates that these EPS molecules are highly hydrophobic.

  15. Testing a Low Molecular Mass Fraction of a Mushroom (Lentinus edodes Extract Formulated as an Oral Rinse in a Cohort of Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Signoretto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although foods are considered enhancing factors for dental caries and periodontitis, laboratory researches indicate that several foods and beverages contain components endowed with antimicrobial and antiplaque activities. A low molecular mass (LMM fraction of an aqueous mushroom extract has been found to exert these activities in in vitro experiments against potential oral pathogens. We therefore conducted a clinical trial in which we tested an LMM fraction of shiitake mushroom extract formulated in a mouthrinse in 30 young volunteers, comparing the results with those obtained in two identical cohorts, one of which received water (placebo and the other Listerine. Plaque index, gingival index and bacterial counts in plaque samples were determined in all volunteers over the 11 days of the clinical trial. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were obtained for the plaque index on day 12 in subjects treated with mushroom versus placebo, while for the gingival index significant differences were found for both mushroom versus placebo and mushroom versus Listerine. Decreases in total bacterial counts and in counts of specific oral pathogens were observed for both mushroom extract and Listerine in comparison with placebo. The data suggest that a mushroom extract may prove beneficial in controlling dental caries and/or gingivitis/periodontitis.

  16. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of alcohol extract of Polyscias filicifolia shoot, leaf, cell biomass of suspension culture and saponin fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczewska, Jadwiga; Karwicka, Ewa; Drozd, Janina; Anuszewskal, Elzbieta; Sliwińska, Anita; Nosov, Aleksander; Olszowska, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Some medicinal plants are the object of biotechnologists' special interest owing to their content of secondary metabolites, which have a strong pharmacological effect. Polyscias filicifolia is a plant known for long in traditional medicine of the Southeast Asia. Literature data suggest that it acts on the endocrine system, has adaptogenic and antiulcerative activity, shows bactericidal and insecticidal properties, restores the activity of the protein synthesis system in the conditions of long- and short-term anoxia, as well as reduces the effect of many mutagens in vitro. The purpose of the studies was to assess the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of ethanol extracts from Polyscias filicifolia dry shoots and leaves obtained in vitro, as well as cell biomass from suspension culture. Saponin fraction from dried shoots was also tested. Initially, the cytotoxic effect was evaluated using the murine connective tissue cell line C3H/AN - L929. The genotoxic properties of the extracts were assessed using standard screening tests: the Ames test and the micronucleus test. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that none of the extracts increases the number of revertants, both in tests with and without metabolic activation. The lack of in vitro genotoxic and mutagenic activity of tested shoot, dried leaf, cell biomass extracts, as well as the saponin fraction from dried shoots allows us to hope that Polyscias filicifolia could be used as a possible pharmaceutical raw material showing therapeutic properties.

  17. Study on the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase inhibitory properties of Agaricus bisporus and extraction of bioactive fractions using pressurised solvent technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Clavijo, Cristina; Palanisamy, Marimuthu; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Navarro-Rubio, María; Pérez, Margarita; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2013-08-30

    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms were able to lower cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolaemic rats and it was suggested that dietary fibre might inhibit cholesterol absorption. However, A. bisporus extracts were also able to inhibit the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR, the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway) and this might also contribute to the observed lowering of cholesterol levels in serum. The methanol-water extracts obtained from A. bisporus were able to inhibit up to 60% the HMGCR activity using an in vitro assay. The HMGCR inhibitory capacities depended on cultivation conditions, strains, etc. The potential inhibitors were not statins, they might be β-glucans able to scavenge the substrate and impair the enzymatic reaction. They were present during all mushroom developmental stages and similarly distributed through all the tissues including the parts discarded as a by-product. Accelerated solvent extractions using 1:1 ethanol-water as pressurised solvent (10.7 MPa, 25°C, five cycles of 5 min) were more effective in the extraction of the HMGCiR inhibitor(s) than supercritical fluid extractions (9 MPa, 40°C) using CO2 with 10% ethanol. A mushroom cultivation and two extraction procedures were optimised to obtain fractions from A. bisporus with high HMGCR inhibitory activities to design novel ingredients for hypocholesterolaemic functional foodstuffs. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Characterization of the Volatile and Nonvolatile Fractions of Heartwood Aqueous Extract from Pterocarpus marsupium and Evaluation of Its Cytotoxicity against Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Martinotti, Simona; Bolfi, Bianca; Ranzato, Elia; Manfredi, Marcello; Marengo, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    Pterocarpus marsupium is a well-known plant due to its healing properties, in particular, the use of its aqueous extract is able to reduce blood sugar levels and blood triglyceride concentrations. Although this plant has already been widely studied, a complete characterization of its aqueous extract has not been reported. The present study deals with the characterization of the aqueous extract of P. marsupium in order to obtain a full fingerprint of the volatile and nonvolatile constituents. The volatile constituents were identified by CG-MS, whereas the nonvolatile fraction was characterized by UHPLC-MS/MS using a nontarget approach. Several compounds were identified, in particular, polyphenolic species belonging to the class of proanthocyanidins. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out on four different cancer cell lines and three different non-tumoral cell lines. Preliminary results indicate a selective cytotoxicity of the aqueous extract towards the cancer cells. The potential cytotoxicity due to the presence of metals in the aqueous extract was ruled out by testing an aqueous mixture of the metals at the same concentration found in the P. marsupium extract. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Improving PTSD Outcomes in OIF/OEF Returnees: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Hydrocortisone Augmentation of Prolonged Exposure Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    intent and practice of manualized PE. 1 Schnurr PP. The rocks and hard places in psychotherapy outcome research. J Trauma Stress. 2007; 20(5):779-92...foresight and planning Social cognition Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT™): Managing Emotions Paper-and-pencil multiple-choice...Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0072 TITLE: Improving PTSD Outcomes in OIF/OEF Returnees: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Hydrocortisone

  20. Evaluation of the bioaccessible gastric and intestinal fractions of heavy metals in contaminated soils by means of a simple bioaccessibility extraction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Mendoza, C; Tatiana Garrido, R; Cristian Quilodrán, R; Matías Segovia, C; José Parada, A

    2017-06-01

    A study is made to evaluate the bioaccessibility of heavy metals in contaminated soils through a simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET), applied to the analysis of both the gastric and intestinal phases. Soils with high metal content of the Mapocho, Cachapoal, and Rancagua series were studied; they are located in suburban areas of large cities in the central valley of Chile. The bioaccessible concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were related to the main physicochemical characteristics of the soils and to the chemical forms obtained by sequential extraction. The elements Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn are distributed in the soils between the exchangeable fractions, bound to oxides, to organic matter, and in the residual fraction. On the other hand, Cr and Pb are found mainly in the fractions bound to organic matter and in the residual fraction. The three soils have a high Cu content, (640-2060 mg/kg), in the order Cachapoal > Rancagua > Mapocho. The SBET test allowed establishing a different bioaccessibility for the elements in the soil. Cu was notoriously bioaccessible in both the gastric and intestinal phases in the three soils, reaching more than 50% in the Cachapoal and Rancagua soils. The other elements, regardless of the soil, were bioaccessible only in one of the phases, more frequently in the gastric phase. The multiple correlation study indicates that the metal forms have a higher incidence than the soil's physicochemical factors on the extractability to evaluate the human oral bioaccessibility of the metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and persistent postconcussive symptoms in OIF/OEF veterans: polytrauma clinical triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Henry L; Otis, John D; Tun, Carlos; Kerns, Robert D; Clark, Michael E; Cifu, David X

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence and coprevalence with which returning Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)/Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) veterans were reporting symptoms consistent with chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and persistent postconcussive symptoms (PPCS). The medical records of 340 OIF/OEF veterans seen at a Department of Veterans Affairs Polytrauma Network Site were comprehensively reviewed. Analyses indicated a high prevalence of all three conditions in this population, with chronic pain, PTSD, and PPCS present in 81.5%, 68.2%, and 66.8%, respectively. Only 12 of the veterans (3.5%) had no chronic pain, PTSD, or PPCS. The frequency at which these three conditions were present in isolation (10.3%, 2.9%, and 5.3%, respectively) was significantly lower than the frequency at which they were present in combination with one another, with 42.1% of the sample being diagnosed with all three conditions simultaneously. The most common chronic pain locations were the back (58%) and head (55%). These results underscore the complexity of the presenting complaints in OIF/OEF veterans and support the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach to assessment and treatment.

  2. Influence of different organic amendments on the potential availability of metals from soil: a study on metal fractionation and extraction kinetics by EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sérgio; Costa, Carina A E; Duarte, Armando C; Scherer, Heinrich W; Schneider, Rudolf J; Esteves, Valdemar I; Santos, Eduarda B H

    2010-01-01

    The effects of long-term application of different organic amendments, as compared to mineral fertilizer, on Zn, Cu and Pb content and leachability in a luvisol derived from loess were assessed. The organic fertilizers, applied since 1962, were compost (COM) - from green organic household waste, sewage sludge (SLU) - from municipal water treatment facilities, farmyard manure (FYM) and the doses applied since 1997 were 90tha(-1), 10tha(-1) and 9tha(-1), once in 3years, respectively. The kinetics of metals extraction with 0.05moldm(-3) EDTA at pH 6.0 has been studied. The two first-order reactions model was fitted to the kinetic data and allowed to distinguish two pools for each metal: a "labile" fraction (Q(1)), quickly extracted with a rate constant k(1), and a "moderately labile" fraction (Q(2)), more slowly extracted, with a rate constant k(2). Simultaneously, the pseudo-total metal contents in the soil samples were determined after digestion with aqua regia (3:1 HCl+HNO(3)). The obtained parameters Q(1), k(1), Q(2), k(2), for the kinetics of extraction of each metal in the three replicates of each fertilization mode, as well as the pseudo-total metal contents, were statistically analysed. COM and SLU application resulted in an increase of the total contents of Pb, Zn and Cu in soil. Further, the percentage of labile Zn and Pb also increased in consequence of the application of those amendments, particularly COM. The increase was more noticeable for Zn. FYM, despite not increasing the total content of Pb, Zn or Cu, did also have an effect on the leachability of Zn and Pb, increasing their labile fraction in soil. These results point to a potential risk of increasing metals mobility in soil, mainly Zn, associated to the use of organic amendments, particularly COM or SLU.

  3. Extraction of the vegetation fraction based on a stepwise spectral mixture analysis for the central and eastern area of source region of Yangtze, Yellow and Lantsang Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxue; An, Ru; Qu, Chunmei; Yang, Renmin; Gong, Tianyu; Wu, Hong; Lu, Ling; Liu, Yingying; Liang, Xin

    2011-10-01

    Vegetation cover is an important parameter used in monitoring ecological changes of the source region of Yangtze, Yellow and Lantsang Rivers and understanding human activities. Thus, how to extract the large area's vegetation fraction quickly effectively is an open question. The traditional linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) assumes that the spectral reflectance is a mixture of several fixed endmember spectral values, which ignores considerable within-class variability. However, multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) overcomes the disadvantage by allowing the number and types to vary on a per-pixel basis. This paper proposes a stepwise spectral mixture analysis (SSMA) containing two steps of MESMA and adding the endmember fraction rationality rule in each step. The aim of the first step is to detect the pixels that didn't contain vegetation information at all and these pixels would be masked out. In the second step, MESMA is used to unmix the pixels only reserved in previous process. The results show that SSMA is more accurate than LSMA in extracting the vegetation fraction for the Three-Rivers. This means that SSMA is a good substitute for LSMA in studies on ecological changes. The concept of SSMA also can be applied for other large study areas.

  4. Fractionation of oil sands-process affected water using pH-dependent extractions: a study of dissociation constants for naphthenic acids species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongfu; Sun, Nian; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; McPhedran, Kerry N; Changalov, Mohamed; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    The fractionation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) via pH-dependent extractions was performed to quantitatively investigate naphthenic acids (NAs, CnH2n+ZO2) and oxidized NAs (Ox-NAs) species (CnH2n+ZO3 and CnH2n+ZO4) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS). A mathematical model was also developed to estimate the dissociation constant pKa for NAs species, considering the liquid-liquid extraction process and the aqueous layer acid-base equilibrium. This model provides estimated dissociation constants for compounds in water samples based on fractionation extraction and relative quantification. Overall, the sum of O2-, O3-, and O4-NAs species accounted for 33.6% of total extracted organic matter. Accumulative extracted masses at different pHs revealed that every oxygen atom added to NAs increases the pKa (i.e., O2-NAs

  5. Combination of HPLC chromatogram and hypoglycemic effect identifies isoflavones as the principal active fraction of Belamcanda chinensis leaf extract in diabetes treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Wu, Chong-Ming; Dai, Rong-Ji; Li, Liang; Yu, Yu-Hong; Li, Yan; Meng, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Yongqian; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2011-02-15

    In previous study, we demonstrated the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Belamcanda chinensis leaves in rats. Here, we separated the aqueous extract of B. chinensis leaves and investigated the spectrum-effect relationships between HPLC chromatograms and hypoglycemic activities of different isolates from B. chinensis leaf extract. Sequential solvent extraction with petroleum ether, chloroform, acetic ester and n-butanol provided several isolates showing similar hypoglycemic activities, making it difficult to discriminate the active fractions. Stepwise elution through HP20 macroporous resin by water, 40% and 95% ethanol provided isolates with distinct hypoglycemic activities, representing a simple, rapid and efficient preparative separation method. Combination of HPLC chromatogram and pharmacological effect targeted a hypoglycemic activity-related region in HPLC chromatogram. Each peak in this region was analyzed by UV spectrum scan. Most of them were flavonoids in which tectoridin and swertisin were known flavonoids with anti-diabetic activities. In together, this work provides a general model of combination of HPLC chromatography and pharmacological effect to study the spectrum-effect relationships of aqueous extract from B. chinensis leaves, which can be used to find principle components of B. chinensis on pharmacological activity.

  6. Evaluation of an integrated biorefinery based on fractionation of spent sulphite liquor for the production of an antioxidant-rich extract, lignosulphonates and succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, Maria; Papapostolou, Harris; Komaitis, Michael; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Danezis, Georgios P; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2016-08-01

    Spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been used for the production of lignosulphonates (LS), antioxidants and bio-based succinic acid. Solvent extraction of SSL with isopropanol led to the separation of approximately 80% of the total LS content, whereas the fermentations carried out using the pretreated SSL with isopropanol led to the production of around 19g/L of succinic acid by both Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Fractionation of SSL via nanofiltration to separate the LS and solvent extraction using ethyl acetate to separate the phenolic compounds produced a detoxified sugar-rich stream that led to the production of 39g/L of succinic acid by B. succiniciproducens. This fractionation scheme resulted also in the production of 32.4g LS and 1.15g phenolic-rich extract per 100g of SSL. Both pretreatment schemes removed significant quantities of metals and heavy metals. This novel biorefinery concept could be integrated in acidic sulphite pulping mills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteomics of differential extraction fractions enriched for chromatin-binding proteins from colon adenoma and carcinoma tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knol, Jaco C; de Wit, Meike; Albrethsen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered nuclear and genomic structure and function are hallmarks of cancer cells. Research into nuclear proteins in human tissues could uncover novel molecular processes in cancer. Here, we examine biochemical tissue fractions containing chromatin-binding (CB) proteins in the context ...

  8. Chromatographic finger print analysis of anti–inflammatory active extract fractions of aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris by HPTLC technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Salih Mohammed

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: The different chloroform fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 revealed 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7 and 6 major spots, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of this Sudanese medicinal plant.

  9. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation as a new approach to analyse iron-(hydr)oxide nanoparticles in soil extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Weng, L.P.; Koopmans, G.F.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Iron-(hydr)oxide nanoparticles are important for the sequestration of organic carbon because of their small size and consequently large specific surface area. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in analytical techniques such as asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) that allow for a d

  10. Antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential of aqueous fraction of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata (L.) against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced chromosome damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2009-01-01

    The antigenotoxic potential of an aqueous fraction of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata was evaluated by measuring the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in mice bone marrow, using 4-nitroquinoline-1oxide (NQO) as the reference mutagen. In addition, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant levels were also quantified with liver tissue of the same mice to assess their antioxidant potential. Swiss albino mice of either sex (25-30 g) were orally pretreated with an aqueous fraction (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. NQO (7.5 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally after 2 hours until the final day (day 5) of treatment with aqueous fraction. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours later by cervical dislocation and processed for micronuclei and bioassays. A significant reduction (about 67%) of NQO-induced MnPCE frequency was observed at the dose of 320 mg/kg. The LPO was also suppressed effectively, with concomitant changes in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. The restoration level was dose dependent in LPO and glutathione-s-transferase, whereas it was dose independent in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and reduced glutathione. The results indicate that the aqueous fraction of M. spicata mediates their antigenotoxic effects by the modulation of LPO and antioxidant enzymes.

  11. Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshatwi Ali A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most dreaded diseases causing an astonishingly high death rate, second only to cardiac arrest. The fact that conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures like chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reverting the outcome of the disease to any drastic extent, has made researchers investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from Nigella sativa with anti cancer acitivity. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of Organic extracts of Nigella sativa seed powder for its clonogenic inhibition and induction of apoptosis in HeLa cancer cell. Results Methanolic, n-Hexane and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa seedz effectively killed HeLa cells. The IC50 values of methanolic, n-hexane, and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa were 2.28 μg/ml, 2.20 μg/ml and 0.41 ng/ml, respectively. All three extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, western blot and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin-end labeling (TUNEL assay. Conclusion Western Blot and TUNEL results suggested that Nigella sativa seed extracts regulated the expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic genes, indicating its possible development as a potential therapeutic agent for cervical cancer upon further investigation.

  12. An OEF/OIF study of close combat missions using small unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, Gabriel; Tierney, Richard J.; Vitali, Juan A.

    2007-04-01

    The Small Unmanned Aircraft System (SUAS) is a rucksack portable aerial observation vehicle designed to supplement reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition tasks of an infantry company. The Raven is an earlier version of the SUAS. Raven is an Urgent Material Release (UMR) acquisition and has been used for the past two years by selected Army units in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Army Test and Evaluation Command-led surveys were used to assess the capabilities and limitations of the Raven in OEF/OIF. Results and analyses of the surveys indicate that Raven enhances situational awareness of a small unit in urban areas and in selected close combat missions. Users of the Raven state it is easy to use, although there are major issues with frequency de-confliction, airspace management, short endurance, and sensor performance. The SUAS is a program of record and completed developmental and operational testing in preparation for full rate production. This paper addresses the SUAS effectiveness, suitability, and survivability evaluation strategy based on actual testing of the system. During the Initial Operational Test (IOT), the SUAS was found to be effective with limitations in a set of 21 closed combat missions and two call for fire tests for which it was tested. Low Mean Time Between Operational Mean Failure (MTBOMF) and human factors issues make the system suitable with limitations. Acoustic (audible to the human ear) and electronic vulnerabilities make the system non-survivable in most combat scenarios. The SUAS was found to be useful as an extra asset usable in certain infantry company close combat missions where terrain and visual line of sight give the system an advantage over traditional reconnaissance patrols. Army aviation and infantry units uncover new ways every day to use this portable "eye in the sky", especially when unmanned aerial reconnaissance assets are in premium demand. A discussion on changes in doctrine with the

  13. Fractional reactive extraction for symmetrical separation of 4-nitro-D,L-phenylalanine in centrifugal contactor separators: experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kewen; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Panliang; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of 4-nitro-D,L-phenylalanine (D,L-Nphy) using PdCl2 {(s)-BINAP} as extractant in dichloroethane was studied experimentally in a countercurrent cascade of 10 centrifugal contactor separators (CCSs) at 5°C, involving flow ratio, extractant concentration, and Cl(-) concentration. The steady-state enantiomeric excess (ee) in both stream exits was 90.86% at a 93.29% yield. The predicted value was modeled using an equilibrium stage approach. The correlation between model and experiment was satisfactory. The model was applied to optimize the production of both enantiomers in >97% ee and >99% ee. 14 stages and 16 stages are required for 97% ee and 99% ee for both enantiomers, respectively.

  14. Measurements of branching fractions of leptonic and hadronic Ds+ meson decays and extraction of the Ds+ meson decay constant

    CERN Document Server

    Zupanc, A; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Asner, D M; Aushev, T; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Bhuyan, B; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Jaegle, I; Julius, T; Kato, E; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, H O; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Klucar, J; Ko, B R; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kronenbitter, B; Kuhr, T; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lange, J S; Lee, S -H; Li, J; Libby, J; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Lukin, P; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Mussa, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nedelkovska, E; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, H K; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Prim, M; Ritter, M; Röhrken, M; Rostomyan, A; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Starič, M; Steder, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Tanida, K; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uglov, T; Uno, S; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S E; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Yamashita, Y; Yashchenko, S; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of absolute branching fractions of hadronic and leptonic Ds+ decays to K- K+ pi+, anti-K0 K+, eta pi+, mu+ nu_mu and tau+ nu_tau and report a search for the leptonic Ds+ to e+ nu_e decays. The results are obtained from a large data sample collected at or near the Y(4S) and Y(5S) resonances with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. The branching fractions of hadronic decays are measured to be Br(Ds+ -> K- K+ pi+) = (5.06 +- 0.15 +- 0.21)%, Br(Ds+ -> anti-K0 K+) = (2.95 +- 0.11 +- 0.09)%, and Br(Ds+ -> eta pi+) = (1.82 +- 0.14 +- 0.07)%, where the first and second uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The branching fractions of leptonic decays are measured to be Br(Ds+ -> mu+ nu_mu) = (0.531 +- 0.028 +- 0.020)%, and Br(Ds+ -> tau+ nu_tau) = (5.70 +- 0.21 +0.31-0.30)%, which are combined to determine the Ds+ meson decay constant f_Ds = (255.5 +- 4.2 +- 5.1) MeV. We find no significant signal for Ds+ -> e+ nu_e decays and set an upper limit ...

  15. In vitro antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activity of plants used in Benin in traditional medicine and bio-guided fractionation of the most active extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bero, Joanne; Hannaert, Véronique; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Hérent, Marie-France; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2011-09-02

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activity of crude extracts of 10 plant species traditionally used in Benin to treat parasitic infections. For each species, dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts were tested. Their antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activities were evaluated in vitro on Trypanosoma brucei brucei (strain 427) (Tbb) and on promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana mexicana (MHOM/BZ/84/BEL46) (Lmm). The best growth inhibition was observed with the dichloromethane extracts of aerial parts of Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (Asteraceae) (IC(50)=14.5 μg/ml on Tbb and 11.1 μg/ml on Lmm), twigs of Keetia leucantha (K. Krause) Bridson (syn. Plectronia leucantha Krause) (IC(50)=5.8 μg/ml on Tbb), aerial parts of Byrsocarpus coccineus Schumach. & Thonn (syn. Rourea coccinea (Schumach. & Thonn.) Hook.f.) (IC(50)=14.7 μg/ml on Tbb) and aerial parts of Carpolobia lutea G.Don. (IC(50)=18.3 μg/ml on Tbb). All these extracts had a low cytotoxicity. It is not the case for the methanolic and water extracts of roots of Anchomanes difformis (Blume) Engl. (IC(50)=14.7 and 13.8 μg/ml on Tbb) which were toxic at the same concentration range on WI38, human cells. A bio-guided fractionation of the most active extract of Keetia leucantha allowed to identify oleanolic acid and ursolic acid as responsible for the observed activities. Our study gives some justification for antiparasitic activity of some investigated plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous X-ray and optical spectroscopy of the Oef supergiant lambda Cep

    CERN Document Server

    Rauw, G; Naze, Y; Gonzalez-Perez, J N; Hempelmann, A; Mittag, M; Schmitt, J H M M; Schroeder, K -P; Gosset, E; Eenens, P; Uuh-Sonda, J M

    2015-01-01

    Probing the structures of stellar winds is of prime importance for the understanding of massive stars. Based on their optical spectral morphology and variability, the stars of the Oef class have been suggested to feature large-scale structures in their wind. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and time-series of X-ray observations of presumably-single O-type stars can help us understand the physics of their stellar winds. We have collected XMM-Newton observations and coordinated optical spectroscopy of the O6Ief star lambda Cep to study its X-ray and optical variability and to analyse its high-resolution X-ray spectrum. We investigate the line profile variability of the He II 4686 and H-alpha emission lines in our time series of optical spectra, including a search for periodicities. We further discuss the variability of the broadband X-ray flux and analyse the high-resolution spectrum of lambda Cep using line-by-line fits as well as a code designed to fit the full high-resolution X-ray spectrum consistently. D...

  17. Gender differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms among OEF/OIF veterans: an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matthew W; Street, Amy E; Gradus, Jaimie L; Vogt, Dawne S; Resick, Patricia A

    2013-04-01

    Establishing whether men and women tend to express different symptoms of posttraumatic stress in reaction to trauma is important for both etiological research and the design of assessment instruments. Use of item response theory (IRT) can reveal how symptom reporting varies by gender and help determine if estimates of symptom severity for men and women are equally reliable. We analyzed responses to the PTSD Checklist (PCL) from 2,341 U.S. military veterans (51% female) who completed deployments in support of operations in Afghanistan and Iraq (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom [OEF/OIF]), and tested for differential item functioning by gender with an IRT-based approach. Among men and women with the same overall posttraumatic stress severity, women tended to report more frequent concentration difficulties and distress from reminders whereas men tended to report more frequent nightmares, emotional numbing, and hypervigilance. These item-level gender differences were small (on average d = 0.05), however, and had little impact on PCL measurement precision or expected total scores. For practical purposes, men's and women's severity estimates had similar reliability. This provides evidence that men and women veterans demonstrate largely similar profiles of posttraumatic stress symptoms following exposure to military-related stressors, and some theoretical perspectives suggest this may hold in other traumatized populations.

  18. Cytotoxic activity of crude extracts and fractions from Premna odorata(Blanco),Artocarpus camansi(Blanco) and Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) against selected human cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ourlad; Alzeus; G.Tantengco; Sonia; D.Jacinto

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the cytotoxic activities of Premna odorata(P.odorata)leaves and bark,Artocarpus camansi(A.camansi)and Gliricidia sepium against selected human cancer cell lines by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT)assay.Methods:The crude extracts of P.odorata,A.camansi and Gliricidia sepium were subjected to liquid–liquid partitioning by using hexane and ethyl acetate to separate compounds based on their polarity.The fractions were tested for their cytotoxic activity against human colon cancer cell line(HCT116),breast cancer cell line(MCF-7),lung adenocarcinoma cell line(A549)and Chinese hamster ovary cell line(AA8)by using MTT assay.Results:Based on the standard values of toxicity set by the study of Suffness and Pezzuto,P.odorata leaves and P.odorata bark hexane fractions and A.camansi leaves were all considered highly cytotoxic against the selected human cancer cell lines.P.odorata bark hexane extract exhibited the highest selectivity index for HCT116,MCF-7 and A549 cancer cell lines.Conclusions:The results obtained indicated that P.odorata leaves and bark and A.camansi leaves have excellent cytotoxic activity and warrant further studies to isolate novel compounds for chemotherapeutic use.

  19. Cytotoxic activity of crude extracts and fractions from Premna odorata (Blanco), Artocarpus camansi (Blanco) and Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) against selected human cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ourlad Alzeus G Tantengco; Sonia D Jacinto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic activities of Premna odorata (P. odorata) leaves and bark, Artocarpus camansi (A. camansi) and Gliricidia sepium against selected human cancer cell lines by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Methods: The crude extracts of P. odorata, A. camansi and Gliricidia sepium were subjected to liquid–liquid partitioning by using hexane and ethyl acetate to separate compounds based on their polarity. The fractions were tested for their cytotoxic activity against human colon cancer cell line (HCT116), breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) and Chinese hamster ovary cell line (AA8) by using MTT assay. Results: Based on the standard values of toxicity set by the study of Suffness and Pezzuto, P. odorata leaves and P. odorata bark hexane fractions and A. camansi leaves were all considered highly cytotoxic against the selected human cancer cell lines. P. odorata bark hexane extract exhibited the highest selectivity index for HCT116, MCF-7 and A549 cancer cell lines. Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that P. odorata leaves and bark and A. camansi leaves have excellent cytotoxic activity and warrant further studies to isolate novel compounds for chemotherapeutic use.

  20. Healing mechanisms of the hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) on chronic gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borato, Débora Gasparin; Scoparo, Camila Toledo; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luísa Mota; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Iacomini, Marcello; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2016-03-01

    Green tea is an infusion of unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae), traditionally used for the treatment of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and gastric complaints. This study evaluated the mechanisms involved in the gastric ulcer healing of the hydroalcoholic extract from green tea (GEt), its ethyl acetate fraction, (GEAc) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using the model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The chronic gastric ulcer was induced by application of 80 % acetic acid on serosal mucosa of rats. After 7 days of oral treatment with GEt and GEAc, the ulcer area, mucin content, inflammatory parameters (MPO and NAG), and antioxidant system (GSH and LOOH levels, SOD and GST activities) were evaluated. In vitro, the scavenging activity of GEt and GEAc were also measured. The antisecretory action was studied on the pylorus ligature method in rats. Oral treatment with GEt and GEAc reduced significantly the gastric ulcer area induced by acetic acid. The gastric ulcer healing was accompanied by increasing of mucin content, restoration of GSH levels and SOD activity, and reduction of MPO and LOOH levels. In addition, GEt and GEAc reduced the DPPH free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the oral treatment of animals with GEt and GEAc did not alter the gastric acid secretion or cause signs of toxicity. Collectively, these results showed that GEt had a pronounced antiulcer effect, possibly through maintenance of mucin content and reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, the compounds present in its ethyl acetate fraction could be responsible for the extract activity.

  1. Two-stage fractionation of polar alkaloids from Rhizoma coptidis by countercurrent chromatography considering the strategy of reactive extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cai, Fanfan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Yuerong; Hu, Ping

    2015-01-23

    Separation of polar alkaloids by countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is challengeable due to their close partition behaviors in solvent system. In this paper, a two-stage method for isolation of epiberberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, coptisine, and berberine from Rhizoma coptidis was presented. The first stage separation performed on CCC was based on the principle of reactive extraction. Trifluoroacetic acid was acted as a modulator to selectively react with alkaloids, which changed their partition coefficients in solvent system. Purified epiberberine and other partially separated targets were eluted by ammonium adjusted mobile phase. In the second stage, four alkaloids were purified in pH-zone-refining CCC mode. All the targets collected were over 97% pure determined by HPLC. The method developed demonstrates performing of reactive extraction on standard CCC as an option for separation of polar alkaloids from medicinal plants.

  2. Aspidosperma subincanum I. characterisation, extraction of an uleine-enriched fraction and potential health hazard due to the contaminant ellipticine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Daniel Federlin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bark of the Brazilian tree Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. ex A. DC., Apocynaceae, has been characterised, and its constituents concentrated to obtain an uleine-enriched extract with the aim to produce food supplements. The concentration of the contaminant alkaloid ellipticine was assessed, and its potential to elicit toxic effects on consumers evaluated. It was found that this alkaloid posited no danger.

  3. Evaluation of antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract and its fractions from the Mediterranean sponge

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Without doubt, natural products have been, and still are, the cornerstone of the health care armamentarium. Of all natural sources, the marine environment is clearly the last great frontier for pharmaceutical and medical research. Methods This work progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with pharmacological activities. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of methanol extract and its semi-purif...

  4. A method for protein extraction from different subcellular fractions of laticifer latex in Hevea brasiliensis compatible with 2-DE and MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Anping

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomic analysis of laticifer latex in Hevea brasiliensis has been received more significant attentions. However, the sticky and viscous characteristic of rubber latex as cytoplasm of laticifer cells and the complication of laticifer latex membrane systems has made it challenge to isolate high-quality proteins for 2-DE and MS. Results Based on the reported Borax/PVPP/Phenol (BPP protocol, we developed an efficient method for protein preparation from different latex subcellular fractions and constructed high-resolution reference 2-DE maps. The obtained proteins from both total latex and C-serum fraction with this protocol generate more than one thousand protein spots and several hundreds of protein spots from rubber particles as well as lutoid fraction and its membranes on the CBB stained 2-DE gels. The identification of 13 representative proteins on 2-DE gels by MALDI TOF/TOF MS/MS suggested that this method is compatible with MS. Conclusion The proteins extracted by this method are compatible with 2-DE and MS. This protein preparation protocol is expected to be used in future comparative proteomic analysis for natural rubber latex.

  5. Improvement of the liver pathology by the aqueous extract and the n-butanol fraction of Sida pilosa Retz in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatsa, Hermine Boukeng; Russo, Remo Castro; Pereira, Cintia Aparecida de Jesus; Aguilar, Edenil Costa; Garcia, Cristiana Couto; Araújo, Emília Souza; Oliveira, Jailza Lima Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Vanessa Fernandes; de Oliveira, Vinícius Gustavo; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline Isaura; Braga, Fernão Castro; Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuente; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah Aparecida; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2016-03-02

    Sida pilosa Retz (Malvaceae) is a plant used in Africa for the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis, lower abdominal pains and dysmenorrhea. In order to determine the potential use of S. pilosa in the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni, we evaluated the schistosomicidal, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic properties of the aqueous extract and the n-butanol fraction of its aerial parts. S. pilosa aqueous extract (SpAE) at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg and n-butanol fraction (SpBF) at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg were administered per os to Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice for 4 weeks. Praziquantel (100mg/kg × 5 days) was used as reference drug. After sacrifice, worm burden and egg count, transaminases and proteins levels were evaluated. Malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxydes (LOOH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also measured. The anti-fibrotic effect of the plant was evaluated by the determination of hydroxyproline and γ-interferon (IFN-γ). The treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice by SpAE or SpBF resulted in a moderate reduction of worm burden and egg load in the liver and intestine. Both SpAE and SpBF significantly reversed the increasing liver proteins, MDA, LOOH and CAT levels induced by the infection. Moreover, SOD activity was improved by SpAE and SpBF. Schistosomiasis mansoni considerably increased the EPO (p<0.001) and MPO activities (p<0.001). SpAE treatment significantly reduced EPO and MPO activities at all doses. SpBF failed to reduce the increasing MPO and decreased EPO only at the highest dose. S. mansoni-infection induced an increase in hydroxyproline content (p<0.001) and a decrease in IFN-γ level (p<0.001). Both SpAE and SpBF significantly reduced hepatic hydroxyproline content, while only SpAE (p<0.05) improved IFN-γ level. These results suggest that the liver pathology in schistosomiasis mansoni is improved by S. pilosa aqueous extract, which disclosed a moderate schistosomicidal

  6. Copper and zinc fractionation in apple orchard soil in the village of Bukevje (Croatia) using the revised four-step BCR extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medunić, Gordana; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Lovrenčić Mikelić, Ivanka; Tomašić, Nenad; Balen, Dražen; Oreščanin, Višnja; Kampić, Štefica; Ivković, Ivana

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the fractionation of copper and zinc in a small apple orchard using the revised (four-step) Bureau Communautaire de Référence (BCR) sequential extraction procedure and assess their potential mobility in soil. Soil samples were collected at the depth of 10 cm to 25 cm, sixteen from the orchard and five control samples from a meadow located some 200 m away from the orchard. As the distribution of trace-element concentrations in the control samples was normal, they were used for comparison as background levels. We also determined soil mineralogical composition, carbonate content, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and soil organic matter. The extraction yields of Cu and Zn from the control soil were lower than from the orchard soil (25% vs. 34% and 47% vs. 52%, respectively), which pointed to natural processes behind metal bonding in the control soil and greater influence of man-made activities in the orchard soil. Compared to control, the orchard soil had significantly higher concentrations of total Cu (P=0.0009), possibly due to the application of Cu-based fungicides. This assumption was further supported by greater speciation variability of Cu than of zinc, which points to different origins of the two, Cu from pesticides and Zn from the parent bedrock. Copper levels significantly better (P=0.01) correlated with the oxidisable fraction of the orchard soil than of control soil. Residual and organically bound copper and zinc constituted the most important fractions in the studied soils. However, the use of Cu-based fungicides in the apple orchard did not impose environmental and health risk from Cu exposure.

  7. Studies on antimicrobial activity of Poncirus trifoliata ethyl extract fraction against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and to elucidate its antibacterial mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Jung, Yeoun-Joong; Lee, Dae-Sung; Yim, Mi-Jin; Kim, Hye Seon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Myeong, Jeong-In; Lee, Jinhwan; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Myung-Suk; Kim, Young-Mog

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants contain a wide variety of chemicals that have potent antibacterial activity. To find an alternative agent of overcoming the problems of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the antibacterial mechanism of Ponciruss trifoliata against MRSA was investigated. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble extract of P. trifoliata methanolic extract was evaluated for antibacterial activity using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). An EtOAc sub-fraction 08 (EA08) from silica-gel open column chromatography exhibited strong anti-MRSA activity. Apart from the study to isolate single compound from EA08, a synergistic antibacterial effect between the sub-fraction and β-lactam antibiotics against MRSA was determined. In order to elucidate the antibacterial restoring mechanism of EA08 on MRSA, mRNA expression of mecA gene and production penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) encoded by mecA gene were monitored. EA 08 showed the strongest antibacterial activity with MIC value of 256 μg ml(-1). MIC of oxacillin against MRSA was dramatically reduced from 512 to 16 μg ml(-1) in combination with 256 μg ml(-1) of EA08. The fractional inhibitory concentration index of oxacillin was measured at 0.53 in combination with EA08 against MRSA, suggesting that EA08-oxacillin combinations exert synergetic effect against MRSA. The analysis of RT-PCR and Western blotting profiles revealed that EA08 inhibited mRNA expression of mecA gene and production PBP2a, which is a key determinant for β-lactam antibiotic resistance, in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that EA08 eventually led to the reduction or inhibition of PBP2a production through translational inhibition in MRSA.

  8. Cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in scopolamine-induced amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana S Nade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods : The learning and memory was impaired by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p. in mice which is associated with altered brain oxidative status. The object recognition test (ORT and passive avoidance test (PAT were used to assess cognitive enhancing activity. Animals were treated with an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. Results : The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (EASF attenuated amnesia induced by scopolamine and aging. The discrimination index (DI was significantly decreased in the aged and scopolamine group in ORT. Pretreatment with EASF significantly increased the DI. In PAT, scopolamine-treated mice exhibited significantly shorter step-down latencies (SDL. EASF treatment showed a significant increase in SDL in young, aged as well as in scopolamine-treated animals. The biochemical analysis of brain revealed that scopolamine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GSH. Administration of extract significantly reduced LPO and reversed the decrease in brain SOD and GSH levels. The administration of H. sinensis improved memory in amnesic mice and prevented the oxidative stress associated with scopolamine. The mechanism of such protection of H. sinensis may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. Conclusion : The results of the present study suggested that H. sinensis had a protective role against age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its utility in management of cognitive disorders.

  9. Purification of Flavonoids from Chinese Bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc. Fruit Extracts and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Different Fractionations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Yan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc. fruit have a diverse flavonoid composition responsible for the various medicinal activities, including anti-diabetes. In the present study, efficient simultaneous purification of four flavonoid glycosides, i.e., cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (1, myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (3, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (4, from Chinese bayberry pulp was established by the combination of solid phase extract (SPE by C18 Sep-Pak® cartridge column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC (Prep-HPLC, which was followed by HPLC and LC-MS identification. The purified flavonoid glycosides, as well as different fractions of fruit extracts of six bayberry cultivars, were investigated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The flavonol extracts (50% methanol elution fraction of six cultivars showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 15.4–69.5 μg/mL, which were higher than that of positive control acarbose (IC50 = 383.2 μg/mL. Four purified compounds 1–4 exerted α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 1444.3 μg/mL, 418.8 μg/mL, 556.4 μg/mL, and 491.8 μg/mL, respectively. Such results may provide important evidence for the potential anti-diabetic activity of different cultivars of Chinese bayberry fruit and the possible bioactive compounds involved.

  10. Comparative assessment of two sequential chemical extraction schemes for the fractionation of cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc in surface coastal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.B.; Malla, M.E. [Dept. de Quimica e Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Batistoni, D.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-01-01

    Two existing sequential chemical extraction schemes, involving respectively five and six leaching steps with solutions of increasing dissolving power, were compared. The methods have been applied to surface sediment samples collected in a marine estuary zone potentially exposed to contamination arising from nearby industrial activities. A certified reference material (MURST-ISS-A1) consisting of an Antarctic bottom sediment for which no information regarding phase dependent concentration is available, was also analyzed. In order to evaluate the partition of metals among different geochemical forms, the concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc were measured in the liquid extracts by Zeeman-corrected flame atomic absorption and by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The total metal concentrations were determined after strong acid attack, and the adequacy of this total digestion/dissolution technique was verified by its application to the reference material. Comparison of total metal concentrations with the sum of concentrations associated with the individual phases was employed to assess possible analyte losses or contaminations. Precisions for both sequential procedures were comparable, but some inconsistencies in mass balances were found in one of the samples for the distribution of Zn in the soluble/exchangeable fractions and for Cd in the bound to carbonates form. In addition, the six steps procedure produced lower concentration values in the case of elements associated to the residual fraction. For the five steps method mass balances showed acceptable agreement, with average recoveries in the 87 to 106% range. On the whole, differences in metal distributions were observed, being more marked for the bottom sediment. Significant proportions of the studied elements, with the exception of Cr, were found as easily extractable forms. X-ray diffraction and petrographic observation of the surface sediments allowed qualitative correlation

  11. The respective effects of soil heavy metal fractions by sequential extraction procedure and soil properties on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine heavy metal accumulation in rice grains and brassicas and to identify the different controls, such as soil properties and soil heavy metal fractions obtained by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, in their accumulation. In Guangdong Province, South China, rice grain and brassica samples, along with their rhizospheric soil, were collected from fields on the basis of distance downstream from electroplating factories, whose wastewater was used for irrigation. The results showed that long-term irrigation using the electroplating effluent has not only enriched the rhizospheric soil with Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn but has also increased their mobility and bioavailability. The average concentrations of Cd and Cr in rice grains and brassicas from closest to the electroplating factories were significantly higher than those from the control areas. Results from hybrid redundancy analysis (hRDA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the BCR fractions of soil heavy metals could explain 29.0 and 46.5 % of total eigenvalue for heavy metal concentrations in rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while soil properties could only explain 11.1 and 33.4 %, respectively. This indicated that heavy metal fractions exerted more control upon their concentrations in rice grains and brassicas than soil properties. In terms of metal interaction, an increase of residual Zn in paddy soil or a decrease of acid soluble Cd in the brassica soil could enhance the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb in both rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while the reducible or oxidizable Cd in soil could enhance the plants' accumulation of Cr and Pb. The RDA showed an inhibition effect of sand content and CFO on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas. Moreover, multiple stepwise linear regression could offer prediction for Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations in the two crops by soil heavy metal fractions and soil properties.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Osteoclastogenic and Antioxidant Effects of Malva sylvestris Extract and Fractions: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, Marcelo; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato; Alencar, Severino Matias; Franco, Gilson Cesar Nobre; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Given their medical importance, natural products represent a tremendous source of drug discovery. The aim of this study was to investigate Malva sylvestris L. extract and fractions and their pharmacological activities followed by chemical identification. The aqueous fraction (AF) was identified as the bioactive fraction in the in vitro and in vivo assays. The AF controlled the neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity by 66%, inhibited the antiedematogenic activity by 58.8%, and controlled IL-1β cytokine expression by 54%. The in vitro viability tests showed a concentration-dependent effect, where the MSE and fractions at concentrations under 10 μg/mL were non-toxic to cells. Transcriptional factors of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), cathepsin K (Ctsk) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were analyzed by qPCR in RAW 264.7 cell lines. The gene expression analysis showed that the AF was the only treatment that could downregulate all the study genes: CAII, Ctsk and TRAP (p<0.05). TRAP staining was used to evaluate osteoclast formation. AF treatments reduced the number of osteoclastogenesis 2.6-fold compared to the vehicle control group. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity decreased 75% with the AF treatment. Moreover, the bioactive fraction had the ability to regulate the oxidation pathway in the ABTS (2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay with an activity equivalent to 1.30 μmol Trolox/g and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals 1.01 g/L. Positive ion ESI-mass spectrometry for molecular ions at m/z 611 and 633 confirmed rutin as the major compound in the AF. The AF of M. sylvestris presented anti-inflammatory, controlled osteoclastogenic mechanisms and antioxidant abilities in different in vitro and in vivo methods. In addition, we suggest that given its multi-target activity the bioactive fraction may be a good candidate in the therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27643502

  13. Carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini oxysterols detected by LC-MS/MS survey of soluble fraction parasite extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Nuno; Gouveia, Maria João; Botelho, Mónica; Sripa, Banchob; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Gomes, Paula; Brindley, Paul J; Correia da Costa, José Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Liquid chromatography in tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has emerged as an informative tool to investigate oxysterols (oxidized derivatives of cholesterol) in helminth parasite associated cancers. Here, we used LC-MS/MS to investigate in soluble extracts of the adult developmental stage of Opisthorchis viverrini from experimentally infected hamsters. Using comparisons with known bile acids and the metabolites of estrogens, the LC-MS data indicated the existence of novel oxysterol derivatives in O. viverrini. Most of these derivatives were ramified at C-17, in similar fashion to bile acids and their conjugated salts. Several were compatible with the presence of an estrogen core, and/or hydroxylation of the steroid aromatic ring A, hydroxylation of both C-2 and C-3 of the steroid ring and further oxidation into an estradiol-2,3-quinone.

  14. Mathematical analysis of physicochemical phenomena in the catalyst during hydrogenating depolymerization of coal extract benzene insoluble fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerzy Szczygieł; Marek Stolarski

    2015-01-01

    Efficiency and selectivity of hydrogenating depolymerization of the coal extract benzene-insoluble part over the heterogeneous Co–Mo/Al2O3 catalyst were assessed using a mathematical model. The analytical equations of the mathematical model were generated based on material balance incorporating the physico-chemical phenomena (reaction and diffusion) both in the autoclave and the catalyst grain. The equations offer the possibility for predicting changes of the reactants in the autoclave during the process and for determining the distribution of reactant concentrations in the grain as a function of its radius. The analytical equations of the model serve as the basis of the algorithm for assessing the influence of restrictive diffusion on the effectiveness and selectivity of the catalyst, and also for defining the optimal radi of the catalyst's pores to enable free transport of reactants in the grain interior.

  15. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  16. Extraction and characterization of crude oil asphaltenes sub fractions; Extracao e caracterizacao de subfracoes de asfaltenos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Silas R.; Calado, Lucas S.; Honse, Siller O.; Mansur, Claudia R.E.; Lucas, Elizabete F., E-mail: silas@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Asphaltenes from crude oil have been studied for a long time. However, until today their chemical structures and physical-chemical properties are not well established. Nowadays, it is accepted that asphaltenes are dispersed in the crude oil as macro structures, which are mainly constituted of some condensed aromatic rings (about 6-20), containing aliphatic or naphthenic groups. The asphaltenes are also defined as the crude oil fraction that is insoluble in low molar mass n-alkanes and soluble in aromatic solvents, like benzene and toluene In order to investigate the molecular structure, in this work the asphaltenes were separated by using a different procedure as that normally described in the literature and characterized by infrared spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray fluorescence, elemental analyses and particle size and size distribution. The difference in subfractions polarity can be attributed not only to the aromaticity changes but also to the content of elements, such as N, O, Fe, V, Si e Ni. (author)

  17. The saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract reduces cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rama Manohar I; Latha, Pushpa B; Vijaya, Tartte; Rao, Dattatreya S

    2012-01-01

    We examined the antiobesity effect of a saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract (SGE) using cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obese rats for a period of eight weeks. SGE was orally administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight once a day to the treatment group. It significantly decreased the body weight, food consumption, visceral organs weight, and the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, very low-density lipoproteins, atherogenic index, glucose, and increased the levels of high-density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference with respect to all parameters of the study in case of normal (N) diet and N diet + SGE rats. In vitro, SGE inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity. The present study gave clear evidence that the SGE has a significant antiobese action, supporting its use in traditional medicine, and can be used as a substitute for synthetic drugs.

  18. Sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirmal K.Lohiya; Boomi Manivannan; Shipra Goyal; Abdul S.Ansari

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the contraceptive efficacy of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkeys. Methods: The test substance was given p.o. to five monkeys at 50 mg/kg body weight/day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 3) received olive oil as vehicle. Sperm parameters as per World Health Organization standards, sperm functional tests, morphology of testis and epididymis, haematology, clinical biochemistry, serum testosterone and libido were evaluated. Following completion of 360 days treatment the animals were withdrawn from the treatment and the recovery pattern was assessed by semen analysis and sperm functional tests. Results: Total inhibition of sperm motility was observed following 60 days of treatment that continued until 360 days study period. Sperm count, percent viability and percent normal spermatozoa showed a drastic decline following 30 days of treatment. Sperm morphology showed predominant mid piece abnormalities. Sperm functional tests scored in sterile range. Histology and ultrastructure of testis revealed vacuolization in the Sertoli cells and germ cells. Loss of cytoplasmic organelles was evident in spermatocytes and round spermatids. Histology and ultrastruc-ture of epididymis of treated animals were comparable to those of control animals. Hematological and serum clinicalparameters and testosterone levels fluctuated within the control range throughout the study period. Recovery was evident following 60-120 days of treatment withdrawal. Conclusion: The results suggest that the benzene chro-matographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya shows contraceptive efficacy without adverse toxicity, mediated through inhibition of sperm motility.

  19. Local Anesthetic Activity from Extracts, Fractions and Pure Compounds from the Roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Kelvin S E; Marques, André M; Moreira, Davyson DE L; Velozo, Leosvaldo S; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Guimarães, Elsie F; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2016-01-01

    Piperaceae species can be found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas and many of them have been used for centuries in traditional folk medicine and in culinary. In Brazil, species of Piperaceae are commonly used in some communities as local anesthetic and analgesic. Countrified communities have known some species of the genus Ottonia as "anestesia" and it is a common habit of chewing leaves and roots of Ottonia species to relief toothache. The purpose of this study is to report our findings on new molecules entities obtained from the roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng, in which local anesthetic activity (sensory blockage) is demonstrated for the first time in vivo guinea pig model. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of three amides (pipercallosidine, piperine and valeramide) and in an enriched mixture of seven amides (valeramide, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, N-isobutil-6-piperonil-2-hexenamide, piperovatine, dihydropipercallosidine, pipercallosidine and pipercallpsine). Our findings demonstrated the anesthetic potential for the methanolic extract from roots, its n-hexane partition and amides from O. anisum and it is in agreement with ethnobotanical survey.

  20. Local Anesthetic Activity from Extracts, Fractions and Pure Compounds from the Roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng. (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELVIN S.E. LÓPEZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Piperaceae species can be found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas and many of them have been used for centuries in traditional folk medicine and in culinary. In Brazil, species of Piperaceae are commonly used in some communities as local anesthetic and analgesic. Countrified communities have known some species of the genus Ottonia as "anestesia" and it is a common habit of chewing leaves and roots of Ottonia species to relief toothache. The purpose of this study is to report our findings on new molecules entities obtained from the roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng, in which local anesthetic activity (sensory blockage is demonstrated for the first time in vivo guinea pig model. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of three amides (pipercallosidine, piperine and valeramide and in an enriched mixture of seven amides (valeramide, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, N-isobutil-6-piperonil-2-hexenamide, piperovatine, dihydropipercallosidine, pipercallosidine and pipercallpsine. Our findings demonstrated the anesthetic potential for the methanolic extract from roots, its n-hexane partition and amides from O. anisum and it is in agreement with ethnobotanical survey.

  1. Effect of Topical Administration of Fractions and Isolated Molecules from Plant Extracts on Skin Wound Healing: A Systematic Review of Murine Experimental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernanda Barbosa; Pinto, Marcus Vinicius Mello; Sartori, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Skin wound healing is a dynamic process driven by molecular events responsible for the morphofunctional repair of the injured tissue. In a systematic review, we analyzed the relevance of plant fractions and isolates on skin wound healing. By revising preclinical investigations with murine models, we investigated if the current evidence could support clinical trials. Methods. Studies were selected in the MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases according to the PRISMA statement. All 32 identified studies were submitted to data extraction and the methodological bias was investigated according to ARRIVE strategy. Results. The studies demonstrated that plant fractions and isolates are able to modulate the inflammatory process during skin wound healing, being also effective in attenuating the oxidative tissue damage in the scar tissue and stimulating cell proliferation, neoangiogenesis, collagen synthesis, granulation tissue expansion, reepithelialization, and the wound closure rate. However, we identified serious methodological flaws in all studies, such as the high level of reporting bias and absence of standardized experimental designs, analytical methods, and outcome measures. Conclusion. Considering these limitations, the current evidence gen