WorldWideScience

Sample records for extraction armed violence

  1. Sexual violence in armed conflicts and modern international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eboe-Osuji, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual violence in various forms is a particular brand of evil that women have endured during armed conflicts, from time immemorial. It is a problem that has continued to task the conscience of humanity, especially in our times. There has been no shortage of basic laws at the international level tha

  2. Transformation of armed violence: specific features and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Balatska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social transformations occurring in the world today became a result of globalization, information, changes in the international balance of power, and are reflected in all aspects of political development. One of the most pressing challenges of our time, a consequence of these processes, is the evolution of forms and methods of armed violence. This publication is devoted to determining the specific and major trends transforming the forms and methods of armed violence. Instead of the traditional military conflicts, new forms and means of armed confrontation emerge. Asymmetrical conflicts taking place with the participation of non-state parties and irregular armed groups, are quite common at the moment. «Hard power» methods associated with the use of direct violence are supplemented by means of «soft power». Violent but non-traditional (non-military means of confrontation widen, with informational and psychological influence becoming particularly prominent. Infotechnological and infopsychological methods of intervention have become an integral part of modern military-political confrontation, taking form of hybrid, network and network-centric warfare. The hybrid military conflicts are typically distinguished by asymmetry, latency, priority of small-scale combat actions and dynamic use of indirect violence. Network-centric warfare focused on achieving information superiority over the enemy, complex effects on the enemy’s physical, informational and cognitive domains, strategic flexibility and adaptability, priority of horizontal ties over traditional vertical hierarchy. Horizontal network infrastructure, consisting of multiple independent, highly specialized and geographically dispersed units, determines the effectiveness of network war strategy today. Apart from qualitative changes associated with emergence and proliferation of new forms of armed violence on a global scale, there is a definite global increase in its quantitative

  3. Sexual Violence Against Women as a Strategy to Dispossess Land in the Colombian Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Céspedes-Báez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the evidence collected by diverse national and international organizations regarding the relationship between sexual violence against women, forced displacement, and dispossession in the context of the Colombian armed conflict. To this end, it uses the concept of “sexual violence regimes” to highlight that the endspursued by sexual violence are not always exhausted by simple consummation (that is, the act of sexual violence itself, but depending on the context, can be connected with broader strategic goals of armed actors. At the same time, this document admits the difficulty of proving this relationship with respect to judicial procedures, and thus sets out the possibility of creating a rebuttable presumption, in the framework of “unconstitutional state of affairs” created by judgment T-025 of 2004, that alleviates the burden of proof of the victims, and serves as a catalyst to promote new genderbased mechanisms of reparations.

  4. “Let Us Have a Little Fun”: The Relationship between Gender, Violence and Sexuality in Armed Conflict Situations*

    OpenAIRE

    Zipfel, Gaby

    2013-01-01

    The genealogy of sexual violence in war, inter-war and post-war periods can only be understood through an analysis of the relationship between gender, violence and sexuality. Armed conflicts function as a kind of magnifying glass, making visible definitions of sexual identity constructed through the legitimization of violence. Wartime crimes of sexual violence, viewed until now as limit phenomena characteristic of a state of exception, thus point to regularities whose form and function may va...

  5. Sexual violence in armed conflict: the least condemned of war crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mike

    2014-03-01

    Sexual violence in armed conflict has traditionally received poor attention until recent years. It has been the "least condemned of war crimes" although, with the inception of the International Criminal Court and various other international courts and tribunals, convictions of high-profile aggressors are increasing. Only recently Charles Taylor, the President of Liberia, was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity which included rape and sexual slavery. He was sentenced to 50 years imprisonment. Is prosecution of these crimes sufficient to minimise sexual violence in war? That seems unlikely given the potential for such violence to be a cheap and effective strategy to terrorise a civilian population and "ethnically cleanse" the newly won territory. However, there is a remarkable variation in the levels of sexual violence in armed conflicts. Some, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, have extremely low levels, whereas in Bosnia and many African states the prevalence of sexual violence is at epidemic levels. The reasons for such differences are many, however, some precipitating factors may be improved by strong military discipline, improved gender balance in armed forces, better political awareness by combatants of the aims of a campaign and pre-deployment ethical training.

  6. Surviving Violence: Transgressing Categories and Boundaries in Armed Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Suarez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, activities intended for the protection of civilians have been steadily incorporated into humanitarian, peacekeeping, and development operations across the globe. Yet, what was initially perceived as a progressive step in the advancement of human security (Goldberg and Hubert 2001 is now coming under increasing scrutiny (Fox 2002; Thakur 2002. The civilian protection agenda involves a series of inter-related activities designed to prevent, mitigate, respond to, and recover from physical harm caused by armed conflict. Despite the steady elaboration and execution of this agenda, however, critics point to key challenges including the lack of compliance by states and non-state armed actors (Ferris 2011, problems with coordination and efficiency among aid organizations (Barnett 2009, under-resourced peacekeeping operations with limited training and equipment (Williams 2013, and the lack of capacity and will on the part of the ‘international community’ (Barr 2010.

  7. Struggle of Tibet : from armed conflict to non-violence

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Santosh Pratap

    2014-01-01

    The conflict between Tibet-China has been going on since 1950s. Chinese has proclaimed Tibet as an alienable part of her mainland where as Tibetans have distinct view regarding the issue. Tibetan spiritual leader and his followers fled to India in 1959 due to the invasion made by Mao Tse-tung and his PLA. Tibetans tried to regain their homeland by the armed struggle with the support of CIA. The movement was known as Khampa gurreilla warfare which they fought until 1974 from the Mustang base, ...

  8. Why do arms extract less oxygen than legs during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Holmberg, H-C; Rosdahl, H;

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether conditions for O2 utilization and O2 off-loading from the hemoglobin are different in exercising arms and legs, six cross-country skiers participated in this study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flow and gases were determined during skiing on a treadmill at approximately 76......% maximal O2 uptake (V(O2)max) and at V(O2)max with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise), and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). The percentage of O2 extraction was always higher for the legs than for the arms. At maximal...... exercise (diagonal stride), the corresponding mean values were 93 and 85% (n = 3; P

  9. Mechanisms underpinning interventions to reduce sexual violence in armed conflict: A realist-informed systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Zwi, Anthony B; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Davies, Gawaine Powell

    2015-01-01

    Sexual violence is recognised as a widespread consequence of armed conflict and other humanitarian crises. The limited evidence in literature on interventions in this field suggests a need for alternatives to traditional review methods, particularly given the challenges of undertaking research in conflict and crisis settings. This study employed a realist review of the literature on interventions with the aim of identifying the mechanisms at work across the range of types of intervention. The realist approach is an exploratory and theory-driven review method. It is well suited to complex interventions as it takes into account contextual factors to identify mechanisms that contribute to outcomes. The limited data available indicate that there are few deterrents to sexual violence in crises. Four main mechanisms appear to contribute to effective interventions: increasing the risk to offenders of being detected; building community engagement; ensuring community members are aware of available help for and responses to sexual violence; and safe and anonymous systems for reporting and seeking help. These mechanisms appeared to contribute to outcomes in multiple-component interventions, as well as those relating to gathering firewood, codes of conduct for personnel and legal interventions. Drawing on pre-existing capacity or culture in communities is an additional mechanism which should be explored. Though increasing the risk to offenders of being detected was assumed to be a central mechanism in deterring sexual violence, the evidence suggests that this mechanism operated only in interventions focused on gathering firewood and providing alternative fuels. The other three mechanisms appeared important to the likelihood of an intervention being successful, particularly when operating simultaneously. In a field where robust outcome research remains likely to be limited, realist methods provide opportunities to understand existing evidence. Our analysis identifies the

  10. Associations between exposure to intimate partner violence, armed conflict, and probable PTSD among women in rural Cote d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhumka Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Objectives were to assess associations between intimate partner violence (IPV, violence during armed conflict (i.e. crisis violence, and probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. METHODS: Using a sample of 950 women in rural Côte d'Ivoire, logistic generalized estimating equations assessed associations between IPV and crisis violence exposures with past-week probable PTSD. RESULTS: Over one in 5 (23.4% women reported past-year IPV, and over one in 4 women (26.5% reported experiencing IPV prior to the past year (i.e. remote IPV. Crisis violence was experienced by 72.6% of women. In adjusted models including demographics, crisis violence (overall and specific forms, and IPV (remote and past-year, women who reported past-year IPV had 3.1 times the odds of reporting probable past-week PTSD (95%CI: 1.8-5.3 and those who reported remote IPV had 1.6 times the odds (95%CI: 0.9-2.7. Violent exposures during the crisis were not significantly associated with probable PTSD (any crisis violence: aOR: 1.04 (0.7-1.5; displacement: aOR: 0.9 (95%CI: 0.5-1.7; family victimization during crisis: aOR: 1.1 (95%CI: 0.8-1.7; personal victimization during crisis: aOR: 1.7 (95%CI: 0.7-3.7. CONCLUSION: Past-year IPV was more strongly associated with past-week probable PTSD than remote IPV and violence directly related to the crisis. IPV must be considered within humanitarian mental health and psychosocial programming.

  11. Bring a gun to a gunfight: armed adversaries and violence across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Berg, Mark T; Rogers, Meghan L

    2014-09-01

    We use homicide data and the International Crime Victimization Survey to examine the role of firearms in explaining cross-national variation in violence. We suggest that while gun violence begets gun violence, it inhibits the tendency to engage in violence without guns. We attribute the patterns to adversary effects-i.e., the tendency of offenders to take into account the threat posed by their adversaries. Multi-level analyses of victimization data support the hypothesis that living in countries with high rates of gun violence lowers an individual's risk of an unarmed assault and assaults with less lethal weapons. Analyses of aggregate data show that homicide rates and gun violence rates load on a separate underlying factor than other types of violence. The results suggest that a country's homicide rate reflects, to a large extent, the tendency of its offenders to use firearms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Building a translational science on children and youth affected by political violence and armed conflict: A commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S

    2017-02-01

    Articles in this timely Special Section represent an important milestone in the developmental science on children and youth involved in political violence and armed conflict. With millions of children worldwide affected by past and present wars and conflicts, there is an urgent and growing need for research to inform efforts to understand, prevent, and mitigate the possible harm of such violence to individual children, families, communities, and societies, for present as well as future generations. The four programs of research highlighted in this Special Section illustrate key advances and challenges in contemporary development research on young people growing up in the midst or aftermath of political violence. These studies are longitudinal, methodologically sophisticated, and grounded in socioecological systems models that align well with current models of risk and resilience in developmental psychopathology. These studies collectively mark a critically important shift to process-focused research that holds great promise for translational applications. Nonetheless, given the scope of the international crisis of children and youth affected by political violence and its sequelae, there is an urgent global need for greater mobilization of resources to support translational science and effective evidence-based action.

  13. Mission creep or responding to wider security needs? The evolving role of mine action organisations in Armed Violence Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmala Naidoo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s, mine action organisations have focused their efforts on reducing the social, economic and environmental impacts of anti-personnel mines and other explosive remnants of war (ERW through a broad range of activities, including survey, clearance, mine risk education (MRE, victim assistance, stockpile destruction and advocacy. In recent years, an increasing number of mine action organisations are using their mine action technical expertise and their capacities to operate in difficult environments to reduce armed violence and promote public safety. Several organisations now have armed violence reduction (AVR-related policies, programmes and staff in place. Some may argue that this shift towards AVR is a diversion from the core mandate of mine action organisations. But does this represent a loss of focus and thereby ‘mission creep’ on the part of these organisations? This practice note examines the factors underlying the evolving role of mine action organisations, discusses how these new programmes are contributing to the wider domain of AVR and explores whether these new programmes have resulted in a loss of organisational focus.

  14. [Violence due to Armed Conflict and Prevalence of Mood Disorders, Anxiety and Mental Problems in the Colombian Adult Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Tamayo-Martínez, Nathalie; Buitrago, Giancarlo; Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol Cristina; Garzón-Orjuela, Nathaly; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; de Vries, Esther; Rengifo, Herney; Rodríguez, Andrea; Rincón, Carlos Javier

    2016-12-01

    Violence in Colombia has a history of over 50 years. Between 1985 and 2012 an estimated of 220,000 Colombians have died and about 6,000,000 have been displaced by violence. To describe and compare the prevalence of some problems and mental disorders in the adult population in Colombia, taking into account the characteristics of the municipality, as regards its history of violence or armed conflict. The results for adults (over 18 years) of some problems and mental disorders were taken from the ENSM-2015. The municipalities were classified according to the presence and intensity of the conflict using the classification proposed by the CERAC. Disorders were measured using CIDI-CAPI, and problems with AUDIT, modified PCL (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist). An estimate was also made of psychoactive substances consumption. A total of 10,870 people were interviewed, of whom 5,429 had not changed residence. There was had permanent conflict in 21.8% of the municipalities, 65.5% had a discontinued conflict, and only 12.7% had been pacified or had no conflict. The intensity of the conflict was reported as high by 31.8% of the people. Violent municipalities have a higher prevalence of anxiety disorders, depression, possible Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and smoking. Alcohol consumption was more common in municipalities with less intense conflict. The municipalities classified as having high levels of violence have a higher prevalence of mental disorders and the majority of the mental problems. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  15. Men's and women's experiences of violence and traumatic events in rural Côte d'Ivoire before, during and after a period of armed conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia; Kone, Drissa; Bakayoko-Topolska, Monika; Manan K A, David; Lehmann, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assessed men's and women's experiences of gender based violence and other traumatic events in Côte d'Ivoire, a West African conflict-affected setting, before, during and after a period of active armed conflict (2000–2007). Design Cross-sectional, household survey. Setting 12 rural communities directly impacted by the Crisis in Côte d'Ivoire, spanning regions controlled by government forces, rebels and UN peacekeepers in 2008. Participants 2678 men and women aged 15–49 years. Primary outcome measures Violence exposures measured since age 15. Questions included intimate partner physical and sexual violence; physical and sexual violence by others (including combatants) and exposure to traumatic events before, during and after the Crisis period (2000–2007). Results Physical and/or sexual violence since age 15 was reported by 57.1% women and 40.2% men (p=0.01); 29.9% women and 12.3% men reported exposure to any violence in the past year. Nearly 1 in 10 women (9.9%) and 5.9% men (p=0.03) were forced to have sex by a non-partner since age 15, and 14.8% women and 3.3% men (p=0.00) reported their first sexual experience was forced. Combatants were rarely reported as sexual violence perpetrators (0.3% women). After the Crisis, intimate partner physical violence was the most frequently reported form of violence and highest among women (20.9% women, 9.9% men, p=0.00). Fearing for their life was reported by men and women before, during and after the Crisis. Conclusions Sexual violence in conflict remains a critical international policy concern. However, men and women experience different types of violence before, during and after conflict. In many conflict settings, other forms of violence, including intimate partner violence, may be more widespread than conflict-related sexual violence. Alongside service provision for rape survivors, our findings underscore the need for postconflict reconstruction efforts to invest in programmes to prevent and respond to

  16. What evidence exists for initiatives to reduce risk and incidence of sexual violence in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Steinacker, Léa; Zwi, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i) survivor care; ii) livelihood initiatives; iii) community mobilisation; iv) personnel initiatives; v) systems and security responses; vi) legal interventions and vii) multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms, settings

  17. [Rwanda: violence committed against women in the context of generalized armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukakayumba, E

    1995-01-01

    Over the course of less than 3 months, the massacres in Rwanda, which followed the assassination of Rwanda¿s president on April 6, 1994, beat all historical records of such horrors in the end of the 20th century. From April 6 to the beginning of July 1994, more than 1 million people were killed in the internal conflict. In addition, millions of refugees were displaced inside and outside of the country. Even in the refugee camps, displaced people were not safe. For example, in the Goma refugee camp, more than 20,000 people died from cholera during the second half of July. Also during the period, the number of unaccompanied children reached more than 200,000. In this context of war, death, and disease, women suffered and continue to suffer violence. Mental and physical cruelty, and being condemned to living a miserable life in silence and isolation are discussed with regard to women in Rwanda. The most frequent reported forms of physical cruelty are rape, bodily mutilation, especially of the reproductive organs, forced marriage, and forced servitude. Such violence and cruelty are discussed. One form of mental cruelty involves forcing a mother to help mutilate and/or kill family members. Young boys were sometimes forced to rape their mothers, while other times soldiers cut off husbands¿ genitals in front of their wives, then placed the body parts into their mouths.

  18. Ending war against women. CRLP sponsors workshop on violence against women in situations of armed conflict during Beijing + 5 regional conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, J

    2000-03-01

    Sexual violence during armed conflict has been the primary concern in conferences and meetings of international organizations. It has been rightly viewed as a war crime and a violation of women's human rights. In the Economic Commission for Europe conference in January 2000, the issue was discussed extensively. For the part of the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy and the International Women's Health Coalition, they sponsored a workshop addressing women's sexual and reproductive rights in situations of armed conflict. Participants of the workshop shared experiences from the conflicts in Eastern Europe. Reports indicated that affected women experienced rape and domestic violence, and that trafficking of women has escalated. Compounding these factors has decreased the government funding for contraception, abortion, and health education. In addition, the panelists suggested that women's reproductive health and rights could be improved with greater mental and physical health services and stronger social support during wartime. They further recommended that peacekeeping personnel and others pay closer attention to who is perpetrating the violence against women so that prosecutions can take place after the conflict has ended. Moreover, international relief workers should also work to build capacity of local health personnel to meet women's health needs throughout the transition period.

  19. Título da página eletrónica: SVAC ‑ International Research Group “Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Moura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A rede internacional Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict (SVAC, criada oficialmente em 2010, reúne um conjunto de investigadoras de diversas áreas científicas (historiadores/as, sociólogos/as, juristas, filósofos/as, psicólogos/as, especialistas das área da literatura e dos estudos culturais, etc. e de ativistas dos direitos humanos que trabalham sobre questões relacionadas com a violência sexual em conflitos armados. O projeto inicial partiu das investigadoras do Hamburger Institut für Sozia...

  20. The ICRC's approach to sexual violence in armed conflict: In conversation with Peter Maurer: President of the ICRC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    .... In this Q&A, ICRC President Peter Maurer reflects on the complex nature of sexual violence and on some of the specific challenges involved, including identifying victims and assessing and adequately responding to their needs...

  1. Screening of Extraction Methods for Glycoproteins from Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) Oral-Arms by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Guoyan; LI Bafang; ZHAO Xue; ZHUANG Yongliang; YAN Mingyan; HOU Hu; ZHANG Xiukun; CHEN Li

    2009-01-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotcin. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against con-centration for TGP were linear (r=0.9984, y=4.5895x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400mgL-1. The mean extrac-tion recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish (R. esculentum) oral-arms bv four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water ex-traction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophtlized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and ana-lyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8mm×300mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.Kay words HPLC; glycoprotein; jellyfish; extraction method

  2. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  3. violence on South African society

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinking: being hijacked, armed gangs invading our homes, being ... The impact of 'acceptable' violence on South .... (assaults, homicides) takes place in conflicts between ... violence is a socially learned behaviour.34 Children who grow up ...

  4. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyben, Florian; Weninger, Felix; Lehment, Nicolas; Schuller, Björn; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP) on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis.

  5. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Eyben

    Full Text Available Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis.

  6. Proliferation of weapons and armed violence in the private security sector in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges and opportunities for taking action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Bacouillard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC has been monitoring various media in 19 countries and has documented more than 100 newspaper articles on cases of armed violence and the proliferation offirearms in the private security sector. The objective of this investigation is to analyze reported cases and systematize a typology regarding such cases, in order to prove the existence of problems in the private security sector which is a source and a victim of insecurity. This study reveals the frequency with which these cases occur, as well as the fact that they occur in different countries of the region, demonstrating that the cases being studied are not isolated cases and that they encourage the States and companies within the sector to address this disturbing reality.Finally, this article presents a series of initiatives that can be implemented by competent national authorities on the subject, as well as by the companies within the sector, to face the challenges posed by the handling, ownership and use of firearms with the privatization of the security sectorin the region.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1754

  7. Arm Orthosis/Prosthesis Movement Control Based on Surface EMG Signal Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suberbiola, Aaron; Zulueta, Ekaitz; Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Etxeberria-Agiriano, Ismael; Graña, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    This paper shows experimental results on electromyography (EMG)-based system control applied to motorized orthoses. Biceps and triceps EMG signals are captured through two biometrical sensors, which are then filtered and processed by an acquisition system. Finally an output/control signal is produced and sent to the actuators, which will then perform the actual movement, using algorithms based on autoregressive (AR) models and neural networks, among others. The research goal is to predict the desired movement of the lower arm through the analysis of EMG signals, so that the movement can be reproduced by an arm orthosis, powered by two linear actuators. In this experiment, best accuracy has achieved values up to 91%, using a fourth-order AR-model and 100ms block length.

  8. Didier Combeau, Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats-Unis. Saul Cornell, A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins of Gun Control in America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Pacoud

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Deux ouvrages différents dans leur approche mais également passionnants permettent de saisir l’évolution du débat sur les armes à feu aux États-Unis. Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats Unis de Didier Combeau rend compte de la relation complexe que les Américains entretiennent avec les armes à feu depuis la fondation de la nation et de la polémique contemporaine sur la question du droit aux armes. A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins...

  9. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    chronology of the intensification of violence in the area, see Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá...Arms, London, UK: Zed Books, 2000, pp. 155–178. Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá: Cinep & Justicia

  10. Reflexions sur la violence

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Qu’on ne s’y trompe pas : si le titre a été emprunté à Georges Sorel, l’un des fondateurs de l’anarcho-syndicalisme et le théoricien de la violence entre le prolétariat et la bourgeoisie, le propos est tout autre, puisqu’il concerne l’utilisation de la violence armée dans la société internationale actuelle Instituto de Relaciones Internacionales

  11. Violence Against Women During the 1991 Ethnic Conflicts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence against women during the 1991 ethnic conflicts of the East Gonja District of Ghana. A qualitative approach ... KEY WORDS: Ethnic Conflict, Violence against Women, Gender, Armed Conflict Culture ...... New Delhi: Macmilan India Ltd.

  12. Sahel State Political Violence in Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Caitriona Dowd; Clionadh Raleigh

    2013-01-01

    Policy, media and academic attention on violence in the Sahel region has been widespread since the onset of the Arab Spring, and the escalating violence in recent months in Mali. This research explores the nature, patterns and dynamics of this violence in regional and national comparative perspective, contrasting divergent dynamics of violence both within and across the region. Data is drawn from the Armed Conflict Location & Event Dataset (ACLED), which facilitates analysis of both conte...

  13. 基于ARM的不同场合指纹细节点提取%Different occasions of fingerprint minutiae extraction based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉

    2012-01-01

    According to the different quality images, we put forward both the improved 8-neighborhood feature extraction algorithm and SUSAN fingerprint feature extraction algorithm based on ARM. The two algorithm is compared in MATLAB, and the application features are summarizes. Finally the two algorithms are verified in the Arm platform.%基于ARM处理平台,针对不同质量的图像提出改进的8邻域特征提取算法和SUSAN的指纹特征提取算法,在MATLAB下对比了这两种算法的优缺点,总结了其应用的场合,并且在ARM主建平台上验证了这两种算法的快速性和准确性。

  14. Domestic Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙犁

    2014-01-01

    <正>Most of the attention on domestic violence is on the violence perpetrated by the husband towards the wife.It seems that little attention is paid on the infliction of domestic violence on children.Domestic violence on children should not be neglected.Domestic violence on children is everywhere.A survey

  15. Armed Conflict: A Model for Understanding and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death Studies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Acts of deadly violence give rise to powerful emotions and trigger pre-programmed responses that often cause affected persons, including leaders, media, armed forces, and the general public, to act in ways that aggravate the situation and feed into cycles of violence. In this article, a model of the cycle of violence is presented that facilitates…

  16. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  17. Narraciones de Cien Años de Soledad Acerca del Conflicto Armado y la Violencia Política en Colombia (Naratives of One Hundred Years of Solitude About the Armed Conflict and Political Violence in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Eduardo Umaña Hernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore the narrations of the conflict and political violence embedded in the novel One hundred years of solitude by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. As one of the most important Colombian books of the last century, “One Hundred years of Solitude” evidences the magical narrative and imagination of the Caribbean as well as the reality of life, death, family, love, work, social conflicts and other aspects that are relevant for understanding and exploring the perceptions of justice of a certain society. After a brief recount of certain relevant descriptions of the novel, this essay proposes the analysis of these narrations focusing in the narrations of violence and of the Colombian armed conflict in the novel. El presente artículo explora y analiza las narraciones del conflicto y la violencia política en Colombia inmersas en Cien años de soledad de Gabriel García Márquez. Como uno de los más destacados libros colombianos del último siglo, esta novela propone una narración que se desliza en un vaivén de magia e imaginación, tanto como de realidad. Un vaivén de vida y muerte, que transita por la familia, el amor, el trabajo, los conflictos sociales y otros tantos ingredientes fundamentales para entender y explorar las percepciones de justicia de una cierta sociedad. Después de hacer un recuento breve de las narraciones del libro, a través del análisis de estos relatos, el presente trabajo reflexiona sobre diferentes aspectos de la realidad colombiana inmersos en la novela, concentrándose en las narraciones de violencia política y del conflicto armado en Colombia.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2526668

  18. 非洲妇女在武装冲突中遭受性暴力的人权保护法律问题及对策%The Legal Issues and Countermeasures of Protecting African Women's Human Rights from Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伯军; 石婷

    2012-01-01

    The issue that African women are suffering sexual violence in armed conflicts has attracted extensive concerns all around the world. The sexual violence may be divided into two main categories: accidental sexual as- sault and purposeful and systematic sexual assault. In international community, there still exit many legal problems for protecting African women from sexual violence in the armed conflicts. For example, the human rights law and humanitarian law worldwide fail to pay attention to the criminal actions of sexual violence. Therefore, it is necessary to take legislative and judicial policies worldwide to protect the African women in the armed conflicts.%非洲妇女在武装冲突中遭受性暴力侵害的问题日益引发全世界的广泛关注,该行为的实施主要表现为偶然发生及有目的、系统地实施两种类型。国际上在保护武装冲突中遭受性暴力的非洲妇女的人权方面还存在许多法律问题:立法上全球性的人权法与人道法公约缺乏对性暴力犯罪行为的应有关注,区域性的人权法公约缺乏针对性暴力犯罪的强制执行机制;司法上全球性与区域性层面的司法保护不力。因此,非洲妇女在武装冲突中遭受性暴力侵害的问题需要在国际立法、司法层面提出相应的对策加以解决。

  19. Trivializing violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes narratives of violence based on interviews with 43 marginalized young Danish people. Their narratives reveal that violence is not only experienced as singular, dramatic encounters; violence is also trivialized in their everyday lives. By drawing on anthropological perspectives...... on everyday violence, we propose a sensitizing framework that enables the exploration of trivialized violence. This framework integrates three perspectives on the process of trivialization: the accumulation of violence; the embodiment of violence; and the temporal and spatial entanglement of violence....... This analysis shows how multiple experiences of violence—as victim, witness, or perpetrator—intersect and mutually inform each other, thereby shaping the everyday lives and dispositions of the marginalized youth. The concept of trivialized violence is a theoretical contribution to cultural and narrative...

  20. Teen Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young person can be a victim, an offender, or a witness to the violence. Violent acts can include Bullying Fighting, including punching, kicking, slapping, ...

  1. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly ... men (5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made ...

  2. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, V C

    1999-01-01

    For decades, media violence has been viewed as largely a Western problem. New studies indicate that Indian children have increasing access to the media and that media violence will subject them to the same problems as Western children: imitation, desensitization, fear, and inappropriate attitudes about violence and aggression. Solutions exist but will have to be implemented within the next decade to protect Indian children and adolescents from the harmful effects of media violence.

  3. School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

  4. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects.

  5. Assisted extraction of the energy level spacings and lever arms in direct current bias measurements of one-dimensional quantum wires, using an image recognition routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, A. A. J.; Smith, L. W.; Al-Taie, H.; See, P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kelly, M. J.; Smith, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    A multiplexer technique is used to individually measure an array of 256 split gates on a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. This results in the generation of large volumes of data, which requires the development of automated data analysis routines. An algorithm is developed to find the spacing between discrete energy levels, which form due to transverse confinement from the split gate. The lever arm, which relates split gate voltage to energy, is also found from the measured data. This reduces the time spent on the analysis. Comparison with estimates obtained visually shows that the algorithm returns reliable results for subband spacing of split gates measured at 1.4 K. The routine is also used to assess direct current bias spectroscopy measurements at lower temperatures (50 mK). This technique is versatile and can be extended to other types of measurements. For example, it is used to extract the magnetic field at which Zeeman-split 1D subbands cross one another.

  6. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  7. Vegetation change, malnutrition and violence in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani, P.; Degomme, O.; Linderman, M.; Guha-Sapir, D.; Lambin, E.

    2008-12-01

    In certain circumstances, climate change in association with a broad range of social factors may increase the risk of famines and subsequently, violent conflict. The impacts of climate change on society will be experienced both through changes in mean conditions over long time periods and through increases in extreme events. Recent studies have shown the historical effects of long term climate change on societies and the importance of short term climatic triggers on armed conflict. However, most of these studies are at the state level ignoring local conditions. Here we use detailed information extracted from wide-swath satellite data (MODIS) to analyze the impact of climate variability change on malnutrition and violent conflict. More specifically, we perform multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to explain the geographical distribution of malnutrition and conflict in the Horn of Africa on a sub-national level. This region, constituted by several unstable and poor states, has been affected by droughts, floods, famines, and violence in the past few years. Three commonly used nutrition and mortality indicators are used to characterize the health situation (CE-DAT database). To map violence we use the georeferenced Armed Conflicts dataset developed by the Center for the Study of Civil War. Explanatory variables include several socio-economic variables and environmental variables characterizing land degradation, vegetation activity, and interannual variability in land-surface conditions. First results show that interannual variability in land-surface conditions is associated with malnutrition but not with armed conflict. Furthermore, land degradation seems not to be associated with either malnutrition or armed conflict.

  8. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the

  9. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the so

  10. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  11. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the so

  12. Accounting for violence in Eastern Congo: Young people's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    been the scene of unremitting armed conflict and unspeakable violence. While ... the suffering endured by Congolese children and youth has been widely ..... to the devastating effects of the massive influx of militant Rwandan Hutu refugees.

  13. [Family violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Es-soussi, M; Asri, F; Tazi, I

    2013-09-01

    Family violence is a serious public health problem, the scale of which is seriously increasing in Morocco. Although it has existed for a long time, we ignore the real characteristics of this plague in our country; our work consisted in an epidemiological approach of family violence in Marrakech during 2006. After elaborating a questionnaire, which allows the study of the demographic and social profile of the families, the study of violence exercised in the family and the evaluation of the depression in the women, we led an inquiry amongst 265 women. Analysis of the results obtained has allowed us to underline the following characteristics: 16.6% of the women in our sample had been physically beaten; the young age is a risk factor; the age range most affected by violence is in women between the ages of 30 and 40 and which represent 39% of the battered women; domestic violence touches all the social, economic and cultural classes: in our study, 63% of the women having undergone violence were housewives, 25% were managers and 3% senior executives; family problems were the most important cause of violence in our study, representing 32.32%. Requests for money was the cause in 11.3% of the cases, and imposed sexual relations were found in 6.8% of the cases; alcoholism is an aggravating factor of family violence; 27.3% of the spouses who assaulted their wives were drunk; 52% of the assaulted women were victims of violence in childhood and 36% had been witness to their father's violence; in 63.6% of the cases of violence, the children were witnesses, and in 25% of the cases the children were victims of violence at the same time as their mothers; 50% of the women victims of violence did not react, while 38.6% left home, and 9.1 filed for divorce. Thirty-two percent of the assaulted woman had been traumatised by the aggression; the association of depression and violence was very high, 343% of the battered women in our study suffered from severe depression. This work

  14. Virtual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In the United States, exposure to media violence is becoming an inescapable component of children's lives. With the rise in new technologies, such as tablets and new gaming platforms, children and adolescents increasingly are exposed to what is known as "virtual violence." This form of violence is not experienced physically; rather, it is experienced in realistic ways via new technology and ever more intense and realistic games. The American Academy of Pediatrics continues to be concerned about children's exposure to virtual violence and the effect it has on their overall health and well-being. This policy statement aims to summarize the current state of scientific knowledge regarding the effects of virtual violence on children's attitudes and behaviors and to make specific recommendations for pediatricians, parents, industry, and policy makers.

  15. Patterns of Wartime Sexual Violence: Perspectives from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Lisa Govasli

    2014-01-01

    Sexual violence has been perpetrated as a strategy or practice in a number of conflicts across the globe, but research has found that the prevalence and practice of wartime sexual violence varies greatly between different conflicts, and between different armed actors within the same war (Cohen, Green, & Wood, 2013; Cohen & Nordås, 2014; Wood, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012). The purpose of this project was to map out patterns of wartime sexual violence in the ongoing internal conflict in Colombia, in...

  16. Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapierre, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992. Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than five decades, the tendency to label it as ‘private matters’ or ‘marital disagreements’ has obscured the reality of women living with abuse in their home. At a general level, domestic violence can be defined as the means used by a man in order to assert his control and domination over his intimate partner, whether they are married or not (Mullender 1996. It can involve incidents of physical and sexual violence, as well as verbal, psychological and financial abuse. Though some of its manifestations may be associated with particular cultural or religious groups – e.g. forced marriage and honour killing in South-Asian communities – domestic violence affects women from all classes and backgrounds.

  17. Violence Against Women: Same-Sex Relationship Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... assault and abuse Stalking Violence against immigrant and refugee women Violence against women at work Violence against women with disabilities Get help for violence Mental Health effects of violence Laws on violence against women ...

  18. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Possible Solutions It is recommended that management and employees work together to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides ... program in place to offer: counseling, support groups, stress debriefing, ... employee assistance programs OSHA provides some sample forms in: ...

  19. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E; Strasburger, V C

    1998-04-01

    American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials.

  20. Violence and war in agrarian perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, C.; Richards, P.

    2011-01-01

    The bulk of analysis and commentary on violent conflicts in developing countries over the past 20 years or so has neglected the dynamics and tensions of agrarian political economy. Introducing a special issue devoted to these agrarian dimensions of armed conflict, non-war violence and post-war reper

  1. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  2. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  3. "Domestic violence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, Ruth; Giger, Joy Newman

    2002-01-01

    Domestic violence is no respector of persons but may involve spouses or cohabiting adults across all socioeconomic, ethnic, and religious groups. It is no respect or of community. The abuse can be physical, sexual, or emotional/psychological. It can be economic and be demonstrated by neglect. Nursing care for the problem of domestic abuse needs to be directed at primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Care for victims and victimizers of domestic violence involves a collaborative relationship with other professionals as well as interagency cross referrals that involve health, welfare, refuge, and judicial protective services.

  4. Net Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío del Carmen Serrano Barquín

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we make some reflections on the ways and means used by young men and women to communicate and interact college online and in social networks. In this sense, it is argued that youth socialization from electronic communication contributes to the manifestation of covert acts, sometimes symbolic violence foster or harsh environments, even at the level of representation of that identity. Expand knowledge and achievements that have such networks in youth socialization processes is an important contribution to the field of communication, new technologies and of course the violence.

  5. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  6. Sahel State Political Violence in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitriona Dowd

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Policy, media and academic attention on violence in the Sahel region has been widespread since the onset of the Arab Spring, and the escalating violence in recent months in Mali. This research explores the nature, patterns and dynamics of this violence in regional and national comparative perspective, contrasting divergent dynamics of violence both within and across the region. Data is drawn from the Armed Conflict Location & Event Dataset (ACLED, which facilitates analysis of both contemporary and historical patterns. Regional characteristics of Sahelian violence are highlighted, which underscore a relatively low level of violence in the region as a whole, with increases in conflict levels largely driven by the single case of Mali in recent months. Detailed analysis of specific groups and actor types reveal important intra-regional discrepancies which have been largely obscured by characterisations of a regional, trans-national crisis. Together, these observations point to the need to interrogate narratives of regional dynamics which may conceal important national and even sub-national variations and drivers of political violence.

  7. ARM Cortex M0的油田采输物联网监控系统设计%Design of IoT Monitoring System for Oil Extraction and Transportation Based on ARM Cortex-M0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于玉珠; 殷春莉

    2014-01-01

    为了提升油田生产的自动化程度,保障安全,降低运行成本,扩大对环境恶劣和偏远地区的自动化覆盖范围,设计一种油田采输物联网监控系统。该系统以基于 ARM Cortex M0的 LPC11C14FBD48为主控芯片,M35为 GPRS 通信模块,用 C++语言开发内核软件和远程集中监控中心软件。可远程对油田采输现场的数据进行采集和系统控制,同时与云计算服务中心实现数据交互,为大数据处理提供基础。该系统实现了油田采输无人值守,覆盖偏远区域,降低了运行成本,提升了油田生产的安全性、可靠性和高效性,使油田生产综合效益明显提高。%In order to raise the automation degree and security in oil field production,reduce the running cost and improve the automated range of poor environment and remote areas,a kind of IoT monitoring control system for oil production is designed.The system takes LPC1 1C14FBD48 based on ARM Cortex-M0 as main control chip and M35 as GPRS communication module.C++ is used to develop kernel software and the software of remote centralized monitoring control center.Remote data acquisition and system control of oil acqui-sition areas are realized,and data interactions with the cloud computing service center are completed so as to provide basic data for big data processing.The system can be applied in poor environment and remote areas.It not only saves the operation cost,but also improves safety,reliability and efficiency,so that it increases obviously comprehensive benefits of oil field production.

  8. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in your ... help. Return to top More information on Violence prevention for men Explore other publications and websites Are ...

  9. Understanding Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Sexual Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Sexual violence refers to any sexual activity where consent is not obtained or freely given. Anyone can experience or perpetrate sexual violence. Most ...

  10. [Characteristics of violence during teenage pregnancy in Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Pulache, Hans; Mori-Quispe, Elizabeth; Hinostroza-Camposano, Willy D; Yancachajlla-Apaza, Maribel; Lam-Figueroa, Nelly; Chacón-Torrico, Horacio

    2013-07-01

    To determine the characteristics of violence seen in pregnant teenagers who were treated at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal (INMP) in Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was carried out by INMP between January and March, 2010 using a probabilistic and systematic sampling. The study unit comprises every hospitalized teenager who had just given birth and who lived in Lima. A semi-structured interview was conducted. History of violence was operationalized into: verbal violence (insults, ridicule, and humiliation), physical violence (arm pulling, hair pulling, pushes), direct aggression (slaps, kicking, burns) and sexual violence (sexual intercourse without consent). 292 teenage mothers aged 16,5 ± 1 in average took part in the study. 47.9% lived with their partners and 51.4% were single. In 97.3% of the cases, they got pregnant as a result of a conserted sexual relationship, while 2.7% got pregnant as a result of rape. 90.1% of teenage mothers reported not having planned the pregnancy. Conserning history of violence: 48.1% had had verbal violence, 17.1% physical violence, 8.2% direct aggression and 6.8% sexual violence. Violence during teenage pregnancy is not an isolated event; actually, it is rather common in any of its forms.

  11. Novel diglycolamide functionalized calix[4]arenes for actinide extraction and supported liquid membrane studies: Part II. Role of substituents in the pendent arms and mass transfer modeling I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansari, S.A.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Iqbal, M.; Kandwal, P.; Huskens, J.; Verboom, W.

    2013-01-01

    Several calix[4]arene-functionalized diglycolamide (C4DGA) ligands were evaluated for the extraction as well as supported liquid membrane (SLM) transport of actinides and fission product elements from nitric acid feed solutions. The extraction efficiency of the C4DGA ligands for Am(III) was orders o

  12. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  13. Structured risk assessment and violence in acute psychiatric wards: randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abderhalden, Christoph; Needham, Ian; Dassen, Theo; Halfens, Ruud; Haug, Hans-Joachim; Fischer, Joachim E

    2008-01-01

    .... To assess whether such risk assessments decrease the incidence of violence and coercion. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 14 acute psychiatric admission wards as the units of randomisation, including a preference arm...

  14. An Immune System Inspired Theory for Crime and Violence in Cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soumya Banerjee

    2017-01-01

    .... The biological immune system is also engaged in an arms race with pathogens. We propose an immune system inspired theory of crime and violence in human societies, especially in large agglomerations like cities...

  15. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Dating Violence - español (Spanish) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Domestic Violence: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Violencia doméstica: Tema de ... Abuse (An Introduction) - español (Spanish) PDF Healthy Roads Media Healthy Living Toolkit: Violence In the Home - English Healthy Living Toolkit: Violence ...

  16. Sexuality and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctuary, Gerald

    The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

  17. Relationship violence in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alison J; Raymond, Marissa; Catallozzi, Marina; Ryan, Owen; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2007-12-01

    Previous experience with violence or a deficit in interpersonal skills may lead to violence in adolescent relationships. In this article we focus on various forms of interpersonal violence (bullying, sexual harassment, coercion, and relationship violence) that adolescents may experience and pay special attention to risk factors, help-seeking behaviors, and sequelae.

  18. Adolescent to Parent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Claire Pedrick; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the extent of violence toward parents by adolescent children in relation to: (1) sex and age of the child; (2) the likelihood that mothers, more than fathers, are victims of children's violence; (3) social factors that may influence child to parent violence; and (4) stress as a factor in family violence. (Author/MJL)

  19. Working with Young Children Who Are Victims of Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Eva; Penn, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Young children are particularly vulnerable to war and armed conflict. Although the long-term priority is always to try to unravel and reduce violence and conflict, in the short term some interventions may reduce suffering. In this article the authors report on recent evidence on psychosocial interventions designed to mitigate the impact of armed…

  20. Impact of Armed Conflicts of Children, Families, and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntakiyimana, Felicien

    2005-01-01

    With the multiplication of armed conflicts around the world, especially in Africa, there are more and more children who are exposed to war related violence. War sows the seeds of fear, restlessness, uncertainty, and despair. Families are scattered, and children are left without care; parents are detained, killed, or disappear. No wonder children…

  1. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  2. The Gun Violence Database

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlick, Ellie; Callison-Burch, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Gun Violence Database (GVDB), a large and growing database of gun violence incidents in the United States. The GVDB is built from the detailed information found in local news reports about gun violence, and is constructed via a large-scale crowdsourced annotation effort through our web site, http://gun-violence.org/. We argue that centralized and publicly available data about gun violence can facilitate scientific, fact-based discussion about a topic that is often dominated by...

  3. Women and Violence: A Study of Women's Empowerment and Its Challenges in Jammu and Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to highlight the violence against women's in Jammu and Kashmir. In Jammu and Kashmir Woman are the most vulnerable and worst hit section of the society especially under situations of violence caused by militancy and armed conflict. They don't only suffer from intense humiliation and harassment but also undergo traumatic…

  4. Spousal violence and pregnancy termination among married women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Solanke Lukman

    2016-06-01

    In Nigeria, the relationship between spousal violence and pregnancy termination had not been adequately explored. To assess the prevalence of spousal violence, and examine the relationship between spousal violence and pregnancy termination. Data on spousal violence among ever married women was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The outcome variable is pregnancy termination. The explanatory variables were the type of spousal violence experienced by the women in the last 12 months preceding the survey. Descriptive statistical analysis and binary logistic regression were applied using stata version 12. Results show that 13.8% of women had ever terminated pregnancy; 19.9% had ever experienced at least one type of spousal violence; and women who had ever terminated pregnancy had higher prevalence of all types of spousal violence. Women who had ever experienced spousal physical violence were 9% more likely to experience pregnancy termination (OR=1.09; CI: 1.03-2.86); and women who had ever experienced spousal emotional violence were 33% more likely to experience pregnancy termination (OR=1.33; CI: 0.97-1.95). Spousal violence is significantly related to pregnancy termination. Improving women's sexual and reproductive health in the country requires fresh initiatives that address spousal violence to further reduce women's exposure to pregnancy termination.

  5. Domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author examines a definition of a family, the role of a family as a social and legal institution as well as state reaction in a situation of mal function of a family. Special attention is given to a definition of a family, its protective function and criminal law in modern legal systems. Author also analyzes recent reform of our legislation firstly new criminal offence (Article 118a of the Criminal Code of Republic of Serbia - Domestic Violence - and its relation to other similar criminal offences. Finally, author gives an overview of up-to-now practice from District and Municipal Prosecutors Offices in Belgrade and suggestions for solving observed problems in implementation of this criminal offence.

  6. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors.

  7. Male violence or patriarchal violence? Global Trends in Men and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Policies and research have focused recently on men's use of violence against women, and the terms "gender-based violence" or "domestic violence" have often been used rather than "patriarchal violence." This article argues that instead of talking about "male violence," or gender-based violence, a more useful analytical framework is "patriarchal violence." Applying this lens examines how violence is based in complex power relations - with low-income men and men in specific groups, such...

  8. 'Cet arrière-goût de violence': On violence against violence

    OpenAIRE

    Bojanić Petar

    2010-01-01

    I will attempt to explain the connection between violence (someone's violence) and my own or Levinas's or the State's violence as a response to the initial violence (Violence against Violence) and finally the violence which remains in the mouth, throat, aftertaste [gout] or in disgust [degout]. 'Cet arrière-goût de violence' or 'un quelconque arrière-goût de degout' [a sort of aftertaste of disgust].

  9. Predicting Domestic and Community Violence by Soldiers Living in a Conflict Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Corina; Elbert, Thomas; Bambonye, Manassé; Weierstall, Roland; Reichert, Manfred; Zeller, Anja; Crombach, Anselm

    2017-03-09

    Past research revealed war trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as potential predictors for domestic and community violence in crisis regions and among soldiers in different armed conflicts. The impact of family violence and other adversities experienced in childhood as well as of a combat-enhanced appeal for aggressive behavior (appetitive aggression) remains to be specified. In the present study, the authors separately predicted violence against children, intimate partner violence and community violence in 381 Burundian soldiers returning from foreign deployment and living in a post- conflict region. Using path analysis, they aimed to disentangle the independent contributions and pathways of the following variables: Exposure to war trauma and childhood familial violence, PTSD and depression symptom severity, and appetitive aggression. Childhood familial violence had an independent effect on all contexts of violence and was the only significant predictor for violence against the soldiers' own children. Intimate partner violence was additionally predicted by depression symptom severity, while community violence was additionally predicted by PTSD symptom severity and appetitive aggression. Besides war-related mental ill-health and appetitive aggression, violent experiences during childhood development must not be overlooked as a factor fueling the cycle of violence in conflict regions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Forms and factors of peer violence and victimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinić Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to explore the latent structure of violence and victimisation based on the factor analysis of the Peer Violence and Victimisation Questionnaire (PVVQ, as well as to examine the correlates of violence and victimisation. The sample included 649 secondary school students (61.8% male from the urban area. Besides the PVVQ, the Aggressiveness questionnaire AVDH was administered. Based on parallel analysis, three factors were extracted in the violence domain, as well as in the victimisation domain of the PVVQ. The factors were interpreted as a physical, verbal and relational form of violence and victimisation, which is in line with common classifications. The correlations of those forms with the aggressiveness dimensions were positive. The relationships with gender, school grade and school achievement referred to the importance of interaction effects between the mentioned characteristics of students and the tendency towards violence or being exposed to it. The main result is that boys from lower school grades and students with lower school achievement in general, are more prone to manifesting physical violence and more often are the target of physical violence. These groups of students are the target groups for preventive programs. The resulting effects indicated the complexity of the violence phenomenon and pointed to the need to consider the wider context of student’s characteristics in the determination of violence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179037 i br. 179053

  11. School Violence: Data & Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Social Media Publications Injury Center School Violence: Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The first ... fact sheet provides up-to-date data and statistics on youth violence. Data Sources Indicators of School ...

  12. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  13. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons, and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall, or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  14. Cocaleros. Violence, Drugs and Social Mobilization in the Post-Conflict Upper Huallaga Valley, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dun, M.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    During Peru’s internal armed conflict (1980s-1990s) the Upper Huallaga Valley became one of the most violent theaters of conflict, with political violence and violent crime becoming causally related phenomena. In the Upper Huallaga different sorts of armed actors (whether their motivations were poli

  15. Cocaleros. Violence, Drugs and Social Mobilization in the Post-Conflict Upper Huallaga Valley, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dun, M.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    During Peru’s internal armed conflict (1980s-1990s) the Upper Huallaga Valley became one of the most violent theaters of conflict, with political violence and violent crime becoming causally related phenomena. In the Upper Huallaga different sorts of armed actors (whether their motivations were

  16. Evolution of robotic arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  17. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  18. [Sexuality and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, G; Vlatkovic, D

    2011-03-23

    Violence is only a form of excessive aggressiveness, hence we ask ourselves if it is something naturel or if it is something produced by society. Sexual violence in particular could express a sort of vehemence as well as attain a destructive intention, losing even any eroticism, as observed very frequently in rape. Instead of describing different manifestations of violence, it is more profitable to try to explain the deep origin of violence itself.

  19. Arm Lift (Brachioplasty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sagging. An arm lift might also boost your body image. As you get older, the skin on your upper arms changes — sagging and becoming loose. Significant weight loss also can cause the undersides of your upper arms to droop. While exercise can strengthen and improve muscle tone in the ...

  20. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  1. A Nation of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Richard M.; Chalker, Donald M.

    1999-01-01

    The United States leads the developed world in youth violence, with the highest homicide and suicide rates among young people. Exposure starts early. To reduce violence in U.S. schools, we must control handguns, abolish television violence, isolate violent students, and change the ways that juvenile offenders are punished. (MLH)

  2. Twilight policing: private security and violence in urban South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diphoorn, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    South Africa boasts the largest private security sector in the entire world, reflecting deep anxieties about violence, security, and governance. Twilight Policing is an ethnographic study of the daily policing practices of armed response officers—a specific type of private security officer—and their

  3. Crippling Violence: Conflict and Incident Polio in Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Norris

    Full Text Available Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question.We examine the geographical relationship between violence (represented by the location of detonated Improvised Explosive Devices and polio incidence by generating maps of IEDs and polio incidence during 2010, and by comparing the mean number of IED detonations in polio high-risk districts with non polio high-risk districts during 2004-2009.We demonstrate a geographic relationship between IED violence and incident polio. Districts that have high-risk for polio have highly statistically significantly greater mean numbers of IEDs than non polio high-risk districts (p-values 0.0010-0.0404.The geographic relationship between armed conflict and polio incidence provides valuable insights as to how to plan a vaccination campaign in violent contexts, and allows us to anticipate incident polio in the regions of armed conflict. Such information permits vaccination planners to engage interested armed combatants to co-develop strategies to mitigate the effects of violence on polio.

  4. Speciation and phytoavailability of lead and antimony in a small arms range soil amended with mussel shell, cow bone and biochar: EXAFS spectroscopy and chemical extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Lee, Sang Soo; Lim, Jung Eun; Lee, Sung-Eun; Cho, Ju Sik; Moon, Deok Hyun; Hashimoto, Yohey; Ok, Yong Sik

    2014-01-01

    Mussel shell (MS), cow bone (CB) and biochar (BC) were selected to immobilize metals in an army firing range soil. Amendments were applied at 5% (wt) and their efficacies were determined after 175 d. For metal phytoavailability test, maize (Zea mays L.) plants were cultivated for 3weeks. Results showed that all amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb by up to 99% in planted/unplanted soils. Contrarily, exchangeable Sb were increased in the MS- and CB-amended soils. The rise in soil pH (~1 unit) by the amendments affected Pb and Sb mobility in soils. Bioavailability of Pb to maize was reduced by up to 71% in the amended soils. The Sb uptake to maize was decreased by up to 53.44% in the BC-amended soil. Sequential chemical extractions showed the transformation of easily available Pb to stable residual form with the amendment treatments. Scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping revealed the Pb association with Al and Si in the MS-amended soil and that with P in the CB- and BC-amended soils. Additionally, the extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic analysis indicated the transformation of organic bound Pb in unamended control soil to relatively more stable Pb-hydroxide (Ksp=10(-17.1)), chloropyromorphite (Ksp=10(-84.4)) and Pb-phosphate (Ksp=10(-23.8)) in soils amended with MS, CB and BC, respectively. Application of BC was the best in decreasing the phytoavailability of Pb and Sb in the studied army firing range soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizire, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the prevalence of violence against women in Uganda. The incidence of violence against women has been increasing despite efforts by law enforcement orders. In the broadest sense, violence against women is any violation of a woman's personhood, mental or physical integrity or freedom of movement. Violence against women is considered as an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Moreover, the act violates and impairs women's rights and fundamental freedoms. The low social and economic status of women can be both a cause and a consequence of violence against women. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, limit the ability to make choices on women's lives.

  6. The left-wing armed organization origin conditions during the years 1960-1970 in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iazzetta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the conditions that paved the way for left-wing armed organizations during the 1960’s and 1970’s in Argentina. To achieve this goal, firstly, we will discuss the political conditions that triggered the popular reactive violence and subsequently the rationalized violence led by the guerilla organizations of the time. Secondly, we will discuss the socioeconomic determinants that could have motivated the origins of these organizations; and we will talk about whether Argentina was actually undergoing a deep economic crisis or if this point of view worked as a way to justify the origins of the armed struggle. At last, we will analyze some artistic productions developed during these years, having in mind that they can help understanding the assimilation that the revolutionary armed project of these organizations had and the use of violence's legitimacy to intervene in politics.

  7. Armed To Learn: Aiming At California K 12 School Gun Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    violence 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 95 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS... paradigms that exist or can exist to create policy. Acknowledging the assertion of Donella Meadows that no paradigm is “true,” none of these policy options...2016, dq.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/content.asp. 17 Ibid. 18 Mark A. Velez, Guns, Violence , and School Shootings: A Policy Change to Arm Some Teachers

  8. Evolution of robotic arms

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond th...

  9. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence.

  10. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    individualising and pathologising gendered sexualised violence and personal difficulties connected hereto, consequently disregarding the important involvement of gendered and gendering societal processes (S. Ronkainen 2001). Also, its focus on the symbolic points to the central position of mass media...

  11. Veto Violence - Violence Education Tools Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VetoViolence.cdc.gov has been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide grantees and partners with access to training and tools...

  12. Prevention of youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Philip J

    2005-01-01

    Youth violence is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Concern over the number of youth affected by violence in their homes, communities, and in schools has precipitated considerable discussion in the popular press and in professional journals. This article reviews recent activity to reduce youth violence with an emphasis on activity taking place in Maryland. The number of youth murdered or exposed to violence in Maryland remains too high. Although most of our youth are resilient, they are not unaffected by the violence that surrounds them. Exposure to violence places children at high risk for a variety of emotional and behavioral problems, such as poor academic performance, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and inadequate socialization and development.

  13. Sexual assault and other types of violence in intimate partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Morken, Tone; Baste, Valborg; Campos-Serna, Javier; Moen, Bente E

    2012-03-01

    To investigate whether sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of abuse rather than others in violent intimate relationships. Cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all Norwegian women's shelters. Women seeking refuge at Norwegian women's shelters in 2002 and 2003. Sexual assault and experiences of intimate partner violence were measured using the Severity of Violence against Women Scale (SVAWS) and psychological violence was measured using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). Student's t-test analyses were performed between the mean values of the different acts of reported violence, and linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between sexual violence and the other forms of violence reported. Sexual violence correlated significantly with the other eight categories in SVAWS, and with violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen and psychological violence in PMWI. When we adjusted all categories for each other by linear regression analysis, sexual intimate partner violence was significantly associated with hair pulling, arm twisting, spanking or biting, dominance and isolation abuse and violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen. Sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of physical and psychological violence than with others. This knowledge may be important for improving our understanding of sexual violence in intimate partner relationships and in the efforts to detect intimate partner violence. Bruises, loss of hair and bite marks may suggest that sexual acts were committed against the victim's will. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. [Migrations forced by violence: the Colombian case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builes, Gloria Marcela Gómez; Arias, Gilberto Mauricio Astaiza; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2008-01-01

    The human migrations have been one of the motors in the history of humanity. During the twentieth century, internal forced displacement has been an important component of the migration processes in the world. Colombia, a paradigm for this phenomenon, is a country with more than three and a half million people displaced over the last 25 years by force of the violence resulting from an internal armed conflict. Besides the socio-demographic effects in the reconfiguration of the cities, this problem affects the human condition of the victims deteriorating their health and quality of life. This article aims to show the general panorama of migrations forced by violence in the world and to analyze the peculiarities of this phenomenon in the Colombian case. We conclude that forced displacement is a serious violation of human rights producing a human drama by exposing the affected individuals and communities to vulnerability and a deep deterioration of their quality of life and health.

  15. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  16. Violence and Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, includi...

  17. Political Power and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Mitu; Pamfil Nichiţelea

    2011-01-01

    Political violence plays a huge role in public affairs and people's behavior, requiring both knowledge and rigorous research in many of its occurrences and its consequences for the proper management, organization and functioning of a society as a whole. Although political violence is a problem of a particular importance in our social life it is not analyzed and investigated in the scientific literature. Political violence it is a subject that usually passes into oblivion. This study presents ...

  18. Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience); witnessing family violence (perpetration and experience); antisocial personality disorder (perpetration); harmful use of alcohol (perpetration and experience); having multiple partners or suspected by their partners of infidelity ( ...

  19. Violence as Situational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle H. Treiber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Violence comes in many forms and occurs in many different circumstances for many different reasons. Is it really possible to develop a single theory that can explain all these disparate acts? In this paper, we argue it is. We make the case that acts of violence are essentially moral actions and therefore can, and should, be analysed and explained as such. We maintain that all acts of violence can be explained within the general framework of a theory of moral action. We present just such a theory – Situational Action Theory – and demonstrate how it can be applied to the explanation and study of violence.

  20. Media violence and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresin, E V

    1999-06-01

    This column reviews the literature on violence in the media and its effects on youth. The author summarizes the findings of naturalistic, longitudinal, and population-based studies conducted over the last 30 years. The literature provides compelling evidence that exposure of media violence to children plays a major role in the etiology of aggressive behavior. Psychiatrists can facilitate primary prevention of violence in our society by discussing the problem of media violence with parents, medical students, residents, and allied health and school professionals.

  1. Sexual violence among host and refugee population in Djohong District, Eastern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parveen; Agrawal, Pooja; Greenough, P Gregg; Goyal, Ravi; Kayden, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The following is a population-based survey of the Central African Republic (CAR) female refugee population displaced to rural Djohong District of Eastern Cameroon and associated female Cameroonian host population to characterise the prevalence and circumstances of sexual violence. A population-based, multistage, random cluster survey of 600 female heads of household was conducted during March 2010. Women heads of household were asked about demographics, household economy and assets, level of education and sexual violence experienced by the respondent only. The respondents were asked to describe the circumstances of their recent assault. The lifetime prevalence of sexual violence among Djohong district female heads of household is 35.2% (95% CI 28.7-42.2). Among heads of household who reported a lifetime incident of sexual violence, 64.0% (95% CI 54.3-72.5) suffered sexual violence perpetrated by their husband or partner. Among the host population, 3.9% (95% CI 1.4-10.5) reported sexual violence by armed groups compared to 39.0% (95% CI 25.6-54.2) of female refugee heads of household. Women who knew how to add and subtract were less likely to report sexual violence during their lifetime (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.08-0.34). Sexual violence is common among refugees and host population in Eastern Cameroon. Most often, perpetrators are partners/husbands or armed groups.

  2. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of an analog procedure to assess acceptability of intimate partner violence against women: the Partner Violence Acceptability Movie Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Rodriguez, Christina M; Lila, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    Acceptability of partner violence against women is a risk factor linked to its perpetration, and to public, professionals' and victims' responses to this behavior. Research on the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships is, however, limited by reliance solely on self-reports that often provide distorted or socially desirable accounts that may misrepresent respondents' attitudes. This study presents data on the development and initial validation of a new analog task assessing respondents' acceptability of physical violence toward women in intimate relationships: the Partner Violence Acceptability Movie Task (PVAM). This new analog task is intended to provide a more implicit measure of the acceptability of partner violence against women. For this analog task, clips were extracted from commercially available films (90-s segments) portraying partner violence. Two independent samples were used to develop and evaluate the PVAM: a sample of 245 undergraduate students and a sample of 94 male intimate partner violence offenders. This new analog task demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Results also indicated adequate construct validity. Both perpetrators and undergraduates scoring high in the PVAM also scored higher in self-reported justifications of partner abuse. Perpetrators of partner violence scored significantly higher in acceptability of partner violence than the undergraduate sample (both male and female students), and male students scored higher than females. These preliminary results suggest that the PVAM may be a promising tool to assess the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships, highlighting the need to consider alternatives to self-report to evaluate potential beliefs about partner violence.

  4. Collective Sexual Violence in Bosnia and Sierra Leone: A Comparative Case Study Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Bensel, Tusty; Sample, Lisa L

    2015-10-08

    Social scientists have long studied the patterns, motivations, and recidivism rates of sexual offenders; however, the majority of prior research has examined rape, where victims are assaulted by a single offender in isolated events. Often overlooked are sexually violent assaults committed during armed conflicts, which often exhibit group-level sexual offending. This oversight could be a result of perceived notions that sexual violence during conflict is a rare or regrettable event; however, it has been documented consistently throughout history. The purpose of this study was to improve our understanding of sexual violence during war by comparing and contrasting preconflict characteristics, conflict framing, and justifications for sexual violence in the Bosnian and Sierra Leone armed conflicts. This greater understanding can then be used to identify factors that may contribute to the collectivization of sexual violence during war.

  5. Family Violence and Violence against Children. Research Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the research literature on physical violence against children, including disciplinary tactics and abusive violence. Considers the incidence and prevalence of violence against children, key themes in research on causes, correlates and consequences of this violence, and future research needs. (JPB)

  6. Memory and history of violence in San Carlos and Apartadó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Inés Restrepo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires into the production of memories on violent events in two Antioquia municipalities, which from the 80’s have shown alarming violence indicators. Thus, in the municipality of San Carlos violent events memories are framed within a context of a catholic society having homogeneous economic conditions, elites historically pertaining to the Conservative party, accelerated development processes, and living under hegemonic armed rule. In this scenario a certain consensus is achieved in the narrative of violence, aiming at dignifying victims and highlighting the high costs armed confrontation entails. In the municipality of Apartadó, violence memory is framed within a pluri-ethnic, lay and marginal society, immerse in accelerated development processes and unstable armed rule. There, a split memory is produced, featuring political identities routinizing and eventually justifying violent events. In the face of these cases, an attempt is made to keep the reflection on what kind of memories are required to stop reproducing war?

  7. Stopping the Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Atwo-day seminar on legislation aimed at curbing domestic violence was held in Nanjing in east China's Jiangsu Province on December 9-11,2009. Foreign and domestic experts discussed a proposed law on the prevention and control of domestic violence that was drafted by the All-China Women's Federation (ACWF).

  8. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts. ...

  9. Domestic violence against men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Christopher F

    This article reviews the literature relating to domestic violence against men and examines some of the reasons why men are reluctant to report violent episodes. The article focuses on men as the victims and women as the perpetrators of domestic violence and identifies gaps in service provision. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is also discussed.

  10. [Children, television and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  11. Children and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  12. School Violence in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Naomi

    This booklet is intended to help parents and teacher activists think critically about the problem of violence in their schools and about how to respond. The booklet offers a framework for analyzing violence prevention programs that may already be in place in the schools, and it provides ideas for improving programs or starting new ones. The…

  13. Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  14. Children and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  15. Researching Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Alan; Lometti, Guy

    1984-01-01

    Two officals from the American Broadcasting Companies (ABC) (1) review a 1982 National Institute of Mental Health Study on television and violence, and (2) summarize the broadcast standards, practices, policies, and procedures employed by the network regarding the depiction of violence. (GC)

  16. [Violence against children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhain, Ute; Künster, Anne Katrin; Besier, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Violence against children is a widespread phenomenon. Interpersonal violence within the family context is typical in childhood, whereas violence occurs more frequently in the leisure and peer context during adolescence, often involving new media. The risk for experiencing violence is associated with many different factors, for example the age, psychosocial context, and cultural background of a child. Data on the prevalence of violence vary by country, depending on the available documentation systems. It is estimated that the number of unreported cases is high. Meta-analyses comprising mainly retrospective self-report studies indicate prevalence estimates between 12 and 19% for neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. Emotional child abuse is reported far more often, with a prevalence as high as 36.3%. German studies, however, weren't able to replicate these international findings. Here, child emotional abuse is reported less often. Violence against children has many negative consequences for physical, emotional, and psychosocial development. Violence prevention therefore comprises different international and national programs and strategies, which are able to successfully reduce violence against children. Programs focusing on the promotion of adequate parenting behavior show especially promising results.

  17. Media Violence: Q & A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock; Strasburger

    1993-10-01

    In a question-and-answer format, the authors survey the problem of violence in American television and movies. Central themes include the extent of violent content, the manner in which violence is portrayed, research methodology for studying the effects of violent content on children and adolescents, common myths related to the issue, and strategies for effecting change.

  18. Media Violence and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebel, Jo

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  19. [Violence against children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The Convention of Human Rights defines violence as "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse". Violence against children cuts across boundaries of geography, race, class, religion and culture. It occurs in homes, schools and streets ; in places of work and entertainment, and in care and detention centers. Perpetrators include parents, family members, teachers, caretakers, law enforcement authorities and other children. Some children are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin, disability or social status. And no country is immune, whether rich or poor. Although the consequences of violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short- and long-term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence may result in greater susceptibility to lifelong social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and to health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and early initiation of sexual behavior. Governments are ultimately responsible for the protection of children. It is therefore up to governments to act now, to fulfill their human rights obligations and other commitments, to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence. Violence against children is never justifiable. Nor is it inevitable. After providing a global picture of violence against children, we propose recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue.

  20. Various Viewpoints on Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Bonita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

  1. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  2. MVACS Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  3. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  4. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  5. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  6. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  7. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    sexualised phenomena such as rape and prostitution, it is often assumed that full equality of the sexes has been achieved. The concept of symbolic violence implies the participation of both men and women in aspects of discourses and other social practices related to gendering and thus to gendered sexualised...... individualising and pathologising gendered sexualised violence and personal difficulties connected hereto, consequently disregarding the important involvement of gendered and gendering societal processes (S. Ronkainen 2001). Also, its focus on the symbolic points to the central position of mass media......It has been suggested, that Bourdieu ´s concept of symbolic violence is useful in explaining gendered phenomena of late modern western societies, which can no longer simply be understood as classic patriarchies (B. Krais 1993). In these societies, and in spite of the existence of gendered...

  8. 78 FR 64245 - AG Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or... Transitional Housing Assistance Program Grant for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or... 300 Transitional Housing Assistance Program Grant for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating...

  9. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  10. Dynamics of Robotic Arm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abhishek Chavan; Abhishek Bhuskute; Anmol Jain; Neha Shinde; M B Salunke

    2014-01-01

    ...'. Autonomous Systems are self-governed and does not require any manual interventions. This paper presents an overview of previous developments and the working of Robotic arms along with its mathematical aspects...

  11. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    world war, a nuclear inferno , for over 40 years. A sober assessment of the situation in world politics was conducted at the meet- ing of the...there is success in stopping the arms race, or those forces accelerating the arms race and driving humanity to the edge of a nuclear inferno will gain...dialogue with all forces fighting against a nuclear inferno , affirmed by the Warsaw Pact countries, is being seen more and more as the only practicable

  13. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  14. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  15. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  16. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of violence, while data on

  17. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Alexandra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of

  18. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in Medellín, Colombia: a random population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Luis F; Montoya, Nilton E; Restrepo, Alexandra

    2011-08-05

    The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of violence, while data on factors associated with aggression and

  19. RETHINKING VIOLENCE, RECONCILIATION AND RECONSTRUCTION IN BURUNDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Ndimurwimo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Armed violence and genocide are among the on-going problems that are still facing contemporary Africa and the world. In the aftermath of the outrages, devastation and appalling carnage of the Second World War, member states of the United Nations (UN undertook radical steps, inter alia, "to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights". Subsequently, the International Bill of Human Rights was proclaimed in order to lay down international human rights norms and standards of conduct and to prevent the recurrence of mass killings. Although Burundi is a State Party to the UN and African Union and is a signatory to a number of international and regional human rights treaties, the post-colonial history of Burundi is an epic tale of indescribable human suffering and misery as a result of systematic mass killings. At least every family or household in Burundi has been negatively affected by the mass killings of the 1960s, 1972, 1988 and 1990s, which have created a significant number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs.This article traces the root causes of Burundi's systemic armed violence and argues that despite several UN Security Council Resolutions and peace agreements aimed at national reconciliation and reconstruction, mass killings and other heinous crimes remain unaddressed. The article recommends that a comprehensive transitional justice model is required in post-conflict Burundi in order to bring about national reconciliation, healing and reconstruction.

  20. Are Muslim countries more prone to violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Petter Gleditsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most armed conflicts have taken place in Muslim countries. Are Muslim countries more war-prone? Not necessarily, if we look at data for the whole period after World War II. But in the post-Cold War era, most wars are civil wars and Muslim countries have a disproportionate share of these. This is not mainly because conflicts among Muslims have increased, but because other conflicts have declined. Muslim countries are also overrepresented among countries with high levels of other forms of internal violence, including non-state conflict, one-sided violence, highly repressive human rights policies, and countries that practice capital punishment. They also have a higher than average participation in interstate conflicts. This is not a “clash of civilizations”—most of the victims are Muslims. We list several hypotheses, apart from religion itself, for why this pattern has emerged, including colonial history, interventions from major powers, and economic and political development. Finally, on a more optimistic note, while many Muslims are exposed to violence, four of the five countries with the largest Muslim populations do not currently experience civil war.

  1. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  2. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  3. Reports of violence against women in different life cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Tavares de Souza Leite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the reports and factors associated with violence against women. METHOD: this was a cross-sectional, exploratory and analytical study with information about the cases of reported violence, extracted from the Civil Police Report Bulletin, in a mid-sized city in Minas Gerais, Brazil. RESULTS: out of the 7,487 reports of violence against women, it was found that 44.6% of the cases were threats, 28.5% aggression, 25.1% bodily injury, 1.1% rape, and 0.7% some other type of injury. In the bivariate analysis, a higher number of cases (p=0.000 committed by partners was evidenced, for all kinds of violence except for rape. Children, adolescents and adults experienced violence by partners, followed by family members. Regarding older women, violence was committed by family members. CONCLUSION: there is the need for programs to be established to prevent violence against women in various sectors of society, permeating the life cycle.

  4. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  5. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  6. The video violence debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, R G

    1993-04-01

    Some researchers and theorists are convinced that graphic scenes of violence on television and in movies are inextricably linked to human aggression. Others insist that a link has not been conclusively established. This paper summarizes scientific studies that have informed these two perspectives. Although many instances of children and adults imitating video violence have been documented, no court has imposed liability for harm allegedly resulting from a video program, an indication that considerable doubt still exists about the role of video violence in stimulating human aggression. The author suggests that a small group of vulnerable viewers are probably more impressionable and therefore more likely to suffer deleterious effects from violent programming. He proposes that research on video violence be narrowed to identifying and describing the vulnerable viewer.

  7. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they are afraid to tell friends and family. A 2011 CDC nationwide survey found that 23% of females and 14% of males who ever experienced rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner, first experienced ...

  8. Derrida, Democracy and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Mansfield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Democracy is usually identified with openness, order and pluralism and thus peace. Yet, everywhere, from the political convulsions that bring it into being to the wars that aim to extend it, democracy is violent. Usually this violence is seen as accidental or forced upon democracy. The aim of this paper is to argue that the violence of democracy springs from its inextricable if denied relationship to revolution, the drive to re-found the political order properly and definitively. Through a reading of Derrida’s account of the relationship between violence and justice in Walter Benjamin, violence is identified as the unstable founding moment which democracy must both pass through in order to emerge and also endlessly recall in its drive to both expand and complete its mission.

  9. violence of voicelessness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    a response to the “violence of voicelessness”. Brigitta Busch ... Whereas societies are still conceived of in categories of relative demographic stability and ... individuality, which, deprived of expression within and action upon a common world,.

  10. What Is Aggressive Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Luca, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire dealing with what constitutes aggressive violence on television indicate that health care providers tend to rate items describing acts on television as more aggressive than television writers, producers, and executives do. (MBR)

  11. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  12. Political Power and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Mitu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Political violence plays a huge role in public affairs and people's behavior, requiring both knowledge and rigorous research in many of its occurrences and its consequences for the proper management, organization and functioning of a society as a whole. Although political violence is a problem of a particular importance in our social life it is not analyzed and investigated in the scientific literature. Political violence it is a subject that usually passes into oblivion. This study presents some ideas and themes about the role and functions of political power, displaying the types of political violence and their consequences for the management and functioning of a society, which can be subject to wider debates and researchs.

  13. A health’s view on violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Borges Jacques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence is the intentional use of physical strength or power, actually or under threat, against oneself, someone else, or against a group or community, which results or has a high probability of resulting in injury, death or psychological damage, bad development or deprivation(1.In Brazil and in the world, a lot is told about violence, which is present in various forms in everyday life, whether in the country or in urban area. Cities have grown without proper planning, people have migrated, generating unsatisfied social demands in the large centers, television has invaded home and modified people’s thinking in great extension, families have loosen moral principles, governments do not set good examples...Therefore, violence has spread into all aspects of life, revealing itself in economics (exploitation of man by man, state coercion, material dependence, discrimination against women’s work, child labour, unfair impositions etc., in politics (control by one or various parties, authoritarianism, exclusion of citizens from decision-making, revolution, war and armed conflict etc., in ideology (implementation of official criteria, prohibition of free thought, censorship, manipulation of public opinion, advertisements and issues of violent nature, in religion (submission to clerical interests, strict control of thought, prohibition of other beliefs and persecution of “heretics”, etc., within the family (exploitation of women and children etc.., in education (teachers and principals authoritarianism etc., in the army (unquestioning obedience to commanders etc., in the culture (excluding innovating trends, prohibiting publication of works, bureaucracies, etc.... (2It is health’s responsibility dealing with people affected by physical or psychological violence, in hospitals, ambulatory facilities or clinics... As researches in health are responsible for statistical data consolidation. In 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO released its

  14. Reducing violence in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellani, Karim H

    2014-01-01

    Looking behind the statistics on increases in healthcare violence incidents, the author finds that these incidents directly impact a small percentage of employees. However he sees an opportunity for administrators and security professionals to use this heightened awareness to collaborate on comprehensive plans to manage workplace violence, not only to reduce the direct impact of workplace violence incidents, but also to mitigate the indirect impacts such as employee morale degradation, fear of workplace violence, and costs of workplace violence. In this article he provides the elements of an effective workplace violence management plan.

  15. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm. The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars. Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm. After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully. The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Domestic violence constitutes historical behavior in accord with patriarchal systems. Family and domestic violence includes female infanticide, higher female mortality, female genital mutilation, bride burning, rape, wife battering, and early marriage. These practices are commonly integrated into values and beliefs. Women accept domestic violence in violation of their basic human rights due to social prejudice and low self esteem. Mothers who perpetuate female genital mutilation believe that they are acting in the best interests of the child by adhering to centuries-long traditions. Women who allow female infanticide or female abortion are motivated to do so in order to maintain the security of their marriage. Women are in unequal power relationships and submit to their own detriment. Negative attitudes against women are perpetuated through incorrect interpretations of religious principles and myths. Economic self-reliance gives women the courage to stand up against domestic violence. Empowerment through education and appropriate and protective legislation also gives women the means to fight violence. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national, regional, and international levels are active in creating awareness of domestic violence and influencing policy change. The NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices and the Inter-African Committee have a 10-year history of fighting against practices such as female genital mutilation. In order to bring about change, there must be cooperative and joint action among governmental and inter-governmental groups and NGOs.

  17. Domestic violence against men in primary care in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienye, Paul O; Gbeneol, Precious K

    2009-12-01

    Domestic violence against men is rare in Nigeria. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of domestic violence against men, the sociodemographic characteristics of victims, and the pattern of injury sustained in a primary care setting. This was a retrospective study over a period of 5 years in which all the medical records of patients were retrieved and information on domestic violence extracted from them and transferred to a data sheet. Those whose records were grossly deficient were excluded from the study. A total of 220,000 patients were seen of which 48 (22 per 100,000) were victims of domestic violence. There were only five married male victims with a prevalence of 0.0023%. The injuries observed were scratches, bruises, welts, and scalds. The primary care physician needs a high index of suspicion to be able to detect it.

  18. Electromyographic investigation of hypnotic arm levitation: differences between voluntary arm elevation and involuntary arm levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Burkhard; Schiebler, Philipp; Piesbergen, Christoph; Hagl, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-three volunteers were randomly exposed to 3 conditions: hypnotic arm levitation, holding up the arm voluntarily without hypnosis, and imagined arm lifting without hypnosis. Trapezius, deltoid, extensor digitorum, flexor digitorum profundus, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles were measured. Strain and muscle activity during lifting and holding up the right arm for 3 minutes were used as dependent variables. During hypnotic arm levitation, the total muscle activity was lower than during holding it up voluntarily (p levitation.

  19. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Patil

    2016-01-01

    The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khair...

  20. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    34military activities, whether in the armed forces, their civilian sectors, or in the ’defence’ indus- try". In another paper Professor Carl Sagan ...spurring the development of new weapons. Star Wars is a case in point. As Carl Sagan puts it, the idea is doomed: "SDI is ruinously expensive, it can

  1. ARM : abstract rewriting machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.T. Kamperman; H.R. Walters (Pum)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTerm rewriting is frequently used as implementation technique for algebraic specifications. In this paper we present the abstract term rewriting machine (ARM), which has an extremely compact instruction set and imposes no restrictions on the implemented TRSs. Apart from standard

  2. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    like tired runners exposed to the sights of millions of viewers. The fear of oxygen starvation was handled by the U.S. President on several levels...and to present the U.S. attitudes as the only way out of the maze of the arms race. It is an attempt to push through the old principles of U.S

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-12

    thai, in the long run one cannot oven tell to willy frandi’and fgon fahr . ’r’ho Soviets arc thus evoking the suspicion that they are playing dirty...material resources and the knowledge of scientists in combatting diseases , if the resources were spent on it that are taken up by the arms race

  4. Robotic Arm End Effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT, 12 Oct 85) . 14 GDR Commentary on Geneva Talks (Various sources,various dates) 19 Military...USSR GENEVA TALKS FRG DEFENSE UNDERSECRETARY SUPPORTS U.S. VIEW ON ARMS CONTROL Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT in German 12 Oct 85 p 3

  6. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Joint-Stock Company"] [Text] A constituent conference of the "Ural- Kosmos " closed joint-stock company [aktsionernoye obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa] has...due to be destroyed under arms cuts. Their warheads will be replaced by communications satellites. The founders of the "Ural- Kosmos " company note

  7. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Soviet Laser Expert (N. G. Bazov Interview; CAMBIO 16, 11-18 Feb 85) 86 Unnamed General Urges French ’Star Wars’ Effort (Hoplites; LE MONDE, 6...1024 85 JPRS-TAC-85-002 1 April 1985 SPACE ARMS SPANISH MAGAZINE CITES SOVIET LASER EXPERT PM211619 [Editorial Report] Madrid CAMBIO 16 in Spanish

  8. The Interactive Relationship among Adolescent Violence, Street Violence, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D.; Swisher, Raymond R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown community violence to be detrimental to adolescent well-being, yet relatively little is known about how adolescents respond to violence in their community. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the interactive associations among exposure to street violence, adolescent…

  9. Sexual violence in the media

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Matloff

    2007-01-01

    Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?

  10. Violence as a Vicious Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Gulec

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the conclusion that the violence as a behavior is not (cannot be determined within an absolute genetic determinism has been reached for long years, environmental factors are increasingly examined. We witness that human behavior in society can easily convert into coping with stressful events with violence. Individual or social violence as a behavior has a similar pattern with violence committed in primitive society and by children. After a brief review of violence, its description, etiological theories and types, this article majorly focuses on children and their early and late response to violence. The purpose here is to draw attention to the individuals who were previously exposed to violence (either directly or indirectly resort to violence, perpetuating a vicious cycle.

  11. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  12. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    2013-01-01

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in Sub-Sah

  13. Teaching about Women and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kathy

    A course entitled "Women and Violence in Literature and the Media" extends the definition of violence to include not only physical and emotional abuse but psychological manipulation and destruction as well. The course has two major objectives: to establish that violence against women does occur in our society and is culturally approved of and…

  14. Prevalences of Intimate Partner Violence in a Representative U.S. Air Force Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Heather M.; Smith Slep, Amy M.; Heyman, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious health concern, but little is known about prevalence of IPV in the armed forces, as military members cope with the pressures of long-standing operations. Furthermore, previous prevalence studies have been plagued by definitional issues; most studies have focused on acts of aggression without…

  15. Violence as an impediment to a culture of teaching and learning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    School violence unfortunately impacts negatively on a culture of learning and teaching. In this project ... cation, children have become socialised to deal with their problems in aggressive and ... conflict between the different political parties, especially in black com- munities ... These incidents include murder, armed robbery ...

  16. Domestic violence in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, K L; Jones, F

    1994-09-01

    Domestic violence is an underrecognized problem of immense cost. It is a crime; its victims must be identified and protected. The medical and judicial communities share responsibility in addressing this issue and providing support for victims. The role of health care workers in recognizing and preventing domestic violence cannot be overestimated. Direct questioning of patients, especially about the source of any injuries and about safety at home, is the first step in uncovering abuse. Educational programs for health care providers and the general public can change society's view and tolerance of this problem. Physicians must take an active role in changing community attitudes about domestic violence and in instituting programs to reduce its incidence. Medical treatment of the injuries resulting from domestic violence is not sufficient. Abused women need the care of a team of professionals who can address psychological, emotional, and physical injuries. They must also be provided with safe housing and financial and legal assistance in order to escape the abusive relationship. Physicians and legislators must work together to effect change. Domestic violence is a public health menace. We need to break the cycle of abuse that has become an integral part of our society.

  17. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa BOZDEMİR; ADIGÜZEL, Esat

    1999-01-01

    Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides...

  18. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khairlanji, Lalasa Devi and Delta Meghwal Keywords: caste-patriarchy, Dalit women, POA Act, rape, sexual violence

  19. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  20. Star Formation in Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The origin and types of spiral arms are reviewed with an emphasis on the connections between these arms and star formation. Flocculent spiral arms are most likely the result of transient instabilities in the gas that promote dense cloud formation, star formation, and generate turbulence. Long irregular spiral arms are usually initiated by gravitational instabilities in the stars, with the gas contributing to and following these instabilities, and star formation in the gas. Global spiral arms triggered by global perturbations, such as a galaxy interaction, can be wavemodes with wave reflection in the inner regions. They might grow and dominate the disk for several rotations before degenerating into higher-order modes by non-linear effects. Interstellar gas flows through these global arms, and through the more transient stellar spiral arms as well, where it can reach a high density and low shear, thereby promoting self-gravitational instabilities. The result is the formation of giant spiral arm cloud complexes,...

  1. Conflict-Related Sexual Violence and the Policy Implications of Recent Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Jean Wood

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scholars increasingly document different forms of conflict-related sexual violence, their distinct causes, and their sharply varying deployment by armed organizations. In this paper, I first summarize recent research on this variation, emphasizing findings that contradict or complicate popular beliefs. I then discuss distinct interpretations of the claim that such violence is part of a continuum of violence between peace and war. After analyzing recent research on the internal dynamics of armed organizations, I suggest that widespread rape often occurs as a practice rather than as a strategy. Finally, I advance some principles to guide policy in light of recent research.

  2. C-arm X-ray system combined with electromagnet in the extraction of orbital or periorbital magnetic foreign bodies%C型臂X线影像系统联合电磁铁行眼眶及眶周磁性异物摘出术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宏伟; 唐红霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of C-arm X-ray system combined with electromagnet in the extraction of orbital or periorbital magnetic metal foreign bodies.Methods The orbital or periorbital magnetic metallic foreign bodies comfirmed by CT were located by C-ann X-ray system and extracted by electromagnet.Results All cases of foreign bodies were extracted once without complication.Conclusion The use of C-arm X-ray system combined with electromagnet in the extraction of orbital or periorbital magnetic metallic foreign bodies has higher practical value.%目的 探讨C型臂X线影像系统和电磁铁在行眼眶及眶周磁性金属异物摘出术中的运用价值.方法 对CT证实眼眶内眼球外和眶周的磁性金属异物行C型臂X线影像系统下定位,术中联合使用电磁铁摘出异物.结果 所有病例均能一次成功摘出眼眶和眶周磁性异物,无明显的并发症产生.结论 临床应用C型臂X线影像系统联合眼用电磁铁在行眼眶内及眶周磁性金属异物摘出术中具有较高的实用价值.

  3. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  4. Image et violence

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    Deux affirmations nous sont aujourd’hui familières : celle selon laquelle il y a une violence des images (nous parlons volontiers de « matraquage publicitaire », et la publicité évoque d’abord un déferlement d’images), et celle selon laquelle des images de la violence, de cette violence sans cesse rallumée aux quatre coins du monde, sont omniprésentes et sont, à la fois ou alternativement, indécentes, choquantes, nécessaires, déchirantes. L’une et l’autre affirmation renvoient très vite à l’é...

  5. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  6. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion. Key Words:...

  7. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion. Key Words:...

  8. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  9. Violence in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pedro de Andrade Dores

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the sociology of violence has arisen at the same time that western societies are being urged to consider the profound social crisis provoked by global financial turmoil. Social changes demand the evo- lution of sociological practices. The analysis herein proposed, based on the studies of M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory (2008, concludes that violence is subject to sociological treatments cen- tered on the aggressors, on the struggles for power and on male gender. There is a lack of connection between prac- tical proposals for violence prevention and the sociol- ogy of violence. It is accepted that violence as a subject of study has the potential, as well as the theoretical and social centrality, to promote the debate necessary to bring social theory up to date. This process is more likely to oc- cur in periods of social transformation, when sociology is open to considering subjects that are still taboo in its study of violence, such as the female gender and the state. The rise of the sociology of violence confronts us with a dilemma. We can either collaborate with the construc- tion of a sub discipline that reproduces the limitations and taboos of current social theory, or we can use the fact that violence has become a “hot topic” as an opportunity to open sociology to themes that are taboo in social the- ory (such as the vital and harmonious character of the biological aspects of social mechanisms or the normative aspects of social settings. ResumenEl interés reciente en la sociología de la violencia ha surgido al mismo tiempo que las sociedades occidenta- les están requiriendo considerar la profunda crisis social provocada por la agitación financiera global. Los cambios sociales demandan la evolución de las prácticas socioló- gicas. El análisis aquí expuesto, basado en los estudios de M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins

  10. Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; Huyen, T.P.; Tran, H.M.; Krause, K.H.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.; VanderEnde, K.; Kramer, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We assess the association of men’s exposure to violence in childhood—witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative—with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV

  11. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  12. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-12

    Paris AFP 29 Jan] 40 FRANCE Potential of Iraqi CBW, Nuclear Arms Evaluated [E. Marcuse ; L’EXPRESS INTERNATIONAL 18 Jan] 40 Firm Denies...18 Jan 91 p 13 [Article by Elie Marcuse : "Iraq’s Dirty Weapons"] [Excerpts] [passage omitted] There are three possible actions in Iraq’s battle...example, culture media for breeding plague, cholera, and anthrax. Even minor quan- tities of mycotoxins, which can cause cancer even when strongly

  13. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. In order- ing, it is recommended that the JPRS number, title, date and author, if applicable, of publication be...Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-025 14 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS U.S.-USSR GENEVA TALKS, USSR: Possibility for...34Vreyma" newscast] [Excerpts] A Moscow premiere. Our correspondent reports: The audience is hurrying to a premiere at the Moscow Satire Theater. What

  14. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  15. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    SINMUN in Korean 19 Jan 90 p 2 [ Editorial : "Arms Reduction Amid East-West Reconcil- iation"] [Text] It appears that with the end of cold-war, the...Navigation Radar Deployment PY1701143090 La Paz La Red Panamericana in Spanish 1130 GMT 17 Jan 90 [Text] Aeronautics Minister Luis Gonzales...airspace and that it can guarantee our sovereignty. Aeronautics Military Under Secretary Installed PY1701125290 La Paz La Red Panamericana in

  16. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  17. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.

  18. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission. Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil. The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Children and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Domeena C

    2006-01-01

    In this "information era" it can no longer be said that children are being raised in Eden or in a gentle environment of kindness and love. However rural their home, children will undoubtedly see depictions of violence on television, in the movies, or in newspapers, or hear about it on the radio or while at school or on classroom computers. All children require safety education in order to learn how to protect themselves from harm at home, at school, or in the neighborhood. This article outlines how violence may impact today's children who seek medical care.

  20. Violence, shame and humiliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of shame came into the focus of psychology and psychiatry only a few years ago. Psychopathology recognizes many shame related syndromes and disorders. Recognition of the scientific importance of shame is connected with the change in theoretical understanding of neuroses. Scientific evidence confirm the connection between violence and humiliation of human dignity. Humiliation seems to effect the individual through destruction of social competence and psychosocial identity. But, humiliation and exclusion of individuals and groups have also an important sociocultural effect. The author tries to describe the interaction between violence, shame, humiliation and related psychopathological disturbances in an attempt to contribute to a victim oriented mental health discourse.

  1. The Semantics of "Violence"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    kilimand faetem with the newly imported English word vaeolens (violence). My study provides newevidence for how cognitive and semantic change co-occur in the context of postcolonial linguisticcommunities, and my paper addresses an important, ongoing controversy related to the notion of“Anglocentric bias...... counterparts in many (most) languages, and thatPinker’s claims are Anglocentric in nature. My papir studies the intricate details of vaeolens, as a new word that has attracted a number ofother English-based phraseologies such as vaeolens againsem woman ‘violence against women’,and vaeolens againsem pikinini...

  2. Arms trade and its impact on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudi-Azer, Salahaddin

    2006-01-01

    The most obvious adverse impact of the arms trade on health is loss of life and maiming from the use of weapons in conflicts. Wealthy countries suffer damage to their health and human services when considerable resources are diverted to military expenditure. However, the relative impact of military expenditures and conflict on third world countries is much greater, and often devastating, by depriving a significant portion of the population of essential food, medicine, shelter, education, and economic opportunities. Further, the physical and psychological damage inflicted specifically on children is debilitating - through loss of (or separation from) families, loss of education, destruction of homes, exposure to murder and other violence, sexual abuse, abduction, torture, slavery, and forcible conscription as soldiers. This article outlines the socio-economic impact of the global arms trade in general and the damage done to human health and the environment, specifically.

  3. Violence and Asthma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  4. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  5. Impact of sexual violence on children in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brett D; Collins, Lisa; VanRooyen, Michael J; Joyce, Nina; Mukwege, Denis; Bartels, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The conflict in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been particularly devastating for children and has been typified by high levels of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). In this study, we seek to characterize the patterns and impact of sexual violence on children in the Eastern DRC. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered among a convenience sample of women armed combatants decreased by 70% between 2004 and 2008. Qualitative analysis of the narratives revealed common themes, such as physical signs and symptoms among SGBV survivors (23.9%), pregnancy resulting from rape (19.3%), perpetrators being brought to justice (18.3%), and neighbourhood men as perpetrators (17.7%). Children in the Eastern DRC continue to face significant threats of sexual violence. By understanding the patterns of this violence, local and international approaches could be more effectively implemented to protect these vulnerable children.

  6. Understanding the impact of political violence in childhood: a theoretical review using a social identity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Orla T

    2013-12-01

    The present paper reviews the literature that has assessed the psychological impact of political violence on children. Concern for those growing up in situations of political violence has resulted in two areas of research within psychology: the first considers children as victims of conflict and considers the mental health consequences of political violence. The second considers children as protagonists or aggressors in conflict and considers related moral and attitudinal consequences of exposure to political violence. These two literatures are most often considered separately. Here the two strands of research are brought together using a social identity framework, allowing apparently divergent findings to be integrated into a more coherent understanding of the totality of consequences for children and young people growing up in situations of armed conflict. © 2013.

  7. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  8. Prescription drugs associated with reports of violence towards others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Moore

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Violence towards others is a seldom-studied adverse drug event and an atypical one because the risk of injury extends to others. OBJECTIVE: To identify the primary suspects in adverse drug event reports describing thoughts or acts of violence towards others, and assess the strength of the association. METHODOLOGY: From the Food and Drug Administration (FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS data, we extracted all serious adverse event reports for drugs with 200 or more cases received from 2004 through September 2009. We identified any case report indicating homicide, homicidal ideation, physical assault, physical abuse or violence related symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disproportionality in reporting was defined as a 5 or more violence case reports, b at least twice the number of reports expected given the volume of overall reports for that drug, c a χ2 statistic indicating the violence cases were unlikely to have occurred by chance (p<0.01. RESULTS: We identified 1527 cases of violence disproportionally reported for 31 drugs. Primary suspect drugs included varenicline (an aid to smoking cessation, 11 antidepressants, 6 sedative/hypnotics and 3 drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The evidence of an association was weaker and mixed for antipsychotic drugs and absent for all but 1 anticonvulsant/mood stabilizer. Two or fewer violence cases were reported for 435/484 (84.7% of all evaluable drugs suggesting that an association with this adverse event is unlikely for these drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Acts of violence towards others are a genuine and serious adverse drug event associated with a relatively small group of drugs. Varenicline, which increases the availability of dopamine, and antidepressants with serotonergic effects were the most strongly and consistently implicated drugs. Prospective studies to evaluate systematically this side effect are needed to establish the incidence, confirm differences among drugs and

  9. Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…

  10. A cycle of violence? Examining family-of-origin violence, attitudes, and intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Li; Mazerolle, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to violence in the family-of-origin has consistently been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood. However, whether the transmission of violence across generations is role- and gender-specific still remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of experiencing child abuse and observing parental violence on IPV perpetration among a sample of male arrestees (N = 303). The differential effects of observing violence perpetrated by same-sex (father to mother), opposite-sex (mother to father), and both parents on subsequent IPV perpetration were examined. Logistic regression analyses showed that while observing father-only violence and bidirectional interparental violence was predictive of IPV perpetration, observing mother-only violence and direct experiences of child abuse was not. These findings suggest that the transmission of violence across generations is both role- and gender-specific and highlight the importance of examining unique dimensions of partner violence to assess influences on children. The study further examined whether attitudes justifying wife beating mediate the effect of exposure to violence and subsequent IPV perpetration. Results showed that although attitudes were predictive of perpetration, these attitudes did not mediate the relationship.

  11. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  12. Assessing views about gun violence reduction policy: a look at type of violence and expected effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B

    2015-10-01

    Public opinion polling about gun policy is routinely conducted and often disregarded. The purpose of this research is to explore ways in which surveys can be made more useful to policy makers, researchers, and the general public. A stratified random sample of 1000 undergraduates at a private, urban university was recruited for an online survey about proposed gun policies. A total of 51.7% answered the questions analyzed herein. Including but going beyond typical assessments of agreement, the survey elicited respondent evaluations of the effectiveness of seven gun policies under two randomly assigned conditions: the type of gun violence (e.g., homicide, suicide, violent crime) and its magnitude. Participants were asked to estimate the effectiveness of each policy, including the possibility of making things worse. Participants indicated strong support for all policies and expected each to be effective with one exception - a policy designed to increase the number of guns on the scene, that is, putting armed police in schools. Persons who did not support other policies, on average, did not expect them to make things worse. Telling participants about the scope of the violence did not but the type of gun violence did affect effectiveness ratings. Asking about expected effectiveness of (vs. general support for) a policy might identify some optimism: Even people who don't support a policy sometimes think it will be effective. Findings suggest that surveys about the effectiveness of gun violence policies likely assess views that exclude suicide, the most common form of gun-related mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Children and TV Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and War: How to Talk to Children Movies, Media, and Children Internet Use in Children WatchingTV/Screen Time and Children Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Video Games and Children: Playing with Violence Music and Music Videos Violent Behavior in Children ...

  14. Islam and Political Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Esposito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The global threat of Al Qaeda post 9/11 and ISIL, increased Sunni-Shia conflicts, and violence in the Middle East and Pakistan dominate headlines and challenge governments in the region and globally. Both Muslim extremists and some Western experts and observers speak of a clash of civilizations or a culture war in Muslim-West relations. Both the discourse and violence yet again raise questions about the relationship of Islam to violence and terrorism: is Islam a particularly violent religion? Critics cite Quranic passages, doctrines like jihad and events in Muslim history as strong indicators and proof that Islam is the primary driver of Muslim extremism and terrorism. What do the Quran and Islamic law have to say about violence, jihad and warfare? What are the primary drivers of terrorism in the name of Islam today? This article will address these questions in the context of development of global jihadist movements, in particular Al Qaeda and ISIL, their roots, causes, ideology and agenda.

  15. Understanding Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these factors does not always mean that a young person will become an offender. Risk factors for youth violence include: • Prior history ... a positive role model and helps guide the young person’s ... and social environment. These changes address the social and economic causes ...

  16. Preventing Violence in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dean

    1995-01-01

    Elementary school principals are in a key position to prevent school violence. This document reviews five publications that feature strategies administrators and teachers can use to create a safe school. In "Creating Safe Environments for Learning in North Carolina's Public Schools," Tanya M. Suarez reviews the literature on school safety and…

  17. ~ elonging and violence in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an Experience for Colombia, in Bogota, D.C., Colombia, November 8-9, 2004. ... speak about Race in South Africa and its connection to violence and peace. But .... and the European population groups into a common society must be endured'.

  18. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem by gathering and studying data. Step 2: Identify risk and protective factors It is not enough to ... DM, Breiding M. Beyond correlates: A review of risk and protective factors for adolescent dating violence perpetration. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2013; 42:633-649. ...

  19. AES i ARM procesori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela D. Protić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Potreba za zaštitom informacija dovodi do velikih problema u izradi prenosivih uređaja kojima su limitirani snaga, memorija i energija. Ukoliko se takvim uređajima dodaju koprocesori, koji treba da obavljaju funkcije kriptozaštite, njihove se dimenzije povećavaju, pojavljuje se nefleksibilnost pa cena uređaja raste i do nekoliko puta. Na drugoj strani, algoritmi za zaštitu podataka su često memorijski zahtevni, a zbog velikog broja operacija koje je potrebno izvršavati u procesima šifrovanja i dešifrovanja, koprocesori često uspore rad osnovnog procesora. Za jedan od standarda za kriptozaštitu, AES, NIST je prihvatio Rijndaelov blokovski algoritam sa dužinom ulaznog i izlaznog bloka od 128 b, i dužinama šifarskog ključa od 128 b, 192 b i 256 b. Zbog karakteristika male potrošnje, 32-bitske arhitekture i brzog izvršavanja instrukcija, ARM procesori mogu da realizuju kriptozaštitu podataka, između ostalog i AES-om, a da ne opterete glavne procese u sistemima u kojima se koriste. Tehnologija ARM-a zaštićena je kao intelektualna svojina, pa je veliki broj proizvođača koristi za razvoj sopstvenih proizvoda, što je rezultovalo činjenicom da je u svetu proizvedeno preko 2 milijarde čipova koji su bazirani na ovoj tehnologiji. U radu su prikazane mogućnosti za poboljšanja u izvršenju algoritma AES primenom najnovijih verzija ARM procesora.

  20. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    put their feet on the table.... But that Is not the USSR’s problem. It is not for the USSR to teach the rules of etiquette vh~nh are broken in the...34 /12858 CSO: 5200/2634 • 138 - RELATED ISSUES LABOR PARTY DISTRICT CONGRESS: BAN NUCLEAR ARMED SHIPS Oslo AFTENPOSTEN in Norwegian 27 Jan 86 p 3 [Article...that countries which send warships into Norwegian ports should guarantee that these ships are not carry- ing nuclear weapons. The requirement would

  1. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  3. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Elsner, Bernhard

    2015-11-07

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and may help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in people after stroke. We also assessed the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), SPORTDiscus (1949 to March 2015), PEDro (searched April 2015), Compendex (1972 to March 2015), and Inspec (1969 to March 2015). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts, and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for people after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 34 trials (involving 1160 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training improved activities of daily living scores (SMD 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.64, P = 0.005, I² = 62%), arm function (SMD 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.51, P robot-assisted arm training did not increase the risk of participant drop-out (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.03, P = 0.84, I

  4. Violence in the Street, Violence of the Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    While in his early and general theory of interaction rituals Randall Collins emphasised that social situations are both ’symbolic’ and ’material’, the latter dimension is largely absent from Collins’ theory of violence(Collins 2004; 1993: 214). Compared with criminology’s more recent situational...... studies of violence, it is noticeable that the analytical success of these studies is closely linked with understanding street violence as a spatial-situational phenomenon (Clarke 1997; Eck & Weisburd 1995; Bragand & Weisburd; 2010; Wikström et al. 2012; Sampson et al. 1997). In light of evidence...... for the spatial concentration of street violence, this paper takes its point of departure in a large study of Street Violence among youth in Copenhagen, Denmark (combining quantitative data from filed police reports (N = 501), data from CCTV (N=100) and qualitative analysis of selected cases of street violence...

  5. FAMILY VIOLENCE – MARRIAGE VIOLENCE WITH A FATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kostic-Banovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and dynamic during the recent years, the need for a direct forensic processing of the violence consequences within this specific and sensitive social group has arisen. In accordance with what has been outlined above, three cases of extreme, systematic and continuous marriage violence with fatal consequences of the abused women, whose bodies have been abducted at the Forensics Institute in Nis, have been presented in this paper.

  6. Exploring Variations Within Situational Couple Violence and Comparisons With Coercive Controlling Violence and No Violence/No Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samantha K; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2016-02-01

    We examined variations within situational couple violence among 23 divorcing mothers and compared them with mothers with coercive controlling violence and no violence/no control. Situational couple violence had great variability in frequency and severity of violence, fear, harassment, and protective strategies. In some cases, situational couple violence was frequent and severe and resembled coercive controlling violence in its consequences. The dynamics of fear and harassment in situational couple violence and in the divorce process in general warrant attention. Finally, mothers reported mental health symptoms that did not differ by group, which is likely due to the stresses of divorce.

  7. X-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Stoltz, Gilles; Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    We consider a generalization of stochastic bandits where the set of arms, $\\cX$, is allowed to be a generic measurable space and the mean-payoff function is "locally Lipschitz" with respect to a dissimilarity function that is known to the decision maker. Under this condition we construct an arm selection policy, called HOO hierarchical optimistic optimization), with improved regret bounds compared to previous results for a large class of problems. In particular, our results imply that if $\\cX$ is the unit hypercube in a Euclidean space and the mean-payoff function has a finite number of global maxima around which the behavior of the function is locally H\\"older continuous with a known exponent, then the expected of HOO regret is bounded up to a logarithmic factor by $\\sqrt{n}$, i.e., the rate of growth of the regret is independent of the dimension of the space. We also prove the minimax optimality of our algorithm when the dissimilarity is a metric.

  8. When community reintegration is not the best option: interethnic violence and the trauma of parental loss in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Brigitte; Munslow, Barry; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude of violence and human loss in conflict settings often exceeds the caring capacity of traditional support systems for orphans. The aim of this study is to understand the developmental context for children experiencing armed conflict, parental loss, extreme poverty, violence and social exclusion in a setting affected by interethnic violence. This article challenges the received wisdom that community reintegration is always better than institutional provision. Using a case study employing interviews, focus groups, workshops and observations, we examined how children's experiences of armed violence and parental loss affected their mental well-being, and their relationships within their community. Emerging findings such as experienced violence and psychological distress were further investigated using a cross-sectional survey design to explore the generalisability or transferability of theories or conclusions drawn from qualitative data. Findings showed that parental loss had a major impact on children's lives in the context of armed violence. Four main outcomes of orphanhood emerged: (i) facing the situation and evading harm (feelings of rejection and stigmatisation); (ii) trauma exposure and mental health effects (associations of orphanhood with adverse mental health outcomes and the number and type of experienced trauma); (iii) dealing with psychological distress (seeking caring connections and decreased feelings of isolation); and (iv) education and acceptance (increasing knowledge, skills and attitude and being respected in their community). We discuss the role that contexts such as armed violence, parental loss and social exclusion play for children's mental well-being and their implications for psychosocial interventions and orphan care in humanitarian settings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Sexuality and women's rights in armed conflict in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambiah, Yasmin

    2004-05-01

    The discourse of human rights in armed conflict situations is well adapted to respond to violence and violation, invoking internationally agreed principles of civil and political rights. However, in areas where the subject or domain of rights discourse is contested or controversial, human rights advocates appear less prepared to promote and defend such rights. Sexuality is one such domain. This paper explores the complex sexual choices women in Sri Lanka have had to negotiate, particularly widows and sex workers, within a context of ethnic conflict, militarisation and war. It argues that sexuality cannot be defined exclusively in terms of violation, even in a context dominated by violence, and that the sexual ordering of society may be subverted in such conditions. Newly widowed women and sex workers have had to negotiate self-determination as well as take responsibility for earning income and heading households, in spite of contrary community pressures. For women, political and economic rights are closely linked with the ability to determine their sexual and reproductive choices. The challenge to women's and human rights advocates is how to articulate sexual autonomy as a necessary right on a par with others, and strategise to secure this right during armed conflict and postwar reconstruction.

  10. Gaming Against Violence: A Grassroots Approach to Teen Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecente, Drew

    2014-08-01

    Teen dating violence is a pervasive problem that affects millions of adolescents worldwide. Although there have been various approaches to addressing this problem, using videogames had not been employed before 2008, when Jennifer Ann's Group, an Atlanta, GA-based nonprofit organization, created an annual competition. The Life.Love. Game Design Challenge rewards game developers for creating videogames about teen dating violence without using any violence in the games themselves. The resulting videogames have increased awareness about teen dating violence and provided educational information to assist adolescents, parents, and teachers in identifying abusive relationships.

  11. Reducing violence against nurses: the violence prevention community meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Marilyn L; Rierdan, Jill; Forester, Linda; Zeiss, Robert A

    2009-12-01

    Research was undertaken to validate the efficacy of a new, nurse-led treatment, the Violence Prevention Community Meeting (VPCM), for reducing patient violence on an acute-care inpatient psychiatry unit. Nursing staff members carried event counters and recorded verbal and physical violence as it occurred over the 20-week study. Significant decreases in patient violence were found across day, evening, and night shifts for pre-treatment vs. treatment and pre-treatment vs. post-treatment comparisons. For the day shift, when twice-weekly VPCM treatment took place, violent incidents decreased 89% from pre-treatment to treatment and 57% from pre-treatment to post-treatment.

  12. Obstetricians and violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Sonya

    2011-12-01

    I argue that the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), as an organization and through its individual members, can and should be a far greater ally in the prevention of violence against women. Specifically, I argue that we need to pay attention to obstetrical practices that inadvertently contribute to the problem of violence against women. While intimate partner violence is a complex phenomenon, I focus on the coercive control of women and adherence to oppressive gender norms. Using physician response to alcohol use during pregnancy and court-ordered medical treatment as examples, I show how some obstetrical practices mirror the attitudes of abusive men insofar as they try to coercively control women's behavior through manipulation and violence. To be greater allies in the prevention of violence against women, obstetricians should stop participating in practices that inadvertently perpetuate violence against women.

  13. [Psychopathology of violence in prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The issue of violence in prisons concerns the people detained there, the conditions of the imprisonment and the relations which are established between the prisoners and the guards. The deprivation of liberty in prison, by suppressing desire, stirs up violence. Security contingency measures are not sufficient to control aggressive urges. Violence in prison stems from the internal regulations, the architecture of the building, the organisation of the surveillance and from the psychopathological dynamics of the deprivations resulting from being locked up.

  14. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To describe the burden of interpersonal violence, risk factors and discuss the need for evidence based action to reduce the public health threat of interpersonal violence. METHODS: Global Health Estimates data were used to describe the mortality and meta-analyses from previous reports were used to describe the prevalence of the different types of interpersonal violence and to discuss the options for evidence informed prevention programmes.  RESULTS: In the 53 countries of the WHO...

  15. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  16. [Forensic assessment of violence risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Robinat, Amadeo; Mohíno Justes, Susana; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. SCHOOL VIOLENCE: A COMPLEX PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relationships. When all these factor are interrelated, they make the problem of violence a very complex one that requires us to know the different factors in order to understand it and deal with it.

  18. Children, education and armed conflict: an analysis of the African reality seen 15 years after the Machel Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Mateos Martín

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While sub-Saharan Africa in recent years has faced a marked decline in the number of armed conflicts, a number of countries continue to suffer the consequences of organized violence, especially some contexts such as the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Darfur region (western Sudan and Somalia, to name a few. As some institutions (UN or NGO or lead scholars have highlighted for several years, the main victim of violence is often civilians, mainly children and women. This article aims to analyze the impact of armed conflicts in Africa have in childhood and in such important areas as education. This object of study has in recent years an important reference as it has been the publication in 1996 of the so-called “Machel Report”. Fifteen years after the appearance of this document is of interest to a do a brief balance of some of the progress, gaps and main challenges of protecting children in armed conflict.

  19. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  20. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  1. Pervasive media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, C; Flora, J A

    1996-01-01

    In this review, we focus our discussion on studies examining effects on children and young adults. We believe that the current epidemic of youth violence in the United States justifies a focus on this vulnerable segment of society. We consider media effects on individual children's behaviors, such as imitating aggressive acts. In addition, we examine how the media influence young people's perceptions of norms regarding interpersonal relationships. Next, we assess mass media effects on societal beliefs, or what children and adolescents think the "real world" is like. We suggest these media influences are cumulative and mutually reinforcing, and discuss the implications of repeated exposure to prominent and prevalent violent media messages. Finally, we catalog multiple intervention possibilities ranging from education to regulation. From a public health perspective, therefore, we evaluate the effects that pervasive media messages depicting violence have on young people and present multiple strategies to promote more healthful outcomes.

  2. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Systematic Review of ED-based Intimate Partner Violence Intervention Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther K. Choo,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Assessment reactivity may be a factor in the modest results of brief interventions for substance use in the emergency department (ED. The presence of assessment reactivity in studies of interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV has not been studied. Our objectives were to identify ED IPV intervention studies and evaluate the presence of a consistently positive effect on the control groups. Methods: We performed a systematic search of electronic databases for English=language intervention studies addressing IPV in the ED published since 1990. Study selection and assessment of methodologic quality were performed by two independent reviewers. Data extraction was performed by one reviewer and then independently checked for completeness and accuracy by a second reviewer. Results: Of 3,620 unique manuscripts identified by database search, 667 underwent abstract review and 12 underwent full-text review. Only three met full eligibility criteria; data on the control arm were available for two studies. In these two studies, IPV-related outcomes improved for both the experimental and control condition. Conclusion: The paucity of controlled trials of IPV precluded a robust evaluation for assessment reactivity. This study highlighted a critical gap in ED research on IPV.

  5. Tools and methods of the formation of the armed violence’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bader

    2016-10-01

    Thus, we can state that the informational component of the armed violence is gradually approaching such theoretically grounded phenomenon as «consistent war» This is a system of outreach and psychological tools, which are aimed at the creation of public awareness, and are conducted using media information, culture, arts and other (psychotropic, psychotronic tools during a long time according to the carefully developed scenarios.

  6. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids.

  7. Hunger and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Özenoğlu, Aliye; Ünal, Gökçe

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies and disturbances in metabolism of neurotransmitters and hormones, induced by nutrient deficiencies, affect the behavior of individuals. In this review, the effect of deficiencies that occur in the body as a result of hunger on the formation of aggression and violent behavior are intended to be explained by biological processes. Articles published between the years 1993-2014 using keywords hunger, lack of nutrients, aggression, violence were scanned on Pubmed database, ho...

  8. Invisible violence in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Emma Carmona Valdés

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different areas surrounding the elderly where structural violence isexpressed, are presented in this paper, considering the factors that influence theirdevelopment, harmony and well-being; and those elements that involve the existence ofunequal access and use of the material and social resources which impact adversely ontheir quality of life. So an analysis of the actions taken by the state to reduce existinginequalities and their impact on the welfare of the elderly is also presented.

  9. Psychological violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  10. Honour, Violence and Heteronormativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Asquith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Popular representations of Honour Based Violence (HBV and honour killings construct this violence as an artefact of an uncivilised code of morality. Here ird, sharaf or izzat and shame are adhered to particular moral codes that are more likely to be found in the Quran. This clichéd version of HBV frames Muslim women’s sexual autonomy as exceptionally regulated, most commonly by male family members with the complicity of female relatives. In its most extreme (and publicly known form, HBV is epitomised by the ‘honour’ killings that come to the attention of the criminal justice system and, as a consequence, the media. Yet emerging research shows that HBV unfolds through increasingly punitive systems of social punishment, which is neither unique to Islam, nor religious communities more generally. In this paper, it is argued that the construction of HBV as a matter of deviant and antiquated Muslim honour codes is Islamophobic and that a more productive lens through which to understand collective familial violence may lie in the conceptual framework of heteronormativity.

  11. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  12. Understanding sexual and reproductive violence: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzelatto, J

    1998-12-01

    International agreements recognizing different forms of violence as violations of human rights and the definition provided by the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women are taken as a starting point and its implications analyzed, emphasizing gender roles and stereotypes. Violence against women is related to violence in general, to the so-called culture of violence. Factors influencing a culture of violence are discussed, as well as the differences between public and private violence, emphasizing the need to understand their interaction to be effective in preventing violence against women. It is concluded that all violence stems from unbalanced exercise of power, creating injustice and lack of real democratic interaction. When left unchallenged such situations become part of the culture of individuals and societies, reinforcing the use of violence to solve conflicts. Hence, preventing violence against women requires cultural, social, economic, and political changes that are only possible by mobilizing society as a whole.

  13. Child-to-Parent Violence: Challenging Perspectives on Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Declan

    2011-01-01

    Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…

  14. Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal…

  15. From violence to more violence in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Medina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Central American migrants flee their home country as a result of violence and threats from the criminal gangs. A large number of them also encounter the same type of violence that they are fleeing when on the migratory routes through Mexico.

  16. Men who use violence: intimate violence versus non-intimate violence profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David M; Weber, Deborah; Beckner, Helen Minnette; Robinson, Lori; Marsh, Neal; Cool, Angela

    2003-06-01

    The current study examined the differences between three types of violent men based on Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's (1994) tripartite typology and a group of non-intimate violent men. First, a cluster analysis was conducted on a sample of 91 domestically violent men, resulting in three clusters that approximated the tripartite model for psychopathology as measured by the MMPI-2, that is, non-pathological, borderline/dysphoric, and antisocial. Based on the violence variables (i.e., severity of violence, family-only violence, and exposure to family of origin violence) only severity of violence approximated what would be expected across the three clusters, that is, the less the psychopathology, the less severe the violence. The other two violence variables had approximate frequencies/percentages of occurrence that would be expected for individual typologies with some but not all three typologies. In comparing the three intimate violent typologies to the non-intimate violent group, the non-intimate and non-pathological groups were within normal limits and did not differ significantly on any of the MMPI-2 scales. These non-intimate and non-pathological groups differed significantly from the antisocial and borderline/dysphoric groups on all the scales that defined the psychopathology of these two groups. On the violence variables, the non-intimate groups reported significantly less severe violence than the borderline/dysphoric and antisocial groups.

  17. Effectiveness of Conducted Electrical Weapons to Prevent Violence-Related Injuries in the Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramling, Joshua J; McGovern, Patricia M; Church, Timothy R; Nachreiner, Nancy M; Gaugler, Joseph E

    2017-07-27

    Health care workers suffer higher rates of violence-related injuries than workers in other industries, with hospital security officers and ED personnel at particularly high risk for injury. Arming hospital security workers with conducted electrical weapons, such as tasers, has been suggested as an intervention to decrease violence-related injuries in the hospital. A retrospective cohort of all security and ED nursing staff at an urban level 1 trauma center was identified from human resources data for the period 4 years before and 7 years after security workers were armed with conducted electrical weapons. A violence-related rate of injury was calculated as all violence-related injuries incurred by each employee for the numerator and the productive hours worked by each person during the study period as the denominator. The hospital employed approximately 30 security staff and 200 nursing staff at the time, with a total of 98 security officers and 468 nursing staff members over the 11 years of study. During the total nursing study period, 98 security officers contributed 452,901 hours; 265 registered nurses from the emergency department contributed 1,535,044 hours; and 203 health care assistants contributed 624,805 hours. Security officers' violence-related rate of injury was 13 times higher than that of the nursing staff. The risk ratio was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7-1.4) between the 2 examination periods for security officers, with similar results for nurses. However, among security workers, the cost of the injuries decreased in the period after implementation. Carrying conducted electrical weapons by hospital security staff appears to have limited capacity to decrease overall rates of violence-related injury but may decrease the severity of violence-related injuries. The latter could decease costs to health care organizations as well as morbidity of injured staff. Contribution to Emergency Nursing Practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Layers of Experience Using "Arms"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laurinda; Coles, Alf; Ball, Derek; Morton, Pat; Coles, Matt; Ordman, Louise; Orr, Barry; Lam, Tung Ken

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the authors' personal accounts and their experiences in working on mathematics using "arms." "Arms" is an idea that first appeared as a program written by John Warwick and David Wooldridge in an ATM publication "Some Lessons in Mathematics with a Microcomputer," 1983. The introduction to…

  19. The cause and consequence of domestic violence on pregnant women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, N N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women.

  20. The Dynamics of Violence and Homelessness among Young Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin James

    2008-01-01

    Violence is one of the most prevalent elements in the lives of homeless families with young children. This violence may come in various forms: domestic violence, street violence, violence in one's childhood, witnessing violence, and other avenues and modes. Violence disrupts the normal bonding between parent and child. It isolates and degrades…

  1. Crime and Violence in American Society: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Edith Elisabeth; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Six articles focus on various aspects on violence in American society. Titles are "Evolving a Science of Violence,""Violence by Youth; Violence Against Youth,""Victims and Aggressors in Marital Violence,""Television Violence, Victimization, and Power," and "Violence in Business Settings." (DB)

  2. A Pilot Study on Developing a Standardized and Sensitive School Violence Risk Assessment with Manual Annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzman, Drew H; Ni, Yizhao; Griffey, Marcus; Patel, Bianca; Warren, Ashaki; Latessa, Edward; Sorter, Michael

    2016-08-16

    School violence has increased over the past decade and innovative, sensitive, and standardized approaches to assess school violence risk are needed. In our current feasibility study, we initialized a standardized, sensitive, and rapid school violence risk approach with manual annotation. Manual annotation is the process of analyzing a student's transcribed interview to extract relevant information (e.g., key words) to school violence risk levels that are associated with students' behaviors, attitudes, feelings, use of technology (social media and video games), and other activities. In this feasibility study, we first implemented school violence risk assessments to evaluate risk levels by interviewing the student and parent separately at the school or the hospital to complete our novel school safety scales. We completed 25 risk assessments, resulting in 25 transcribed interviews of 12-18 year olds from 15 schools in Ohio and Kentucky. We then analyzed structured professional judgments, language, and patterns associated with school violence risk levels by using manual annotation and statistical methodology. To analyze the student interviews, we initiated the development of an annotation guideline to extract key information that is associated with students' behaviors, attitudes, feelings, use of technology and other activities. Statistical analysis was applied to associate the significant categories with students' risk levels to identify key factors which will help with developing action steps to reduce risk. In a future study, we plan to recruit more subjects in order to fully develop the manual annotation which will result in a more standardized and sensitive approach to school violence assessments.

  3. The everyday violence of forced displacement : community, memory and identity politics among Kurdish internal forced migrants in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerse, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Kurds in Turkey: the everyday violence of their forced displacement. Roughly fifteen years ago, more than one million Kurds were forcibly displaced from their villages in Southeast Turkey, mostly by Turkish security troops, who were engaged in a violent struggle with the PKK, an armed organization t

  4. Arménie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’Arménie est une petite république du Caucase, à la limite sud–est de l’Europe, qui a gagné son autonomie en 1990 après l’ouverture du bloc soviétique. Le nouveau Ministère du Patrimoine a sollicité la coopération de la France pour mettre en place une nouvelle politique culturelle. Tout d’abord, une évaluation sur place de la situation dans les domaines des monuments historiques, de l’archéologie et de l’Inventaire a permis d’envisager les réponses à proposer. Pour la demande d’informatisation des dossiers d’inventaire déjà réalisés sous l’autorité de l’Académie de Saint–Petersbourg, nous avons proposé de former des chercheurs arméniens aux méthodes et techniques de l’Inventaire général. L’accueil d’une stagiaire pendant trois mois au service régional de l’Inventaire de Haute–Normandie a été suivi par la mise en place d’un équipement informatique à Yérévan, puis par l’accueil et la formation de techniciens informaticiens et photographes arméniens. De retour dans leur pays ils ont commencé à remettre en place un service d’inventaire dont le programme comprend la création d’une base de données patrimoniales, le recensement de la ville de Yérévan, la numérisation d’images pour la publication d’un indicateur du patrimoine et la préparation de dossiers de protection au titre du patrimoine mondial.The Armenian heritage comprises both archaeological remains of towns destroyed by never–ending wars and a number of old churches from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, was founded three thousand years ago and is one of Europe’s oldest capitals. From 1925 it has developed according to an ambitious urban planning project. After the major political upheavals of 1991, a special ministry was created to look after the architectural and movable heritage of the country and to promote the Armenian national identity. A mission in Yerevan was

  5. Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

  6. The Relationship between Violence in the Family of Origin and Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.; Kaukinen, Catherine; Fox, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has established that violence in dating relationships is a serious social problem among adolescents and young adults. Exposure to violence during childhood has been linked to dating violence victimization and perpetration. Also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence, the link between violence during childhood and…

  7. Dysfunctional anger and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A G

    2014-06-01

    Sexual offenses with or without aggression attract attention from the popular media and the scientific community. Empirical research suggests a relationship between anger and sexual violence. This article describes the key themes of dysfunctional anger and sexual violence, and how dysfunctional anger relates to sexual fantasies, sexual offending, and sexual recidivism. The implications of the findings for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  8. Adolescents, Parents, and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Steven H.; McLeod, Jack M.

    Three hypotheses could explain a positive correlation between violence viewing and social aggressiveness in adolescents: 1) Heavy exposure to television (TV) violence somehow reinforces or induces aggressive tendencies; 2) An aggressive child is more likely to be attracted to violent TV programs; 3) Some third factors exist which could cause both…

  9. The Othering of Domestic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya, Celeste; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women is a universal problem, affecting women at all levels of society; however, differently situated women have unique experiences with violence. Theoretically, this calls for the necessity to balance universality with intersectionality. Analyzing EU policy texts, we argue that ...

  10. Cutting the Roots of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziey, Paul W.

    1996-01-01

    Violence is rooted in obedience to authority and in comparisons--foundations of our institutions of parenting and schooling. Obedience brings reward and punishment, comparison perpetuates a cycle of competition and conflict. Television violence is especially harmful because children easily understand visual images. The Reality Research approach to…

  11. TV Violence: Myth and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, with an average national television viewing time of more than seven hours daily, the prevalence of violence in broadcasts is a serious concern. Summarizes research on the effects of television violence on children. Includes eight suggested student activities to develop critical media skills. (CFR)

  12. Screen Violence and America's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that studies have shown that murder rates have risen in response to televised violence, not only in the United States but elsewhere as well. Contends that, despite this correlation, the broadcast industry continues to saturate children's programing with violence. (Author/NB)

  13. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  14. Media Violence and Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Harold R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of a connection between violence in the media and actual adolescent behavior. Explores the nature of the connection, why it exists, and possible courses of action to correct the problem. States that 3,000 studies have explored the link between media violence and adolescent behavior. Concludes that the media should show…

  15. [Violence Profiles for Fall Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This document presented by the National Citizens' Committee for Broadcasting at a 1976 press conference provides an assortment of materials concerned with violence in television. Among the materials included are "Who Sponsors the New Fall Violence?" by Nicholas Johnson, a description of and rationale for the study of advertisers who sponsor…

  16. Television Violence and Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a survey investigation of whether exposure to television violence is associated with an increased probability of engaging in violent behavior. Questionnaire data collected in 1970 in junior and senior high schools in Maryland, included self-reports of favorite television show, amount of violence in that show, and respondent's violent…

  17. Youth Violence in Middle America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Peter L.; Roehlkepartain, Eugene

    1992-01-01

    Although most of the national concern about violence has focused on major cities, no community is free from violence. Violent acts in suburbs, small towns, and rural areas may not be as severe as in urban areas, yet they exist. The Profiles of Student Life survey of 47,000 students in grades 6-12 included questions about violent behavior. The…

  18. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  19. VIOLENCE, INTIMIDATION AND PROTEST. DESEGREGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEESON, JIM

    THIS ARTICLE IS A SHORT ANECDOTAL COLLECTION OF SCHOOL DESEGREGATION INCIDENTS WHERE VIOLENCE HAS BEEN EITHER PRESENT OR THREATENED. THE VIOLENCE HAS INCLUDED THE BEATING OF NEGRO CHILDREN, BOMBINGS AND SHOOTINGS, AND NUMEROUS TELEPHONE THREATS AND KU KLUX KLAN INTIMIDATIONS. NEGRO TEACHERS IN PREVIOUSLY WHITE SCHOOLS HAVE BEEN TARGETS OF VIOLENCE…

  20. Media Violence and Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Harold R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of a connection between violence in the media and actual adolescent behavior. Explores the nature of the connection, why it exists, and possible courses of action to correct the problem. States that 3,000 studies have explored the link between media violence and adolescent behavior. Concludes that the media should show…

  1. International Perspectives on Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, Richard J.; Cornell, Claire Pedrick

    This paper reviews a sampling of the literature on child abuse, spouse abuse, and family violence from around the world. The 72 books, journal articles, newspaper articles, and legislative reports which are included cover the period 1960-1981. A section on where family violence research has been conducted includes studies on child abuse and…

  2. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  3. Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

  4. Vote choice and legacies of violence: evidence from the 2014 Colombian presidential elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weintraub

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Elections are regularly held in countries facing ongoing civil conflicts, including in India, Iraq, Nigeria, the Philippines, and Ukraine. Citizens frequently go to the polls having endured years of violence between armed groups and governments. A growing literature questions how violence conditions voters’ support for incumbents versus challengers, and for hawks versus doves. We analyze this relationship in the context of the 2014 presidential election in Colombia, an election defined by candidates’ positions on negotiations with the country’s largest insurgent group, the FARC. Our results show an inverted-U relationship between past insurgent violence and vote share for President Juan Manuel Santos, the pro-peace candidate: he performed better in communities with moderate levels of insurgent violence and poorly in communities with both very high and very low violence. We also find that areas where the FARC originally mounted attacks 50 years ago more strongly supported Santos. The article concludes by comparing these results with past studies of violence and vote choice in Israel, Turkey, and Spain.

  5. Do theories of crime or violence explain race differences in delinquency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Deane, Glenn; Armstrong, David P

    2008-06-01

    We examine race differences in delinquency using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We use a new method that permits an examination of offense specialization. We argue that an examination of offense patterns provides an opportunity for testing theoretical explanations of race effects. If race differences in violent crime reflect race differences in serious crime, then theories of crime can explain race effects. Otherwise, theories of violence are needed to explain the phenomenon. Our results suggest that black adolescents have higher rates of violence, particularly armed violence, but they do not have higher rates of serious (or minor) property or drug crime. Race differences in violence are generally stronger for adolescents who would otherwise be at lower risk: girls and adolescents from educated and intact families. Puerto Rican adolescents also have higher rates of violence than Anglos, but other Hispanic groups do not. We conclude with a discussion of the implication of the empirical literature (including our results) for various theoretical explanations of race differences in violence.

  6. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  7. Media violence: advice for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, Mary

    2002-01-01

    By the time they reach age 18, American children will have seen 16,000 simulated murders and 200,000 acts of violence (American Psychiatric Association, 1998). Media violence can be hazardous to children's health, and studies point overwhelmingly to a causal connection between media violence and aggressive attitudes, values and behaviors in some children (Congressional Public Health Summit, 2000). Through education in clinics, schools, and primary care offices, pediatric nurses can minimize the impact of media violence. They can obtain comprehensive media histories on children and families. They can teach children and parents about the effects of media violence and advise them how to avoid exposure. Nurses can also encourage the entertainment industry to exercise more responsibility in the ways they entertain children.

  8. Can we compare violence data across countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Curtis, Tine; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2004-01-01

    The paper aims to explore what knowledge can be obtained about violence through population-based data and additionally, through inter-country comparisons of violence data.......The paper aims to explore what knowledge can be obtained about violence through population-based data and additionally, through inter-country comparisons of violence data....

  9. TV Violence: What's All the Fuss About?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems posed by television violence; how behavioral and social scientists became interested in television violence and its effects on children; how psychologists study relationships between television violence and behavior; how television violence can be counteracted by television industry, parents, and educators; and results from the…

  10. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  11. Conflict, Power, and Violence in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conflict, power, and violence in families in the 2000s developed a promising focus on the interconnections between types of violence and between the experience of violence and locations in larger structures of power and inequality. I examine research on poly-victimization, typologies of violence, dyadic research, and links between…

  12. Conflict, Power, and Violence in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conflict, power, and violence in families in the 2000s developed a promising focus on the interconnections between types of violence and between the experience of violence and locations in larger structures of power and inequality. I examine research on poly-victimization, typologies of violence, dyadic research, and links between…

  13. TV Violence: What's All the Fuss About?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems posed by television violence; how behavioral and social scientists became interested in television violence and its effects on children; how psychologists study relationships between television violence and behavior; how television violence can be counteracted by television industry, parents, and educators; and results from the…

  14. Violence towards children as a social issue

    OpenAIRE

    Korolyova K. Y.; Kovalchuk O. V.

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the issues of violence of social institutions and family towards children. The authors observe different theoretical approaches as a background for the violence studies, and also regard sociocultural factors of violence. The paper presents the actual tendencies of family violence as a social issue in the contemporary Russian society and shows possible ways of solving the problem.

  15. Childhood and violence: the sociocultural aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalchuk O. V.

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the issues of violence of social institutions and family towards children. The authors observe different theoretical approaches as a background for the violence studies, and also regard sociocultural factors of violence. The paper presents the actual tendencies of family violence as a social issue in the contemporary Russian society and shows possible ways of solving the problem.

  16. Media Violence: The Search for Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the influence of mass media depictions of violence on children and provides suggestions for media literacy education. Calls for reducing children's exposure to media violence; changing the impact of violent images; stressing alternatives to violence for resolving conflicts; challenging the social supports for media violence; and…

  17. What Can We Do about the Violence?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses incidents of violence in communities and describes the relationship between poverty, media violence, easy access to handguns, violence at home and on the streets, and neglect and abuse of children. Advocates living nonviolently and viewing the prevention of violence as a multifaceted task. (DR)

  18. ARM Soc Based Enotebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranita C Bawankar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic media has grown very fast replacing papers, tape devices, books, etc. The new technologies provide large number of data into single device, fast searching options and more readability than ever. As eBooks are replacing books; we are proposing ENotebook system in which user can write as he did in notebook, save, searches and then reread content. This paper presents design and development of ENotebook using ARM7. The system uses touch screen to get input data and operations like save, delete, open & close of data file. All data sensed by touch screen is digitized by internal ADCs of LPC2148 microcontroller which gives low power platform with fast execution. The output is shown on graphical LCD. Whatever user writes on screen it may need to save for future use. The content of such hand written data will be in graphical/pictorial form hence required large of memory for storage. We can provide external memory using pen drive, memory card, EEPROM etc. in this system we are using SD card interfacing through SPI port.

  19. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin Hermenau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Results: Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs.

  20. [Study for lung sound acquisition module based on ARM and Linux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Li, Wenfeng; Zhang, Xixue; Li, Junmin; Liu, Longqing

    2011-07-01

    A acquisition module with ARM and Linux as a core was developed. This paper presents the hardware configuration and the software design. It is shown that the module can extract human lung sound reliably and effectively.

  1. Medicolegal characteristics of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antović Aleksandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the basis for future medical research in this field. Methods. A total of 4,593 records of forensic autopsy (n = 3,120 and clinical forensic medical examinations (n = 1,473 were analyzed in the 1996–2005 period in order to determine the cases of domestic violence. Results. The analysis encompassed 300 cases (6.5% of clinically examined (n = 211; 70.3% and autopsied (n = 89; 29.7% victims of domestic violence. A statistically significant increase in domestic violence cases (χ2 = 12.74; p = 0.00036 was determined in the observed period. The victims were mostly females (78%, with the mean age of 45.8 years (min = 0.3; max = 85; SD = 17.7, married (45%, with personal income (74.4%, and urban residence (66.3%. The majority of abusers were males (89.3%. Intimate partner violence was present in 58.3% of the cases. Physical abuse was the most common form of violence (97.7%, while sexual violence (2.3% and child abuse (4.3% were rarely recorded. Conclusion. The results of this research indicate that forensic medicine can be of great help in designing appropriate standards for conducting clinical medical examination, preventive programs, and strategies in fighting domestic violence.

  2. Conceptualizing violence for health and medical geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVerteuil, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that violence is a major threat to public health, the term itself is rarely considered as a phenomenon unto itself, and rarely figures explicitly in work by health and medical geographers. In response, I propose a definitionally and conceptually more robust approach to violence using a tripartite frame (interpersonal violence, structural violence, mass intentional violence) and suggest critical interventions through which to apply this more explicit and conceptually more robust approach: violence and embodiment via substance abuse in health geography, and structural violence via mental illness in medical geography.

  3. Groups and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavnani, Ravi; Miodownik, Dan; Riolo, Rick

    Violence can take place along a multitude of cleavages, e.g., (1) between political groups like the Kach Movement, pitting West Bank settlers against Israeli governments supporting the land-for-peace agenda; (2) between religious groups, such as Christians and Muslims in the Nigerian cities of Jos and Kaduna; (3) along class lines, as in India between Dalits and members of the Brahminical upper castes, upwardly mobile intermediate castes, and even other backward castes such as the Thevars; and (4) between ethnic groups such as the Hutu and Tutsi, both within and across state boundaries in Rwanda and neighboring Burundi.

  4. Video games and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Moebus José Retondar; Elisabeth Rose Assumpção Harris

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8042.2013v25n40p183O objetivo do estudo é refletir sobre a possível relação entre jogos eletrônicos e violência à luz da resignificação das aulas de Educação Física Escolar, considerando novas subjetividades formadas pela realidade virtual. The aim is to reflect on the appropriation of video games and violence. Also, think ofthe physical education classes, considering the universe of virtual reality.

  5. [Schizophrenia and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudriot, Friederike; Guldimann, Angela; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2013-12-31

    As compared to the general population schizophrenic patients are at increased risk of becoming delinquent. The majority of schizophrenic patients do not commit any crime, and the risk of the general population to be a target of a violent act by a person with schizophrenia is low. The causes of delinquency in schizophrenia are complex, but certain risk characteristics (e. g. an accompanying substance abuse) have been identified. The treatability and legal prognosis of schizophrenic offenders are good, which suggests that establishing a suitable helpers network could also be used for violence prevention in patients at risk.

  6. Violence the Western way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  7. Surviving Violence, Contesting Victimhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Atreyee

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the emergence of violent child identity politics in a communally sensitive urban slum in Hyderabad, a city in southern India. My ethnographic landscape is Sultanpur, a Muslim-dominated ghetto in the northern quarters of Hyderabad, which has been marked by decades of hostilities...... between local Hindus and Muslims. These tensions had everyday and extreme manifestations (ranging from quotidian expressions of symbolic violence to rioting, looting and bomb blasts) which increased the vulnerabilities of Muslim male children in the slums; the latter being humiliated by ordinary passers......, and sustained nascent masculinities within the moral and social economy of impoverished Muslim male children....

  8. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  9. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier

    2016-01-01

    rackets, to the material reciprocation of the recognition of rights. Focusing on the taxation practices of armed groups, the article argues that taxation is at the core of armed groups’ production of public authority and citizenship, and that their modes of taxation are based on long-standing registers...... of authority and practices of rule that originate in the colonial era. In particular, the article shows that by appealing to both local customary and national forms of political community and citizenship, armed groups are able to assume public authority to tax civilians. However, their public authority may...

  10. Violence and mental illness: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Heather

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship of mental illness and violence by asking three questions: Are the mentally ill violent? Are the mentally ill at increased risk of violence? Are the public at risk? Mental disorders are neither necessary nor sufficient causes of violence. Major determinants of violence continue to be socio-demographic and economic factors. Substance abuse is a major determinant of violence and this is true whether it occurs in the context of a concurrent ...

  11. Media violence, gun control, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, D M

    1996-07-01

    Public concern with the national level of violence is discussed, and the complexity of the issue delineated. Research findings in two key areas of the topic, media violence and availability of firearms, are examined, as is their applicability to public policy efforts and recommendations for the prevention of violence. An approach that combines efforts to counteract media violence with those aimed at effective gun control is outlined in terms of bringing about changes in attitudes toward violence and firearm possession.

  12. Subverting Justice: Socio-Legal Determinants of Impunity for Violence against Women in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Menjívar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High levels of violence against women and impunity in Guatemala have reached crisis proportions and have received increased international attention in recent years. The phenomenon of feminicide (e.g., killings of women in the context of state impunity, is widespread in Latin America and particularly acute in Guatemala. Many (if not the majority are rooted in violence that becomes concentrated in the family. In this paper, we propose that both the structure and application of the laws in Guatemala contribute to widespread impunity. Police and judges use laws other than those created to address violence against women in order to justify lack of enforcement. For example, judges resist issuing restraining orders, and police refuse to apply them because this can violate perpetrators’ property rights. Judges also refuse to apply domestic violence laws because this violates the principle of equality under the law. Women refuse to use the legal system to seek justice because alimony laws will not be enforced and women are economically dependent. The discriminatory fashion in which these laws are applied leads to widespread impunity. Even though laws on the books could be applied otherwise, those who implement them privilege laws that conflict with violence against women laws. While much scholarship focuses on individual-level motives for violence, we instead analyze the socio-legal environment and existing legal codes that enable continued failure to respond adequately to violence against women. The legal framework and the legal code itself are deeply shaped by the context in which they are written—the structural, gender, symbolic, everyday and long arm of political violence that permeate all aspects of life in Guatemala and exacerbate women’s vulnerability, especially the poor. We argue that this broader legal context endangers the lives of women in Guatemala. We also extend the socio-legal scholarship to highlight failures for victim

  13. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  14. Violence as a risk factor for postpartum depression in mothers: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Chen, Hong-Lin; Xu, Xu-Juan

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the association between violence and postpartum depression (PPD). The data sources of this study are: Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier, Springer Link were examined from their start date through July1, 2011. "Violence", "domestic violence", "physical violence", "sexual violence", "domestic violence", "postpartum depression", "postnatal depression", and "puerperal depression" were some of the terms included in the purview of MeSH terms. Relevant studies from reference lists were also scanned. Studies examining the association between violence and postpartum depression have been included. A total of 679 studies were included in this screening. Essential information of these included studies was independently extracted by two raters. Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the clinical data of these research studies. Random-effects model was chosen in this meta-analysis for maintaining significant heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated with the help of a funnel plot. Six studies involving 3,950 participants were included in this clinical study. Violence was one of the factors responsible for PPD [OR = 3.47; 95% confidence interval (CI; 2.13-5.64)]. Significant heterogenity was found in this meta-analysis (P analysis of 3.00, 95%CI (2.44-3.68), p analysis indicated a positive correlation between violence and PPD. In women of reproductive age, PPD induced through violence can be prevented through early identification. In addition, due to heterogeneity and wide CIs in this meta-analysis, further research is evidently required.

  15. The impact of a microsavings intervention on reducing violence against women engaged in sex work: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Carlson, Catherine E; Aira, Toivgoo; Norcini Pala, Andrea; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S

    2016-10-28

    Women who engage in sex work are at risk for experiencing violence from numerous perpetrators, including paying partners. Empirical evidence has shown mixed results regarding the impact of participation in microfinance interventions on women's experiences of violence, with some studies demonstrating reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV) and others showing heightened risk for IPV. The current study reports on the impact of participation in a microsavings intervention on experiences of paying partner violence among women engaged in sex work in Mongolia. Between 2011 and 2013, we conducted a two-arm, non-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing an HIV/STI risk reduction intervention (HIVSRR) (control condition) to a combined microsavings and HIVSRR intervention (treatment condition). Eligible women (aged 18 or older, reported having engaged in unprotected sex with paying partner in past 90 days, expressed interest in microsavings intervention) were invited to participate. One hundred seven were randomized, including 50 in the control and 57 in the treatment condition. Participants completed assessments at baseline, immediate post-test following HIVSRR, and at 3-months and 6-months after completion of the treatment group intervention. Outcomes for the current study include any violence (physical and/or sexual), sexual violence, and physical violence from paying partners in the past 90 days. An intention-to-treat approach was utilized. Linear growth models revealed significant reductions over time in both conditions for any violence (β = -0.867, p impact women's risk for paying partner violence. Qualitative research is recommended to understand the cause for reductions in paying partner violence in both study conditions. Evaluating a Microfinance Intervention for High Risk Women in Mongolia; NCT01861431 ; May 20, 2013.

  16. The senses of Violence. "Cristianismo y Revolución" in Argentine in the sixties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Slipak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the importance of symbolic inscriptions in understanding the political dynamics and the formation of groups, this article explores the meanings of violence displayed in Cristianismo y Revolución, Argentinean magazine published between September 1966 and September 1971. This publication was a paradigmatic exponent of the different contestant expressions to the military governments that took place in the country from 1966-1973 and in which catholics networks, unions, intellectuals, university, and, increasingly, armed organizations converged. Which was the meaning of violence that prevailed in the magazine? What were the characteristics that this meaning gave to political action? Could that mean be splitted from its aims? And, as derived from the aforementioned questions, could it be asserted that violence had a unique sense?

  17. DDR and the Internal Organization of Non-State Armed Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McQuinn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR trajectories of non-state armed groups are shaped by a group’s internal organization. Extensive research by political scientists has demonstrated a correlation between internal features of armed groups and their behaviour (e.g. extent of violence used against local communities. I extend this analysis to DDR outcomes by illustrating how two features of an armed group’s internal organization – command profile and financing architecture – influence post-conflict DDR trajectories. To substantiate the theory, four case studies from Colombia, Nepal and Libya are reviewed. The article concludes with the limitations and opportunities of this approach, including the potential of predicting DDR challenges.

  18. Stop Domestic Violence Against Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the beautiful autumn of 1995, women from all over the world gathered at the NGO Forum of the UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing to discuss the ugly topic of "women and violence." An American woman said angrily that domestic violence was "as common as giving birth to babies." She denounced the prevalence of the violent behavior that was hidden in families and called upon the participants to strive for women’s dignity and safety. The participants all recognized that domestic violence had become a global

  19. Between Agency and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    The Role of Symbolic Violence in Research and Policy: In Denmark it is a common assumption that gender equality, especially concerning sexual practices and other personal relations, has been fully accomplished. Consequently, public as well as professional discourses and practices concerning rape...... of this kind in public policies concerning gendered and gendering violence, it is necessary to develop critiques of aspects of symbolic violence (Beate Krais 1993), that have been conceptualised as ‘genderless gender’ by Suvi Ronkainen (2001). Thus statistic and other forms of research approaches wishing...

  20. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  1. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  2. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.

  3. Hot Galactic Arms Point To Vicious Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed the aftermath of a titanic explosion that wracked the elliptical galaxy known as NGC 4636. This eruption could be the latest episode in a cycle of violence that is triggered by gas falling into a central massive black hole. Chandra's images of NGC 4636 show spectacular symmetric arms, or arcs, of hot gas extending 25,000 light years into a huge cloud of multimillion-degree-Celsius gas that envelopes the galaxy. At a temperature of 10 million degrees, the arms are 30 percent hotter than the surrounding gas cloud. "The temperature jump, together with the symmetry and scale of the arms, suggests that we are observing the effects of a tremendous outburst that occurred in the center of the galaxy," said Christine Jones of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., lead author of a paper on these observations scheduled for publication in Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The energy of this explosion would be the equivalent of several hundred thousand supernovas." The arms appear to be the leading edges of a galaxy-sized shock wave that is racing outward at 700 kilometers per second, or 1.6 million miles per hour. At this speed, it would take 3 million years for the structures to attain their present size. Cavities detected in the hot gas cloud to the east and west of the center of the galaxy support the shockwave explanation. The authors suggest that the explosion is part of a majestic cosmic feedback process that keeps the galaxy in a state of turmoil. Over a period of a few million years, a hot gas cloud that envelops the stars in the galaxy cools and falls inward toward a central, massive black hole. The feeding of the black hole by the infalling material leads to an explosion that heats the hot gaseous envelope, starting the cycle anew. NGC 4636 NGC 4636 Background Subtracted This feedback cycle may explain one puzzling feature of the galaxy - the lack of a strong radio source of the type that is

  4. Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights men's…

  5. Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights men's…

  6. Adolescent violence exposure, gender issues and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munni, Ray; Malhi, P

    2006-07-01

    Youth violence is a growing problem worldwide. Research on adolescent violence in India is limited. Fifteen hundred high school students were investigated to study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of violence and to see the impact of violence exposure on their psychosocial adjustments. Sixty nine percent of students had witnessed violence in real life and 28% were of serious nature. Media violence exposure was universal. The prevalence of victims and perpetrators was 27% and 13% respectively. Bullying was prevalent. Male sex was the most important predictive risk factor for witnessing and perpetrating violence (P violence had poorer school performance and adjustment scores (P violence exposure is prevalent even in the lives of Indian adolescents and gender differences exist. Its impact on their psychosocial adjustments is detrimental. Early identification and corrective interventions of these adolescents is vital.

  7. Family violence and psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, R; Orn, H

    1986-03-01

    The relationship between family violence and psychiatric disorders was examined using standardized diagnostic interviews of 1200 randomly selected residents of a large Canadian city. The results showed that higher than expected proportions of those exhibiting violent behavior had a psychiatric diagnosis and the rate of violent behaviors in those with diagnoses (54.4%) significantly (p less than .0001) exceeds the rate in the remainder of the sample (15.5%). Particularly high rates of violence are found in those where alcoholism is combined with antisocial personality disorder and/or recurrent depression (80-93%). Also at high risk for violence are those who have made suicide attempts (over 50%) and those who have been arrested for non-traffic offences (two-thirds). These data suggest that psychiatric disorders have a strong relationship to violent behavior, and are not in agreement with the predominantly sociological explanations of family violence.

  8. PSA: Topic of gender violence

    OpenAIRE

    Accensi Martínez, Maria Cinta

    2016-01-01

    Breu reflexió sobre la violència existent actualment envers les dones. Breve reflexión sobre la violencia existente actualmente hacia las mujeres. Brief reflection on currently existing violence against women.

  9. PSA: Topic of gender violence

    OpenAIRE

    Accensi Martínez, Maria Cinta

    2016-01-01

    Breu reflexió sobre la violència existent actualment envers les dones. Breve reflexión sobre la violencia existente actualmente hacia las mujeres. Brief reflection on currently existing violence against women.

  10. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sethi

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Community surveys can play an important role to better understand the scale and risk factors of different types of interpersonal violence. Readers are called upon to support a coordinated public health response to prevent this societal and health threat.

  11. Between Agency and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    The Role of Symbolic Violence in Research and Policy: In Denmark it is a common assumption that gender equality, especially concerning sexual practices and other personal relations, has been fully accomplished. Consequently, public as well as professional discourses and practices concerning rape...... - could be exposed to sexualised violence. Another example is that therapy and other forms of help do not draw on critical perspectives on gender conditions. Rather, frequently and in essencialising approaches to concepts of femininity and masculinity, they individualise or over...... of this kind in public policies concerning gendered and gendering violence, it is necessary to develop critiques of aspects of symbolic violence (Beate Krais 1993), that have been conceptualised as ‘genderless gender’ by Suvi Ronkainen (2001). Thus statistic and other forms of research approaches wishing...

  12. Gesture Recognition Based on the Probability Distribution of Arm Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Khairunizam; Sawada, Hideyuki

    The use of human motions for the interaction between humans and computers is becoming an attractive alternative to verbal media, especially through the visual interpretation of the human body motion. In particular, hand gestures are used as non-verbal media for the humans to communicate with machines that pertain to the use of the human gestures to interact with them. This paper introduces a 3D motion measurement of the human upper body for the purpose of the gesture recognition, which is based on the probability distribution of arm trajectories. In this study, by examining the characteristics of the arm trajectories given by a signer, motion features are selected and classified by using a fuzzy technique. Experimental results show that the use of the features extracted from arm trajectories effectively works on the recognition of dynamic gestures of a human, and gives a good performance to classify various gesture patterns.

  13. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  14. Targeting Civilians with Indiscriminate Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Theologies, States of Mind, ed. Walter Reich, (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 18. 11 Quintan Wiktorowicz, Islamic Activism...atrocities turned popular support dramatically against the Islamic movement. Quintan Wiktorowicz speculates that “Unable to limit the scale of the violence...Marginalization to Massacres: A Political Process Explanation of GIA Violence in Algeria,” in Quintan Wiktorowicz, Islamic Activism: A Social Movement

  15. Workplace violence in nursing today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Susan; Sofield, Laura

    2011-12-01

    Workplace violence is not a new phenomenon and is often sensationalized by the media when an incident occurs. Verbal abuse is a form of workplace violence that leaves no scars. However, for nurses, the emotional damage to the individual can affect productivity, increase medication errors, incur absenteeism, and decrease morale and overall satisfaction within the nursing profession. This results in staffing turnover and creates a hostile work environment that affects the culture within the organization.

  16. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Neena; Sharma, Indira; Srivastava, Shruti; Bhatia, M S; Chaudhuri, Uday; Parial, Sonia; Sharma, Avdesh; Kataria, Dinesh

    2015-07-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is a major public health problem in the country. The problem is grossly under-reported. A number of factors have been blamed for crimes against women. An inefficient law enforcing machinery has often been targeted for the increasing number of cases being reported. There is little recognition that psychiatric morbidity can perpetuate such crimes. Of late, there appears to a continuous increase in the number of crimes committed against women; especially the very serious ones like gang rapes. The latter have shaken the very conscience of people. Even harsher legislation does not seem to have made any effect. One wonders how this could be possible in a society heading toward high education, economic and technological development. Media has played a pivotal role by highlighting the problem to the masses. The need for the hour is for mental health professionals to take the challenge and present a comprehensive proposal for definite action to prevent all forms of VAW.

  17. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  18. Rural youth and violence: a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry L; Kulig, Judith; Grant Kalischuk, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The public health system must consider violence as an all too common reality in modern life. Violence can contribute to long-lasting negative consequences for individuals and communities. Research on violence has primarily focused on urban environments. Research examining youth violence within rural communities is limited. This is particularly the case for the links between gender and violence in small rural settings. The purpose of this study was to examine rural violence from a gender perspective by examining four variables: meaning, causes, consequences and solutions. A survey was completed in Central Alberta, Canada with 178 students from grades 6 to 12. The schools' geographic locations represented two distinct economic settings: one natural resources and the other agriculture. The mean age of the participants was 16 years with 60% of the youth female and 40% male. The survey instrument was composed of demographic questions and 70 questions that focused on violence. Violence was a concern for all youth, but there were gender differences. Females viewed the meaning of violence as having the intent to harm others and causes contributing to violence included television, movies, video games and the internet. Females were more concerned than males about the emotional consequences of violence. For solutions, females were more accepting of intrusive means to control violence such as increased security and stricter school rules, and involving non-peer helpers such as teachers and community based agencies as a means to help combat violence. The results of this study indicate that violence exists among rural youth and causes a great deal of concern. In particular, the study underscores the fact that there are potential gender differences in relation to causes, meaning, impact and solutions to violence. All the youth believed that violence in their lives needs to be addressed and want to develop anti-violence strategies. Females in particular see the development of such

  19. Sources of workplace violence against nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvas, Andreja; Seljak, Janko

    2015-01-01

    Health care employees, especially nurses, are often victims of workplace violence. The objective of this research is to study the frequency and degree of violence against nurses and to analyze correlations between various sources and types of violence. A survey was carried out using a representative sample of nurses in Slovenia. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed specifically for the purposes of the survey. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive, correlational and inferential statistics. A total of 692 nurses participated in the survey. Verbal violence (n = 416) and physical violence (n = 180) were identified. The most frequent perpetrators of verbal violence were patients (listed as a source of violence by 39.3% of the respondents) and peers (39.6%), with the most forceful identified as physicians and patients. Physical violence against nurses was most often initiated by patients (20.8%) who were also the most forceful source in this category. Nurse leaders were found to be the most frequent and forceful sources of violence in terms of leadership level. A positive correlation between external (patient and relatives) and internal (physician and nurse) sources of violence was determined. A better understanding of the association between different types and sources of violence may support the development of action-oriented violence management. Health care organisations should limit violence at its less severe levels and at its primary source.

  20. Proprioceptive Interaction between the Two Arms in a Single-Arm Pointing Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Kigawa

    Full Text Available Proprioceptive signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position of one arm in a two-arm matching task. Here, we examined whether the perceived position of one arm is affected by proprioceptive signals from the other arm in a one-arm pointing task in which participants specified the perceived position of an unseen reference arm with an indicator paddle. Both arms were hidden from the participant's view throughout the study. In Experiment 1, with both arms placed in front of the body, the participants received 70-80 Hz vibration to the elbow flexors of the reference arm (= right arm to induce the illusion of elbow extension. This extension illusion was compared with that when the left arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not. The degree of the vibration-induced extension illusion of the right arm was reduced in the presence of left arm vibration. In Experiment 2, we found that this kinesthetic interaction between the two arms did not occur when the left arm was vibrated in an abducted position. In Experiment 3, the vibration-induced extension illusion of one arm was fully developed when this arm was placed at an abducted position, indicating that the brain receives increased proprioceptive input from a vibrated arm even if the arm was abducted. Our results suggest that proprioceptive interaction between the two arms occurs in a one-arm pointing task when the two arms are aligned with one another. The position sense of one arm measured using a pointer appears to include the influences of incoming information from the other arm when both arms were placed in front of the body and parallel to one another.

  1. Terrorism, civil war, one-sided violence and global burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Khan, Maria R; Sapkota, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict and related violence, including terrorism and one-sided violence, has profound effects on people's health and lives. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between deaths due to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) occurring in 2002 attributable to all causes and specific communicable and noncommunicable diseases. Deaths resulting from terrorism, war and one-sided violence were positively associated with all cause as well as a number of communicable and noncommunicable disease-specific DALYs across the majority of sex and age subgroups of the populace, controlling for an array of economic factors empirically shown to affect public health. Overall, a 1.0% increase in deaths due to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 was associated with a 0.16% increase in DALYs lost to all causes in 2002 in the total world population. There was little variation in the magnitude of these associations between males and females and between communicable and noncommunicable diseases. The results of the present study can begin to guide post-conflict recovery by focusing on interventions targeting both noncommunicable as well as communicable diseases, thereby highlighting the full health costs of war and ultimately providing a strong rationale for promoting peace.

  2. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  3. Adult Violence with the Mother and Sibling as Predictors of Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Burns, Mary K.; Can, S. Hakan; Scherer, Cory R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides the first available evaluation of how violence with the mother and siblings during adulthood is associated with the occurrence of partner violence in young adults. Because a pattern of reciprocal partner violence is well documented, the authors hypothesized that reciprocal violence would also be found for adults and…

  4. Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use, of…

  5. Adult Violence with the Mother and Sibling as Predictors of Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Burns, Mary K.; Can, S. Hakan; Scherer, Cory R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides the first available evaluation of how violence with the mother and siblings during adulthood is associated with the occurrence of partner violence in young adults. Because a pattern of reciprocal partner violence is well documented, the authors hypothesized that reciprocal violence would also be found for adults and…

  6. Heavy alcohol use and dating violence perpetration during adolescence: family, peer and neighborhood violence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.

  7. Violence against Women on the College Campus: Evaluating Anti-Violence Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Roberta E.

    2010-01-01

    Violence against women is a significant problem on America's college campuses. In response to this violence, many universities have developed direct service programs to assist the survivors of violence as well as educational programs to raise awareness about and/or reduce the likelihood of such violence. There has been no scholarly inquiry…

  8. Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use,…

  9. Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use, of…

  10. Partner Violence and Street Violence among Urban Adolescents: Do the Same Family Factors Relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Tolan, Patrick H.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Henry, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Studied how participation in street violence as part of criminal/delinquent behavior relates to violence within dating or marital relationships. Found that subjects were more likely to report use of violence in relationships if they were also participating in violence as part of other criminal behavior. However, half the 141 subjects had not…

  11. Experiences of domestic violence and mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylee Trevillion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the extent to which being a victim of domestic violence is associated with different mental disorders in men and women. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of being a victim of domestic violence by diagnostic category and sex. METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Eighteen biomedical and social sciences databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO; journal hand searches; scrutiny of references and citation tracking of included articles; expert recommendations, and an update of a systematic review on victimisation and mental disorder. INCLUSION CRITERIA: observational and intervention studies reporting prevalence or odds of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women (aged ≥16 years, using validated diagnostic measures of mental disorder. PROCEDURE: Data were extracted and study quality independently appraised by two reviewers. ANALYSIS: Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool estimates of prevalence and odds. RESULTS: Forty-one studies were included. There is a higher risk of experiencing adult lifetime partner violence among women with depressive disorders (OR 2.77 (95% CI 1.96-3.92, anxiety disorders (OR 4.08 (95% CI 2.39-6.97, and PTSD (OR 7.34 95% CI 4.50-11.98, compared to women without mental disorders. Insufficient data were available to calculate pooled odds for other mental disorders, family violence (i.e. violence perpetrated by a non-partner, or violence experienced by men. Individual studies reported increased odds for women and men for all diagnostic categories, including psychoses, with a higher prevalence reported for women. Few longitudinal studies were found so the direction of causality could not be investigated. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence and increased likelihood of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women across all diagnostic categories, compared to people without disorders. Longitudinal studies are

  12. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists.

  13. Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2002-04-06

    An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences.

  14. National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) is a national information and resource hub relating to all aspects of sexual violence. NSVRC staff collect and...

  15. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-11-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.

  16. Prevalence & Correlates of Intimate Partner physical violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and ... Witnessing family violence as a girl child, education, place of residence, parity, duration of marriage ... also known as domestic violence, is the ..... Social Science.

  17. Violence on television. Unpleasant, interesting or morbid?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C Fernández Villanueva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many research studies have contributed to the study of the effects of violence on TV, but very few of them have paid attention to the reasons why violence arouses interest or rejection among viewers...

  18. A Seminar on Curbing Family Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANDY; ZHU

    2000-01-01

    CURBING family violence has become a priority for Chinese women's federations since 1995, when the concept of family violence was accepted by Chinese women's organizations. At the basic level, it is one of many tasks for safeguarding women's

  19. iliomestic violence around Gondar in Northwest Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to parental domestic violence as a girl was the strongest risk factor for being victim of violence later ... women havunf some authority and power outside the family combine to ... A pretested Amharic version questionnaire was used for.

  20. Clamping down on clinic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-16

    The editorial remarked that anti abortion groups using violence must be stopped through legislation currently under consideration by the House and Senate of the US Congress. An important distinction is made between expressing freedom of speech on a deeply held belief and intimidation and violence that directly impacts on the rights of others. Women's health clinics where abortions are performed have repeatedly been the setting for intimidation and violence. There have been over 1000 reports of violence against these facilities and the people working at abortion centers since 1977. The most extreme act was the March 1993 murder of Dr. David Gunn outside a Pensacola, Florida, clinic and the wounding in August 1993 of a doctor in Wichita, Kansas. Unfortunately, the clinic violence not only interfere with abortion seekers, but also interferes with normal routine procedures such as Pap smears, prenatal care, well baby visits, and contraceptive counseling. Politically motivated violence antagonizes many women who rely on these clinics as the only source of care. The House and Senate bills would make it a federal criminal act to use force or physical obstruction to prevent a woman from getting an abortion or to damage a medical facility that provides abortion-related services. The Senate voted November 16, 1993 and the House vote will follow within the week. Anti abortion activists have cited the change to a pro-choice president as one of the reasons for the increase in violence against clinics, which amounted to a tripling of acts between 1990 and 1992. It is quixotic that movement to protect life would use extreme acts such as murder to protect life. Persuasion and appeals to hearts and minds would serve the abortion foes better as a viable strategy in the exercise of their right of free speech.

  1. Violence and youth in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Jelic

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the following article you will be able to see how the violence among youth is manifested in society and the causes for the occurrence of aggression and violence. Aggression in children is evolving from an early age, later it increases in school and grew into violence, verbal and physical, then is expressed through the community and also historically violence is passed on generations in the creation of stereotypes and speech of hate against other nations.

  2. The Violence Factors in American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董陶

    2015-01-01

    Violence symbolized the dark side of America culture. The theme of this article is to explore the causes of the violence factors in American culture. American violence exists as a result of a complex network of elements from American history, American value, various social factors such as economic inequality, racial discrimination, mass media, wide spread of guns as well as drug abuse. Besides, the governmental policy plays an essential role in American violence to some extent.

  3. Urban Jamaican children's exposure to community violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms-Vaughan, M E; Jackson, M A; Ashley, D E

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with aggression in adulthood. The high level of community violence in Jamaica is likely to expose Jamaican children to violence. There has been no detailed study of the exposure of Jamaican children to violence in their daily lives. Some 1674 urban 11-12-year-old children, previously part of a national birth cohort study, completed a questionnaire detailing their exposure to violence as witnesses, victims and aggressors. Their parents completed a socio-economic questionnaire. Jamaican children had high levels of exposure to physical violence. A quarter of the children had witnessed severe acts of physical violence such as robbery, shooting and gang wars, a fifth had been victims of serious threats or robbery and one in every twelve had been stabbed. Children reported being least exposed to sexual violence and to being shot at. Robbery was an almost universal experience affecting children from all schools and socio-economic groups. The single commonest experience as a victim of violence was the loss of a family member or close friend to murder, affecting 36.8% of children. Children's experiences of witnessing violence occurred chiefly in their communities but their personal experiences of violence occurred at school. Boys and children attending primary school had greater exposure to violence as witnesses and victims. Socio-economic status discriminated exposure to physical violence as witnesses but not as victims. Intervention strategies to reduce children's exposure to violence should include community education on the impact of exposure to violence on children, particularly the loss of a significant person, and the development of a range of school-based violence prevention programmes.

  4. Detecting Violence in Video using Subclasses

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xirong; Huo, Yujia; Xu, Jieping; Jin, Qin

    2016-01-01

    This paper attacks the challenging problem of violence detection in videos. Different from existing works focusing on combining multi-modal features, we go one step further by adding and exploiting subclasses visually related to violence. We enrich the MediaEval 2015 violence dataset by \\emph{manually} labeling violence videos with respect to the subclasses. Such fine-grained annotations not only help understand what have impeded previous efforts on learning to fuse the multi-modal features, ...

  5. [Development of combat medical robots in the US Armed Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golota, A S; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Kuvakin, V I; Soldatov, E A

    2014-04-01

    The current article is dedicated to the problem of scientific research organization in the field of combat medical robots development in the US Armed Forces. The role of the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center is singled out. The project A Robotic System for Wounded Patient Extraction and Evacuation from Hostile Environments is described in more detail. It is noted the high cost of such technical systems development and operation.

  6. Whores, men, and other misfits: undoing ‘feminization’ in the armed forces in the DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaz, Maria Eriksson; Stern, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The global attention focused on sexual violence in the DRC has not only contributed to an image of the Congolese army as a vestige of pre-modern barbarism, populated by rapists, and bearing no resemblance to the world of modern armies; it has also shaped gender and defence reform initiatives. These initiatives have become synonymous with combating sexual violence, reflecting an assumption that the gendered dynamics of the army are already known. Crucial questions such as the ‘feminization’ of the armed forces are consequently neglected. Based on in-depth interviews with soldiers in the Congolese armed forces, this article analyses the discursive strategies male soldiers employ in relation to the feminization of the army. In the light of the need to reform the military and military masculinities, the article discusses how globalized discourses and practices render the Congolese military a highly globalized sphere. It also highlights the particular and local ways in which military identities are produced through gender, and concludes that a simple inclusion of women in the armed forces in order to render men less violent might not have the pacifying effect intended.

  7. Women's experiences in the armed conflict situation in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The negative impact of war is apparent at various levels of the Sudanese society. Economic, social, and political instability is occurring on a large scale and the most vulnerable groups are women and children. This report aimed to document women's human rights violations in the ongoing armed conflict situation in Sudan, with the emphasis on rape; investigate the forms of violence against women in a situation of armed conflict; present testimonies of women survivors; and use the document for advocacy. A total of 20 testimonies were obtained, which clearly indicated that rape is a systematic practice in areas of conflict regardless of whether the Sudanese People's Liberation Army, the Khartoum government, or bandit groups that take advantage of the chaos, have attacked civilians. In view of this, regional agencies should show more seriousness in finding solutions for the war, and perpetrators of rape should be brought to justice so as to change the perception of rape as an unfortunate but inevitable side effect of war.

  8. Violence against women: the phenomenon of workplace violence against nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, R J Howerton; Mentes, Janet C

    2010-02-01

    Registered nurses have been the recipients of an alarming increase in workplace violence (WPV). Emergency and psychiatric nurses have been found to be the most vulnerable and yet few solid reporting procedures exist to fully account for a true number of incidents. Further compounding the problem is the lack of a standard definition of violence to guide reporting procedures, interventions, legislation, and research. While there are certain risk factors that not only predispose the nurse and the patient to WPV, research continues to attempt to parse out which risk factors are the key determinants of WPV and also which interventions prove to be significant in reducing WPV. The nursing shortage is expected only to increase; recruitment and retention of qualified staff members may be deterred by WPV. This necessitates focused research on the phenomenon of workplace violence in health care.

  9. [Experiencing familiar violence: men who commit violence against their mates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Freire, Normélia Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand which elements are present on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. This qualitative study took as theoretical reference the Social Representations. It was carried out on Calafate community, San Martin, Salvador, BA. Its population was composed by 7 men who committed violence against their mates. Semi-structured interview provided data, which was organized through Bardin's Content Analysis, specifically thematic analysis, in the axis Familiar Relation. The study enabled us to identify elements that interfere on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. Its origin is in the familiar relationship, marked by factors as lack of dialogue and physical aggressions.

  10. The economics of violence in natural states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Besouw, B.; Ansink, J.H.; van Bavel, B.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Violence is key to understanding human interaction and societal development. The natural state of societal organization is that a subset of the population, capable of mustering organized large-scale violence, forms an elite coalition that restrains both violence and coercive appropriation. We

  11. Violence Exposure among Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is children with disabilities exposed to a broad range of violence types including child maltreatment, domestic violence, community violence, and war and terrorism. Because disability research must be interpreted on the basis of the definitional paradigm employed, definitions of disability status and current prevalence…

  12. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  13. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  14. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  15. Violence in the Media: One Teacher's Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenberg, Harvey

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses and shares his opinion about violence in the media. He states that many of the students in class have honestly responded to his inquiries about violence in culture, that they are "fascinated" with violence in movies, in television shows, in video games, and in the music they listen to away from school.…

  16. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence v

  17. Students against Violence Everywhere: A National Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Center for the Prevention of School Violence, Raleigh.

    The Center for Prevention of School Violence, the national clearinghouse for Students Against Violence Everywhere (SAVE), developed a profile of SAVE chapters, which involve students in school and community violence prevention efforts. This report provides background information about SAVE and reviews the literature addressing school connectedness…

  18. Violence against Teachers: Prevalence and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Catherine M.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Lyon, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Data collected from 731 teachers were used to examine the consequences of violence directed toward teachers while in the workplace. Analyses showed that the majority of respondents (n = 585, 80.0%) had experienced school-related violence--broadly defined--at one point in their careers. Serious violence (actual, attempted, or threatened physical…

  19. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  20. The economics of violence in natural states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Besouw, B.; Ansink, J.H.; van Bavel, B.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Violence is key to understanding human interaction and societal development. The natural state of societal organization is that a subset of the population, capable of mustering organized large-scale violence, forms an elite coalition that restrains both violence and coercive appropriation. We highli

  1. Stop the Violence: Overcoming Self-Destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nelson, Ed.

    The story of the Stop the Violence movement among rap music artists and music industry colleagues is told, along with the story of a video that was produced as part of this initiative. The Stop the Violence project grew out of the reaction to violence among concert goers at a 1987 rap concert on Long Island (New York). Rap musicians have joined…

  2. School Violence: Prevalence, Precursors, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaanna

    2002-01-01

    Reviews types of school violence students confront, including a frequent precursor thereto: bullying. Discusses positive and negative aspects of current approach to school violence prevention such as surveillance, zero-tolerance policies, anti-bullying programs. Describes components of model school violence-prevention program. (Contains 38…

  3. Sexual violence; post-conflict; Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    including intimate partner violence, sexual assault, child sexual abuse, wife ... This study explored narratives of sexual violence and obstacles to the .... to affirm their masculinity through irresponsible sexual behaviour and domestic violence, .... Netherlands Institute of International Relations and the Social Science Research ...

  4. Mobbing: Workplace Violence in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; McDermott, J. Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Incidents of workplace violence are becoming all too common at colleges and universities. Generally, one thinks of shootings and assaults in relation to campus workplace violence. However, mobbing and bullying of faculty by other faculty are types of workplace violence that, while very common, are rarely discussed or reported. This article raises…

  5. Violence in the Media: One Teacher's Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenberg, Harvey

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses and shares his opinion about violence in the media. He states that many of the students in class have honestly responded to his inquiries about violence in culture, that they are "fascinated" with violence in movies, in television shows, in video games, and in the music they listen to away from school.…

  6. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  7. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  8. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  9. Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

  10. Third-Person Perception and School Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, John; Coleman, Grace

    This study is the first of its kind to study third-person perception within the context of school violence. Linkages to the health psychology literature (optimistic bias) provide the basis for further understanding of adolescents' perceptions of school violence and the influence of media violence in their lives. Results from a survey of 1,500…

  11. Mobbing: Workplace Violence in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; McDermott, J. Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Incidents of workplace violence are becoming all too common at colleges and universities. Generally, one thinks of shootings and assaults in relation to campus workplace violence. However, mobbing and bullying of faculty by other faculty are types of workplace violence that, while very common, are rarely discussed or reported. This article raises…

  12. Religion and violence in a globalised world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Huber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Violent religious extremism is seen as one of the mega-problems of the 21st century. This article � based on a key lecture at the conference on �Violence in a democratic South Africa� at the University of Pretoria and the David de Villiers memorial lecture at the University of Stellenbosch, both held during August 2010 � critically discussed the interaction between religion and violence in our present-day, globalised world. Three different propositions on the relationship between religion and violence were scrutinised. In countering the proposition that religion, or more specifically monotheism, necessarily leads to violence, it was argued that violence is not an inherent, but rather an acquired or even an ascribed quality of religion. The second proposition that religion leads to non-violence was affirmed to the extent that religions do provide a strong impulse to overcome violence. However, they also tend to accept violence as an inevitable part of reality and even justify the use of violence on religious grounds. The third proposition was regarded as the most convincing, for it argues that the link between religion and violence is contingent. Some situations do seem to make the use of violence inevitable; however, religions should refrain from justifying the use of violence and maintain a preferential option for nonviolence.

  13. School Counselors' Role in Dating Violence Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Sikes, April; Healey, Amanda; Hays, Danica

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence among adolescents is a major public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine five factors of which school counselors must be aware in order to recognize, intervene, and report incidence of dating violence. These factors are (a) understanding the diverse definitions of dating violence, (b) recognizing dating violence…

  14. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  15. Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duroch Françoise

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. Methods We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s, forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Results Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565 were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%, although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%. Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103 of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%. Conclusions The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the

  16. Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duroch, Françoise; McRae, Melissa; Grais, Rebecca F

    2011-04-19

    The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s), forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565) were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%), although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%). Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103) of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%). The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the majority of aggressions were by armed men there was an

  17. A Systematic Literature Review: Workplace Violence Against Emergency Medical Services Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourshaikhian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context In spite of the high prevalence and consequences of much workplace violence against emergency medical services personnel, this phenomenon has been given insufficient attention. A systematic review can aid the development of guidelines to reduce violence. Objectives The research question addressed by this paper is, “What are the characteristics and findings of studies on workplace violence against emergency medical services personnel”? Data Sources A systematic literature review was conducted using online databases (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Magiran with the help of experienced librarians. Study Selection Inclusion criteria comprised studies in the English or Persian language and researcher’s access to the full text. There was no limit to the entry of the study design. Exclusion criteria included lack of access to the full text of the article, studies published in unreliable journals or conferences, and studies in which the results were shared with other medical or relief groups and there was no possibility of breaking down the results. Data Extraction A “Data extraction form” was designed by the researchers based on the goals of the study that included the title and author(s, study method (type, place of study, sample size, sampling method, and data collection/analysis tool, printing location, information related to the frequency of types of violence, characteristics of victims /perpetrators, and related factors. Results The papers reviewed utilized a variety of locations and environments, methods, and instrument samplings. The majority of the studies were performed using the quantitative method. No intervention study was found. Most studies focused on the prevalence of violence, and their results indicated that exposure to violence was high. The results are presented in six major themes. Conclusions Workplace violence and injuries incurred from it are extensive throughout the world. The important causes of violence

  18. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  19. Arms control and international security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolkowicz, R. (ed.); Joeck, N.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers delivered at a symposium held at the University of California, in 1983. It provides the discussions upon the value and importance of arms debate. The paper presents an expression of personal views rather than an analysis of the arguments of the primary presentations.

  20. Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor right away.Start OverDiagnosisYou may have TENDINITIS, inflammation of a tendon.Self CareUse an over- ... OverDiagnosisYour may have TENNIS ELBOW, a type of TENDINITIS.Self CareRest the arm, apply ice packs to ...

  1. [Violence and health in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Agudelo, S

    1997-02-01

    In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Columbians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some, but not enough, important answers. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. This it not merely an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein.

  2. [Violence on health care workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, M; Fusaro, N; Colaiuda, F; Rescigno, G; Fioravanti, M

    2017-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is vulnerable for workplace violence, but little is known about this and its consequences. Objectives of this study were presence, characteristics and effects of violence from patients and visitors on health care workers in an Emergency Department (ED). This study was about the Accident and Emergency Department, S. Pertini Hospital, (ASL RMB, Rome, Italy). Data were collected from November 2014 to January 2015 on frequency and type of violent behavior in the past five years experienced by staff members and their level of stress by an ad hoc questionnaire for the evaluation of violent events in health activities (QVS) and a questionnaire on perceived work-related stress (QES). Of the 58 eligible workers, 51 completed the interview. Health care workers were regularly exposed to violence with a consequent severe underreporting to work authorities and only a minor reporting to the police. A diffuse belief that workplace violence is a normal part of the work was also identified. Aggressors were usually patients or their relatives and were mainly males. Health care workers may suffer physical and emotional harm. Emergency Department health care workers are at risk of experiencing workplace violence and should have specific training and support in the management of violent situations focused on early identification, communication strategies, and de-escalation techniques.

  3. Children, adolescents, and war: the systematic engagement of youth in collective violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warf, Curren; Eisenstein, Evelyn; Stahl, Christiane

    2009-12-01

    Increasingly health personnel are called on to address the needs of adolescents affected by armed conflict. Adolescents suffer as combatants, direct and indirect casualties, as dependents of combatants, and as citizens of countries whose resources are destroyed and/or consumed by war and other forms of organized violence. Survivors of war, ex-child soldiers, refugees, and others are found today in cities on all continents. This paper will review the epidemiology of armed conflict, especially with respect to children and youth, examine the etiology of youth involvement in armed conflict including social risk factors and developmental vulnerabilities, and review the peace-building efforts of the United Nations, communities, and youth themselves. Finally we will briefly review the efforts of those committed to the well-being of adolescents in the areas of advocacy and treatment.

  4. Early childhood educators' recognition and treatment of violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačar, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The thesis analyses violence against children and early childhood educators' recognition of violence against children and their treatment. The theoretical part defines different types of violence which are: physical, mental, and sexual violence, child neglect, and economic violence. Definitions as well as signs of a certain type of violence are presented. The author also describes the role of practitioners in recognition of violence against children and the legislation that defines their ...

  5. [Child-to-parent violence and its association with exposure to marital violence and parent-to-child violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Calvete, Esther

    2012-05-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine the relationships between the exposure to different types of family violence (intraparental violence and parent-to-child aggression) and the perpetration of child-to-parent violence (CPV); (b) to analyze sex differences in the relationships specified. The sample comprised 1681 Spanish university students who reported the exposure to different types of family violence during their childhood. Both psychological and physical family violence were analyzed separately. Results showed that both witnessing marital psychological violence and parent-to-child psychological aggression are related to CPV. Furthermore, psychological and physical parent-to-child aggression as well as witnessing physical aggression between parents was associated with physical CPV. Multigroup analyses showed that the relationships among variables were not significantly different as a function of sex. This finding suggests that the relation between exposure to family violence and CPV is similar for men and women.

  6. Climate Change and Collective Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W; Patz, Jonathan A

    2017-03-20

    Climate change is causing increases in temperature, changes in precipitation and extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and other environmental impacts. It is also causing or contributing to heat-related disorders, respiratory and allergic disorders, infectious diseases, malnutrition due to food insecurity, and mental health disorders. In addition, increasing evidence indicates that climate change is causally associated with collective violence, generally in combination with other causal factors. Increased temperatures and extremes of precipitation with their associated consequences, including resultant scarcity of cropland and other key environmental resources, are major pathways by which climate change leads to collective violence. Public health professionals can help prevent collective violence due to climate change (a) by supporting mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, (b) by promoting adaptation measures to address the consequences of climate change and to improve community resilience, and

  7. [Predisposition for violence in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeck-Fischer, A

    1995-01-01

    Uncontrolled aggressiveness, violence, and reckless behavior make up the contents of many myths of the 'real man'. For youths with unfavourable developmental conditions these myths are especially important. Two types of adolescents, willing use violence, with antisocial personality developments are illuminated with the help of psychoanalytic models of understanding; the borderline disorder on a low structure level and the mimicry development with its 'false' structure development, which often leads to a wrong diagnosis. With specific interactions with youths of both types in an inpatient setting, developmental processes are described which then often lead to the use of violence if effective interventions are not used enough. In closing pedagogic, social-therapeutic and psychotherapeutic strategies for dealing with such adolescents are discussed.

  8. INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSES TO SCHOOL VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Zapata Martelo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent, attend to, mitigate, and punish school violence, diverse programs, actions, and laws have been created and implemented at the international, national, and state levels. Nevertheless, these have proven inefficient and ineffective since school violence is increasing and becoming worse in all school levels. Some factors that have made difficult the implementation of laws have been the deficiencies regarding how to attend to the cases instead of just punishing them: the lack of knowledge of the laws by the public officials and the general population; the functioning of the educational system, the little availability of monetary, organizational, and human resources; multiplicity and multidimensionality where school violence prevails, and which does not coincide with what is stated in the written law and everyday life.

  9. Teachers faced with school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana María Rodríguez Gómez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence is influenced by relationships of conflict among people, which sometimes may end up in violence and aggressiveness. Violence is the result of the accumulation of small hostile situations which arouse maladjustments in feelings and reactions. Recent empirical research has shown that the number of violent situations in the classroom has doubled. The answers offered by the administration and the educational centres are oriented to the setting up of programs for violence prevention, considering the school as an organisation which coexists with the conflict. Among the proposed alternatives, I emphasize individual and group tutorship and mediation processes as two viable resources which facilitate coexistence and improve the school’s climate together with a better understanding of the teacher’s use of non-verbal communication in the classroom

  10. Metaphors about violence by preservice teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özabaci, Nilüfer; Erkan, Zülal

    2015-03-01

    Violence consists of a pattern of coercive behaviors used by a competent adult or adolescent to establish and maintain power and control over another competent adult or adolescent. These behaviors, which can occur alone or in combination, sporadically or continually, include physical violence, psychological abuse, talking, and nonconsensual sexual behavior. Research indicates that different types of violence are used as a means of enforcing discipline in the family and the school context. Children and adolescents who grow up in an environment where violence has a natural place tend to resort to violence at every stage of their lives without question. The aim of this research was therefore to preservice teachers' perception of the concept of violence through the use of metaphors. Accordingly, answers to the following questions were sought: What metaphors do the youth use to describe the concept of violence? Under which conceptual categories can these metaphors be grouped in terms of their common features? How do the conceptual categories vary in relation to the students' gender and the subjects they study at university? The study was conducted in 2009 with the help of 303 students at Mersin University and Eskişehir Osmangazi University (Faculty of Education). Incomplete statements such as "Violence is like..., because..." were used in an attempt to understand the students' perception of violence. The students were given questionnaire to complete the statements. Demographic questions were also asked on the students'age, gender and departments. The data were analyzed through qualitative analysis, and processes such as frequency distribution and quantitative correlation data were evaluated through SPSS data analysis. It emerged that the students used 74 metaphors of violence that could be divided into seven categories: (1) Violence as a way of controlling others; 2) Violence as part of social and affective life; (3) Violence as devastation; (4) Violence as learned

  11. Characteristics of peer violence in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinobad Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses types and main characteristics of peer violence in schools as well as forms of their manifestation. The analysis refers to data about the prevalence of peer violence in schools in Serbia, and in particular to forms of peer violence within our country as well as in the world. The part of the text refers to characteristics of perpetrators and their victims as well as on consequences that spring up from long term exposure to violence. Finally, the article has been pointed out an importance of introducing intervention programs in schools, by which use peer violence could be significantly decreased.

  12. Lateral violence in the perioperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigony, Lorraine; Lipke, Tammy G; Lundberg, Ashley; McGraw, Carrie A; Pagac, Gretchen L; Rogers, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Lateral violence is disruptive, bullying, intimidating, or unsettling behavior that occurs between nurses in the workplace. The perioperative setting fosters lateral violence because of the inherent stress of performing surgery; high patient acuity; a shortage of experienced personnel; work demands; and the restriction and isolation of the OR, which allows negative behaviors to be concealed more easily. Lateral violence affects nurses' health and well-being and their ability to care for patients. Interventions to reduce lateral violence include empowerment of staff members and zero tolerance for lateral violence.

  13. [Prevalence of Mental Symptoms, Possible Cases and Disorders in Victims Displaced by the Internal Armed Conflict in Colombia: A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Herazo, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    In Colombia, the internal armed conflict is a public health problem that generates various forms of violence (forced disappearances, forced displacement, massacres, torture and sexual violence). Violence is a major psychosocial stressor that impairs the mental health of the Colombian population. However, there are no real estimates on the prevalence of mental symptoms, possible cases and disorders in victims of violence in displacement situations. To determine the prevalence of mental symptoms, possible cases and disorders due to the forced displacement of victims of the armed conflict in Colombia during the past two decades (1994-2013). A systematic review was carried out on all available studies published over the last twenty years. The keywords used were "armed conflict", "mental disorders", "mental health", "prevalence" and "Colombia". Authors observed the frequency of symptoms, possible cases, and mental disorders. Thirteen studies involving adults were included. The prevalence of symptoms was observed as between 9.9% and 63%; possible cases, between 21% and 97.3%; and mental disorders, between 1.5% and 32.9%. The prevalence of symptoms, possible cases and mental disorders is high in this Colombian population. This finding should be interpreted with caution due to the high heterogeneity and low quality of the studies. More research is needed. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Controlling robot arm with the mind

    National Science Foundation

    2017-05-31

    Full Text Available Research test subjects at the University of Minnesota who were fitted with a specialized noninvasive brain cap were able to move a robotic arm just by imagining moving their own arms.

  15. Multiple Identifications in Multi-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Viswanathan, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of identifying the top $m$ arms in a multi-armed bandit game. Our proposed solution relies on a new algorithm based on successive rejects of the seemingly bad arms, and successive accepts of the good ones. This algorithmic contribution allows to tackle other multiple identifications settings that were previously out of reach. In particular we show that this idea of successive accepts and rejects applies to the multi-bandit best arm identification problem.

  16. Physical intimate partner violence in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives.

  17. Violence and gender new proposals, old dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Grin Debert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and analyzes the dilemmas involved in the use of notions that have been employed to qualify violence within social relationships marked by gender and their current developments in different instances of the justice system. Based on ethnographic studies conducted at the Women's Police Stations and Special Criminal Courts and the controversies surrounding the Maria da Penha Law, the meanings carried by expressions such as violence against women, marital violence, domestic violence, family violence and gender violence are mapped herein. The central argument is that the transformation of violence into crime leads to semantic and institutional developments that tend to replace the interest in politicizing Justice in the defense of women with the judicialization of family relations.

  18. The mental health of civilians displaced by armed conflict: an ecological model of refugee distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K E; Rasmussen, A

    2016-04-04

    Early research on the mental health of civilians displaced by armed conflict focused primarily on the direct effects of exposure to war-related violence and loss. Largely overlooked in this war exposure model were the powerful effects of ongoing stressors related to the experience of displacement itself. An ecological model of refugee distress is proposed, drawing on research demonstrating that mental health among refugees and asylum seekers stems not only from prior war exposure, but also from a host of ongoing stressors in their social ecology, or displacement-related stressors. Implications of this model for addressing the mental health and psychosocial needs of refugees and other displaced populations are considered.

  19. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within......-social bonding. The paper ends by discussing the gender integration strategy of the Swedish Armed Forces....

  20. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  1. [Mental Health and Political Violence. Care of Psychiatric Patient or Acknowledge of the Micropolitics of the Subject].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias López, Beatriz Elena

    2013-09-01

    Political violence is a global phenomenon, especially in low- to middle-income countries. This phenomenon increasingly involves civilians. This situation is a priority in collective health, as it produces multiple and complex effects on physical and mental health, and human and social ecosystems. The objective of this article is to present the main tendencies that coexist in research and practice on the understanding of the effects of political violence on mental health. The biomedical approach of psychiatric trauma and the wider perspective of social sciences, which incorporate the collective dimension of these effects, are also taken into account. Review of research determines the relationship with political violence / collective violence and mental health in international databases and national documentation centers, academics and NGOs within the last decade of the twentieth century, and the first of this century under the headings of trauma, war, armed conflict and political violence. The limitations of general explanations of psychiatric trauma in understanding the complex effects of political violence on mental health are shown. The constructs that incorporate social and collective dimensions increase this comprehension of these effects and knowledge of mental health, both conceptually as methodologically. In a political violence context it urgent to change attitudes about mental health. It is a way to overcome the biomedical, individualistic, and short term epidemiology, and to remove medication from mental health. This means acknowledging that people who experience the effects of political violence effects are not sick. They are powerful people who can transform and produce the life they dream of. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Law of Armed Conflict Deskbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    or hygienic reasons). c. Honorable burial. Individual burial is strongly preferred; however, there is a military necessity exception which permits...members of military aircraft crews;31 d. Merchant marine and civil aviation crews;32 e. Persons accompanying armed forces (dependents);33 and, f...99 - 108) 10. Hygiene (GC III, art. 29); separate baths, showers and toilets must be provided for female POWs. D. POW Accountability.63 (GC III

  3. Dual arm master controller concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures.

  4. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  5. Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... per month. The number of inches from the injury to the tip of a finger gives the minimum number of months after which ... Replantation refers to the surgical reattachment of a finger, hand, or arm that has been completely cut from a person’s ... 2017 by American Society for Surgery of the Hand × Search Tips Tip 1: Start with the basics like "carpal ...

  6. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  7. Violence perception and victimization reasons of women exposed to spouse/partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Baskale

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine violence perception and victimization reasons of women exposed to spouse/partner violence who applied to the violence prevention and monitoring center. Methods: This study is a descriptive survey in order to determine violence perception and victimization reasons of women who applied because of violence. This study was made on women who exposed to spouse/partner violence applied to the violence prevention and monitoring center in the west of Turkey. In these dates 137 women applied to the violence prevention and monitoring center. We reached 51% of universe. In the study, demographic information was collected through the survey method face to face interviews consisted of questions which identify the causes of violence and victimization perception. Results: 31.4% of the women participating in the study exposed to violence for 1-5 years, 21.4% of them exposed for 11-15 years. 74.3% of women share violence with others, women who didn't share with others because of they didn't know what to do and where to apply. Children have witnessed domestic violence, 51.4% were exposed to the violence. causes of violence were determined as economic problems, spouse / partner's alcohol / substance abuse, women are responding to partner, he does not want his wife, and has been identified as not prompted by his partner's family. 91.4% of women don't participate in the idea of violence was sometimes necessary, 81.4% don't think not so much violence against women can be seen joining excused. 62.9% of them think people who experience violence would behave similarly. Most of the women exposed to violence think if there is violence when women-man arguing the bond of love will be extinction, 84.3% think violence is not a solution, and 14.3% stated that it might be a solution. Conclusion: Health personnel are the group that can identify the violence, can be found in initiatives and can lead women to cope. Steps to be taken to

  8. Surviving structural violence in Zimbabwe : The case study of a family coping with Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Moyo, Otrude N.

    2008-01-01

    Titre : Survivre à la violence structurelle au Zimbabwe : Étude de cas d’une famille affrontant la violence. Cette contribution discute de la relation entre la violence structurelle et celle sociale au Zimbabwe. La violence doit être comprise dans son contexte. Dans ce cas spécifique d’une famille zimbabwéenne, les relations  familiales peuvent être considérées comme des relations de pouvoir, dans un  contexte politico‑économique marqué par une histoire de violence. Une violence structurelle ...

  9. Development of a compact laparoscope manipulator (P-arm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Kazuhiro; Takiguchi, Shuji; Miyazaki, Fumio; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2009-11-01

    Laparoscope manipulating robots are useful for maintaining a stable view during a laparoscopic operation and as a substitute for the surgeon who controls the laparoscope. However, there are several problems to be solved. A large apparatus sometimes interferes with the surgeon. The setting and repositioning is awkward. Furthermore, the initial and maintenance costs are expensive. This study was designed to develop a new laparoscope manipulating robot to overcome those problems. We developed a compact robot applicable for various types of laparoscopic surgery with less expensive materials. The robot was evaluated by performing an in vitro laparoscopic cholecystectomy using extracted swine organs. Then, the availability of the robot to various operations was validated by performing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, anterior resection of the rectum, and distal gastrectomy using a living swine. The reliability of the system was tested by long-time continuous running. A compact and lightweight laparoscope manipulating robot by the name of P-arm was developed. The surgical time of an in vitro laparoscopic cholecystectomy with and without the P-arm was not different. The three types of operations were accomplished successfully. During the entire procedure, the P-arm worked without trouble and did not interfere with the surgeons. Continuous 8-h operating tests were performed three times and neither discontinuance nor trouble occurred with the system. The P-arm worked steadily for various swine operations, without interfering with surgeon's work.

  10. Education as alternative to violence: child soldiers in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chema Caballero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Education plays a key role in the process of rehabilitation and reintegracion of child soldiers and helps them to overcome the psysologial and moral impact of the war. Children see education as their gateway to a different life away from the violence and suffering they experienced during the years lived with the armed grups. The desire to change life makes children strive in this activity devouting great effort to stand out above the rest of their classmates. The disruption of the educational process generates great frustration for former child soldiers. Therefore, all reintegration and rehabilitation programs must invest time and resources to ensure that these children have secured their training until the end.

  11. Domestic Violence. Technical Assistance Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse has long been recognized as a precipitating factor in many domestic violence incidents. The main type of substance abuse is alcohol usage. Forty-six percent of the offenders reported being dependent on or abusing alcohol, while another 28% were found to be dependent on opiates, cocaine, marijuana, or inhalants. Nearly two-fifths of…

  12. Psychopathy subtypes and psychopathic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Koshkina Ekaterina Nikolaevna

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses two main subtypes of psychopathy and its characteristic traits that allow to differ them from each other. Following that, the existence of more specific subtypes of psychopathy and sociopathy is argued on the basis of the recent researches. Also, the inclination of psychopaths and sociopaths to various kinds of violence is examined.

  13. School Violence and the News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to Your Child About the News How Media Use Affects Your Child Helping Kids Deal With Bullies Gun Safety Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Word! Violence Disasters Gun Safety Terrorism Someone at School Has ...

  14. Children's Responses to Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Aimee Dorr; Roberts, Donald F.

    A paper-and-pencil measure of aggressive resonse was developed to study the effects on children of exposure to television-mediated violence. Using this measure, a series of experiments was conducted using actural television programs as stimulus material. The results of these studies suggest: 1) Although the majority of children understand the…

  15. National Coalition on Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki, Thomas

    Included in this newsletter are abstracts of recent articles and books on television violence and related topics. Literature searched includes psychiatry, psychology, and communications periodicals as well as a wide range of the social science literature. Also abstracted are items from both the industrial and the lay press, and the actions of…

  16. Understanding School Violence: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, an estimated 55 million students are enrolled in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. Another 15 million students attend colleges and universities across the country. While U.S. schools remain relatively safe, any amount of violence is unacceptable. Parents, teachers, and administrators expect schools to be safe havens of…

  17. Workplace violence in emergency medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chatterjee*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Violence against ED health care workers is a real problem with significant implications to the victims, patients, and departments/institutions. ED WPV needs to be addressed urgently by stakeholders through continued research on effective interventions specific to Emergency Medicine. Coordination, cooperation, and active commitment to the development of such interventions are critical.

  18. High precision detector robot arm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  19. High precision detector robot arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  20. The role of family-of-origin violence in men's marital violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsol, Catherine; Margolin, Gayla

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents overall transmission rates between family-of-origin violence and marital violence, as well as theoretical and empirical work on possible mechanisms of transmission. In identified samples, approximately 60% of the maritally violent men report family-of-origin violence, whereas slightly over 20% of the comparison group of maritally nonviolent men report family-of-origin violence. Modest associations between experiencing violence in the family of origin and marital violence are found in community samples and in studies with prospective and longitudinal designs. Variables that intervene in the association between family-of-origin violence and marital violence are reviewed, with a focus on personal characteristics such as antisocial personality, psychological distress, and attitudes condoning violence, as well as on contextual factors, such as marital problems and conflict resolution style. Variables associated with nonviolence in men who grew up in violent families also are identified, including strong interpersonal connections and the ability to create psychological distance from the family-of-origin violence. Continued empirical investigation of variables that potentiate or mitigate the association between family-of-origin violence and marital violence at different developmental stages is needed to identify explanatory mechanisms and, ultimately, to interrupt the intergenerational transmission of marital violence.

  1. Stigma and Parenting Children Conceived From Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Shada A.; Scott, Jennifer; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Hacker, Michele R.; Kuwert, Philipp; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Since armed conflict began in 1996, widespread sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has resulted in many sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs). However, there are limited data on the relationships between mothers and their children from sexual violence. This study aimed to evaluate the nature and determinants of these maternal–child relationships. METHODS Using respondent-driven sampling, 757 women raising children from SVRPs in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed. A parenting index was created from questions assessing the maternal–child relationship. The influences of social stigma, family and community acceptance, and maternal mental health on the parenting index were assessed in univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS The majority of mothers reported positive attitudes toward their children from SVRPs. Prevalence of perceived family or community stigma toward the women or their children ranged from 31.8% to 42.9%, and prevalence of perceived family or community acceptance ranged from 45.2% to 73.5%. In multivariable analyses, stigma toward the child, as well as maternal anxiety and depression, were associated with lower parenting indexes, whereas acceptance of the mother or child and presence of a spouse were associated with higher parenting indexes (all P ≤ .01). CONCLUSIONS In this study with a large sample size, stigma and mental health disorders negatively influenced parenting attitudes, whereas family and community acceptance were associated with adaptive parenting attitudes. Interventions to reduce stigmatization, augment acceptance, and improve maternal mental health may improve the long-term well-being of mothers and children from SVRPs. PMID:26438704

  2. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  3. The violence against the elderly in films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Gomes Vianna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the aging of the population, the issue of violence against the elderly need to be debated, in order to enlighten and educate the população about this issue. The movies utilization is a effective educational resource, contributing to reflection and understanding of these situation. Objective: To collect and analyze images in film productions that express the different types of violence against the elderly. Material and methods: Analysis of the national and international filmography, identifying scenes in commercial films portraying the violence against the elderly. We searched up the sites www.cinema10.com.br, www.adorocinema.com, www.cinemateca.gov.br, www.filmesdecinema.com.br, www.cineplayers, www.interfilmes,  www.cineclick.com.br, and  www.revistaforum.com.br. The films with scenes of violence against the elderly were listed. Results: We listed up 58 films showing scenes displaying different types of violence against the elderly: 24 (41% physical violence; 18 (31% psychological violence; 14 (24% social violence, 10 (17% self-neglect, 10 (17% economic abuse, 6 (10% abandonment, 3 (5% sexual violence, and 3 (5% negligence. Conclusion: Using film imagery, we can diffuse the issue of mistreatment against the elderly, as well as broaden the instances to denounce this violence. Thus, we search  to focus on the elderly citizenship, guaranteeing their rights and attending reframe the context and the images of aging.  

  4. Prevalence of Violence Tendency in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem HASKAN AVCI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the extensiveness of violence tendency to depending on individual and family factors in adolescents. For this purpose, information has been collected from 899 high school students educated in state schools located in Adana province. Violence Tendency Scale (VTS developed by Haskan and Yıldırım (2012 has been used in order to determine the violence tendency levels of the students. The prevalence of students’ tendency has been tested with chi-square. When analyzed in terms of individual characteristics, violence tendency has been found more extensive in boys rather than girls, and more extensive in the students watching violence and heroic movies. When it is analyzed in terms of family factors, violence tendency has been found to be more spread with the students experiencing violence at home, and having families using alcohol compared to the ones experiencing neither violence nor alcohol cases. Moreover, students whose fathers work and earn money display more tendency to violence than the ones whose fathers doesn’t make money by working. Besides, students having family members in prison have been understood to be more tend to violence.

  5. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  6. Guest Editorial: The Nexus of Violence, Violence Research, and Development. Introduction to the Focus Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Imbusch

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This focus section of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence is dedicated to violence and violence research in the Global South. It examines the causes, forms, perpetrators, processes, and outcomes of violence. While the contributions go into detail on what is commonly understood as politically motivated violence, they also examine societal, criminal, urban, and gendered violence, as well as the involvement of youth. Four articles explore the significance of violence in specific regions: Africa south of the Sahara, West Asia and North Africa, East Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors describe and assess the state of research within and about the different countries. Two further articles review the body of research on the causes of civil war, which has
    been the dominant issue in much violence-related research on the global South since the end of the Cold War.

  7. Anger management and the process mediating the link between witnessing violence between parents and partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte-Seabury, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    Multinomial logistic regression was used on a sample of 14,252 students to determine the extent to which the relationship between witnessing interparental violence and the perpetration of violence is mediated by limited anger management ability, and to determine whether anger management is a mediator for women as well as men. Both males and females who witnessed interparental violence had higher levels of violence perpetration, and those who disclosed witnessing interparental violence had more limited anger management abilites. These limited anger management abilities were associated with increased levels of violence perpetration. This study is consistent with others finding a relationship between witnessing interparental violence and the perpetration of violence but also shows that the relationship between these two variables is mediated by limited anger management abilities.

  8. Exposure to violence and intentions to engage in moralistic violence during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, S; Kreiter, S; DuRant, R H

    2001-12-01

    This study examined young adolescents'intentions to use moralistic violence and their violence exposure, examining male-female differences. Sixth-grade students (n=702) from Georgia middle schools servicing impoverished communities participated. Data were obtained on the students' exposure to violence, family structure and education level, church attendance, gang interest, drug use, and depression status. The dependent variable, intention to use moralistic violence, was measured with an 11-item scale. Linear regression models were run separately for males and females. Males had significantly higher mean intention to use moralistic violence than females (p=0.002). Males reported being exposed to violence more than females, but exposure decreased as attendance to religious services increased. For these 11-12-year-olds, unconventional peer social norms, such as witnessing violence, increased their intention to use violence while involvement in conventional activities, such as church attendance, decreased it. The protective effect was greater for males than females.

  9. Violence-prevention summit at Virginia Tech tackles bullying, gender-based violence, more

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Bullying in schools, aggression in the workplace, violence against women -- all are complex problems. On Nov. 12 and 13, Virginia Tech hosts a gathering to make recommendations about violence prevention.

  10. Religion and violence in Nigeria: The way forward | Ntamu | Sophia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion and violence in Nigeria: The way forward. ... Islam approve of violence with its attendant social and economic problems in the name ... of our national development because of the negative impact of violence on the lives of the citizenry.

  11. The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandinos, George; Hart, Laurie Kain; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    In an 8-week period, there were 16 shootings with three fatalities, three stabbings, and 14 additional “aggravated assaults” in the four square blocks surrounding our field site in the Puerto Rican corner of North Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the shoot-outs, the drug sellers operating on our block were forced to close down their operations by several mothers who repeatedly called the police. Drawing on the concept of moral economy (Thompson, Scott, Taussig), Mauss’s interpretation of gift exchange, and a political economy critique of hypercarceralization in the United States, we understand the high levels of US inner-city violence as operating within a moral logic framed by economic scarcity and hostile state relations. Residents seek security, self-respect, and profit in social networks that compel them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence dynamized by kinship and gender obligations. A hierarchical, extractive drug economy fills the void left by deindustrialization, resulting in a dynamic of embodied primitive accumulation at the expense of addicted customers and chronically incarcerated just-in-time street sellers at high risk of assault. Nevertheless, the mobilization of violence organizing the illegal drug economy also follows ethical norms and obligations that are recognized as legitimate by many local residents. PMID:25067849

  12. The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandinos, George; Hart, Laurie Kain; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In an 8-week period, there were 16 shootings with three fatalities, three stabbings, and 14 additional "aggravated assaults" in the four square blocks surrounding our field site in the Puerto Rican corner of North Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the shoot-outs, the drug sellers operating on our block were forced to close down their operations by several mothers who repeatedly called the police. Drawing on the concept of moral economy (Thompson, Scott, Taussig), Mauss's interpretation of gift exchange, and a political economy critique of hypercarceralization in the United States, we understand the high levels of US inner-city violence as operating within a moral logic framed by economic scarcity and hostile state relations. Residents seek security, self-respect, and profit in social networks that compel them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence dynamized by kinship and gender obligations. A hierarchical, extractive drug economy fills the void left by deindustrialization, resulting in a dynamic of embodied primitive accumulation at the expense of addicted customers and chronically incarcerated just-in-time street sellers at high risk of assault. Nevertheless, the mobilization of violence organizing the illegal drug economy also follows ethical norms and obligations that are recognized as legitimate by many local residents.

  13. The behavioral economics of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2004-12-01

    From the viewpoint of teleological behaviorism the first question to ask in attempting to understand any behavior, including violent behavior, is: What are its contingencies of reward and punishment? Or, to put the question in economic terms: What are the short-term and long-term costs and benefits that such behavior entails? Let us therefore consider the costs and benefits of youth violence. Among the short-term costs of violent behavior are the physical effort of the act, the possibility of immediate physical retaliation, immediate social disapproval, and the opportunity cost of other social acts that the violent behavior takes the place of (you can't be affectionate and violent at the same time, for instance). Among the immediate benefits of violent behavior are the intrinsic satisfaction of the violent act itself and any extrinsic benefit; if A violently appropriates B's new sneakers then obtaining the sneakers reinforces A's violence. These immediate benefits may well outweigh the costs in many contexts. Among the long-term costs of violent behavior are delayed retaliation, possible social disapproval and loss of social support, rejection from a social group, job loss, and health risks associated with a violent lifestyle. Among the long-term benefits are long-term intimidation of others (your neighbor is less likely to build a fence on your property if you have a reputation for violence), and a possibly exciting lifestyle. These long-term benefits may well be outweighed by the long-term costs. Opposition of long-term net costs to short-term net benefits, where it exists, creates a personal self-control trap: Overall satisfaction may decrease monotonically with rate of the target behavior but, regardless of its rate, the immediate satisfaction of doing it is always higher than that of not doing it. In the case of violent behavior, this trap is exacerbated by the fact that as a person's violence increases, net immediate reinforcement also increases (due to

  14. Framing violence: the effect of survey context and question framing on reported rates of partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Katherine V.

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated two explanations for the variability in levels of partner violence found by large community surveys. In Study 1, I examined the effect of how questions about partner violence are introduced (question framing: conflict, violence-in-relationships, or attacks) on reports of partner violence. Although there was not a reliable effect of question framing, the pattern of findings was consistent across 3 of 4 analyses. Counter to predictions, an attacks question f...

  15. Bridging the gaps: a global review of intersections of violence against women and violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, Alessandra; Bott, Sarah; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Colombini, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The international community recognises violence against women (VAW) and violence against children (VAC) as global human rights and public health problems. Historically, research, programmes, and policies on these forms of violence followed parallel but distinct trajectories. Some have called for efforts to bridge these gaps, based in part on evidence that individuals and families often experience multiple forms of violence that may be difficult to address in isolation, and that vi...

  16. Primary School Administrators Views about Types of Violence and Method’s Coping with Violence Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    ÇUBUKÇU, Zühal; Dönmez, Ayşe

    2014-01-01

    Background. Violence is a major problem of today's society. Violence in schools is increasing every day and becoming a serious problem. School violence is considered in disciplines such as sociology and psychology, is one of the most important issue that produce negative consequences on the school climate, harm student's learning processes and prevent their development and also does not identify behavior, aggression and crimes.Violence is actually a part of human nature and ...

  17. Analysis of violence against primary and secondary schools students

    OpenAIRE

    Knafelc, Breda

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis studies peer and domestic violence on elementary and secondary schools pupils from the theoretical and practical point of view. The first part of the theoretical part in detail studies the notion of violence. Forms of violence are presented with its specific forms, goals and consequences of individual forms of violence. In detail are presented forms of physical violence which represent one of the roughest forms of overpowering an individual, psychological violence as ...

  18. [Stigma and Mental Health in Victims of Colombia's Internal Armed Conflict in Situation of Forced Displacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The prolonged sociopolitical phenomenon of Colombian violence generated a high number of victims, many of whom suffered a continual process of internal displacement and stigma-discrimination complex. To postulate possible mechanisms by which victims of Colombia's internal armed conflict in a situation of forced displacement were stigmatized and discriminated. Stigma affects mental health, not only because it represents a major stressor for discriminated individuals and groups, but also because it accounts for inequalities and inequities in health. Initially, as the victims of the internal armed conflict in situation of forced displacement were not considered as such, but as responsible for the situation. Thus, they had to cope with the social and economic inequalities, explained partially by low categorization or status that they received, possibly due to poor construction of social capital in the country. Also, victims of the internal armed conflict suffer from intersectional stigma and discrimination due to other characteristics such as gender, sexual orientation, ethnic-racial origin, or meeting criteria for a mental disorder. An active process of inclusive social development is required for the displaced victims of the armed conflict,in order to reduce multiple stigma and ensure their mental health. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Arms Race in Maghreb Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EL AMOURI ALLAL

    2016-01-01

    Maghreb countries competitive altitude towards each other’ s has reached a higher level by entering an arms race.Morocco and Al ̄geria have dominated more than 50 percent of the Africa’ s imported weapons,mainly because of inherited cold war mentality of competi ̄tion and hostility. Maghreb countries competition has drugged the re ̄gion into a chaos that threatens regional stability obviously which af ̄fect the domestic political stability,since military spending weakens the financial capacity of states.

  20. Dual arm master controller development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  2. Northern European adolescent attitudes toward dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Erica; Holdsworth, Emma; Leen, Eline; Sorbring, Emma; Helsing, Bo; Jaans, Sebastian; Awouters, Valère

    2013-01-01

    A focus group methodology was used to examine attitudes toward dating violence among 86 adolescents (aged 12-17) from four northern European countries (England, Sweden, Germany, and Belgium). Four superordinate themes were identified from thematic analyses: gender identities, television as the educator, perceived acceptability of dating violence, and the decision to seek help/tell someone. Although violence in relationships was generally not condoned, when violence was used by females, was unintended (despite its consequences), or was in retaliation for infidelity, violence was perceived as acceptable. Adolescents indicated that their views were stereotypical and based solely on stereotypical television portrayals of violence in relationships. Stereotypical beliefs and portrayals generate barriers for victimized males to seek help because of fear of embarrassment.

  3. The intergenerational transmission of relationship violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Marilyn J; Bartholomew, Kim; Henderson, Antonia J; Trinke, Shanna J

    2003-09-01

    This study explored the intergenerational transmission of violence in a community sample. A telephone survey of 1,249 adults in the City of Vancouver assessed family-of-origin violence (father to mother, mother to father, father to self, and mother to self), as well as physical and psychological abuse in intimate relationships. All forms of family-of-origin violence were predictive of all forms of relationship abuse, consistent with a general social learning model of relationship violence. There was no evidence of gender-specific or role-specific patterns of transmission. For example, father-to-mother violence was not specifically predictive of men's perpetration and women's victimization in adult relationships. Nor was parent-to-self violence more predictive of victimization than perpetration. The methodological and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Intimate Partner Violence: The Role of the Relationship between Perpetrators and Children Who Witness Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Emily; Stover, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The issue of the father-child relationship has been greatly ignored in the domestic violence research literature. This study investigated whether intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by biological fathers resulted in higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and behavior problems than violence perpetrated by nonbiological fathers and…

  5. The Epidemic of Youth Violence in America: Using Public Health Prevention Strategies to Prevent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothrow-Stith, Deborah B.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that there is no single strategy, institution, or discipline that can create the changes needed to reduce violence in America. Preventing violence requires long-term commitments, a comprehensive set of strategies, and new partnerships combined and focused on prevention of, not responses to, youth violence. (GR)

  6. Community Violence, Social Support Networks, Ethnic Group Differences, and Male Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Chitra; Rajah, Valli; Gentile, Katie; Collado, Lillian; Kavanagh, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how witnessing community violence influenced social support networks and how these networks were associated with male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) in ethnically diverse male college students. The authors assessed whether male social support members themselves had perpetrated IPV (male network violence) and whether…

  7. Prepared for School Violence: School Counselors' Perceptions of Preparedness for Responding to Acts of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Rebecca Anne; Zyromski, Brett; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Kimemia, Muthoni

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of 103 St. Louis metro area school counselors' using the National School Violence Survey (Astor et al., 1997; Astor et al., 2000; Furlong et al., 1996) suggests school counselors' perceptions of school violence and their preparedness to respond to said violence vary by both community setting and years of experience. Discussion frames the…

  8. The Colonial Context of Violence: Reflections on Violence in the Lives of Native American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Hilary N.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the ongoing colonial context that perpetuates and supports violence against First Nations women. This context must be recognized and changed as a prerequisite to eliminating or reducing this violence. The article includes a discussion of how gender roles have changed under colonization, the extent of violence,…

  9. Poverty, Violence, and Health: The Impact of Domestic Violence during Pregnancy on Newborn Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Two percent of women in the United States suffer from intimate partner violence annually, with poor and minority women disproportionately affected. I provide evidence of an important negative externality associated with domestic violence by estimating a negative and causal relationship between violence during pregnancy and newborn health,…

  10. Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

  11. A Further Look at the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence: Witnessing Interparental Violence in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S.; Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2010-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission (IGT) of violence has been a main theoretical consideration to explain the link between interparental aggression in the family of origin and intimate partner violence (IPV) in subsequent intimate relationships. Studies have examined this theoretical link based on self reports of interparental violence witnessed…

  12. Violence against women. Ending impunity for sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S

    1999-03-01

    This article exposes progress made in the International Criminal Court (ICC) Tribunal in punishing those who commit rape, genocide, and sexual violence. The case against an ex-mayor in Rwanda was a first in international courts. The Court defined rape under international law as "a physical invasion of a sexual nature, committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive." Threats and intimidation are also considered physical force. The case against Jean-Paul Akayesu originally did not include a charge of rape. The rape charge was added after pressure from the only female ICC judge and other women's activists. It took a long time for the ICC to recognize sexual crimes against women as punishable acts in war. Progress in human rights began after World War II with the adoption of international human rights conventions. The ICC was not established with jurisdiction over genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, or aggression until 1994. Specific crimes were not stipulated or prosecuted until the crimes occurred in Bosnia and Rwanda. Now, war crimes include rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, and enforced sterilization. Other forms of sexual violence in Geneva conventions include torture or willfully causing great suffering. Statutes now provide for victim and witness protection which is sensitive to women. ICC officials must reflect equal gender representation. Judges must have legal expertise on violence against women and children.

  13. Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points...... violence in the 1980s. The book builds on the detailed study of a unique municipal archive in Tarma and ethnographic research from both before and after the violence....

  14. Alcohol Regulation and Violence on College Campuses

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Grossman; Sara Markowitz

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of variations in alcoholic beverage prices among states of the United States on violence on college campuses. The principal hypothesis tested is that the incidence of violence is negatively related to the price of alcohol. This hypothesis is derived from two well established relationships: the positive relationship between alcohol and violence and the negative relationship between the use of alcohol and its price. The data employed in the study are the 1989, ...

  15. Violence on television. Unpleasant, interesting or morbid?

    OpenAIRE

    C Fernández Villanueva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many research studies have contributed to the study of the effects of violence on TV, but very few of them have paid attention to the reasons why violence arouses interest or rejection among viewers. The objective of this article is to analyse the discourses, arguments and moral criteria used by the audience to justify their interest or disinterest in TV violence. Methods: The study is based on 16 focus groups carried out in Madrid and segmented by sex, age and education level. ...

  16. Substance Use and Physical Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Tharp, Andra T.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Theoretic models suggest that associations between substance use and dating violence perpetration may vary in different social contexts, but few studies have examined this proposition. The current study examined whether social control and violence in the neighborhood, peer, and family contexts moderate the associations between substance use (heavy alcohol use, marijuana, and hard drug use) and adolescent physical dating violence perpetration. Methods Adolescents in the eighth, ninth, and tenth grades completed questionnaires in 2004 and again four more times until 2007 when they were in the tenth, 11th and 12th grades. Multilevel analysis was used to examine interactions between each substance and measures of neighborhood, peer, and family social control and violence as within-person (time-varying) predictors of physical dating violence perpetration across eighth through 12th grade (N=2,455). Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results Physical dating violence perpetration increased at time points when heavy alcohol and hard drug use were elevated; these associations were weaker when neighborhood social control was higher and stronger when family violence was higher. Also, the association between heavy alcohol use and physical dating violence perpetration was weaker when teens had more-prosocial peer networks and stronger when teens’ peers reported more physical dating violence. Conclusions Linkages between substance use and physical dating violence perpetration depend on substance use type and levels of contextual violence and social control. Prevention programs that address substance use–related dating violence should consider the role of social contextual variables that may condition risk by influencing adolescents’ aggression propensity. PMID:26296445

  17. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained fi...

  18. Violence today Violência hoje

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Wieviorka

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the author seeks to approach contemporary violence in its most different expressions, including the use of the most recent developments in biology, bacteriology, chemistry and nuclear physics. The central idea is that violence changes, and with it the way it is perceived and how we react to it. The text, besides putting violence into a historical context, analyzes 1) the big transformation(s) in the world: the end of the cold war, the new industrial structure and its consequenc...

  19. Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points...... violence in the 1980s. The book builds on the detailed study of a unique municipal archive in Tarma and ethnographic research from both before and after the violence....

  20. PSYCHOPATHY AND INSTRUMENTAL VIOLENCE: FACET LEVEL RELATIONSHIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Zach; Swogger, Marc T.; Kosson, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between psychopathy and violence is well established. However, the extent to which psychopathy is related to different types of violent behavior warrants further study. We examined the relationship between instrumental violence, psychopathy, and psychopathic traits among 248 European American and African American adult male county jail inmates. We assessed instrumentality based on subjective motivations for respondent-identified acts of violence. Psychopathy was assessed usin...