Sample records for extraction displacement elution-high

  1. Dithizone-functionalized solid phase extraction-displacement elution-high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for mercury speciation in water samples. (United States)

    Yin, Yong-guang; Chen, Ming; Peng, Jin-feng; Liu, Jing-fu; Jiang, Gui-bin


    A novel and simple solid phase extraction (SPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was developed for determination of inorganic mercury (IHg), methylmercury MeHg and ethylmercury (EtHg) in water samples in the present work. The procedure involves pre-functionalization of the commercially available C18 SPE column with dithizone, loading water sample, displacement elution of mercury species by Na(2)S(2)O(3) solution, followed by HPLC-ICP-MS determination. Characterization and optimization of operation parameters of this new SPE procedure were discussed, including eluting reagent selection, concentration of eluting reagent, volume of eluting reagent, effect of NaCl and humic acid in sample matrix. At optimized conditions, the detection limits of mercury species for 100mL water sample were about 3ngL(-1) and the average recoveries were 93.7, 83.4, and 71.7% for MeHg, IHg and EtHg, respectively, by spiking 0.2microgL(-1) mercury species into de-ion water. Stability experiment reveals that both the dithizone-functionalized SPE cartridge and the mercury species incorporated were stable in the storage procedure. These results obtained demonstrate that SPE-HPLC-ICP-MS is a simple and sensitive technique for the determination of mercury species at trace level in water samples with high reproducibility and accuracy.

  2. Environmentally induced displacements in the ecotourism-extraction nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Davidov, Veronica


    Around the world, we increasingly see the often-deemed incongruent activities of ecotourism, associated environmental conservation and natural resource or fossil fuel extraction happening in the same spaces, often supported by the same institutions. Rather than being incongruent, however, these


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The development in safe conditions of the extracting process continuously imposes the need of optimal functioning of the extracting installations as important links in the transport flow of the mineral substance and of the sterile for the transportation between the underground and the surface of personal, machines and different mining tools. In the paper there is presented an analysis of the behavior of the towers of the extracting installation with regards to strains and displacements of the resistance structure during the functioning of the extracting installations with pulleys as a wrapping organ for the cables.

  4. A displacement pump procedure to load extracts for automated gel permeation chromatography. (United States)

    Daft, J; Hopper, M; Hensley, D; Sisk, R


    Automated gel permeation chromatography (GPC) effectively separates lipids from pesticides in sample extracts that contain fat. Using a large syringe to load sample extracts manually onto GPC models having 5 mL holding loops is awkward, slow, and potentially hazardous. Loading with a small-volume displacement pump, however, is convenient and fast (ca 1 loop every 20 s). And more importantly, the analyst is not exposed to toxic organic vapors because the loading pump and its connecting lines do not leak in the way that a syringe does.

  5. Pain, discomfort, and use of analgesics following the extraction of primary canines in children with palatally displaced canines. (United States)

    Naoumova, Julia; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Kurol, Jüri; Mohlin, Bengt


    BACKGROUND. Pain following the extraction of the primary canine in children with palatally displaced canines (PDC) as an interceptive treatment has not been investigated. AIMS. To describe pain, discomfort, dental anxiety, and use of analgesics following the extraction of primary canines in children with PDC. DESIGN. Forty-four children, aged 10-13 with PDC, were included. Pain intensity, discomfort, and analgesic consumption were rated the first evening and 1 week after the extraction of the primary canine. Dental anxiety was assessed pre-extraction, using the dental anxiety scale (DAS). A matched reference group also completed the DAS. RESULTS. No significant differences were found between the study and the reference group regarding the pre-extraction assessments. Post-extraction pain and discomfort was low. The experience of the injection was graded worse than the extraction, and more pain was rated at the evening post-extraction than during the extraction. Analgesics were used only the first evening. High correlation was detected between DAS and pain during injection and extraction. CONCLUSIONS. The experience of pain and discomfort during and after extraction of the primary canines is low, despite that 42% of the children used analgesics. Therefore, appropriate analgesics and recommendation doses pre- and post-extraction should be prescribed. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Solubilization of proteins in aqueous two-phase extraction through combinations of phase-formers and displacement agents. (United States)

    Kress, Christian; Sadowski, Gabriele; Brandenbusch, Christoph


    The aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) of therapeutic proteins is a promising separation alternative to cost-intensive chromatography, still being the workhorse of nowadays downstream processing. As shown in many publications, using NaCl as displacement agent in salt-polymer ATPE allows for a selective purification of the target protein immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human serum albumin (HSA, represents the impurity). However a high yield of the target protein is only achievable as long as the protein is stabilized in solution and not precipitated. In this work the combined influence of NaCl and polyethylene glycol (Mw=2000g/mol) on the IgG-IgG interactions was determined using composition gradient multi-angle light scattering (CG-MALS) demonstrating that NaCl induces a solubilization of IgG in polyethylene glycol 2000 solution. Moreover it is shown that the displacement agent NaCl has a significant and beneficial influence on the IgG solubility in polyethyleneglycol2000-citrate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) which can also be accessed by these advanced B22 measurements. By simultaneous consideration of IgG solubility data with results of the ATPS phase behavior (especially volume fraction of the respective phases) allows for the selection of process tailored ATPS including identification of the maximum protein feed concentration. Through this approach an ATPS optimization is accessible providing high yields and selectivity of the target protein (IgG). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  8. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  9. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben


    This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...... medical conditions. Displacing use can be a valuable strategy for design, revealing some of the contextual conditions that influence an artefact's use, and broadening the space of alternatives explored in design. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Estimating Soil Displacement from Timber Extraction Trails in Steep Terrain: Application of an Unmanned Aircraft for 3D Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pierzchała


    Full Text Available Skid trails constructed for timber extraction in steep terrain constitute a serious environmental concern if not well planned, executed and ameliorated. Carrying out post-harvest surveys in monitoring constructed trails in such terrain is an onerous task for forest administrators, as hundreds of meters need to be surveyed per site, and the quantification of parameters and volumes is largely based on assumptions of trail symmetry and terrain uniformity. In this study, aerial imagery captured from a multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle was used in generating a detailed post-harvest terrain model which included all skid trails. This was then compared with an Airborne Laser Scanning derived pre-harvest terrain model and the dimensions, slopes and cut-and-fill volumes associated with the skid trails were determined. The overall skid trail length was 954 m, or 381 m·ha−1 with segments varying from 40–60 m, inclinations from 3.9% to 9.6%, and cut volumes, from 1.7 to 3.7 m3 per running meter. The methods used in this work can be used in rapidly assessing the extent of disturbance and erosion risk on a wide range of sites. The multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV was found to be highly suited to the task, given the relatively small size of harvested stands, their shape and their location in the mountainous terrain.

  11. Field demonstration of an active reservoir pressure management through fluid injection and displaced fluid extractions at the Rock Springs Uplift, a priority geologic CO2 storage site for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)


    This report provides the results from the project entitled Field Demonstration of Reservoir Pressure Management through Fluid Injection and Displaced Fluid Extraction at the Rock Springs Uplift, a Priority Geologic CO2 Storage Site for Wyoming (DE-FE0026159 for both original performance period (September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016) and no-cost extension (September 1, 2016 to January 6, 2017)).

  12. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...... in the room and in the inhalation of both manikins. Tracer gas was added in the heat plume above a sitting manikin, or in the exhalation through either the nose or the mouth. The other manikin moved back and forth at different speeds on a low trolley. The mentioned experimental conditions have a significant...

  13. Digital displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard


    digital interface. However, the transformation of citizen services from traditional face-to-face interaction to digital self-service gives rise to new practices; some citizens need support to be able to manage self-service through digital tools. A mixture of support and teaching, named co...... digital reforms in Denmark and shows how citizen service is transformed from service to support. The frontline employee’s classical tasks such as casework are being displaced into educational and support-oriented tasks with less professional content. Thus an unintended effect of digitisation is blurred......In recent years digital reforms are being introduced in the municipal landscape of Denmark. The reforms address the interaction between citizen and local authority. The aim is, that by 2015 at least 80 per cent of all correspondence between citizens and public authority will be transmitted through...

  14. Beam-based compensation of extracted-beam displacement caused by field ringing of pulsed kicker magnets in the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (United States)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Saha, Pranab Kumar; Tamura, Fumihiko; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Hotchi, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoki; Kinsho, Michikazu; Hasegawa, Kazuo


    Commissioned in October 2007, the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex was designed for a high-intensity output beam power of 1 MW. The RCS extracts 3 GeV proton beams of two bunches by using eight pulsed kicker magnets and three DC septum magnets with 25 Hz repetition. These beams are delivered to a materials and life science experimental facility (MLF) and a 50 GeV main ring synchrotron (MR). However, the flat-top fields of the kicker magnets experience ringing that displaces the position of the extracted beam. This displacement is a major issue from the viewpoint of target integrity at the MLF and emittance growth at MR injection. To understand the flat-top uniformity of the total field of all the kickers, the uniformity was measured as the displacement of the extracted beams by using a shorter bunched beam and scanning the entire trigger timing of the kickers. The beam displacement of the first bunch exceeded the required range. Therefore, we performed beam-based measurements kicker by kicker to understand each field-ringing effect, and then we understood the characteristics (strength and temporal structure) of each ringing field. We managed to cancel out the ringing by using all the beam-based measurement data and optimizing each trigger timing. As a result, the field-ringing effect of the kickers was successfully compensated by optimizing the trigger timing of each kicker without hardware upgrades or improvements to the kicker system. By developing an automatic monitoring and correction system, we now have a higher stability of extracted beams during routine user operation. In this paper, we report our procedure for ringing compensation and present supporting experimental results.

  15. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    no significantly increasing trend prior to displacement; and the crime rate of workers who will be displaced is not significantly higher than the crime rate of workers who will not be displaced. In contrast, displaced workers’ probability to commit any crime increases by 0.52 percentage points in the year of job...

  16. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  17. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)


    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  18. XY displacement device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerens, W.C.; Laham, C.D.; Holman, A.E.


    An XY-displacement device (1) with a four-fold symmetry comprises a reference frame (10); an object mount (20) for holding an object (22) to be displaced; an X-manipulator (100) coupled between the reference frame (10) and the object mount (20), which provides a rigid coupling between the object

  19. Rising waters, displaced lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Brickle


    Full Text Available Although Pakistan and Colombia have relatively advanced disaster management frameworks, they were unprepared and ill-equipped to assist and protect people displaced by recent floods.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra


    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL:, organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  1. Supersymmetric Displaced Number States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy R. Zypman


    Full Text Available We introduce, generate and study a family of supersymmetric displaced number states (SDNS that can be considered generalized coherent states of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. The family is created from the seminal supersymmetric boson-fermion entangling annihilation operator introduced by Aragone and Zypman and later expanded by Kornbluth and Zypman. Using the momentum representation, the states are obtained analytically in compact form as displaced supersymmetric number states. We study their position-momentum uncertainties, and their bunchiness by classifying them according to their Mandel Q-parameter in phase space. We were also able to find closed form analytical representations in the space and number basis.

  2. Forced Displacement and Refugee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutinwa: Forced Displacement and Refugee Rights in the Great Lakes 1 3 with the new problems associated with refugees, such as those outlined above. An effective system for refugee protection must be holistic and address the refugee problem at the levels of pre- vention, response and solution. At the level of prevention, ...

  3. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva


    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  4. Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis (United States)


    CONTRACT NUMBER Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis PDMC 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ms... infographic /iraq_cccm_idp_settlement_status_map_ 16_July_2015 xxii DTM ROUND XXII JUNE 2015 xxiii REACH, Vulnerability, Needs and Intentions of

  5. Permeability of displaced fractures (United States)

    Kluge, Christian; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido


    Flow along fractures or in fissured systems becomes increasingly important in the context of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), shale gas recovery or nuclear waste deposit. Commonly, the permeability of fractures is approximated using the Hagen-Poiseuille solution of Navier Stokes equation. Furthermore, the flow in fractures is assumed to be laminar flow between two parallel plates and the cubic law for calculating the velocity field is applied. It is a well-known fact, that fracture flow is strongly influenced by the fracture surface roughness and the shear displacement along the fracture plane. Therefore, a numerical approach was developed which calculates the flow pattern within a fracture-matrix system. The flow in the fracture is described by a free fluid flow and the flow in the matrix is assumed to be laminar and therefore validates Darcy's law. The presented approach can be applied for artificially generated fractures or real fractures measured by surface scanning. Artificial fracture surfaces are generated using the power spectral density of the surface height random process with a spectral exponent to define roughness. For calculating the permeability of such fracture-matrix systems the mean fracture aperture, the shear displacement and the surface roughness are considered by use of a 3D numerical simulator. By use of this approach correlation between shear displacement and mean aperture, shear displacement and permeability, as well as surface roughness and permeability can be obtained. Furthermore, the intrinsic measured permeability presents a combination of matrix and fracture permeability. The presented approach allows the separation and quantification of the absolute magnitudes of the matrix and the fracture permeability and the permeability of displaced fractures can be calculated. The numerical approach which is a 3D numerical simulation of the fracture-matrix system can be applied for artificial as well as real systems.

  6. Quantitative Measurement of Out-of-plane Displacement Using Shearography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Gu; Kim, Kyung Suk; Beack, Sang Kyu; Jang, Ho Sub [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung Suk [Mokpo Science College, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)


    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry is a common method for measuring out-of-plane displacement and in-plane displacement and applied for vibration analysis and strain/stress analysis. However, ESPI is sensitive to environmental disturbance, which provide the limitation of industrial application. On the other hand, Shearography based on shearing interferometer can directly measure the first derivative of out-of-plane displacement, which is insensitive to vibration disturbance. This paper proposes the out-of-plane displacement extraction technique from results of Shearography by numerical processing and measurement results of ESPI and Shearoraphy are compared quantitatively.

  7. Tests for character displacement. (United States)

    Sinclair, D F; Mosimann, J E; Meeter, D A


    Character displacement is an important concept in ecology which has been surrounded by controversy due largely to a lack of clearly stated hypotheses and statistical tests. Existing tests implicity assume random species sizes estimated without error--a random-effects model. We introduce the log-uniform distribution for species sizes and show that it has properties of direct relevance to character displacement. We present tests which assume uniform and log-normal species sizes and have the log-uniform distribution as an alternative. The tests have low power for sample sizes typically encountered in ecology. The effect of estimating species sizes is small. The results exemplify the shortcomings of the traditional random-effects model for species sizes.

  8. Displacing the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...... and market as mutually exclusive (Mol 2008), care and market appear to be intertwined in political patient figures through which the organization is trying to manage and transform itself from the inside...

  9. Miniaturised optical displacement sensor (United States)

    Gindele, Frank; Gaul, Frank; Kraus, Silvio; Sigloch, Susanne; Teubner, Ulrich


    The primary object presented in this contribution is the miniaturization of a displacement sensor system with the potential for high accuracy measurements and for cost-effective production in polymers. The measurement of linear displacements can be performed by different methods e.g. magnetoresistive, potentiometric, electromagnetic or inductive encoder systems. For movements in the millimeter range and above the most precise systems are based on optical methods. The displacement measurement of our sensor system uses the intensity modulation of two amplitude gratings, moving relative to each other and illuminated by a LED. To increase the system resolution and the signal quality the grating/detector combination is divided into four areas which are phase shifted to each other. The grating period is 25 μm with a geometrical accuracy below 1 μm. The amplitude gratings have been processed on a glass substrate lithographically. Applying electro-discharge machining a miniaturised optical bench for the passive alignment of the optical and the opto-electronic components has been realised. The sensor has an overall size of 6x4x3 mm3 and is designed for the future replication in one single polymer part. In combination with an electronic interpolation the sensor will be capable for a sub-micrometer accuracy.

  10. Displacement Data Assimilation (United States)

    Restrepo, J. M.; Rosenthal, S.; Venkataramani, S.


    Geometric corrections are blended with nonlinear/non-Gaussian estimation methods to produced improved data assimilation outcomes on problems where features are critical. Problems of this sort are the estimation of hurricane tracks, tracking jet meandering, front propagation, among many others. The geometric correction is made possible by a data preserving map. It makes corrections on phase, primarily, as well as in the amplitude. The displacement assimilation is embedded in the analysis stage of a nonlinear/non-Gaussian Bayesian data assimilation scheme, such as the path integral method. In addition to showing how the method improves upon the results, as compared to more standard methodologies.

  11. Out-of-plane displacement field measurement by shearography (United States)

    Bai, Pengxiang; Zhu, Feipeng; He, Xiaoyuan


    Existing shearography systems measuring out-of-plane displacements suffer from boundary-constraint or reference surface requirements. Therefore, we propose an accurate non-uniform out-of-plane displacement field measurement method based on a modified shearography system and two-step integration method. The proposed method combines high-resolution interferometry with the advantage of relaxing the environmental stability requirements. The modified shearography system adopts three beam splitters and two switches when compared with conventional optical configurations. The three beam splitters are used to construct a modified Michelson interferometer that shears the image along two orthogonal directions, and the shearing direction can be switched by the two hardware switches between the orthogonal directions. With phase shifting performed on the recorded images, the out-of-plane displacement gradients along the orthogonal directions are extracted sequentially. In general, without boundary restrictions on the object surface, it is difficult to directly extract out-of-plane displacement from a single displacement gradient field. Accordingly, the two-step integration method is proposed and applied to the orthogonal displacement gradients to extract the relative out-of-plane displacement field without any boundary conditions of the object surface provided. Experiments are performed on a clamped circular plate with uniform loading, and the results are compared with electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) results to validate the proposed method.

  12. Displaced patella fractures. (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J


    Displaced patella fractures often result in disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. An intact extensor mechanism is a requirement for unassisted gait. Therefore, operative treatment of the displaced patella fracture is generally recommended. The evaluation of the patella fracture patient includes examination of extensor mechanism integrity. Operative management of patella fractures normally includes open reduction with internal fixation, although partial patellectomy is occasionally performed, with advancement of quadriceps tendon or patellar ligament to the fracture bed. Open reduction with internal fixation has historically been performed utilizing anterior tension band wiring, although comminution of the fracture occasionally makes this fixation construct inadequate. Supplementation or replacement of the tension band wire construct with interfragmentary screws, cerclage wire or suture, and/or plate-and-screw constructs may add to the stability of the fixation construct. Arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint is very common after healing of patella fractures, and substantial functional deficits may persist long after fracture healing has occurred. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Strategies for displacing oil (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir


    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  14. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt


    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  15. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu


    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  16. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann


    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  17. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  18. A Vision-Based Sensor for Noncontact Structural Displacement Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Feng


    Full Text Available Conventional displacement sensors have limitations in practical applications. This paper develops a vision sensor system for remote measurement of structural displacements. An advanced template matching algorithm, referred to as the upsampled cross correlation, is adopted and further developed into a software package for real-time displacement extraction from video images. By simply adjusting the upsampling factor, better subpixel resolution can be easily achieved to improve the measurement accuracy. The performance of the vision sensor is first evaluated through a laboratory shaking table test of a frame structure, in which the displacements at all the floors are measured by using one camera to track either high-contrast artificial targets or low-contrast natural targets on the structural surface such as bolts and nuts. Satisfactory agreements are observed between the displacements measured by the single camera and those measured by high-performance laser displacement sensors. Then field tests are carried out on a railway bridge and a pedestrian bridge, through which the accuracy of the vision sensor in both time and frequency domains is further confirmed in realistic field environments. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement at any point from a single measurement.

  19. Internal displacement in eastern Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Rae


    Full Text Available The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  20. Avulsions and intrusions: the controversial displacement injuries. (United States)

    Kenny, David J; Barrett, Edward J; Casas, Michael J


    Avulsions and intrusions are the most complicated and controversial displacement injuries of permanent teeth. Clinical guidelines published by authorities such as the American Association of Endodontists, the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the International Association of Dental Traumatology are inconsistent. While a certain amount of inconsistency might be expected, some of these guidelines recommend treatments that are experimental or have not incorporated research information from the past 5 years, and in one case the guidelines incorrectly describe the nature of Hank's balanced salt solution. Recent laboratory studies support previous clinical outcome studies in emphasizing that only for teeth replanted within 5 minutes of avulsion is there a chance of regeneration of the periodontal ligament and normal function. Teeth replanted beyond 5 minutes will take another path, that of repair followed by root resorption, ankylosis and eventual extraction. Dentists should explain these outcomes at the time of the replantation decision. Severe intrusions also have predictable outcomes. Teeth intruded beyond 6 mm cannot regenerate a functional periodontal ligament and so are prone to root resorption and eventual extraction as well. In this situation the decision is one of immediate extraction or repositioning, with the understanding that it is inevitable that the tooth will eventually be extracted. Authoritative clinical guidelines available on the Internet provide the clinician with useful outlines for treatment. However, individual inconsistencies stimulate academic controversies and, in some cases, clinical misdirection.

  1. Job Displacement Among Single Mothers: (United States)

    Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon


    Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267

  2. Perceived Displacement explains Wolfpack Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš eŠimkovic


    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent’s body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent’s orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas withagents pointing towards the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent’s pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent’s body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent’s body.

  3. Special Programming for Displaced Homemakers. (United States)

    Swift, John S.; And Others


    Displaced homemakers returning to college need special services. These programs were developed by one university's center for women: Project Succeed, Back to School Workshops, and Special Programs to Build Self-Confidence. These programs were developed to provide on-the-job training while in college, help adults returning to college earn a degree,…

  4. Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief (United States)

    LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel


    Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catălin ROŞU


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an analytical model for lathe tools displacements calculus in the manufacturing process. We will present step by step the methodology for the displacements calculus and in the end we will insert these relations in a program for automatic calculus and we extract the conclusions. There is taken into account only the effects of the bending moments (because these insert the highest displacements. The simplifying assumptions and the calculus relations for the displacements (linea r and angular ones are presented in an original way.

  6. Some Considerations on Horizontal Displacement and Horizontal Displacement Coefficient B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajduś Krzysztof


    Full Text Available Mining-induced deformations of the ground surface and within the rock mass may pose danger not only for surface constructions but also for underground objects (e.g., tunnels, underground storages, garages, diverse types of pipelines, electric cables, etc. For a proper evaluation of hazard for surface and underground objects, such parameters as horizontal displacement and horizontal deformations, especially their maximum values, are of crucial importance. The paper is an attempt at a critical review of hitherto accomplished studies and state of the art of predicting horizontal displacement u, in particular the coefficient B, whose value allows determination of the value of maximum displacement if the value of maximum slope is known, or the value of maximum deformation if the value of maximum trough slope is recognized. Since the geodesic observations of fully developed subsidence troughs suggest that the value of the coefficient depends on the depth H, radius of main influences range r and properties of overburden rock, in particular the occurrence of sub-eras Paleogene and Neogene layers (old name: Quaternary and Tertiary with low strength parameters, therefore a formula is provided in the present paper allowing for the estimation of the influence of those factors on the value of coefficient B.

  7. A Copernicus downstream service for surface displacement monitoring in Germany (United States)

    Cahyadi Kalia, Andre; Frei, Michaela; Lege, Thomas


    SAR Interferometry is a powerful technique able to detect and monitor various surface displacements caused by e.g. gravitative mass movement, subrosion, groundwater extraction, fluid injection, natural gas extraction. These processes can e.g. cause damage to buildings, infrastructure, affect ecosystems, agriculture and the economic use of the geological underground by influencing the hydro(geo)logical setting. Advanced techniques of interferometric processing (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry, PSI) allow highly precise displacement measurements (mm precision) by analyzing stacks of SAR imagery. The PSI mapping coverage can be increased to entire nations by using several adjacent satellite tracks. In order to assist the operational use of this technique a German-wide, officially approved, PSI dataset is under development. The intention of this presentation is to show i) the concept of the Copernicus downstream service for surface displacement monitoring in Germany and ii) a pilot study to exemplarily demonstrate the workflow and potential products from the Copernicus downstream service. The pilot study is focusing on the built up of an officially approved wide-area PSI dataset. The study area covers an area of more than 30.000 km² and is located in the Northwest German Basin. Several natural processes (e.g. compaction of marine sediments, peat loss) and anthropogenic activities (e.g. natural gas extraction, rock salt mining) are causing surface displacements in the study area. The PSI analysis is based on six ERS-1/-2 data stacks covering the timespan from 1992 until 2001. Each data stack consists of 49 to 73 ERS-1/-2 SAR images. A comparison of the PSI results with thematic data (e.g. volume and location of extracted natural gas) strongly indicates that a part of the detected land subsidence is caused by natural gas extraction. Furthermore, land subsidence caused by e.g. fluid injection and rock salt mining were successfully detected by the PSI analysis.

  8. Optimal methods of RTK-GPS/accelerometer integration to monitor the displacement of structures. (United States)

    Hwang, Jinsang; Yun, Hongsik; Park, Sun-Kyu; Lee, Dongha; Hong, Sungnam


    The accurate measurement of diverse displacements of structures is an important index for the evaluation of a structure's safety. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted to determine the integrated RTK-GPS/accelerometer method that can provide the most precise structure displacement measurements. For this purpose, three methods of calculating the dynamic displacements from the acceleration data were comparatively analyzed. In addition, two methods of determining dynamic, static, and quasi-static displacements by integrating the displacements measured from the RTK-GPS system and the accelerometer were also comparatively analyzed. To ensure precise comparison results, a cantilever beam was manufactured onto which diverse types of displacements were generated to evaluate the measurement accuracy by method. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) measurements were used as references for the evaluation to ensure accuracy. The study results showed that the most suitable method of measuring the dynamic displacement with the accelerometer was to calculate the displacement by filtering and double-integrating the acceleration data using the FIR band-pass filter. The integration method that uses frequency-based displacement extraction was most appropriate for the integrated RTK-GPS/accelerometer method of comprehensively measuring the dynamic, static, and quasi-static displacements.

  9. Displacement determinations of synergistic motion platform jacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Кабанячий


    Full Text Available Urgency, statement and precise solution of displacement determinations problem of synergistic motion platform jacks depending on construction parameters and desired displacements along degrees of freedom are represented

  10. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic centimeter...

  11. Displacement of squeezed propagating microwave states (United States)

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, Ling; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Friedrich; Xie, Edwar; Menzel, Edwin; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    Displacement of propagating squeezed states is a fundamental operation for quantum communications. It can be applied to fundamental studies of macroscopic quantum coherence and has an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with propagating microwaves. We generate propagating squeezed states using a Josephson parametric amplifier and implement displacement using a cryogenic directional coupler. We study single- and two-mode displacement regimes. For the single-mode displacement we find that the squeezing level of the displaced squeezed state does not depend on the displacement amplitude. Also, we observe that quantum entanglement between two spatially separated channels stays constant across 4 orders of displacement power. We acknowledge support by the German Research Foundation through SFB 631 and FE 1564/1-1, the EU project PROMISCE, and Elite Network of Bavaria through the program ExQM.

  12. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science


    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One

  13. An ion displacement membrame model. (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D


    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.

  14. Preventing re-displacement through genuine reintegration in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Hovil


    Full Text Available Displacement is often part of a cyclical process of conflict anddisplacement. Preventing displacement, therefore, is not only aboutpreventing new displacement but about ensuring that people do notget re-displaced.

  15. Modeling Displacement Measurement using Vibration Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGOSTON Katalin


    Full Text Available This paper presents some aspects regarding to small displacement measurement using vibration transducers. Mechanical faults, usages, slackness’s, cause different noises and vibrations with different amplitude and frequency against the normal sound and movement of the equipment. The vibration transducers, accelerometers and microphone are used for noise and/or sound and vibration detection with fault detection purpose. The output signal of the vibration transducers or accelerometers is an acceleration signal and can be converted to either velocity or displacement, depending on the preferred measurement parameter. Displacement characteristics are used to indicate when the machine condition has changed. There are many problems using accelerometers to measure position or displacement. It is important to determine displacement over time. To determinate the movement from acceleration a double integration is needed. A transfer function and Simulink model was determinate for accelerometers with capacitive sensing element. Using these models the displacement was reproduced by low frequency input.

  16. Articular disc displacement in mandibular asymmetry patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boonsiva Buranastidporn; Hisano, Masataka; Soma, Kunimichi


    ...) inmandibular asymmetry have not been clearlydefined. This study examines the degree anddirection of disc displacement and their relationshipwith vertical asymmetry in terms of both clinicaland biomechanical aspects...

  17. Percutaneous Fixation of Displaced Calcaneal Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Yip-Kan


    Conclusion: Percutaneous fixation of displaced tongue-type calcaneal fractures is an effective treatment with acceptable clinical outcome, short hospital stay, minimal skin complications, and quick recovery.

  18. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement (United States)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)


    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  19. Seismic displacement of gravity retaining walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Seismic displacement of gravity walls had been studied using conventional static methods for controlled displacement design. In this study plain strain numerical analysis is performed using Plaxis dynamic program where prescribed displacement is applied at the bottom boundary of the soil to simulate the applied seismic load. Constrained absorbent side boundaries are introduced to prevent any wave reflection. The studied soil is chosen dense granular sand and modeled as elasto-plastic material according to Mohr–Column criteria while the gravity wall is assumed elastic. By comparing the resulted seismic wall displacements calculated by numerical analysis for six historical ground motions with that calculated by the pseudo-static method, it is found that numerical seismic displacements are either equal to or greater than corresponding pseudo-static values. Permissible seismic wall displacement calculated by AASHTO can be used for empirical estimation of seismic displacement. It is also found that seismic wall displacement is directly proportional with the positive angle of inclination of the back surface of the wall, soil flexibility and with the earthquake maximum ground acceleration. Seismic wall sliding is dominant and rotation is negligible for rigid walls when the ratio between the wall height and the foundation width is less than 1.4, while for greater ratios the wall becomes more flexible and rotation (rocking increases till the ratio reaches 1.8 where overturning is susceptible to take place. Cumulative seismic wall rotation increases with dynamic time and tends to be constant at the end of earthquake.

  20. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea


    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  1. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  2. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 68; Issue 4. Atomic displacements in bcc ... metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method.

  3. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect (United States)

    Fisher, Carla Christine


    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  4. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has been...

  5. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.


    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  6. Simulations of threshold displacement in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Matthew L. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Fossati, Paul C. M.; Grimes, Robin W. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    Atomic scale molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage have been performed on beryllium. Direct threshold displacement simulations along a geodesic projection of directions were used to investigate the directional dependence with a high spatial resolution. It was found that the directionally averaged probability of displacement increases from 0 at 35 eV, with the energy at which there is a 50% chance of a displacement occurring is 70 eV and asymptotically approaching 1 for higher energies. This is, however, strongly directionally dependent with a 50% probability of displacement varying from 35 to 120 eV, with low energy directions corresponding to the nearest neighbour directions. A new kinetic energy dependent expression for the average maximum displacement of an atom as a function of energy is derived which closely matches the simulated data.

  7. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.


    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.


    Wernet, M. P.


    Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or

  9. Assisting the return of displaced Dinka Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Murphy


    Full Text Available The issues involved in supporting the return of internally displaced Dinka Bor communities highlight the complex, and often ignored, challenges of addressing the consequencesof South-South conflict.

  10. Colombia’s displaced indigenous women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Escobar Cuero


    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples are one of the most vulnerable groups within Colombia’s internally displaced population, and a lack of understanding of their culture and needs constitutes a major challenge to their protection and assistance.

  11. Miscible, Porous Media Displacements with Density Stratification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    A bstract : High accuracy, three‐dimensional numerical simulations of miscible displacements with gravity override, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, are discussed for the quarter five‐spot configuration...

  12. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko


    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  13. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.


    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  14. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  15. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary


    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  16. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.


    chromatin. The condensed nature of chromatin inhibits many DNA metabolizing activities, including NER. In order to promote efficient repair, detection of a lesion not only has to activate the NER pathway but also chromatin remodeling. In general, such remodeling is thought on the one hand to precede NER...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  17. Suppression of displacement in severely slowed saccades


    MacAskill, Michael R; Tim J. Anderson; Jones, Richard D


    Severely slowed saccades in spinocerebellar ataxia have previously been shown to be at least partially closed-loop in nature: their long duration means that they can be modified in-flight in response to intrasaccadic target movements. In this study, a woman with these pathologically slowed saccades could modify them in-flight in response to target movements, even when saccadic suppression of displacement prevented conscious awareness of those movements. Thus saccadic suppression of displace...

  18. A Target-Less Vision-Based Displacement Sensor Based on Image Convex Hull Optimization for Measuring the Dynamic Response of Building Structures. (United States)

    Choi, Insub; Kim, JunHee; Kim, Donghyun


    Existing vision-based displacement sensors (VDSs) extract displacement data through changes in the movement of a target that is identified within the image using natural or artificial structure markers. A target-less vision-based displacement sensor (hereafter called "TVDS") is proposed. It can extract displacement data without targets, which then serve as feature points in the image of the structure. The TVDS can extract and track the feature points without the target in the image through image convex hull optimization, which is done to adjust the threshold values and to optimize them so that they can have the same convex hull in every image frame and so that the center of the convex hull is the feature point. In addition, the pixel coordinates of the feature point can be converted to physical coordinates through a scaling factor map calculated based on the distance, angle, and focal length between the camera and target. The accuracy of the proposed scaling factor map was verified through an experiment in which the diameter of a circular marker was estimated. A white-noise excitation test was conducted, and the reliability of the displacement data obtained from the TVDS was analyzed by comparing the displacement data of the structure measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS). The dynamic characteristics of the structure, such as the mode shape and natural frequency, were extracted using the obtained displacement data, and were compared with the numerical analysis results. TVDS yielded highly reliable displacement data and highly accurate dynamic characteristics, such as the natural frequency and mode shape of the structure. As the proposed TVDS can easily extract the displacement data even without artificial or natural markers, it has the advantage of extracting displacement data from any portion of the structure in the image.

  19. A Target-Less Vision-Based Displacement Sensor Based on Image Convex Hull Optimization for Measuring the Dynamic Response of Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insub Choi


    Full Text Available Existing vision-based displacement sensors (VDSs extract displacement data through changes in the movement of a target that is identified within the image using natural or artificial structure markers. A target-less vision-based displacement sensor (hereafter called “TVDS” is proposed. It can extract displacement data without targets, which then serve as feature points in the image of the structure. The TVDS can extract and track the feature points without the target in the image through image convex hull optimization, which is done to adjust the threshold values and to optimize them so that they can have the same convex hull in every image frame and so that the center of the convex hull is the feature point. In addition, the pixel coordinates of the feature point can be converted to physical coordinates through a scaling factor map calculated based on the distance, angle, and focal length between the camera and target. The accuracy of the proposed scaling factor map was verified through an experiment in which the diameter of a circular marker was estimated. A white-noise excitation test was conducted, and the reliability of the displacement data obtained from the TVDS was analyzed by comparing the displacement data of the structure measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS. The dynamic characteristics of the structure, such as the mode shape and natural frequency, were extracted using the obtained displacement data, and were compared with the numerical analysis results. TVDS yielded highly reliable displacement data and highly accurate dynamic characteristics, such as the natural frequency and mode shape of the structure. As the proposed TVDS can easily extract the displacement data even without artificial or natural markers, it has the advantage of extracting displacement data from any portion of the structure in the image.

  20. A Target-Less Vision-Based Displacement Sensor Based on Image Convex Hull Optimization for Measuring the Dynamic Response of Building Structures (United States)

    Choi, Insub; Kim, JunHee; Kim, Donghyun


    Existing vision-based displacement sensors (VDSs) extract displacement data through changes in the movement of a target that is identified within the image using natural or artificial structure markers. A target-less vision-based displacement sensor (hereafter called “TVDS”) is proposed. It can extract displacement data without targets, which then serve as feature points in the image of the structure. The TVDS can extract and track the feature points without the target in the image through image convex hull optimization, which is done to adjust the threshold values and to optimize them so that they can have the same convex hull in every image frame and so that the center of the convex hull is the feature point. In addition, the pixel coordinates of the feature point can be converted to physical coordinates through a scaling factor map calculated based on the distance, angle, and focal length between the camera and target. The accuracy of the proposed scaling factor map was verified through an experiment in which the diameter of a circular marker was estimated. A white-noise excitation test was conducted, and the reliability of the displacement data obtained from the TVDS was analyzed by comparing the displacement data of the structure measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS). The dynamic characteristics of the structure, such as the mode shape and natural frequency, were extracted using the obtained displacement data, and were compared with the numerical analysis results. TVDS yielded highly reliable displacement data and highly accurate dynamic characteristics, such as the natural frequency and mode shape of the structure. As the proposed TVDS can easily extract the displacement data even without artificial or natural markers, it has the advantage of extracting displacement data from any portion of the structure in the image. PMID:27941635

  1. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.


    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  2. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar


    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...... the diffusers by rearranging the furniture. Half of the surveyed occupants were not satisfied with the indoor air quality. The main conclusion is that displacement ventilation needs careful design and room furnishing in order to ensure a comfortable environment. Occupants must understand the underlying...

  3. Overtreatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Nowak, Jan; Virtanen, Kaisa


    Background and purpose - The best treatment for displaced clavicle fractures has been debated for decades. Operative treatment has become more common. However, several randomized trials comparing non-operative and operative treatment have not shown any compelling evidence in favor of surgery. We...... identified the preferred treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures at public hospitals in 3 countries in Scandinavia. Patients and methods - A purpose-made multiple-choice questionnaire in English was sent to all public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. This was addressed to the orthopedic...... surgeon responsible for treatment of clavicle fractures, and completed questionnaires were obtained from 85 of 118 hospitals. Results - In the 3 countries, 69 of the 85 hospitals that responded would treat displaced clavicle fractures operatively. Clear criteria for treatment allocation were used at 58...

  4. Management of an extremely displaced maxillary canine. (United States)

    Grande, Torsten; Stolze, Annemarie; Goldbecher, Heiko


    Aligning a displaced maxillary canine into the dental arch is one of the most complicated problems in orthodontics. In cases of extremely high displacement, the tooth is frequently removed surgically. Because of the upper canines' significance to dental esthetics and functional occlusion, such a decision is a very serious one. This case report illustrates the treatment of an extremely high displaced maxillary canine. The main diagnosis was the displacement and the retention of tooth 13 (in nearly horizontal position, apical to the neighboring teeth); further diagnoses were: transversal maxillary deficiency with frontal crowding and a distal bite of one premolar in width, a deep bite of 6 mm with contact in the palatal mucosa, mandibular midline deviation of 2.5 mm to the right, lingual eruption of teeth 32 and 42, retroinclination of the maxillary incisors, and retarded eruption of the permanent teeth. Initial treatment with active and functional appliances to correct the distal bite, midline deviation and deep bite. Surgical exposure of the high displaced canine at the age of 14. Onset of cuspid elongation with removable appliances and elastics, further movement with a transpalatinal bar and welded arm, and full alignment of the upper and lower arches with fixed appliances in both jaws. Stabilization of the orthodontic treatment results with retention devices. Duration of treatment: 5 years and 8 months. For the alignment of tooth 13, 2 years and 10 months were required; 1 year and 4 months were necessary with complete fixed appliance. The aim of this case report was to demonstrate the potential of aligning an extremely displaced canine. Because of the esthetic and functional importance of the upper canines, therapeutic alignment should be initiated, provided there are no indications to the contrary.

  5. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...... in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should...

  6. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  7. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using nominal engine values... reference in § 86.1). (2) For rotary engines, displacement means the maximum volume of a combustion chamber...

  8. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais


    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  9. Education: protecting the rights of displaced children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Mahalingam


    Full Text Available UNICEF and its partners work with displaced communitiesto provide material assistance and protection, using as their basis the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child1 and other internationallegal instruments. Education has proven a valuable tool in this effort, not only making children aware of their rights but also providing a way to participate in the realisation of these rights.

  10. Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits (United States)

    Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.


    Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

  11. Public policy to address displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Cossío Díaz


    Full Text Available At hearings of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in November 2013 on the human rights situation in Mexico, the issue of the internally displaced in particular caught my attention, both due to its current serious level and for its potential impact in the not too distant future.

  12. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Atomic displacements; crystal defects; crystalline solids. PACS Nos 63.43.j; 63.43.Dq; 61.66.Dk; 61.72.Ji. 1. Introduction. The transition metal dilute alloys are studied for their unique properties such as high strength ...... Even the recent techniques like EXAFS are inadequate for bcc alloys because in the EXAFS ...

  13. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Groeneveld, A.W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    The design, fabrication and experimental results of lateral-comb-drive actuators for large displacements at low driving voltages is presented. A comparison of several suspension designs is given, and the lateral large deflection behaviour of clamped-clamped beams and a folded flexure design is

  14. Isolated Displaced Fracture of the Lesser Tuberosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injury Extra. 2006;37:31-3. 4. Collier SG, Wynn-Jones CH. Displacement of the biceps with subscapularis avulsion. J Bone Joint. Surg Br. 1990;72:145. 5. Ogawa K, Takahashi M. Long-term outcome of isolated lesser tuberosity fractures of the humerus. J Trauma. 1997;42:955-9. 6. Robinson CM, Teoh KH, Baker A, et al.

  15. Displacement Ventilation by Different Types of Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Hoff, Lars; Pedersen, Lars Germann

    The paper describes measuring results of the air movement from three different types of diffusers for displacement ventilation. Two of the diffusers are lowlevel wall mounted diffusers, one with a low and one with a high initial entrainment. The third diffuser is of the floor mounted type....

  16. Simulating People Moving in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, M.; Bjørn, Erik; Sandberg, M.

    A displacement ventilation system works better the more uni-directional the air flow through the ventilated room is: from floor to ceiling. Thus, from an air quality point of view, there should be as little vertical mixing of the room air as possible. It is therefore comprehensible that physical...

  17. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean du Plessis


    Full Text Available The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  18. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement


    Jean du Plessis


    The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  19. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers. (United States)

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell


    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  20. Internal displacement in Nigeria: an urgent challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia McGoldrick


    Full Text Available In the past five years an estimated 800,000 people have been displaced in Africa’s most populous state. AddressingNigeria’s neglected IDP crisis must be a key priority in the run-up to the country’s 2007 presidential elections.

  1. Geometric interpretation of density displacements and charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ``geometric” interpretation of the electronic density displacements in the Hilbert space is given and the associated projection-operator partitioning of the hardness and softness operators (kernels) is developed. The eigenvectors |á 〉 = \\{| 〉 \\} of the hardness operator define the complete (identity) projector P ^ = |  ...

  2. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.


    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  3. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks. (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig


    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals' understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and, thus, reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so because of their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply because of the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object's location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species' performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past.

  4. Utilization of an ultrasound beam steering angle for measurements of tissue displacement vector and lateral displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikayoshi Sumi


    Full Text Available Chikayoshi SumiDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A number of ultrasonic displacement/velocity measurement methods have been extensively developed for measurements of blood flow, tissue motion, and strain. Lateral modulation (LM methods have also been reported using steered, crossed beams, and these methods permit measurements of displacement vectors. In this report, a new beam steering method for the transmission and reception of ultrasound is proposed, which can enable measurements of lateral displacements and of arbitrary displacement vectors with a very high degree of accuracy. Because this beam steering method uses only a steering angle, this method is referred to as ASTA. With ASTA, the number of available methods to obtain a displacement vector measurement is limited to previously developed block-matching methods, such as the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method, and the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM using a block-matching method (the methods using block matching are referred to as MAMb and MDMb, respectively. Being dependent on the measurement method, only a lateral displacement measurement can be made even if the methods are multidimensional, ie, previously developed MAM and MDM using a moving average and a mirror setting of the obtained steered beams, and one-dimensional (1D, such as an autocorrelation method. Considerations of beamforming schemes using LM and ASTA show that the simple ASTA beamforming method increases capabilities for real-time measurements and requires a small physical aperture when compared with LM. For lateral displacement measurements (eg, blood flow in a carotid artery, a lateral coordinate must correspond to the direction of the target’s lateral motion, and the steering angle used is as large as possible to increase the measurement accuracy


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fratarcangeli


    Full Text Available The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery are widely used in order to monitor displacements impacting the Earth surface and infrastructures. The main remote sensing technique to extract sub-centimeter information from SAR imagery is the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR, based on the phase information only. However, it is well known that DInSAR technique may suffer for lack of coherence among the considered stack of images. New Earth observation SAR satellite sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, and the coming PAZ, can acquire imagery with high amplitude resolutions too, up to few decimeters. Thanks to this feature, and to the on board dual frequency GPS receivers, allowing orbits determination with an accuracy at few centimetres level, the it was proven by different groups that TerraSAR-X imagery offer the capability to achieve, in a global reference frame, 3D positioning accuracies in the decimeter range and even better just exploiting the slant-range measurements coming from the amplitude information, provided proper corrections of all the involved geophysical phenomena are carefully applied. The core of this work is to test this methodology on COSMO-SkyMed data acquired over the Corvara area (Bolzano – Northern Italy, where, currently, a landslide with relevant yearly displacements, up to decimeters, is monitored, using GPS survey and DInSAR technique. The leading idea is to measure the distance between the satellite and a well identifiable natural or artificial Persistent Scatterer (PS, taking in account the signal propagation delays through the troposphere and ionosphere and filtering out the known geophysical effects that induce periodic and secular ground displacements. The preliminary results here presented and discussed indicate that COSMO-SkyMed Himage imagery appear able to guarantee a displacements monitoring with an accuracy of few centimetres using only the amplitude data, provided few (at least one stable PS’s are

  6. PSF dedicated to estimation of displacement vectors for tissue elasticity imaging with ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebgott, Herve; Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    of the phase of the complex cross-correlation between signals extracted from the lateral direction of the ultrasound RF image. For precise displacement estimation, a linearity of the phase slope is needed as well as a high phase slope. Consequently, a particular point spread function (PSF) dedicated...... to this estimator is designed. This PSF, showing oscillations in the lateral direction, leads to synthesis of lateral RF signals. The estimation is included in a 2-D displacement vector estimation method. The improvement of this approach is evaluated quantitatively by simulation studies. A comparison with a speckle...... tracking technique is also presented. The lateral oscillations improve both the speckle tracking estimation and our 2-D estimation method. Using our dedicated images, the precision of the estimation is improved by reducing the standard deviation of the lateral displacement error by a factor of 2...

  7. Global surface displacement data for assessing variability of displacement at a point on a fault (United States)

    Hecker, Suzanne; Sickler, Robert; Feigelson, Leah; Abrahamson, Norman; Hassett, Will; Rosa, Carla; Sanquini, Ann


    This report presents a global dataset of site-specific surface-displacement data on faults. We have compiled estimates of successive displacements attributed to individual earthquakes, mainly paleoearthquakes, at sites where two or more events have been documented, as a basis for analyzing inter-event variability in surface displacement on continental faults. An earlier version of this composite dataset was used in a recent study relating the variability of surface displacement at a point to the magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes on faults, and to hazard from fault rupture (Hecker and others, 2013). The purpose of this follow-on report is to provide potential data users with an updated comprehensive dataset, largely complete through 2010 for studies in English-language publications, as well as in some unpublished reports and abstract volumes.

  8. Landslide displacement vectors derived from multi-temporal topographic LiDAR data (United States)

    Fey, Christine; Rutzinger, Martin; Bremer, Magnus; Prager, Christoph; Zangerl, Christian


    Information about slope geometry and kinematics of landslides is essential for hazard assessment, monitoring and planning of protection and mitigation measures. Especially for remote and inaccessible slopes, subsurface data (e.g. boreholes, tunnels, investigation adits) are often not available and thus the deformation characteristics must be derived from surface displacement data. In recent years, multi-temporal topographic LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data became an increasingly improved tool for detecting topographic surface deformations. In this context, LiDAR-based change detection is commonly applied for quantifying surface elevation changes. Advanced change detection methods derive displacement vectors with direction and velocities of slope movements. To extract displacement vectors from LiDAR raster data (i) an approach based on feature tracking by image correlation and (ii) an approach based on feature tracking by vectors breaklines are investigated. The image correlation method is based on the IMCORR software (National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado, Boulder), implemented in a SAGA GIS module. The image correlation algorithm is based on a normalized cross-covariance method. The algorithm searches tie points in two feature rasters derived from a digital surface model acquired at different time stamps. The method assesses automatically the displacement rates and directions of distinct terrain features e.g. displaced mountain ridges or striking boulders. In contrast the vector-based breakline methods require manual selection of tie points. The breaklines are the product of vectorized curvature raster images and extracting the "upper terrain edges" (topographic ridges) and "lower terrain edges" (topographic depressions). Both methods were tested on simulated terrain with determined displacement rates in order to quantify i) the accuracy ii) the minimum detectable movement rates iii) the influence of terrain characteristics iv) the

  9. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East. (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani


    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  10. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail:; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail:; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)


    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  11. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm


    in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation......Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... height is examined by means of full-scale measurements. A breathing thermal manikin is used to simulate a person. It is found that the flow in the boundary layer around a person is able to a great extent to entrain and transport air from below the breathing zone. In the case of non-passive, heated...

  12. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner


    If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ →ℓ‧ γ but rather ℓ →ℓ‧ X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z‧ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ →ℓ‧ + inv , but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ → eX , X → γγ , ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  13. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck


    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  14. Three-dimensional canine displacement patterns in response to translation and controlled tipping retraction strategies. (United States)

    Li, Shuning; Xia, Zeyang; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao; Eckert, George; Chen, Jie


    To validate whether applying a well-defined initial three-dimensional (3D) load can create consistently expected tooth movement in patients. Twenty-one patients who needed bilateral canine retraction to close extraction space were selected for this split-mouth clinical trial. After initial alignment and leveling, two canines in each patient were randomly assigned to receive either translation (TR) or controlled tipping (CT) load. The load was delivered by segmental T-loops designed to give specific initial moment/force ratios to the canines in each treatment interval (TI), verified with an orthodontic force tester. Maxillary dental casts were made before canine retraction and after each TI. The casts were digitized with a 3D laser scanner. The digital models were superimposed on the palatal rugae region. The 3D canine displacements and the displacement patterns in terms of TR, CT, and torque were calculated for each TI. The method can reliably detect a TR displacement greater than 0.3 mm and a rotation greater than 1.5°. Ninety-two TIs had displacements that were greater than 0.3 mm and were used for further analysis. Most displacements were oriented within ±45° from the distal direction. The displacement pattern in terms of TR or CT was not uniquely controlled by the initial moment/force ratio. The initial load system is not the only key factor controlling tooth movement. Using a segmental T-loop with a well-controlled load system, large variations in canine displacement can be expected clinically.

  15. Stress Intensity Factor calculation from displacement fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beretta


    Full Text Available In the last two decades, visual image techniques such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC enabled to experimentally determine the crack tip displacement and strain fields at small scales. The displacements are tracked during loading, and parameters as the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF, opening and closing loads, T-stress can be readily measured. In particular, the SIFs and the T-stress can be obtained by fitting the analytical equation of the Williamstype expansion with the experimentally-determined displacement fields. The results in terms of fracture mechanics parameters strictly depend on the dimension of the area considered around the crack tip in conjunction with the crack length, the maximum SIF (and thus the plastic tip radius, and the number of terms to be considered in the Williams-type expansion. This work focuses in understanding the accuracy of the SIF calculation based on these factors. The study is based on Finite Element Analysis simulations where purely elastic material behavior is considered. The accuracy of the estimation of the SIF is investigated and a guide-line is provided to properly set the DIC measurements. The analysis is then experimentally validated for crack closure measurements adopting the SENT specimen geometry.

  16. Displacement Processes in Stable Drainage Fronts (United States)

    Breen, S. J.; Pride, S. R.; Manga, M.


    Drainage fronts are stabilized at large bond number, when a low density nonwetting fluid displaces a high density wetting fluid from above. This is an ideal flow scenario for studying the correspondence between pore scale processes and continuum models because the front is a persistent macroscale feature that is propagated by discrete, multiplepore scale displacements. We present new observations of stable air/water drainage in thin, threedimensional, poured bead packs at varying capillary number. With backlighting and a high speed camera, we observe short range front velocities that are an order of magnitude larger than bulk pore velocity, consistent with previous studies in ordered 2D structures. We also quantify displacement lengths and front width. For comparison to continuum simulations, we measure saturation by light transmission continuously over a series of 1 cm length voxels. We focus on the critical nonwetting saturation (CNS, or "emergence point") at which voxels are percolated by air and continuum air permeability becomes nonzero. We find that mean CNS is capillary number dependent even at large bond number, with larger CNS at lower capillary number. Continuum simulations with an equivalent discretization demonstrate that CNS is a significant source of uncertainty for predictions of the time and saturation profile at chamber-length air breakthrough.

  17. Automating Recession Curve Displacement Recharge Estimation. (United States)

    Smith, Brennan; Schwartz, Stuart


    Recharge estimation is an important and challenging element of groundwater management and resource sustainability. Many recharge estimation methods have been developed with varying data requirements, applicable to different spatial and temporal scales. The variability and inherent uncertainty in recharge estimation motivates the recommended use of multiple methods to estimate and bound regional recharge estimates. Despite the inherent limitations of using daily gauged streamflow, recession curve displacement methods provide a convenient first-order estimate as part of a multimethod hierarchical approach to estimate watershed-scale annual recharge. The implementation of recession curve displacement recharge estimation in the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) RORA program relies on the subjective, operator-specific selection of baseflow recession events to estimate a gauge-specific recession index. This paper presents a parametric algorithm that objectively automates this tedious, subjective process, parameterizing and automating the implementation of recession curve displacement. Results using the algorithm reproduce regional estimates of groundwater recharge from the USGS Appalachian Valley and Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis, with an average absolute error of less than 2%. The algorithm facilitates consistent, completely automated estimation of annual recharge that complements more rigorous data-intensive techniques for recharge estimation. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício


    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  19. Character displacement promotes cooperation in bacterial biofilms. (United States)

    Brockhurst, Michael A; Hochberg, Michael E; Bell, Thomas; Buckling, Angus


    Resource competition within a group of cooperators is expected to decrease selection for cooperative behavior but can also result in diversifying selection for the use of different resources, which in turn could retard the breakdown of cooperation. Diverse groups are likely to be less susceptible to invasion by noncooperating social cheats: First, competition repression resulting from character displacement may provide less of a selective advantage to cheating; second, cheats may trade off the ability to exploit cooperators that specialize in one type of resource against cooperators that specialize in another ; third, diverse communities of any kind may have higher invasion resistance because there are fewer resources available for an invader to use . Furthermore, diverse groups are likely to be more productive than clonal groups if a wider range of total resources are being used . We addressed these issues by using the cooperative trait of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Character displacement through resource competition evolved within biofilms; productivity increased with increasing character displacement, and diverse biofilms were less susceptible to invasion by cheats. These results demonstrate that diversification into different ecological niches can minimize selection against cooperation in the face of local resource competition.

  20. Digital holographic measurements of shape and 3D sound-induced displacements of Tympanic Membrane. (United States)

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Lu, Weina; Dobrev, Ivo; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J


    Acoustically-induced vibrations of the Tympanic Membrane (TM) play a primary role in the hearing process, in that these motions are the initial mechanical response of the ear to airborne sound. Characterization of the shape and 3D displacement patterns of the TM is a crucial step to a better understanding of the complicated mechanics of sound reception by the ear. In this paper, shape and sound-induced 3D displacements of the TM in cadaveric chinchillas are measured by a lensless Dual-Wavelength Digital Holography system (DWDHS). The DWDHS consists of Laser Delivery (LD), Optical Head (OH), and Computing Platform (CP) subsystems. Shape measurements are performed in double-exposure mode and with the use of two wavelengths of a tunable laser while nanometer-scale displacements are measured along a single sensitivity direction and with a constant wavelength. In order to extract the three principal components of displacement in full-field-of-view, and taking into consideration the anatomical dimensions of the TM, we combine principles of thin-shell theory together with both, displacement measurements along the single sensitivity vector and TM surface shape. To computationally test this approach, Finite Element Methods (FEM) are applied to the study of artificial geometries.

  1. Dynamic simulation of a displacement-controlled total knee replacement wear tester. (United States)

    Lanovaz, J L; Ellis, R E


    This paper presents a dynamic finite element method (FEM) model of a commercial displacement-controlled total knee replacement (TKR) wear tester. The first goal of the study was to validate the model, which included both the wear tester and the TKR components. Convergence simulations and experimental testing were performed. These included a novel experimental determination of the coefficient of friction and an evaluation of predicted joint contact areas by comparing simulation results with experimental data collected using pressure-sensitive film. The second goal of this study was to develop a procedure for implementing force-based testing protocols on a displacement-controlled TKR wear tester. A standard force-based cyclic wear-testing protocol was simulated using the FEM model and resulting displacement waveforms were extracted. These were used as control inputs to the physical wear tester and an experimental wear test was performed. Reaction loads on the tibial components were measured and compared with the simulated results. The model was capable of accurately predicting the tibial loads throughout the test cycle, verifying the model's contact mechanics. The study demonstrated the use of computational modelling to convert a force-based testing protocol into displacement-based control parameters for use in a displacement-controlled mechanical testing system.

  2. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felipe Gómez-Isa


    The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights...

  3. Displaced, Homeless and Abused: The Dynamics of Gender-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based abuse (SPGBV) experienced by displaced Zimbabwean refugees, perpetrators of such abuses and the gender of perpetrators in South Africa. Refugee and Internally displaced persons are interchangeably used in this study. Through in-depth ...

  4. Predicting target displacements using ultrasound elastography and finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.O. den; Hansen, H.H.G.; Lopata, R.G.P.; Korte, C.L. de; Misra, S.


    Soft tissue displacements during minimally invasive surgical procedures may cause target motion and subsequent misplacement of the surgical tool. A technique is presented to predict target displacements using a combination of ultrasound elastography and finite element (FE) modeling. A cubic

  5. Predicting target displacements using ultrasound elastography and finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Buijs, J.; Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Lopata, Richard G.P.; de Korte, Chris L.; Misra, Sarthak

    Soft tissue displacements during minimally invasive surgical procedures may cause target motion and subsequent misplacement of the surgical tool. A technique is presented to predict target displacements using a combination of ultrasound elastography and finite element (FE) modeling. A cubic

  6. Center of Pressure Displacement of Standing Posture during Rapid Movements Is Reorganised Due to Experimental Lower Extremity Muscle Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Shiozawa

    Full Text Available Postural control during rapid movements may be impaired due to musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experimental knee-related muscle pain on the center of pressure (CoP displacement in a reaction time task condition.Nine healthy males performed two reaction time tasks (dominant side shoulder flexion and bilateral heel lift before, during, and after experimental pain induced in the dominant side vastus medialis or the tibialis anterior muscles by hypertonic saline injections. The CoP displacement was extracted from the ipsilateral and contralateral side by two force plates and the net CoP displacement was calculated.Compared with non-painful sessions, tibialis anterior muscle pain during the peak and peak-to-peak displacement for the CoP during anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs of the shoulder task reduced the peak-to-peak displacement of the net CoP in the medial-lateral direction (P<0.05. Tibialis anterior and vastus medialis muscle pain during shoulder flexion task reduced the anterior-posterior peak-to-peak displacement in the ipsilateral side (P<0.05.The central nervous system in healthy individuals was sufficiently robust in maintaining the APA characteristics during pain, although the displacement of net and ipsilateral CoP in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions during unilateral fast shoulder movement was altered.

  7. Displacement Ventilation in a Room with Low-Level Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices.......Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices....

  8. Analysis of occupational and displacive disorder using the atomic pair distribution function: a systematic investigation


    Proffen, Th.


    Many disordered crystalline materials show chemical short range order and relaxation of neighboring atoms. Local structural information can be obtained by analyzing the atomic pair distribution function (PDF). The viability of reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations to extract quantitative information about chemical ordering as well as displacements is investigated. The method has been applied to simulated PDFs of disordered structures showing chemical disorder alone as well as in combination w...

  9. 40 CFR 86.419-78 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.419-78 Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to...

  10. Year of displaced people’s rights in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Romero


    Full Text Available A Campaign for the Rights of Displaced People in Colombia, launched in 2007 by UNHCR, Colombian NGO CODHES and the Catholic Church, has tried to raise awareness in Colombia and the international community about the severity of the country’s displacement crisis and its failure to guarantee the rights of displaced people.

  11. Measuring fast stochastic displacements of bio-membranes with dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (United States)

    Monzel, C.; Schmidt, D.; Kleusch, C.; Kirchenbüchler, D.; Seifert, U.; Smith, A.-S.; Sengupta, K.; Merkel, R.


    Stochastic displacements or fluctuations of biological membranes are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of many physiological processes, but hitherto their precise quantification in living cells was limited due to a lack of tools to accurately record them. Here we introduce a novel technique--dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (DODS), to measure stochastic displacements of membranes with unprecedented combined spatiotemporal resolution of 20 nm and 10 μs. The technique was validated by measuring bending fluctuations of model membranes. DODS was then used to explore the fluctuations in human red blood cells, which showed an ATP-induced enhancement of non-Gaussian behaviour. Plasma membrane fluctuations of human macrophages were quantified to this accuracy for the first time. Stimulation with a cytokine enhanced non-Gaussian contributions to these fluctuations. Simplicity of implementation, and high accuracy make DODS a promising tool for comprehensive understanding of stochastic membrane processes.

  12. New Electromagnetic Force-Displacement Sensor


    Benabdellah, Amine; Abbassi, Zakarya; Nakheli, Abdelrhani


    A new electromagnetic force-displacement sensor is presented. Its operating principle is based on the fundamental laws of electromagnetism (Faraday-Lenz law) and the mechanical properties of a spring. The active elements are two coils made by a wire of 60 µm in diameter. Using different wire diameters or different number of wire turns in the coil modify the intensity of the magnetic field and the sensor response. The average accuracy of the sensor is about ∆d=1µm, and as a force sensor is abo...

  13. Two-Domain DNA Strand Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cardelli


    Full Text Available We investigate the computing power of a restricted class of DNA strand displacement structures: those that are made of double strands with nicks (interruptions in the top strand. To preserve this structural invariant, we impose restrictions on the single strands they interact with: we consider only two-domain single strands consisting of one toehold domain and one recognition domain. We study fork and join signal-processing gates based on these structures, and we show that these systems are amenable to formalization and to mechanical verification.

  14. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia (United States)


    Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Methods Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Results Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Conclusions Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on

  15. Meridional displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (United States)

    Gille, Sarah T


    Observed long-term warming trends in the Southern Ocean have been interpreted as a sign of increased poleward eddy heat transport or of a poleward displacement of the entire Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) frontal system. The two-decade-long record from satellite altimetry is an important source of information for evaluating the mechanisms governing these trends. While several recent studies have used sea surface height contours to index ACC frontal displacements, here altimeter data are instead used to track the latitude of mean ACC transport. Altimetric height contours indicate a poleward trend, regardless of whether they are associated with ACC fronts. The zonally averaged transport latitude index shows no long-term trend, implying that ACC meridional shifts determined from sea surface height might be associated with large-scale changes in sea surface height more than with localized shifts in frontal positions. The transport latitude index is weakly sensitive to the Southern Annular Mode, but is uncorrelated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Displacing lateral meniscus masquerading as patella dislocation. (United States)

    Arendt, Elizabeth A; Fontboté, Cristián A; Rohr, Sara R


    To alert the treating clinician to an uncommon knee meniscal condition that often masquerades as a more common patella condition. Retrospective chart review of a series of cases was undertaken. A series of 12 knees in 11 patients were referred to an orthopaedic surgeon with a diagnosis of recurrent lateral patella dislocation. Three knees had undergone patella realignment surgery with continuance of symptoms. Eight patients had prior magnetic resonance images read as no meniscal pathology and no acute patella/patella retinacular injury. All patients presented for a consult with a similar history. Under anaesthesia, all knees had a stable patella as judged by physical examination. At the time of surgery, six patients had a frank tear in the lateral meniscus, all of which were readily displaceable. Six knees showed a displaceable lateral meniscus with attenuation but not a visible frank tear. Ten menisci were treated with repair, and two knees underwent partial lateral meniscectomies. Patient follow-up of minimally 18 months revealed no further episodes of "knee-cap dislocation" or symptoms of catching and locking. The clinician treating a patient with a history of a knee locking in flexion should have a high index of suspicion for a lateral meniscus tear or an unstable hypermobile lateral meniscus, despite patient report of perceived patella movement. History of symptoms occurring in knee flexion and attention to patella physical examination should be key factors in this diagnostic conundrum. Retrospective chart review, Level IV.

  17. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.


    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

  18. Estimating Hydrologic Processes from Subsurface Soil Displacements (United States)

    Freeman, C. E.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L.; MIller, S.


    Soil moisture and the processes that control it are important components of the hydrologic cycle, but measuring these processes remains challenging. We have developed a new measurement method that offers flexibility compared to existing technology. The approach is to measure small vertical displacements in the soil which responds proportionally to distributed surface load changes such as variation in the near-surface water content. The instrument may be installed at a depth of several meters to hundreds of meters below the surface. Because the measurement averaging region scales with the depth of the displacement measurements, this approach provides the means for estimating the soil moisture time series over tens of square meters to tens of thousands of square meters. The instrument developed for this application is called a Sand-X, which is short for Sand Extensometer. It is designed for applications in unconsolidated material, ranging from clay to sand. The instrument is simple and relatively inexpensive, and it can be installed in a boring made with a hand auger or with a small drill rig. Studies at the field scale are ongoing at a field site near Clemson, SC. The site is underlain by saprolite weathered primarily from biotite gneiss. Several Sand-X devices are installed at a field site that is instrumented for validating soil moisture, precipitation, and evapotranspiration estimates. These instruments are emplaced at a depth of 6 m and respond to the weight of a vehicle out to 18 m from the well. Calibration is performed by comparing precipitation measurements to the soil displacement response. For example, the coefficient for one installation is roughly 185 nm soil displacement/mm water content change. The resolution of the instrument is approximately 10 nm, so the Sand-X is capable of detecting changes of soil moisture on the order of tenths of one mm in compliant soils like saprolite. A typical soil displacement time series shows alternating periods of

  19. Numerical simulation research on cementing displacement in the expanding hole (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Xin, Jingmin; Zou, Qiang


    Due to the influence of geofactor, drilling fluid and construction work, irregular boreholes appear during the drilling, which will lead to poor cementing quality. Taking the well as an example, according to the phenomenon of lower displacement efficiency and serious mixing slurry during cementing in the out of round oversized hole, simulation and experimental research are carried out, how the displacement capacity affects the displacement efficiency is analyzed and the mixing cement strength test is carried out. Finally it is proposed that combined displacement can be used during cementing in the out of round oversized hole. Before the out of round oversized hole, displace in normal pump capacity. When the displacement interface flow to the out of round oversized whole, small displacement capacity is used.

  20. The effect of base pair mismatch on DNA strand displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Broadwater, Bo


    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration, and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term, the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage t...

  1. Surgical Management of Accidentally Displaced Mandibular Third Molar into the Pterygomandibular Space: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Yueh Huang


    Full Text Available Surgical removal of the mandibular third molar is a regular surgical procedure in dental clinics, and like all operations, it may have some complications, such as infection, bleeding, nerve injuries, trismus and so on. An accidentally displaced lower third molar is a relatively rare complication, but may cause severe tissue injury and medicolegal problems. As few papers and cases have been published on this topic, we report this case to remind dentists on ways to prevent and manage this complication. The patient, a 28-year-old male, had his right lower mandibular third molar extraction in January 2006. The dentist resected the crown and attempted to remove the root but found that it had suddenly disappeared from the socket. Assuming that the root had been suctioned out he closed the wound. The patient was not followed up regularly because he studied abroad. About 3 months later, the patient felt a foreign body sensation over his right throat, and visited a local hospital in Australia. He was told after a computed tomography (CT scan that there was a root-like radio-opaque image in the pterygomandibular space. The patient came to our hospital for further examination and management in June 2006. We rechecked with both Panorex and CT and confirmed the location of the displaced root. Surgery for retrieving the displaced root was performed under general anesthesia by conventional method without difficulty, and the wound healed uneventfully except for a temporary numbness of the right tongue. This case reminds us that the best way to prevent a displaced mandibular third molar is to evaluate the condition of the tooth carefully preoperatively, select adequate instruments and technique, and take good care during extraction. If an accident does occur, dentists should decide whether to retrieve it immediately by themselves or refer the case to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and should not try to remove the displaced root without proper assurance

  2. Anisotropic permeability in deterministic lateral displacement arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vernekar, Rohan; Loutherback, Kevin; Morton, Keith; Inglis, David


    We investigate anisotropic permeability of microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. A DLD array can achieve high-resolution bimodal size-based separation of micro-particles, including bioparticles such as cells. Correct operation requires that the fluid flow remains at a fixed angle with respect to the periodic obstacle array. We show via experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations that subtle array design features cause anisotropic permeability. The anisotropy, which indicates the array's intrinsic tendency to induce an undesired lateral pressure gradient, can lead to off-axis flows and therefore local changes in the critical separation size. Thus, particle trajectories can become unpredictable and the device useless for the desired separation duty. We show that for circular posts the rotated-square layout, unlike the parallelogram layout, does not suffer from anisotropy and is the preferred geometry. Furthermore, anisotropy becomes severe for arrays with unequal axial and lateral gaps...

  3. Artificial Neural Network for Displacement Vectors Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bohmann


    Full Text Available An artificial neural network (NN for displacement vectors (DV determination is presented in this paper. DV are computed in areas which are essential for image analysis and computer vision, in areas where are edges, lines, corners etc. These special features are found by edges operators with the following filtration. The filtration is performed by a threshold function. The next step is DV computation by 2D Hamming artificial neural network. A method of DV computation is based on the full search block matching algorithms. The pre-processing (edges finding is the reason why the correlation function is very simple, the process of DV determination needs less computation and the structure of the NN is simpler.

  4. Displaced photon-number entanglement tests (United States)

    Kühn, B.; Vogel, W.; Sperling, J.


    Based on correlations of coherently displaced photon numbers, we derive entanglement criteria for the purpose of verifying non-Gaussian entanglement. Our construction method enables us to verify bipartite and multipartite entanglement of complex states of light. An important advantage of our technique is that the certified entanglement persists even in the presence of arbitrarily high, constant losses. We exploit experimental correlation schemes for the two-mode and multimode scenarios, which allow us to directly measure the desired observables. To detect entanglement of a given state, a genetic algorithm is applied to optimize over the infinite set of our constructed witnesses. In particular, we provide suitable witnesses for several distinct two-mode states. Moreover, a mixed non-Gaussian four-mode state is shown to be entangled in all possible nontrivial partitions.

  5. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)


    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  6. Robustness of localized DNA strand displacement cascades. (United States)

    Teichmann, Mario; Kopperger, Enzo; Simmel, Friedrich C


    Colocalization can strongly alter the kinetics and efficiency of chemical processes. For instance, in DNA-templated synthesis unfavorable reactions are sped up by placing reactants into close proximity onto a DNA scaffold. In biochemistry, clustering of enzymes has been demonstrated to enhance the reaction flux through some enzymatic cascades. Here we investigate the effect of colocalization on the performance of DNA strand displacement (DSD) reactions, an important class of reactions utilized in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. We study colocalization by immobilizing a two-stage DSD reaction cascade comprised of a “sender” and a “receiver” gate onto a DNA origami platform. The addition of a DNA (or RNA) input strand displaces a signal strand from the sender gate, which can then transfer to the receiver gate. The performance of the cascade is found to vary strongly with the distance between the gates. A cascade with an intermediate gate distance of ≈20 nm exhibits faster kinetics than those with larger distances, whereas a cascade with smaller distance is corrupted by excessive intraorigami leak reactions. The 20 nm cascade is found to be considerably more robust with respect to a competing reaction, and implementation of multiple receiver gates further increases this robustness. Our results indicate that for the 20 nm distance a fraction of signal strands is transferred locally to a receiver gate on the same platform, probably involving direct physical contact between the gates. The performance of the cascade is consistent with a simple model that takes “local” and “global” transfer processes into account.

  7. Identification of structural stiffness and excitation forces in time domain using noncontact vision-based displacement measurement (United States)

    Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q.


    The emerging noncontact vision-based displacement sensor system offers a promising alternative to the conventional sensors for quantitative structural integrity assessment. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision-based sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement responses at multiple points. This study aims to link the measured displacement data to the quantification of the structural health condition, by validating the feasibility of simultaneous identification of structural stiffness and unknown excitation forces in time domain using output-only vision-based displacement measurement. Numerical analysis are first carried out to investigate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of identified results to different noise levels, sensor numbers, and initial estimates of structural parameters. Then, experiment on a laboratory scaled beam structure is conducted. Results show that the global stiffness of the beam specimen as well as external hammer excitation forces can be successfully and accurately identified from displacement measurement at two points using one camera. The proposed output-only time-domain identification procedure utilizing vision-based displacement measurement represents a low-cost method for either periodic or long-term bridge performance assessment.

  8. Pelvic floor muscle displacement during voluntary and involuntary activation in continent and incontinent women: a systematic review. (United States)

    Leitner, Monika; Moser, Helene; Taeymans, Jan; Kuhn, Annette; Radlinger, Lorenz


    Investigations of the dynamic function of female pelvic floor muscles (PFM) help us to understand the pathophysiology of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Displacement measurements of PFM give insight into muscle activation and thus help to improve rehabilitation strategies. This systematic review (PROSPERO 2013: CRD42013006409) was performed to summarise the current evidence for PFM displacement during voluntary and involuntary activation in continent and incontinent women. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and SPORTDiscus databases were searched using selected terminology reflecting the PICO approach. Screening of Google Scholar and congress abstracts added to further information. Original articles investigating PFM displacement were included if they reported on at least one of the aims of the review, e.g., method, test position, test activity, direction and quantification of displacement, as well as the comparison between continent and incontinent women. Titles and abstracts were screened by two reviewers. The papers included were reviewed by two individuals to ascertain whether they fulfilled the inclusion criteria and data were extracted on outcome parameters. Forty-two predominantly observational studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A variety of measurement methods and calculations of displacement was presented. The sample was heterogeneous concerning age, parity and continence status. Test positions and test activities varied among the studies. The findings summarise the present knowledge of PFM displacement, but still lack deeper comprehension of the SUI pathomechanism of involuntary, reflexive activation during functional activities. We therefore propose that future investigations focus on PFM dynamics during fast and stressful impact tasks.

  9. Miscible displacement in the Weyburn reservoir: A laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.S (Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)); Dyer, S.B. (PanCanadian Petorleum Ltd., AB (Canada))


    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of various solvents (including the potential source of carbon dioxide extracted from flue gas) for the recovery of oil from a southeast Saskatchewan reservoir, the Weyburn. The physical, chemical, and phase behavior (PVT) properties of the dead oil, reservoir fluid, and reservoir fluid with carbon dioxide, were determined. Slim tube tests were conducted for the Weyburn reservoir fluid with pure carbon dioxide, with wellhead gas from the Steelman gas plant, and with two impure carbon dioxide gases (one containing 9.9 mol % CH[sub 4] and the other containing 5.1 mol % N[sub 2] and 5.1 mol % CH[sub 4]), at various pressures and the reservoir temperature of 59[degree]C. Tests were also carried out to determine the maximum amount of impurities that can be tolerated for the miscible process. The minimum miscibility pressures (MMP) determined for the systems demonstrated that miscible displacement using pure CO[sub 2] or impure gas containing up to 9.9 mol % CH[sub 4] as a solvent is a promising enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique for southest Saskatchewan reservoirs. The MMPs are below the estimated reservoir fracture pressure. The wellhead gas from the Steelman gas plant is not a suitable EOR agent for the Weyburn reservoir. MMPs determined by the rising bubble method were in good agreement with slim tube test results, and this method is considered superior. 20 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Multi-beamlet focusing of intense negative ion beams by aperture displacement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Oka, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Asano, E.; Akiyama, R.; Kawamoto, T.; Kuroda, T.; Ando, A.


    Multi-beamlet focusing of an intense negative ion beam has been performed using the beamlet steering by the aperture displacement. The apertures of the grounded grid were displaced as all beamlets of 270 (18 x 15) in the area of 25 cm x 26 cm would be steered to a common point (a focal point) in both the two-stage and the single-stage accelerators. The multi-beamlets were successfully focused and the e-folding half width of 10 cm was achieved 11.2 m downstream from the ion source in both the accelerators. The corresponding gross divergence angle is 9 mrad. The negative ion beamlets are deflected by the magnetic field for the electron deflection at the extraction grid and the deflection direction oppositely changes line by line, resulting in the beam split in the deflection direction. This beamlet deflection was well compensated also using the beamlet steering by the aperture displacement of the grounded grid. The beam acceleration properties related with the beam divergence and the H{sup -} ion current were nearly the same for both the two-stage and the single-stage accelerators, and were dependent on the ratio of the extraction to the acceleration electric fields. (author).

  11. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. (United States)

    Lamba, Gagandeep; Ravi, G R


    Radicular cysts are by far the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. However, those arising from primary teeth are comparatively rare, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3%. The aim of this paper is to present clinical, radiographic and histopathological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with a primary mandibular molar causing unusual displacement of the permanent successor. Extraction of primary tooth along with extirpation of cyst was done under local anesthesia. The displaced premolar was also extracted and then replanted in the socket after proper alignment. Healing was uneventful and the space of missing primary molar was maintained by band and loop space maintainer. The relationship between intracanal medicaments and rapid growth of cyst, as mentioned in literature was observed in our case too. Thus, pulpotomy treated primary teeth should receive periodic postoperative radiographic examination and absence of clinical symptoms does not mean that a pulpotomy treated tooth is healthy. How to cite this article: Lamba G, Ravi GR. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):70-74.

  12. Altered mandibular growth under functional posterior displacement in rats


    Farias-Neto, A; Martins, APVB; Figueroba, SR; Groppo, FC; Almeida, SM; Rizzatti-Barbosa, CM


    Objective: To test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in mandibular growth between growing rats with posterior functional mandibular displacement and growing rats without functional mandibular displacement. Materials and Methods: Twenty female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were randomized into two groups: (1) control and (2) mandible posterior displacement in the occluded condition induced by an occlusal guiding appliance. After 8 weeks all animals were sacrificed, cone beam computed...

  13. Job displacement and labor market outcomes by skill level


    David Seim


    This paper investigates the effects of displacement on outcomes such as annual earnings, unemployment, wages and hours worked. It relies on previously unexplored administrative data on all displaced workers in Sweden in 2002, 2003 and 2004 which are linked to employer-employee matched data at the individual level. By linking the data to military enlistment records, the paper assesses the selection into displacement and finds that workers with low cognitive and noncognitive skills are signific...

  14. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia


    Felipe Gómez-Isa


    The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights. The underlying reasons for the displacement often lie in the dynamics associated with territorial control and land seizures undertaken for strategic, military or purely economic purposes. Domestic and international legal provisions have established the victims’ right to the r...

  15. Interferometric measurement of displacements and displacement velocities for nondestructive quality control (United States)

    Shpeĭzman, V. V.; Peschanskaya, N. N.


    It is shown that the interferometric measurement of small displacements and small-displacement velocities can be used to determine internal stresses or the stresses induced by an applied load in solids and to control structural changes in them. The interferometric method based on the measurement of the reaction of a solid to a small perturbation in its state of stress is applied to determine stresses from the deviation of the reaction to perturbations from that in the standard stress-free case. For structural control, this method is employed to study the specific features of the characteristics of microplastic deformation that appear after material treatment or operation and manifest themselves in the temperature and force dependences of the rate of a small inelastic strain.

  16. Employment protection and the consequences for displaced workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; van Audenrode, Marc; Browning, Martin

    We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement and the c......We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement...

  17. Isothermal Gas assisted displacement of a polystyrene melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.


    Isothermal gas displacements of a polystyrene melt (shaped as circular cylinder with a radius of 2.5mm) placed inside a circular steel annulus were performed. A flow valve ensures a constant flow rate and rotational symmetric flow during the displacement. The experiments show an increase in the s......Isothermal gas displacements of a polystyrene melt (shaped as circular cylinder with a radius of 2.5mm) placed inside a circular steel annulus were performed. A flow valve ensures a constant flow rate and rotational symmetric flow during the displacement. The experiments show an increase...

  18. Studying Landslide Displacements in Megamendung (Indonesia Using GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Z. Abidin


    Full Text Available Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that frequently affects Indonesia, especially in the rainy season. It destroys not only environment and property, but usually also causes deaths. Landslide monitoring is therefore very crucial and should be continuously done. One of the methods that can have a contribution in studying landslide phenomena is repeated GPS survey method. This paper presents and discusses the operational performances, constraints and results of GPS surveys conducted in a well known landslide prone area in West Java (Indonesia, namely Megamendung, the hilly region close to Bogor. Three GPS surveys involving 8 GPS points have been conducted, namely on April 2002, May 2003 and May 2004, respectively. The estimated landslide displacements in the area are relatively quite large in the level of a few dm to a few m. Displacements up to about 2-3 m were detected in the April 2002 to May 2003 period, and up to about 3-4 dm in the May 2003 to May 2004 period. In both periods, landslides in general show the northwest direction of displacements. Displacements vary both spatially and temporally. This study also suggested that in order to conclude the existence of real and significant displacements of GPS points, the GPS estimated displacements should be subjected to three types of testing namely: the congruency test on spatial displacements, testing on the agreement between the horizontal distance changes with the predicted direction of landslide displacement, and testing on the consistency of displacement directions on two consecutive periods.

  19. Job displacement and stress-related health outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Danø, Anne Møller; Heinesen, Eskil


    We investigate whether job loss as the result of displacement causes hospitalization for stress-related diseases which are widely thought to be associated with unemployment. In doing this, we use much better data than any previous investigators. Our data are a random 10% sample of the male...... group of displaced workers if they had not in fact been displaced. Our results indicate unequivocally that being displaced in Denmark does not cause hospitalization for stress-related disease. An analysis of the power of our test suggests that even though we are looking for a relatively rare outcome...

  20. Efficient purification of paclitaxel from yews using high-performance displacement chromatography technique. (United States)

    Watchueng, Jean; Kamnaing, Pierre; Gao, Jin-Ming; Kiyota, Taira; Yeboah, Faustinus; Konishi, Yasuo


    Paclitaxel was purified using high-performance displacement chromatography (HPDC) technique, but not by the mechanism of HPDC. On small scale, paclitaxel was extracted with methanol from dry needles of Taxus canadensis and was enriched by extracting with chloroform after removing water-soluble hydrophilic components and hexane-soluble hydrophobic components. Then, 93-99% purity of paclitaxel was obtained using the HPDC technique. On large scale, taxanes were enriched by solvent partitioning between acetic acid/MeOH/H(2)O and hexane and extracted with CH(2)Cl(2). Taxanes except paclitaxel were further removed by extracting with methanol-water-trifluoroacetic acid (1.0:98.9:0.1, v/v/v). Applying HPDC technique to water-insoluble substances is problematic as this method requires a highly aqueous solvent system. In order to overcome this incompatibility, a system was set up where paclitaxel, although in low concentration, was extracted by methanol-water-trifluoroacetic acid (10.0:89.9:0.1, v/v/v). Recycling the extracting solvent to ensure minimal volume, the extracted paclitaxel was adsorbed on a C(18) trap column. A C(18) column of 4.6mm internal diameter was then connected to the trap column. The HPDC technique was thus carried out using an isocratic acetonitrile-water-trifluoroacetic acid (30.0:69.9:0.1, v/v/v) mobile phase consisting of a displacer cetylpyridinium trifluoroacetate (3mg/mL). Paclitaxel was co-eluted with the displacer and spontaneously crystallized. The crystal (114mg) showed 99.4% purity and only 10% of paclitaxel in the starting crude extract was lost during the enrichment/purification processes. This large scale purification method was successfully applied to purify paclitaxel from Chinese yew in small scale, suggesting general applicability of the method. This is the first report of purifying a water-insoluble natural product using HPDC technique. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA strand displacement, strand annealing and strand swapping by the Drosophila Bloom's syndrome helicase. (United States)

    Weinert, Brian T; Rio, Donald C


    Genetic analysis of the Drosophila Bloom's syndrome helicase homolog (mus309/DmBLM) indicates that DmBLM is required for the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) pathway of homologous recombination. Here we report the first biochemical study of DmBLM. Recombinant, epitope-tagged DmBLM was expressed in Drosophila cell culture and highly purified protein was prepared from nuclear extracts. Purified DmBLM exists exclusively as a high molecular weight ( approximately 1.17 MDa) species, is a DNA-dependent ATPase, has 3'-->5' DNA helicase activity, prefers forked substrate DNAs and anneals complementary DNAs. High-affinity DNA binding is ATP-dependent and low-affinity ATP-independent interactions contribute to forked substrate DNA binding and drive strand annealing. DmBLM combines DNA strand displacement with DNA strand annealing to catalyze the displacement of one DNA strand while annealing a second complementary DNA strand.

  2. The Three Gorges: the unexamined toll of development-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stein


    Full Text Available In China, the context of forced displacement in its broadest sense centres on four issues: (1 coercive displacement for development; (2 political persecution resulting in controlled displacement; (3 massive labour dislocations; and (4 disaster-induced displacement. This article looks at the role of the state in displacement, focusing on the first of these issues: development-induced displacement.

  3. Internal displacement and strain measurement using digital volume correlation: a least-squares framework (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Wu, Dafang; Wang, Zhaoyang


    As a novel tool for quantitative 3D internal deformation measurement throughout the interior of a material or tissue, digital volume correlation (DVC) has increasingly gained attention and application in the fields of experimental mechanics, material research and biomedical engineering. However, the practical implementation of DVC involves important challenges such as implementation complexity, calculation accuracy and computational efficiency. In this paper, a least-squares framework is presented for 3D internal displacement and strain field measurement using DVC. The proposed DVC combines a practical linear-intensity-change model with an easy-to-implement iterative least-squares (ILS) algorithm to retrieve 3D internal displacement vector field with sub-voxel accuracy. Because the linear-intensity-change model is capable of accounting for both the possible intensity changes and the relative geometric transform of the target subvolume, the presented DVC thus provides the highest sub-voxel registration accuracy and widest applicability. Furthermore, as the ILS algorithm uses only first-order spatial derivatives of the deformed volumetric image, the developed DVC thus significantly reduces computational complexity. To further extract 3D strain distributions from the 3D discrete displacement vectors obtained by the ILS algorithm, the presented DVC employs a pointwise least-squares algorithm to estimate the strain components for each measurement point. Computer-simulated volume images with controlled displacements are employed to investigate the performance of the proposed DVC method in terms of mean bias error and standard deviation error. Results reveal that the present technique is capable of providing accurate measurements in an easy-to-implement manner, and can be applied to practical 3D internal displacement and strain calculation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Vindišar


    Full Text Available Background. The exact knowledge of the anatomic relations of the juvenile skeleton is of great importance for the determination of the injury and proper treatment. The treatment should be uniform and carried out in one act. Considering this facts the functional results are usually very good and no late sequel are recorded.Methods. In 5-years period 25 children with age 7 to 17 were treated with displaced fracture of ankle. The Salter-Harris classification (SHC was used. Children were classified in two groups. In first group (G-I 11 children were treated with closed reduction. Whole group was classified as type II fractures of SHC. In second group (G-II 14 children were treated operatively. 10 cases were type III, 2 cases were type IV of SHC and 2 were juvenil Tillaux fracture. In follow-up we registered the duration of immobilisation, non-weight bearing period, mobility and residual pain at the end of the treatment.Results. In G-I average non-weight bearing period was 10.4 weeks, in G-II only 7.8 weeks. At the end of the treatment in both groups very good functional results were achieved. There were no complications in operative group (G-II.Conclusions. Children relatively often suffer ankle injuries. With proper diagnosis and early adequate treatment the prognosis is good and no functional sequel were recorded.

  5. Mythic displacement in Nigerian narratives: An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Chukwumah


    Full Text Available Five decades of resorting to humanistic critical procedureshave bequeathed to the Nigerian critical practice the legacy ofexamining and discovering in Nigerian and African narrativesthe historical and social concepts of the time and times theyare presumed to posit. These concepts include colonialism,corruption, war, political instability, and culture conflict. Theseprocedures are undertaken without due regard to seeing the wholeof the literary tradition as a stream out of which narratives emerge.This article, therefore, by way of introduction, seeks to retrieveNigerian narratives from “every author” and humanistic criticalapproach by placing them in a realm where a holistic method suchas Frye’s could be applied. Here, the traverses of the structure ofmythical imagery such as the mythos of crime and punishmentas embodied in these narratives and how this structure wasdisplaced/shrouded from Frye’s first mimetic mode to the last, viathe concept of mythic displacement, will be analysed.

  6. Airbag roll marks & displaced rocks and soil (United States)


    Looking southwest from the lander, soil disturbances indicating the spacecraft rolled through the landing site are visible. Arriving from the east, the lander, still encased in its protective airbags, rolled up a slight rise and then rolled back down to its final position. The inset at left shows displaced rocks near the rock 'Flat Top.' Dark patches of disturbed soil indicate where the rocks had originally rested Both insets show rocks that were pushed into the soil from the weight of the lander, visible from the areas of raised rims of dark, disturbed soil around several rocks. The south summit of Twin Peaks is in the background, while a lander petal, deflated airbag, and rear rover deployment ramp are in the foreground.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  7. The use of crosshead displacement in determining fracture parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.; Voormeeren, L.O.; Janssen, M.


    In determining the fracture toughness of a test specimen, standards currently require either locally-measured load-line displacements or clip gage displacements. In order to measure these parameters, secondary sensors generally need to be installed and calibrated, which often comes at a higher cost.

  8. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra


    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately 2 million Iraqis who have been displaced within Iraq itself...

  9. Traumatisk diafragmaruptur med displacering af leveren til thorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, L.; Burcharth, F.


    We report a case of a traumatic diaphragmatic rupture with the liver displaced to the right hemithorax. MR diagnosed the rupture and the displacement of the liver. The patient was operated on and the total right diaphragmatic rupture was reconstructed by suturing. Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture ...

  10. A novel method for sensing rotational speed, linear displacement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    We further demonstrate that such HTSC based magnetic sensors are capable of sensing the rotational speed, small displacement and direct current with good resolution. The experimental methods and results obtained are discussed. Keywords. Magnetic sensor; superconductor; rotational speed sensor; displacement ...

  11. Assessing Interventions Available to Internally Displaced Persons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these ...

  12. Displacement, Outplacement, or Inplacement? Options for Business and Industry. (United States)

    Wiltzius, Thomas J.

    This report considers the differences among displacement, outplacement, and inplacement and looks at the risks, benefits, and costs of each. Displacement is defined as the termination of employment with little attention given to corporate or individual needs. Outplacement is defined as the pre-planned management of employee termination, addressing…

  13. Retention of Displaced Students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (United States)

    Coco, Joshua Christian


    The purpose of the study was to investigate the strategies that university leaders implemented to improve retention of displaced students in the aftermaths of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The universities that participated in this study admitted displaced students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. This study utilized a qualitative…

  14. Sideways displacement and curved path of recti eye muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); F. Harting (Friedrich); B.J. de Waal (Bob); B.W.J.M. Verbeeten (Ben)


    textabstractWe investigated the sideways displacement of recti muscles with the eye in various gaze-positions by making computed tomographic (CT) scans in a plane perpendicular to the muscle cone, posterior to the globe. We found no consistent sideways displacement of the horizontal recti in the up

  15. Displaced intra-uterine contraceptive device causing severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a common method of contraception in developing countries. Expulsion/displacement is a common complication of its use, occurring in 2-8 % of users per 100 women years. Two cases of menorrhagia resulting from displacement of Copper-T-380 IUCD to the cervical canal ...

  16. Learned Helplessness: A Factor in Counseling for Displaced Homemakers. (United States)

    Wood, Carolyn J.


    Describes learned helplessness and its effect on ability of displaced homemakers to enter or reenter the work force successfully. Suggests that success in making transition from homemaker to worker may depend on attributions women provide for their failed or ended marriages. Discusses ways in which counselors may assist displaced homemakers in…

  17. Effect of displaced versus non-displaced pelvic fractures on long-term racing performance in 31 Thoroughbred racehorses. (United States)

    Hennessy, S E; Muurlink, M A; Anderson, G A; Puksmann, T N; Whitton, R C


    To evaluate the long-term racing prognosis for Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced versus non-displaced fractures of the pelvis identified by scintigraphy. Retrospective case analysis. Medical records of 31 Thoroughbred racehorses presenting to the University of Melbourne Equine Centre with fractures of the pelvis that were identified by scintigraphy were reviewed. Pelvic fracture site was determined and defined as displaced or non-displaced based on ultrasound and/or radiographic findings. Race records were analysed for each horse, with a minimum of 24 months' follow-up, and correlated with fracture type to determine long-term prognosis for racing. Results are expressed as median and range. Fractures at a single site were more common (n = 22) than fractures involving two sites (n = 9) and the ilial wing was the most commonly affected (n = 12). Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced pelvic fractures at any site (n = 12) raced fewer times within 24 months of diagnosis than horses with non-displaced fractures (n = 19) (median 0.5, range 0-13 vs 7, 0-24; P = 0.037), but there was no clear statistical difference in race earnings between the two groups (median A$0, range A$0-$123,250 vs A$14,440, A$0-$325,500, respectively; P = 0.080). Four horses with displaced fractures (33%) were euthanased on humane grounds because of persistent severe pain. When these horses were excluded from the analysis, there were no differences in performance variables between horses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture. Thoroughbred racehorses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture that survive the initial post-injury period have a good prognosis for racing. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Diagnosing displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Bagger, Jens; Sylvest, Annette


    Displaced four-part fractures comprise 2-10 % of all proximal humeral fractures. The optimal treatment is unclear and randomised trials are needed. The conduct and interpretation of such trials is facilitated by a reproducible fracture classification. We aimed at quantifying observer agreement...... on the classification of displaced four-part fractures according to the Neer system. Published and unpublished data from five observer studies were reviewed. Observers agreed less on displaced four-part fractures than on the overall Neer classification. Mean kappa values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.......16 to 0.48. Specialists agreed slightly more than fellows and residents. Advanced imaging modalities (CT and 3D CT) seemed to contribute more to classification of displaced four-part patterns than in less complex fracture patterns. Low observer agreement may challenge the clinical approach to displaced...

  19. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gómez-Isa


    Full Text Available The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights. The underlying reasons for the displacement often lie in the dynamics associated with territorial control and land seizures undertaken for strategic, military or purely economic purposes. Domestic and international legal provisions have established the victims’ right to the restitution of their homes and property as the “preferred remedy” in cases of displacement. However, policies dealing with displacement, both those of the Colombian government and of several international institutions, fail to take this sufficiently into account. A comprehensive reparation policy for victims must necessarily entail the reversion of lands, territories and goods seized in Colombia under the pretext of the internal armed conflict.

  20. Performance of ductless personalized ventilation in conjunction with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Vesely, Michal


    The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation was studied and compared with displacement ventilation alone and mixing ventilation. Thirty subjects were exposed in a climate chamber to environmental conditions representing three levels...... perception of the environment. The subjects could control the position of the DPV supply diffuser and the personalized air flow (air velocity). The use of DPV improved perceived air quality and thermal comfort compared to displacement ventilation alone. At 26 °C and 29 °C the percentage dissatisfied with air...... movement decreased with DPV compared to corresponding conditions with displacement ventilation alone and reached the same level as mixing or displacement ventilation at 23 °C. Subjects were able to control the volume and speed of the personalized air flow in order to avoid eye irritation. However...

  1. Human response to ductless personalized ventilation coupled with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Veselý, Michal; Melikov, Arsen K.


    A human subject experiment was carried out to investigate the extent to which ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation can improve perceived air quality (PAQ) and thermal comfort at elevated room air temperature in comparison with displacement ventilation...... alone. The experimental conditions comprised displacement ventilation alone (room air temperature of 23 °C, 26 °C, 29 °C) and DPV with displacement ventilation (26 °C, 29 °C), both operating at supply air temperatures 3, 5 or 6K lower than room air temperature, as well as mixing ventilation (23 °C, 3 K......). During one hour exposure participants answered questionnaires regarding PAQ and thermal comfort. PAQ was significantly better with DPV than without DPV at the same background conditions. Thermal comfort improved when DPV was used. Combining DPV with displacement ventilation showed the potential...

  2. Perceived Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In a displacement ventilated room the non-uniform contaminant distribution causes an improved indoor air quality in the occupied zone compared with conventional mixing ventilation. This has been demonstrated in numerous studies by chemical measurements. In this study the air quality in a displace......In a displacement ventilated room the non-uniform contaminant distribution causes an improved indoor air quality in the occupied zone compared with conventional mixing ventilation. This has been demonstrated in numerous studies by chemical measurements. In this study the air quality...... in a displacement ventilated room was determined directly by asking humans about how they perceived the air quality. A trained sensory panel comprising 12 subjects assessed the perceived air quality immediately after entering a climate chamber. The experiments showed that the perceived air quality...... in the displacement ventilated chamber was substantially better than in the case of mixing ventilation....

  3. Large scale intender test program to measure sub gouge displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, Ken; Lopez, Juan [Golder Associates Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Sancio, Rodolfo [MMI Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)


    The production of submarine pipelines in an offshore environment covered with ice is very challenging. Several precautions must be taken such as burying the pipelines to protect them from ice movement caused by gouging. The estimation of the subgouge displacements is a key factor in pipeline design for ice gouged environments. This paper investigated a method to measure subgouge displacements. An experimental program was implemented in an open field to produce large scale idealized gouges on engineered soil beds (sand and clay). The horizontal force required to produce the gouge, the subgouge displacements in the soil and the strain imposed by these displacements were monitored on a buried model pipeline. The results showed that for a given keel, the gouge depth was inversely proportional to undrained shear strength in clay. The subgouge displacements measured did not show a relationship with the gouge depth, width or soil density in sand and clay tests.

  4. Displacement operators: the classical face of their quantum phase (United States)

    Vutha, Amar C.; Bohr, Eliot A.; Ransford, Anthony; Campbell, Wesley C.; Hamilton, Paul


    In quantum mechanics, the operator representing the displacement of a system in position or momentum is always accompanied by a path-dependent phase factor. In particular, two non-parallel displacements in phase space do not compose together in a simple way, and the order of these displacements leads to different displacement composition phase factors. These phase factors are often attributed to the nonzero commutator between quantum position and momentum operators, but such a mathematical explanation might be unsatisfactory to students who are after more physical insight. We present a couple of simple demonstrations, using classical wave mechanics and classical particle mechanics, that provide some physical intuition for the phase associated with displacement operators.

  5. Displacement ventilation and passive cooling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, P.; Bekker, B. [PJCarew Consulting, Cape Town (South Africa)


    Displacement ventilation (DV) is widely used a passive cooling strategy because it requires less air supply for cooling compared to conventional mixing ventilation (MV). DV introduces air at low level and low velocity, and at high supply air temperature, usually around 18 degrees C. The slightly cooler air runs along the floor of a room until it reaches a heat load. The heat load induces a plume of warmer air that rises due to lower density. This induces stratification in room temperature with the occupied area of the room. The air near the ceiling is continually exhausted to prevent a build up of warm air into the occupied zone. This paper demonstrated the impacts of using DV in comparison to MV on the peak capacity, size and humidity levels associated with various passive cooling strategies, informed by the ASHRAE DV guidelines. A generic office building in Johannesburg, South Africa, was used as a model. The paper illustrated the extent to which DV can be used as a passive cooling strategy in spaces that were previously considered as having too high a heat load when calculated using MV system guidelines. A comparison of DV and MV also highlighted the risk of over-design when conventional MV guidelines are used to design cooling sources for DV applications. The DV was shown to significantly lower the amount of supply air needed to serve a room's heat load when compared to MV at the same temperatures. This reduction in air supply impacts the feasibility of using passive cooling strategies in evaporative cooling, 2-stage evaporative cooling, thermal storage and air to ground heat exchangers. However, passive cooling strategies are unlikely to be widely implemented until design guidelines are created by organizations such as ASHRAE. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  6. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh


    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  7. Surgical treatment of displaced acetabular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Saša


    Full Text Available Introduction. Acetabular fractures are severe injuries, generally caused by high-energy trauma, most frequently from traffic accidents or falls from heights. Fractures of the extremities, head injuries, chest, abdomen and pelvic ring injuries are most commonly associated injuries. Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures. The open anatomical reduction of the articular surface combined with a rigid internal fixation and early mobilisation have become the standard treatment of these injuries. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 22 patients of average age 43.13 years. The patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation at the Orthopaedic Clinic of Niš from 2005-2009. The follow-up was 12 to 60 months, with the average of 21.18 months after surgery. Results. All injured patients were operated on between 4 and 11 days (5.7 days on the average. According to the classification by Judet and Letournel, 15 (68.18% patients had an elementary acetabular fracture, whereas 7 (31.82% patients had associated fracture. A satisfactory postoperative reduction implying less than 2 mm of displacement was achieved in 19 (86.36% patients. The radiological status of the hip joint, determined according to Matta score, was excellent in 15 (68.18% patients, good in 4 (18.18% patients and moderate in 3 (13.63% patients. According to Merle d’Aubigné Scale, the final functional results of the treatment of all operated patients were excellent in 12 (54.54% patients, good in 7 (31.81% patients and moderate in 3 (13.63% patients. Conclusion. Surgical treatment of dislocated acetabular fractures requires an open reduction and a stable internal fixation. Excellent and good results can be expected only if anatomical reduction and stable internal fixation are achieved.

  8. Homodyne laser vibrometer capable of detecting nanometer displacements accurately by using optical shutters. (United States)

    Zhu, JingHao; Hu, Pengcheng; Tan, JiuBin


    This paper describes a homodyne laser vibrometer with optical shutters. The parameters that define the nonlinearity of the quadrature signals in a vibrometer can be pre-extracted before the measurement, and can then be used to compensate for nonlinear errors, such as unequal AC amplitudes and DC offsets. The experimental results indicated that the homodyne laser vibrometer developed has the ability to accurately detect the vibration state of the object to be measured, even when the amplitude is ≤λ/4. The displacement residual error can be reduced to a value under 0.9 nm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dobrego


    in the context of developmental and experimental-industrial oil extraction. Further research into methods and mechanisms of the displacement front perturbation compensation, including the front dynamics at nonlinear stage, might be conducted via detailed 2D and 3D numerical simulation of the system. 

  10. Development of a wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration responses. (United States)

    Park, Jong-Woong; Sim, Sung-Han; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Spencer, Billie F


    Displacement measurements are useful information for various engineering applications such as structural health monitoring (SHM), earthquake engineering and system identification. Most existing displacement measurement methods are costly, labor-intensive, and have difficulties particularly when applying to full-scale civil structures because the methods require stationary reference points. Indirect estimation methods converting acceleration to displacement can be a good alternative as acceleration transducers are generally cost-effective, easy to install, and have low noise. However, the application of acceleration-based methods to full-scale civil structures such as long span bridges is challenging due to the need to install cables to connect the sensors to a base station. This article proposes a low-cost wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration. Developed with smart sensors that are low-cost, wireless, and capable of on-board computation, the wireless displacement measurement system has significant potential to impact many applications that need displacement information at multiple locations of a structure. The system implements an FIR-filter type displacement estimation algorithm that can remove low frequency drifts typically caused by numerical integration of discrete acceleration signals. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed system, laboratory tests are carried out using a shaking table and on a three storey shear building model, experimentally confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  11. Downward finger displacement distinguishes Parkinson disease dementia from Alzheimer disease. (United States)

    Lieberman, Abraham; Deep, Aman; Shi, Jiong; Dhall, Rohit; Shafer, Saulena; Moguel-Cobos, Guillermo; Dhillon, Ravneet; Frames, Christopher W; McCauley, Margaret


    Purpose/Aim of the study: To study finger displacement in patients with Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined 56 patients with PDD and 35 with AD. Patients were examined during their regular outpatient clinic visit. Finger displacement was measured by observers not actively involved in the study using a creative grid ruler for all PDD and AD patients. Finger displacement was examined by asking patients to point their index fingers toward the grid ruler with the nails facing upward. Patients were asked to maintain the pointing position for 15 s. After 15 s, patients were asked to close their eyes for another 15 s while maintaining the same position. A positive result was downward index finger displacement of ≥5 cm within the 15-second time window with eyes closed. Of the 56 PDD patients, 53 had bilateral finger displacement of >5 cm. In comparison, of the 35 AD patients, only 1 patient had minimal displacement. Results of the non-invasive finger displacement test may provide insight, on an outpatient basis, of the integrity of subcortical-cortical circuits. Downward finger displacement, especially bilateral downward displacement, may signal the extensive disruption of subcortical-cortical circuits that occurs in PDD patients. AChE: acetylcholinesterase; AD: Alzheimer disease; DLB: dementia with Lewy bodies; ET: essential tremor; MDS-UPDRS: Movement Disorder Society-sponsored Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination; PD: Parkinson disease; PDD: Parkinson disease dementia.

  12. Acoustic displacement triangle based on the individual element test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Correa

    Full Text Available A three node -displacement based- acoustic element is developed. In order to avoid spurious rotational modes, a higher order stiffness is introduced. This higher order stiffness is developed from an incompatible strain field which computes element volume changes under nodal rotational displacements fields. The higher order strain resulting from the incompatible strain field satisfies the Individual Element Test (IET requirements without affecting convergence. The higher order stiffness is modulated, element by element, with a factor. As a result, the displacement based formulation presented on this paper is capable of placing the spurious rotational modes above the range of the physical compressional modes that can be accurately calculated by the mesh.

  13. Livelihood patterns of displaced households in greater khartoum. (United States)

    Hamid, G M


    Members of impoverished households in Greater Khartoum, who have been displaced from their homelands by famine and civil war, gain a livelihood by utilising a wide variety of subsistence activities and sources. These include moonlighting, income diversification and pooling, exchange relations, scavenging, relief supplies from aid agencies and remittances from relatives working in other areas. This finding challenges the widely held view of the displaced as dependent and parasitic on the wider urban community. Several public policies are identified which have a detrimental effect on the livelihood of the displaced.

  14. Helium vs. Proton Induced Displacement Damage in Electronic Materials (United States)

    Ringo, Sawnese; Barghouty, A. F.


    In this project, the specific effects of displacement damage due to the passage of protons and helium nuclei on some typical electronic materials will be evaluated and contrasted. As the electronic material absorbs the energetic proton and helium momentum, degradation of performance occurs, eventually leading to overall failure. Helium nuclei traveling at the same speed as protons are expected to impart more to the material displacement damage; due to the larger mass, and thus momentum, of helium nuclei compared to protons. Damage due to displacement of atoms in their crystalline structure can change the physical properties and hence performance of the electronic materials.

  15. Displaced vertices from pseudo-Dirac dark matter (United States)

    Davoli, Alessandro; De Simone, Andrea; Jacques, Thomas; Sanz, Verónica


    Displaced vertices are relatively unusual signatures for dark matter searches at the LHC. We revisit the model of pseudo-Dirac dark matter (pDDM), which can accommodate the correct relic density, evade direct detection constraints, and generically provide observable collider signatures in the form of displaced vertices. We use this model as a benchmark to illustrate the general techniques involved in the analysis, the complementarity between monojet and displaced vertex searches, and provide a comprehensive study of the current bounds and prospective reach.

  16. The first derivative of the carotid displacement pulse. (United States)

    Khan, A. H.; Spodick, D. H.


    The amplitude and time relationships of the carotid derivative in normal individuals and unselected cardiac patients is investigated together with the effects of different contraction strengths in patients with pulsus alternans and subjects challenged with isoproterenol and propranolol. Data regarding the relationship between the preejection period (PEP) and the ratio of peak to total amplitude of the carotid displacement pulse derivative are presented. It is found that cardiac abnormality tends to reduce the rate of rise of the carotid displacement pulse. The results obtained show that the PEP is a somewhat more sensitive index of the changes studied than the carotid displacement derivative.

  17. Guidelines for the fitting of anomalous diffusion mean square displacement graphs from single particle tracking experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Kepten

    Full Text Available Single particle tracking is an essential tool in the study of complex systems and biophysics and it is commonly analyzed by the time-averaged mean square displacement (MSD of the diffusive trajectories. However, past work has shown that MSDs are susceptible to significant errors and biases, preventing the comparison and assessment of experimental studies. Here, we attempt to extract practical guidelines for the estimation of anomalous time averaged MSDs through the simulation of multiple scenarios with fractional Brownian motion as a representative of a large class of fractional ergodic processes. We extract the precision and accuracy of the fitted MSD for various anomalous exponents and measurement errors with respect to measurement length and maximum time lags. Based on the calculated precision maps, we present guidelines to improve accuracy in single particle studies. Importantly, we find that in some experimental conditions, the time averaged MSD should not be used as an estimator.

  18. Therapeutic outcome assessment in permanent temporomandibular joint disc displacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropmans, TJB; Dijkstra, PU; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    In permanent temporomandibular disc displacement (TMJ-DD) outcome studies many authors claim positive effects of arthroscopic surgery, arthrocentesis and physical therapy. This literature review was undertaken to analyse whether the claimed effects are based on acceptable methodology. The recorded

  19. General mechanism for helium blistering involving displaced atom transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.


    A mechanism developed to account for formation of vertically elongated blisters in high displacement environments produced by /sup 252/Cf alpha particles and fission fragments has been extended to formation of done-shaped blisters in the low displacement environments produced by simple helium ion beams. In this mechanism, transport of displaced atoms to relieve compressive stresses in the helium-implanted layer allows interconnections of small, subsurface bubbles to form the blister cavity. The same transport may cause thickening of the blister caps at low implantation energies. The transition from dome-shaped to vertically elongated blistering occurs between the 300 and 3000 displacements per helium atom produced by simple helium ions and /sup 252/Cf radiations respectively.

  20. Optical Displacement Sensor for Sub-Hertz Applications (United States)

    Abramovici, Alexander; Chiao, Meng P.; Dekens, Frank G.


    A document discusses a sensor made from off-the-shelf electro-optical photodiodes and electronics that achieves 20 nm/(Hz)(exp 1/2) displacement sensitivity at 1 mHz. This innovation was created using a fiber-coupled laser diode (or Nd:YAG) through a collimator and an aperture as the illumination source. Together with a germanium quad photodiode, the above-mentioned displacement sensor sensitivities have been achieved. This system was designed to aid the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) with microthruster tests and to be a backup sensor for monitoring the relative position between a proof mass and a spacecraft for drag-free navigation. The optical displacement sensor can be used to monitor any small displacement from a remote location with minimal invasion on the system.

  1. [Forced displacement, childhood and adolescence: scenarios regarding socioeconomic stability]. (United States)

    Patiño, Gonzalo A; Herrán, Oscar F


    Describing and analysing socio-economic stabilisation scenarios for populations which have been forcibly displaced paying special attention to the situation of children and adolescents. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) multi-criteria decision-making method developed by Professor Thomas Saaty was used through expert workshops, involving researchers, leaders of NGOs and displaced communities living in the city of Bucaramanga. The partial result of this research showed that some elderly adults from forcibly displaced communities preferred to adapt themselves to urban centres, rather than return to their places of origin, particularly when it came to protecting younger children and dealing with their welfare. The method's consistency index and consistency ratio came within the expected parameters. Government-promoted social and economic stabilisation programmes must be rethought regarding forcibly displaced populations, particularly when situations are envisaged involving the welfare of children and adolescents.

  2. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra


    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  3. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra


    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  4. Measurement of local relative displacements in large structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesauro, Angelo; Eder, Martin Alexander; Nielsen, Magda


    This paper presents a novel measurement technique to measure local relative displacements between parts of large-scale structures. The measured deformations can be of significant importance for fracture analyses in many different types of structures in general, and for adhesive connections...... in particular. The measurement of small local relative displacements in structures subjected to large global deformations is complex and hardly feasible with conventional measurement methods. Therefore, a Small Displacement Measurement System (SDMS) has been devised. The SDMS is based on stereo photogrammetry...... and capable of measuring 3D local displacements with a high degree of accuracy. In this article, the technique is used to measure local deformations in the vicinity of the adhesive trailing edge joint of a wind turbine rotor blade. The SDMS results correspond well with another independent measurement method....

  5. Displaced Electric Sail Orbits Design and Transition Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Qi


    Full Text Available Displaced orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated as an alternative to the use of solar sails. The orbital dynamics of electric sails based spacecraft are studied within a spherical coordinate system, which permits finding the solutions of displaced electric sail orbits and optimize transfer trajectory. Transfer trajectories from Earth's orbit to displaced orbit are also studied in an optimal framework, by using genetic algorithm and Gauss pseudospectral method. The initial guesses for the state and control histories used in the Gauss pseudospectral method are interpolated from the best solution of a genetic algorithm. Numerical simulations show that the electric sail is able to perform the transfer from Earth’s orbit to displaced orbit in acceptable time, and the hybrid optimization method has the capability to search the feasible and optimal solution without any initial value guess.

  6. [Frontal displacement chromatography of melittin on meshed polymer ionites]. (United States)

    Pisarev, O A; Iunysheva, S G; Samsonov, G V


    Conditions of frontal displacement chromatography were optimized for preparative purification of the polypeptide hormone melittin from bee venom. Melittin was purified to an extent higher than that of a standard preparation described in the biochemical literature.

  7. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement: metabolic plasticity matters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; Reydon, Th.A.C.; Hemerik, L.


    An important question in evolutionary biology, especially with respect to herbivorous arthropods, is the evolution of specialization. In a previous paper, the combined evolutionary dynamics of specialization and ecological character displacement was studied, focusing on the role of herbivore

  8. Damping of Torsional Beam Vibrations by Control of Warping Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Hoffmeyer, David; Ejlersen, Christian


    Supplemental damping of torsional beam vibrations is considered by viscous bimoments acting on the axial warping displacement at the beam supports. The concept is illustrated by solving the governing eigenvalue problem for various support configurations with the applied bimoments represented...

  9. Peace in Colombia and solutions for its displaced people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gottwald


    Full Text Available With the prospect of peace comes the need to find solutions for those displaced during 50 years of fighting. Solutions will not come without comprehensive attention to the factors affecting IDPs and refugees.

  10. Displaced populations and their effects on regional stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Landry


    Full Text Available A better understanding of state fragility – combined withimprovements in policy and funding for displaced populations – isnecessary to prevent the proliferation of further regional conflicts.

  11. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use


    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Rudel, Thomas K.; Lambin, Eric


    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions-a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation-involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Addit...

  12. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid [Ain-Shams University, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat [Ain-Shams University, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cairo (Egypt)


    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  13. Semen Displacement as a Sperm Competition Strategy in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon G. Gallup


    Full Text Available We examine some of the implications of the possibility that the human penis may have evolved to compete with sperm from other males by displacing rival semen from the cervical end of the vagina prior to ejaculation. The semen displacement hypothesis integrates considerable information about genital morphology and human reproductive behavior, and can be used to generate a number of interesting predictions.

  14. Equivalent Viscous Damping Models in Displacement Based Seismic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Zaharia


    Full Text Available The paper reviews some equivalent viscous damping models used in the displacement based seismic design considering the equivalent linearization. The limits of application of the models are highlighted, based on comparison existing in the literature. The study is part of research developed by author, aimed to determine the equivalent linear parameters in order to predict the maximum displacement response for earthquakes compatible with given response spectra.

  15. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild


    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  16. Test Rig for Valves of Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Christensen, Jeppe Haals; Bech, Michael Møller


    A test rig for the valves of digital displacement machines has been developed at Aalborg University. It is composed of a commercial radial piston machine, which has been modified to facilitate Digital Displacement operation for a single piston. Prototype valves have been optimized, designed...... and manufactured for testing and this paper presents examples of experimental results along with a thorough description of the test rig....

  17. Gaas Displacement Damage Dosimeter Based on Diode Dark Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warner Jeffrey H.


    Full Text Available GaAs diode dark currents are correlated over a very large proton energy range as a function of displacement damage dose (DDD. The linearity of the dark current increase with DDD over a wide range of applied voltage bias deems this device an excellent candidate for a displacement damage dosimeter. Additional proton testing performed in situ enabled error estimate determination to within 10% for simulated space use.

  18. A novel approach to modeling unstable EOR displacements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, E.J.


    Most enhanced oil recovery schemes involve the displacement of a more dense and more viscous oil by a less dense and less viscous fluid in a heterogeneous porous medium. The interaction of heterogeneity with the several competing forces, namely, viscous, capillary, gravitational, and dispersive forces, can conspire to make the displacements unstable and difficult to model and to predict. The objective of this research was to develop a systematic methodology for modeling unstable fluid displacements in heterogeneous media. Flow visualization experiments were conducted using X-ray computed tomography imaging and a video imaging workstation to gain insights into the dynamics of unstable displacements, acquire detailed quantitative experimental image data for calibrating numerical models of unstable displacements, and image and characterize heterogeneities in laboratory cores geostatistically. High-resolution numerical models modified for use on vector-architecture supercomputers were used to replicate the image data. Geostatistical models of reservoir heterogeneity were incorporated in order to study the interaction of hydrodynamic instability and heterogeneity in reservoir displacements. Finally, a systematic methodology for matching the experimental data with the numerical models and scaling the laboratory results to other systems were developed. The result is a new method for predicting the performance of unstable EOR displacements in the field based on small-scale displacements in the laboratory. The methodology is general and can be applied to forecast the performance of most processes that involve fluid flow and transport in porous media. Therefore, this research should be of interest to those involved in forecasting the performance of enhanced oil recovery processes and the spreading of contaminants in heterogeneous aquifers.

  19. Software for determining the true displacement of faults (United States)

    Nieto-Fuentes, R.; Nieto-Samaniego, Á. F.; Xu, S.-S.; Alaniz-Álvarez, S. A.


    One of the most important parameters of faults is the true (or net) displacement, which is measured by restoring two originally adjacent points, called “piercing points”, to their original positions. This measurement is not typically applicable because it is rare to observe piercing points in natural outcrops. Much more common is the measurement of the apparent displacement of a marker. Methods to calculate the true displacement of faults using descriptive geometry, trigonometry or vector algebra are common in the literature, and most of them solve a specific situation from a large amount of possible combinations of the fault parameters. True displacements are not routinely calculated because it is a tedious and tiring task, despite their importance and the relatively simple methodology. We believe that the solution is to develop software capable of performing this work. In a previous publication, our research group proposed a method to calculate the true displacement of faults by solving most combinations of fault parameters using simple trigonometric equations. The purpose of this contribution is to present a computer program for calculating the true displacement of faults. The input data are the dip of the fault; the pitch angles of the markers, slickenlines and observation lines; and the marker separation. To prevent the common difficulties involved in switching between operative systems, the software is developed using the Java programing language. The computer program could be used as a tool in education and will also be useful for the calculation of the true fault displacement in geological and engineering works. The application resolves the cases with known direction of net slip, which commonly is assumed parallel to the slickenlines. This assumption is not always valid and must be used with caution, because the slickenlines are formed during a step of the incremental displacement on the fault surface, whereas the net slip is related to the finite slip.

  20. Precision displacement measurement using a modulating ESPI (United States)

    Kim, Seong Jong; Kang, Young June; Hong, Dong Pyo; Kim, Kyung Suk; Park, Nak Kyu; Ryu, Weon Jae; Choi, Man Young


    Laser interferometry is widely used as a measuring system in many fields because of its high resolution and ability to measure a broad area in real-time all at once. In conventional LASER interferometry, for example Out-of-plane ESPI(Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry), In plane ESPI, Shearography and Holography, it uses PZT or other components as a phase shift instrumentation to extract 3D deformation data, vibration mode and others. However, in most cases PZT has some disadvantages, which include non-linear errors and limited time of use. In the present study, a new type of LASER interferometry using a laser diode is proposed. Using LASER Diode Sinusoidal Phase Modulating (LD-SPM) interferometry, the phase modulation can directly modulated by controlling the LASER Diode injection current thereby eliminating the need for PZT and its components. This makes the interferometry more compact. This paper reports on a new approach to the LD Modulating interferometry that involves four-bucket phase shift method. This study proposes a four-bucket phase mapping algorithm, which developed to have a guaranteed application, to stabilize the system in the field and to be a user-friendly GUI. In this paper, LD modulating interferometry had shown the theory for LD wavelength modulation and sinusoidal phase modulation. Four-bucket phase mapping algorithm then introduced.

  1. Application of displacement monitoring system on high temperature steam pipe (United States)

    Ghaffar, M. H. A.; Husin, S.; Baek, J. E.


    High-energy piping systems of power plants such as Main Steam (MS) pipe or Hot Reheat (HR) pipe are operating at high temperature and high pressure at base and cyclic loads. In the event of transient condition, a pipe can be deflected dramatically and caused high stress in the pipe, yielding to failure of the piping system. Periodic monitoring and walk down can identify abnormalities but limitations exist in the standard walk down practice. This paper provides a study of pipe displacement monitoring on MS pipe of coal-fired power plant to continuously capture the pipe movement behaviour at different load using 3-Dimensional Displacement Measuring System (3DDMS). The displacement trending at Location 5 and 6 (north and south) demonstrated pipes displace less than 25% to that of design movement. It was determined from synchronisation analysis that Location 7 (north) and Location 8 (south) pipe actual movement difference has exceeded the design movement difference. Visual survey at specified locations with significant displacement trending reveals issues of hydraulic snubber and piping interferences. The study demonstrated that the displacement monitoring is able to capture pipe movement at all time and allows engineer to monitor pipe movement behaviour, aids in identifying issue early for remedy action.

  2. Wettability controls slow immiscible displacement through local interfacial instabilities (United States)

    Jung, Michael; Brinkmann, Martin; Seemann, Ralf; Hiller, Thomas; Sanchez de La Lama, Marta; Herminghaus, Stephan


    Immiscible fluid displacement with average front velocities in the capillary-dominated regime is studied in a transparent Hele-Shaw cell with cylindrical posts. Employing various combinations of fluids and wall materials allows us to cover a range of advancing contact angles 46∘≤θa≤180∘ of the invading fluid in our experiments. In parallel, we study the displacement process in particle-based simulations that account for wall wettability. Considering the same arrangement of posts in experiments and simulation, we find a consistent crossover between stable interfacial displacement at θa≲80∘ and capillary fingering at high contact angles θa≳120∘ . The position of the crossover is quantified through the evolution of the interface length and the final saturation of the displaced fluid. A statistical analysis of the local displacement processes demonstrates that the shape evolution of the fluid front is governed by local instabilities as proposed by Cieplak and Robbins for a quasistatic interfacial displacement [Cieplak and Robbins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2042 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.60.2042]. The regime of stable front advances coincides with a corresponding region of contact angles where cooperative interfacial instabilities prevail. Capillary fingering, however, is observed only for large θa, where noncooperative instabilities dominate the invasion process.

  3. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring. (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok


    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  4. Bayesian Speckle Tracking. Part II: Biased Ultrasound Displacement Estimation (United States)

    Byram, Brett; Trahey, Gregg E.; Palmeri, Mark


    Ultrasonic displacement estimates have numerous clinical uses including blood-flow, elastography, therapeutic guidance and ARFI imaging. These clinical tasks could be improved with better ultrasonic displacement estimates. Traditional ultrasonic displacement estimates are limited by the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The CRLB can be surpassed using biased estimates. In this paper a framework for biased estimation using Bayes’ theorem is described. The Bayesian displacement estimation method is tested against simulations of several common types of motion: bulk, step, compression, and acoustic radiation force induced motion. Bayesian estimation is also applied to in vivo acoustic radiation force imaging of cardiac ablation lesions. The Bayesian estimators are compared to the unbiased estimator, normalized cross-correlation. As an example, the peak displacement of the simulated acoustic radiation force response is reported since this position results in the noisiest estimates. Estimates were made with a 1.5 λ kernel and 20 dB SNR on 100 data realizations. Estimates using normalized cross-correlation and the Bayes’ estimator had mean-square errors of 17 and 7.6 μm2, respectively, and contextualized by the true displacement magnitude, 10.9 μm. Biases for normalized cross-correlation and the Bayes’ estimator are −.12 and −.28 μm, respectively. In vivo results show qualitative improvements. The results show that with small amounts of additional information significantly improved performance can be realized. PMID:23287921

  5. Technique for Determining Bridge Displacement Response Using MEMS Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko Sekiya


    Full Text Available In bridge maintenance, particularly with regard to fatigue damage in steel bridges, it is important to determine the displacement response of the entire bridge under a live load as well as that of each member. Knowing the displacement response enables the identification of dynamic deformations that can cause stresses and ultimately lead to damage and thus also allows the undertaking of appropriate countermeasures. In theory, the displacement response can be calculated from the double integration of the measured acceleration. However, data measured by an accelerometer include measurement errors caused by the limitations of the analog-to-digital conversion process and sensor noise. These errors distort the double integration results. Furthermore, as bridges in service are constantly vibrating because of passing vehicles, estimating the boundary conditions for the numerical integration is difficult. To address these problems, this paper proposes a method for determining the displacement of a bridge in service from its acceleration based on its free vibration. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field measurements were conducted using nine different accelerometers. Based on the results of these measurements, the proposed method was found to be highly accurate in comparison with the reference displacement obtained using a contact displacement gauge.

  6. Interaction of norfloxacin with bovine serum albumin studied by different spectrometric methods; displacement studies, molecular modeling and chemometrics approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naseri, Abdolhossein, E-mail: [Departments of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Soheila [Departments of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasoulzadeh, Farzaneh [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza [Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zakery, Maryam; Khayamian, Taghi [Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Serum albumins as major target proteins can bind to other ligands leading to alteration of their pharmacological properties. The mechanism of interaction between norfloxacin (NFLX) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated. Fuorescence quenching of serum albumin by this drug was found to be a static quenching process. The binding sites number, n, apparent binding constant, K, and thermodynamic parameters were calculated at different temperatures. The distance, r, between donor, BSA, and acceptor, NFLX, was calculated according to the Forster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. Also binding characteristics of NFLX with BSA together with its displacement from its binding site by kanamycin and effect of common metal ions on binding constant were investigated by the spectroscopic methods. The conformational change in the secondary structure of BSA upon interaction with NFLX was investigated qualitatively from synchronous fluorescence spectra, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectrometric methods. Molecular docking studies were performed to obtain information on the possible residues involved in the interaction process and changes in accessible surface area of the interacting residues. The results showed that the conformation of BSA changed in the presence of NFLX. For the first time, displacement studies were used for this interaction; displacement studies showed that NFLX was displaced by phenylbutazon and ketoprofen but was not displaced by ibuprofen indicating that the binding site of NFLX on albumin was site I. In addition a powerful chemometrics method, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square, was used for resolution of spectroscopic augmented data obtained in two different titration modes in order to extract spectral information regardless of spectral overlapping of components. - Highlights: • Interaction between norfloxacin and BSA is studied by spectral methods. • Chemometrics methods are used to

  7. Healthcare needs of displaced women: Osire refugee camp, Namibia. (United States)

    Pinehas, Lusia N; van Wyk, Neltjie C; Leech, Ronell


    The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of healthcare needs of displaced women in the Osire refugee camp in Namibia. Namibia is a country where displaced people from other African countries seek refuge as a result of their own country's political instability. All displaced people are hosted in the Osire camp, which is a highly protected area. There are more women than men in the camp and their health is often compromised. In this descriptive phenomenological study, the natural dimension of the experiences of the participants of their healthcare needs were explored through in-depth interviews and reflected upon through transcendental processes to formulate the phenomenological dimension thereof. The essence of displaced women's healthcare needs was "the need for the restoration of hope and human dignity". Their needs refer to measures to enhance their autonomy and freedom; skills training; certainty about their future; security with aid distribution; protection against stigmatization due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; protection against abuse; and participation in reproductive health care. When displaced women are admitted in a camp they lose their freedom to make decisions about everyday functioning and future. They thus develop feelings of insecurity and vulnerability. The participants referred to several factors that were detrimental for their well-being. The essence of their needs was "the need for the restoration of hope and human dignity" that could only be achieved when their needs are addressed. As nurses are in close contact with displaced women in refugee camps they should negotiate opportunities for the women to discuss their concerns with the camp officials. Policies should make provision for the involvement of displaced people in all aspects that relate to their everyday and future living arrangements. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Directional dependence of the threshold displacement energies in metal oxides (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.


    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the directional dependence and the values of the threshold energies (TDEs) for the displacements of the oxygen and metal atoms and for producing stable Frenkel pairs in five metal oxides of Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and MgO. The TDEs for the Frenkel pairs and atoms displacement are calculated in 66 crystallographic directions, on both the anion and cation sublattices. The performed simulations are for metal and oxygen PKA energies up to 350 and 400 eV, respectively. The calculated probability distributions for the atoms displacement and average number of Frenkel pairs produced in the different oxides are compared. The results revealed unique symmetrical patterns of the TDEs for the displacement of the atoms and the formation of stable Frenkel pairs, confirming the strong dependence on the direction and the crystalline structure of the oxides. Results also showed that the formation of stable Frenkel pairs is associated with the displacements of the PKAs and/or of the SKAs. The probabilities of the TDEs for the displacement of the oxygen and metal PKAs are consistently lower than those of the atoms in the crystal. In SiO2, TDEs for the displacement of oxygen and metal atoms and those for the formation of stable Frenkel pairs are the lowest, while those in TiO2 are among the highest. The results for Cr2O3 and Al2O3, which have the same crystal structure, are similar. The calculated TDEs for MgO, Al2O3 and TiO2 are generally in good agreement with the experimental values and the probability distributions of the TDEs for the PKAs in TiO2 are in good agreement with reported MD simulation results.

  9. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid


    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  10. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne


    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  11. [Treatment of Displaced Patellar Fractures with Multiple Circular Cerclage]. (United States)

    Tříska, Z; Urban, J; Látal, P; Kloub, M


    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The study aims to conduct a mid-term evaluation of results of the treatment of patellar fractures with multiple circular cerclage. MATERIAL AND METHODS The retrospective clinical study with its own group of patients who underwent surgery in our centre in the period from 2008 to 2014. The study included a total of 29 patients with displaced patellar fractures treated with multiple circular cerclage. The available radiographic documentation was assessed and the quality of perioperative reposition, fracture healing, loss of reposition and potential failure of osteosynthesis material was considered. During the clinical examination, the range of motion (ROM) of the operated knee was measured. The current pain was evaluated on the Visual Analogue Scale for Pain (VAS). For evaluation of functional outcomes, the KOOS and LEFS scoring systems were used. RESULTS A total of 27 fractures (93.1%) healed after a mean period of 10.3 weeks after the primary surgery. In 23 cases two circular loops and in six cases 3 loops were used. The mean follow-up period was 66.6 months (range 22-100). The mean duration of the surgery was 59.6 minutes with the mean length of the incision of 11.8 cm (range 9-15). The quality of reposition was evaluated as exact in 23 patients, as adequate in six patients. The mean extension and flexion was 0.2° and 135°, respectively. The individual mean KOOS scores were the following: pain 75.0, symptom 74.5, knee function in daily living 76.7, knee function in sports and recreational activities 48.1, quality of life 57.8. The mean LEFS score was 68.7. The mean VAS score was 2.4. Extraction of osteosynthesis material was done in a total of seventeen cases (58.6%) at a mean of 10 months after osteosynthesis (range 5-14). In altogether five cases (17.2%) the loss of reposition occurred. In two patients pseudoarthrosis developed. Osteosynthesis material failure was reported in two cases (6.9%). DISCUSSION In our study population, by using

  12. A Sea Floor Methane Hydrate Displacement Experiment Using N2 Gas (United States)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Zhang, X.; Hester, K.


    The production of free methane gas from solid methane hydrate accumulations presents a considerable challenge. The presently preferred procedure is pressure reduction whereby the relief of pressure to a condition outside the hydrate phase boundary creates a gas phase. The reaction is endothermic and thus a problematic water ice phase can form if the extraction of gas is too rapid, limiting the applicability of this procedure. Additionally, the removal of the formation water in contact with the hydrate phase is required before meaningful pressure reduction can be attained -- and this can take time. An alternate approach that has been suggested is the injection of liquid CO2 into the formation, thereby displacing the formation water. Formation of a solid CO2 hydrate is thermodynamically favored under these conditions. Competition between CH4 and CO2 for the hydrate host water molecules can occur displacing CH4 from the solid to the gas phase with formation of a solid CO2 hydrate. We have investigated another alternate approach with displacement of the surrounding bulk water phase by N2 gas, resulting in rapid release of CH4 gas and complete loss of the solid hydrate phase. Our experiment was carried out at the Southern Summit of Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon, at 780m depth. There we harvested hydrate fragments from surficial sediments using the robotic arm of the ROV Doc Ricketts. Specimens of the hydrate were collected about 1m above the sediment surface in an inverted funnel with a mesh covered neck as they floated upwards. The accumulated hydrate was transferred to an inverted glass cylinder, and N2 gas was carefully injected into this container. Displacement of the water phase occurred and when the floating hydrate material approached the lower rim the gas injection was stopped and the cylinder placed upon a flat metal plate effectively sealing the system. We returned to this site after 7 days to measure progress, and observed complete loss of the hydrate phase

  13. Characteristics of children with hip displacement in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme. Methods In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9–16 years of age. Results Of the 212 children, 38 (18% developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP >40% and further 19 (9% MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40% was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V. Conclusion Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2–3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip

  14. Overhead Transmission Lines Deicing under Different Incentive Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He


    Full Text Available Overhead transmission line icing is one of the main factors affecting safety and reliability of power grid. This paper proposed an excitation deicing method of iced wire and theoretically revealed the ice removal mechanism under displacement excitation conditions, by taking the LGJ-70/10 glaze icing wire as the 3D model and analyzing and studying its dynamic response under the effect of displacement excitation. The simulation results show that the stress of wire icing area is enlarged with the increase of excitation displacement and frequency. Through the comparison of the compression strength experimental results on a series of different iced wires in low temperature environment, the authors found out that the stress generated from the wire icing area is greater than the crushing strength of the ice within the scope of the calculation parameters, which proved the validity and the feasibility of the method, and finally the suitable excitation displacement is determined. Following studies show that, as far as possible, it is necessary to reduce the incentive displacement and also to select the appropriate constraint length in order to avoid the line jumping that may be caused by large span ice shedding.

  15. An Inexpensive Interferometric Setup for Measuring Microscopic Displacements (United States)

    Alanís, Elvio; Romero, Graciela; Martínez, Carlos; Álvarez, Liliana; Salazar, Germán


    In an interesting article published in an issue of The Physics Teacher, Reichert gives some didactic examples about static friction force between a plastic block and a wooden plane on which it rests. To explain the experiments, he uses a simple model based on a microscopic "elastic band" that connects the atoms of both surfaces. Reichert remarks that "the block moves, albeit a microscopic distance," and that it would be helpful if the student could see these displacements. In another paragraph he states that "measuring it (displacement) requires delicate and expensive optical instruments." Effectively, a measurement of such small displacements generally requires interferometric devices. At our university, we teach basic physics and we are aware of the difficulties that beginners have grasping the concepts involved in static friction force. At the same time, as our research field is related to optics metrology, we could not ignore Reichert's statement. Could we design an experimental device to measure the microscopic displacement referred to by Reichert, keeping it inexpensive and easy to implement? Incidentally, in the same issue of The Physics Teacher, Sawicki2 gives an excellent example of how, with a few common elements, a simple experiment of interferometric measurement can be put within students' reach. In this paper, we suggest the use of a simple interferometric device, built with very common and inexpensive elements, and describe an experiment on static friction force in which the instrument is applied to measure microscopic displacements.

  16. Documenting women's experiences: displaced women in Bweyale (central Uganda). (United States)


    This paper reports experiences of displaced women in Bweyale, Central Uganda. It is noted that Bweyale is an example of a settlement that has mushroomed as a result in internally displaced people. The population is composed of the natives, the migrants from different parts of Uganda, the internally displaced people mainly from Gulu and Kitgum, and refugees from Sudan. Among this population, the internally displaced people, especially women, are the most disadvantaged and poor. Despite such a discouraging situation, the women's association of Ribbe Aye Tekko has managed to build their own office and run a self-help scheme. Included in the paper is a detailed account of the experiences of a 56-year-old woman, Mary A., who was living in Bweyale as a displaced person. Although the women's association has been noted as a success, they still need more funding for their self-help schemes in order to achieve their aim of improving the standard of living of their members.

  17. Tilt displacement range testing for a piezoelectric deformable mirror (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Cheng, Xuemin; Fan, Fan; Li, Heng


    In our previous works, we presented a zoom system and image stabilization design based on deformable mirrors (DMs). According to the high bandwidth and free edge characteristics of the piezoelectric deformable mirror (PDM), we tested the system's image-stable capability. We found the PDM could realize some tilt displacements while keeping a certain stable surface shape, it could obtain higher image stabilizing precision when integrated with the traditional mechanical image stabilization systems. In the design of the image stabilization system, the PDM's tilt displacement range is a key factor for consideration. So in this paper, we carried out a tilt displacement range testing experiment by using the OKO's 37-channel PDM. We measured and analyzed the variation of the tilt displacements in optical image stabilization process, and calculated the maximum tilt angle as the PDM surface shape was stabilized. We built an experimental platform consisting of a fixed target, an imaging system based on PDM, and a CCD camera. We used the ZYGO interferometer as an evaluation instrument to measure the surface shape stability. When the PDM surface had a tilt displacement, the image point of the fixed target on the camera sensor shifted correspondingly. The tilt angle of the PDM could be obtained by calculating this shift. The results showed that the maximum tilt angle of the PDM was 0.2mrad. The paper also analyzed the experiment errors when concerning about the off-axis error of the PDM deflection center.

  18. Plastic displacement estimates in creep crack growth testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Nam Su [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kee Bong [Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The ASTM test standard recommends the use of the compact tension specimen for creep crack growth rates measurement. In the creep crack growth rate test, the displacement rate due to creep is obtained by subtracting the contribution of elastic and plastic components from the total load line displacement rate based on displacement partitioning method for determining C{sup *}-integral, which involves Ramberg-Osgood (R-O) fitting procedures. This paper investigates the effect of the R-O fitting procedures on plastic displacement rate estimates in creep crack growth testing, via detailed two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element analyses of the standard compact tension specimen. Four different R-O fitting procedures are considered; (I) fitting the entire true stress-strain data up to the ultimate tensile strength, (II) fitting the true stress-strain data from 0.1% strain to 0.8 of the true ultimate strain, (III) fitting the true stress-strain data only up to 5% strain, and (IV) fitting the engineering stress-strain data. It is found that the last two procedures provide reasonably accurate plastic displacement rates and thus should be recommended in creep crack growth testing. Moreover, several advantages of fitting the engineering stress-strain data over fitting the true stress-strain data only up to 5% strain are discussed.

  19. High-Resolution Displacement Sensor Using a SQUID Array Amplifier (United States)

    Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin; Barmatz, M.; Paik, Ho Jung


    Improvement in the measurement of displacement has profound implications for both exploration technologies and fundamental physics. For planetary exploration, the new SQUID-based capacitive displacement sensor will enable a more sensitive gravity gradiometer for mapping the interior of planets and moons. A new concept of a superfluid clock to be reported by Penanen and Chui at this workshop is also based on a high-resolution displacement sensor. Examples of high-impact physics projects that can benefit from a better displacement sensor are: detection of gravitational waves, test of the equivalence principle, search for the postulated "axion" particle, and test of the inverse square law of gravity. We describe the concept of a new displacement sensor that makes use of a recent development in the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) technology. The SQUID array amplifier, invented by Welty and Martinis (IEEE Trans. Appl. Superconductivity 3, 2605, 1993), has about the same noise as a conventional SQUID; however, it can work at a much higher frequency of up to 5 MHz. We explain how the higher bandwidth can be translated into higher resolution using a bridge-balancing scheme that can simultaneously balance out both the carrier signal at the bridge output and the electrostatic force acting on the test mass.

  20. Child Acute Malnutrition and Mortality in Populations Affected by Displacement in the Horn of Africa, 1997–2009 (United States)

    Mason, John B.; White, Jessica M.; Heron, Linda; Carter, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Caroline; Spiegel, Paul


    Drought and conflict in the Horn of Africa are causing population displacement, increasing risks of child mortality and malnutrition. Humanitarian agencies are trying to mitigate the impact, with limited resources. Data from previous years may help guide decisions. Trends in different populations affected by displacement (1997–2009) were analyzed to investigate: (1) how elevated malnutrition and mortality were among displaced compared to host populations; (2) whether the mortality/malnutrition relation changed through time; and (3) how useful is malnutrition in identifying high mortality situations. Under-five mortality rates (usually from 90-day recall, as deaths/10,000/day: U5MR) and global acute malnutrition (wasting prevalences, < −2SDs of references plus edema: GAM) were extracted from reports of 1,175 surveys carried out between 1997–2009 in the Horn of Africa; these outcome indicators were analyzed by livelihood (pastoral, agricultural) and by displacement status (refugee/internally displaced, local resident/host population, mixed); associations between these indicators were examined, stratifying by status. Patterns of GAM and U5MR plotted over time by country and livelihood clarified trends and showed substantial correspondence. Over the period GAM was steady but U5MR generally fell by nearly half. Average U5MR was similar overall between displaced and local residents. GAM was double on average for pastoralists compared with agriculturalists (17% vs. 8%), but was not different between displaced and local populations. Agricultural populations showed increased U5MR when displaced, in contrast to pastoralist. U5MR rose sharply with increasing GAM, at different GAM thresholds depending on livelihood. Higher GAM cut-points for pastoralists than agriculturalists would better predict elevated U5MR (1/10,000/day) or emergency levels (2/10,000/day) in the Horn of Africa; cut-points of 20–25% GAM in pastoral populations and 10–15% GAM in agriculturalists

  1. Understanding interferometry for micro-cantilever displacement detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander von Schmidsfeld


    Full Text Available Interferometric displacement detection in a cantilever-based non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM operated in ultra-high vacuum is demonstrated for the Michelson and Fabry–Pérot modes of operation. Each mode is addressed by appropriately adjusting the distance between the fiber end delivering and collecting light and a highly reflective micro-cantilever, both together forming the interferometric cavity. For a precise measurement of the cantilever displacement, the relative positioning of fiber and cantilever is of critical importance. We describe a systematic approach for accurate alignment as well as the implications of deficient fiber–cantilever configurations. In the Fabry–Pérot regime, the displacement noise spectral density strongly decreases with decreasing distance between the fiber-end and the cantilever, yielding a noise floor of 24 fm/Hz0.5 under optimum conditions.

  2. Research on the displacement control method of asynchronous modular contactor (United States)

    He, Gong; Ming, Zong


    Ac contactor is a kind of low voltage electrical appliances with large usage and wide application. Because of the frequent operation, contactor life must be long enough to ensure the reliable operation of power system. The electrical life of the contactor, as the key to affect the service life of the contactor, is mainly affected by the arc developed in the breaking and closing course. This paper concentrates on a new type of asynchronous modular contactor. To get the contactor movement characteristics, the dynamic model of the electromagnetic system is established by MATLAB/SIMULINK. Then, according to the displacement curve of contactor, the breaking process and closing process is planned. The thought of closed loop control, by adjusting the parameters of PID controller, enables the contactor to operate as the planning displacement curve. In addition, to achieve no arc or micro arc breaking and no bounce or micro bounce closing , a displacement closed loop control system for contactor is designed.

  3. Sloshing displacements in a tank containing two liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y.


    A study on the sloshing displacements in a tank containing two different liquids under a seismic excitation is presented. The gravitational effect at the interface of two liquids is considered. The problem is solved analytically. The response quantities examined include the sloshing wave height, the natural frequencies of the sloshing motion, and the vertical displacement at the interface of two liquids. It is found that there are two sloshing frequencies associated with each surface sloshing mode; the higher value of the two frequencies that associate with the fundamental sloshing mode is the dominant frequency of the surface sloshing motion, and the lower one is the dominant frequency of the interface vertical displacement. It is further shown that the maximum sloshing wave height increases significantly, and the fundamental frequency of the sloshing motion is smaller than that in an identical tank containing one liquid. The data presented are compared with those obtained by neglecting the gravitational effect at the interface to elucidate this effect.

  4. Non-contact displacement estimation using Doppler radar. (United States)

    Gao, Xiaomeng; Singh, Aditya; Yavari, Ehsan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga


    Non-contact Doppler radar has been used extensively for detection of physiological motion. Most of the results published to date have been focused on estimation of the physiological rates, such as respiratory rate and heart rate, with CW and modulated waveforms in various settings. Accurate assessment of chest displacement may take this type of monitoring to the new level, by enabling the estimation of associated cardiopulmonary volumes, and possibly pulse pressure. To obtain absolute chest displacement with highest precision, full nonlinear phase demodulation of the quadrature radar outputs must be performed. The accuracy of this type of demodulation is limited by the drifting received RF power, varying dc offset, and channel quadrature imbalance. In this paper we demonstrate that if relatively large motion is used to calibrate the system, smaller motion displacement may be acquired with the accuracy on the order of 30 µm.

  5. Displaced vertex searches for sterile neutrinos at future lepton colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)


    We investigate the sensitivity of future lepton colliders to displaced vertices from the decays of long-lived heavy (almost sterile) neutrinos with electroweak scale masses and detectable time of flight. As future lepton colliders we consider the FCC-ee, the CEPC, and the ILC, searching at the Z-pole and at the center-of-mass energies of 240, 350 and 500 GeV. For a realistic discussion of the detector response to the displaced vertex signal and the Standard Model background we consider the ILC’s Silicon Detector (SiD) as benchmark for the future lepton collider detectors. We find that displaced vertices constitute a powerful search channel for sterile neutrinos, sensitive to squared active-sterile mixing angles as small as 10{sup −11}.

  6. Time varying behavior of the loudspeaker suspension: Displacement level dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Pedersen, Bo Rohde


    The compliance of the loudspeaker suspension is known to depend on the recent excitation level history. Previous investigations have shown that the electrical power as well as displacement and velocity plays a role. In this paper the hypothesis that the changes in compliance are caused mainly...... by how much the suspension has been stretched, i.e. the maximum displacement, is investigated. For this purpose the changes in compliance are measured when exposing the speaker to different levels and types of electrical excitation signals, as well as mechanical excitation only. For sinusoidal excitation...... the change in compliance is shown to depend primarily on maximum displacement. But for square pulse excitation the duration of the excitation also plays an important role...

  7. Supervised Learning in Adaptive DNA Strand Displacement Networks. (United States)

    Lakin, Matthew R; Stefanovic, Darko


    The development of engineered biochemical circuits that exhibit adaptive behavior is a key goal of synthetic biology and molecular computing. Such circuits could be used for long-term monitoring and control of biochemical systems, for instance, to prevent disease or to enable the development of artificial life. In this article, we present a framework for developing adaptive molecular circuits using buffered DNA strand displacement networks, which extend existing DNA strand displacement circuit architectures to enable straightforward storage and modification of behavioral parameters. As a proof of concept, we use this framework to design and simulate a DNA circuit for supervised learning of a class of linear functions by stochastic gradient descent. This work highlights the potential of buffered DNA strand displacement as a powerful circuit architecture for implementing adaptive molecular systems.

  8. Multiplexed interferometric displacement sensing below the laser frequency noise limit (United States)

    Lam, Timothy T.; Wuchenich, Danielle M. R.; Chow, Jong H.; McClelland, David E.; Shaddock, Daniel A.


    The resolution of fiber optic interferometry sensors is often limited by frequency noise in the laser. For this reason, prestabilization techniques have been used to reduce laser frequency fluctuations and improve signal resolution. However, for multi-element systems this becomes cumbersome and difficult to implement. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of digitally-enhanced interferometry for the interrogation of a multi-element sensing system. Over 50 dB of cross-talk rejection was found, with displacement resolutions of ~ 100 pm. Furthermore, using this technique, sub-frequency noise displacement resolution was obtained without the need for high performance sensors.

  9. PC Based Linear Variable Differential Displacement Measurement Uses Optical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar MAITI


    Full Text Available PC based linear variable differential displacement (LVDD measurement with optical approach has been presented. The technique is a good blending of both hardware and software and is basically an alternative method of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT. A visual basic (VB programming is used for this PC based measurement. Here the voltage output and the displacement of the reflector can be studied and stored continuously. Theoretical predictions are supported by experimental results. This technique can be used for the measurement of some non-electrical parameters e.g. force, torque and liquid level etc.

  10. Traumatic corneal flap displacement after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai TH


    Full Text Available Tsung-Han Tsai,1 Kai-Ling Peng,1 Chien-Jen Lin2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan Background: Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK is the most common and popular procedure performed for the correction of refractive errors in the last two decades. We report a case of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding which occurred 3 years after LASIK was performed. Previous literature suggests that vision prognosis would be closely related to proper and prompt management of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding 3 years after LASIK.Case presentation: A 23-year-old female presented to our hospital who had undergone uneventful LASIK in both eyes 3 years prior. Unfortunately, she had suffered a blunt trauma in her right eye in a car accident. A late onset of corneal flap displacement was found with upper and lower portion of the flap being folded inside the corneal bed. Surgical intervention for debridement with subsequent reposition of corneal flap was performed as soon as possible in the operating room. A bandage contact lens was placed, and topical antibiotic and corticosteroids were given postoperatively. Two days after the operation, the displaced corneal flap was found to be well attached smoothly on the corneal bed without folds. The best-corrected visual acuity was 6/6 with refraction of −0.75 D to 1.0 D ×175° in her right eye 1 month later.Literature review: We reviewed a total of 19 published cases of late-onset traumatic flap dislocations or displacements after LASIK with complete data from 2000 to 2014.Conclusion: Traumatic displacement of corneal flaps after LASIK may occur after blunt injury with specific direction of force to the flap margin, especially tangential one. According to the previous literature, late-onset traumatic flap displacement may happen at any time after LASIK and be caused by various types of injuries. Fortunately, good visual function could

  11. Effect of Coulombic friction on spatial displacement statistics. (United States)

    Menzel, Andreas M; Goldenfeld, Nigel


    The phenomenon of Coulombic friction enters the stochastic description of dry friction between two solids and the statistic characterization of vibrating granular media. Here we analyze the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation including both velocity and spatial components, exhibiting a formal connection to a quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator in the presence of a delta potential. Numerical solutions for the resulting spatial displacement statistics show a crossover from exponential to Gaussian displacement statistics. We identify a transient intermediate regime that exhibits multiscaling properties arising from the contribution of Coulombic friction. The possible role of these effects during observations in diffusion experiments is briefly discussed.

  12. The Displacement of Regimes of Action in the Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsting, Vilhelm Stefan

    the defense is undergoing a radical economical and professional transformation. The paper opens with a discussion of the genesis of the profession of military command as a societal justificatory compromise followed by a discussion of the critical capacity of military commanders (the justification...... of their contemporary role, responsibility and challenges) and an analysis of the displacement of military regimes in the light of economic and security changes at the societal level. I am arguing that the entrance of new regimes of justification are challenging and displacing the traditional professional justificatory...

  13. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.H. Boozer and N. Pomphrey


    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  14. The evolution of fabric with displacement in natural brittle faults (United States)

    Mittempergher, S.; Di Toro, G.; Gratier, J.; Aretusini, S.; Boullier-Bertrand, A.


    In experiments performed at room temperature on gouges, a characteristic clast size distribution (CSD) is produced with increasing strain, and shear localization is documented to begin after few millimetres of sliding. But in natural faults active at depth in the crust, mechanical processes are associated with fluid-rock interactions, which might control the deformation and strength recovery. We aim to investigate the microstructural, geochemical and mineralogical evolution of low-displacement faults with increasing shear strain. The faults (cataclasite- and pseudotachylyte-bearing) are hosted in tonalite and were active at 9-11 km and 250-300°C. The samples were collected on a large glacier-polished outcrop, where major faults (accommodating up to 4300 mm of displacement) exploit pre-existing magmatic joints and are connected by a network of secondary fractures and faults (accommodating up to 500 mm of displacement) breaking intact tonalite. We performed optical and cathodoluminescence (CL) microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Rietveld X-Ray Powder Diffraction and microprobe chemical analysis in deformation zones of secondary faults with various offsets in order to evaluate the transfer of chemical species between dissolution zones and protected zones. Image analysis techniques were applied on SEM-BSE and optical microscope images to compute the CSD in samples, which experienced an increasing amount of strain. The secondary fractures are up to 5 mm thick. Within the first 20 mm of displacement, shear localizes along Y and R1 surfaces and a cataclastic foliation develops. The CSD evolves from a fractal dimension D of 1.3 in fractures without visible displacement to values above 2 after the first 500 mm of displacement. Chemical maps and CL images indicate that the foliation in cataclasite results from the rotation and fragmentation of clasts, with dissolution of quartz and passive concentration of Ti oxides

  15. Airflow and Temperature Distribution in Rooms with Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, T. V.

    This thesis deals with air flow and temperature distribution in a room ventilated by the displacement principle. The characteristic features of the ventilation system are treated in the whole room but main emphasis is laid on the analysis of the stratified flow region in front of the inlet device....... After a prefatory description of the background and the fundamentals of displacement ventilation the objectives of the current study are specified. The subsequent sections describe the measurements of velocity and temperature profiles carried out in a full scale test room. Based on experimental data...

  16. Sterile neutrino searches via displaced vertices at LHCb (United States)

    Antusch, Stefan; Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver


    We explore the sensitivity of displaced vertex searches at LHCb for testing sterile neutrino extensions of the Standard Model towards explaining the observed neutrino masses. We derive estimates for the constraints on sterile neutrino parameters from a recently published displaced vertex search at LHCb based on run 1 data. They yield the currently most stringent limit on active-sterile neutrino mixing in the sterile neutrino mass range between 4.5 GeV and 10 GeV. Furthermore, we present forecasts for the sensitivities that could be obtained from the run 2 data and also for the high-luminosity phase of the LHC.

  17. Determinants of Hip Displacement in Children With Cerebral Palsy. (United States)

    Chang, Chia Hsieh; Wang, Ying Chih; Ho, Pei Chi; Hwang, Ai Wen; Kao, Hsuan Kai; Lee, Wei Chun; Yang, Wen E; Kuo, Ken N


    Coxa valga and femoral anteversion often are seen in patients with spastic hip displacement and osteotomy is recommended. However, the relationship between femoral deformities and hip displacement has not been clearly defined and other factors, such as joint motion and posture, should be considered before recommending treatment. For children with cerebral palsy with Gross Motor Function Classification System Level IV or V, we questioned (1) whether hip abduction range correlates with hip displacement, (2) what the relationships are between proximal femoral deformities and hip displacement, and (3) whether the patient with a windblown posture has greater degrees of femoral anteversion? We retrospectively studied 31 consecutive children with cerebral palsy with Level IV or V gross motor function who underwent three-dimensional CT for preoperative assessment of hip displacement between January 2010 and December 2013. Among the children, 23 had a windblown posture and eight had symmetric hip motion. Femoral anteversion and true neck-shaft angle were measured from the three-dimensional CT images. Migration percentage was the dependent variable we chose to study in relation to femoral anteversion, neck-shaft angle, maximal hip abduction, and hip flexion contracture, using correlations and multiple linear regressions. Using ANOVA and Scheffé's post hoc tests, we analyzed and compared the data of 23 abducted hips and 23 adducted hips in the 23 children with windblown posture and in 16 displaced hips in the eight children with symmetric hip abduction. Greater migration percentage was associated with less hip abduction range (r = -0.86; p < 0.001). Femoral anteversion had a weak correlation (r = 0.28; p < 0.05) to migration percentage, and the association became insignificant after considering hip abduction motion. Adducted windblown hips had greater femoral anteversion than the symmetric displaced hips and abducted windblown hips (46° vs 36° and 38°, respectively; p < 0

  18. Occupational human capital and earnings losses of displaced workers: does the degree of similarity between pre- and post-displacement occupations matter?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nawakitphaitoon, Kritkorn; Ormiston, Russell


    .... Unlike most of the previous studies of job displacement, this paper uses a continuous measure of occupational skills transferability to measure the similarity between the pre- and post-displacement...

  19. The consequences of job displacement for health: moderating influences of economic conditions and educational attainment. (United States)

    Pearlman, Jessica


    This paper examines the impact of worker displacement on health in the United States from 1975-2004, especially the extent to which the impact of displacement on health varies according to the economic conditions in the year of displacement and the education level of the displaced worker. Findings from ordered probit and fixed effects models suggest that the negative impact of displacement on health is exacerbated by a higher unemployment rate at the time of displacement and for displaced workers with a college degree. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Consequences of Job Displacement for Health: Moderating Influences of Economic Conditions and Educational Attainment (United States)

    Pearlman, Jessica


    This paper will examine the impact of worker displacement on health in the United States from 1975–2004, especially the extent to which the impact of displacement on health varies according to the economic conditions in the year of displacement and the education level of the displaced worker. Findings from ordered probit and fixed effects models suggest that the negative impact of displacement on health is exacerbated by a higher unemployment rate at the time of displacement and for displaced workers with a college degree. PMID:26004481

  1. Simulation of Rock Mass Horizontal Displacements with Usage of Cellular Automata Theory. (United States)

    Sikora, Paweł


    In the article there was presented two dimensional rock mass model as a deterministic finite cellular automata. Used to describe the distribution of subsidence of rock mass inside and on its surface the theory of automata makes it relatively simple way to get a subsidence trough profile consistent with the profile observed by geodetic measurements on the land surface. As a development of an existing concept of the rock mass model, as a finite cellular automaton, there was described distribution function that allows, simultaneously with the simulation of subsidence, to simulate horizontal displacements inside the rock mass model and on its surface in accordance with real observations. On the basis of the results of numerous computer simulations there was presented fundamental mathematical relationship that determines the ratio of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum subsidence, in case of full subsidence trough, in relation to the basic parameters of the rock mass model. The possibilities of presented model were shown on the example of simulation results of deformation distribution caused by extraction of abstract coal panel. Obtained results were consistent with results obtained by geometric-integral theory.

  2. Surface displacement based shape analysis of central brain structures in preterm-born children (United States)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Grunau, Ruth E.; Popuri, Karteek; Miller, Steven; Bjornson, Bruce; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Beg, Mirza Faisal


    Many studies using T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have found associations between changes in global metrics (e.g. volume) of brain structures and preterm birth. In this work, we use the surface displacement feature extracted from the deformations of the surface models of the third ventricle, fourth ventricle and brainstem to capture the variation in shape in these structures at 8 years of age that may be due to differences in the trajectory of brain development as a result of very preterm birth (24-32 weeks gestation). Understanding the spatial patterns of shape alterations in these structures in children who were born very preterm as compared to those who were born at full term may lead to better insights into mechanisms of differing brain development between these two groups. The T1 MRI data for the brain was acquired from children born full term (FT, n=14, 8 males) and preterm (PT, n=51, 22 males) at age 8-years. Accurate segmentation labels for these structures were obtained via a multi-template fusion based segmentation method. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was utilized to register the target segmentation labels to a set of segmentation labels defined on an average-template. The surface displacement data for the brainstem and the third ventricle were found to be significantly different (p MRI data and reveal shape changes that may be due to preterm birth.

  3. Heaving displacement amplification characteristics of a power buoy in shoaling water with insufficient draft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon


    Full Text Available The resonance power buoy is a convincing tool that can increase the extraction efficiency of wave energy. The buoy needs a corresponding draft, to move in resonance with waves within the peak frequency band where wave energy is concentrated. However, it must still be clarified if the buoy acts as an effective displacement amplifier, when there is insufficient water depth. In this study, the vertical displacement of a circular cylinder-type buoy was calculated, with the spectrum data observed in a real shallow sea as the external wave force, and with the corresponding draft, according to the mode frequency of normal waves. Such numerical investigation result, without considering Power Take-Off (PTO damping, confirmed that the area of the heave responses spectrum can be amplified by up to about tenfold, compared with the wave energy spectrum, if the draft corresponds to the peak frequency, even with insufficient water depth. Moreover, the amplification factor of the buoy varied, according to the seasonal changes in the wave spectra.

  4. Operative versus nonoperative treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures in adults: a systematic review. (United States)

    Rehn, Carl-Henrik; Kirkegaard, Martin; Viberg, Bjarke; Larsen, Morten Schultz


    Intervention studies of clavicle fracture treatment are numerous, but only a few high quality studies prospectively compare operative and nonoperative treatment. The objective of this study was to review evidence from randomized controlled trials on operative versus nonoperative treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures in adults with focus on fracture healing, complications and functional outcome. An electronic search was performed of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases which revealed 559 articles. All articles published before October 18th 2012 and written in English, Danish or Swedish were eligible. Articles were excluded if they included children under the age of 16, did not include acute midshaft fractures, included concomitant fractures, did not meet the requirements of Level I evidence according to Centre for evidence based medicine 2009 guidelines, were systematic reviews or meta-analyses, or did not compare operative and nonoperative treatment. Articles were parsed for relevance by two reviewers independently regarding title, abstract, and full text. Extraction of data was done by both reviewers in collaboration and sorted according to the aims of the study. Complications were grouped according to additional surgery required. The quality of studies was assessed by both reviewers in unison using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme 2010 checklists. It seems like operative intervention leads to fewer nonunions at the cost of an increase in minor complications compared to nonoperative treatment. However, the effects of operation on functional outcome remains controversial. High quality evidence is currently sparse supporting either operative or nonoperative treatment on displaced midshaft clavicle fractures in adults.

  5. Ekhaya : Human displacement and the yearning for familial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that Ekhaya thinking is an alternative route for an operative ecclesiology that caters for the need of marginalised, oppressed, displaced and homeless people. Practical theology is thus described as fides quaerens domum et locum [faith-seeking home and place], namely to inhabit. An Ekhaya approach to ...

  6. Thirty years of development-induced displacement in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Dubé


    Full Text Available To accelerate the process of poverty reduction in its poorer regions, China decided in 2001 to implement a national programme of displacement of populations living in areas considered environmentally fragile. But these programmes were hardly a novelty for China, and the record of previous such attempts has been far from positive.

  7. Estimation of permanent displacements of the Tehri dam in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    water content, compaction effort, etc., which often can not be properly quantified. Also often the exact direction of the ... In order to meet the huge demand for power by the industries and ever increasing population, .... permanent displacements take place whenever the rigid body acceleration,Kmax, of a potential sliding mass ...

  8. Internal Displacement and Forced Migration within Zimbabwe: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that, contrary to the picture portrayed by the government of Zimbabwe, internal displacement, as one form of (forced) migration within a country's borders, is more prevalent in the country than is at first discernable. The paper offers an overview of the current scholarship on the forced mobility of particular ...

  9. Mining Induced Displacement and Mental Health: A Call for Action (United States)

    Goessling, Kristen P.


    India is a country of unparalleled diversity within both the cultural and ecological spheres of life. This paper examines the author's experience exploring and inquiring into the mental health implications of mining and mining induced displacement within several Adivasi (tribal) communities in Andhra Pradesh, India. Through collaboration with…

  10. The Right to Education for Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A distinctive challenge facing internally displaced persons (IDPs) are structural conditions that deny them access to the right to education. The main aim of the study is to investigate the role of open and distance learning in providing access and educational opportunities to the IDPs. The research methodology for this study ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    MBANUGO: The State of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria: A Legal Review. THE STATE OF ... 1 By Obinna MBANUGO, LLB, BL, LLM, Lecturer, Department of International Law and Jurisprudence,. Faculty of ... do not enjoy the full protection of their own government,”3 The International Organization for.

  12. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  13. Internal displacement in Kenya: the quest for durable solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kiama


    Full Text Available Internal displacement in Kenya has been a challenge since the colonial era but only recently has a legal framework been developed to address IDP protection issues. The process of developing this framework offers some useful lessons for stakeholders in similar situations.

  14. Children's Spiritual Development in Forced Displacement: A Human Rights Perspective (United States)

    Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi


    This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…

  15. Diabetes Care Provided to Children Displaced by Hurricane Katrina. (United States)

    Quast, Troy; Mortensen, Karoline


    Although previous studies have examined the impact of Hurricane Katrina on adults with diabetes, less is known about the effects on children with diabetes and on those displaced by the storm. We analyzed individual-level enrollment and utilization data of children with diabetes who were displaced from Louisiana and were enrolled in the Texas Medicaid Hurricane Katrina emergency waiver (TexKat). We compared the utilization and outcomes of children displaced from Louisiana with those of children who lived in areas less affected by Hurricane Katrina. Data from both before and after the storm were used to calculate difference-in-difference estimates of the effects of displacement on the children. We analyzed 4 diabetes management procedures (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1C] tests, eye exams, microalbumin tests, and thyroid tests) and a complication from poor diabetes management (diabetic ketoacidosis). Children enrolled in the waiver generally did not experience a decrease in care relative to the control group while the waiver program was in effect. After the waiver ended, however, we observed a drop in care and an increase in complications relative to the control group. Although the waiver appeared to have been largely successful immediately following Katrina, future waivers may be improved by ensuring that enrollees continue to receive care after the waivers expire.

  16. Sierra Leone: resettlement doesn’t always end displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia McGoldrick


    Full Text Available Almost one quarter of a million displaced SierraLeoneans were resettled in their areas of origin by theend of 2002, officially ending the internal displacementcrisis in the country and further consolidating recoveryafter more than a decade of devastating civil war.

  17. Multidirectional sorting modes in deterministic lateral displacement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, B.R.; Heller, Martin; Beech, J.P.


    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) devices separate micrometer-scale particles in solution based on their size using a laminar microfluidic flow in an array of obstacles. We investigate array geometries with rational row-shift fractions in DLD devices by use of a simple model including both...

  18. Displaced phase-amplitude variables for waves on finite background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Andonowati, A.; Karjanto, N.


    Wave amplification in nonlinear dispersive wave equations may be caused by nonlinear focussing of waves from a certain background. In the model of nonlinear Schrödinger equation we will introduce a transformation to displaced phase-amplitude variables with respect to a background of monochromatic

  19. Ferroelectric displacements in multiferroic Y(Mn,Ga)O-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adem, U.; Nugroho, A. A.; Meetsma, A.; Palstra, T. T. M.

    We have studied the effects of substitution of Mn3+ by Ga3+ on the crystal structure of YMnO3. Y(Mn,Ga)O-3 is a magnetoferroelectric in which the ferroelectric displacements from the YO7 polyhedra are associated with buckling and tilting of the MnO5 bipyramids. The differences in ionic radius and

  20. The Dynamics and Consequences of Occupational Deprivation on Displaced Individuals (United States)

    Kharma, Maher M.


    Following wars and natural disasters, individuals and their families face displacement from their native land and relocate to a new location where they become refugees. As occupational beings, people find meaning in their environment and build their identity through engaging in meaningful occupations. The environment plays a role in shaping the…

  1. Single-mask thermal displacement sensor in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, B.; Hogervorst, R.P.; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; van Dijk, J.W.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Abelmann, Leon

    In this work we describe a one degree- of-freedom microelectromechanical thermal displacement sensor integrated with an actuated stage. The system was fabricated in the device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer using a single-mask process. The sensor is based on the temperature dependent

  2. A single-mask thermal displacement sensor in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, B.; Krijnen, B.; Hogervorst, R.P.; van Dijk, J.W.; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Woldering, L.A.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Abelmann, Leon; Soemers, Herman


    This work presents a MEMS displacement sensor based on the conductive heat transfer of a resistively heated silicon structure towards an actuated stage parallel to the structure. This differential sensor can be easily incorporated into a silicon-on-insulator-based process, and fabricated within the

  3. A single-mask thermal displacement sensor in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, R.P.; Krijnen, B.; Krijnen, B.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Staufer, U.

    Position sensing in MEMS is often based on the principle of varying capacitance [1]. Alternative position sensing principles include using integrated optical waveguides [2] or varying thermal conductance [3]. Lantz et al demonstrated a thermal displacement sensor achieving nanometre resolution on a

  4. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.


    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  5. Multi-link laser interferometry architecture for interspacecraft displacement metrology (United States)

    Francis, Samuel P.; Lam, Timothy T.-Y.; McClelland, David E.; Shaddock, Daniel A.


    Targeting a future Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, we present a new laser interferometry architecture that can be used to recover the displacement between two spacecraft from multiple interspacecraft measurements. We show it is possible to recover the displacement between the spacecraft centers of mass in post-processing by forming linear combinations of multiple, spatially offset, interspacecraft measurements. By canceling measurement error due to angular misalignment of the spacecraft, we remove the need for precise placement or alignment of the interferometer, potentially simplifying spacecraft integration. To realize this multi-link architecture, we propose an all-fiber interferometer, removing the need for any ultrastable optical components such as the GRACE Follow-On mission's triple mirror assembly. Using digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry, the number of links is readily scalable, adding redundancy to our measurement. We present the concept, an example multi-link implementation and the signal processing required to recover the center of mass displacement from multiple link measurements. Finally, in a simulation, we analyze the limiting noise sources in a 9 link interferometer and ultimately show we can recover the 80nm/√{Hz} displacement sensitivity required by the GRACE Follow-On laser ranging interferometer.

  6. Management of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa: Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the number of IDPs continues to increase, attempts at management become more challenging for riddled countries. Notably, global efforts at managing displacement have concentrated more on refugees than IDPs, yet the latter equally constitute a challenge to global civilization. Underpinned by the human needs theory, ...

  7. The Aesthetics of Displacement and the Performance of Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasgupta, S.; Bal, M.; Hernández-Navarro, M.Á.


    The essay takes migration as both the content of a film, and the mode through which it is constructed. Aesthetics becomes the practice of constructing displacements between forms (poem, theater, film, song) and the manipulation of their materiality, in order to render the complexity of migration in

  8. Coisotropic Displacement and Small Subsets of a Symplectic Manifold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziltener, Fabian; Swoboda, J.


    We prove a coisotropic intersection result and deduce the following: Lower bounds on the displacement energy of a subset of a symplectic manifold, in particular a sharp stable energy-Gromov-width inequality. A stable non-squeezing result for neighborhoods of products of unit spheres. Existence of a

  9. Determination of pedestrian displacement velocity for ground exploration programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernán Ochoa Gutierrez


    Full Text Available In Engineering and Geophysics field exploration, uncertainty for determination of the velocity of ground data acquisition due to extreme topographic conditions has been underestimated in the calculation of the displacement time between stations or sampling points. This lack of reliable models, negatively affects the determination of costs and planning of fieldwork activities. Known models of times and routes of displacement determination such as the “Smaller Cost Routes” are based on the effect of the type of land and the slope. However, these models consider the effect of the slope by means of subjective impedance values which has no a clear physical meaning. Furthermore, the upslope or downslope displacement is not considered to affect the reliability of velocity estimation. In this paper, a model of displacement velocity is proposed taking into account the upslope/downslope factor. The model was determined using real data from a topographical survey along a pipeline of 880 Km extended along terrains with changing climatic and topographic conditions. As a result, the proposed model improves the selection of optimal routes for a reliable time and cost estimation.

  10. Heeding the warning signs: further displacement predicted for Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeidl


    Full Text Available There is currently much evidence pointing to another wave of displacement likely to occur in Afghanistan. Ignoring these early warning signs and failing to act may mean paying a higher price in the future, both financially and in human terms.

  11. Case Report: Transoral retrieval of a displaced mandibular tooth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental displacement of the lower third molar is a fairly rare complication, but may cause tissue injury and considerable functional incapacitation when it occurs. We report this particular case to remind clinicians on the ways to manage this complication, highlighting the use of basic imaging and simple surgical techniques ...

  12. The UN Security Council and prevention of displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjula Weerasinghe


    Full Text Available Respecting the prohibitions against forced and arbitrary displacementcould significantly reduce the risk of, or prevent, displacement insituations of armed conflict, as could insisting on accountabilityfor violations of these prohibitions that amount to war crimes orcrimes against humanity. The UN Security Council has only partiallyaddressed these issues.

  13. Light Ray Displacements due to Air Temperature Gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Teymurazyan, A; CERN. Geneva


    Abstract In the optical monitoring systems suggested to control the geometry of tracking spectrometers, light beams serve as reference frames for the measurement of the tracking chamber displacements and deformations. It is shown that air temperature gradients can induce systematic errors which considerably exceed the intrinsic resolution of the monitoring system.

  14. Limitations of the MMS-10 tympanic displacement analyser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosingh, HJ; Wit, HP


    Using the MMS-10 tympanic displacement analyser, the test-retest variation was determined in 20 normal hearing ears (ten subjects) for the measurement parameters Vi and Vm. Variations were found to be on average 60 nl for Vi and 72 nl for Vm. The consequences of these substantial test-retest

  15. Load-Displacement and Stability Characteristics of Thin-Walled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The governing differential equations that had been derived following the finite displacement formulation and the corresponding general stiffness equations are closely scrutinized. Previous applications of the derivations were restricted to doubly- and singly-symmetric I-section beams. In the present study, the relevant terms ...

  16. Multi-link laser interferometry architecture for interspacecraft displacement metrology (United States)

    Francis, Samuel P.; Lam, Timothy T.-Y.; McClelland, David E.; Shaddock, Daniel A.


    Targeting a future Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, we present a new laser interferometry architecture that can be used to recover the displacement between two spacecraft from multiple interspacecraft measurements. We show it is possible to recover the displacement between the spacecraft centers of mass in post-processing by forming linear combinations of multiple, spatially offset, interspacecraft measurements. By canceling measurement error due to angular misalignment of the spacecraft, we remove the need for precise placement or alignment of the interferometer, potentially simplifying spacecraft integration. To realize this multi-link architecture, we propose an all-fiber interferometer, removing the need for any ultrastable optical components such as the GRACE Follow-On mission's triple mirror assembly. Using digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry, the number of links is readily scalable, adding redundancy to our measurement. We present the concept, an example multi-link implementation and the signal processing required to recover the center of mass displacement from multiple link measurements. Finally, in a simulation, we analyze the limiting noise sources in a 9 link interferometer and ultimately show we can recover the 80 {nm}/√{ {Hz}} displacement sensitivity required by the GRACE Follow-On laser ranging interferometer.

  17. Branching random walks with displacements coming from a power law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parthanil Roy Joint work with Ayan Bhattacharya and Rajat Subhra Hazra


    Branching random walks with displacements coming from a power law. Parthanil Roy. Joint work with Ayan Bhattacharya and Rajat Subhra Hazra. Indian Statistical Institute. July 04, 2015. Parthanil Roy (I.S.I.). Branching random walk. July 04, 2015. 1 / 14 ...

  18. Digital system for dynamic turbine engine blade displacement measurements (United States)

    Kiraly, L. J.


    The paper presents a technique for measuring blade tip displacements which employs optical probes and an array of microcomputers. A system directly digitizing a minimum of a 2048-point time-deflection history for each of the three measurement locations on each blade is described.

  19. Optimization of Moving Coil Actuators for Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Bech, Michael Møller; Roemer, Daniel Beck


    This paper focuses on deriving an optimal moving coil actuator design, used as force pro-ducing element in hydraulic on/off valves for Digital Displacement machines. Different moving coil actuator geometry topologies (permanent magnet placement and magnetiza-tion direction) are optimized for actu......This paper focuses on deriving an optimal moving coil actuator design, used as force pro-ducing element in hydraulic on/off valves for Digital Displacement machines. Different moving coil actuator geometry topologies (permanent magnet placement and magnetiza-tion direction) are optimized...... for actuating annular seat valves in a digital displacement machine. The optimization objectives are to the minimize the actuator power, the valve flow losses and the height of the actuator. Evaluation of the objective function involves static finite element simulation and simulation of an entire operation...... cycle using a single chamber Digital Displacement lumped parameter model. The optimization results shows that efficient operation is achievable using all of the proposed moving coil geometries, however some geometries require more space and actuator power. The most appealing of the optimized actuator...

  20. Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Nickel, J.; Baron, D. J. G.


    The air movement in the occupied zone of a room ventilated by displacement ventilation exists as a stratified flow along the floor. This flow can be radial or plane according to the number of wall-mounted diffusers and the room geometry. The paper addresses the situations where plane flow...

  1. Disaster-induced displacement in the Caribbean and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Hamza


    Full Text Available People in Small Island Developing States are particularly vulnerable to displacement by disaster. Governments in the Caribbean and the Pacific need urgently to do more risk management and planning, rather than focusing almost exclusively on response and relocation.

  2. Nutritional Status of Children in Displacement Camps in Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, stunting, under nutrition, and wasting were measured among 454 children under the age of 10 years in four internally displaced persons (IDP) camps. Stunting was found to be the most common nutritional abnormality in all four IDP camps with the highest prevalence rate (29.3%) in the Trade Center Camp and ...

  3. GPR monitoring of oil displacement - A laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.


    In this paper we present laboratory experiments where we address the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) capability of monitoring oil displacement processes in porous media. This has significant applications in near-subsurface environments where remediation of contaminant such as oil-derived liquids is

  4. Environmental stress, displacement and the challenge of rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Zetter


    Full Text Available "Examination of migration histories and current politics in Kenya, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Ghana sheds light on how rights are articulated for groups and individuals displaced in a context of environmental stress and climate change. Both migration and rights are sensitive issues in these case-study countries, and the conjunction of the two is especially sensitive."

  5. Proverbial Space and the Dialectics of Place and Displacement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current paper examines Adeniran's attempt at creating a large proverbial space through her conscious use and structural arrangement of proverb in language. It foregrounds the dialectic of place and displacement, and location and dislocation as a crucible for her identity formation and major factor in appreciating her ...

  6. 20 CFR 218.30 - Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance. (United States)


    ... allowance, the employee gives up his or her job rights. Regardless of whether a separation allowance is paid... allowance. 218.30 Section 218.30 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... allowance. (a) General. When an employee receives a separation, displacement or dismissal allowance from a...

  7. Forced population displacement | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2015 ... The urban poor in Zimbabwe live in extreme stress and anxiety because they are unable to buy or rent property, or meet government requirements to ... Social fragmentation is such that research teams are now grappling with a critical challenge: how to account for the complete costs of displacement – both ...

  8. Displacement of indigenous languages in families: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that Nigerian families, especially those in diaspora, do not speak their mother tongue at home, preferring to interact and socialize with their children in English. This practice results in the displacement of indigenous languages in the family domain. The study focuses on fourteen (14) Nigerian families at ...

  9. Internal population displacement and its aftermath on Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper interrogated the corporate existence of Nigeria and raised some fundamental questions regarding reasons for discontent, violent conflicts and internal population displacement in Nigeria given her enormous resources, both human and material. The paper through intensive content analysis provided answers to ...

  10. Estimation of permanent displacements of the Tehri dam in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The objective of this paper is to estimate permanent displacements of Tehri dam due to an earthquake of magnitude M w = 8 · 5 , the occurrence of which has a high probability in the region, and for an earthquake of magnitude M w = 7 · 0 , for which the dam has been currently designed. A two-dimensional finite element ...

  11. Calibrating optical bubble size by the displaced-mass method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.; Cohen, L.H.


    Bubble sizing by optical means is very common, but requires calibration by non-optical means. This is particularly important since apparent bubble size increases with decreasing threshold intensity. A calibration experiment was conducted comparing the displaced water mass from captured bubbles with

  12. Instability in Immiscible Fluids Displacement from Cracks and Porous Samples (United States)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Ivashnyov, O. E.


    problems of terrestrial engineering and technology. Surface tension affected flows in porous media could be much better understood in microgravity studies eliminating the masking effects of gravity. Saffman-Taylor instability of the interface could bring to formation and growth of "fingers" of gas penetrating the bulk fluid. The growth of fingers and their further coalescence could not be described by the linear analysis. Growth of fingers causes irregularity of the mixing zone. The tangential velocity difference on the interface separating fluids of different densities and viscousities could bring to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability resulting in "diffusion of fingers" partial regularization of the displacement mixing zone. Thus combination of the two effects would govern the flow in the displacement process. fracture under a pressure differential displacing the high viscosity residual fracturing fluid. There are inherent instability and scalability problems associated with viscous fingering that play a key role in the cleanup procedure. Entrapment of residual fracturing fluid by the gas flow lowers down the quality of a fracture treatment leaving most of fluid in the hydraulic fracture thus decreasing the production rate. The gravity effects could play essential role in vertical hydraulic fractures as the problem is scale dependent. displacement of viscous fluid by a less viscous one in a two-dimensional channel with vertical breaks, and to determine characteristic size of entrapment zones. Extensive direct numerical simulations allow to investigate the sensitivity of the displacement process to variation of values of the main governing parameters. were found for the two limiting cases: infinitely wide cell, and narrow cell with an infinitely small gap between the finger and the side walls. governing parameters. The obtained solutions allowed to explain the physical meaning of the exiting empirical criteria for the beginning of viscous fingering and the growth of a

  13. Kosi Floods 2008: Devastation, Displacement and Migration Experience (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Ahlawat, Monica


    The massive Kosi River floods of August 2008 caused unprecedented loss to lives, livelihoods, infrastructure and property in north-eastern Bihar. The five flood-affected districts (Araria, Madhepura, Purnia, Saharsa and Supaul) are among the poorest districts in India. In 2011, during the last national Census, the total population of the five districts was about 11 million. About 1,000 villages in these five districts were affected and nearly three million people were displaced. Displaced people had to face various kinds of problems like lack of livelihood, loss of house and property, lack of health and hygiene etc. Posts flooding, because of constrained livelihood opportunities, depressed economy, and probability of future flooding event, many families have migrated to other parts of the country. This study was done to find out how displacement as well as migration has affected their lives, how they have coped with it, and what the government response to this disaster was. Both primary as well as secondary data have been used for this study. Secondary data was collected from government offices and websites, news articles and satellite images. Satellite images were used to detect the change in course of river and how much this change in course affected the displacement pattern. For this purpose the satellite images of affected area from an earlier time period and during the floods were taken and their impact was studied. Primary data has been collected through questionnaire and field survey and has been used to understand migration experience of affected population. With the help of these data, the paper analyses the 2008 Kosi flood as a socio-ecological regime shift and explains migration as a societal response to such a shift. Keywords: Floods, Displacement, Satellite Images, Socio-Ecological Regime Shift, Migration

  14. Outcome of alternative approach to displaced acetabular fractures. (United States)

    Park, K S; Chan, C K; Lee, G W; Ahn, H W; Yoon, T R


    Anatomical reduction of displaced acetabular fracture is not without its' limitations and complications. This study is conducted to assess clinical and radiological outcomes as well as complications of treating displaced acetabular fractures with emphasis on anatomical reduction in weight-bearing area, mainly the posterior column, and imperfect reduction of the anterior column is acceptable. However, stability of both columns is mandatory. It was a retrospective study carried out in a Level 1 arthroplasty and trauma centre. 23 patients (17 males, 6 females) with average age of 50.1 years (range, 36-68 years) with displaced acetabular fracture treated with combined incisions and plate-cable systems were included. There were 3 elementary and 18 associated fractures according to Letournel classification. Average follow-up was 23.5 months (range, 12-38.7 months). Mean operation time was 160min (range: 75-320min). Functional scores were evaluated using Harris Hip Score (HHS) whilst reduction was assessed by Matta criteria. Any displacement of reduction, osteoarthritis, heterotopic ossification, and other complications was recorded. 65.2% (15/23) of the patients obtained excellent HHS and 21.7% (5/23) had good HHS. There were 12 anatomical, 6 imperfect, and 5 poor reductions. No displacement was recorded in final follow-up. Complications documented: three lateral femoral cutaneous nerve injuries, two conversions to total hip arthroplasty, three Brooker stage 1 heterotrophic ossification, one pulmonary embolism and one screw irritation. No incidence of wound breakdown, infection and radiological osteoarthritis was reported. Imperfect reduction of the anterior column provided clinical outcomes that are as good as total anatomical reduction. This approach minimizes soft tissue damage and reduces perioperative morbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The displacement of archaeological structures in Spain. Relocate to preserve, preserve to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel López-Menchero Bendicho


    Full Text Available Clearly it is not always feasible to conserve and exhibit the archaeological remains in situ, either for lack of funds in some cases, or for manifest incompatibility with the new land uses in others. This second case mix, ie the need to "free" land for new uses, sentences, in most cases, the archaeological remains to suffer a partial destruction since only movable materials are extracted, preserved and in some cases presented to the public, while the unmovable archaeological heritage, ie fixed archaeological structures, is destroyed, once it has been "properly" documented. However, in this field there is a kind of third way in which archaeological remains, including structures, are preserved and on display, while clearing the ground originally occupied. It is the displacement of archaeological structures. This article discusses the long history of such interventions in the Spanish case, making a typological classification proposal and finally a critical appraisal.

  16. The Banality of Displacement: Turning a (ColourBlind Eye on the Ethnic Representation of the Internally Displaced in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Oslender


    Full Text Available Colombia has one of the highest numbers of internally displaced persons, or IDPs, world-wide. Yet, there exists a conundrum. While latest NGO figures put the total number of IDPs since 1985 at 4 million, Colombian government figures show much lower estimates of 1.9 million. In fact, there are significant discrepancies in the ways how IDPs are identified, counted and categorised. Moreover, whereas it is now commonly argued that displacement has affected black populations proportionately higher than mestizo populations, no data exists to sustain such a view. The displaced population has simply not been accounted for in terms of its ethnic composition. In this article, drawing on Hannah Arendt’s work on terror and evil, I propose the notion of the “banality of displacement” to explain such a colour-blind approach in the discourses and representation of displacement in Colombia. I will refer in particular to the case of the Afro-Colombian population, drawing on fieldwork data collected since 1996, when I begun to work with the social movement of black communities in Colombia

  17. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of supercritical CO2-water drainage displacement in porous media: CO2 saturation and displacement mechanism. (United States)

    Yamabe, Hirotatsu; Tsuji, Takeshi; Liang, Yunfeng; Matsuoka, Toshifumi


    CO2 geosequestration in deep aquifers requires the displacement of water (wetting phase) from the porous media by supercritical CO2 (nonwetting phase). However, the interfacial instabilities, such as viscous and capillary fingerings, develop during the drainage displacement. Moreover, the burstlike Haines jump often occurs under conditions of low capillary number. To study these interfacial instabilities, we performed lattice Boltzmann simulations of CO2-water drainage displacement in a 3D synthetic granular rock model at a fixed viscosity ratio and at various capillary numbers. The capillary numbers are varied by changing injection pressure, which induces changes in flow velocity. It was observed that the viscous fingering was dominant at high injection pressures, whereas the crossover of viscous and capillary fingerings was observed, accompanied by Haines jumps, at low injection pressures. The Haines jumps flowing forward caused a significant drop of CO2 saturation, whereas Haines jumps flowing backward caused an increase of CO2 saturation (per injection depth). We demonstrated that the pore-scale Haines jumps remarkably influenced the flow path and therefore equilibrium CO2 saturation in crossover domain, which is in turn related to the storage efficiency in the field-scale geosequestration. The results can improve our understandings of the storage efficiency by the effects of pore-scale displacement phenomena.

  18. Studies on Stirling engine with pendulum-type displacer; Furikoshiki displacer puresa wo yusuru stirling engine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isshiki, N. [Nihon University, Fukushima (Japan). College of Engineering; Igawa, Y. [Shiroki Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Isshiki, S.


    This paper describes in detail the experimental and theoretical results of a new type of Stirling engine with a pendulum-type displacer (PDSE) that is suspended by a hinge shaft and swings in a displacer space. The main features of PDSE are its simplicity, ease of outside gas sealing, and lower mechanical friction than that of the conventional-type Stirling engine. However, gas leakage inside the displacer is larger than that of the conventional type. The power required to induce a pendulum-type displacer motion, which consists of flow loss powers of multiple fin gas passage and regenerator wire mesh, is analyzed using a simple equation. It has been clarified that the calculated theoretical power output agreed well with the experimental power output. It has also been clarified that the measured Nusselt number of the regenerator agreed with that of a previous study. It is hoped that PDSE can be employed to utilize natural heat energy sources in the future. 8 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Surface displacement and hydraulic connectivity in Bangkok plain inferred from persistent scatterer interferometry (United States)

    Ishitsuka, K.; Fukushima, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Yamada, Y.; Matsuoka, T.


    Land subsidence induced by the compaction of overdrafted aquifer systems have occurred in a lot of cities all over the world and have induced severe damage to buildings and infrastructures. In recent decades, some cities have taken measures to mitigate severe ground subsidence caused by groundwater extraction by, for instance, implementing artificial water injection schemes or regulating groundwater pumping, and surface rebound in these regions has been reported. Previously, SAR interferometry and persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) has been successfully used as a monitoring tool for the uplifting event and we can also use the data to infer the extension of unrecognized fault and geological boundary as well as the elastic property of the aquifer. In this study, we first estimated recent ground displacement by using PSI analysis of ALOS/PALSAR images obtained during November 2007 and December 2010, focusing on the Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand. In this region, ground subsidence due to excessive groundwater pumping had been reported previously, however, we detected ground uplift from 0.5 to 3.0 cm during ALOS observation period. The estimated displacement time-series are consistent with those obtained from surface settlement measurement points in monitoring wells. Since groundwater usage has decreased in Bangkok due to the regulation of groundwater pumping, and groundwater level at productive aquifer has been rising at the estimated uplift area after the regulation, this uplift can be attributed to the increase in the hydraulic head due to the preceding depression in pore pressure. And then, we estimated the lateral connectivity of aquifer as well as the aquifer elastic properties using a temporal model. We considered seasonal factor by a sinusoidal function with a period of one year, and the non-seasonal factor by an exponential function. As a result, we found that non-seasonal uplift occurred uniformly over the whole area at the rate of 0.5-1.5 cm


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.


    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  1. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited to high oleic acid oil and water purification property (Katayon et al., 2006; Foid et al., 2001 and. Folkard et al., 1993), whereas it contains up to. 332.5 g of crude protein per kg of sample (Jose et al., 1999). Studies to characterize the interaction effects of pH and salts on the extraction of. PROTEIN EXTRACTABILITY ...

  2. Study of the 3D displacement field in Lorca (Murcia, Spain) subsidence area (United States)

    Fernandez, Jose; Prieto, Juan F.; Palano, Mimmo; Abajo, Tamara; Perez, Enrique; Escayo, Joaquin; Velasco, Jesus; Herrero, Tomas; Camacho, Antonio G.; Bru, Guadalupe; Molina, Inigo; Lopez, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Velasco, Gema; Gomez, Israel


    numerical model of the aquifer evolution, to be consider for sustainable management plans of groundwater resources and hazard assessments. With this objective, a GNSS network has been defined and various surveys have been carried out in November 2015, July 2016 and beginning of 2017. The results, showing the regional 3D displacement field associated to the exploitation of the aquifer are described and compared with the InSAR ones. First results (Prieto et al., 2016) confirm previous observations (e.g. Bonì et al., 2015) and suggest that the ad-hoc establishment of small-medium GNSS networks, represent a valuable technique for the spatio-temporal monitoring of the 3D displacement field of areas subjected to extensive groundwater extraction. REFERENCES Bonì, R. et al., 2015. Twenty-year advanced DInSAR analysis of severe land subsidence: The Alto Guadalentín Basin (Spain) case study. Engineering Geology, 198, 40-52 doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2015.08.014 González, P.J., Fernández, J., 2011. Drought-driven transient aquifer compaction imaged using multitemporal satellite radar interferometry. Geology, 39/6, 551-554; doi: 10.1130/G31900.1. González, P.J.; et al., 2012. The 2011 Lorca earthquake slip distribution controlled by groundwater crustal unloading. Nature Geoscience, 5/11, 755-834. doi: 10.1038/NGEO1610. Prieto, J.F., et al., 2016. GNSS 3D displacement field determination in Lorca (Murcia, Spain) subsidence area. Fall AGU Meeting, San Francisco, December, 12-16, 2016, H43K-1636.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Luna


    Full Text Available Heterotopias (other spaces returning to Foucault, in heterochronies as open spaces that "express a break with traditional time" (1986, p. 26. In this article, heterochronies are understood as memory layers accumulated in places of forced displacement. These sites, located in rural areas of Colombia, are depicted in documentary films produced during the period of "democratic security" (Ministry of National Defence, 2003, between 2002 and 2010. Based on the research: Heterotopia: ("other spaces" in documentaries of the Colombian armed conflict (Luna, 2011it  applies a method of discourse analysis to three documentaries on forced displacement, which is complemented by interviews and press releases about those jobs. The case studies show how the traditional sense of time, present in the daily lives of the victims of armed conflict (indigenous, peasants and children, is broken by the arrival of armed conflict. This discontinuity is projected through fragments of memory tied to a sense of place (central idea in representing Colombian documentaries.

  4. Crustal displacements in Greenland caused by ice mass variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina

    The climate of the Earth is changing. A consequence of this is observed at the polar regions such as Greenland, where the ice sheet is melting with an increasing rate. The unloading of ice causes the Earth to respond elastically in terms of uplift and an outward horizontal deformation of the crust....... This motion can be measured by permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Hence, the rates of crustal displacement are an indirect measure of the occurring mass changes. Currently, 55 GPS sites are located around the margin of the Greenland ice sheet, continuously providing information about...... the state of the ice sheet. However, the Earth is also adjusting viscoelastically to variations in the late Pleistocene ice sheets i.e. glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Observed rates of crustal displacement therefor contain signals from both past and present ice mass variations. Hence, to interpret...

  5. Micro-vision-based displacement measurement with high accuracy (United States)

    Lu, Qinghua; Zhang, Xianmin; Fan, Yanbin


    The micro-motion stages are widely used in micro/nano manufacturing technology. In this paper, an integrated approach for measuring micro-displacement of micro-motion stage that incorporates motion estimation algorithm into the computer microvision is proposed. At first, the basic principle of the computer microvision measurement is analyzed. Then, a robust multiscale motion estimation algorithm for micro-motion measurement is proposed. Finally, the microdisplacement of the micro-motion stage based on the piezoelectric ceramic actuators and the compliant mechanisms is measured using the integrated approach. The maximal bias of the proposed approach reached 13 nm. Experimental results show that the new integrated method can measure micro-displacement with nanometer accuracy.

  6. Dynamically Induced Displacements of a Persistent Cold-Air Pool (United States)

    Lareau, Neil P.; Horel, John D.


    We examine the influence of a passing weather system on a persistent cold-air pool (CAP) during the Persistent Cold-Air Pool Study in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, USA. The CAP experiences a sequence of along-valley displacements that temporarily and partially remove the cold air in response to increasing along-valley winds aloft. The displacements are due to the formation of a mountain wave over the upstream topography as well as adjustments to the regional horizontal pressure gradient and wind-stress divergence acting on the CAP. These processes appear to help establish a balance wherein the depth of the CAP increases to the north. When that balance is disrupted, the CAP tilt collapses, which sends a gravity current of cold air travelling upstream and thereby restores CAP conditions throughout the valley. Intra-valley mixing of momentum, heat, and pollution within the CAP by Kelvin-Helmholtz waves and seiching is also examined.

  7. New displacement-based methods for optimal truss topology design (United States)

    Bendsoe, Martin P.; Ben-Tal, Aharon; Haftka, Raphael T.


    Two alternate methods for maximum stiffness truss topology design are presented. The ground structure approach is used, and the problem is formulated in terms of displacements and bar areas. This large, nonconvex optimization problem can be solved by a simultaneous analysis and design approach. Alternatively, an equivalent, unconstrained, and convex problem in the displacements only can be formulated, and this problem can be solved by a nonsmooth, steepest descent algorithm. In both methods, the explicit solving of the equilibrium equations and the assembly of the global stiffness matrix are circumvented. A large number of examples have been studied, showing the attractive features of topology design as well as exposing interesting features of optimal topologies.

  8. Electric sail elliptic displaced orbits with advanced thrust model (United States)

    Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni


    This paper analyzes the performance of an Electric Solar Wind Sail for generating and maintaining an elliptic, heliocentric, displaced non-Keplerian orbit. In this sense, this paper extends and completes recent studies regarding the performances of an Electric Solar Wind Sail that covers a circular, heliocentric, displaced orbit of given characteristics. The paper presents the general equations that describe the elliptic orbit maintenance in terms of both spacecraft attitude and performance requirements, when a refined thrust model (recently proposed for the preliminary mission design) is taken into account. In particular, the paper also discusses some practical applications on particular mission scenarios in which an analytic solution of the governing equations has been found.

  9. [Physical therapy for temporomandibular joint anterior disc displacement without reduction]. (United States)

    Cai, B


    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDwoR) is a common type of temporomandibular joint disorders. Most patients experience limited mouth opening and joint pain at the same time. The standpoint of physical therapy is the function of the joint instead of the displaced disc. The treatment aims to make symptoms disappeared and joint function regained through 3M techniques, including modality, manual and movement. For ADDwoR patients with limited mouth opening within 2 month, manual therapy may reposition disc and the following splint and movement therapy can maintain disc-condyle relationship. Even so, restoring anatomical relationship is not the end of physical therapy. Enhanced health education and multidisciplinary cooperation are important for successful management of the ADDwoR patients.

  10. Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor System for Structural Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Ho; Ahn, Byung Jun; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    It has been doing to research on novel techniques for structural health monitoring by applying various sensor techniques to measure the deflection in mechanical and civil structures. Several electric-based displacement sensors have many difficulties for using them because of EMI (Electro-Magnetic Interference) noise of many lead-wires when they are installed to many points in the structures. In this paper, it is proposed an affordable intensity-based fiber optic sensor to measure small displacement solving the problems of conventional sensors. In detail, the sensor head was designed on the basis of the principle of bending loss and a basic experiment was performed to obtain the sensitivity, the linearity and the stroke of the sensor. Moreover, a prototype was designed and manufactured to be easily installed to a structure and a real-time control software was also successfully developed to drive the fiber optic sensor system.

  11. Vertical Temperature Distribution in a Room with Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    in comparison with mixing ventilation. It is necessary to have a design method for the temperature distribution used for instance in connection with the tlow element method and the energy calculations. The temperature distribution is also important in connection with thermal comfort in a room. It is necessary......A displacement ventilation system exploits the use of energy efficiently because it is possible to remove exhaust air from a room with a temperature that is several degrees above the temperature in the occupied zone. This process will allow a higher air inlet temperature at the same load...... to consider the temperature gradient in the occupied zone, as well as the asymmetric radiation from the ceiling, in connection with the design of a displacement ventilation system and the evaluation of thermal comfort. This paper will introduce five temperature distribution models with different levels...

  12. Environmental Displacements: The Case of Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R. Martins Mattar


    Full Text Available The human displacement caused by adverse weather conditions is, and has been for a long time, a natural strategy to adapt to environmental changes. However, the frequency of natural disasters and the negative impact of climate change have increased significantly affecting a growing number of people. Internal and external tensions caused by large-scale displacements, conflicts generated by resource scarcity, increased spread of diseases and geopolitical reordering are among the consequences linked to this phenomenon. The case of the small island nations that will be submerged by the sea level rise is an extreme example that raises fascinating questions. This article aims at analyzing the links of climate change on the dynamics of migration and exploring legal and political implications and possible solutions, in particular, for the populations from small island nations.

  13. Displaced mothers: birth and resettlement, gratitude and complaint. (United States)

    Niner, Sara; Kokanovic, Renata; Cuthbert, Denise


    In narratives of displaced Karen women from Burma, both before and after resettlement in Australia, women framed their birthing experiences with those of persecution and displacement. Although grateful for the security of resettlement in Australia, social inclusion was negligible and women's birthing experiences occurred in that context. Women described the impact of the lack of interpreting services in Australian hospitals and an absence of personal and communal care that they expected. Frequently, this made straightforward births confusing or difficult, and exacerbated the distress of more complicated births. Differences in individual responses related to women's histories, with younger women displaying more preparedness to complain and identify discrimination. The problems identified with health care, coupled with the inability of many of the women to complain requires attention, not just within the health care system, but more widely as part of social attitudes concerning Australia's obligations to those who seek asylum.

  14. Gas miscible displacement enhanced oil recovery: Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.J.; Komar, C.A. (eds.)


    Research on gas flooding and miscible displacement, with an emphasis on improvement of CO/sub 2/ flood performance is described. Low reservoir volumetric sweep efficiency is the major problem associated with gas flooding and all miscible displacements. CO/sub 2/ flooding would be considerably more efficient if a larger area of the reservoir could be contacted by the gas. Current research has focused on mobility control, computer simulation, and reservoir heterogeneity studies. Three mobility control methods have been investigated: the use of polymers for direct thickening of high-density carbon dioxide, mobile ''foam-like dispersions'' of carbon dioxide and aqueous surfactant, and in situ deposition of chemical precipitates. 17 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Earthquake-induced soil displacements and their impact on rehabilitations. (United States)

    Konagai, Kazuo


    A large earthquake can trigger long lasting geotechnical problems, which pose serious issues on both rehabilitations and land conservations. Therefore one of what required of us is to deduce as much hidden signs as possible from observable changes of landforms. Though serious, damage caused by the October 23rd 2004, Mid-Niigata Prefecture Earthquake has given us a rare opportunity to study the landform changes in mountainous terrain hit by this earthquake. An attempt was made to convert changes in elevation in Eulerian description for images obtained from remote-sensing technologies to Lagrangian displacements, because Lagrangian displacements can directly describe behaviors of soils, which are typically history-dependent. This paper documents some big pictures of earthquake-inflicted landform changes obtained through this attempt.

  16. Gass-Assisted Displacement of Non-Newtonian Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard


    on diluted solutions of linear polymers, normally referred to as Booger fluids. These fluids have almost constant shear viscosities and elongational viscosities several order of magnitudes larger than the shear viscosities, at high Deborah numbers. The simplest possible model to describe the constitutive......During the resent years several publications (for instance Hyzyak and Koelling, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 71,73-88 (1997) and Gauri and Koelling, Rheol. Acta, 38, 458-470 (1999)) have concerned gas assisted displacement of viscoelastic fluids (polymer melts and polymeric solutions) contained...... in a circular cylinder. This is a simple model system used to investigate the gas-fluid displacement, as the problem is reduced to an axis-symmetric flow problem. The understanding of this process is relevant for the geometrically much more complex polymer processing operation Gas-assisted injection moulding...

  17. Two-state displacement by the kinesin-14 Ncd stalk. (United States)

    Hallen, Mark A; Liang, Zhang-Yi; Endow, Sharyn A


    The nonprocessive kinesin-14 Ncd motor binds to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP, undergoing a single displacement before releasing the microtubule. A lever-like rotation of the coiled-coil stalk is thought to drive Ncd displacements or steps along microtubules. Crystal structures and cryoelectron microscopy reconstructions imply that stalk rotation is correlated with ADP release and microtubule binding by the motor. Here we report FRET assays showing that the end of the stalk is more than ~9nm from the microtubule when wild-type Ncd binds microtubules without added nucleotide, but the stalk is within ~6nm of the microtubule surface when the microtubule-bound motor binds an ATP analogue, matching the rotated state observed in crystal structures. We propose that the stalk rotation is initiated when the motor binds to microtubules and releases ADP, and is completed when ATP binds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Search for R-parity violating supersymmetry with displaced vertices

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration


    A search for $R$-parity violating supersymmetry has been performed using proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The data analyzed correspond to an integrated luminosity of $17.6~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. This search assumes a minimal flavor violating model where the lightest supersymmetric particle is a long-lived neutralino or gluino, leading to a signal with jets emanating from displaced vertices. Based on a sample of events with two displaced vertices, the pair production cross section is bounded as a function of mass and lifetime of the neutralino or gluino. For a mass of 400 GeV and mean proper decay length of 10 mm, the analysis excludes cross sections above $0.6~\\mathrm{fb}$ at $95\\%$ confidence level.

  19. Does boat traffic cause displacement of fish in estuaries? (United States)

    Becker, Alistair; Whitfield, Alan K; Cowley, Paul D; Järnegren, Johanna; Næsje, Tor F


    Estuaries are increasingly under threat from a variety of human impacts. Recreational and commercial boat traffic in urban areas may represent a significant disturbance to fish populations and have particularly adverse effects in spatially restricted systems such as estuaries. We examined the effects of passing boats on the abundance of different sized fish within the main navigation channel of an estuary using high resolution sonar (DIDSON). Both the smallest (100-300 mm) and largest (>501 mm) size classes had no change in their abundance following the passage of boats. However, a decrease in abundance of mid-sized fish (301-500 mm) occurred following the passage of boats. This displacement may be attributed to a number of factors including noise, bubbles and the rapidly approaching object of the boat itself. In highly urbanised estuarine systems, regular displacement by boat traffic has the potential to have major negative population level effects on fish assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The small-sized ultraprecision sensor for measuring linear displacements (United States)

    Lushnikov, D. S.; Zherdev, A. Y.; Odinokov, S. B.; Markin, V. V.; Gurylev, O. A.; Shishova, M. V.


    The article describes a new optical scheme of noncontact sensor for measuring linear displacement - linear encoder. This sensor is an optical device in which the measurement of displacement is performed by analyzing the optical signal, which pass through two diffraction gratings, one of which is moved relative to the other. The optical signal is obtained by the diffraction of light in these diffraction gratings and subsequent interference of diffracted beams. Often this type of sensors are multi-channel devices with symmetrically positioned of detectors. This scheme is proposed to use a multisection phase mask that allows to make a small-sized sensor. Sections of this multi-section phase mask are the optical windows and they made the final interference signals to be shifted relative to each other in phase. The number of sections in the multi-section phase mask can be varied. Estimated sufficient number of sections is four or more.

  1. Force-free magnetic fields - Generating functions and footpoint displacements (United States)

    Wolfson, Richard; Verma, Ritu


    This paper presents analytic and numerical calculations that explore equilibrium sequences of bipolar force-free magnetic fields in relation to displacments of their magnetic footpoints. It is shown that the appearance of magnetic islands - sometimes interpreted as marking the loss of equilibrium in models of the solar atmosphere - is likely associated only with physically unrealistic footpoint displacements such as infinite separation or 'tearing' of the model photosphere. The work suggests that the loss of equilibrium in bipolar configurations, sometimes proposed as a mechanism for eruptive solar events, probably requires either fully three-dimensional field configurations or nonzero plasma pressure. The results apply only to fields that are strictly bipolar, and do not rule out equilibrium loss in more complex structures such as quadrupolar fields.

  2. Conservative Treatment for Bilateral Displaced Proximal Humerus Head Fracture


    Rodriguez-Corlay, Ruy E; Velutini-Becker, Ricardo; Aguilar-Alcal?, Luis D


    Proximal humerus fracture represents five to eight percent of all fractures and is twice as common in women than in men. Most cases of displaced fracture of the proximal humerus are treated surgically; it is probable that more cases are preferred to be treated surgically greater than required. The optimal treatment for these fractures remains controversial, but physicians have a tendency to treat via open reduction and fixation with angular locking plates or glenohumeral arthroplasty.? We pre...

  3. Temporomandibular joint loads in subjects with and without disc displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rei Iwasaki


    Full Text Available The likelihood of development of degenerative joint disease (DJD of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ is related to the integrity of the TMJ disc. Predilection for mechanical failure of the TMJ disc may reflect inter-individual differences in TMJ loads. Nine females and eight males in each of normal TMJ disc position and bilateral disc displacement diagnostic groups consented to participate in our study. Disc position was determined by bilateral magnetic resonance images of the joints. Three-dimensional (3D anatomical geometry of each subject was used in a validated computer-assisted numerical model to calculate ipsilateral and contralateral TMJ loads for a range of biting positions (incisor, canine, molar and angles (1-13. Each TMJ load was a resultant vector at the anterosuperior-most mediolateral midpoint on the condyle and characterized in terms of magnitude and 3D orientation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to test for effects of biting position and angle on TMJ loads. Mean TMJ loads in subjects with disc displacement were 9.5-69% higher than in subjects with normal disc position. During canine biting, TMJ loads in subjects with disc displacement were 43% (ipsilateral condyle, p=0.029 and 49% (contralateral condyle, p=0.015 higher on average than in subjects with normal disc position. Biting angle effects showed that laterally directed forces on the dentition produced ipsilateral joint loads, which on average were 69% higher (p=0.002 compared to individuals with normal TMJ disc position. The data reported here describe large differences in TMJ loads between individuals with disc displacement and normal disc position. The results support future investigations of inter-individual differences in joint mechanics as a variable in the development of DJD of the TMJ.

  4. Immiscible displacement in a rough fracture: beyond Darcy's law (United States)

    Pahlavan, A. A.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; McKinley, G. H.; Juanes, R.


    The interplay between wetting and disorder, as well as the inherent complexity of porous media renders the description of immiscible displacement a daunting task. Nano-scale physics dictates the macroscopic behavior of the moving contact lines, which in turn determines the flow pattern. To shed light on this problem, we conduct experiments on rough radial Hele-Shaw cells and use the results to guide our modeling efforts. We saturate the cell with a highly viscous glycerol, and then inject a less viscous silicone oil at the center of the cell and visualize the displacement patterns. The surfaces are treated to alter their wettability, allowing us to study both drainage (less wetting liquid displacing a more wetting one) and imbibition (opposite of drainage) regimes. Viscous forces tend to destabilize the interfaces, whereas capillary forces play a stabilizing role; however, the disorder in the medium complicates this balance substantially: 1) it leads to heterogeneities in the permeability field and capillary pressure distribution, and 2) it changes the effective wettability of the medium and leads to contact line-pinning and hysteresis. We observe that at high capillary numbers (ratio of viscous forces to capillary forces), the disorder only weakly modulates the patterns, whereas at low capillary numbers, the disorder affects the flow pattern significantly; it leads to preferential flow paths in the drainage regime, and pinning and intermittent avalanche-like behavior in the imbibition regime. Based on these observations, we propose a phase diagram by incorporating the wettability, capillary number, and effective roughness of the medium as the controlling parameters. Inspired by these observations, we construct a thermodynamically-consistent phase-field model, taking the non-hydrodynamic interactions between the liquids and the solid surface into account. Our model goes beyond Darcy's law, which cannot describe the observed unstable displacements, by taking

  5. Stress intensity and crack displacement for small edge cracks (United States)

    Orange, Thomas W.


    The weight function method was used to derive stress intensity factors and crack mouth displacement coefficients for small edge cracks (less than 20 percent of the specimen width) in common fracture specimen configurations. Contact stresses due to point application of loads were found to be small but significant for three-point bending and insignificant for four-point bending. The results are compared with available equations and numerical solutions from the literature and with unpublished boundary collocation results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva G. Prasad


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to compare the outcome following conservative or surgical treatment for displaced fracture of the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. MATERIALS AND METHODS 14 men and 4 women aged 20 to 44 years chose to undergo conservative (9 feet or surgical (10 feet treatment by a single surgeon for closed displaced fracture of the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. The injury mechanism was a fall from a height of <1.5 m; the mean time from injury to treatment was 3 (range 1-7 days. Conservative treatment comprised immobilisation in a plaster cast. Surgical treatment involved fixation with a half thread cannulated screw for large fragments (in 6 feet or a mini-plate for comminuted fragments (in 4 feet. At the final follow-up, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle and hind foot score was evaluated. RESULTS The conservative and surgery groups were comparable in terms of age, gender and fracture displacement. The mean follow-up duration was 20 (range, 14-24 months. All patients had bone union; none had implant loosening or breakage. One patient with surgical treatment developed skin numbness at the medial aspect of the heel that resolved following neurotrophic drug treatment for 3 months. The surgery group achieved earlier full weight bearing (5.8 vs. 7.5 weeks, p<0.001 and return to work (5.9 vs. 8.2 weeks, p=0.048, but comparable AOFAS score (89.0 vs. 88.2, p=0.4. CONCLUSION Surgery for displaced fracture of the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity enabled earlier full weight bearing and return to work, but comparable AOFAS score.

  7. Contaminant Distribution Around Persons in Rooms Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    An optimal design of the ventilation system needs a proper prediction of the velocity, temperature and contaminant distribution in the room. Traditionally this is done either by the use of simplified models or by a somewhat more comprehensive CFD-simulation. Common to both methods is usually the ...... the lack of consideration for the persons present in the room. This paper deals with some of the effects of persons present in a displacement ventilated room, especially the effect on the contaminant distribution....

  8. Adaptation and mental-hygienic characteristics of internally displaced adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Miloš


    Full Text Available The change in socio-economic status, drastic decrease in living standards, war, and the introduction of sanctions to our country were complicated in addition by a large number of internally displaced people from Kosovo, which culminated with the 1999 NATO bombing. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the influence of internal displacement on the adaptation and mental health of adolescents. The investigation was conducted on 238 adolescents, comprising a control group of 206 adolescents from Belgrade and 32 internally displaced adolescents from Kosovo. A specific questionnaire regarding habits, behavior, and psychosomatic state was used, as well as the Cornell Medical Index and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Internally displaced adolescents from Kosovo exhibited greater difficulties in adapting and had worse school records than adolescents from Belgrade, one year after the change in their location. Immediately after the NATO bombing, both groups reacted in the same way: they often talked about the events they had survived, they were afraid of the sounds of alarm sirens and of airplanes, and in addition had similar dreams (no statistical variation between the groups. Emotional disturbances, one year after the bombing, were not observed in 40.6% of adolescents from Kosovo, compared to the figure of 74.8% for adolescents from Belgrade. Adolescents from Belgrade consumed alcohol significantly more often: 75.7% compared to 56.3% for adolescents from Kosovo. In addition, 20.4% of adolescents from Belgrade consumed psychoactive substances compared to 6.3% of adolescents from Kosovo. There was no significant difference between the examined groups in the total scores on the scale for neuroticism. All in all, the girls from both examined groups displayed neurotic tendencies more frequently than the boys.

  9. Differential optical feedback interferometry for the measurement of nanometric displacements


    Azcona Guerrero, Francisco Javier; Atashkhooei, Reza; Royo Royo, Santiago


    We have recently proposed differential optical feedback interferometry as a convenient method to measure nanometric displacements. In this paper, we present experimental results to support the proposed method. The acquisition system (in particular the conditioning electronics), and, the signal processing algorithm applied to the captured signal, will be described. Obtained results show good agreement with measurements performed using a capacitive sensor employed as reference. © Sociedad Españ...

  10. Mechanism of chimera formation during the Multiple Displacement Amplification reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Timothy B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA is a method used for amplifying limiting DNA sources. The high molecular weight amplified DNA is ideal for DNA library construction. While this has enabled genomic sequencing from one or a few cells of unculturable microorganisms, the process is complicated by the tendency of MDA to generate chimeric DNA rearrangements in the amplified DNA. Determining the source of the DNA rearrangements would be an important step towards reducing or eliminating them. Results Here, we characterize the major types of chimeras formed by carrying out an MDA whole genome amplification from a single E. coli cell and sequencing by the 454 Life Sciences method. Analysis of 475 chimeras revealed the predominant reaction mechanisms that create the DNA rearrangements. The highly branched DNA synthesized in MDA can assume many alternative secondary structures. DNA strands extended on an initial template can be displaced becoming available to prime on a second template creating the chimeras. Evidence supports a model in which branch migration can displace 3'-ends freeing them to prime on the new templates. More than 85% of the resulting DNA rearrangements were inverted sequences with intervening deletions that the model predicts. Intramolecular rearrangements were favored, with displaced 3'-ends reannealing to single stranded 5'-strands contained within the same branched DNA molecule. In over 70% of the chimeric junctions, the 3' termini had initiated priming at complimentary sequences of 2–21 nucleotides (nts in the new templates. Conclusion Formation of chimeras is an important limitation to the MDA method, particularly for whole genome sequencing. Identification of the mechanism for chimera formation provides new insight into the MDA reaction and suggests methods to reduce chimeras. The 454 sequencing approach used here will provide a rapid method to assess the utility of reaction modifications.

  11. [Understanding and treatment strategy for disc displacement of temporomandibular disorders]. (United States)

    Ma, X C


    Understanding and treatment strategy for disc displacement of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were discussed in the present review. It has been strongly recommended by the author that the treatment strategy for disc displacement, one subtype of TMD, should be mainly the reversible conservative treatment methods. The most important goal of treatment for disc displacement is to recover the mobility and function of the joint in order to improve the quality of the patient's life. Comprehensive assessments both from somatic and psychological aspects for each TMD patient are necessary, especially for the patients with chronic pain. Although the role of surgical operative treatments is very limited in the general treatment strategy for TMD, it is still important for a few patients who had definite diagnosis of intra-articular disorders, severe symptoms affecting the quality of patient's life and failed to response to the correct conservative treatments. It should be very careful to treat the TMD patients by surgical operation or irreversible occlusion treatments changing the natural denture of the patient, such as full mouth occlusional reconstruction and extensive adjustment of occlusion.

  12. Study on precision optimization method for laser displacement sensors (United States)

    Bi, Chao; Bao, Longxiang; Wang, Liping; Fang, Jianguo


    As the development of the measuring technology, laser displacement sensors become the most commonly used ones in the field of dimensional metrology as a result of their versatility and mature technology. However, as the differences of environment conditions and the variation of measured surfaces, the measuring errors of the laser displacement sensor may be large when used in actual application, in which the nominal accuracy of the laser sensor cannot be reached. Therefore, a precsion optimization method for the laser displacement sensor is proposed in the paper based on analysis of the principle of optical trigonometry, which can be used to reduces the measuring errors. The method is a kind of spatial filtering algorithm based on the self-adjusting domain. On the basis of the idea of spatial filtering, the method could determine the measuring errors and the optimization region according to the different measured surfaces automatically. As the experiment results show, the optimization method could be used to describe the measured object precisely and decrease the measuring error to up to 50%, which may deal with the low accuracy of the optical scanning and measuring task. With the accuracy optimization method proposed in the paper, the sensor can reach the measuring accuracy of micrometer level. Therefore, the measurement of high efficiency and high precision can be achieved.

  13. A Symptomatic Displaced Os Odontoideum: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Nikouei


    Full Text Available Introduction Os odontoideum (OO is a form of odontoid anomaly presented by a separate ossicle with a smooth, sclerotic border not fused with C2 body. The current paper reports a boy with irreducible displaced os odontoideum with severe neurologic deficit after a minor trauma. Case Presentation A 16-year-old boy admitted in the center due to neck pain and torticollis with neurologic deficit. He had a history of multiple minor traumas. Advanced imaging assessment demonstrated displaced os odontoideum with minimal space available for cord (SAC and myelomalacia. After unsuccessful closed reduction a 2-stage operation was planned: first, the anterior transoral release and odontoid resection with subsequent halo-traction and second, the posterior atlanto-axial instrumented fusion with bilateral C1 hook and C2 pedicular screws. Conclusions Congenital anomalies of the odontoid are associated with C1-C2 instability that can be subluxated or dislocated with minor trauma and cause permanent neurologic deficit or even death. When acute cervical spine trauma is imaged, os odontoideum should be distinguished from an acute dens fracture with a multimodality imaging approach including computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and radiography. Here is the report of a rare case with irreducible displaced os odontiodeum treated him with anterior release, odontoid resection and posterior C1-C2 instrumented fusion.

  14. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Podhraški


    Full Text Available An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  15. Compliant displacement-multiplying apparatus for microelectromechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kota, Sridhar (9391 Quail Ridge Run, Brighton, MI 48114); Rodgers, M. Steven (12216 Papaya Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Hetrick, Joel A. (818 S. Gammon, Apartment 4, Madison, WI 53719)


    A pivotless compliant structure is disclosed that can be used to increase the geometric advantage or mechanical advantage of a microelectromechanical (MEM) actuator such as an electrostatic comb actuator, a capacitive-plate electrostatic actuator, or a thermal actuator. The compliant structure, based on a combination of interconnected flexible beams and cross-beams formed of one or more layers of polysilicon or silicon nitride, can provide a geometric advantage of from about 5:1 to about 60:1 to multiply a 0.25-3 .mu.m displacement provided by a short-stroke actuator so that such an actuator can be used to generate a displacement stroke of about 10-34 .mu.m to operate a ratchet-driven MEM device or a microengine. The compliant structure has less play than conventional displacement-multiplying devices based on lever arms and pivoting joints, and is expected to be more reliable than such devices. The compliant structure and an associated electrostatic or thermal actuator can be formed on a common substrate (e.g. silicon) using surface micromachining.

  16. A novel bio-sensor based on DNA strand displacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Shi

    Full Text Available DNA strand displacement technology performs well in sensing and programming DNA segments. In this work, we construct DNA molecular systems based on DNA strand displacement performing computation of logic gates. Specifically, a class of so-called "DNA neurons" are achieved, in which a "smart" way inspired by biological neurons encoding information is developed to encode and deliver information using DNA molecules. The "DNA neuron" is bistable, that is, it can sense DNA molecules as input signals, and release "negative" or "positive" signals DNA molecules. We design intelligent DNA molecular systems that are constructed by cascading some particularly organized "DNA neurons", which could perform logic computation, including AND, OR, XOR logic gates, automatically. Both simulation results using visual DSD (DNA strand displacement software and experimental results are obtained, which shows that the proposed systems can detect DNA signals with high sensitivity and accretion; moreover, the systems can process input signals automatically with complex nonlinear logic. The method proposed in this work may provide a new way to construct a sensitive molecular signal detection system with neurons spiking behavior in vitro, and can be used to develop intelligent molecular processing systems in vivo.

  17. Piezotransistive transduction of femtoscale displacement for photoacoustic spectroscopy (United States)

    Talukdar, Abdul; Faheem Khan, M.; Lee, Dongkyu; Kim, Seonghwan; Thundat, Thomas; Koley, Goutam


    Measurement of femtoscale displacements in the ultrasonic frequency range is attractive for advanced material characterization and sensing, yet major challenges remain in their reliable transduction using non-optical modalities, which can dramatically reduce the size and complexity of the transducer assembly. Here we demonstrate femtoscale displacement transduction using an AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistor-integrated GaN microcantilever that utilizes piezoelectric polarization-induced changes in two-dimensional electron gas to transduce displacement with very high sensitivity. The piezotransistor demonstrated an ultra-high gauge factor of 8,700 while consuming an extremely low power of 1.36 nW, and transduced external excitation with a superior noise-limited resolution of 12.43 fm Hz-1/2 and an outstanding responsivity of 170 nV fm-1, which is comparable to the optical transduction limits. These extraordinary characteristics, which enabled unique detection of nanogram quantity of analytes using photoacoustic spectroscopy, can be readily exploited in realizing a multitude of novel sensing paradigms.

  18. Urban vulnerability and displacement: a review of current issues. (United States)

    Pantuliano, Sara; Metcalfe, Victoria; Haysom, Simone; Davey, Eleanor


    Urban displacement is frequently portrayed as a new and unfamiliar dilemma for the humanitarian sector, yet broad awareness of its characteristics and challenges has been developing since the 1970s. In the past decade, however, there has been greater attention to, and recognition of, the implications of rapid urbanisation in the developing world. This has led to some policy development and a mounting body of NGO (non-governmental organisation) and think-tank literature on the topic. Assuming displacement to be a key lens on urban vulnerability more broadly, this paper presents an overview of the historical development of debates on urban displacement since the 1970s. Drawing examples from the contributions in this special issue of Disasters, as well as from other sources of information on recent humanitarian responses in various contexts, it assesses the ramifications of urban vulnerability for humanitarian practitioners. The paper contends that the humanitarian sector has failed to galvanise on the issue, and has struggled therefore to employ existing knowledge and to adapt practice. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  19. Active Control Does Not Eliminate Motion-Induced Illusory Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornton


    Full Text Available When the sine-wave grating of a Gabor patch drifts to the left or right, the perceived position of the entire object is shifted in the direction of local motion. In the current work we explored whether active control of the physical position of the patch overcomes such motion induced illusory displacement. In Experiment 1 we created a simple computer game and asked participants to continuously guide a Gabor patch along a randomly curving path using a joystick. When the grating inside the Gabor patch was stationary, participants could perform this task without error. When the grating drifted to either left or right, we observed systematic errors consistent with previous reports of motion-induced illusory displacement. In Experiment 2 we created an iPad application where the built-in accelerometer tilt control was used to steer the patch through as series of “gates”. Again, we observed systematic guidance errors that depended on the direction and speed of local motion. In conclusion, we found no evidence that participants could adapt or compensate for illusory displacement given active control of the target.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Szalay, Alexander S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We investigate the use of a logarithmic density variable in estimating the Lagrangian displacement field motivated by the success of a logarithmic transformation in restoring information to the matter power spectrum. The logarithmic relation is an extension of the linear relation, motivated by the continuity equation, in which the density field is assumed to be proportional to the divergence of the displacement field; we compare the linear and logarithmic relations by measuring both of these fields directly in a cosmological N-body simulation. The relative success of the logarithmic and linear relations depends on the scale at which the density field is smoothed. Thus we explore several ways of measuring the density field, including Cloud-In-Cell smoothing, adaptive smoothing, and the (scale-independent) Delaunay tessellation, and we use both a Fourier-space and a geometrical tessellation approach to measuring the divergence. We find that the relation between the divergence of the displacement field and the density is significantly tighter and straighter with a logarithmic density variable, especially at low redshifts and for very small ({approx}2 h{sup -1} Mpc) smoothing scales. We find that the grid-based methods are more reliable than the tessellation-based method of calculating both the density and the divergence fields, though in both cases the logarithmic relation works better in the appropriate regime, which corresponds to nonlinear scales for the grid-based methods and low densities for the tessellation-based method.

  1. Social-cognitive correlates of children's understanding of displaced aggression. (United States)

    Miller, P H; DeMarie-Dreblow, D


    The purpose of this research was (1) to provide a detailed description of developmental differences in the understanding of displaced aggression during the grade school years and (2) to identify social-cognitive correlates of this development. Seventy-two children aged 5, 7, and 9 viewed, and answered questions about, four videotaped stories involving displaced aggression. In another session they were given three tests of social cognition. One was a person perception task which tapped the tendency to refer to physical or psychological attributes. A second was a recursive thinking task which assessed their awareness that people can think about each other. Third, Selman's puppy story was used to assess their awareness that words or facial expressions do not always reflect the way a person feels, and that a person may not always know what he or someone else really feels. The understanding of displaced aggression increased significantly with increasing age. This understanding was significantly related to the person perception task for 5-year-olds, and to the Selman task for 7- and 9-year-olds. The results were discussed in terms of a developing awareness of possible discrepancies between feelings and physical behavior, facial expressions, or words.

  2. Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside. (United States)

    Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander


    Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme β-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. β-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for β-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Cryogenic Displacement and Accumulation of Biogenic Methane in Frozen Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Kraev


    Full Text Available Evidences of highly localized methane fluxes are reported from the Arctic shelf, hot spots of methane emissions in thermokarst lakes, and are believed to evolve to features like Yamal crater on land. The origin of large methane outbursts is problematic. Here we show, that the biogenic methane (13C ≤ −71‰ which formed before and during soil freezing is presently held in the permafrost. Field and experimental observations show that methane tends to accumulate at the permafrost table or in the coarse-grained lithological pockets surrounded by the sediments less-permeable for gas. Our field observations, radiocarbon dating, laboratory tests and theory all suggest that depending on the soil structure and freezing dynamics, this methane may have been displaced downwards tens of meters during freezing and has accumulated in the lithological pockets. The initial flux of methane from the one pocket disclosed by drilling was at a rate of more than 2.5 kg C(CH4 m−2 h−1. The age of the methane was 8–18 thousand years younger than the age of the sediments, suggesting that it was displaced tens of meters during freezing. The theoretical background provided the insight on the cryogenic displacement of methane in support of the field and experimental data. Upon freezing of sediments, methane follows water migration and either dissipates in the freezing soils or concentrates at certain places controlled by the freezing rate, initial methane distribution and soil structure.

  4. Early anchor displacement after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. (United States)

    Skaliczki, Gábor; Paladini, Paolo; Merolla, Giovanni; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe


    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a success and became the mainstream method of reconstruction in recent years. Due to the technical development in shoulder surgery, novel suture anchors and high-strength sutures are widely used providing convincing fixation, however anchor pullout still remains a problem. The aim of our study was to observe early anchor movement on a large patient cohort, and identify clinical, biological and technical variables that can lead to this complication. A total of 5,327 patients who had arthroscopic rotator cuff reconstruction for full thickness tear were included in the study. Radiographs taken immediately after surgery were observed and occurrent anchor displacement was recorded. Patient-specific, tendon-specific, bone-specific and implant-specific variables were studied. Any possible relationship between these factors and anchor displacement was investigated. Early anchor movement occurred in six cases (0.1%). The involvement of two or more tendons, retraction of the tendon by more than 2 cm and the use of four anchors was associated with higher incidence of anchor displacement, however the difference was not significant. Based on our study, anchor pullout occurring immediately after surgery is a relatively rare complication. Instead of timing the radiologic examination directly after the procedure, assessment of the anchors' position four to six weeks after surgery should be considered.

  5. Sound effects: Multimodal input helps infants find displaced objects. (United States)

    Shinskey, Jeanne L


    Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion, suggesting auditory input is more salient in the absence of visual input. This article addresses how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for displaced objects. In AB tasks, infants who previously retrieved an object at A subsequently fail to find it after it is displaced to B, especially following a delay between hiding and retrieval. Experiment 1 manipulated auditory input by keeping the hidden object audible versus silent, and visual input by presenting the delay in the light versus dark. Infants succeeded more at B with audible than silent objects and, unexpectedly, more after delays in the light than dark. Experiment 2 presented both the delay and search phases in darkness. The unexpected light-dark difference disappeared. Across experiments, the presence of auditory input helped infants find displaced objects, whereas the absence of visual input did not. Sound might help by strengthening object representation, reducing memory load, or focusing attention. This work provides new evidence on when bimodal input aids object processing, corroborates claims that audiovisual processing improves over the first year of life, and contributes to multisensory approaches to studying cognition. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion. This suggests they find auditory input more salient in the absence of visual input in simple search tasks. After 9 months, infants' object processing appears more sensitive to multimodal (e.g., audiovisual) input. What does this study add? This study tested how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for an object displaced in an AB task. Sound helped infants find displaced objects in both the presence and absence of visual input. Object processing becomes more

  6. Harmonic Tracking of Acoustic Radiation Force Induced Displacements (United States)

    Doherty, Joshua R.; Dahl, Jeremy J.; Trahey, Gregg E.


    Ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods rely upon accurate estimates of tissue deformation to characterize the mechanical properties of soft tissues. These methods are corrupted by clutter, which can bias and/or increase variance in displacement estimates. Harmonic imaging methods are routinely used for clutter suppression and improved image quality in conventional B-mode ultrasound, but have not been utilized in ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods. We introduce a novel, fully-sampled pulse inversion harmonic method for tracking tissue displacements that corrects the loss in temporal sampling frequency associated with conventional pulse inversion techniques. The method is implemented with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging to monitor the displacements induced by an impulsive acoustic radiation force excitation. Custom pulse sequences were implemented on a diagnostic ultrasound scanner to collect spatially-matched fundamental and harmonic information within a single acquisition. B-mode and ARFI images created from fundamental data collected at 4 MHz and 8 MHz are compared with 8 MHz harmonic images created using a bandpass filter approach and the fully sampled pulse inversion method. In homogeneous, tissue-mimicking phantoms, where no visible clutter was observed, there was little difference in the axial displacements, estimated jitter, and normalized cross-correlation among the fundamental and harmonic tracking methods. The similarity of the lower and higher frequency methods suggests that any improvement due to the increased frequency of the harmonic components is negligible. The harmonic tracking methods demonstrated a marked improvement in B-mode and ARFI image quality of in vivo carotid arteries. Improved feature detection and decreased variance in estimated displacements were observed in the arterial walls of harmonic ARFI images, especially in the pulse inversion harmonic ARFI images. Within the lumen, the harmonic tracking methods

  7. Harmonic tracking of acoustic radiation force-induced displacements. (United States)

    Doherty, Joshua R; Dahl, Jeremy J; Trahey, Gregg E


    Ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods rely upon accurate estimates of tissue deformation to characterize the mechanical properties of soft tissues. These methods are corrupted by clutter, which can bias and/or increase variance in displacement estimates. Harmonic imaging methods are routinely used for clutter suppression and improved image quality in conventional B-mode ultrasound, but have not been utilized in ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods. We introduce a novel, fully-sampled pulse-inversion harmonic method for tracking tissue displacements that corrects the loss in temporal sampling frequency associated with conventional pulse-inversion techniques. The method is implemented with acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging to monitor the displacements induced by an impulsive acoustic radiation force excitation. Custom pulse sequences were implemented on a diagnostic ultrasound scanner to collect spatially-matched fundamental and harmonic information within a single acquisition. B-mode and ARFI images created from fundamental data collected at 4 MHz and 8 MHz are compared with 8-MHz harmonic images created using a band-pass filter approach and the fully sampled pulse-inversion method. In homogeneous, tissue-mimicking phantoms, where no visible clutter was observed, there was little difference in the axial displacements, estimated jitter, and normalized cross-correlation among the fundamental and harmonic tracking methods. The similarity of the lower- and higher-frequency methods suggests that any improvement resulting from the increased frequency of the harmonic components is negligible. The harmonic tracking methods demonstrated a marked improvement in B-mode and ARFI image quality of in vivo carotid arteries. Improved feature detection and decreased variance in estimated displacements were observed in the arterial walls of harmonic ARFI images, especially in the pulse-inversion harmonic ARFI images. Within the lumen, the harmonic tracking

  8. Some experimental observations of crack-tip mechanics with displacement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtari


    Full Text Available In the past two decades, crack-tip mechanics has been increasingly studied with full-field techniques. Within these techniques, Digital Image Correlation (DIC has been most widely used due to its many advantages, to extract important crack-tip information, including Stress Intensity Factor (SIF, Crack Opening Displacement, J-integral, T-stress, closure level, plastic zone size, etc. However, little information is given in the literature about the experimental setup that provides best estimations for the different parameters. The current work aims at understanding how the experimental conditions used in DIC influence the crack-tip information extracted experimentally. The influence of parameters such as magnification factor, size of the images, position of the images with respect the crack-tip and size of the subset used in the correlation is studied. The influence is studied in terms of SIF and T-stress by using Williams’ model. The concept of determination of the K-dominance zone from experimental data has also explored. In this regard, cyclic loading on a fatigue crack in a compact tension (CT specimen, made of aluminium 2024-T351 alloy, has been applied and the surface deformation ahead of the crack tip has been examined. The comparison between theoretical and experimental values of KI showed that the effect of subset size on the measured KI is negligible compared to the effect of size of the image.

  9. Effect of variations in atelectasis on tumor displacement during radiation therapy for locally advanced lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Tennyson, MD


    Conclusions: Changes in AT and PT volumes during radiation treatment were significantly associated with PT displacements that often exceeded standard setup margins. Repeated 3-dimensional imaging is recommended in patients with AT to evaluate for PT displacements during treatment.

  10. Displaced by development: How the state can hinder or help | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , where a series of mega developments has reshaped the city and its suburbs – and displaced many residents. In their 2015 paper “Changing Cities and Changing Lives: Development Induced Displacement in Kochi, Kerala”, ...

  11. Displaced by development: How the state can hinder or help | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    , where a series of mega developments has reshaped the city and its suburbs – and displaced many residents. In their 2015 paper “Changing Cities and Changing Lives: Development Induced Displacement in Kochi, Kerala”, ...

  12. Influence of Coking Pressure and Oven Age on Chamber Wall Displacement and Coke Pushing Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Kubota, Yukihiro; Arima, Takashi; Fukuda, Koichi; Kato, Kenji; Awa, Yasuhiko; Sugiura, Masato; Mitsugi, Kenji; Okanishi, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Isao


    .... The wall displacement increased in proportion to the internal gas pressure of plastic layer at oven center, and the displacement at superannuated oven per maximum gas pressure was larger than the one at sturdy oven. The pushing force...

  13. Poetry as women’s resistance to the consequences of Bedouin displacement in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Seeley


    Full Text Available Despite the significant displacement that Jordanian Bedouin familieshave undergone in recent generations, Bedouin women are able tomitigate some of the consequences of that displacement through theopportunities and influence they have gained as Nabati poets.

  14. Tolerable Displacement for Perceiving a Natural Scene as Stable across Saccadic Eye Movements (United States)

    Ishida, Taiichiro; Ikeda, Mitsuo


    We conducted an experiment in which subjects observed a picture of a natural scene while the picture was displaced according to a subject’s saccades. The threshold displacement ratio (the length of picture displacement/the length of saccade) that allowed subjects to perceive the stable picture was measured. In experiment 1 the threshold ratio was measured for each of five pictures when the picture was displaced in the same direction as each saccade. In experiment 2 the direction of the picture displacement was set in the same, opposite or orthogonal to the movement of the eye to examine effects of the relative displacement direction. The results showed that the subjects perceived a picture as stable despite fairly large displacement during saccades; the threshold ratio was influenced by the pictures and ranged from 18% to 26%. It was also found that the displacement in the same direction as the eye was more detectable than that in the opposite direction.

  15. Worker Displacement in Russia and Ukraine: A Comparative Analysis Using Micro Data


    Hartmut Lehmann; Alexander Muravyev; Norberto Pignatti; Anzelika Zaiceva


    Using unique data from a supplement to the RLMS on displaced workers in Russia and from the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS) we analyze and provide the first solid evidence on displacement in Russia and Ukraine in a period of growth. Our estimates establish that quits dominate separations but that displacement rates are clearly not negligible amounting to between 2.5 and 3 percent of employment in Russia and between 2 and 5 percent in Ukraine. We also show that displacements ar...

  16. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation by strand displacement amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Forsgren, Arne


    Rapid, reliable diagnosis of tuberculosis is essential to initiate correct treatment, avoid severe complications, and prevent transmission. Conventional microbiological methods may not be an option if samples are formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) for histopathological examination....... With the demonstration of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation, tuberculosis becomes an important differential diagnosis, although it was not initially suspected. Following paraffin extraction, BDProbeTec ET strand displacement amplification for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) was applied to 47...

  17. Experimental studies of low IFT displacement by CO/sub 2/ injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, A.; Zana, E.


    An experimental technique is described for isolating the influence of low interfacial tension (IFT) from the influence of other CO/sub 2/ displacement mechanisms. Also, the capillary number concept was extended to correlate the displacement efficiencies of CO/sub 2/-oil systems. Experimental results indicate that low IFT displacement by CO/sub 2/ is an effective recovery mechanism. (12 refs.)

  18. The chain effects of property-led redevelopment in Shenzhen : Price-shadowing and indirect displacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Ying; Tang, Shuangshuang; Geertman, Stan; Lin, Yanliu; van Oort, Frank


    Many Chinese cities are undergoing large-scale property-led redevelopment, which can result in both direct and indirect residential displacement. Although a number of studies on direct displacement have been carried out, insights into the mechanisms underlying indirect displacement are lacking. The

  19. 40 CFR 1054.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power and displacement? (United States)


    ... engine power and displacement? This section describes how to quantify your engine's maximum engine power and displacement for the purposes of this part. (a) An engine configuration's maximum engine power is... do not change maximum engine power. (b) An engine configuration's displacement is the intended swept...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement? (United States)


    ... displacement? This section describes how to quantify your vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement for... available engine torque with engine speed. (b) An engine configuration's displacement is the intended swept... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is my vehicle's maximum engine...

  1. Too Calloused to Care: An Experimental Examination of Factors Influencing Youths' Displaced Aggression against Their Peers (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Kamphuis, Jan H.; Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Telch, Michael J.


    People often displace their aggression against innocent targets. Notwithstanding the merits of previous research on displaced aggression, critical gaps remain. First, it is unclear whether and how situational and dispositional factors interact to influence displaced aggression. Moreover, it is unclear whether engaging in direct aggression…

  2. Evaluation of efficacy of different gingival displacement materials on gingival sulcus width. (United States)

    Prasanna, G S Renuka; Reddy, Kesava; Kumar, R K Naveen; Shivaprakash, S


    The purpose of the present in vivo study was to measure the efficacy of different gingival displacement materials in achieving gingival tissue displacement and to compare the efficacy of Expasyl displacement paste (Pierre Rolland, France) and gingival displacement cord for gingival displacement. Sixteen subjects were included in the study. Premolars were prepared to receive full veneer crown, gingival displacement was carried using gingival retraction cord and gingival displacement paste. Impression of the gingival sulcus was made. Sulcus width after displacement was measured under magnification. The mean displacement value of sulcus width was 0.21 ± 0.01 mm for the gingival retraction cord and 0.26 ± 0.02 mm for the gingival displacement paste. 'F' test was used for statistical analysis. Difference among the two test agents was statistically significant (p paste showed better response in achieving horizontal displacement of the gingival sulcus than gingival retraction cord. Gingival displacement helps in recording the unprepared tooth surface adjacent to the finish line in the impression being made, thereby helping a better marginal adaptation and emergence profile in the extracoronal restoration.

  3. Page 1 § Radial displacements in a porous medium 65 0.50 0.00 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 4. Variation of radial displacement [U*=(2Nu/Fa) x 10] versus radial distance. (X = rſa). For Q/R->0, p.12/p32-0, we obtain the expression for displacement in solid part, u(r,t), as obtained by Vodicka [12], whereas displacement in liquid part, U(r,t), vanishes.

  4. One-step purification of palmatine and its derivative dl-tetrahydropalmatine from Enantia chlorantha using high-performance displacement chromatography. (United States)

    Gao, Jin-Ming; Kamnaing, Pierre; Kiyota, Taira; Watchueng, Jean; Kubo, Takahiro; Jarussophon, Suwatchai; Konishi, Yasuo


    Palmatine and its reduced form, dl-tetrahydropalmatine are a group of isoquinoline alkaloids that have been reported to display a variety of biological and pharmacological activities. Both drugs are hydrophilic and are difficult to be purified by conventional purification methods of natural products. A high-performance displacement chromatography (HPDC) method successfully purified palmatine and its semi-synthetic derivative dl-tetrahydropalmatine from crude extract of the African medicinal plant Enantia chlorantha. The crude extract from the root bark of E. chlorantha was fractionated on an analytical reversed-phase C(18) column by using 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) or acetic acid/H2O as a carrier and cetylpyridinium trifluoroacetate (or acetate) (1.9mg/mL) in 0.1% TFA (or acetic acid)/H2O as a displacer. Palmatine was quantitatively purified at >98% purity in the fully developed displacement mode. dl-Tetrahydropalmatine was semi-synthesized by NaBH4 reduction from crude palmatine and directly purified by HPDC. Both palmatine and dl-tetrahydropalmatine were identified by high-resolution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. This is the first report of one-step HPDC purification of natural and semi-synthetic products from a complex crude extract.

  5. Loading effects in GPS vertical displacement time series (United States)

    Memin, A.; Boy, J. P.; Santamaría-Gómez, A.; Watson, C.; Gravelle, M.; Tregoning, P.


    Surface deformations due to loading, with yet no comprehensive representation, account for a significant part of the variability in geodetic time series. We assess effects of loading in GPS vertical displacement time series at several frequency bands. We compare displacement derived from up-to-date loading models to two global sets of positioning time series, and investigate how they are reduced looking at interannual periods (> 2 months), intermediate periods (> 7 days) and the whole spectrum (> 1day). We assess the impact of interannual loading on estimating velocities. We compute atmospheric loading effects using surface pressure fields from the ECMWF. We use the inverted barometer (IB) hypothesis valid for periods exceeding a week to describe the ocean response to the pressure forcing. We used general circulation ocean model (ECCO and GLORYS) to account for wind, heat and fresh water flux. We separately use the Toulouse Unstructured Grid Ocean model (TUGO-m), forced by air pressure and winds, to represent the dynamics of the ocean response at high frequencies. The continental water storage is described using GLDAS/Noah and MERRA-land models. Non-hydrology loading reduces the variability of the observed vertical displacement differently according to the frequency band. The hydrology loading leads to a further reduction mostly at annual periods. ECMWF+TUGO-m better agrees with vertical surface motion than the ECMWF+IB model at all frequencies. The interannual deformation is time-correlated at most of the locations. It is adequately described by a power-law process of spectral index varying from -1.5 to -0.2. Depending on the power-law parameters, the predicted non-linear deformation due to mass loading variations leads to vertical velocity biases up to 0.7 mm/yr when estimated from 5 years of continuous observations. The maximum velocity bias can reach up to 1 mm/yr in regions around the southern Tropical band.

  6. Static loading and vertical displacement at southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V. Timofeev


    Full Text Available Seismic method is usually used for elastic parametric estimation. This is why this method presents dynamic parameters of Earth. Frequency seismic range changes greatly from geodynamic modelling time. Now we have opportunity to use geodesy result for some years for elastic parameters estimation. Static solution from elastic theory may be used for the interpretation of long term results. It presents static elastic parameter. The inverse problem for different types of vertical surface loading on one year period is calculated. Two cases of loading with maximal and minimal area are presented. Results are determined by space geodesy and leveling methods. Current relation between atmospheric pressure and vertical displacements was estimated at the center of Siberian Anti Cyclone with size varied from 2000 km to 3000 km. Pressure-displacement coefficients (PDC can be achieved by three years observation (0.997 mm/mbar for NVSK GPS station. It is used for elastic module study of geology medium with maximum thickness up to 600 km. In the context of elastic model, the modulus of rigidity is estimated to be 113 GPa. Vast expanse of anti-cyclone may relate with rheology of crust and upper mantle. Smaller size of surface loading – local loading is seasonal variation of water reservoir. Annual vertical changes were obtained by leveling near the dam of the reservoir. PDC ratio was 1.15 mm/bar for these places. In elastic theory, the Young modulus E = 80 GPa (Poisson ratio = 0.25, the modulus of rigidity = 32 GPa was calculated by sixteen years of leveling measurements. This result can effectively be represented for upper crust. Our results were checked by solution for coseismic displacement of Chyia-Altai earthquake (Sep. 27, 2003, M = 7.3. Coseismic results calculated by static modules agree with experimental coseismic GPS data at 10% level.

  7. Combination of coseismic displacement fields: a geodetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Devoti


    Full Text Available This study provides the mathematical framework for the rigorous combination of coseismic offsets observed by a global positioning system (GPS network and investigates the results obtained on the occasion of the recent Emilia earthquakes (Italy. This seismic sequence that affected northern Italy from May 20, 2012, allowed two offset fields to be computed, one with reference to the mainshock (M 5.9, followed by two other M 5.1 events on the same day, and a second with reference to the replicas that occurred on May 29, 2012 (M 5.8, M 5.3 and M 5.2; ISIDe data archive, The final displacement field is basically the result of a comparison and validation process with repeated feedback between the different analysis groups at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology that was established to obtain prompt coseismic displacement solutions, as precise as possible, and in the first days after an event. This is important for early seismic-source evaluation as it represents the most complete and validated dataset at the very early stage of a seismic crisis, and it is also extremely useful in reducing random and systematic errors in the estimated parameters. This study is the result of a cooperative effort that involved different research groups at INGV, with the sharing of all of the collected GPS data. The intention was to compare these results and thus reducing sources of error associated with individual processing strategies, to allow the final combination of the different displacement fields into a single consensus solution. The process assessed the robustness of each single GPS result, thus minimizing erroneous interpretations of individual solutions. […

  8. Surface displacement due to groundwater exploitation using spatial and terrestrial techniques. (United States)

    Abajo Muñoz, T.; Fernandez, J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Luzon, F.


    Subsidence is a natural hazard that affects wide areas in the world causing important economic costs annually. It is estimated that there are over 150 cities in the world with serious problems of subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal like the Po Valley (Italy), Mexico DC, San Joaquin Valley (USA) and Bangkok (Thailand). Globally, groundwater depletion rates have risen in recent decades and significant lowering of groundwater tables has been reported. Aquifer overdraft has been a concern for the management of water resources, due to the potential irreversible loss of aquifer storage caused by aquifer system compaction and associated land subsidence. From a mechanical point of view, groundwater extraction from a confined aquifer reduces groundwater pore pressure. Because the overburden remains unchanged, the effective stress on the grain matrix of the aquifer increases, and the volume of the confined aquifer decreases, resulting in compaction and triggering surface subsidence. The control of land subsidence could serve as a proxy for the management of pore pressure change and groundwater flows in underlying aquifers (Galloway & Hoffmann, 2007). Our main interest is to study the ground surface displacement and Coulomb stress transfer produced by an extended source located in a homogeneus, elastic and isotropic half-space, based on Geerstma's model (1973). This study implies the improvement, development and implementation of the tools necessary for modelling and interpretation of the observations, as well as to evaluate possible interactions with other phenomena, such as the potential to influence on nearby faults. REFERENCES Galloway, D.L., Hoffmann, J., 2007. The application of satellite differential SAR interferometry-derived ground displacements in hydrogeology. Hydrogeology J., 15, 133-154. Geertsma J., 1973. A basic theory of subsidence due to reservoir compaction: the homogeneus case. Verhandelingen Kon. Ned. Geol. Mijnbouwk. Gen., 28, 43-62.

  9. Data assimilation of surface displacements to improve geomechanical parameters of gas storage reservoirs (United States)

    Zoccarato, C.; Baó, D.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Alzraiee, A.; Teatini, P.


    Although the beginning of reservoir geomechanics dates back to the late 1960s, only recently stochastical geomechanical modelling has been introduced into the general framework of reservoir operational planning. In this study, the ensemble smoother (ES) algorithm, i.e., an ensemble-based data assimilation method, is employed to reduce the uncertainty of the constitutive parameters characterizing the geomechanical model of an underground gas storage (UGS) field situated in the upper Adriatic sedimentary basin (Italy), the Lombardia UGS. The model is based on a nonlinear transversely isotropic stress-strain constitutive law and is solved by 3-D finite elements. The Lombardia UGS experiences seasonal pore pressure change caused by fluid extraction/injection leading to land settlement/upheaval. The available observations consist of vertical and horizontal time-lapse displacements accurately measured by persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) on RADARSAT scenes acquired between 2003 and 2008. The positive outcome of preliminary tests on simplified cases has supported the use of the ES to jointly assimilate vertical and horizontal displacements. The ES approach is shown to effectively reduce the spread of the uncertain parameters, i.e., the Poisson's ratio, the ratio between the horizontal and vertical Young and shear moduli, and the ratio between the virgin loading (I cycle) and unloading/reloading (II cycle) compressibility. The outcomes of the numerical simulations point out that the updated parameters depend on the assimilated measurement locations as well as the error associated to the PSI measurements. The parameter estimation may be improved by taking into account possible model and/or observation biases along with the use of an assimilation approach, e.g., the Iterative ensemble smoother, more appropriate for nonlinear problems.

  10. Spatial displacement, but not temporal asynchrony, destroys figural binding. (United States)

    Fahle, M; Koch, C


    What are the elementary features that the brain uses to bind spatially distinct parts in a visual scene into an unitary percept of an "object"? The Gestalt psychologists emphasized the extent to which motion, colour, luminance or spatial arrangement contribute towards object formation. Little is known about the role of time per se, rather than motion, in constituting an object. In particular, does the visibility or saliency of an object change if the various parts making up the object are not presented simultaneously? Using a simple experimental design, we show that very small spatial displacements can significantly influence the saliency of an object while large temporal asynchrony has no significant effect.

  11. Displacement of microwave squeezed states with Josephson parametric amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Ling; Baust, Alexander; Xie, Edwar; Schwarz, Manuel; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Fedorov, Kirill; Menzel, Edwin; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Betzenbichler, Martin; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Haeberlein, Max; Eder, Peter; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Huebl, Hans; Deppe, Frank [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)


    Propagating quantum microwaves are promising building blocks for quantum communication. Interestingly, such itinerant quantum microwaves can be generated in the form of squeezed photon states by Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPA). We employ a specific ''dual-path'' setup for both state reconstruction and JPA characterization. Displacement operations are performed by using a directional coupler after the squeezing. We compare our results with theory predictions. In particular, we discuss our experiments in the context of remote state preparation and quantum teleportation with propagating microwaves.

  12. Political Geographies of Displacement by Dispossession in Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velez Torres, Irene

    as a geopolitical scale for analysing features of the socio environmental conflicts that have generated displacement in Colombia. It critically addresses the matrix of actors and interests that interlock in these disputes in their attempt to access and control land based resources, and the ways in which unequal...... power relations have forced local afrodescendants to migrate. While economic models of accumulation have been supported by the government and international financial institutions, this research turns the attention to the official discourses and policies that have limited the local communities’ capacity...

  13. Displaced geostationary orbit design using hybrid sail propulsion


    Heiligers, J.; Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, C.R.; J. D. Biggs


    Because of an increase in the number of geostationary spacecraft and the limits imposed by east–west spacing\\ud requirements, the geostationary orbit is becoming congested. To increase its capacity, this paper proposes to create\\ud new geostationary slots by displacing the geostationary orbit either out of or in the equatorial plane by means of\\ud hybrid solar sail and solar electric propulsion. To minimize propellant consumption, optimal steering laws for the\\ud solar sail and solar-electric...

  14. Domain wall displacement by remote spin-current injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skirdkov, P. N.; Zvezdin, K. A.; Belanovsky, A. D.; Zvezdin, A. K. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskiy per. 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Grollier, J.; Cros, V. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales and Université Paris-Sud, 1 Ave. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Ross, C. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    We demonstrate numerically the ability to displace a magnetic domain wall (DW) by remote spin current injection. We consider a long and narrow magnetic nanostripe with a single DW. The spin-polarized current is injected perpendicularly to the film plane through a small nanocontact which is located at certain distance from the DW initial position. We show that the DW motion can be initiated not only by conventional spin-transfer torque but also by indirect spin-torque, created by remote spin-current injection and then transferred to the DW by the exchange-spring mechanism. An analytical description of this effect is proposed.

  15. Positive displacement compounding of a heavy duty diesel engine (United States)

    Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.


    A helical screw type positive displacement (PD) compressor and expander was considered as an alternative to the turbocharger and the power turbine in the Cummins advanced turbocompound engine. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) completed the design, layout, and performance prediction of the PD machines. The results indicate that a screw compressor-expander system is feasible up to at least 750 HP, dry operation of the rotors is feasible, cost and producibility are uncertain, and the system will yield about 4% improvement in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over the advanced turbocompound engine.

  16. Floor Heating with Displacement Ventilation: An Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Corgnati, S.P.


    The effect of floor heating combined with displacement ventilation (DV) on thermal indoor environments and indoor air quality (IAQ) was studied by means of CFD. The numerical model was validated with experimental data. A typical office room was simulated, and one of the occupants was considered...... to simulate different kinds of contaminant sources, under the same boundary conditions. It was found that DV does not guarantee a better IAQ than full mixing when contaminant sources are not linked to heat sources, even when floor heating is used. Contaminants produced by powerful heat sources require high...

  17. Finding small displacements of recorded speckle patterns: revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Chakrabarti, Maumita


    An analytical expression for the bias effect in digital speckle correlation is derived based on a Gaussian approximation of the spatial pixel size and array extent. The evaluation is carried out having assumed an incident speckle field. The analysis is focused on speckle displacements in the order...... is introduced, which alleviates the need to know the expected shape of the crosscovariance between the original and the off-set recorded speckle pattern. This concept calls for correlating the crosscovariance with the auto covariance, which essentially carries information on the expected shape...

  18. Interchange: Highways and Displacement in the Postwar American City


    Rubin, Elihu


    Though its route cleaved to a 19th century rail corridor, building the urban extension of the Massachusetts Turnpike (1962-1965) was an unsettling experience. The six-lane highway overflowed the tight dimensions presented by the Boston & Albany Railroad’s graded right-of-way. The result was significant land-takings and human displacement, on either side of the rail bed and especially at the interchanges within the limited-access road network. In West Newton, an African-American community (in ...

  19. Displacement Damage Effects in Pinned Photodiode CMOS Image Sensors


    Virmontois, Cédric; Goiffon, Vincent; Corbière, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Girard, Sylvain; Bardoux, Alain


    This paper investigates the effects of displacement damage in Pinned Photodiode (PPD) CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) using proton and neutron irradiations. The DDD ranges from 12 TeV/g to ${1.2 times 10^{6}}$ TeV/g. Particle fluence up to $5 times 10^{14}$ $^{-2}$ is investigated to observe electro-optic degradation in harsh environments. The dark current is also investigated and it would appear that it is possible to use the dark current spectroscopy in PPD CIS. The dark current random telegr...

  20. Study of displacements of a bridge abutment using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wymysłowski Michał


    Full Text Available Steel sheet piles are often used to support excavations for bridge foundations. When they are left in place in the permanent works, they have the potential to increase foundation bearing capacity and reduce displacements; but their presence is not usually taken into account in foundation design. In this article, the results of finite element analysis of a typical abutment foundation, with and without cover of sheet piles, are presented to demonstrate these effects. The structure described is located over the Więceminka river in the town of Kołobrzeg, Poland. It is a single-span road bridge with reinforced concrete slab.

  1. Measurement of Instantaneous Angular Displacement Fluctuation and its applications on gearbox fault detection. (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Xining; Wu, Tingting


    Recently, Instantaneous Angular Speed (IAS) measurement is successfully established and prevalently applied to a wide variety of machines due to the hypothesis that the speed fluctuation of rotating machinery carries plentiful dynamic responses. Nevertheless, exploration and application based on angular signal are still insufficient. Under the same hypothesis, in this paper, we introduced an extended algorithm named Instantaneous Angular Phase Demodulation (IAPD), together with the selection of optimal sideband family to extract the Instantaneous Angular Displacement Fluctuation (IADF) signal. In order to evaluate the performance of IADF signal, an effective approach was demonstrated using IADF signal to address the fault detection and diagnosis issue. After extracting the IADF signal, a much effective method was developed to deal with the large amount of data generated during the signal collection process. Then, we used the well-developed techniques, i.e., empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and envelope analysis, to undertake the signal de-noising and feature extraction task. The effectiveness and capability of the IADF signal were evaluated by two kinds of gearboxes under differentconditions in practice. In particular, the prevalent IAS signal and vibration signal were also involved and testified by the proposed procedure. Experimental results demonstrated that by means of the IADF signal, the combination of EMD and envelope analysis not only provided accurate identification results with a higher signal-to-noise ratio, but was also capable of revealing the fault characteristics significantly and effectively. In contrast, although the IAS signal had the potential ability to diagnose the serious fault, it failed for the slight crack case. Moreover, the same procedure even its improvements, i.e., ensemble empirical mode decomposition and local mean decomposition, all failed to recognize the faults in terms of vibration signals. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by

  2. Internal displacement and the Syrian crisis: an analysis of trends from 2011-2014. (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Delbiso, Tefera D; Robinson, Courtland W


    Since the start of the Syrian crisis in 2011, civil unrest and armed conflict in the country have resulted in a rapidly increasing number of people displaced both within and outside of Syria. Those displaced face immense challenges in meeting their basic needs. This study sought to characterize internal displacement in Syria, including trends in both time and place, and to provide insights on the association between displacement and selected measures of household well-being and humanitarian needs. This study presents findings from two complementary methods: a desk review of displaced population estimates and movements and a needs assessment of 3930 Syrian households affected by the crisis. The first method, a desk review of displaced population estimates and movements, provides a retrospective analysis of national trends in displacement from March 2011 through June 2014. The second method, analysis of findings from a 2014 needs assessment by displacement status, provides insight into the displaced population and the association between displacement and humanitarian needs. Findings indicate that while displacement often corresponds to conflict levels, such trends were not uniformly observed in governorate-level analysis. Governorate level IDP estimates do not provide information on a scale detailed enough to adequately plan humanitarian assistance. Furthermore, such estimates are often influenced by obstructed access to certain areas, unsubstantiated reports, and substantial discrepancies in reporting. Secondary displacement is not consistently reported across sources nor are additional details about displacement, including whether displaced individuals originated within the current governorate or outside of the governorate. More than half (56.4 %) of households reported being displaced more than once, with a majority displaced for more than one year (73.3 %). Some differences between displaced and non-displaced population were observed in residence crowding, food

  3. Dynamic measurement of local displacements within curing resin-based dental composite using optical coherence elastography (United States)

    Tomlins, Peter H.; Rahman, Mohammed Wahidur; Donnan, Robert S.


    This study aimed to determine the feasibility of using optical coherence elastography to measure internal displacements during the curing phase of a light-activated, resin-based composite material. Displacement vectors were spatially mapped over time within a commercial dental composite. Measurements revealed that the orientation of cure-induced displacement vectors varied spatially in a complex manner; however, each vector showed a systematic evolution with time. Precision of individual displacements was estimated to be ˜1 to 2 μm, enabling submicrometer time-varying displacements to be detected.

  4. Population regulation and character displacement in a seasonal environment. (United States)

    Goldberg, Emma E; Lande, Russell; Price, Trevor D


    Competition has negative effects on population size and also drives ecological character displacement, that is, evolutionary divergence to utilize different portions of the resource spectrum. Many species undergo an annual cycle composed of a lean season of intense competition for resources and a breeding season. We use a quantitative genetic model to study the effects of differential reproductive output in the summer or breeding season on character displacement in the winter or nonbreeding season. The model is developed with reference to the avian family of Old World leaf warblers (Phylloscopidae), which breed in the temperate regions of Eurasia and winter in tropical and subtropical regions. Empirical evidence implicates strong winter density-dependent regulation driven by food shortage, but paradoxically, the relative abundance of each species appears to be determined by conditions in the summer. We show how population regulation in the two seasons becomes linked, with higher reproductive output by one species in the summer resulting in its evolution to occupy a larger portion of niche space in the winter. We find short-term ecological processes and longer-term evolutionary processes to have comparable effects on a species population size. This modeling approach can also be applied to other differential effects of productivity across seasons.

  5. Soft Pneumatic Bending Actuator with Integrated Carbon Nanotube Displacement Sensor

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    Tim Giffney


    Full Text Available The excellent compliance and large range of motion of soft actuators controlled by fluid pressure has lead to strong interest in applying devices of this type for biomimetic and human-robot interaction applications. However, in contrast to soft actuators fabricated from stretchable silicone materials, conventional technologies for position sensing are typically rigid or bulky and are not ideal for integration into soft robotic devices. Therefore, in order to facilitate the use of soft pneumatic actuators in applications where position sensing or closed loop control is required, a soft pneumatic bending actuator with an integrated carbon nanotube position sensor has been developed. The integrated carbon nanotube position sensor presented in this work is flexible and well suited to measuring the large displacements frequently encountered in soft robotics. The sensor is produced by a simple soft lithography process during the fabrication of the soft pneumatic actuator, with a greater than 30% resistance change between the relaxed state and the maximum displacement position. It is anticipated that integrated resistive position sensors using a similar design will be useful in a wide range of soft robotic systems.

  6. Noncemented Cathcart elliptical head endoprosthesis for displaced femoral neck fractures. (United States)

    Hartford, J M; Lauffenburger, M D; Kaufer, H


    A total of 93 patients (95 hips) undergoing unipolar noncemented elliptical head endoprosthetic replacement for an acute displaced femoral neck fracture were reviewed clinically and radiographically at an average follow-up of 28 months. The 12-month mortality rate was 22%. The medical complication rate was 15%, and the surgical complication rate was 19%. At most recent follow-up, 66% of patients used an assist device for ambulation or were nonambulatory. Of patients, 64% required full-time nursing care. Radiographically, subsidence of the component was identified in 66% of the hips and acetabular erosion in 29%. More than half of these patients had complaints of either thigh or groin pain. Hips with evidence of subsidence had a statistically significant greater length of follow-up (36 months) compared with hips that did not show subsidence (18 months; P = .014). Noncemented unipolar replacement for displaced femoral neck fractures is an accepted form of treatment. In this group of predominantly male patients, noncemented elliptical head unipolar replacement was associated with a high medical and surgical complication rate as well as poor clinical and radiographic results.

  7. Electromechanical displacement of piezoelectric-electrostrictive monolithic bilayer composites (United States)

    Ngernchuklin, P.; Akdoǧan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Jadidian, B.


    We examine the electromechanical displacement of piezoelectric-electrostrictive monolithic bilayer composites with various piezoelectric volume percentage obtained by cosintering piezoelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 and electrostrictive 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/.3)O3-0.1PbTiO3 under unipolar and bipolar electric field excitation up to 10 kV/cm experimentally. It is shown that the effective d33 of the composites is limited by the electrostrictive layer, which acts as a capacitor in series to the piezoelectric layer, causing incomplete poling. We show that by controlling the volume content of the piezoelectric layer and constraining it with an electrostrictor, substantial strain amplification (15 μm for bipolar excitation) can be achieved while inducing asymmetry to the displacement with respect to the polarity of the applied field, which we discuss in the context of symmetry superposition.

  8. Adaptation to Laterally Displacing Prisms in Anisometropic Amblyopia. (United States)

    Sklar, Jaime C; Goltz, Herbert C; Gane, Luke; Wong, Agnes M F


    Using visual feedback to modify sensorimotor output in response to changes in the external environment is essential for daily function. Prism adaptation is a well-established experimental paradigm to quantify sensorimotor adaptation; that is, how the sensorimotor system adapts to an optically-altered visuospatial environment. Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by spatiotemporal deficits in vision that impacts manual and oculomotor function. This study explored the effects of anisometropic amblyopia on prism adaptation. Eight participants with anisometropic amblyopia and 11 visually-normal adults, all right-handed, were tested. Participants pointed to visual targets and were presented with feedback of hand position near the terminus of limb movement in three blocks: baseline, adaptation, and deadaptation. Adaptation was induced by viewing with binocular 11.4° (20 prism diopter [PD]) left-shifting prisms. All tasks were performed during binocular viewing. Participants with anisometropic amblyopia required significantly more trials (i.e., increased time constant) to adapt to prismatic optical displacement than visually-normal controls. During the rapid error correction phase of adaptation, people with anisometropic amblyopia also exhibited greater variance in motor output than visually-normal controls. Amblyopia impacts on the ability to adapt the sensorimotor system to an optically-displaced visual environment. The increased time constant and greater variance in motor output during the rapid error correction phase of adaptation may indicate deficits in processing of visual information as a result of degraded spatiotemporal vision in amblyopia.

  9. Silencing Deafness: Displacing Disability in the Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Cleall


    Full Text Available This article traces the way in which the language of displacement and silence were used in nineteenth-century discussions of deafness and connects this tendency to the marginalised place deaf experience occupies historically. Throughout the nineteenth century, a period which saw the consolidation of ‘the deaf and dumb’ as a social category, the word ‘forgetting’ crept into numerous discussions of deafness by both deaf and hearing commentators. Some, such as the educationalist Alexander Graeme Bell, were overt in their desire to forget deafness, demanding disability was ‘bred out’ and deaf culture condemned to the forgotten past. Others used the term ambivalently and sometimes metaphorically discussing the deaf as ‘forgotten’ by society, and ‘children of silence’. Some even pleaded that people who were deaf were not forgotten. But, though varied, the use of the imagery of forgetting and silence to evoke deafness is recurrent, and may, therefore, be seen to reveal something about how deaf experience can be approached as a displacement where deafness was spatially and imaginatively marginalised. I argue that one of the consequences of the conceptual framing of deafness through the language of forgetting was actively to silence deafness and to neutralise the idea that disability should be marginal and could be forgotten.

  10. Compositional Simulation of Subsurface Remediation via Density Modified Displacement (United States)

    Phelan, T. J.; Ramsburg, C. A.; Abriola, L. M.


    Reduced interfacial tension displacement of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface can be an efficient means of remediating contaminant source zones. Application of technologies based upon this principle, however, is problematic for NAPLs that are denser than water (DNAPLs) due to their tendency to sink further into the subsurface when mobilized. Pre-mobilization density conversion via alcohol partitioning has been suggested as a means of overcoming this problem. This presentation details efforts in the mathematical modeling of this proposed technology. A comprehensive, empirically-based, multiphase flow and transport model which incorporates the ternary phase partitioning behavior of the DNAPL-alcohol-water system and compositionally dependent phase (e.g., density and viscosity) and interfacial properties (i.e., interfacial tension, capillary pressure-saturation and relative permeability relationships, NAPL entrapment behavior) is described. Model simulations of bench-scale laboratory experiments examining the density conversion and mobilization of entrapped trichloroethene with n-butanol are presented. These results demonstrate the compositional model's ability to accurately describe the density modified displacement process. Sensitivity of model predictions to different physicochemical processes is highlighted.

  11. Application of laser speckle displacement analysis to clinical dentistry (United States)

    Cumberpatch, G. K. D.; Hood, J. A. A.


    Success of dental restorations is dependent on the integrity of the tooth/restoration interface. Distortion of teeth due to operative procedures has previously been measured using LVDT's and strain-gauges and has provided useful but limited information. This paper reports on the verification of a system for laser speckle photography and its use to quantitative distortions in teeth from matrix band application and the use of bonded composite resin restorations. Tightening of matrix bands around teeth results in an inward deformation of the cusps, increasing incrementally as the band is tightened. Deflections of 50 micrometer/cusp were recorded. A delayed recovery was noted consistent with the viscoelastic behavior of dentine. For bonded restorations recovery will place the adhesion interface in a state of tension when the band is released and may cause premature failure. Premolar teeth restored with bonded resin restorations exhibited inward displacement of cusps of 12 - 15 micrometer. Deformation was not within the buccal-lingual axis as suggested by prior studies. Molar teeth bonded with composite resin restoration exhibit complex and variable cusp displacement in both magnitude (0 - 30 micrometer) and direction. Complete and partial debonding could be detected. Interproximal cusp bending could be quantitated and lifting of the restoration from the cavity floor was detectable. Deformations evidenced indicate the tooth/restoration interface is in a stressed state and this may subsequently lead to failure. The technique has the potential to aid in development of restoration techniques that minimize residual stress.

  12. Computations of Vertical Displacement Events with Toroidal Asymmetry (United States)

    Sovinec, C. R.; Bunkers, K. J.


    Nonlinear numerical MHD modeling with the NIMROD code [] is being developed to investigate asymmetry during vertical displacement events. We start from idealized up/down symmetric tokamak equilibria with small levels of imposed toroidally asymmetric field errors. Vertical displacement results when removing current from one of the two divertor coils. The Eulerian reference-frame modeling uses temperature-dependent resistivity and anisotropic thermal conduction to distinguish the hot plasma region from surrounding cold, low-density conditions. Diffusion through a resistive wall is slow relative to Alfvenic scales but much faster than resistive plasma diffusion. Loss of the initial edge pressure and current distributions leads to a narrow layer of parallel current, which drives low-n modes that may be related to peeling-dominated ELMs. These modes induce toroidal asymmetry in the conduction current, which connects the simulated plasma to the wall. Work supported by the US DOE through Grant Numbers DE-FG02-06ER54850 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  13. Tympanic displacement analysis in healthy volunteers after indomethacin administration. (United States)

    Walsted, Alice; Wagner, Niels; Andersen, Kim Møller


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a tympanic displacement analyser could detect decreases in cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure after administration of indomethacin in healthy volunteers. In a double-blind crossover study involving 14 healthy volunteers all subjects first underwent a test-retest evaluation to investigate reproducibility followed by tests performed in sitting and supine positions to confirm intracranial-cochlear pressure transfer. In two further sessions tests were performed before and 90 min after subjects were blindly administered a suppository containing either 100 mg of indomethacin or placebo. It was found that tympanic membrane analysis performed 90 min after administration of such a suppository did not mirror the induced reduction in cerebral blood flow after administration of active drug. After administration of indomethacin eight of the subjects experienced discomfort and dizziness; after placebo none experienced subjective symptoms. After administration of indomethacin a statistically significant decrease in heart rate was demonstrated. The exponential form of the intracranial pressure-volume curve may explain why a decrease in intracranial pressure was not detected using the tympanic membrane displacement method, because the measurements were made in subjects with normal intracranial pressure. More significant findings may be found in patients with elevated intracranial pressure.

  14. Displacement of the rectus muscle pulleys simulating superior oblique palsy. (United States)

    Kono, Reika; Okanobu, Hirotaka; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi; Demer, Joseph L


    To investigate the structural basis of three cases of apparent superior oblique (SO) palsy caused by extraocular muscle (EOM) pulley heterotopy. Three subjects were diagnosed as having decompensated idiopathic left SO palsy on the basis of misalignment in diagnostic gaze positions, response to the head tilt test, and results of the Hess screen test. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits in coronal planes was used to determine SO muscle size and contractility and to define the rectus EOM pulley locations. Orbit 1.8 computer simulation was performed for each subject by using measured rectus pulley locations. Simulated binocular alignment was compared with the measurements. The maximal SO cross sections of both eyes of each subject were similar, and exhibited similar contractile thickening from supraduction to infraduction. The superior rectus muscle pulleys in three eyes exhibited significant temporal displacement, while the lateral rectus muscle pulleys in five eyes and the medial rectus muscle pulleys in two eyes were displaced significantly inferiorly compared with published norms. Simulations based on observed pulley position abnormalities alone predicted measured Hess screen data better than did simulations incorporating SO weakness, either alone or combined with other structural abnormalities. Heterotopy of the rectus EOM pulleys may be associated with cyclovertical strabismus that simulates SO palsy.

  15. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades (United States)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean


    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumel, Stephanie E-mail:; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean E-mail:


    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  17. Forced displacement, suffering and the aesthetics of loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruška Svašek


    Full Text Available This article investigates how artists have addressed shocking experiences of displacement in different political contexts. Drawing on the notion of ‘the aesthetics of loss’ (Köstlin, 2010, it examines and compares the different aims, desires and strategies that have shaped the histories and social lives of paintings, memorial statues, installations and other artefacts. The analysis identifies a mode of artistic engagement with the sense of a ‘loss of homeland’ that has been commonly felt amongst Sudeten German expellees, namely the production and framing of visual images as markers of collective trauma. These aesthetics of loss are contrasted with the approach taken by the Dutch artist Sophie Ernst in her project entitled HOME. Working with displaced people from Pakistan, India, Palestine, Israel and Iraq, she created a mnemonic space to stimulate a more individualistic, exploratory engagement with the loss of home, which aimed, in part, to elicit interpersonal empathy. To simply oppose these two modes of aesthetic engagement, however, would ignore the ways in which artefacts are drawn into different discursive, affective and spatial formations. This article argues for the need to expose such dynamic processes of framing and reframing by focusing on the processual aspects of aestheticisation with attention to the perspective of loss.

  18. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda (United States)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.


    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to

  19. Quantification of skin displacement near the carpal, tarsal and fetlock joints of the walking horse. (United States)

    van Weeren, P R; van den Bogert, A J; Barneveld, A


    A technique enabling simultaneous visualisation of skin and underlying bony structures in the walking horse was used to quantify skin displacements on the lateral surface of carpal, tarsal and fetlock joints. The technique employed implanted light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) for marking the bone, and self adhesive spot labels for marking the overlying skin. Photographic recordings were made. Skin displacement was measured in six Dutch Warmblood horses. Mean total displacements and mean displacement per degree of change of joint angle were calculated. Displacements at the level of the fetlock joints appeared to be generally small (less than or equal to 2 mm), but displacements up to 2 cm were measured in the distal tibia. Displacements of this magnitude are of importance for the interpretation of results obtained by modern gait analysis techniques.

  20. Photochemical Acceleration of DNA Strand Displacement by Using Ultrafast DNA Photo-crosslinking. (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigetaka; Hashimoto, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Kenzo


    DNA strand displacement is an essential reaction in genetic recombination, biological processes, and DNA nanotechnology. In particular, various DNA nanodevices enable complicated calculations. However, it takes time before the output is obtained, so acceleration of DNA strand displacement is required for a rapid-response DNA nanodevice. Herein, DNA strand displacement by using DNA photo-crosslinking to accelerate this displacement is evaluated. The DNA photo-crosslinking of 3-cyanovinylcarbazole ( CNV K) was accelerated at least 20 times, showing a faster DNA strand displacement. The rate of photo-crosslinking is a key factor and the rate of DNA strand displacement is accelerated through ultrafast photo-crosslinking. The rate of DNA strand displacement was regulated by photoirradiation energy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Recovering vector displacement estimates in quasistatic elastography using sparse relaxation of the momentum equation

    CERN Document Server

    Babaniyi, Olalekan A; Barbone, Paul E


    We consider the problem of estimating the $2D$ vector displacement field in a heterogeneous elastic solid deforming under plane stress conditions. The problem is motivated by applications in quasistatic elastography. From precise and accurate measurements of one component of the $2D$ vector displacement field and very limited information of the second component, the method reconstructs the second component quite accurately. No a priori knowledge of the heterogeneous distribution of material properties is required. This method relies on using a special form of the momentum equations to filter ultrasound displacement measurements to produce more precise estimates. We verify the method with applications to simulated displacement data. We validate the method with applications to displacement data measured from a tissue mimicking phantom, and in-vivo data; significant improvements are noticed in the filtered displacements recovered from all the tests. In verification studies, error in lateral displacement estimate...

  2. Internal Displacement, the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the Principles Normative Status, and the Need for their Effective Domestic Implementation in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Goldman


    Full Text Available The paper briefly examines the phenomenon of internal displacement world-wide and the genesis of the United Nation’s mandate to deal with this problem. It examines key conclusions of a UN sponsored study which found that existing international law contained signifi cant gaps and grey areas in terms of meeting the needs of internally displaced persons. It also examines the origins and the content of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and the normative status of these Principles. It suggests that, while not binding as such on states, the Guiding Principles have nonetheless become the most authoritative expression of minimum international standards applicable to the internally displaced and that based on state practice many, if not all, of these principles may eventually become part of customary international law. The paper also discusses the need for effective domestic implementation of the Guiding Principles, and examines how governmental authorities, the Constitutional Court and civil society organizations in Colombia, as well as inter-governmental bodies, have responded to the crisis of internal displacement in the country. While noting the adequacy of Colombia’s legislative framework on internal displacement, the paper concludes that the State has not taken the measures required to prevent future displacement or to effectively meet the protection and assistance needs of its displaced citizens.

  3. Moment Magnitude Determination for Marmara Region-Turkey Using Displacement Spectra (United States)

    Köseoǧlu Küsmezer, Ayşegül; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Barış, Å.žErif; Üçer, S. Balamir; Ottemöller, Lars


    The main purpose of the study is to determine moment magnitude Mω using displacement source spectra of earthquakes occurred in Marmara Region. The region is the most densely populated and fast-developing part of Turkey, bounded by 39.0°N to 42.0°N and 26.0°E to 32.0°E, and have experienced major earthquake disasters during the last four centuries with destructive earthquakes and probabilistic seismic hazard studies shows that the region have significant probability of producing M>7 earthquake within the next years. Seismic moment is a direct measurement of earthquake size (rupture area and static displacement) and does not saturate, spectral analysis at local distances is a very useful method which allows the reliable determination of seismic moment and moment magnitude. We have used converging grid search method developed by L. Ottemöller, and J. Havskov, 2008 for the automatic determination of moment magnitude for local distances. For data preperation; the time domain signal of S waves were extracted from the vertical component seismograms.Data was transformed from time to frequency domain by applying the standart fast fourier transform (fft). Source parameters and moment magnitudes of earthquakes are determined by applying spectral fitting procedure to classical Brune's model. The method is first manually and then automatically performed on the source spectrum of S waves within 20 sec. Mo and fc (Aki;1967, and Brune;1970) were determined by using the method which the model space is divided into a grid and the error function detected for all grid points. A smaller grid with denser spacing around the best solution is generated with an iterative procedure. The moment magnitudes of the earthquakes have been calculated according to the scale of Kanamori (1977) and Hanks and Kanamori (1979). A data set of 279 events recorded on broadband velocity seismograms extracted from KOERI (Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute) seismic network were

  4. Clinical and magnetic resonance evaluation of the temporomandibular joint with rotational disc displacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Masatoshi; Sakurada, Motoyuki; Echigo, Seishi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Dentistry; Kumagai, Masahiro; Kochi, Shoko


    The most common direction of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement is anterior. Anterior disc displacement is associated with lateral or medial disc displacement, termed rotational disc displacement (RDD). There have been few systematic studies of the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of TMJs with RDD. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of RDD and to evaluate the relations between the direction of disc displacement (anteromedial RDD, anterolateral RDD, and pure anterior disc displacement) and clinical findings, including joint pain, joint sound, and range of motion, as well as MRI findings, including disc shape, disc reduction, disc mobility, degree of disc displacement, bone changes of the condyle, and degree of condylar translation. The study was based on MRI of 529 TMJs in 409 patients with symptoms and signs of TMJ. Sagittal and coronal T1-weighted SE images (1.5 Tesla) were used. MRI showed anteromedial RDD in 96 joints (18.1%), anterolateral RDD in 64 joints (12.1%), and anterior disc displacement in 207 joints (39.1%). There were no statistical differences between anterolateral RDD, anteromedial RDD, and anterior disc displacement with regard to clinical findings. The incidence of reducible disc was higher in anterolateral RDD than in anteromedial RDD or anterior disc displacement. The incidence of bone changes was lower in anterolateral RDD than in anterior disc displacement. There were no significant differences between anteromedial RDD and anterior disc displacement with regard to MRI findings. In conclusion, anteromedial RDD may represent the same clinical entity as anterior disc displacement, but it remains unclear whether or not anterolateral RDD differs from anteromedial RDD or anterior disc displacement. (author)

  5. Change-point analysis of geophysical time series: application to landslide displacement rate (Séchilienne rock avalanche, France) (United States)

    Amorese, D.; Grasso, J.-R.; Garambois, S.; Font, M.


    The rank sum multiple change-point method is a robust statistical procedure designed to search for the optimal number and the location of change-points in an arbitrary continue or discrete sequence of values. As such, this procedure can be used to analyze time series data. Twelve years of robust data sets for the Séchilienne (French Alps) rockslide show a continuous increase in average displacement rate from 50 to 280 mm per month, in the 2004 - 2014 period, followed by a strong decrease back to 50 mm per month in the 2014 - 2015 period. When possible kinematic phases are tentatively suggested in previous studies, its solely rely on the basis of empirical threshold values. In this paper, we analyse how the use of a statistical algorithm for change point detection helps to better understand time phases in landslide kinematics. First we test the efficiency of the statistical algorithm on geophysical benchmark data, these data sets (stream flows, northern hemisphere temperatures) being already analysed by independent statistical tools. Second, we apply the method to 12-year daily time series of the Séchilienne landslide, for rainfall and displacement data, from December 2003 to December 2015, in order to quantitatively extract changes in landslide kinematics.We find two strong significant discontinuities in the weekly cumulated rainfall values: an average rainfall rate increase is resolved in April 2012 and a decrease in August 2014. Four robust changes are highlighted in the displacement time series (May 2008, November-December 2009-January 2010, September 2012 and March 2014), the 2010 one being preceded by a significant but weak rainfall rate increase (in November 2009). Accordingly, we are able to quantitatively define 5 kinematic stages for the Séchilienne rock avalanche during this period. The synchronisation between the rainfall and displacement rate, only resolved at the end of 2009 and beginning of 2010, corresponds to a remarkable change (fourfold

  6. [Operative treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures]. (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Rammelt, S; Amlang, M; Pompach, M; Dürr, C


    Anatomic reduction of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures with restoration of height, length, and axial alignment and reconstruction of the subtalar and calcaneocuboid joints. Displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures with incongruity of the posterior facet of the subtalar joint, loss of height, and axial malalignment. High perioperative risk, soft tissue infection, advanced peripheral arterial disease (stage III), neurogenic osteoarthropathy, poor patient compliance (e. g., substance abuse). Extended lateral approach with the patient placed on the uninjured side. Reduction of the anatomic shape and joint surfaces according to the preoperative CT-based planning. Reduction of the medial wall and step-wise reconstruction of the posterior facet from medial to lateral. Reduction of the tuberosity and anterior process fragments to the posterior joint block and temporary fixation with Kirschner wires. Internal fixation with an anatomic lateral plate in a locking or nonlocking mode. Alternatively less invasive internal fixation with a calcaneus nail over a sinus tarsi approach for less severe fracture types. The lower leg is immobilized in a brace until the wound is healed. Range of motion exercises of the ankle and subtalar joints are initiated on the second postoperative day. Patients are mobilized in their own shoe with partial weight bearing of 20 kg for 6-12 weeks depending on fracture severity and bone quality. Over a 4-year period, 163 patients with 184 displaced, intra-articular calcaneal fractures were treated with a lateral plate via an extended approach. In all, 102 patients with 116 fractures were followed for a mean of 8 years. A surgical revision was necessary in 4 cases (3.4%) of postoperative hematoma, 2 (1.7%) superficial and 5 (4.3%) deep infections. Of the latter, 2 patients needed a free flap for definite wound coverage, no calcanectomy or amputation was needed. Secondary subtalar fusion for symptomatic posttraumatic arthritis was

  7. Simulation of secondary fault shear displacements - method and application (United States)

    Fälth, Billy; Hökmark, Harald; Lund, Björn; Mai, P. Martin; Munier, Raymond


    We present an earthquake simulation method to calculate dynamically and statically induced shear displacements on faults near a large earthquake. Our results are aimed at improved safety assessment of underground waste storage facilities, e.g. a nuclear waste repository. For our simulations, we use the distinct element code 3DEC. We benchmark 3DEC by running an earthquake simulation and then compare the displacement waveforms at a number of surface receivers with the corresponding results obtained from the COMPSYN code package. The benchmark test shows a good agreement in terms of both phase and amplitude. In our application to a potential earthquake near a storage facility, we use a model with a pre-defined earthquake fault plane (primary fault) surrounded by numerous smaller discontinuities (target fractures) representing faults in which shear movements may be induced by the earthquake. The primary fault and the target fractures are embedded in an elastic medium. Initial stresses are applied and the fault rupture mechanism is simulated through a programmed reduction of the primary fault shear strength, which is initiated at a pre-defined hypocenter. The rupture is propagated at a typical rupture propagation speed and arrested when it reaches the fault plane boundaries. The primary fault residual strength properties are uniform over the fault plane. The method allows for calculation of target fracture shear movements induced by static stress redistribution as well as by dynamic effects. We apply the earthquake simulation method in a model of the Forsmark nuclear waste repository site in Sweden with rock mass properties, in situ stresses and fault geometries according to the description of the site established by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). The target fracture orientations are based on the Discrete Fracture Network model developed for the site. With parameter values set to provide reasonable upper bound estimates of target fracture

  8. Investigation of coseismic displacements and ionospheric disturbances in the Far East of Russia generated by the Great 2011 Tohoku earthquake (United States)

    Shestakov, Nikolai; Perevalova, Natalia; Voeykov, Sergey; Ishin, Artem; Yasyukevich, Yury; Bykov, Victor; Gerasimenko, Mikhail


    The 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake struck and generated a huge tsunami along the Pacific coast of Honshu Island, Japan, almost two years ago. The near-field crustal displacements and deformations, propagation of surface waves and ionospheric disturbances were carefully investigated in a number of recent publications. However, the far-field coseismic displacements and ionospheric disturbances have not so far been completely investigated. In this study we determine and analyze the far-field coseismic crustal displacements, deformations and ionospheric disturbances induced by the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake using different GPS data sources (IGS data, continuously and periodically observed regional geodynamic GNSS networks and other GNSS observations applicable for this study). We combined our coseismic offset estimates with the analogous results already published for the Korean Peninsula and China through the six-parameter transformation method using coseismic shifts at a set of common GPS sites. Our analysis shows that the most intense coseismic offsets exceeding 50 mm were localized in the south of the Russian Far East and propagated westward from the earthquake source. We modeled the observed far-field coseismic displacements using different source models developed based on our far-field GPS data and other sources. Quite good agreement between the calculated and observed offsets was found for a simple one-plane rectangular fault model of 200×100 km size with a homogeneous slip value of about 33 m. The total electron content (TEC) data extracted from the original GPS observations were used to study the ionospheric response to this seismic event in the far-field zone. The initial slant TEC series Io(t) were converted into the equivalent vertical values I(t) to normalize the amplitude of TEC disturbances. The I(t) series were smoothed with 2-min time window, to remove high-frequency oscillations, and detrended. The TEC disturbances with periods of 5-15 min propagated


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar


    Full Text Available This paper aims to shows the particular manner as in Colombia, women and children areparticularly vulnerable by armed groups that attack their dignity and privacy affect their family, ideological and sexual. The preparation of the article involved an extensive literature review. In Colombia and adolescent girls constitute 53% of the displaced population, of which at least 17% were mobilized as a result of harassment, assault and sexual violence. The vital risk factors and vulnerability are directly proportional to the armed conflict, therefore the war dissociates the family unit, and alters the elements of group cohesion. Often children carry their emotional state through aggressive or playful - in conflicting attitudes, and recharges in women full weight of family reconstitution, which hinders its adaptation process.

  10. Miscible displacement by high-pressure gas at Block 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.H.; Robertson, N.


    The world's first large-scale miscible displacement project by high-pressure gas injection has produced 130,000,000 bbl, almost double the original estimated primary recovery of 69,000,000 bbl, at the University Block 31 field in Crane County, Texas. The field-wide project began in 1952, and will keep the unit on stream well into the future, with ultimate recovery efficiency estimated at 60%. Infill drilling has helped boost daily production to 16,000 bbl, highest producing rate since gas injection began in 1949. The subject discussed include reservoir characteristics, high pressure gas miscibility, flue gas generation, production problems, and new lift for an old field by infill drilling.

  11. Large displacement of a static bending nanowire with surface effects (United States)

    Liu, J. L.; Mei, Y.; Xia, R.; Zhu, W. L.


    Nanowires are widely used as building blocks of micro/nano devices, such as micro-sensors, probes, transistors and actuators in micro/nano-electro-mechanical systems (M/NEMS) and biotechnology. In this study, we investigated the large deformation behavior of a nanowire in consideration of its surface effects (surface elasticity and residual surface stress). For nanowires of large displacements with different boundary conditions, we established the governing equation set in combination with the residual surface stress and surface elasticity. Then a computer program of shooting method by using the commercial software MathCAD was developed to solve the boundary value problem numerically. Furthermore, the influences of surface effects on the large and infinitesimal deformation of the nanowires were quantitatively compared. These findings are beneficial to understanding the mechanism of the surface effects, and can also provide some inspirations to characterize the mechanical properties of nano-materials, and engineer new micro/nano-scaled devices.

  12. Reactor Power for Large Displacement Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Patrick Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This is a PentaChart on reactor power for large displacement autonomous underwater vehicles. Currently AUVs use batteries or combinations of batteries and fuel cells for power. Battery/fuel cell technology is limited by duration. Batteries and cell fuels are a good match for some missions, but other missions could benefit greatly by a longer duration. The goal is the following: to design nuclear systems to power an AUV and meet design constraints including non-proliferation issues, power level, size constraints, and power conversion limitations. The action plan is to continue development of a range of systems for terrestrial systems and focus on a system for Titan Moon as alternative to Pu-238 for NASA.

  13. Displaced persons' perceptions of human rights in Southern Sudan. (United States)

    Pavlish, C; Ho, A


    A human rights framework has become more important in advancing equitable health and development opportunities. However, in post-conflict settings, human rights violations persist. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to discrimination and violence. To deepen understanding about the social context that influences human rights experiences and gender relationships in a post conflict setting. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted in an ethnographic study among displaced persons, government officials and community-based organizations in Southern Sudan. Participants defined human rights as the right to good governance, self-determination and participation in society's development, security and equality. Human rights violations included discrimination, insecurity and inadequate health and development opportunities. Education, language and geographic location influenced human rights perspectives. Some social groups were at higher risk for human rights violations. Community perspectives on human rights indicated complex connections between obligations, claims, conditions and social relationships. Nurses can create conditions that advance people's human rights and improve their health.

  14. Wounaan medicine in forced displacement: among forgetfulness and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gonzalez Guerrero


    Full Text Available Since 2003 the Wounaan indigenous community located in the department of Choco and Valle del Cauca (Colombia has been displaced due to the armed conflict in the country and the seeking of better economic conditions. Their way of life, the exercise of their medicine, the representations and practices in health have been affected by the territorial rootlessness and lack of natural resources. By means of the participant observation and interviews compiled between 2014 and 2015, this article describes and analyses, how the bogotano context affects Wounaan care system, what is the role of Wounaan medical figures within this context of mobility, and finally, what medical values are transformed into the migration.

  15. Measuring coseismic displacements with point-like targets offset tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Xie


    Offset tracking is an important complement to measure large ground displacements in both azimuth and range dimensions where synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry is unfeasible. Subpixel offsets can be obtained by searching for the cross-correlation peak calculated from the match patches uniformly distributed on two SAR images. However, it has its limitations, including redundant computation and incorrect estimations on decorrelated patches. In this letter, we propose a simple strategy that performs offset tracking on detected point-like targets (PT). We first detect image patches within bright PT by using a sinc-like template from a single SAR image and then perform offset tracking on them to obtain the pixel shifts. Compared with the standard method, the application on the 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake shows that the proposed PT offset tracking can significantly increase the cross-correlation and thus result in both efficiency and reliability improvements. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Women's rights in the context of forced displacement in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lorena Sánchez Lucumí


    Full Text Available Throughout this document will explain the significance of displacement and the impact of this on women, since, although it affects more people, this by their vulnerability takes an important role in the war-movement context . Similarly, analyzing the situation through jurisprudence, which consists mainly of sentences guardianship and the remainder in court records, will be mentioned Human Rights that are violated by the active agents of the conflict, and measures will be explained affirmative action has been taken based on this circumstance. Among the important ideas is the fact of social exclusion experienced to get to a place where to put it somehow "belong" and in the second instance, the armed conflict in Colombia is one of the main reasons why they are forced to leave their homes for the purpose of being for themselves and for their children.

  17. Displacement of Drugs From Cyclodextrin Complexes by Bile Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, Rene


    The dosing of drugs in an aqueous cyclodextrin formulation requires sufficient amount of cyclodextrins to fully solubilize the drug, as described by Stella's cyclodextrin utility number (UCD). However, this framework does not take biopharmaceutical elements into account, such as the displacement...... of drug from the cyclodextrin cavity by bile salts present in the small intestine. As bile salts in the intestine are present at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration, an understanding of the interaction between cyclodextrins and bile salts at such supramicellar concentrations (SMC......) is required for a better biopharmaceutical understanding of the release mechanism from orally dosed cyclodextrin complexes. To address this, experiments were conducted by isothermal titration calorimetry to determine how various b-cyclodextrins and bile salt interacts at SMC. Combined analysis of the current...

  18. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders


    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  19. Operative treatment of the displaced intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zoran


    Full Text Available Most calcaneal fractures occur in male industrial workers, having significant economic repercussions. Although current operative treatment has improved the outcome of the treatment in many patients, there is still no consensus on the classification, treatment, operative technique, or postoperative management. Computed tomographic scanning has improved our understanding of these fractures substantially, and has allowed the consistent analysis of the results of the treatment. The focus of current treatment is on the operative methods, internal fixation by leg-screw and plate through the lateral Kocher approach. Between April 1998 and July 2002, we treated operatively 6 displaced intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus. A lateral Kocher incision, leg-screw, and plate fixation were used. Neither infection, nor nonunion, or malunion occurred. All the patients presently have painless foot, use normal footwear, and are capable of normal activities.

  20. Numerical and experimental study of hydrostatic displacement machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.


    This paper presents a simulation tool to determine the structural deflections and corresponding leakage flow in a hydrostatic displacement motor. The simulation tool is applied to a new motor principle that is categorized as an extreme low-speed high-torque motor with dimensions that calls...... for attention to the volumetric efficiency. To counteract structural deflections the motor is equipped with compensation pressure volumes that may be used to limit the leakage flow across the end faces of the circular rotor. This leakage flow is investigated by solving Reynolds equation for the pressure...... distribution across both end faces. The fluid pressure is combined with structural calculations in a fluid structural interaction simulation, which evaluates the influence of structural deflections on the gaps and the leakage flow. The numerical work is validated by prototype tests. Both deflections...

  1. Slepian Simulations of Plastic Displacements of Randomly Excited Hysteretic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov


    The object of the study is a fast simulation method for generation and analysis of the plastic response of a randomly excited MDOF oscillatro with several potential elements with elasto-plastic constitutive behavior. The oscillator is statically determinate with linear damping. The external...... that are interesting for the plastic displacement process. These parts are those that are in the vicinity of the points of crossing of the response from the elastic domain to the plastic domain. The principle of the method is to use the known response properties at the crossing points of the stationary Gaussian white...... noise excited linear oscillator obtained from the elasto-plastic oscillator by totally removing the plastic domain. Thus the key to the applicability of the method is that the oscillator has a linear domain within which the response stays for a sufficiently long time to make the random response behave...

  2. Confined-but-Connected Quantum Solids via Controlled Ligand Displacement

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.


    Confined-but-connected quantum dot solids (QDS) combine the advantages of tunable, quantum-confined energy levels with efficient charge transport through enhanced electronic interdot coupling. We report the fabrication of QDS by treating self-assembled films of colloidal PbSe quantum dots with polar nonsolvents. Treatment with dimethylformamide balances the rates of self-assembly and ligand displacement to yield confined-but-connected QDS structures with cubic ordering and quasi-epitaxial interdot connections through facets of neighboring dots. The QDS structure was analyzed by a combination of transmission electron microscopy and wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering. Excitonic absorption signatures in optical spectroscopy confirm that quantum confinement is preserved. Transport measurements show significantly enhanced conductivity in treated films. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasinski Adam


    Full Text Available The application of screw displacement piles (SDP is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  4. Analysis and design of MEMS inertial displacement sensor (United States)

    Bogachuk, Vladimir Vladimirovich

    A revolutionary design and development of an inertial displacement sensor is presented in this thesis. Unlike the accelerometers that were reported in the literature this sensor will be design to be used at frequency above the fundamental frequency response. The proposed design methodology consists of designing an inertial proof-mass with supporting structure that is fabricated using silicon micro fabrication technology. The main design requirements are for the sensor to be capable of operating over a wide range of frequencies from 100 Hz to over 10 kHz and the ability to detect lower level signals than any other device of comparable size reported in the literature. There has been extensive preliminary work done to validate the design by using Hamilton's Principle and detailed finite element analysis with commercially available packages ANSYS and COMSOL. The methods demonstrated accurate results that were compered to hand calculations.

  5. The influence of thermocline slope on equatorial thermocline displacement (United States)

    Hughes, Roger L.


    The influence of a zonal slope in the thermocline on both wave- and wind-induced equatorial upwelling is studied. It is shown that the vertical displacement of the thermocline induced by a long Kelvin or planetary wave varies as the thermocline depth to the power -3/8, as the wave propagates into a region of changed thermocline depth The zonal and meridional velocities induced by a wave vary as the thermocline depth to the power -7/8. The wind-induced upwelling associated with a zonal slope of the thermocline is shown to be strongly confined to the equator. The importance of thermocline slope on the Ekman divergence is found to increase with time from the initial application of the wind stress perturbation. In the Pacific Ocean the meridional velocity may be altered by up to 60% by the thermocline slope before the influence of the boundaries becomes important.

  6. Deformable image registration for tissues with large displacements. (United States)

    Huang, Xishi; Ren, Jing; Abdalbari, Anwar; Green, Mark


    Image registration for internal organs and soft tissues is considered extremely challenging due to organ shifts and tissue deformation caused by patients' movements such as respiration and repositioning. In our previous work, we proposed a fast registration method for deformable tissues with small rotations. We extend our method to deformable registration of soft tissues with large displacements. We analyzed the deformation field of the liver by decomposing the deformation into shift, rotation, and pure deformation components and concluded that in many clinical cases, the liver deformation contains large rotations and small deformations. This analysis justified the use of linear elastic theory in our image registration method. We also proposed a region-based neuro-fuzzy transformation model to seamlessly stitch together local affine and local rigid models in different regions. We have performed the experiments on a liver MRI image set and showed the effectiveness of the proposed registration method. We have also compared the performance of the proposed method with the previous method on tissues with large rotations and showed that the proposed method outperformed the previous method when dealing with the combination of pure deformation and large rotations. Validation results show that we can achieve a target registration error of [Formula: see text] and an average centerline distance error of [Formula: see text]. The proposed technique has the potential to significantly improve registration capabilities and the quality of intraoperative image guidance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the complex displacement of the liver is explicitly separated into local pure deformation and rigid motion.

  7. Detection of Alzheimer's disease by displacement field and machine learning. (United States)

    Zhang, Yudong; Wang, Shuihua


    Aim. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease. Recently, computer scientists have developed various methods for early detection based on computer vision and machine learning techniques. Method. In this study, we proposed a novel AD detection method by displacement field (DF) estimation between a normal brain and an AD brain. The DF was treated as the AD-related features, reduced by principal component analysis (PCA), and finally fed into three classifiers: support vector machine (SVM), generalized eigenvalue proximal SVM (GEPSVM), and twin SVM (TSVM). The 10-fold cross validation repeated 50 times. Results. The results showed the "DF + PCA + TSVM" achieved the accuracy of 92.75 ± 1.77, sensitivity of 90.56 ± 1.15, specificity of 93.37 ± 2.05, and precision of 79.61 ± 2.21. This result is better than or comparable with not only the other proposed two methods, but also ten state-of-the-art methods. Besides, our method discovers the AD is related to following brain regions disclosed in recent publications: Angular Gyrus, Anterior Cingulate, Cingulate Gyrus, Culmen, Cuneus, Fusiform Gyrus, Inferior Frontal Gyrus, Inferior Occipital Gyrus, Inferior Parietal Lobule, Inferior Semi-Lunar Lobule, Inferior Temporal Gyrus, Insula, Lateral Ventricle, Lingual Gyrus, Medial Frontal Gyrus, Middle Frontal Gyrus, Middle Occipital Gyrus, Middle Temporal Gyrus, Paracentral Lobule, Parahippocampal Gyrus, Postcentral Gyrus, Posterior Cingulate, Precentral Gyrus, Precuneus, Sub-Gyral, Superior Parietal Lobule, Superior Temporal Gyrus, Supramarginal Gyrus, and Uncus. Conclusion. The displacement filed is effective in detection of AD and related brain-regions.

  8. Toward direct pore-scale modeling of three-phase displacements (United States)

    Mohammadmoradi, Peyman; Kantzas, Apostolos


    A stable spreading film between water and gas can extract a significant amount of bypassed non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) through immiscible three-phase gas/water injection cycles. In this study, the pore-scale displacement mechanisms by which NAPL is mobilized are incorporated into a three-dimensional pore morphology-based model under water-wet and capillary equilibrium conditions. The approach is pixel-based and the sequence of invasions is determined by the fluids' connectivity and the threshold capillary pressure of the advancing interfaces. In addition to the determination of three-phase spatial saturation profiles, residuals, and capillary pressure curves, dynamic finite element simulations are utilized to predict the effective permeabilities of the rock microtomographic images as reasonable representations of the geological formations under study. All the influential features during immiscible fluid flow in pore-level domains including wetting and spreading films, saturation hysteresis, capillary trapping, connectivity, and interface development strategies are taken into account. The capabilities of the model are demonstrated by the successful prediction of saturation functions for Berea sandstone and the accurate reconstruction of three-phase fluid occupancies through a micromodel.

  9. Vision Based Displacement Detection for Stabilized UAV Control on Cloud Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeok-June Jeong


    Full Text Available Nowadays, image processing solution is used in many fields such as traffic information systems and illegal intrusion detection systems. Now, to assist with the control of camera-equipped devices, appropriate image processing techniques are needed for moving rather than fixed observers. For achieving this goal, an algorithm should derive the desired results quickly and accurately; thus, this paper considers two characteristics: functional performance (reliability and temporal performance (efficiency. Reliability means how well the desired results can be achieved, and efficiency means how quickly the result can be calculated. This paper suggests an optimized real-time image algorithm based on the integration of the optical flow and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF algorithms. This algorithm determines horizontal or vertical movement of the camera and then extracts its displacement. The proposed algorithm can be used to stabilize an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV in situations where it is drifting due to inertia and external forces, like wind, in parallel. The proposed algorithm is efficient in achieving drift stabilization by movement detection; however, it is not appropriate for image processing in small UAVs. To solve this problem, this study proposes an image processing method that uses a high-performance computer.

  10. Extended displacement discontinuity method for analysis of cracks in 2D thermal piezoelectric semiconductors (United States)

    Zhao, MingHao; Pan, YiBo; Fan, CuiYing; Xu, GuangTao


    The extended displacement discontinuities method has previously been used for crack analysis of elastic materials, piezoelectric media, magneto-electro-elastic media and piezoelectric semiconductors. Here, this method is extended to study cracks in two-dimensional n-type thermal piezoelectric semiconductors. The extended displacement discontinuities include the conventional displacement discontinuity, electric potential discontinuity, carrier density discontinuity, as well as temperature discontinuity across crack faces; correspondingly, the extended stresses represent conventional stress, electric displacement, electric current, and heat flux. Employing a Fourier transform, the fundamental solutions for a line crack under uniformly distributed extended displacement discontinuities on the crack faces are derived under mechanical, electrical, and heat loading. Based on the obtained fundamental solutions, an extended displacement discontinuity boundary element method is developed. The stress and heat flux intensity factors at the crack tip are calculated under different combined loadings.

  11. A noncontact FMCW radar sensor for displacement measurement in structural health monitoring. (United States)

    Li, Cunlong; Chen, Weimin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Rong; Xu, Hengyi; Qi, Yi


    This paper investigates the Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar sensor for multi-target displacement measurement in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The principle of three-dimensional (3-D) displacement measurement of civil infrastructures is analyzed. The requirements of high-accuracy displacement and multi-target identification for the measuring sensors are discussed. The fundamental measuring principle of FMCW radar is presented with rigorous mathematical formulas, and further the multiple-target displacement measurement is analyzed and simulated. In addition, a FMCW radar prototype is designed and fabricated based on an off-the-shelf radar frontend and data acquisition (DAQ) card, and the displacement error induced by phase asynchronism is analyzed. The conducted outdoor experiments verify the feasibility of this sensing method applied to multi-target displacement measurement, and experimental results show that three targets located at different distances can be distinguished simultaneously with millimeter level accuracy.

  12. A Noncontact FMCW Radar Sensor for Displacement Measurement in Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunlong Li


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (FMCW radar sensor for multi-target displacement measurement in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM. The principle of three-dimensional (3-D displacement measurement of civil infrastructures is analyzed. The requirements of high-accuracy displacement and multi-target identification for the measuring sensors are discussed. The fundamental measuring principle of FMCW radar is presented with rigorous mathematical formulas, and further the multiple-target displacement measurement is analyzed and simulated. In addition, a FMCW radar prototype is designed and fabricated based on an off-the-shelf radar frontend and data acquisition (DAQ card, and the displacement error induced by phase asynchronism is analyzed. The conducted outdoor experiments verify the feasibility of this sensing method applied to multi-target displacement measurement, and experimental results show that three targets located at different distances can be distinguished simultaneously with millimeter level accuracy.

  13. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration. (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval


    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement.

  14. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.


    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  15. Interactions of cephalexin with bovine serum albumin: displacement reaction and molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hamishehkar


    Conclusion: The outcomes of spectroscopic methods revealed that the conformation of BSA changed during drug-BSA interaction. The results of FRET propose that CPL quenches the fluorescence of BSA by static quenching and FRET. The displacement study showed that phenylbutazon and ketoprofen displaced CPL, indicating that its binding site on albumin is site I and Gentamicin cannot be displaced from the binding site of CPL. All results of molecular docking method agreed with the results of experimental data.

  16. [New estimation method for displacement characteristic of teeth with occlusal force records]. (United States)

    Ozawa, Kosuke; Sato, Yuji; Kitagawa, Noboru; Uchida, Keiichiro; Sugawara, Takashi


    To establish adequate occlusion for prostheses, evaluation of degree of displacement of teeth and implant is essential. However, it cannot be attained without complex equipment, which limits clinical application. To develop a new estimation method for displacement characteristic of teeth and implant by both occlusal force of individual teeth and existing data on degree of displacement, the relationship between increase of total occlusal force and occlusal force of individual teeth was evaluated. Ten male subjects (mean age: 28.5, [range: 26-31] years) with clinically normal healthy dentition were selected. Electromyograms at maximum clenching at intercuspal position were recorded as 100 MVC. Then, clenching at 80, 60, 50, 30, 20, and 10 MVC was instructed with visual feedback. Occlusal forces were recorded with pressure-sensitive sheet (Dental-Prescale). The occlusal contacts were recorded by a silicone occlusal contact checking material (Black Silicone). The change of occlusal forces at first premolar was converted to displacement with existing data of degree of displacement (Goto et al). Then displacement characteristic of second premolar and first molar was calculated. The displacement characteristic of second premolar was similar to existing data on first premolar. Although the displacement characteristic of first molar was similar, the degree of displacement was small, which means occlusal force at the first molar increased more than at the first premolar as increase of the displacement. The results of this study, indicating similarity to past studies with complex equipment, suggest that the displacement characteristic of teeth could be estimated with both occlusal force of individual teeth and existing data on degree of displacement.

  17. Simulation of surface displacement and strain field of the 2011 Japan Mw9.0 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shujun


    Full Text Available Based on dislocation theory of Okada, we adopted a finite-element fault model inverted by Gavin Hayes from seismic data for the 2011 Japan Mw9.0 earthquake, and obtained the corresponding surface displacement and strain fields. The calculated displacement field is consistent with the observed GPS results in the trend of changes. Also the surface displacement and strain fields both show large variations in space.

  18. Management of metrology in measuring of the displacement of building construction


    Jiří Kratochvíl


    The metrology management of the measurement of the displacement of building construction is not regulated in the standard ČSN ISO 73 0405 - Measurement of the displacement of building construction. But the metrology management has to be included in the project of measurement of the displacement (Stage of project). Then we have to pay an attention to the metrological management during this measurement (Stage of realization) and during the evaluation of this measurement (Stage of evaluation). W...

  19. Mining-induced displacement and resettlement: social problem and human rights issue


    Terminski, Bogumil


    Mining is currently not a statistically significant category of development-induced displacement. Nevertheless, the social costs of exploitation are great, and that is why the topic is worthy of a wider and more profound scientific analysis. The first displacement caused by mining dates back to the late nineteenth century. As pointed out by Walter Fernandes, in the Indian region of Jarkhand alone, mining has led to the displacement of 2.55 million people. Contrary to the opinions ...

  20. Operative versus Non operative treatment of displaced intraarticular fracture of calcaneum: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (United States)

    Meena, S; Hooda, A; Sharma, P; Mittal, S; Sharma, J; Chowdhury, B


    Various studies comparing operative and non-operative intervention for displaced intrarticular calcaneal fractures have reported conflicting findings in the past. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) vis-a-vis conservative management. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing operative and non-operative intervention for displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures were assessed and included in this meta-analysis. Data was extracted independently and methodological quality was further assessed. The inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis were: randomized controlled trials comparing operative with non-operative intervention for displaced intra-articular fractures of calcaneum and reporting atleast one of the main outcomes as failure to resume pre-injury work, residual pain and other complications. Eight randomized controlled trials fulfilled the criteria for this meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that patients managed conservatively failed to resume pre-injury work (RR 0.60, 95% CI = 0.37-0.98, P = 0.04). However operative intervention was associated with more complications (RR 1.74, 95% CI = 1.28 to 2.37, P = 0.0005). There was no statistically significant difference in residual pain (RR 0.73 95% CI = 0.40-1.36, P = 0.33) and reoperation (RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.48-1.16, P = 0.20) between the two groups. Surgery can benefit patients with calcaneal fracture and increases their likelihood to resume pre-injury work. However, the complication rates are significantly higher in the operative group. Since the included trials have used different scores to measure patient outcomes, hence little effective data could.

  1. /sup 3/H-PAF-acether displacement and inhibition of binding in intact human platelets by BN 52021

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korth, R.; Le Couedic, J.P.; Benveniste, J.


    Intact washed human platelets incubated at 20/sup 0/C in Tyrode's buffer containing 0.25% (w/v) bovine serum albumin bound /sup 3/H paf-acether in a concentration (0-6.5 nM) and time (0-60 min) dependent manner (n=3). BN 52021 (60 a chemically defined extract from Ginkgo biloba inhibited the binding of increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H paf-acether. Calculated differences between /sup 3/H paf-acether binding in the presence or absence of BN 52021 (60 reached nearly a plateau in concentrations higher than 0.65 nM /sup 3/H paf-acether. Increasing concentrations of BN 52021 (0-60 as well as of unlabelled paf-acether (0-50 nM) prevented within 15 min /sup 3/H paf-acether binding (0.65 nM) to platelets in a concentration-dependent way. Increasing BN 52021 concentrations (0-60 also displaced platelet-bound /sup 3/H paf-acether (0.65 nM) in a concentration-dependent way. Displacement increased with the time length of platelet incubation with BN 52021 and reached a plateau at 15 min. Platelet-bound /sup 3/H paf-acether displacement of 28.3 +/- 6.3%, 31.1 +/- 4.0% and 26.7 +/- 5.6% was observed using 50 nM unlabelled paf-acether, 60 BN 52021 or both substances together (vs 4.3 +/- 7.2% for vehicle alone). No degradation of /sup 3/H paf-acether occurred as assessed by high pressure liquid chromatography. These results demonstrate that BN 52021 competes directly with paf-acether binding sites on human platelets.

  2. Disc displacement patterns in lumbar anterior spondylolisthesis: Contribution to foraminal stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMahon, P.J. [Department of Radiology, Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital, Finglas, Dublin 11 (Ireland)], E-mail:; Taylor, D.H.; Duke, D.; Brennan, D.D.; Eustace, S.J. [Department of Radiology, Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital, Finglas, Dublin 11 (Ireland)


    Purpose: To describe the particular disc displacement pattern seen at MRI in patients with spondylolisthesis, and its potential contribution to foraminal stenosis. Methods: 38 patients with symptomatic lumbar anterior spondylolisthesis and 38 sex and aged matched control patients with herniated disc disease, at corresponding disc space levels, were included for study. In each case note was made of the presence, absence and direction of disc displacement and also the presence and location of neural contact with the displaced disc. Results: In 33 of 38 (86.8%) patients in the spondylolisthesis group, the vertical disc displacement was upward. In the control group only 3 patients (7.8%) had upward vertical disc displacement. 19 patients (53%) from the spondylolisthesis group had exit foraminal nerve root contact, compared to 7 patients (18.4%) from the control group. 27 control patients (71%) had contact within the lateral recess, compared to only 6 patients (17%) with spondylolisthesis. Differences for upward displacement were significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Disc displacement in patients with spondylolisthesis is predominately in a cephalad and lateral direction. Although this disc displacement pattern can occur in patients without spondylolisthesis, its incidence is much greater in the subset of patients with concomitant spondylolisthesis. In the setting of acquired osseous narrowing of the exit foramen, this described pattern of disc displacement superiorly and laterally in spondylolisthesis increases the susceptibility of spondylolisthesis patients to radicular symptoms and accounts for the exiting nerve root being more commonly affected than the traversing nerve root.

  3. Atomic displacement effects in near-edge resonant 'forbidden' reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikova, E.N. [Moscow State University, Physical Department, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Dmitrienko, V.E. [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Ishida, K. [Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Kirfel, A. [Mineralogisch-Petrologisches Institut der Universitat Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Collins, S.P. [Diamond Light Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX, UK (United Kingdom); Oreshko, A.P. [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Cabaret, D. [Laboratoire de Mineralogie-Cristallographie, case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Vedrinskii, R.V. [Rostov State University, 344090 Rostov-Don (Russian Federation); Kraizman, V.L. [Rostov State University, 344090 Rostov-Don (Russian Federation); Novakovich, A.A. [Rostov State University, 344090 Rostov-Don (Russian Federation); Krivitskii, E.V. [Rostov State University, 344090 Rostov-Don (Russian Federation); Tolochko, B.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, 630128 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    A survey of atomic displacement effects in the resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation is presented. It is shown that the dynamical displacements, associated with thermal vibrations, provide the thermal-motion-induced (TMI) 'forbidden' reflections, while static displacements (e.g. induced by impurities) provide the point-defect-induced (PDI) 'forbidden' reflections. Both kinds of reflections occur owing to perturbation of valent electrons wave functions by atomic displacements. The results of numerical calculations of TMI forbidden reflections in Ge and ZnO are compared with experimental data.

  4. Integrated control and health monitoring capacitive displacement sensor development task. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program (United States)

    Collamore, Frank N.


    The development of a miniature multifunction turbomachinery shaft displacement sensor using state-of-the-art non-contract capacitive sensing technology is described. Axial displacement, radial displacement, and speed are sensed using a single probe within the envelope normally required for a single function. A survey of displacement sensing technology is summarized including inductive, capacitive, optical and ultrasonic techniques. The design and operation of an experimental triple function sensor is described. Test results are included showing calibration tests and simultaneous dynamic testing of multiple functions. Recommendations for design changes are made to improve low temperature performance, reliability, and for design of a flight type signal conditioning unit.

  5. Antibodies Targeting Closely Adjacent or Minimally Overlapping Epitopes Can Displace One Another.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina Noubia Abdiche

    Full Text Available Here we describe how real-time label-free biosensors can be used to identify antibodies that compete for closely adjacent or minimally overlapping epitopes on their specific antigen via a mechanism of antibody displacement. By kinetically perturbing one another's binding towards their antigen via the formation of a transient trimolecular complex, antibodies can displace one another in a fully reversible and dose-dependent manner. Displacements can be readily identified when epitope binning assays are performed in a classical sandwich assay format whereby a solution antibody (analyte is tested for binding to its antigen that is first captured via an immobilized antibody (ligand because an inverted sandwiching response is observed when an analyte displaces a ligand, signifying the antigen's unusually rapid dissociation from its ligand. In addition to classifying antibodies within a panel in terms of their ability to block or sandwich pair with one another, displacement provides a hybrid mechanism of competition. Using high-throughput epitope binning studies we demonstrate that displacements can be observed on any target, if the antibody panel contains appropriate epitope diversity. Unidirectional displacements occurring between disparate-affinity antibodies can generate apparent asymmetries in a cross-blocking experiment, confounding their interpretation. However, examining competition across a wide enough concentration range will often reveal that these displacements are reversible. Displacement provides a gentle and efficient way of eluting antigen from an otherwise high affinity binding partner which can be leveraged in designing reagents or therapeutic antibodies with unique properties.

  6. Foreign experience in determining the status of refugees and internally displaced persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Popok


    The authors conclude that European countries actively integrate the provisions of the international law governing the legal status of refugees and internally displaced persons into their domestic law.

  7. Displaced proximal humeral fractures: when is surgery necessary? (United States)

    Tamimi, Iskandar; Montesa, Guillermo; Collado, Francisco; González, David; Carnero, Pablo; Rojas, Facundo; Nagib, Mohamed; Pérez, Verónica; Álvarez, Miguel; Tamimi, Faleh


    Several therapeutic methods have been traditionally used in the treatment of displaced proximal humeral fractures; however, the indication of these treatments is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the medium-term functional results of four methods commonly used in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures [conservative treatment, proximal humeral nails (PHN), percutaneous K-wiring (PKW), and locking-plates (LP)] taking into consideration the type of fracture and the age of the patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients with proximal humeral fractures treated with one of the following methods: conservative treatment, PHN, PKW, or LP. Functional results were assessed using the absolute Constant score and the disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand score (DASH). The functional outcome was analysed according to age (≥65 years and fracture type (displaced 2-fragment and 3-4-fragment fractures). A total of 113 patients were included in the study, with a mean age of 65.3 SD 15.2 years and average follow-up time of 26.2 SD 12.6 months. Patients under 65 years had higher Constant scores when treated with PHN and PKW than those treated conservatively (77.2 vs. 54.7, p=0.01 and 74.0 vs. 54.7, p=0.03, respectively). Patients above 65 years had higher Constant scores when treated with PKW compared to PHN and conservative treatment (68.7 vs. 51.9, p=0.02 and 68.7 vs. 55.9, p=0.029, respectively). In 2-fragment fractures, PKW resulted in higher Constant scores than conservative treatment (70.4 vs. 53.9, p=0.048). No differences were found in the final outcome between patients treated with LP and those treated conservatively regardless of age, and fracture type. There were also no differences between any of the evaluated methods in the treatment of 3-4-fragment fractures. The use of PKW was associated with better functional results than conservative treatment in individuals of all ages, especially in patients with 2-fragment

  8. Nitrous acid (HONO) nocturnal surface deposition and daytime acid displacement: An alternative mechanism contributing to the unknown daytime HONO source (United States)

    Murphy, J. G.; VandenBoer, T. C.; Roberts, J. M.; Young, C. J.; Brown, S. S.; Markovic, M. Z.; Talukdar, R. K.


    Measurements of HONO were made during two intensive field campaigns: NACHTT 2011 in Erie, CO and CalNex 2010 in Bakersfield, CA. These field data and results from a flow tube study provide a new perspective on the interactions of HONO with ground surfaces. Integrated atmospheric column measurements of HONO and NO2 during NACHTT provided clear evidence that the ground surface dominates HONO production and loss at night. Simultaneous measurements of the gas and particle phases made by an Ambient Ion Monitor - Ion Chromatography (AIM-IC) system during CalNex demonstrated the potential for reactive uptake of HONO on mineral dust/soil as a nocturnal sink. Similarly, the potential for nitrite salts to react with strong acids, displacing HONO during the day was suggested by this dataset. Lab study results confirmed that HONO reacts irreversibly with carbonate salts and real soil extracts. Relative humidity-dependent reactive uptake coefficients were derived. Subsequent release of HONO by displacement reactions with HNO3 and HCl was also demonstrated. Together, these field and lab studies contribute to a new picture of HONO surface interactions by providing i) a more explicit description of the nocturnal HONO sink that also is a surface reservoir and ii) a new mechanism for daytime HONO formation that does not require NO2.

  9. Internal fixation vs conservative treatment for displaced distal radius fractures: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (United States)

    Yu, Guang Shu; Lin, Yan Bin; Le, Li Sheng; Zhan, Mei Feng; Jiang, Xiao Xiang


    The aim of the present study was to compare clinical outcomes of internal fixation and conservative approach in the treatment of displaced distal radius fractures. Reports of studies were retrieved from the PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Ovid, CNKI, and Wanfang Data databases, as well as other sources. Methodological quality of the trials was critically assessed, and relevant data were extracted. Review Manager (RevMan) meta-analysis software (version 5.0; Cochrane Collaboration, London, UK) was used for data analysis. A total of 10 randomized controlled trials, which included 653 patients, were eligible for inclusion in the present meta-analysis, 7 of which were in English, and 3 of which were in Chinese. The trials had medium risk of bias. Results of meta-analysis showed that patients undergoing conservative treatment for distal radius fractures had better restoration of pronation (MD=1.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.18-3.42, p=0.03; heterogeneity p=0.17, I2=43%), but shorter restoration of radial length (MD=2.62, 95% CI=1.47-3.76, pheterogeneity p=0.02, I2=73%). Wrist range of motion other than pronation, grip strength, radiographic parameters other than radial length, and rates of complications were not significantly different between the 2 treatments. Very few clinical differences were found between results of internal fixation and conservative treatment for displaced distal radius fractures. Best course of of treatment must be determined based on concrete conditions.

  10. An Approach of Electronic Subdividing Method for Measuring Straightness and Displacement of a Precision Linear Stage Simultaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Hsiu-An


    Full Text Available Optical encoders are commonly used in modern positioning systems. The accuracy and resolution of the optical encoders are always restricted by generated sinusoidal signals and the assembly technique. In this study, an electronic signal subdividing system is developed. This system is based on FPGA in combination with A/D and D/A converting circuits. Subdividing algorithm improves the segmenting signal amplitude method. Furthermore, we also construct a laser encoder for measuring straightness error and displacement of a linear stage simultaneously. The laser encoder consisting of the stainless steel bar and the sensor are developed for two-axis (X- and Z-axis position measurement. The two dimensional sinusoidal array on the stainless steel bar are machined by ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting system. The stainless steel bar has a three dimensional micro-structured surface, which is a superposition of periodic sinusoidal waves in the X- and Z-directions with spatial wavelengths of 350 µm and amplitudes of 0.5 µm. The laser-based two-axis position sensor is used to detect local slope profiles of the grid surface, and the displacement and straightness error could be extracted from the X- and Z-axis sensing signal. The sensing signal is processed by FPGA subdividing system. In addition, the proposed subdividing method is verified by the performances and effects of measuring results.

  11. Application of 3D digital image correlation to track displacements and strains of canvas paintings exposed to relative humidity changes. (United States)

    Malowany, Krzysztof; Tymińska-Widmer, Ludmiła; Malesa, Marcin; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Targowski, Piotr; Rouba, Bogumiła J


    This paper introduces a methodology for tracking displacements in canvas paintings exposed to relative humidity changes. Displacements are measured by means of the 3D digital image correlation method that is followed by a postprocessing of displacement data, which allows the separation of local displacements from global displacement maps. The applicability of this methodology is tested on measurements of a model painting on canvas with introduced defects causing local inhomogeneity. The method allows the evaluation of conservation methods used for repairing canvas supports.

  12. Search for displaced lepton-jets with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastiani, Cristiano David; The ATLAS collaboration


    Several possible extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of a dark sector that is weakly coupled to the visible one: i.e. the two sectors couple via the vector portal, where a dark photon with mass in the MeV to GeV range mixes kinetically with the SM photon. If the dark photon is the lightest state in the dark sector, it will decay to SM particles, mainly to leptons and possibly light mesons. Due to its weak interactions with the SM, it can have a non-negligible lifetime. At the LHC, these dark photons would typically be produced with large boost resulting in collimated jet-like structures containing pairs of leptons and/or light hadrons, the so-called lepton-jets (LJs). This work is focused on the search for “displaced LJs”, which are produced away from the interaction point and their constituents are limited to electrons, muons, and pions. The requested topology includes one or two LJs + leptons/jets/MET. The most recent ATLAS results based on samples collected at a center of mass energy...

  13. High-resolution diffraction grating interferometric transducer of linear displacements (United States)

    Shang, Ping; Xia, Haojie; Fei, Yetai


    A high-resolution transducer of linear displacements is presented. The system is based on semiconductor laser illumination and a diffraction grating applied as a length master. The theory of the optical method is formulated using Doppler description. The relationship model among the interference strips, measurement errors, grating deflection around the X, Y and Z axes and translation along the Z axis is built. The grating interference strips' direction and space is not changed with movement along the X (direction of grating movement), Y (direction of grating line), Z axis, and the direction and space has a great effect when rotating around the X axis. Moreover the space is little affected by deflection around the Z axis however the direction is changed dramatically. In addition, the strips' position shifted rightward or downwards respectively for deflection around the X or Y axis. Because the emitted beams are separated on the grating plane, the tilt around the X axis error of the stage during motion will lead to the optical path difference of the two beams resulting in phase shift. This study investigates the influence of the tilt around the X axis error. Experiments show that after yaw error compensation, the high-resolution diffraction grating interferometric transducer readings can be significantly improved. The error can be reduced from +/-80 nm to +/-30 nm in maximum.

  14. Displacements of Metallic Thermal Protection System Panels During Reentry (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Blosser, Max L.; Wurster, Kathryn E.


    Bowing of metallic thermal protection systems for reentry of a previously proposed single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was studied. The outer layer of current metallic thermal protection system concepts typically consists of a honeycomb panel made of a high temperature nickel alloy. During portions of reentry when the thermal protection system is exposed to rapidly varying heating rates, a significant temperature gradient develops across the honeycomb panel thickness, resulting in bowing of the honeycomb panel. The deformations of the honeycomb panel increase the roughness of the outer mold line of the vehicle, which could possibly result in premature boundary layer transition, resulting in significantly higher downstream heating rates. The aerothermal loads and parameters for three locations on the centerline of the windward side of this vehicle were calculated using an engineering code. The transient temperature distributions through a metallic thermal protection system were obtained using 1-D finite volume thermal analysis, and the resulting displacements of the thermal protection system were calculated. The maximum deflection of the thermal protection system throughout the reentry trajectory was 6.4 mm. The maximum ratio of deflection to boundary layer thickness was 0.032. Based on previously developed distributed roughness correlations, it was concluded that these defections will not result in tripping the hypersonic boundary layer.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Nandipati, Giridhar; Roche, Kenneth J.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.


    Molecular dynamics simulation was employed to investigate the irradiation damage properties of bulk tungsten at 1025 K (0.25 melting temperature). A comprehensive data set of primary cascade damage was generated up to primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies 100 keV. The dependence of the number of surviving Frenkel pairs (NFP) on the PKA energy (E) exhibits three different characteristic domains presumably related to the different cascade morphologies that form. The low-energy regime < 0.2 keV is characterized by a hit-or-miss type of Frenkel pair (FP) production near the displacement threshold energy of 128 eV. The middle regime 0.3 – 30 keV exhibits a sublinear dependence of log(NFP) vs log(E) associated with compact cascade morphology with a slope of 0.73. Above 30 keV, the cascade morphology consists of complex branches or interconnected damage regions. In this extended morphology, large interstitial clusters form from superposition of interstitials from nearby damage regions. Strong clustering above 30 keV results in a superlinear dependence of log(NFP) vs log(E) with a slope of 1.365. At 100 keV, an interstitial cluster of size 92 and a vacancy cluster of size 114 were observed.

  16. Displacements: Religion, Gender, and the Catachrestic Demands of Postcoloniality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sîan Melvill Hawthorne


    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the uneasy intersection between ‘religion’, ‘gender’ and ‘postcoloniality’ as it is staged in the sub-field of religion and gender within religious studies and theology. Noting the lack of sustained attention in this field to those postcolonial challenges that might question the prioritization of gender as the site from which critique should be originated, and suggesting that this neglect might compromise the assumption that, because of its alignment with the politics of the marginal, it is comparatively less implicated in colonial knowledge formations, I argue that scholars of religion and gender risk perpetuating imperialist figurations found elsewhere in the academic study of religions. I propose the figure of the catachresis, as theorized by Gayatri Spivak, as a potential step towards displacing those European concept-metaphors and value-codings that both derive from imperialist ideologies and sustain the fiction operational within much, though not all, religion and gender scholarship of a generalizable or normative epistemic subjectivity. I suggest these ideologies ultimately prevent an encounter with the women and men who exist beyond this mode of production and whose priorities may be configured entirely differently to those that seem currently to inform and produce the intellectual itineraries of the field.

  17. Anomalies in the dominant sarcoidosis paradigm justify its displacement. (United States)

    Reich, Jerome M


    The prevailing paradigm defines sarcoidosis as a disease of unknown etiology characterized by a systemic noncaseating epithelioid granulomatous response (SGR). This formulation fails to account for the elusiveness of the etiological agent, the nature of the Kveim response, the paradox of cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity anergy in a setting of intense immune response and the appearance of SGR, indistinguishable from sarcoidosis, in persons with lymphohematogenous and solid neoplasms and a variety of cellular immune deficiencies. Displacing this formulation with an evidence-based alternative in which the SGR is viewed as an etiologically diverse, primitive immunological fallback due to inefficient cellular immune processing eliminates these shortcomings, providing a unifying accounting for the puzzles and violations of expectations associated with the prevailing paradigm. Its clinical import resides in the reported annual three-percent increase in sarcoidosis mortality in the past two decades (Swigris et al., 2011), which may be attributable, in part, to unneeded suppressive treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Switching the Biointerface of Displaceable Poly-p-xylylene Coatings. (United States)

    Guan, Zhen-Yu; Wu, Chih-Yu; Li, Yi-Jye; Chen, Hsien-Yeh


    A new class of functionalized poly-p-xylyene coating has been synthesized to provide switchable and displaceable surface properties for biomaterials. The switchability is achieved through a mechanism for detaching/attaching biomolecules and/or a mechanism through which the programmed restoration of functions or their replacement by other functions can be carried out. This advanced version of poly-p-xylylene comprises an integrated disulfide moiety within the functional side group, and the switching phenomenon between the immobilized functional molecules is triggered by the redox thiol-disulfide interchange reaction. These dynamically well-defined molecules on the surfaces respond simultaneously to altered biological properties and controlled biointerfacial functions, for example, switching wettability or reversibly altered cell adhesion activity. Poly-p-xylylenes are a key player in controlling surface properties for many important applications, such as medical implants, biosensors, bioMEMS devices, and microfluidics. The introduction of this new facet of poly-p-xylylenes enables the dynamic mimicry of biological functions relevant to the design of new biomaterials.

  19. An inconvenient truth: treatment of displaced paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, M


    The need for emergent management of displaced paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures is being questioned in the literature. Open reduction rates of up to 46% have been reported in the non-emergent management of these injuries. At our institution these fractures are managed as operative emergencies by senior personnel. To examine the ongoing need for this policy we reviewed our results. All patients managed over a five year period with Gartland type IIB or III paeditric supracondylar humeral fractures were identified and a comprehensive chart and radiographic review undertaken. The mean time from injury to fracture reduction and stabilization was 6.6 h. Consultants performed or supervised 90% of cases. Open reduction was necessary in 5% of cases. Complications included a perioperative nerve injury rate of 6% and a superficial pin site infection rate of 3%. This study suggests that, despite the challenge to trauma on-call rostering, the emergency management of these injuries is advantageous to patients in units of our size. Based on the data presented here we continue our practice of emergent management. We suggest that units of a similar size to our own would show a benefit from an analogous policy albeit an inconvenient truth.

  20. Crack Opening Displacement Behavior in Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Sevener, Kathy; Tracy, Jared; Chen, Zhe; Daly, Sam; Kiser, Doug


    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) modeling and life prediction strongly depend on oxidation, and therefore require a thorough understanding of when matrix cracks occur, the extent of cracking for given conditions (time-temperature-environment-stress), and the interactions of matrix cracks with fibers and interfaces. In this work, the evolution of matrix cracks in a melt-infiltrated Silicon Carbide/Silicon Carbide (SiC/SiC) CMC under uniaxial tension was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with digital image correlation (DIC) and manual crack opening displacement (COD) measurements. Strain relaxation due to matrix cracking, the relationship between COD's and applied stress, and damage evolution at stresses below the proportional limit were assessed. Direct experimental observation of strain relaxation adjacent to regions of matrix cracking is presented and discussed. Additionally, crack openings were found to increase linearly with increasing applied stress, and no crack was found to pass fully through the gage cross-section. This observation is discussed in the context of the assumption of through-cracks for all loading conditions and fiber architectures in oxidation modeling. Finally, the combination of SEM with DIC is demonstrated throughout to be a powerful means for damage identification and quantification in CMC's at stresses well below the proportional limit.

  1. Hubungan Kekerabatan Sapi Aceh dengan Menggunakan Daerah Displacement-loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Agus Nashri Abdullah


    Full Text Available Relationship of aceh cattle using displacement-loop region ABSTRACT. The aims of this study were to describe relationship of D-loop of mtDNA Aceh cattle which is useful database for conducting conservation programme. The whole blood samples were collected (8 samples for D-loop analysis from four locations which were Aceh Besar, Pidie, North Aceh regencies and Banda Aceh city. Out group whole blood samples were collected from two samples from Bali cattles (Bali Island, Madura cattle (Madura Island, Pesisir cattle (West Sumatera respectively and one sample from PO cattle (West Java. Amplification of D-loop sequences of mtDNA with BIDLF and BIDLR primary have PCR product 980 bp. The Data were analyzed using Squint 1.02 and MEGA 4.0 programme. Result of analysis indicate that Aceh cattle have nearer relationship with zebu and there is items inset of genetik Bali cattle (Bos javanicus at the end sequences start ke-354 situs up to 483, so that the origin Aceh cattle was from Bos indicus which have hybridization with Bos javanicus.

  2. Dual-slug miscible displacement of Bradford crude. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, C.D.


    An examination of the results presented in graphs showing (1) effect of buffer slug viscosity on isopropyl alcohol-free oleic phase recovery, and (2) viscosity ratio (Bradford crude/buffer slug), indicate that phase behavior was a more critical parameter than viscosity ratio in determining the recovery efficiency of the buffer slug for the systems studied. Solvent-free oleic phase recovery increased 2.6 times as the viscosity ratio was increased from 0.8 to 36. Pure oil recovery was greatest for the most adverse viscosity ratio. Of all the buffer materials tested, propane gave a higher pure oil recovery than an amyl alcohol for a viscosity ratio of 1.09. It should be emphasized that in the combination slug process one is concerned with two aspects of phase behavior. First, the in-place oil is miscibly displaced by the buffer slug which is usually immiscible with the brine in the core. Then, on the injection of isopropyl alcohol, a completely miscible process occurs at the rear of the buffer fluid, as the brine-drive alcohol removes all of the remaining reservoir fluids under ideal conditions. The ternary diagrams illustrated provide an indication only to the mechanism of the latter process.

  3. Validation of air displacement plethysmography for assessing body composition. (United States)

    Wagner, D R; Heyward, V H; Gibson, A L


    The purpose of this study was to verify the validity of an air displacement plethysmography device (Bod Pod) for estimating body density (Db). The Db from the Bod Pod (DbBP) was compared with the Db from hydrostatic weighing (DbHW) at residual lung volume in a heterogeneous sample of 30 black men who varied in age (32.0 +/- 7.7 yr), height (180.3 +/- 7.5 cm), body mass (84.2 +/- 15.0 kg), body fatness (16.1 +/- 7.5%), and self-reported physical activity level and socioeconomic status. The Db for each method was converted to relative body fat (%BF) using race-specific conversion formulas and subsequently compared with %BF obtained from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (%BFDXA). Linear regression, using DbHW as the dependent variable and DbBP as the predictor, produced an R2 = 0.84 and SEE = 0.00721 g x cc(-1). However, the mean difference between the two methods (0.00450 +/- 0.00718 g x cc(-1) was significant (P Bod Pod underestimated the Db of 73% of the sample. The %BF estimates from the Bod Pod, HW, and DXA differed significantly (P Bod Pod significantly and systematically underestimated Db, resulting in an overestimation of %BF. More cross-validation research is needed before recommending the Bod Pod as a reference method.

  4. Plasmonic Nanopores for Trapping, Controlling Displacement, and Sequencing of DNA. (United States)

    Belkin, Maxim; Chao, Shu-Han; Jonsson, Magnus P; Dekker, Cees; Aksimentiev, Aleksei


    With the aim of developing a DNA sequencing methodology, we theoretically examine the feasibility of using nanoplasmonics to control the translocation of a DNA molecule through a solid-state nanopore and to read off sequence information using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that high-intensity optical hot spots produced by a metallic nanostructure can arrest DNA translocation through a solid-state nanopore, thus providing a physical knob for controlling the DNA speed. Switching the plasmonic field on and off can displace the DNA molecule in discrete steps, sequentially exposing neighboring fragments of a DNA molecule to the pore as well as to the plasmonic hot spot. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from the exposed DNA fragments contains information about their nucleotide composition, possibly allowing the identification of the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule transported through the hot spot. The principles of plasmonic nanopore sequencing can be extended to detection of DNA modifications and RNA characterization.

  5. Displacement of polarons by vibrational modes in doped conjugated polymers (United States)

    Anderson, M.; Ramanan, C.; Fontanesi, C.; Frick, A.; Surana, S.; Cheyns, D.; Furno, M.; Keller, T.; Allard, S.; Scherf, U.; Beljonne, D.; D'Avino, G.; von Hauff, E.; Da Como, E.


    Organic pi-conjugated polymers are deemed to be soft materials with strong electron-phonon coupling, which results in the formation of polarons, i.e., charge carriers dressed by self-localized distortion of the nuclei. Universal signatures for polarons are optical resonances below the band gap and intense vibrational modes (IVMs), both found in the infrared (IR) spectral region. Here, we study p -doped conjugated homo- and copolymers by combining first-principles modelling and optical spectroscopy from the far-IR to the visible. Polaronic IVMs are found to feature absorption intensities comparable to purely electronic transitions and, most remarkably, show only loose resemblance to the Raman or IR-active modes of the neutral polymer. The IVM frequency is dramatically scaled down (up to 50%) compared to the backbone carbon-stretching modes in the pristine polymers. The very large intensity of IVMs is associated with displacement of the excess positive charge along the backbone driven by specific vibrational modes. We propose a quantitative picture for the identification of these polaron shifting modes that solely based on structural information, directly correlates with their IR intensity. This finding finally discloses the elusive microscopic mechanism behind the huge IR intensity of IVMs in doped polymeric semiconductors.

  6. Displacement affinity chromatography of protein phosphatase one (PP1 complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourlay Robert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphatase one (PP1 is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates target protein serine and threonine residues. PP1 is localized to its site of action by interacting with targeting or regulatory proteins, a majority of which contains a primary docking site referred to as the RVXF/W motif. Results We demonstrate that a peptide based on the RVXF/W motif can effectively displace PP1 bound proteins from PP1 retained on the phosphatase affinity matrix microcystin-Sepharose. Subsequent co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that each identified binding protein was either a direct PP1 interactor or was in a complex that contains PP1. Our results have linked PP1 to numerous new nuclear functions and proteins, including Ki-67, Rif-1, topoisomerase IIα, several nuclear helicases, NUP153 and the TRRAP complex. Conclusion This modification of the microcystin-Sepharose technique offers an effective means of purifying novel PP1 regulatory subunits and associated proteins and provides a simple method to uncover a link between PP1 and additional cellular processes.

  7. Plasmonic Nanopores for Trapping, Controlling Displacement, and Sequencing of DNA (United States)


    With the aim of developing a DNA sequencing methodology, we theoretically examine the feasibility of using nanoplasmonics to control the translocation of a DNA molecule through a solid-state nanopore and to read off sequence information using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that high-intensity optical hot spots produced by a metallic nanostructure can arrest DNA translocation through a solid-state nanopore, thus providing a physical knob for controlling the DNA speed. Switching the plasmonic field on and off can displace the DNA molecule in discrete steps, sequentially exposing neighboring fragments of a DNA molecule to the pore as well as to the plasmonic hot spot. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from the exposed DNA fragments contains information about their nucleotide composition, possibly allowing the identification of the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule transported through the hot spot. The principles of plasmonic nanopore sequencing can be extended to detection of DNA modifications and RNA characterization. PMID:26401685

  8. A displaced-solvent functional analysis of model hydrophobic enclosures. (United States)

    Abel, Robert; Wang, Lingle; Friesner, Richard A; Berne, B J


    Calculation of protein-ligand binding affinities continues to be a hotbed of research. Although many techniques for computing protein-ligand binding affinities have been introduced--ranging from computationally very expensive approaches, such as free energy perturbation (FEP) theory; to more approximate techniques, such as empirically derived scoring functions, which, although computationally efficient, lack a clear theoretical basis--there remains pressing need for more robust approaches. A recently introduced technique, the displaced-solvent functional (DSF) method, was developed to bridge the gap between the high accuracy of FEP and the computational efficiency of empirically derived scoring functions. In order to develop a set of reference data to test the DSF theory for calculating absolute protein-ligand binding affinities, we have pursued FEP theory calculations of the binding free energies of a methane ligand with 13 different model hydrophobic enclosures of varying hydrophobicity. The binding free energies of the methane ligand with the various hydrophobic enclosures were then recomputed by DSF theory and compared with the FEP reference data. We find that the DSF theory, which relies on no empirically tuned parameters, shows excellent quantitative agreement with the FEP. We also explored the ability of buried solvent accessible surface area and buried molecular surface area models to describe the relevant physics, and find the buried molecular surface area model to offer superior performance over this dataset.

  9. Long-Time Mean Square Displacements in Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Vural, Derya; Smith, Jeremy C; Glyde, Henry R


    We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic, long time mean square displacement (MSD) of atoms and molecules in proteins from finite time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Typical data from simulations are limited to times of 1 to 10 ns and over this time period the calculated MSD continues to increase without a clear limiting value. The proposed method consists of fitting a model to MD simulation-derived values of the incoherent intermediate neutron scattering function, $I_{inc}(Q,t)$, for finite times. The infinite time MSD, $$, appears as a parameter in the model and is determined by fits of the model to the finite time $I_{inc}(Q,t)$. Specifically, the $$ is defined in the usual way in terms of the Debye-Waller factor as $I(Q,t = \\infty) = \\exp(- Q^2 /3)$. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD $$ of hydrated lysozyme powder (h = 0.4 g water/g protein) over a wide temperature range. The intrinsic $$ obtained from data out to 1 ns and to 10 ns is found to be the same. The intrinsi...

  10. Morphologic, functional, and occlusal characterization of mandibular lateral displacement malocclusion. (United States)

    Ishizaki, Kyoko; Suzuki, Koichi; Mito, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Eliana Midori; Sato, Sadao


    Mandibular lateral displacement (MLD) is clinically characterized by deviation of the chin, facial asymmetry, dental midline discrepancy, crossbite in the posterior region, and high prevalence of internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint. Morphologic and functional characteristics of MLD should be clarified to correct and prevent this malocclusion. We examined the morphologic features, occlusal scheme, and functional behavior of MLD in 116 patients. Facial morphology was examined with posteroanterior cephalograms, occlusion guidance on the articulator after face-bow transfer, and condylar movement with the condylograph. The superiorly inclined occlusal plane was associated with mandibular deviation in the same direction. The posterior occlusal plane on the shifted side was significantly steeper than that on the nonshifted side. Functional analysis of condylar movement showed a close relationship between the direction of MLD and the direction of condylar lateral shift during opening and closing, and protrusion and retrusion. The occlusal guidance inclination in the buccal segment of the nonshifted side was steeper than that in the shifted side. The results suggested that reduced vertical height of the dentition on 1 side induced mandibular lateral adaptation with contralateral condylar shift (asymmetry); this leads to condylar lateral shift during functional movement. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of M. tuberculosis DNA using thermophilic strand displacement amplification. (United States)

    Spargo, C A; Fraiser, M S; Van Cleve, M; Wright, D J; Nycz, C M; Spears, P A; Walker, G T


    Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) is an isothermal, in vitro method of amplifying DNA that is based upon the combined action of a DNA polymerase and restriction enzyme. Previously, a form of SDA was developed which utilizes the exonuclease deficient Klenow fragment of E. coli polymerase I (exo Klenow) and the restriction enzyme HincII to achieve 10(8)-fold amplification in 2 h at 37 degrees C (Walker, G.T., 1993, PCR Methods and Applications 3; 1-6). A new thermophilic form of SDA is reported here which uses a restriction endonuclease from Bacillus stearothermophilus (BsoBI) and a 5'-->3' exonuclease deficient polymerase from Bacillus caldotenax (exo Bca). SDA was used to amplify DNA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. An amplification factor of 10(10)-fold was achieved after 15 min of SDA at 60 degrees C. The new thermophilic system is much more specific than the previous mesophilic system as evidenced by a dramatic decrease in background amplification products. Thermophilic SDA was also optimized with dUTP substituted for TTP to enable amplicon decontamination using uracil-DNA glycosylase.

  12. Precision displacement interferometry with stabilization of wavelength on air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchta Z.


    Full Text Available We present an interferometric technique based on differential interferometry setup for measurement in the subnanometer scale in atmospheric conditions. The motivation for development of this ultraprecise technique is coming from the field of nanometrology. The key limiting factor in any optical measurement are fluctuations of the refractive index of air representing a source of uncertainty on the 10-6level when evaluated indirectly from the physical parameters of the atmosphere. Our proposal is based on the concept of overdetermined interferometric setup where a reference length is derived from a mechanical frame made from a material with very low thermal coefficient on the 10-8level. The technique allows to track the variations of the refractive index of air on-line directly in the line of the measuring beam and to compensate for the fluctuations. The optical setup consists of three interferometers sharing the same beam path where two measure differentially the displacement while the third represents a reference for stabilization of the wavelength of the laser source. The principle is demonstrated on an experimental setup and a set of measurements describing the performance is presented.

  13. Variometric approach for displacement analysis using Galileo data: first results (United States)

    Tesolin, Francesca; Vitti, Alfonso; Mazzoni, Augusto


    The Variometric Approach for Displacement Analysis Standalone Engine (VADASE) was successfully applied for seismological purposes using GPS observations. The Galileo system, recently entered in the Initial Services operation phase, supplies GPS inter-operable and specific observations that can be used by VADASE. In this work the Galileo derived VADASE solutions are inspected to evaluate the impact of the European observations. A preliminary comparison with the GPS derived solutions and the state of the undergoing development of the VADASE software for the combined processing of GPS and Galileo data are also presented. The entire repetition period of the Galileo constellation was investigated to identify the time-window with the most abundant number of satellites. Observation packages of about 15 minutes at the 1Hz observation rate were analyzed. VADASE solutions were computed using single and iono-free observations from a set of IGS-MGEX sites and from U-blox receivers. The comparison with the GPS derived solutions was carried out selecting GPS constellations with the same number of satellites and the closest PDOP values to that of the Galileo constellations inspected. The analysis was carried out using broadcast and precise orbits. Standard statistics of the Galileo derived solutions are provided and commented. In general, the solutions are of good quality and essentially comparable to or better than the GPS derived solutions.

  14. Rectus Pulley Displacements without Abnormal Oblique Contractility Explain Strabismus in Superior Oblique Palsy. (United States)

    Suh, Soh Youn; Le, Alan; Clark, Robert A; Demer, Joseph L


    Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we investigated whether rectus pulleys are significantly displaced in superior oblique (SO) palsy and whether displacements account for strabismus patterns. Prospective case-control study. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with SO palsy based on atrophy of the SO muscle on MRI and 19 age-matched orthotropic control subjects. High-resolution, surface coil MRI scans were obtained in multiple, contiguous, quasicoronal planes during monocular central gaze fixation. Pulley locations in oculocentric coordinates in the following subgroups of patients with SO palsy were compared with normal results in subgroups of patients with SO palsy: unilateral versus bilateral, congenital versus acquired, and isotropic (round) versus anisotropic (elongated) SO atrophy. Expected effects of pulley displacements were modeled using Orbit 1.8 (Eidactics, San Francisco, CA) computational simulation. Rectus pulley positions and ocular torsion. Rectus pulleys typically were displaced in SO palsy. In unilateral SO palsy, on average the medial rectus (MR) pulley was displaced 1.1 mm superiorly, the superior rectus (SR) pulley was displaced 0.8 mm temporally, and the inferior rectus (IR) pulley was displaced 0.6 mm superiorly and 0.9 mm nasally from normal. Displacements were similar in bilateral SO palsy, with the SR pulley additionally displaced 0.9 mm superiorly. However, the lateral rectus pulley was not displaced in either unilateral or bilateral SO palsy. The SR and MR pulleys were displaced in congenital SO palsy, whereas the IR and MR pulleys were displaced in acquired palsy. Pulley positions did not differ between isotropic and anisotropic palsy or between patients with cyclotropia of less than 7° versus cyclotropia of 7° or more. Simulations predicted that the observed pulley displacements alone could cause patterns of incomitant strabismus typical of SO palsy, without requiring any abnormality of SO or inferior oblique strength

  15. Validation of an accelerometer for determination of muscle belly radial displacement. (United States)

    Zagar, T; Krizaj, D


    A commercial variable-capacitance micromachined accelerometer was validated for muscle belly radial displacement measurement. The displacement was calculated by the acceleration data being integrated twice and was compared with the results obtained simultaneously by an accurate mechanical displacement sensor based on an optical encoder. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of an accelerometer for tensiomyography, which is a method for the detection of skeletal muscle contractile properties on the basis of muscle belly radial displacement. A hundred measurements at a bandwidth of 2300 Hz were performed. It was shown that the accuracy and precision in determination of the maximum displacement and the time of the maximum displacement from the calculated curve were satisfactory, in spite of the standard deviation of the twice-integrated acceleration growing approximately linearly with time. The results were accurate enough since the elapsed time from the beginning of the integration was small (less than 75 ms). The measured maximum displacement ranges were between 9.2 and 10.2 mm. The mean relative error was less than 1% (SD = 0.02mm) for the maximum displacement and about 1% (SD = 0.6 ms) for the time to maximum displacement. The accuracy of the half-relaxation time determination was more uncertain because of the relatively high relative error of -2.4% (SD = 3 ms). Results showed that a commercial micromachined accelerometer could be suitable for the measurement of muscle belly radial displacement and used for development of a future miniaturised and flexible system for the measurement of similar displacements.

  16. Radial Sizing of Lipid Nanotubes Using Membrane Displacement Analysis


    Stepanyants, Natalia; Gavin D. M. Jeffries; Orwar, Owe; Jesorka, Aldo


    We report a novel method for the measurement of lipid nanotube radii. Membrane translocation is monitored between two nanotube-connected vesicles, during the expansion of a receiving vesicle, by observing a photobleached region of the nanotube. We elucidate nanotube radii, extracted from SPE vesicles, enabling quantification of membrane composition and lamellarity. Variances of nanotube radii were measured, showing a growth of 40–56 nm, upon increasing cholesterol content from 0 to 20%.

  17. Displacement of one Newtonian fluid by another: density effects in axial annular flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole


    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) finite elementtechnique is used to simulate 3D displacement oftwo immiscible Newtonian fluids in vertical annular wells. For equally viscous fluids the effect of distinct fluid densities is investigated in the region of low to intermediate Reynolds numbers. Comp......, the efficiency of the displacement is analysed for various flow situations....

  18. Signal processing for order 10 pm accuracy displacement metrology in real-world scientific applications (United States)

    Halverson, Peter G.; Loya, Frank M.


    This paper describes heterodyne displacement metrology gauge signal processing methods that achieve satisfactory robustness against low signal strength and spurious signals, and good long-term stability. We have a proven displacement-measuring approach that is useful not only to space-optical projects at JPL, but also to the wider field of distance measurements.

  19. Thermal diffusivity measurement of solid materials by the pulsed photothermal displacement technique (United States)

    Bennis, G. L.; Vyas, R.; Gupta, R.; Ang, S.; Brown, W. D.


    A simple, noncontact technique for the measurement of thermal diffusivity of solids is experimentally demonstrated. The technique is based on the photothermal displacement effect. Excellent agreement between the quasistatic theory of photothermal displacement and the experiment has been obtained. The technique has been demonstrated by measuring the thermal diffusivities of GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells.

  20. Time between plastic displacements of elasto-plastic oscillators subject to Gaussian white noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager


    A one degree of freedom elasto-plastic oscillator subject to stationary Gaussian white noise has a plastic displacement response process of intermittent character. During shorter or longer time intervals the oscillator vibrates within the elastic domain without undergoing any plastic displacements...