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Sample records for extracting subnanometer single

  1. Electron cryomicroscopy of single particles at subnanometer resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Ludtke, Steven J

    2005-10-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy and single-particle reconstruction have advanced substantially over the past two decades. There are now numerous examples of structures that have been solved using this technique to better than 10 A resolution. At such resolutions, direct identification of alpha helices is possible and, often, beta-sheet-containing regions can be identified. The most numerous subnanometer resolution structures are the icosahedral viruses, as higher resolution is easier to achieve with higher symmetry. Important non-icosahedral structures solved to subnanometer resolution include several ribosome structures, clathrin assemblies and, most recently, the Ca2+ release channel. There is now hope that, in the next few years, this technique will achieve resolutions approaching 4 A, permitting a complete trace of the protein backbone without reference to a crystal structure.

  2. Ultra-stable and versatile widefield cryo-fluorescence microscope for single-molecule localization with sub-nanometer accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weixing; Stein, Simon C; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg

    2015-02-09

    We developed a stand-alone cryostat with optical access to the sample which can be adapted to any epi-fluorescence microscope for single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. The cryostat cools the sample to a cryogenic temperature of 89 K, and allows for imaging single molecules using an air objective with a numerical aperture of 0.7. An important property of this system is its excellent thermal and mechanical stability, enabling long-time observations of samples over several hours with negligible drift. Using this system, we performed photo-bleaching studies of Atto647N dye molecules, and find an improvement of the photostability of these molecules by more than two orders of magnitude. The resulting increased photon numbers of several millions allow for single-molecule localization accuracy of sub-nanometer.

  3. Computational evaluation of sub-nanometer cluster activity of singly exposed copper atom with various coordinative environment in catalytic CO2 transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Ramasamy; Thamaraichelvan, Arunachalam; Ganesan, Tharumeya Kuppusamy; Viswanathan, Balasubramanian

    2017-02-01

    Metal cluster, at sub-nanometer level has a unique property in the activation of small molecules, in contrast to that of bulk surface. In the present work, singly exposed active site of copper metal cluster at sub-nanometer level was designed to arrive at the energy minimised configurations, binding energy, electrostatic potential map, frontier molecular orbitals and partial density of states. The ab initio molecular dynamics was carried out to probe the catalytic nature of the cluster. Further, the stability of the metal cluster and its catalytic activity in the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO were evaluated by means of computational hydrogen electrode via calculation of the free energy profile using DFT/B3LYP level of theory in vacuum. The activity of the cluster is ascertained from the fact that the copper atom, present in a two coordinative environment, performs a more selective conversion of CO2 to CO at an applied potential of -0.35 V which is comparatively lower than that of higher coordinative sites. The present study helps to design any sub-nano level metal catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 to various value added chemicals.

  4. Computational evaluation of sub-nanometer cluster activity of singly exposed copper atom with various coordinative environment in catalytic CO{sub 2} transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, Ramasamy [Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai, Tamilnadu 625 009 (India); National Center for Catalysis Research, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600 036 (India); Thamaraichelvan, Arunachalam [Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute, Kelambakkam, Tamilnadu 603 103 (India); Ganesan, Tharumeya Kuppusamy [Department of Chemistry, The American College, Madurai, Tamilnadu 625 002 (India); Viswanathan, Balasubramanian, E-mail: bvnathan@iitm.ac.in [National Center for Catalysis Research, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600 036 (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • On interaction with adsorbate CO{sub 2,} the adsorbent changes its configuration around the metal. • Electron transfer is faster in low coordinative environment of Cu. • CO formation is more favorable on Cu sites with even coordination number. • Cu at coordination number two has a over potential of −0.35 V. - Abstract: Metal cluster, at sub-nanometer level has a unique property in the activation of small molecules, in contrast to that of bulk surface. In the present work, singly exposed active site of copper metal cluster at sub-nanometer level was designed to arrive at the energy minimised configurations, binding energy, electrostatic potential map, frontier molecular orbitals and partial density of states. The ab initio molecular dynamics was carried out to probe the catalytic nature of the cluster. Further, the stability of the metal cluster and its catalytic activity in the electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to CO were evaluated by means of computational hydrogen electrode via calculation of the free energy profile using DFT/B3LYP level of theory in vacuum. The activity of the cluster is ascertained from the fact that the copper atom, present in a two coordinative environment, performs a more selective conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO at an applied potential of −0.35 V which is comparatively lower than that of higher coordinative sites. The present study helps to design any sub-nano level metal catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to various value added chemicals.

  5. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  6. Sub-nanometer drift correction for super-resolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Wang, X; Zhang, X; Li, J; Dai, L

    2014-10-01

    Spatial resolution of conventional far-field fluorescence microscopy is limited by diffraction of light. Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM), such as (direct) stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM/STORM), and (fluorescence) photoactivation localization microscopy (fPALM/PALM), can break this barrier by localizing single emitters and reconstructing super-resolution image with much higher precision. Nevertheless, a SMLM measurement needs to record a large number of image frames and takes considerable recording time. In this process, sample drift becomes a critical problem and cannot be neglected. In this Letter, we present a sub-nanometer precision, low-cost sample drift correction method based on minimizing normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) between bright field images. Two optical configurations are suggested for recording bright field and fluorescence images simultaneously or alternately. The method was demonstrated on simulated data, and better than 0.3 nm drift correction precision was achieved. It was also applied on dSTORM imaging of F-actins of 3T3 cell, and the quality of reconstructed super-resolution image was improved observably. This method does not require special hardware, extra labelling or markers, and no precision decline due to photobleaching. It can be applied as an add-on for SMLM setups and achieves sub-nanometer precision drift correction for post-measurement or real time drift compensation.

  7. Extraction of soybean oil from single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Naoya; Imashiro, Yusuke; Morita, Naofumi

    2003-10-08

    Single cells prepared from autoclaved soybeans and cellulase treatment of the cells were effective in digesting the cell walls of and extracting the oil from soybeans. The first cell wall of the soybean single cell was completely removed using cellulases; the thin and transparent second cell wall of the cell was swollen. Oil in the cell formed spherical or hemispherical oil drops, and oil leaking from the oil bodies was observed. The oil was almost retained within the second cell wall. Water-extractable substances were obtained at approximately >60% of the weight. Flotation of oil drops by centrifugation was easily done. Ambient n-hexane extraction was also possible; however, residual oil remained in the oil bodies. Protease or peptidase digested the structure of the oil bodies; however, separation of the oil and the hydrolysates was impossible. The oil from the oil bodies was obtained effectively (>85%) by pressing the single cells and/or cellulase-treated single cells.

  8. Electron cryomicroscopy of biological machines at subnanometer resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Wah; Baker, Matthew L; Jiang, Wen; Dougherty, Matthew; Schmid, Michael F

    2005-03-01

    Advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) have made possible the structural determination of large biological machines in the resolution range of 6-9 angstroms. Rice dwarf virus and the acrosomal bundle represent two distinct types of machines amenable to cryo-EM investigations at subnanometer resolutions. However, calculating the density map is only the first step, and much analysis remains to extract structural insights and the mechanism of action in these machines. This paper will review the computational and visualization methodologies necessary for analysis (structure mining) of the computed cryo-EM maps of these machines. These steps include component segmentation, averaging based on local symmetry among components, density connectivity trace, incorporation of bioinformatics analysis, and fitting of high-resolution component data, if available. The consequences of these analyses can not only identify accurately some of the secondary structure elements of the molecular components in machines but also suggest structural mechanisms related to their biological functions.

  9. Sub-nanometer resolution XPS depth profiling: Sensing of atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szklarczyk, Marek, E-mail: szklarcz@chem.uw.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Shim-Pol, ul. Lubomirskiego 5, 05-080 Izabelin (Poland); Macak, Karol; Roberts, Adam J. [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Wharfside, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom); Takahashi, Kazuhiro [Kratos XPS Section, Shimadzu Corp., 380-1 Horiyamashita, Hadano, Kanagawa 259-1304 (Japan); Hutton, Simon [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Wharfside, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom); Głaszczka, Rafał [Shim-Pol, ul. Lubomirskiego 5, 05-080 Izabelin (Poland); Blomfield, Christopher [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Wharfside, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Angle resolved photoelectron depth profiling of nano thin films. • Sensing atomic position in SAM films. • Detection of direction position of adsorbed molecules. - Abstract: The development of a method capable of distinguishing a single atom in a single molecule is important in many fields. The results reported herein demonstrate sub-nanometer resolution for angularly resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). This is made possible by the incorporation of a Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) model, which utilize density corrected electronic emission factors to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experimental results. In this paper we report on the comparison between experimental ARXPS results and reconstructed for both inorganic and organic thin film samples. Unexpected deviations between experimental data and calculated points are explained by the inaccuracy of the constants and standards used for the calculation, e.g. emission factors, scattering intensity and atomic density through the studied thickness. The positions of iron, nitrogen and fluorine atoms were determined in the molecules of the studied self-assembled monolayers. It has been shown that reconstruction of real spectroscopic data with 0.2 nm resolution is possible.

  10. Sub-nanometer resolution XPS depth profiling: Sensing of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklarczyk, Marek; Macak, Karol; Roberts, Adam J.; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Hutton, Simon; Głaszczka, Rafał; Blomfield, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    The development of a method capable of distinguishing a single atom in a single molecule is important in many fields. The results reported herein demonstrate sub-nanometer resolution for angularly resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). This is made possible by the incorporation of a Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) model, which utilize density corrected electronic emission factors to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experimental results. In this paper we report on the comparison between experimental ARXPS results and reconstructed for both inorganic and organic thin film samples. Unexpected deviations between experimental data and calculated points are explained by the inaccuracy of the constants and standards used for the calculation, e.g. emission factors, scattering intensity and atomic density through the studied thickness. The positions of iron, nitrogen and fluorine atoms were determined in the molecules of the studied self-assembled monolayers. It has been shown that reconstruction of real spectroscopic data with 0.2 nm resolution is possible.

  11. Moving Target Information Extraction Based on Single Satellite Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shihu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and time variant effects in high resolution satellite push broom imaging are analyzed. A spatial and time variant imaging model is established. A moving target information extraction method is proposed based on a single satellite remote sensing image. The experiment computes two airplanes' flying speed using ZY-3 multispectral image and proves the validity of spatial and time variant model and moving information extracting method.

  12. Shadow based building extraction from single satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurshamnjot; Jouppi, Mark; Zhang, Zhuoran; Zakhor, Avideh

    2015-03-01

    Automatic building extraction in satellite imagery is an important problem. Existing approaches typically involve stereo processing two or more satellite views of the same region. In this paper, we use shadow analysis coupled with line segment detection and texture segmentation to construct rectangular building approximations from a single satellite image. In addition, we extract building heights to construct a rectilinear height profile for a single region. We characterize the performance of the system in rural and urban regions of Jordan, Philippines, and Australia and demonstrate a detection rate of 76.2 - 86.1% and a false alarm rate of 26.5 - 40.1%.

  13. Multidisciplinary approach to transvenous lead extraction: a single center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Timothy M; Shurter, Jesse; Nguyen, Liem; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika; Pretorius, Victor

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the success and complication rates of a single center's multidisciplinary approach to transvenous lead extraction. One university hospital. One hundred ninety-five patients scheduled for transvenous lead extraction. A multidisciplinary approach to transvenous lead extraction involving cardiac surgery, electrophysiology, perfusion, and cardiac anesthesiology. A case series of 351 lead extractions performed in 195 patients over a 42-month period. Indications, success rates, and complication rates were tracked and retrospectively evaluated and reported. Indications for lead extraction included 53.3% because of lead malfunction, 36.9% because of infection, with the remaining 9.7% from other categories such as venous stenosis. The lead extraction rate was 99.7%, with complete removal in 97.7%. The overall major complication rate was 3.08%. After an initial 1-year period of performing lead extractions, the overall major complication rate reduced to 1.23%. Transvenous lead extraction generally is a safe procedure, but not without complications. A multidisciplinary approach involving cardiac surgery, electrophysiology, and cardiac anesthesiology allows for successful management and the ability to rapidly manage major complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Single-shot work extraction in quantum thermodynamics revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang-Yung

    2018-01-01

    We revisit the problem of work extraction from a system in contact with a heat bath to a work storage system, and the reverse problem of state formation from a thermal system state in single-shot quantum thermodynamics. A physically intuitive and mathematically simple approach using only elementary majorization theory and matrix analysis is developed, and a graphical interpretation of the maximum extractable work, minimum work cost of formation, and corresponding single-shot free energies is presented. This approach provides a bridge between two previous methods based respectively on the concept of thermomajorization and a comparison of subspace dimensions. In addition, a conceptual inconsistency with regard to general work extraction involving transitions between multiple energy levels of the work storage system is clarified and resolved. It is shown that an additional contribution to the maximum extractable work in those general cases should be interpreted not as work extracted from the system, but as heat transferred from the heat bath. Indeed, the additional contribution is an artifact of a work storage system (essentially a suspended ‘weight’ that can be raised or lowered) that does not truly distinguish work from heat. The result calls into question the common concept that a work storage system in quantum thermodynamics is simply the quantum version of a suspended weight in classical thermodynamics.

  15. Complex biomembrane mimetics on the sub-nanometer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Frederick A; Pabst, Georg

    2017-08-01

    Biomimetic lipid vesicles are indispensable tools for gaining insight into the biophysics of cell physiology on the molecular level. The level of complexity of these model systems has steadily increased, and now spans from domain-forming lipid mixtures to asymmetric lipid bilayers. Here, we review recent progress in the development and application of elastic neutron and X-ray scattering techniques for studying these systems in situ and under physiologically relevant conditions on the nanometer to sub-nanometer length scales. In particular, we focus on: (1) structural details of coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains, including their thickness and lipid packing mismatch as a function of a size transition from nanoscopic to macroscopic domains; (2) membrane-mediated protein partitioning into lipid domains; (3) the role of the aqueous medium in tuning interactions between membranes and domains; and (4) leaflet-specific structure in asymmetric bilayers and passive lipid flip-flop.

  16. Determination of uncertainty in parameters extracted from single spectroscopic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sćepanović, Obrad R; Bechtel, Kate L; Haka, Abigail S; Shih, Wei-Chuan; Koo, Tae-Woong; Berger, Andrew J; Feld, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    The ability to quantify uncertainty in information extracted from spectroscopic measurements is important in numerous fields. The traditional approach of repetitive measurements may be impractical or impossible in some measurements scenarios, while chi-squared analysis does not provide insight into the sources of uncertainty. As such, a need exists for analytical expressions for estimating uncertainty and, by extension, minimum detectable concentrations or diagnostic parameters, that can be applied to a single noisy measurement. This work builds on established concepts from estimation theory, such as the Cramer-Rao lower bound on estimator covariance, to present an analytical formula for estimating uncertainty expressed as a simple function of measurement noise, signal strength, and spectral overlap. This formalism can be used to evaluate and improve instrument performance, particularly important for rapid-acquisition biomedical spectroscopy systems. We demonstrate the experimental utility of this expression in assessing concentration uncertainties from spectral measurements of aqueous solutions and diagnostic parameter uncertainties extracted from spectral measurements of human artery tissue. The measured uncertainty, calculated from many independent measurements, is found to be in good agreement with the analytical formula applied to a single spectrum. These results are intended to encourage the widespread use of uncertainty analysis in the biomedical optics community.

  17. Determination of the dominant catalyst derived from the classic [RhCp*Cl₂]₂ precatalyst system: Is it single-metal Rh₁Cp*-based, subnanometer Rh₄ cluster-based, or Rh(0)n nanoparticle-based cyclohexene hydrogenation catalysis at room temperature and mild pressures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayram, Ercan [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Linehan, John C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fulton, John L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szymczak, Nathaniel K. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Finke, Richard G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-05-27

    Determining the kinetically dominant catalyst in a given catalytic system is a forefront topic in catalysis. The [RhCp*Cl₂]₂ (Cp* =[η⁵-C₅(CH₃)₅]) system pioneered by Maitlis and co-workers is a classic precatalyst system from which homogeneous mononuclear Rh₁, subnanometer Rh₄ cluster, and heterogeneous polymetallic Rh(0)n nanoparticle have all arisen as viable candidates for the true hydrogenation catalyst, depending on the precise substrate, H₂ pressure, temperature, and catalyst concentration conditions. Addressed herein is the question of whether the prior assignment of homogeneous, mononuclear Rh₁Cp*-based catalysis is correct, or are trace Rh₄ subnanometer clusters or possibly Rh(0)n nanoparticles the dominant, actual cyclohexene hydrogenation catalyst at 22 °C and 2.7 atm initial H₂ pressure? The observation herein of Rh₄ species by in operando-X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, at the only slightly more vigorous conditions of 26 °C and 8.3 atm H₂ pressure, and the confirmation of Rh₄ clusters by ex situ mass spectroscopy raises the question of the dominant, room temperature, and mild pressure cyclohexene hydrogenation catalyst derived from the classic [RhCp*Cl₂]₂ precatalyst pioneered by Maitlis and co-workers. Ten lines of evidence are provided herein to address the nature of the true room temperature and mild pressure cyclohexene hydrogenation catalyst derived from [RhCp*Cl₂]₂. Especially significant among those experiments are quantitative catalyst poisoning experiments, in the present case using 1,10-phenanthroline. Those poisoning studies allow one to distinguish mononuclear Rh₁, subnanometer Rh₄ cluster, and Rh(0)n nanoparticle catalysis hypotheses. The evidence obtained provides a compelling case for a mononuclear, Rh₁Cp*-based cyclohexene hydrogenation catalyst at 22 °C and 2.7 atm H₂ pressure. The resultant methodology, especially the quantitative

  18. Sub-Nanometer Channels Embedded in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo

    2017-07-31

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically-thin p-n junctions2-7, metal-semiconductor contacts8-10, and metal-insulator barriers11-13 have been demonstrated. While 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions are also necessary. Although external one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes14 can be used to locally gate 2D materials, this adds a non-trivial third dimension, complicating device integration and flexibility. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometer 1D MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalyzed approach. The 1D channels have edges free of misfit dislocations and dangling bonds, forming a coherent interface with the embedding 2D matrix. Periodic dislocation arrays produce 2D superlattices of coherent MoS2 1D channels in WSe2. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have identified other combinations of 2D materials that could form 1D channels. Density function theory (DFT) calculation predicts these 1D channels display type II band alignment needed for carrier confinement and charge separation to access the ultimate length scales necessary for future electronic applications.

  19. Numerical Study of Single Well Vapor Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Rahnema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapor extraction (Vapex is an emerging technology to produce heavy oil and bitumen from subsurface formations. Single well (SW Vapex technique uses the same concept of Vapex process but only with one horizontal well. In this process solvent is injected from the toe of the horizontal well with oil production at the heel section. The main advantage of SW-Vapex process lies in the economic saving and applicability in problematic reservoirs, where drilling of two horizontal wells is impractical. The performance of SW-Vapex seems to be comparable with dual horizontal Vapex process using proper optimization schemes. This study is grouped into two sections: (i a screening study of early time operating performance of SW-Vapex and (ii a sensitivity analysis of the effect of the reservoir and well completion parameters. Simulation results show that solvent injection rate can be optimized to improve oil production rate. Higher injection rates may not necessarily lead to increase in production. This study confirms that SW-Vapex process is very ineffective in reservoirs with high oil viscosity (more than 1,500 cp and thin formations (less than 10 m.

  20. Effect of single and contiguous teeth extractions on alveolar bone remodeling: a study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Askar, Mansour; O'Neill, Rory; Stark, Paul C; Griffin, Terrence; Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid

    2013-08-01

    Tooth extraction is associated with dimensional changes in the alveolar ridge. The aim was to examine the effect of single versus contiguous teeth extractions on the alveolar ridge remodeling. Five female beagle dogs were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of location (anterior or posterior) and number of teeth extracted - exctraction socket classification: group 1 (one dog): single-tooth extraction; group 2 (two dogs): extraction of two teeth; and group 3 (two dogs): extraction of three teeth in four anterior sites and four posterior sites in both jaws. The dogs were sacrificed after 4 months. Sagittal sectioning of each extraction site was performed and evaluated using microcomputed tomography. Buccolingual or palatal bone loss was observed 4 months after extraction in all three groups. The mean of the alveolar ridge width loss in group 1 (single-tooth extraction) was significantly less than those in groups 2 and 3 (p < .001) (multiple teeth extraction). Three-teeth extraction (group 3) had significantly more alveolar bone loss than two-teeth extraction (group 2) (p < .001). The three-teeth extraction group in the upper and lower showed more obvious resorption on the palatal/lingual side especially in the lower group posterior locations. Contiguous teeth extraction caused significantly more alveolar ridge bone loss as compared with when a single tooth is extracted. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Nanofluidic laboratory-on-chip device for mapping of single molecule DNA extracted from single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahshid, Sara; Berard, Daniel; Sladek, Robert; Leslie, Sabrina; Reisner, Walter

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this project is to create a nanofluidic platform to provide comprehensive maps of single-cell genomes at 1 kbp resolution based on the direct analysis of single 1-10 Mbp extended DNA molecules extracted from individual cells on-chip. We have developed a nanodevice in which all biochemical processing of single cells (cell lysis, DNA purification and fragmentation) is performed in situ. The platform has the following three components: (1) a micro-cavity (50 ×20 micron in dimension) for trapping and biochemical processing of single cells; (2) post arrays (1 micron depth) for untangling the released genomic contents and (3) parallel nanochannel arrays (100 nm) for extension of ~ 1-10 Mbp DNA for high-throughput optical mapping. Moreover, we use ``Convex Lense-Induced Nanoconfinement'' (CLIC) technique for trapping of single cell and dragging DNA into nanochannels. The principle is that a convex lens is pushed down to deform a flexible coverslip lid above the aforesaid platform containing nano/micro patterns, creating a locally confined region that pins molecules in the embedded nano/micro features. CLIC is used to lower the device lid over a cell isolated in the microcavity with an adjustable gap for buffer exchange. The released DNA is untangled using 1 micron-deep post arrays and driven into nanochannel array where its genomic content is revealed. In particular, using CLIC we were able to successfully trap 20 micron lymphoblast cells inside microcavity and lyse the trapped cell to drive out DNA.

  2. Single-Particle Cryo-EM at Crystallographic Resolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer...

  3. Chemical vapor deposition-prepared sub-nanometer Zr clusters on Pd surfaces: promotion of methane dry reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Lukas; Shi, Xue-Rong; Köpfle, Norbert; Milligan, Cory A; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Hävecker, Michael; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon

    2016-11-23

    An inverse Pd-Zr model catalyst was prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using zirconium-t-butoxide (ZTB) as an organometallic precursor. Pd-Zr interaction was then investigated with focus on the correlation of reforming performance with the oxidation state of Zr. As test reactions, dry reforming of methane (DRM) and methanol steam reforming (MSR) were chosen. Depending on treatments, either ZrOxHy or ZrO2 overlayers or Zr as sub-nanometer clusters could be obtained. Following the adsorption of ZTB on Pd(111), a partially hydroxylated Zr4+-containing layer was formed, which can be reduced to metallic Zr by thermal annealing in ultrahigh vacuum, leading to redox-active Zr0 sub-nanometer clusters. Complementary density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations showed that a single layer of ZrO2 on Pd(111) can be more easily reduced toward the metallic state than a double- and triple layer. Also, the initial and resulting layer compositions greatly depend on gas environment. The lower the water background partial pressure, the faster and more complete the reduction of Zr4+ species to Zr0 on Pd takes place. Under methanol steam reforming conditions, water activation by hydroxylation of Zr occurs. In excess of methanol, strong coking is induced by the Pd/ZrOxHy interface. In contrast, dry reforming of methane is effectively promoted if these initially metallic Zr species are present in the pre-catalyst, leading to a Pd/ZrOxHy phase boundary by oxidative activation under reaction conditions. These reaction-induced active sites for DRM are stable with respect to carbon blocking or coking. In essence, Zr doping of Pd opens specific CO2 activation channels, which are absent on pure metallic Pd.

  4. Insight into Ion Transfer through the Sub-Nanometer Channels in Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ze-Yu; Liu, Hai-Ling; Ahmed, Saud Asif; Hanif, Sumaira; Ren, Shi-Bin; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Xia, Xing-Hua; Wang, Kang

    2017-04-18

    A crack-free sub-nanometer composite structure for the study of ion transfer was constructed by in situ growth of ZIF-90 [Zn(ICA)2 , ICA=Imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde] on the tip of a glass nanopipette. The potential-driven ion transfer through the sub-nanometer channels in ZIF-90 is strongly influenced by the pH of the solution. A rectification ratio over 500 is observed in 1 m KCl solution under alkaline conditions (pH 11.58), which is the highest value reported under such a high salt concentration. Fluorescence experiments show the super-high rectification ratio under alkaline conditions results from the strong electrostatic interaction between ions and the sub-nanometer channels of ZIF-90. In addition to providing a general pathway for further study of mass-transfer process through sub-nanometer channels, the approach enable all kinds of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to be used as ionic permselectivity materials in nanopore-based analysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Subnanometer Translation of Microelectromechanical Systems Measured by Discrete Fourier Analysis of CCD Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamahata, Christophe; Sarajlic, Edin; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Gijs, Martin A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—In-plane linear displacements of microelectromechanical systems are measured with subnanometer accuracy by observing the periodic micropatterns with a charge-coupled device camera attached to an optical microscope. The translation of the microstructure is retrieved from the video by

  6. Coexistence of classical and quantum plasmonics in large plasmonic structures with subnanometer gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Kneipp, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Large metal nanostructures with subnanometer interparticle separations (gaps) can provide extremely high local fields and are of particular interest in surface enhanced spectroscopy, as well as for basic understanding of plasmonics. In this experimental electron energy loss study, we monitor the ...

  7. Single corn kernel aflatoxin B1 extraction and analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic compounds produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus is a phytopathogenic fungus that commonly infects crops such as cotton, peanuts, and maize. The goal was to design an effective sample preparation method and analysis for the extraction of afla...

  8. Analysis and evaluation of single-use bag extractables for validation in biopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ina; Dorey, Samuel; Barbaroux, Magali; Lagrange, Bertille; Frankl, Heike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an approach of extractables determination and gives information on extractables profiles for gamma-sterilized single-use bags with polyethylene inner contact surfaces from five different suppliers. Four extraction solvents were chosen to capture a broad spectrum of extractables. An 80% ethanol extraction was used to extract compounds that represent the bag resin and the organic additives used to stabilize or process the polymer films which would not normally be water-soluble. Extractions with1 M HCl extract, 1 M NaOH extract, and 1% polysorbate 80 were used to bracket potential leachables in biopharmaceutical process fluids. The objective of this study was to obtain extractables data from different bags under identical test conditions. All the bags had a nominal capacity of 5 L, were gamma-irradiated prior to testing, and were tested without modification except that connectors, if any, were removed prior to filling. They were extracted at 40 °C for 30 days. Extractables from all bag extracts were identified and the concentration estimated using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection for volatile compounds and for semi-volatile compounds, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for targeted compounds. Metals and other elements were detected and quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The results showed a variety of extractables, some of which are not related to the inner polyethylene contact layer. Detected organic compounds included oligomers from polyolefins, additives and their degradation products, and oligomers from the fill tubing. The concentrations of extractables were in the range of parts-per-billion to parts-per-million per bag under the applied extraction conditions. Toxicological effects of the extractables are not addressed in this paper. Extractables and leachables characterization supports the validation and the use of single-use bags in the

  9. A comparison of single channel fetal ECG extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Joachim; Johnson, Alistair; Clifford, Gari D; Oster, Julien

    2014-06-01

    The abdominal electrocardiogram (ECG) provides a non-invasive method for monitoring the fetal cardiac activity in pregnant women. However, the temporal and frequency overlap between the fetal ECG (FECG), the maternal ECG (MECG) and noise results in a challenging source separation problem. This work seeks to compare temporal extraction methods for extracting the fetal signal and estimating fetal heart rate. A novel method for MECG cancelation using an echo state neural network (ESN) based filtering approach was compared with the least mean square (LMS), the recursive least square (RLS) adaptive filter and template subtraction (TS) techniques. Analysis was performed using real signals from two databases composing a total of 4 h 22 min of data from nine pregnant women with 37,452 reference fetal beats. The effects of preprocessing the signals was empirically evaluated. The results demonstrate that the ESN based algorithm performs best on the test data with an F1 measure of 90.2% as compared to the LMS (87.9%), RLS (88.2%) and the TS (89.3%) techniques. Results suggest that a higher baseline wander high pass cut-off frequency than traditionally used for FECG analysis significantly increases performance for all evaluated methods. Open source code for the benchmark methods are made available to allow comparison and reproducibility on the public domain data.

  10. Petrothermal heat extraction using a single deviated well (Horstberg, revisited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Vogt, Esther; Bartetzko, Anne; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The single-well tracer test conducted (Behrens et al. 2006) in conjunction with waterfrac experiments at Horstberg is re-examined with a view at four basic issues: why single-well? why fracturing? why tracers? does this only work at Horstberg, or can it work almost anywhere else in the Northern-German sedimentary basin? Heat and tracer transport within a composite reservoir (impermeable matrix + waterfrac + permeable layer), as accessed by a single deviated well, turn out to fit into a surprisingly simple description, as the plain (arithmetic) sum of certain petrothermal-type and aquifer-type contributions, whose weighting relative to each other can vary from site to site, depending upon stratigraphy and upon wellbore geometry. At Horstberg, within the particular formations tested ('Volpriehausen', 'Detfurth', 'Solling', comprising mainly claystone and sandstone layers), thermal lifetime results to be petrothermally-dominated, while tracer residence times prove to be 'aquifer'-dominated. Despite this disparity, the reservoir's thermal lifetime can reliably be predicted from tracer test results. What cannot be determined from waterfrac flow-path tracing is the very waterfrac's aperture. Aperture uncertainty, however, does not impede upon thermal lifetime predictability. The results of the semi-analytical approach are confirmed by numerical simulations using a FE model that includes more details of hydrogeological heterogeneity for the Horstberg site. They are complemented by a parameter sensitivity analysis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit G6 of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling').

  11. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry using single grains of quartz extracted from unheated materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    dosimetry). Special attention has been paid to quartz extracted from unheated building materials such as concrete and mortar. The single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol has been used to determine absorbeddoses in small aliquots as well as single grains of quartz. It is shown that OSL measurements...

  12. Exploitation of a single interface flow system for on-line aqueous biphasic extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Cristina I C; Rodrigues, Sofia; Santos, João L M; Lima, José L F C; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2010-06-15

    The exploitation of aqueous biphasic extraction is proposed for the first time in flow analysis. This extraction strategy stands out for being environmentally attractive since it is based in the utilization of two immiscible phases that are intrinsically aqueous. The organic solvents of the traditional liquid-liquid extractions are no longer used, being replaced by non-toxic, non-flammable and non-volatile ones. A single interface flow analysis (SIFA) system was implemented to carry out the extraction process due to its favourable operational characteristics that include the high automation level and simplicity of operation, the establishment of a dynamic interface where the mass transfer occurred between the two immiscible aqueous phases, and the versatile control over the extraction process namely the extraction time. The application selected to demonstrate the feasibility of SIFA to perform this aqueous biphasic extraction was the pre-concentration of lead. After extraction, lead reacted with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid and the resulting product was determined by a fluorimetric detector included in the flow manifold. Therefore, the SIFA single interface was used both as extraction (enrichment) and reaction interface.

  13. A simple and efficient solar cell parameter extraction method from a single current-voltage curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue; Lin, Zhenhua; Zhu, Chunxiang

    2011-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient method for the extraction of all the parameters of a solar cell from a single current-voltage (I-V) curve under the constant illumination level is proposed. With the help of the Lambert W function, the explicit analytic expression for I is obtained. By reducing the number of the parameters, the expression for I only depends on the ideality factor n, the series resistance Rs, and the shunt resistance Rsh. This analytic expression is directly used to fit the experimental data and extract the device parameters. This simple solar cell parameter extraction method can be directly applied for all kinds of solar cells whose I-V characteristics follow the single-diode model. The parameters of various solar devices including silicon solar cells, silicon solar modules, dye-sensitized solar cells, and organic solar cells with standalone, tandem, and multi-junction structures have been successfully extracted by using our proposed method.

  14. Determination of mercury in vegetation with dithizone - a single extraction procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, F.N.; McHugh, J.B.

    1965-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for determining small amounts of mercury in vegetation is based on the reaction of mercury with dithizone after sample dissolution by wet ignition under reflux. Treatment of the sample solution with sulfur dioxide provides a reducing environment during the formation and extraction of the mercury dithizonate into n-hexane. Thus, a single extraction suffices to obviate side reactions, and double extractions or reversion steps are unnecessary. The method is useful for determining as little as 0.4 ppM of mercury in dry vegetation, and this range is enough to evaluate the usefulness of the mercury content of vegetation in prospecting. 7 references, 2 tables.

  15. Microfluidic extraction, stretching and analysis of human chromosomal DNA from single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Jaime J; Topolancik, Juraj; Tian, Harvey C; Wallin, Christopher B; Latulippe, David R; Szeto, Kylan; Murphy, Patrick J; Cipriany, Benjamin R; Levy, Stephen L; Soloway, Paul D; Craighead, Harold G

    2012-11-21

    We describe a microfluidic device for the extraction, purification and stretching of human chromosomal DNA from single cells. A two-dimensional array of micropillars in a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane channel was designed to capture a single human cell. Megabase-long DNA strands released from the cell upon lysis are trapped in the micropillar array and stretched under optimal hydrodynamic flow conditions. Intact chromosomal DNA is entangled in the array, while other cellular components are washed from the channel. To demonstrate the entrapment principle, a single chromosome was hybridized to whole chromosome paints, and imaged by fluorescence microscopy. DNA extracted from a single cell and small cell populations (less than 100) was released from the device by restriction endonuclease digestion under continuous flow and collected for off-chip analysis. Quantification of the extracted material reveals that the microdevice efficiently extracts essentially all chromosomal DNA. The device described represents a novel platform to perform a variety of analyses on chromosomal DNA at the single cell level.

  16. Microfluidic extraction, stretching and analysis of human chromosomal DNA from single cells†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Jaime J.; Topolancik, Juraj; Tian, Harvey C.; Wallin, Christopher B.; Latulippe, David R.; Szeto, Kylan; Murphy, Patrick J.; Cipriany, Benjamin R.; Levy, Stephen L.; Soloway, Paul D.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a microfluidic device for the extraction, purification and stretching of human chromosomal DNA from single cells. A two-dimensional array of micropillars in a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane channel was designed to capture a single human cell. Megabase-long DNA strands released from the cell upon lysis are trapped in the micropillar array and stretched under optimal hydrodynamic flow conditions. Intact chromosomal DNA is entangled in the array, while other cellular components are washed from the channel. To demonstrate the entrapment principle, a single chromosome was hybridized to whole chromosome paints, and imaged by fluorescence microscopy. DNA extracted from a single cell and small cell populations (less than 100) was released from the device by restriction endonuclease digestion under continuous flow and collected for offchip analysis. Quantification of the extracted material reveals that the microdevice efficiently extracts essentially all chromosomal DNA. The device described represents a novel platform to perform a variety of analyses on chromosomal DNA at the single cell level. PMID:23018789

  17. A single-step method for rapid extraction of total lipids from green microalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Axelsson

    Full Text Available Microalgae produce a wide range of lipid compounds of potential commercial interest. Total lipid extraction performed by conventional extraction methods, relying on the chloroform-methanol solvent system are too laborious and time consuming for screening large numbers of samples. In this study, three previous extraction methods devised by Folch et al. (1957, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Selstam and Öquist (1985 were compared and a faster single-step procedure was developed for extraction of total lipids from green microalgae. In the single-step procedure, 8 ml of a 2∶1 chloroform-methanol (v/v mixture was added to fresh or frozen microalgal paste or pulverized dry algal biomass contained in a glass centrifuge tube. The biomass was manually suspended by vigorously shaking the tube for a few seconds and 2 ml of a 0.73% NaCl water solution was added. Phase separation was facilitated by 2 min of centrifugation at 350 g and the lower phase was recovered for analysis. An uncharacterized microalgal polyculture and the green microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus, Selenastrum minutum, and Chlorella protothecoides were subjected to the different extraction methods and various techniques of biomass homogenization. The less labour intensive single-step procedure presented here allowed simultaneous recovery of total lipid extracts from multiple samples of green microalgae with quantitative yields and fatty acid profiles comparable to those of the previous methods. While the single-step procedure is highly correlated in lipid extractability (r² = 0.985 to the previous method of Folch et al. (1957, it allowed at least five times higher sample throughput.

  18. A MISO-ARX-Based Method for Single-Trial Evoked Potential Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method for solving the single-trial evoked potential (EP estimation problem. In this method, the single-trial EP is considered as a complex containing many components, which may originate from different functional brain sites; these components can be distinguished according to their respective latencies and amplitudes and are extracted simultaneously by multiple-input single-output autoregressive modeling with exogenous input (MISO-ARX. The extraction process is performed in three stages: first, we use a reference EP as a template and decompose it into a set of components, which serve as subtemplates for the remaining steps. Then, a dictionary is constructed with these subtemplates, and EPs are preliminarily extracted by sparse coding in order to roughly estimate the latency of each component. Finally, the single-trial measurement is parametrically modeled by MISO-ARX while characterizing spontaneous electroencephalographic activity as an autoregression model driven by white noise and with each component of the EP modeled by autoregressive-moving-average filtering of the subtemplates. Once optimized, all components of the EP can be extracted. Compared with ARX, our method has greater tracking capabilities of specific components of the EP complex as each component is modeled individually in MISO-ARX. We provide exhaustive experimental results to show the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

  19. New Approach for Segmentation and Extraction of Single Tree from Point Clouds Data and Aerial Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homainejad, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses a new approach for reconstructing a 3D model from single trees via Airborne Laser Scanners (ALS) data and aerial images. The approach detects and extracts single tree from ALS data and aerial images. The existing approaches are able to provide bulk segmentation from a group of trees; however, some methods focused on detection and extraction of a particular tree from ALS and images. Segmentation of a single tree within a group of trees is mostly a mission impossible since the detection of boundary lines between the trees is a tedious job and basically it is not feasible. In this approach an experimental formula based on the height of the trees was developed and applied in order to define the boundary lines between the trees. As a result, each single tree was segmented and extracted and later a 3D model was created. Extracted trees from this approach have a unique identification and attribute. The output has application in various fields of science and engineering such as forestry, urban planning, and agriculture. For example in forestry, the result can be used for study in ecologically diverse, biodiversity and ecosystem.

  20. Automated extraction of single H atoms with STM: tip state dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Morten; Jarvis, Samuel P.; Guérinet, Laurent; Sharp, Peter; Woolley, Richard; Rahe, Philipp; Moriarty, Philip

    2017-02-01

    The atomistic structure of the tip apex plays a crucial role in performing reliable atomic-scale surface and adsorbate manipulation using scanning probe techniques. We have developed an automated extraction routine for controlled removal of single hydrogen atoms from the H:Si(100) surface. The set of atomic extraction protocols detect a variety of desorption events during scanning tunneling microscope (STM)-induced modification of the hydrogen-passivated surface. The influence of the tip state on the probability for hydrogen removal was examined by comparing the desorption efficiency for various classifications of STM topographs (rows, dimers, atoms, etc). We find that dimer-row-resolving tip apices extract hydrogen atoms most readily and reliably (and with least spurious desorption), while tip states which provide atomic resolution counter-intuitively have a lower probability for single H atom removal.

  1. Analysis of Single Locus Trajectories for Extracting In Vivo Chromatin Tethering Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Amitai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to extract tethering forces applied on chromatin from the statistics of a single locus trajectories imaged in vivo? Chromatin fragments interact with many partners such as the nuclear membrane, other chromosomes or nuclear bodies, but the resulting forces cannot be directly measured in vivo. However, they impact chromatin dynamics and should be reflected in particular in the motion of a single locus. We present here a method based on polymer models and statistics of single trajectories to extract the force characteristics and in particular when they are generated by the gradient of a quadratic potential well. Using numerical simulations of a Rouse polymer and live cell imaging of the MAT-locus located on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III, we recover the amplitude and the distance between the observed and the interacting monomer. To conclude, the confined trajectories we observed in vivo reflect local interaction on chromatin.

  2. Empirical laws of particle extraction from single-grid source of bipolar ion-electron flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, S. V.; Rafalskyi, D. V.

    2012-11-01

    The present research is devoted to the problem of extraction grid choice for a single-grid source of bipolar ion-electron flow. The paper contains detailed reference information on ion and electron extraction characteristics of 10 different grids with broad range of parameters: aperture width (0.09-0.6 mm), grid transparency (0.19-0.51), thickness (0.036-0.5 mm), and with different aperture geometry. The grids with square, circular, and slit apertures were made with different technologies: laser cutting, welding, weaving, and electrolytic erosion. The general regularities of the ion and electron extraction from the single-grid source are experimentally researched for the cases of dc and RF extraction grid biasing. A conclusion has been made that the maximum extracted ion current at low ion energy (0-200 eV) does not significantly vary for all the grids and does not exceed half of the primary ion current from plasma multiplied by the optical grid transparency. The low-energy limit of efficient ion extraction has been discovered which cannot be overcome by the aperture narrowing. A conclusion is made that the RF extraction mode is superior for all the researched grids since it is characterized by higher extracted ion current at any acceleration voltage for any grid with much more simple and smooth extraction curves behavior in comparison to the dc case as well as absence of arcing, jumps, and hysteresis of the measured curves at any RF voltages. The unique ability of the RF biased single-grid source of simultaneous ion/electron emission has been studied. The measured maximal attainable ion beam current compensation ratio is always sufficiently higher than 1 and typically varies in the range 2-6. The results obtained in the present paper demonstrate prospective of the single-grid source in space thruster applications and in modern technologies, particularly for ion beam processing of wide bandgap semiconductor devices such as GaN and SiC transistors due to inherent

  3. Fluorescent Labeling of Proteins in Whole Cell Extracts for Single-Molecule Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S R; Rodgers, M L; Hoskins, A A

    2016-01-01

    Cellular machines such as the spliceosome and ribosome can be composed of dozens of individual proteins and nucleic acids. Given this complexity, it is not surprising that many cellular activities have not yet been biochemically reconstituted. Such processes are often studied in vitro in whole cell or fractionated lysates. This presents a challenge for obtaining detailed biochemical information when the components being investigated may be only a minor component of the extract and unrelated processes may interfere with the assay. Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy methods allow particular biomolecules to be analyzed even in the complex milieu of a cell extract. This is due to the use of bright fluorophores that emit light at wavelengths at which few cellular components fluoresce, and the development of chemical biology tools for attaching these fluorophores to specific cellular proteins. Here, we describe a protocol for fluorescent labeling of endogenous, SNAP-tagged yeast proteins in whole cell extract. This method allows biochemical reactions to be followed in cell lysates in real time using colocalization single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. Labeled complexes can also be isolated from extract and characterized by SNAP tag single-molecule pull-down (SNAP-SiMPull). These approaches have proven useful for studying complex biological machines such as the spliceosome that cannot yet be reconstituted from purified components. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of single-walled carbon nanohorns as sorbent in dispersive micro solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Soto, Juan Manuel; Cardenas, Soledad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building, Campus de Rabanales, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1meobj@uco.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building, Campus de Rabanales, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of single walled carbon nanohorns in dispersive solid phase microextraction has been evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was characterized for the extraction of PAHs from waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single walled carbon nanohorns were better extractant than carbon nanotubes and carbon nanocones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The limits of detection were adequate for the target analytes in environmental waters. - Abstract: A new dispersive micro solid-phase extraction method which uses single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) as sorbent is proposed. The procedure combines the excellent sorbent properties of the nanoparticles with the efficiency of the dispersion of the material in the sample matrix. Under these conditions, the interaction with the analytes is maximized. The determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was selected as model analytical problem. Two dispersion strategies were evaluated, being the functionalization via microwave irradiation better than the use of a surfactant. The extraction was accomplished by adding 1 mL of oxidized SWHNs (o-SWNHs) dispersion to 10 mL of water sample. After extraction, the mixture was passed through a disposable Nylon filter were the nanoparticles enriched with the PAHs were retained. The elution was carried out with 100 {mu}L of hexane. The limits of detection achieved were between 30 and 60 ng L{sup -1} with a precision (as repeatability) better than 12.5%. The recoveries obtained for the analytes in three different water samples were acceptable in all instances. The performance of o-SWNHs was favourably compared with that provided by carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes and thermally treated carbon nanocones.

  5. Acalypha wilkesiana extracts induce apoptosis by causing single strand and double strand DNA breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S W; Ting, K N; Bradshaw, T D; Zeenathul, N A; Wiart, C; Khoo, T J; Lim, K H; Loh, H S

    2011-11-18

    The seeds of Acalypha wilkesiana have been used empirically by traditional healers in Southwest Nigeria together with other plants as a powder mixture to treat patients with breast tumours and inflammation. There is an increasing interest among researchers in searching for new anticancer drugs from natural resources, particularly plants. This study aimed to investigate the anticancer properties of Acalypha wilkesiana extracts and the characteristics of DNA damage against brain and lung cancer cells. The antiproliferative activity of Acalypha wilkesiana extracts (ethyl acetate, hexane, and ethanol) was examined on human glioma (U87MG), human lung carcinoma (A549), and human lung fibroblast (MRC5) cells. Cell viability MTT assay revealed that ethyl acetate extract of the plant possessed significant antiproliferative effects against both U87MG (GI(50)=28.03 ± 6.44 μg/ml) and A549 (GI(50)=89.63 ± 2.12 μg/ml) cells (p valueMRC5 cells (GI(50)>300 μg/ml). The ethanol extract showed no antiproliferative effects on any cell line examined. Haematoxylin & Eosin (H & E) staining and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay confirmed that plant extract-treated cells underwent apoptosis and not necrosis. SCGE comet assays confirmed that plant extracts caused both single strand (SSB) and double strand (DSB) DNA breaks that led to the execution of apoptosis. The extracts (especially ethyl acetate and hexane) of Acalypha wilkesiana possess valuable cytotoxic effects that trigger apoptosis in U87MG and A549 cancer cells through induction of DNA SSBs and DSBs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of flavonoids in single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) ethanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonaviciūte, A; Jakstas, V; Kornysova, O; Janulis, V; Maruska, A

    2006-04-21

    Flavonoids are an important group of natural compounds, which can prevent coronary heart disease and have antioxidant properties. Hawthorn is a well known and widely used medicinal plant due to its cardiotonic activity. Previous studies refer mostly to the HPLC analysis of the flavonoids: vitexin, quercetin, hyperoside, oligomeric procyanidins, which appear to be primarily responsible for the cardiac action of the plant. Aqueous ethanolic extracts of single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., f.: Rosaceae Juss.) leaves and sprouts were analyzed by means of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Influence of vegetation period on the extract qualitative composition and flavonoids quantities was evaluated. Sample preparation by extraction using different concentration of aqueous ethanol (40-96%, v/v) and the influence of extractant composition on the recovery of flavonoids are discussed in detail. The results obtained using CZE are compared to the results of spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis of the extracts. The effect of storage conditions of extracts (solar irradiation, temperature and duration) on degradation of flavonoids was investigated.

  7. Single-trial event-related potential extraction through one-unit ICA-with-reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih Lee, Wee; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Leung, Yee Hong

    2016-12-01

    Objective. In recent years, ICA has been one of the more popular methods for extracting event-related potential (ERP) at the single-trial level. It is a blind source separation technique that allows the extraction of an ERP without making strong assumptions on the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ERP. However, the problem with traditional ICA is that the extraction is not direct and is time-consuming due to the need for source selection processing. In this paper, the application of an one-unit ICA-with-Reference (ICA-R), a constrained ICA method, is proposed. Approach. In cases where the time-region of the desired ERP is known a priori, this time information is utilized to generate a reference signal, which is then used for guiding the one-unit ICA-R to extract the source signal of the desired ERP directly. Main results. Our results showed that, as compared to traditional ICA, ICA-R is a more effective method for analysing ERP because it avoids manual source selection and it requires less computation thus resulting in faster ERP extraction. Significance. In addition to that, since the method is automated, it reduces the risks of any subjective bias in the ERP analysis. It is also a potential tool for extracting the ERP in online application.

  8. Extracting quantum work statistics and fluctuation theorems by single-qubit interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, R; Clark, S R; Heaney, L; Fazio, R; Goold, J; Vedral, V

    2013-06-07

    We propose an experimental scheme to verify the quantum nonequilibrium fluctuation relations using current technology. Specifically, we show that the characteristic function of the work distribution for a nonequilibrium quench of a general quantum system can be extracted by Ramsey interferometry of a single probe qubit. Our scheme paves the way for the full characterization of nonequilibrium processes in a variety of quantum systems, ranging from single particles to many-body atomic systems and spin chains. We demonstrate our idea using a time-dependent quench of the motional state of a trapped ion, where the internal pseudospin provides a convenient probe qubit.

  9. Functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with silver nanoparticles using Tecoma stans leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandhan, S.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Carnahan, D.; Misra, M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Satyanarayana, N.

    2012-04-01

    Bioreduction mechanism of Tecoma stans leaf extract for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). Nanostructure of the bio synthesized silver particles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis. Crystalline cubic phase of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Observed rapid reduction behavior of Tecoma stans leaf extract was effectively explored for the functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and TEM characterization confirmed the functionalization of single walled carbon nanotubes with the silver nanoparticles and the size of silver nanoparticles were found to be in the range of ∼5-10 nm.

  10. Skeleton extraction and phase interpolation for single ESPI fringe pattern based on the partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Danyu; Xiao, Zhitao; Geng, Lei; Wu, Jun; Xu, Zhenbei; Sun, Jiao; Wang, Jinjiang; Xi, Jiangtao

    2015-11-16

    A novel phase extraction method for single electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) fringes is proposed. The partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to extract the skeletons of the gray-scale fringe and to interpolate the whole-field phase values based on skeleton map. Firstly, the gradient vector field (GVF) of the initial fringe is adjusted by an anisotropic PDE. Secondly, the skeletons of the fringe are extracted combining the divergence property of the adjusted GVF. After assigning skeleton orders, the whole-field phase information is interpolated by the heat conduction equation. The validity of the proposed method is verified by computer-simulated and experimentally obtained poor-quality ESPI fringe patterns.

  11. Experimental extractions of particle position from inline holograms using single coefficient of Wigner-Ville analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Joewono; Dawprateep, Saowaros; Chuamchaitrakool, Porntip

    2017-07-01

    Extractions of particle positions from inline holograms using a single coefficient of Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) are experimentally verified. WVD analysis of holograms gives local variation of fringe frequency. Regardless of an axial position of particles, one of the WVD coefficients has the unique characteristics of having the lowest amplitude and being located on a line with a slope inversely proportional to the particle position. Experimental results obtained using two image sensors with different resolutions verify the feasibility of the present method.

  12. Extraction of single-trial cortical beta oscillatory activities in EEG signals using empirical mode decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chi-Hsun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain oscillatory activities are stochastic and non-linearly dynamic, due to their non-phase-locked nature and inter-trial variability. Non-phase-locked rhythmic signals can vary from trial-to-trial dependent upon variations in a subject's performance and state, which may be linked to fluctuations in expectation, attention, arousal, and task strategy. Therefore, a method that permits the extraction of the oscillatory signal on a single-trial basis is important for the study of subtle brain dynamics, which can be used as probes to study neurophysiology in normal brain and pathophysiology in the diseased. Methods This paper presents an empirical mode decomposition (EMD-based spatiotemporal approach to extract neural oscillatory activities from multi-channel electroencephalograph (EEG data. The efficacy of this approach manifests in extracting single-trial post-movement beta activities when performing a right index-finger lifting task. In each single trial, an EEG epoch recorded at the channel of interest (CI was first separated into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. Sensorimotor-related oscillatory activities were reconstructed from sensorimotor-related IMFs chosen by a spatial map matching process. Post-movement beta activities were acquired by band-pass filtering the sensorimotor-related oscillatory activities within a trial-specific beta band. Signal envelopes of post-movement beta activities were detected using amplitude modulation (AM method to obtain post-movement beta event-related synchronization (PM-bERS. The maximum amplitude in the PM-bERS within the post-movement period was subtracted by the mean amplitude of the reference period to find the single-trial beta rebound (BR. Results The results showed single-trial BRs computed by the current method were significantly higher than those obtained from conventional average method (P Conclusions The EMD-based method is effective for artefact removal and extracting

  13. Headspace single drop microextraction versus dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using magnetic ionic liquid extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jiwoo; Rahn, Kira L; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-05-15

    A headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) method and a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method were developed using two tetrachloromanganate ([MnCl42-])-based magnetic ionic liquids (MIL) as extraction solvents for the determination of twelve aromatic compounds, including four polyaromatic hydrocarbons, by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analytical performance of the developed HS-SDME method was compared to the DLLME approach employing the same MILs. In the HS-SDME approach, the magnetic field generated by the magnet was exploited to suspend the MIL solvent from the tip of a rod magnet. The utilization of MILs in HS-SDME resulted in a highly stable microdroplet under elevated temperatures and long extraction times, overcoming a common challenge encountered in traditional SDME approaches of droplet instability. The low UV absorbance of the [MnCl42-]-based MILs permitted direct analysis of the analyte enriched extraction solvent by HPLC. In HS-SDME, the effects of ionic strength of the sample solution, temperature of the extraction system, extraction time, stir rate, and headspace volume on extraction efficiencies were examined. Coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and limits of detection (LODs) varied from 0.04 to 1.0μgL-1 with relative recoveries from lake water ranging from 70.2% to 109.6%. For the DLLME method, parameters including disperser solvent type and volume, ionic strength of the sample solution, mass of extraction solvent, and extraction time were studied and optimized. Coefficients of determination for the DLLME method varied from 0.997 to 0.999 with LODs ranging from 0.05 to 1.0μgL-1. Relative recoveries from lake water samples ranged from 68.7% to 104.5%. Overall, the DLLME approach permitted faster extraction times and higher enrichment factors for analytes with low vapor pressure whereas the HS-SDME approach exhibited better extraction efficiencies for analytes with

  14. Figuring large optics at the sub-nanometer level: compensation for coating and gravity distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensemer, Stephen; Gross, Mark

    2015-11-30

    Large, precision optics can now be manufactured with surface figures specified at the sub-nanometer level. However, coatings and gravity deform large optics, and there are limits to what can be corrected by clever compensation. Instead, deformations caused by stress from optical mounts and deposited coatings must be incorporated into the optical design. We demonstrate compensation of coating stress on a 370mm substrate to λ/200 by a process of coating and annealing. We also model the same process and identify the leading effects that must be anticipated in fabrication of optics for future gravitational wave detectors and other applications of large, precisely figured optics, and identify the limitations inherent in using coatings to compensate for these deformations.

  15. Bimetallic Ag-Pt Sub-nanometer Supported Clusters as Highly Efficient and Robust Oxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negreiros, Fabio R. [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Halder, Avik [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Yin, Chunrong [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Singh, Akansha [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chhatnag Road Jhunsi Allahabad 211019 India; Barcaro, Giovanni [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Sementa, Luca [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Tyo, Eric C. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Pellin, Michael J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Bartling, Stephan [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock Germany; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock Germany; Seifert, Sönke [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Sen, Prasenjit [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chhatnag Road Jhunsi Allahabad 211019 India; Nigam, Sandeep [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay Mumbai- 400 085 India; Majumder, Chiranjib [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay Mumbai- 400 085 India; Fukui, Nobuyuki [East Tokyo Laboratory, Genesis Research Institute, Inc., Ichikawa Chiba 272-0001 Japan; Yasumatsu, Hisato [Cluster Research Laboratory, Toyota Technological Institute: in, East Tokyo Laboratory, Genesis Research Institute, Inc. Ichikawa, Chiba 272-0001 Japan; Vajda, Stefan [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Nanoscience and Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL USA; Fortunelli, Alessandro [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA USA

    2017-12-29

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of Ag-Pt sub-nanometer clusters as heterogeneous catalysts in the CO -> CO2 reaction (COox) is presented. Ag9Pt2 and Ag9Pt3 clusters are size-selected in the gas phase, deposited on an ultrathin amorphous alumina support, and tested as catalysts experimentally under realistic conditions and by first-principles simulations at realistic coverage. Insitu GISAXS/TPRx demonstrates that the clusters do not sinter or deactivate even after prolonged exposure to reactants at high temperature, and present comparable, extremely high COox catalytic efficiency. Such high activity and stability are ascribed to a synergic role of Ag and Pt in ultranano-aggregates, in which Pt anchors the clusters to the support and binds and activates two CO molecules, while Ag binds and activates O-2, and Ag/Pt surface proximity disfavors poisoning by CO or oxidized species.

  16. Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM) for the imaging of biological samples at sub-nanometer resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joens, Matthew S.; Huynh, Chuong; Kasuboski, James M.; Ferranti, David; Sigal, Yury J.; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Obst, Martin; Burkhardt, Claus J.; Curran, Kevin P.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.; Stern, Lewis A.; Goetze, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has long been the standard in imaging the sub-micrometer surface ultrastructure of both hard and soft materials. In the case of biological samples, it has provided great insights into their physical architecture. However, three of the fundamental challenges in the SEM imaging of soft materials are that of limited imaging resolution at high magnification, charging caused by the insulating properties of most biological samples and the loss of subtle surface features by heavy metal coating. These challenges have recently been overcome with the development of the Helium Ion Microscope (HIM), which boasts advances in charge reduction, minimized sample damage, high surface contrast without the need for metal coating, increased depth of field, and 5 angstrom imaging resolution. We demonstrate the advantages of HIM for imaging biological surfaces as well as compare and contrast the effects of sample preparation techniques and their consequences on sub-nanometer ultrastructure. PMID:24343236

  17. Chirality Separation of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes using Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) was recently demonstrated to enable the separation of individual species of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) across the separated phases. In this presentation I will describe the use of a dextran - polyethylene glycol aqueous two-phase system along with a separation scheme of varying surfactant concentrations to enable isolation at high purity of specific small diameter SWCNT species. Separation by ATPE is rapid and robust, with a remarkable tunability that allows isolation of most single nanotube chiralities at high purity. Choice of surfactant(s), temperature, polymer concentrations, and the addition of small molecule salts can all be used to tune the exact partitioning of single SWCNT species between the two phases.

  18. Extracting physics of life at the molecular level: A review of single-molecule data analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, Warren; Sarkar, Susanta K

    2015-06-01

    Studying individual biomolecules at the single-molecule level has proved very insightful recently. Single-molecule experiments allow us to probe both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties as well as make quantitative connections with ensemble experiments and equilibrium thermodynamics. However, it is important to be careful about the analysis of single-molecule data because of the noise present and the lack of theoretical framework for processes far away from equilibrium. Biomolecular motion, whether it is free in solution, on a substrate, or under force, involves thermal fluctuations in varying degrees, which makes the motion noisy. In addition, the noise from the experimental setup makes it even more complex. The details of biologically relevant interactions, conformational dynamics, and activities are hidden in the noisy single-molecule data. As such, extracting biological insights from noisy data is still an active area of research. In this review, we will focus on analyzing both fluorescence-based and force-based single-molecule experiments and gaining biological insights at the single-molecule level. Inherently nonequilibrium nature of biological processes will be highlighted. Simulated trajectories of biomolecular diffusion will be used to compare and validate various analysis techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry using single grains of quartz extracted from unheated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerkov Thomsen, Kristina

    2004-02-01

    This work investigates the possibility of applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective dose determinations using unheated materials. It focuses on identifying materials suitable for use in assessment of doses absorbed as a consequence of radiation accidents (i.e. accident dosimetry). Special attention has been paid to quartz extracted from unheated building materials such as concrete and mortar. The single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol has been used to determine absorbed doses in small aliquots as well as single grains of quartz. It is shown that OSL measurements of single grains of quartz extracted from poorly-bleached building materials can provide useful information on radiation accident doses, even when the luminescence sensitivity is low. Sources of variance in well-bleached single grain dose distributions have been investigated in detail and it is concluded that the observed variability in the data is consistent with the sum (in quadrature) of a component, which depends on the number of photons detected from each grain, and a fixed component independent of light level. Dose depth profiles through laboratory irradiated concrete bricks have successfully been measured and minimum detection limits of less than 100 mGy are derived. Measurements of thermal transfer in single grains of poorly-bleached quartz show that thermal transfer is variable on a grain-to-grain basis and that it can be a source of variance in single-grain dose distributions. Furthermore, the potential of using common household and workplace chemicals, such as table salt, washing powder and water softener, in retrospective dosimetry has been investigated. It is concluded that such materials should be considered as retrospective dosimeters in the event of a radiation accident. (au)

  20. Comparison of sequential and single extraction in order to estimate environmental impact of metals from fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Aleksandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to simulate leaching of metals from fly ash in different environmental conditions using ultrasound and microwave-assisted extraction techniques. Single-agent extraction and sequential extraction procedures were used to determine the levels of different metals leaching. The concentration of metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, As, Be in fly ash extracts were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Single-agent extractions of metals were conducted during sonication times of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min. Single-agent extraction with deionized water was also undertaken by exposing samples to microwave radiation at the temperature of 50°C. The sequential extraction was undertaken according to the BCR procedure which was modified and applied to study the partitioning of metals in coal fly ash. The microwave-assisted sequential extraction was performed at different extraction temperatures: 50, 100 and 150°C. The partitioning of metals between the individual fractions was investigated and discussed. The efficiency of the extraction process for each step was examined. In addition, the results of the microwave-assisted sequential extraction are compared to the results obtained by standard ASTM method. The mobility of most elements contained in fly ash is markedly pH sensitive. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172030, br. 176006 i br. III43009

  1. Extraction of (9,8) single-walled carbon nanotubes by fluorene-based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Rongmei; Wei, Li; Wang, Hong; Su, Dingdian; Mushrif, Samir H; Chen, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Selective polymer wrapping is a promising approach to obtain high-chiral-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) needed in technical applications and scientific studies. We showed that among three fluorene-based polymers with different side-chain lengths and backbones, poly[(9,9-dihexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(9,10-anthracene)] (PFH-A) can selectively extract SWCNTs synthesized from the CoSO4 /SiO2 catalyst, which results in enrichment of 78.3 % (9,8) and 12.2 % (9,7) nanotubes among all semiconducting species. These high-chiral-purity SWCNTs may find potential applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and photovoltaics. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the extraction selectivity of PFH-A relates to the bending and alignment of its alkyl chains and the twisting of its two aromatic backbone units (biphenyl and anthracene) relative to SWCNTs. The strong π-π interaction between polymers and SWCNTs would increase the extraction yield, but it is not beneficial for chiral selectivity. Our findings suggest that the matching between the curvature of SWCNTs and the flexibility of the polymer side chains and the aromatic backbone units is essential in designing novel polymers for selective extraction of (n,m) species. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Extracting 3D layout from a single image using global image structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhongyu; Gevers, Theo; Hu, Ninghang

    2015-10-01

    Extracting the pixel-level 3D layout from a single image is important for different applications, such as object localization, image, and video categorization. Traditionally, the 3D layout is derived by solving a pixel-level classification problem. However, the image-level 3D structure can be very beneficial for extracting pixel-level 3D layout since it implies the way how pixels in the image are organized. In this paper, we propose an approach that first predicts the global image structure, and then we use the global structure for fine-grained pixel-level 3D layout extraction. In particular, image features are extracted based on multiple layout templates. We then learn a discriminative model for classifying the global layout at the image-level. Using latent variables, we implicitly model the sublevel semantics of the image, which enrich the expressiveness of our model. After the image-level structure is obtained, it is used as the prior knowledge to infer pixel-wise 3D layout. Experiments show that the results of our model outperform the state-of-the-art methods by 11.7% for 3D structure classification. Moreover, we show that employing the 3D structure prior information yields accurate 3D scene layout segmentation.

  3. Extraction and fractionation of RNA and DNA from single cells using selective lysing and isotachophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Santiago, Juan G.

    2015-03-01

    Single cell analyses of RNA and DNA are crucial to understanding the heterogeneity of cell populations. The numbers of approaches to single cells analyses are expanding, but sequence specific measurements of nucleic acids have been mostly limited to studies of either DNA or RNA, and not both. This remains a challenge as RNA and DNA have very similar physical and biochemical properties, and cross-contamination with each other can introduce false positive results. We present an electrokinetic technique which creates the opportunity to fractionate and deliver cytoplasmic RNA and genomic DNA to independent downstream analyses. Our technique uses an on-chip system that enables selective lysing of cytoplasmic membrane, extraction of RNA (away from genomic DNA and nucleus), focusing, absolute quantification of cytoplasmic RNA mass. The absolute RNA mass quantification is performed using fluorescence observation without enzymatic amplification in cell nucleus is left intact and the relative genomic DNA amount in the nucleus can be measured. We demonstrate the technique using single mouse B lymphocyte cells, for which we extracted an average of 14.1 pg total cytoplasmic RNA per cell. We also demonstrate correlation analysis between the absolute amount of cytoplasmic RNA and relative amount of genomic DNA, showing heterogeneity associated with cell cycle.

  4. Purification of Single-Wall carbon nanotubes by heat treatment and supercritical extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bertoncini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Arc discharge is the most practical method for the synthesis of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT. However, the production of SWCNT by this technique has low selectivity and yield, requiring further purification steps. This work is a study of purification of SWCNT by heat treatment in an inert atmosphere followed by supercritical fluid extraction. The raw arc discharge material was first heat-treated at 1250 °C under argon. The nanotubes were further submitted to an extraction process using supercritical CO2 as solvent. A surfactant (tributylphosphate, TBP and a chelating agent (hexafluoroacetylacetone, HFA were used together to eliminate metallic impurities from the remaining arc discharge catalysts. Analysis of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES showed an efficient removal of iron and cobalt (>80%. The purified nanotubes were further analyzed by TGA and Raman spectroscopy.

  5. A single dose of kudzu extract reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penetar, David M; Toto, Lindsay H; Lee, David Y-W; Lukas, Scott E

    2015-08-01

    Overconsumption of alcohol has significant negative effects on an individual's health and contributes to an enormous economic impact on society as a whole. Pharmacotherapies to curb excessive drinking are important for treating alcohol use disorders. Twenty (20) men participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between subjects design experiment (n=10/group) that tested the effects of kudzu extract (Alkontrol-Herbal™) for its ability to alter alcohol consumption in a natural settings laboratory. A single dose of kudzu extract (2g total with an active isoflavone content of 520mg) or placebo was administered 2.5h before the onset of a 90min afternoon drinking session during which participants had the opportunity to drink up to 6 beers ad libitum; water and juice were always available as alternative beverages. During the baseline session, the placebo-randomized group consumed 2.7±0.78 beers before treatment and increased consumption to 3.4±1.1 beers after treatment. The kudzu group significantly reduced consumption from 3.0±1.7 at baseline to 1.9±1.3 beers after treatment. The placebo-treated group opened 33 beers during baseline conditions and 38 following treatment whereas the kudzu-treated group opened 32 beers during baseline conditions and only 21 following treatment. Additionally, kudzu-treated participants drank slower. This is the first demonstration that a single dose of kudzu extract quickly reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm. These data add to the mounting clinical evidence that kudzu extract may be a safe and effective adjunctive pharmacotherapy for alcohol abuse and dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immediate loading of post-extractive single-tooth implants: a 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristalli, Maria Paola; Marini, Roberta; La Monaca, Gerardo; Sepe, Claudio; Tonoli, Federica; Annibali, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to assess clinical, radiological, and esthetic outcomes of immediate-loaded post-extractive implants after 1 year of follow-up. Twenty-four consecutive patients (15 females and nine males) with a mean age of 47.27 years (range 35-65) requiring single-tooth extraction in the maxillary or mandibular anterior or premolar areas were enrolled. Twenty-five NobelActive implants (Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden) were placed and loaded immediately after tooth extraction. The definitive prosthetic restoration was delivered 6 months later. Clinical parameters, marginal bone loss, as well as, pink and white esthetic scores (PES and WES) were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months after implant placement. After 12-month follow-up period, a success rate of 91.67% was reported: Two of the 25 initially placed implants were lost after 4 weeks due to lack of osseointegration. The mean marginal bone loss after 1-year follow-up was 0.383 (SD ± 0.749) at mesial site and 0.278 (SD ± 0.595) at distal site. No statistically significant changes in the full-mouth plaque score (FMPS) and in the full-mouth bleeding score (FMBS) were observed from baseline to 12 months. The mean total PES/WES was 17.13 ± 1.91 (range: 13-20). None of 23 implants had an overall score immediate placement and loading of a single NobelActive(™) implant in a fresh extraction socket may be considered a valuable and predictable option in terms of implant success as well as hard and soft tissues stability. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Assessment of metals bioavailability to vegetables under field conditions using DGT, single extractions and multivariate statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senila Marin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metals bioavailability in soils is commonly assessed by chemical extractions; however a generally accepted method is not yet established. In this study, the effectiveness of Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT technique and single extractions in the assessment of metals bioaccumulation in vegetables, and the influence of soil parameters on phytoavailability were evaluated using multivariate statistics. Soil and plants grown in vegetable gardens from mining-affected rural areas, NW Romania, were collected and analysed. Results Pseudo-total metal content of Cu, Zn and Cd in soil ranged between 17.3-146 mg kg-1, 141–833 mg kg-1 and 0.15-2.05 mg kg-1, respectively, showing enriched contents of these elements. High degrees of metals extractability in 1M HCl and even in 1M NH4Cl were observed. Despite the relatively high total metal concentrations in soil, those found in vegetables were comparable to values typically reported for agricultural crops, probably due to the low concentrations of metals in soil solution (Csoln and low effective concentrations (CE, assessed by DGT technique. Among the analysed vegetables, the highest metal concentrations were found in carrots roots. By applying multivariate statistics, it was found that CE, Csoln and extraction in 1M NH4Cl, were better predictors for metals bioavailability than the acid extractions applied in this study. Copper transfer to vegetables was strongly influenced by soil organic carbon (OC and cation exchange capacity (CEC, while pH had a higher influence on Cd transfer from soil to plants. Conclusions The results showed that DGT can be used for general evaluation of the risks associated to soil contamination with Cu, Zn and Cd in field conditions. Although quantitative information on metals transfer from soil to vegetables was not observed.

  8. Single blastocyst transfer after ICSI from ejaculate spermatozoa, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Staffan; Waldenström, Urban; Engström, Ann-Britt; Hellberg, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the outcome of IVF following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from ejaculate, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE), with subsequent blastocyst culture and single blastocyst transfer.

  9. Assessment of single-turn extraction for a superconducting separated-sector cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-W. Kim

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the beam dynamics in a high field separated-sector cyclotron to establish conditions required to achieve single-turn extraction. Extraction efficiency above 99% is aimed to avoid beam-induced damages. A sufficient last-turn separation and a preservation of beam quality throughout the acceleration are the prerequisites. The last-turn separation can be enhanced with the orbital precession induced by an off-centering injection as in existent lower field separated-sector cyclotrons. The beam qualities, on the other hand, are affected by the resonances traversed or approached during the acceleration. Acceleration of light nuclei to the energies of 300–400 MeV/u was especially disturbing because of the broadening of radial beamwidth upon crossing the ν_{r}=3/2 resonance. Tolerance to the third harmonic gradient field, which causes the resonance in lowest order, is set to be 0.1 G/cm. The integer resonance ν_{z}=1 can be avoided with a proper design of the yoke. The longitudinal space charge forces were also investigated to estimate the intensity limits determined by the energy spreads of beam assuming simplified charge distributions. Moreover, beam preparations for injection matching are described in view of reducing the beam losses into the extraction elements.

  10. Magnetic ionic liquids as extraction solvents in vacuum headspace single-drop microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-09-01

    A vacuum headspace single-drop microextraction method based on the use of magnetic ionic liquids (vacuum MIL-HS-SDME) for the determination of short chain free fatty acids is described for the first time. The basis of the method involves the use of a rod magnet to aid in maintaining a small microdroplet of magnetic ionic liquid (MIL) during headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME). The application favors reduced pressure conditions inside the sampling vial while maintaining the MIL droplet in the headspace. After extraction, the MIL microdroplet containing extracted FFAs is transferred to a headspace vial where static headspace desorption is performed, followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A number of MILs were studied and the trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(hexafluoroacetylaceto)manganate(II) MIL was found to be the most suitable for the proposed method. A comparison with atmospheric pressure MIL-HS-SDME revealed that analytes reached equilibrium faster when reduced pressure conditions were applied and that an enhancement in the extraction efficiency of analytes under these vacuum conditions was observed at any extraction time. Under optimum conditions, the method requires only 20µL of MIL placed at the end of a rod magnet and the evacuation of air using a modified extraction vial and a vacuum pump. Afterwards, 10mL of sample containing 30% (w/v) of NaCl is injected in the vial and the vacuum MIL-HS-SDME is performed at 45°C and 600rpm for 60min. The MIL microdroplet can easily be transferred to a 4.2mL modified headspace vial for the headspace desorption and GC-MS analysis. The entire method is characterized by wide linearity ranges, low limits of detection for analytes (down to 14.5µgL-1), good reproducibility (with relative standard deviation lower than 13%), and relative recoveries ranging from 79.5% to 111%. The proposed vacuum MIL-HS-SDME was applied towards the analysis of two different milk samples with the

  11. Zernike Phase Contrast Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Tomography for Structure Determination at Nanometer and Subnanometer Resolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Kazuyoshi; Liu, Xiangan; Danev, Radostin; Jakana, Joanita; Schmid, Michael F; King, Jonathan; Nagayama, Kuniaki; Chiu, Wah

    2010-01-01

    Zernike phase contrast cryo-electron microscopy (ZPC-cryoEM) is an emerging technique which is capable of producing higher image contrast than conventional cryoEM. By combining this technique with advanced image processing methods, we achieved subnanometer resolution for two biological specimens: 2-D bacteriorhodopsin crystal and epsilon15 bacteriophage. For an asymmetric reconstruction of epsilon15 bacteriophage, ZPC-cryoEM can reduce the required amount of data by a factor of ~3 compared to...

  12. Reliability, Validity, and Usability of Data Extraction Programs for Single-Case Research Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Maggin, Daniel; Verkuilen, Jay

    2016-11-01

    Single-case experimental designs (SCEDs) have been increasingly used in recent years to inform the development and validation of effective interventions in the behavioral sciences. An important aspect of this work has been the extension of meta-analytic and other statistical innovations to SCED data. Standard practice within SCED methods is to display data graphically, which requires subsequent users to extract the data, either manually or using data extraction programs. Previous research has examined issues of reliability and validity of data extraction programs in the past, but typically at an aggregate level. Little is known, however, about the coding of individual data points. We focused on four different software programs that can be used for this purpose (i.e., Ungraph, DataThief, WebPlotDigitizer, and XYit), and examined the reliability of numeric coding, the validity compared with real data, and overall program usability. This study indicates that the reliability and validity of the retrieved data are independent of the specific software program, but are dependent on the individual single-case study graphs. Differences were found in program usability in terms of user friendliness, data retrieval time, and license costs. Ungraph and WebPlotDigitizer received the highest usability scores. DataThief was perceived as unacceptable and the time needed to retrieve the data was double that of the other three programs. WebPlotDigitizer was the only program free to use. As a consequence, WebPlotDigitizer turned out to be the best option in terms of usability, time to retrieve the data, and costs, although the usability scores of Ungraph were also strong. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Regenerable Subnanometer Pd Clusters on Zirconia for Highly Selective Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Succinic Acid in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The size of metal particles is an important factor to determine the performance of the supported metal catalysts. In this work, we report subnanometer Pd clusters supported on zirconia by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The presence of subnanometer Pd clusters on the zirconia surface was confirmed by two-dimensional Gaussian-function fits of the aberration-corrected high-angle annual dark-field images. These subnanometer Pd catalysts exhibit high catalytic performance for the hydrogenation of biomass-derived succinic acid to γ-butyrolactone in water and avoid the formation of overhydrogenated products, such as 1,4-butanediol and tetrahydrofuran. The catalyst with an ultra-low Pd loading of 0.2 wt. % demonstrated high selectivity (95% for γ-butyrolactone using water as a solvent at 473 K and 10 MPa. Moreover, it can be reused at least six times without the loss of catalytic activity, illustrating high performance of the small Pd clusters.

  14. Relevant Feature Integration and Extraction for Single-Trial Motor Imagery Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interfaces provide a novel channel for the communication between brain and output devices. The effectiveness of the brain computer interface is based on the classification accuracy of single trial brain signals. The common spatial pattern (CSP algorithm is believed to be an effective algorithm for the classification of single trial brain signals. As the amplitude feature for spatial projection applied by this algorithm is based on a broad frequency bandpass filter (mainly 5–30 Hz in which the frequency band is often selected by experience, the CSP is sensitive to noise and the influence of other irrelevant information in the selected broad frequency band. In this paper, to improve the CSP, a novel relevant feature integration and extraction algorithm is proposed. Before projecting, we integrated the motor relevant information to suppress the interference of noise and irrelevant information, as well as to improve the spatial difference for projection. The algorithm was evaluated with public datasets. It showed significantly better classification performance with single trial electroencephalography (EEG data, increasing by 6.8% compared with the CSP.

  15. Adhesion and stable low friction provided by a subnanometer-thick monolayer of a natural polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdon, Delphine; Lin, Qi; Oroudjev, Emin; Hansma, Helen; Golan, Yuval; Arad, Shoshana; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2008-02-19

    Using a surface forces apparatus, we have investigated the adhesive and lubrication forces of mica surfaces separated by a molecularly thin, subnanometer film of a high-molecular-weight (2.3 MDa) anionic polysaccharide from the algae Porphyridium sp. adsorbed from aqueous solution. The adhesion and friction forces of the confined biopolymer were monitored as a function of time, shearing distance, and driving velocity under a large range of compressive loads (pressures). Although the thickness of the dilute polysaccharide was friction was low (coefficient of friction = 0.015), and no wear was ever observed even at a pressure of 110 atm over 3 decades of velocity, so long as the shearing distances were less than twice the contact diameter. Atomic force microscopy in solution shows that the biopolymer is able to adsorb to the mica surface but remains mobile and easily dragged upon shearing. The adhesion (adsorption) of this polysaccharide even to negatively charged surfaces, its stable low friction, its robustness (high-load carrying capacity and good wear protection), and the weak (logarithmic) dependence of the friction force on the sliding velocity make this class of polyelectrolytes excellent candidates for use in water-based lubricant fluids and as potential additives to synovial fluid in joints and other biolubricating fluids. The physical reasons for the remarkable tribological properties of the ultrathin polysaccharide monolayer are discussed and appear to be quite different from those of other polyelectrolytes and proteins that act as thick "polymer brush" layers.

  16. Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition: Conformal Coating, Subnanometer Thickness Control, and Smart Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-09-22

    Transistors have already been made three-dimensional (3D), with device channels (i.e., fins in trigate field-effect transistor (FinFET) technology) that are taller, thinner, and closer together in order to enhance device performance and lower active power consumption. As device scaling continues, these transistors will require more advanced, fabrication-enabling technologies for the conformal deposition of high-κ dielectric layers on their 3D channels with accurate position alignment and thickness control down to the subnanometer scale. Among many competing techniques, area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) is a promising method that is well suited to the requirements without the use of complicated, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-incompatible processes. However, further progress is limited by poor area selectivity for thicker films formed via a higher number of ALD cycles as well as the prolonged processing time. In this issue of ACS Nano, Professor Stacy Bent and her research group demonstrate a straightforward self-correcting ALD approach, combining selective deposition with a postprocess mild chemical etching, which enables selective deposition of dielectric films with thicknesses and processing times at least 10 times larger and 48 times shorter, respectively, than those obtained by conventional AS-ALD processes. These advances present an important technological breakthrough that may drive the AS-ALD technique a step closer toward industrial applications in electronics, catalysis, and photonics, etc. where more efficient device fabrication processes are needed.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted single extraction tests for rapid assessment of metal extractability from soils by total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Calle, I; Cabaleiro, N; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C

    2013-09-15

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was employed for acceleration of metal extraction from soil samples. After extraction, multielemental analysis (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) of EDTA and acetic acid extracts was performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). High-intensity ultrasonic processors, i.e. the ultrasonic probe (50W) and the cup-horn sonoreactor (200W) were applied. Both ultrasonic procedures were compared with a miniaturized version of the single extraction scheme proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing program (SM&T). The extraction time with EDTA was reduced from 1h (conventional procedure) to 2 min (ultrasonic probe) or to 10 min (cup-horn sonoreactor). The time required for acetic acid extraction was also reduced from 16 h (conventional procedure) to 6 min (ultrasonic probe) or to 30 min (cup-horn sonoreactor). In addition, the amount of sample and extractants was drastically reduced as a result of the miniaturization implemented in the developed approaches. The combination of UAE and TXRF allows assessing the potential metal mobility and bioavailability in a simple way. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Single sample extraction and HPLC processing for quantification of NAD and NADH levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporty, J; Kabir, M M; Turteltaub, K; Ognibene, T; Lin, S; Bench, G

    2008-01-10

    A robust redox extraction protocol for quantitative and reproducible metabolite isolation and recovery has been developed for simultaneous measurement of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its reduced form, NADH, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following culture in liquid media, approximately 10{sup 8} yeast cells were harvested by centrifugation and then lysed under non-oxidizing conditions by bead blasting in ice-cold, nitrogen-saturated 50-mM ammonium acetate. To enable protein denaturation, ice cold nitrogen-saturated CH{sub 3}CN + 50-mM ammonium acetate (3:1; v:v) was added to the cell lysates. After sample centrifugation to pellet precipitated proteins, organic solvent removal was performed on supernatants by chloroform extraction. The remaining aqueous phase was dried and resuspended in 50-mM ammonium acetate. NAD and NADH were separated by HPLC and quantified using UV-VIS absorbance detection. Applicability of this procedure for quantifying NAD and NADH levels was evaluated by culturing yeast under normal (2% glucose) and calorie restricted (0.5% glucose) conditions. NAD and NADH contents are similar to previously reported levels in yeast obtained using enzymatic assays performed separately on acid (for NAD) and alkali (for NADH) extracts. Results demonstrate that it is possible to perform a single preparation to reliably and robustly quantitate both NAD and NADH contents in the same sample. Robustness of the protocol suggests it will be (1) applicable to quantification of these metabolites in mammalian and bacterial cell cultures; and (2) amenable to isotope labeling strategies to determine the relative contribution of specific metabolic pathways to total NAD and NADH levels in cell cultures.

  19. Nonparametric Single-Trial EEG Feature Extraction and Classification of Driver's Cognitive Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Lin, Ken-Li; Ko, Li-Wei; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Chung, I.-Fang

    2008-12-01

    We proposed an electroencephalographic (EEG) signal analysis approach to investigate the driver's cognitive response to traffic-light experiments in a virtual-reality-(VR-) based simulated driving environment. EEG signals are digitally sampled and then transformed by three different feature extraction methods including nonparametric weighted feature extraction (NWFE), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), which were also used to reduce the feature dimension and project the measured EEG signals to a feature space spanned by their eigenvectors. After that, the mapped data could be classified with fewer features and their classification results were compared by utilizing two different classifiers including [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] nearest neighbor classification (KNNC) and naive bayes classifier (NBC). Experimental data were collected from 6 subjects and the results show that NWFE+NBC gives the best classification accuracy ranging from [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], which is over [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] higher than LDA+KNN1. It also demonstrates the feasibility of detecting and analyzing single-trial EEG signals that represent operators' cognitive states and responses to task events.

  20. Nonparametric Single-Trial EEG Feature Extraction and Classification of Driver's Cognitive Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Fang Chung

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We proposed an electroencephalographic (EEG signal analysis approach to investigate the driver's cognitive response to traffic-light experiments in a virtual-reality-(VR- based simulated driving environment. EEG signals are digitally sampled and then transformed by three different feature extraction methods including nonparametric weighted feature extraction (NWFE, principal component analysis (PCA, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA, which were also used to reduce the feature dimension and project the measured EEG signals to a feature space spanned by their eigenvectors. After that, the mapped data could be classified with fewer features and their classification results were compared by utilizing two different classifiers including k nearest neighbor classification (KNNC and naive bayes classifier (NBC. Experimental data were collected from 6 subjects and the results show that NWFE+NBC gives the best classification accuracy ranging from 71%∼77%, which is over 10%∼24% higher than LDA+KNN1. It also demonstrates the feasibility of detecting and analyzing single-trial EEG signals that represent operators' cognitive states and responses to task events.

  1. Spherical Projection Based Straight Line Segment Extraction for Single Station Terrestrial Laser Point Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Fan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the discrete distribution computing errors and lack of adaptability are ubiquitous in the current straight line extraction for TLS data methods. A 3D straight line segment extraction method is proposed based on spherical projection for single station terrestrial laser point clouds. Firstly, horizontal and vertical angles of each laser point are calculated by means of spherical coordinates, intensity panoramic image according to the two angles is generated. Secondly, edges which include straight line features are detected from intensity panoramic image by using of edge detection algorithm. Thirdly, great circles are detected from edges of panoramic image using spherical Hough transform. According to the axiom that a straight line segment in 3D space is a spherical great circle after spherical projection, detecting great circles from spherical projected data sets is essentially detecting straight line segments from 3D data sets without spherical projection. Finally, a robust 3D straight line fitting method is employed to fitting the straight lines and calculating parameters of the straight line segments. Experiments using different data sets and comparison with other methods show the accuracy and applicability of the proposed method.

  2. Single fibre strength of cellulosic fibre extracted from "Belatlan roots" plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Hanis. A., H.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Fahmi, I.

    2017-12-01

    The tensile strength of a fibre extracted from "Belatlan Root" plant was investigated as potential reinforcement material in polymeric composites. Following retting process, the fibres were manually extracted from "Belatlan" root's plant. The fibres were treated with 5 % 10 %, 15 %, and 20 % sodium hydroxide (NaOH) wt. % concentration for 24 h. The single fibre tests were then performed in accordance with ASTM D3822-07 standard. The surfaces of the fibres prior and after the treatment were observed with a metallurgical Microscope MT8100 and the physical properties were recorded. Physically, in the post treatment, the fibre showed a decrease in diameter with increase in NaOH concentration The results from the mechanical testing indicates that samples subjected to 5 % NaOH treatment yielded the highest tensile strength and elastic modulus at 89.05 MPa ± 2.75 and 3.81 GPa ± 0.09 respectively compared to untreated fibres. This represents an increase of almost 72 % in tensile strength and 42 % for elastic modulus. The findings support the preliminary information for incorporating the "Belatlan Root" as possible reinforcing materials in composite structures.

  3. Simultaneously extracting multiple parameters via fitting one single autocorrelation function curve in diffuse correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lixin; He, Lian; Lin, Yu; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2013-02-01

    Near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) has recently been employed for noninvasive acquisition of blood flow information in deep tissues. Based on the established correlation diffusion equation, the light intensity autocorrelation function detected by DCS is determined by a blood flow index αD(B), tissue absorption coefficient μ(a), reduced scattering coefficient μ'(s), and a coherence factor β. This study is designed to investigate the possibility of extracting multiple parameters such as μ(a), μ'(s), β, and αD(B) through fitting one single autocorrelation function curve and evaluate the performance of different fitting methods. For this purpose, computer simulations, tissue-like phantom experiments, and in vivo tissue measurements were utilized. The results suggest that it is impractical to simultaneously fit αD(B) and μ(a) or αD(B) and μ'(s) from one single autocorrelation function curve due to the large crosstalk between these paired parameters. However, simultaneously fitting β and αD(B) is feasible and generates more accurate estimation with smaller standard deviation compared to the conventional two-step fitting method (i.e., first calculating β and then fitting αD(B)). The outcomes from this study provide a crucial guidance for DCS data analysis.

  4. Complete sequence-based pathway analysis by differential on-chip DNA and RNA extraction from a single cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strijp, D; Vulders, R C M; Larsen, N A; Schira, J; Baerlocher, L; van Driel, M A; Pødenphant, M; Hansen, T S; Kristensen, A; Mir, K U; Olesen, T; Verhaegh, W F J; Marie, R; van der Zaag, P J

    2017-09-08

    We demonstrate on-chip, differential DNA and RNA extraction from a single cell using a microfluidic chip and a two-stage lysis protocol. This method enables direct use of the whole extract, without additional washing steps, reducing sample loss. Using this method, the tumor driving pathway in individual cells from a colorectal cancer cell line was determined by applying a Bayesian computational pathway model to sequences obtained from the RNA fraction of a single cell and, the mutations driving the pathway were determined by analyzing sequences obtained from the DNA fraction of the same single cell. This combined functional and mutational pathway assessment of a single cell could be of significant value for dissecting cellular heterogeneity in tumors and analyzing single circulating tumor cells.

  5. Laser lead extraction allows for safe and effective removal of single- and dual-coil implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads: A single-centre experience over 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecha, Simon; Yildirim, Yalin; Gosau, Nils; Aydin, Muhammet Ali; Willems, Stephan; Treede, Hendrik; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Hakmi, Samer

    2017-01-01

    Lead extraction in patients with multiple or old leads of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is challenging. As adhesions are common at the side of the shock coils, we investigated success and procedural complication rates of laser lead extraction procedures in single- and dual-coil leads. Between January 2001 and June 2013, 41 single- and 145 dual-coil ICD leads were extracted from 171 patients using laser sheaths. Procedural data, success rates and complications were collected into a database and retrospectively analysed. The mean patient age was 58.2 ± 16.1 years. The mean time from initial lead implantation to extraction was 50.3 ± 18.4 and 45.8 ± 14.5 months in the single- and dual-coil group, respectively (P = 0.1). In the single-coil group, complete procedural success was achieved in 36 of 37 (97.3%) cases, and clinical success in all cases (100.0%). In the dual-coil group, complete procedural success was seen in 131 out of 134 (97.8%) patients, and clinical success in 132 of 134 cases (98.5%). The transvenous extraction failed in 2 cases (1.5%). The overall complication rate was 2.7% in the single-coil group and 3.7% in the dual-coil group, respectively (P = 1.0). No deaths occurred during the 30-day follow-up. The mean laser treatment time was 1.8 ± 1.5 min for the single-coil group and 2.5 ± 1.2 min for dual-coil group (P = 0.002). Laser lead extraction allows for safe and effective removal of ICD leads. Compared with single-coil leads, the extraction of dual-coil leads is associated with longer laser treatment times but without statistically significant differences in complications and procedural success rates. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  6. Is it homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysis derived from [RhCp*Cl2]2? In operando XAFS, kinetic, and crucial kinetic poisoning evidence for subnanometer Rh4 cluster-based benzene hydrogenation catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Ercan; Linehan, John C; Fulton, John L; Roberts, John A S; Szymczak, Nathaniel K; Smurthwaite, Tricia D; Özkar, Saim; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Finke, Richard G

    2011-11-23

    Determining the true, kinetically dominant catalytically active species, in the classic benzene hydrogenation system pioneered by Maitlis and co-workers 34 years ago starting with [RhCp*Cl(2)](2) (Cp* = [η(5)-C(5)(CH(3))(5)]), has proven to be one of the most challenging case studies in the quest to distinguish single-metal-based "homogeneous" from polymetallic, "heterogeneous" catalysis. The reason, this study will show, is the previous failure to use the proper combination of: (i) in operando spectroscopy to determine the dominant form(s) of the precatalyst's mass under catalysis (i.e., operating) conditions, and then crucially also (ii) the previous lack of the necessary kinetic studies, catalysis being a "wholly kinetic phenomenon" as J. Halpern long ago noted. An important contribution from this study will be to reveal the power of quantitiative kinetic poisoning experiments for distinguishing single-metal, or in the present case subnanometer Rh(4) cluster-based catalysis, from larger, polymetallic Rh(0)(n) nanoparticle catalysis, at least under favorable conditions. The combined in operando X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and kinetic evidence provide a compelling case for Rh(4)-based, with average stoichiometry "Rh(4)Cp*(2.4)Cl(4)H(c)", benzene hydrogenation catalysis in 2-propanol with added Et(3)N and at 100 °C and 50 atm initial H(2) pressure. The results also reveal, however, that if even ca. 1.4% of the total soluble Rh(0)(n) had formed nanoparticles, then those Rh(0)(n) nanoparticles would have been able to account for all the observed benzene hydrogenation catalytic rate (using commercial, ca. 2 nm, polyethyleneglycol-dodecylether hydrosol stabilized Rh(0)(n) nanoparticles as a model system). The results--especially the poisoning methodology developed and employed--are of significant, broader interest since determining the nature of the true catalyst continues to be a central, often vexing issue in any and all catalytic reactions

  7. Sub-nanometer dimensions control of core/shell nanoparticles prepared by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M J; Verheijen, M A; Bol, A A; Kessels, W M M

    2015-03-06

    Bimetallic core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) are the subject of intense research due to their unique electronic, optical and catalytic properties. Accurate and independent control over the dimensions of both core and shell would allow for unprecedented catalytic performance. Here, we demonstrate that both core and shell dimensions of Pd/Pt core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Al2O3 substrates can be controlled at the sub-nanometer level by using a novel strategy based on atomic layer deposition (ALD). From the results it is derived that the main conditions for accurate dimension control of these core/shell NPs are: (i) a difference in surface energy between the deposited core metal and the substrate to obtain island growth; (ii) a process yielding linear growth of the NP cores with ALD cycles to obtain monodispersed NPs with a narrow size distribution; (iii) a selective ALD process for the shell metal yielding a linearly increasing thickness to obtain controllable shell growth exclusively on the cores. For Pd/Pt core/shell NPs it is found that a minimum core diameter of 1 nm exists above which the NP cores are able to catalytically dissociate the precursor molecules for shell growth. In addition, initial studies on the stability of these core/shell NPs have been carried out, and it has been demonstrated that core/shell NPs can be deposited by ALD on high aspect ratio substrates such as nanowire arrays. These achievements show therefore that ALD has significant potential for the preparation of tuneable heterogeneous catalyst systems.

  8. Study of time-frequency characteristics of single snores: extracting new information for sleep apnea diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Escario, Y.; Blanco Almazan, D.; Camara Vazquez, M.A.; Jane Campos, R.

    2016-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent chronic disease, especially in elderly and obese population. Despite constituting a huge health and economic problem, most patients remain undiagnosed due to limitations in current strategies. Therefore, it is essential to find cost-effective diagnostic alternatives. One of these novel approaches is the analysis of acoustic snoring signals. Snoring is an early symptom of OSA which carries pathophysiological information of high diagnostic value. For this reason, the main objective of this work is to study the characteristics of single snores of different types, from healthy and OSA subjects. To do that, we analyzed snoring signals from previous databases and developed an experimental protocol to record simulated OSA-related sounds and characterize the response of two commercial tracheal microphones. Automatic programs for filtering, downsampling, event detection and time-frequency analysis were built in MATLAB. We found that time-frequency maps and spectral parameters (central, mean and peak frequency and energy in the 100-500 Hz band) allow distinguishing regular snores of healthy subjects from non-regular snores and snores of OSA subjects. Regarding the two commercial microphones, we found that one of them was a suitable snoring sensor, while the other had a too restricted frequency response. Future work shall include a higher number of episodes and subjects, but our study has contributed to show how important the differences between regular and non-regular snores can be for OSA diagnosis, and how much clinically relevant information can be extracted from time-frequency maps and spectral parameters of single snores. (Author)

  9. CO Oxidation by Subnanometer AgxAu3–x Supported Clusters via Density Functional Theory Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negreiros, Fabio R.; Sementa, Luca; Barcaro, Giovanni; Vajda, S.; Apra, Edoardo; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2012-09-07

    The activity of AgxAu3–x/MgO(100) clusters in CO oxidation is investigated computationally via systematic sampling techniques. It is found that these subnanometer species transform after ligand adsorption into reaction complexes which catalyze CO oxidation through a variety of different mechanisms, occurring via both Langmuir–Hinshelwood and Eley–Rideal paths and in some cases directly involving the oxide support. The alloyed Ag2Au1 cluster is proposed as the best catalyst in terms of efficiency and robustness.

  10. Rapid, single-phase extraction of glucosylsphingosine from plasma: A universal screening and monitoring tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Maria; Szer, Jeff; Stark, Samantha; Fletcher, Janice M

    2015-10-23

    Glucosylsphingosine (GluSph) has emerged as a biomarker for the inherited metabolic disorder, Gaucher disease (GD). We developed a simple laboratory test to measure plasma GluSph and show that elevated GluSph is diagnostic for GD as well as informing on disease burden for monitoring patients on treatment. GluSph was measured from a single-phase total lipid extraction of 0.01 mL of plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry and concentrations extrapolated from a seven point standard curve (0.04 to 20 pmoL). A total of 1464 samples were tested and longitudinal assessment of an additional 20 GD patients. All patients with GD had elevated GluSph compared to unaffected controls and 16 other metabolic disorders. GluSph was also slightly elevated in three patients with Krabbe disease but not at concentrations to confuse a GD diagnosis. GluSph correlated with chitotriosidase in the majority of GD patients on treatment who were informative for this marker. GluSph can be easily measured from 0.01 mL of plasma and is useful as a diagnostic marker for GD with the current platform suited to high-throughput screening. It outperforms other GD biomarkers for biochemical monitoring of patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy for all individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of extracts and toxicities of organic compounds in drinking water concentrated by single and composite XAD resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Xiang, Lunhui; Wu, Fenghong; Peng, Xiaoling; Xie, Hong; Wang, Jiachun; Yang, Kedi; Lu, Wenqing; Wu, Zhigang

    2013-12-01

    We compared extracts and toxicities of organic compounds (OCs) in drinking water concentrated by composite XAD-2/8 resin (mixed with an equal volume of XAD-2 and XAD-8 resins) with those extracted by single XAD-2 (non-polar) and XAD-8 (polar) resins. Drinking water was processed from raw water of the Han River and the Yangtze River in Wuhan section, China. The extraction efficiency of all resins was controlled at 30%. The types of extracted OCs were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and comet assays, respectively, in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Our results showed that XAD-2/8 extracted a larger variety of OCs, compared with XAD-8 and XAD-2. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of extracted OCs were in the order of XAD-8> XAD-2/8> XAD-2 at almost all tested concentrations after 24 h treatment (P polar or non-polar OCs, which would lead to over- or under-estimation of the toxicity of drinking water. Nevertheless, composite resin extracts both polar and non-polar OCs, and could be utilized as a useful extraction technique to evaluate the level and toxicity of OCs in drinking water.

  12. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  13. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ventrella

    Full Text Available Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  14. Semiautomatic sequential extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elemental bio-accessible fraction by accelerated solvent extraction on a single particulate matter sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Di Filippo, Patrizia; Gentili, Alessandra; Canepari, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    We describe the optimization and validation of a sequential extractive method for the determination of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn) that are chemically fractionated into bio-accessible and mineralized residual fractions on a single particulate matter filter. The extraction is performed by automatic accelerated solvent extraction (ASE); samples are sequentially treated with dichloromethane/acetone (4:1) for PAHs extraction and acetate buffer (0.01M; pH 4.5) for elements extraction (bio-accessible fraction). The remaining solid sample is then collected and subjected to acid digestion with HNO3:H2O2 (2:1) to determine the mineralized residual element fraction. We also describe a homemade ASE cell that reduces the blank values for most elements; in this cell, the steel frit was replaced by a Teflon pierced disk and a Teflon cylinder was used as the filler. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of recovery from standard reference material (SRM 1648 and SRM 1649a) and repeatability. The equivalence between the new ASE method and conventional methods was verified for PAHs and for bio-accessible and mineralized residual fractions of elements on PM10 twin filters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) after oral administration to healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Tanja; Skrabala, Roswitha; Chovanová, Zuzana; Muchová, Jana; Sumegová, Katarína; Liptáková, Anna; Ďuračková, Zdeňka; Högger, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Background Since plant extracts are increasingly used as phytotherapeutics or dietary supplements information on bioavailability, bioefficacy and safety are warranted. We elucidated the plasma kinetics of genuine extract components and metabolites after single and multiple ingestion of the standardized maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol (USP quality) by human volunteers. Methods Eleven volunteers received a single dose of 300 mg pine bark extract, five volunteers ingested 200 mg daily for five days to reach steady state concentrations. Plasma samples were obtained before and at defined time points after intake of the extract. Samples were analyzed by HPLC with ion-pair reagents and simultaneous UV and electrochemical detection. Results We quantified total plasma concentrations of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, taxifolin and the metabolite M1 (δ-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-γ-valerolactone). Additionally, we describe plasma time courses and steady state appearance of ten so far unknown compounds, U1 to U10. After single ingestion, compounds derived from the extract were rapidly absorbed and the majority of them were detectable over whole experimental period of 14 h. The analysis of steady state plasma samples revealed significant phase II metabolism. Conclusion We present the first systematic pharmacokinetic analysis of compounds derived from maritime pine bark extract. Beyond the known constituents and metabolites we uncovered the plasma time courses of ten unknown compounds. In concert with our previous detection of anti-inflammatory bioefficacy of these plasma samples ex vivo we suggest that constituents and metabolites of Pycnogenol bear potential for disclosure of novel active principles. PMID:16887024

  16. Designed optimization of a single-step extraction of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from Sargassum sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides can be extracted from the brown seaweed, Sargassum sp. It has been reported that fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds exert different beneficial biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and anti-viral effects....... Classical extraction of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed species typically involves extended, multiple-step, hot acid, or CaCl2 treatments, each step lasting several hours. In this work, we systematically examined the influence of acid concentration (HCl), time, and temperature...... on the yield of fucosecontaining sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) in statistically designed two-step and single-step multifactorial extraction experiments. All extraction factors had significant effects on the fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides yield, with the temperature and time exerting positive...

  17. Extract fetal ECG from single-lead abdominal ECG by de-shape short time Fourier transform and nonlocal median

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Su

    2016-01-01

    The multiple fundamental frequency detection problem and the source separation problem from a single-channel signal containing multiple oscillatory components and a nonstationary noise are both challenging tasks. To extract the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) from a single-lead maternal abdominal ECG, we face both challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel method to extract the fetal ECG signal from the single channel maternal abdominal ECG signal, without any additional measurement. The algorithm is composed of three main ingredients. First, the maternal and fetal heart rates are estimated by the de-shape short time Fourier transform, which is a recently proposed nonlinear time-frequency analysis technique; second, the beat tracking technique is applied to accurately obtain the maternal and fetal R peaks; third, the maternal and fetal ECG waveforms are established by the nonlocal median. The algorithm is evaluated on a simulated fetal ECG signal database ({\\em fecgsyn} database), and tested on two real data...

  18. Exploiting Satellite Focal Plane Geometry for Automatic Extraction of Traffic Flow from Single Optical Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, T.

    2014-11-01

    The focal plane assembly of most pushbroom scanner satellites is built up in a way that different multispectral or multispectral and panchromatic bands are not all acquired exactly at the same time. This effect is due to offsets of some millimeters of the CCD-lines in the focal plane. Exploiting this special configuration allows the detection of objects moving during this small time span. In this paper we present a method for automatic detection and extraction of moving objects - mainly traffic - from single very high resolution optical satellite imagery of different sensors. The sensors investigated are WorldView-2, RapidEye, Pléiades and also the new SkyBox satellites. Different sensors require different approaches for detecting moving objects. Since the objects are mapped on different positions only in different spectral bands also the change of spectral properties have to be taken into account. In case the main distance in the focal plane is between the multispectral and the panchromatic CCD-line like for Pléiades an approach for weighted integration to receive mostly identical images is investigated. Other approaches for RapidEye and WorldView-2 are also shown. From these intermediate bands difference images are calculated and a method for detecting the moving objects from these difference images is proposed. Based on these presented methods images from different sensors are processed and the results are assessed for detection quality - how many moving objects can be detected, how many are missed - and accuracy - how accurate is the derived speed and size of the objects. Finally the results are discussed and an outlook for possible improvements towards operational processing is presented.

  19. Percutaneous extraction of ePTFE-coated ICD leads: a single center comparative experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Andrew R; Grammes, Jon; Schulze, Christopher M; Al-Bataineh, Mohammad; Yesenosky, George A; Horrow, Jay C; Kutalek, Steven P

    2013-04-01

    Percutaneous extraction of standard implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads is often complicated by ingrowth of fibrotic tissue into the shocking coils. Leads with GORE™ expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) coating (W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Newark, DE, USA) designed to inhibit fibrosis are in use, but clinical data regarding their extraction are lacking. The study's purpose was to examine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of percutaneous extraction involving defibrillator leads coated with ePTFE. We analyzed our database to identify all percutaneously extracted leads with ePTFE-coated shocking coils. Lead and procedure characteristics were compared to a cohort of noncoated leads of similar implant duration. One hundred fifty-six leads were extracted from 145 patients; 57 ePTFE-coated leads, with a mean implant duration of 621 days, were extracted and compared to 99 noncoated leads, with a mean implant duration of 763 days (P = 0.0641). Mean extraction time was 5 minutes for coated leads versus 9.75 minutes for noncoated leads (P = 0.0001). Extraction time of less than 1 minute was more frequent with coated leads (61% vs 35%, P = 0.0025). Adjunct extraction tools were required less frequently with coated leads than noncoated leads (39% vs 63%, P = 0.0071). There was no fibrosis where ePTFE covered the shocking coils. Alternatively, 23 of 99 (23%) noncoated leads demonstrated fibrosis adherent to the shock coil. There were no procedure-related complications in either group. Compared to noncoated leads, ePTFE-coated leads are associated with shorter extraction times and are less likely to require extraction tools for removal. The difference is likely related to the absence of fibrosis over the ePTFE-coated high-energy coils. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  1. Cytotoxicity of blended versus single medicinal mushroom extracts on human cancer cell lines: contribution of polyphenol and polysaccharide content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgo, Ksenija; Koncar, Mladen; Komes, Drazenka; Belscak-Cvitanovic, Ana; Franekic, Jasna; Jakopovich, Ivan; Jakopovich, Neven; Jakopovich, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The use of mushrooms contributes to human nutrition by providing low lipid content of lipids and high dietary fiber content, as well as significant content of other biologically active compounds such as polysaccharides, minerals, vitamins, and polyphenolic antioxidants. This study aimed to determine the content of polyphenols and polysaccharides, as well as the cytotoxic and antioxidative properties of several medicinal mushroom preparations. The content of total phenols and flavonoids of preparations of blended mushroom extracts (Lentifom, Super Polyporin, Agarikon, Agarikon Plus, Agarikon.1, and Mykoprotect.1) was evaluated quantitatively by using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant capacity of the preparations was evaluated using the ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays. The content of water-soluble polysaccharides was determined using a specific gravimetric method, based on ethanol precipitation. To determine cytotoxic effects of single and blended mushroom extracts, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red assays were conducted using human small cell lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, colon cancer, and brain astrocytoma cancer cells. The obtained results suggest that due to the significant content of beneficial polyphenolic antioxidants and soluble polysaccharides, use of these mushroom preparations is beneficial in maintaining good health, as well as in the prevention and adjuvant biotherapy of various human pathological aberrations. These results reveal that these extracts exhibit different cytotoxic effects on tumor cells originating from different tissues. In addition, the comparison of investigated blended mushroom extracts with three well-known commercial mushroom products derived from single mushroom species or single mushroom compounds shows that blended mushroom extracts exhibit significantly stronger

  2. Mechanism and Prediction of Gas Permeation through Sub-Nanometer Graphene Pores: Comparison of Theory and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhe; Govind Rajan, Ananth; Misra, Rahul Prasanna; Drahushuk, Lee W; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Strano, Michael S; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2017-08-22

    Due to its atomic thickness, porous graphene with sub-nanometer pore sizes constitutes a promising candidate for gas separation membranes that exhibit ultrahigh permeances. While graphene pores can greatly facilitate gas mixture separation, there is currently no validated analytical framework with which one can predict gas permeation through a given graphene pore. In this work, we simulate the permeation of adsorptive gases, such as CO2 and CH4, through sub-nanometer graphene pores using molecular dynamics simulations. We show that gas permeation can typically be decoupled into two steps: (1) adsorption of gas molecules to the pore mouth and (2) translocation of gas molecules from the pore mouth on one side of the graphene membrane to the pore mouth on the other side. We find that the translocation rate coefficient can be expressed using an Arrhenius-type equation, where the energy barrier and the pre-exponential factor can be theoretically predicted using the transition state theory for classical barrier crossing events. We propose a relation between the pre-exponential factor and the entropy penalty of a gas molecule crossing the pore. Furthermore, on the basis of the theory, we propose an efficient algorithm to calculate CO2 and CH4 permeances per pore for sub-nanometer graphene pores of any shape. For the CO2/CH4 mixture, the graphene nanopores exhibit a trade-off between the CO2 permeance and the CO2/CH4 separation factor. This upper bound on a Robeson plot of selectivity versus permeance for a given pore density is predicted and described by the theory. Pores with CO2/CH4 separation factors higher than 10(2) have CO2 permeances per pore lower than 10(-22) mol s(-1) Pa(-1), and pores with separation factors of ∼10 have CO2 permeances per pore between 10(-22) and 10(-21) mol s(-1) Pa(-1). Finally, we show that a pore density of 10(14) m(-2) is required for a porous graphene membrane to exceed the permeance-selectivity upper bound of polymeric materials

  3. Self-assembling organic nanotubes with precisely defined, sub-nanometer pores: formation and mass transport characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bing; Shao, Zhifeng

    2013-12-17

    The transport of molecules and ions across nanometer-scaled pores, created by natural or artificial molecules, is a phenomenon of both fundamental and practical significance. Biological channels are the most remarkable examples of mass transport across membranes and demonstrate nearly exclusive selectivity and high efficiency with a diverse collection of molecules. These channels are critical for many basic biological functions, such as membrane potential, signal transduction, and osmotic homeostasis. If such highly specific and efficient mass transport or separation could be achieved with artificial nanostructures under controlled conditions, they could create revolutionary technologies in a variety of areas. For this reason, investigators from diverse disciplines have vigorously studied small nondeformable nanopores. The most exciting studies have focused on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which have exhibited fast mass transport and high ion selectivity despite their very simple structure. However, the limitations of CNTs and the dearth of other small (≤2 nm) nanopores have severely hampered the systematic investigation of nanopore-mediated mass transport, which will be essential for designing artificial nanopores with desired functions en masse. Researchers can overcome the difficulties associated with CNT and other artificial pores by stacking macrocyclic building blocks with persistent shapes to construct tunable, self-assembling organic pores. This effort started when we discovered a highly efficient, one-pot macrocyclization process to efficiently prepare several classes of macrocycles with rigid backbones containing nondeformable cavities. Such macrocycles, if stacked atop one another, should lead to nanotubular assemblies with defined inner pores determined by their constituent macrocycles. One class of macrocycles with aromatic oligoamide backbones had a very high propensity for directional assembly, forming nanotubular structures containing nanometer and sub-nanometer

  4. Extraction of the Schottky parameters in metal-semiconductor-metal diodes from a single current-voltage measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Nouchi, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a method to extract the parameters of the two inherent Schottky contacts from a single current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve, the I-V characteristics of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) diodes with asymmetric Schottky barrier heights are theoretically investigated using the thermionic emission model. The MSM diode structure is commonly used because an additional MS interface is required for the electrical characterization of MS diodes. A finite charge-injection barrier...

  5. Solvent-free microwave extraction coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction of essential oils from flower of Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunzhu; Sun, Ying; Zhu, Xiaonan; Gao, Yan; Wang, Liying; Wang, Jian; Wu, Liwei; Song, Daqian

    2010-09-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction was developed for extracting the essential oils from Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. Carbonyl iron powders were mixed with the sample to extract essential oils from the dried plant materials and single-drop solvent was used to simultaneously extract essential oils from the headspace. The single-drop of decane was suspended from the tip of a microsyringe and exposed to the headspace above the sample. After the extraction was finished, the single-drop was injected into gas chromatographic system and analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of the experimental parameters, including microwave power, microwave irradiation time, the ratio of carbonyl iron powder to sample, extraction solvent, single-drop volume and extraction time, were investigated. Sixteen compounds in the essential oils of E. caryophyllata T. were obtained and identified. The constituents of essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation and solvent-free microwave extraction-headspace single-drop microextraction were not obviously different. Compared with hydro-distillation, the proposed method required shorter extraction time and less amount of the sample.

  6. Transvenous extraction of pacing and defibrillator leads--a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geselle, Pieter-Jan; Poesen, Ruben; Rega, Filip; Koopman, Pieter; Nuyens, Dieter; Heidbuchel, Hein; Willems, Rik

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, the number of transvenous extractions of chronically implanted endocardial leads rapidly increases. Despite great technical progress, lead extraction remains a challenging procedure with possible life-threatening complications. We present the success and complication rate of lead extractions in the University Hospitals Leuven, and investigated a possible relationship between the use of powered sheaths and lead type, fixation, location and implantation time. We present an observational retrospective cohort study of 157 patients admitted to the University Hospitals Leuven between January 2005 and December 2010, for the transvenous removal of a total of 259 endocardial leads. Complete procedural success was achieved in 92% of patients (n = 144). Of all leads, 94% (n = 243) were completely extracted. Only in 5 patients (3%), lead extraction failed. Leads that could not be removed were significantly older (134.1 +/- 90.7 months vs. 73.1 +/- 61.9 months; P = 0.02). In the other 8 patients the leads were partially removed with a remaining major retained lead fragment in 2 and a minor fragment in 6 patients. Major procedural complication rate was 2.5% (n = 4). There were no procedure-related deaths. Powered sheaths were used significantly more for the extraction of defibrillator leads (51%) (vs. pacing leads (33%; P = 0.015)) and right ventricular located leads (43%) (vs. other location (28%; P = 0.011)). However, when comparing the need of powered sheaths for the extraction of right ventricular defibrillator leads vs. right ventricular pacing leads, only a trend to higher use was noticed (51 vs. 39%; P = 0.146). Powered sheath use was not related to fixation type. Leads that required the use of a powered sheath were implanted significantly longer (112 +/- 69.5 months vs. 41.7 +/- 33.7 months; P = 0.001). Chronically implanted endocardial leads can be transvenously extracted in a high number of cases and with a low risk of procedural complications. Powered

  7. Effect of electric field gradient on sub-nanometer spatial resolution of tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingyan; Yang, Zhilin; Chen, Jianing; Sun, Mengtao

    2015-03-18

    Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) with sub-nanometer spatial resolution has been recently demonstrated experimentally. However, the physical mechanism underlying is still under discussion. Here we theoretically investigate the electric field gradient of a coupled tip-substrate system. Our calculations suggest that the ultra-high spatial resolution of TERS can be partially attributed to the electric field gradient effect owning to its tighter spatial confinement and sensitivity to the infrared (IR)-active of molecules. Particularly, in the case of TERS of flat-lying H₂TBPP molecules,we find the electric field gradient enhancement is the dominating factor for the high spatial resolution, which qualitatively coincides with previous experimental report. Our theoretical study offers a new paradigm for understanding the mechanisms of the ultra-high spatial resolution demonstrated in tip-enhanced spectroscopy which is of importance but neglected.

  8. Differential optical shadow sensor for sub-nanometer displacement measurement and its application to drag-free satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Andreas; Tan, Si; Saraf, Shailendhar; Alfauwaz, Abdul; DeBra, Dan; Buchman, Sasha; Lipa, John A

    2017-10-16

    We present a method for 3D sub-nanometer displacement measurement using a set of differential optical shadow sensors. It is based on using pairs of collimated beams on opposite sides of an object that are partially blocked by it. Applied to a sphere, our 3-axis sensor module consists of 8 parallel beam-detector sets for redundancy. The sphere blocks half of each beam's power in the nominal centered position, and any displacement can be measured by the differential optical power changes amongst the pairs of detectors. We have experimentally demonstrated a displacement sensitivity of 0.87nm/Hz at 1 Hz and 0.39nm/Hz at 10 Hz. We describe the application of the module to the inertial sensor of a drag-free satellite, which can potentially be used for navigation, geodesy and fundamental science experiments as well as ground based applications.

  9. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Wright, Colin W; Willcox, Merlin L; Gilbert, Ben

    2011-03-15

    In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain this. Narrative review. There is evidence for several different types of positive interactions between different components of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria. Pharmacodynamic synergy has been demonstrated between the Cinchona alkaloids and between various plant extracts traditionally combined. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur, for example between constituents of Artemisia annua tea so that its artemisinin is more rapidly absorbed than the pure drug. Some plant extracts may have an immunomodulatory effect as well as a direct antiplasmodial effect. Several extracts contain multidrug resistance inhibitors, although none of these has been tested clinically in malaria. Some plant constituents are added mainly to attenuate the side-effects of others, for example ginger to prevent nausea. More clinical research is needed on all types of interaction between plant constituents. This could include clinical trials of combinations of pure compounds (such as artemisinin + curcumin + piperine) and of combinations of herbal remedies (such as Artemisia annua leaves + Curcuma longa root + Piper nigum seeds). The former may enhance the activity of existing pharmaceutical preparations, and the latter may improve the effectiveness of existing herbal remedies for use in remote areas where modern drugs are unavailable.

  10. Single-molecule analysis of DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Loveland, Anna B.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.; Mechali, Marcel

    The recent advent in single-molecule imaging and manipulation methods has made a significant impact on the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying many essential cellular processes. Single-molecule techniques such as electron microscopy and DNA fiber assays have been employed to study the

  11. Selective extraction of alkaline phosphatase and 5'-nucleotidase from milk fat globule membranes by a single phase n-butanol procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y S; Snow, L D

    1993-08-01

    A single phase extraction procedure employing 8% (v/v) n-butanol at room temperature extracted over 90% of alkaline phosphatase activity and over 60% of 5'-nucleotidase activity from bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM). For 5'-nucleotidase, higher n-butanol concentrations lead to loss of activity, while lower concentrations were ineffective in extracting the enzyme. When extractions were performed at 0 degrees C, similar yields were obtained for alkaline phosphatase extraction with 8% (v/v) n-butanol, but 5'-nucleotidase extraction required 10% (v/v) n-butanol for similar yields. However, 5'-nucleotidase was less susceptible to denaturation during extraction at 0 degrees C. The Km values and substrate specificities for both alkaline phosphatase and 5'-nucleotidase were unchanged by extraction with 8% (v/v) n-butanol. The 8% (v/v) n-butanol extraction procedure provides a 3-fold purification step, and an enzyme preparation suitable for further purification.

  12. On-Demand Single Photons with High Extraction Efficiency and Near-Unity Indistinguishability from a Resonantly Driven Quantum Dot in a Micropillar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Xing; He, Yu; Duan, Z.-C.

    2016-01-01

    of a Purcellenhanced quantum dot-micropillar system, we deterministically generate resonance fluorescence single photons which, at π pulse excitation, have an extraction efficiency of 66%, single-photon purity of 99.1%, and photon indistinguishability of 98.5%. Such a single-photon source for the first time combines...

  13. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain this. Methods Narrative review. Results There is evidence for several different types of positive interactions between different components of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria. Pharmacodynamic synergy has been demonstrated between the Cinchona alkaloids and between various plant extracts traditionally combined. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur, for example between constituents of Artemisia annua tea so that its artemisinin is more rapidly absorbed than the pure drug. Some plant extracts may have an immunomodulatory effect as well as a direct antiplasmodial effect. Several extracts contain multidrug resistance inhibitors, although none of these has been tested clinically in malaria. Some plant constituents are added mainly to attenuate the side-effects of others, for example ginger to prevent nausea. Conclusions More clinical research is needed on all types of interaction between plant constituents. This could include clinical trials of combinations of pure compounds (such as artemisinin + curcumin + piperine) and of combinations of herbal remedies (such as Artemisia annua leaves + Curcuma longa root + Piper nigum seeds). The former may enhance the activity of existing pharmaceutical preparations, and the latter may improve the effectiveness of existing herbal remedies for use in remote areas where modern drugs are unavailable. PMID:21411015

  14. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Colin W

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain this. Methods Narrative review. Results There is evidence for several different types of positive interactions between different components of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria. Pharmacodynamic synergy has been demonstrated between the Cinchona alkaloids and between various plant extracts traditionally combined. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur, for example between constituents of Artemisia annua tea so that its artemisinin is more rapidly absorbed than the pure drug. Some plant extracts may have an immunomodulatory effect as well as a direct antiplasmodial effect. Several extracts contain multidrug resistance inhibitors, although none of these has been tested clinically in malaria. Some plant constituents are added mainly to attenuate the side-effects of others, for example ginger to prevent nausea. Conclusions More clinical research is needed on all types of interaction between plant constituents. This could include clinical trials of combinations of pure compounds (such as artemisinin + curcumin + piperine and of combinations of herbal remedies (such as Artemisia annua leaves + Curcuma longa root + Piper nigum seeds. The former may enhance the activity of existing pharmaceutical preparations, and the latter may improve the effectiveness of existing herbal remedies for use in remote areas where modern drugs are unavailable.

  15. pH(stat) vs. single extraction tests to evaluate heavy metals and arsenic leachability in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, A; Mateu, J; González-Núñez, R; Rauret, G; Vidal, M

    2009-01-19

    Here we compared the pH(stat) test, which examines the leachability of major elements (Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Mn), dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, and As) in a wide pH range, with single extraction tests based on the use of mild extractants (calcium chloride, acetic acid or EDTA). For this purpose, we examined samples from a variety of environmental conditions (sludges, mineral soils, organic soils, and soils with particulate and/or soluble contamination). Extraction yields obtained with CaCl(2) (0.01 mol L(-1)) and CH(3)COOH (0.43 mol L(-1)) correlated well with those from the pH(stat) at the same pH (r=0.98 and 0.95, respectively), while the use of EDTA (0.05 mol L(-1)) led to systematically higher extraction yields than those quantified with the pH(stat) at the same pH. However, the pH(stat) test had three distinct advantages: (1) it revealed the relationship between the solubility of the main soil phases and pH; (2) it showed the variation in pollutant leachability due to changes in pH; and (3) it better predicted the maximum contaminant availability. Thus we propose that the pH(stat) is the best laboratory tests to evaluate the contaminant leachability over a wide range of sample types (soil, sludge, and sediment).

  16. Generalization of the model-independent Laurent–Pietarinen single-channel pole-extraction formalism to multiple channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Švarc, Alfred, E-mail: alfred.svarc@irb.hr [Rudjer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Hadžimehmedović, Mirza; Osmanović, Hedim; Stahov, Jugoslav [University of Tuzla, Faculty of Science, Univerzitetska 4, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Tiator, Lothar [Institut für Kernphyik, Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Workman, Ron L. [Data Analysis Center at the Institute for Nuclear Studies, Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    A method to extract resonance pole information from single-channel partial-wave amplitudes based on a Laurent (Mittag-Leffler) expansion and conformal mapping techniques has recently been developed. This method has been applied to a number of reactions and provides a model-independent extraction procedure which is particularly useful in cases where a set of amplitudes is available only at discrete energies. This method has been generalized and applied to the case of a multi-channel fit, where several sets of amplitudes are analyzed simultaneously. The importance of unitarity constraints is discussed. The final result provides a powerful, model-independent tool for analyzing partial-wave amplitudes of coupled or connected channels based entirely on the concepts of analyticity and unitarity.

  17. Direct extraction of photosynthetic electrons from single algal cells by nanoprobing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, WonHyoung; Bai, Seoung-Jai; Park, Joong Sun; Huang, Zubin; Moseley, Jeffrey; Fabian, Tibor; Fasching, Rainer J; Grossman, Arthur R; Prinz, Fritz B

    2010-04-14

    There are numerous sources of bioenergy that are generated by photosynthetic processes, for example, lipids, alcohols, hydrogen, and polysaccharides. However, generally only a small fraction of solar energy absorbed by photosynthetic organisms is converted to a form of energy that can be readily exploited. To more efficiently use the solar energy harvested by photosynthetic organisms, we evaluated the feasibility of generating bioelectricity by directly extracting electrons from the photosynthetic electron transport chain before they are used to fix CO(2) into sugars and polysaccharides. From a living algal cell, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, photosynthetic electrons (1.2 pA at 6000 mA/m(2)) were directly extracted without a mediator electron carrier by inserting a nanoelectrode into the algal chloroplast and applying an overvoltage. This result may represent an initial step in generating "high efficiency" bioelectricity by directly harvesting high energy photosynthetic electrons.

  18. The effect of selected plant extracts on the development of single-species dental biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Haji; Shaikh, Sameer; Hasnor Wan Ismail, Wan Nordini; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Razak, Fathilah Abdul

    2014-11-01

    To determine the effect of a mixture of plant extracts on the adherence and retention of bacteria in dental biofilm. Experimental study. Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from December 2009 to December 2011. For determination of adhering ability, experimental pellicle was first treated with the Plant Extracts Mixture (PEM) before inoculating it with individual bacterial species (S. mitis / S. sanguinis / S. mutans). For the determination of retention ability, the procedure was repeated with the experimental pellicle being inoculated first with the individual bacterial species and then treating it with the PEM. These two experiments were repeated with deionized distilled water(negative control) and Thymol (0.64%) (positive control). The bacterial populations in biofilms for the two experiments were expressed as Colony Forming Unit (CFU) / mL x 10(4) and the corresponding values were expressed as mean ± SD. The effect of the Plant Extracts Mixture (PEM) for the two experiments was compared with that of Thymol and deionized distilled water. It was shown that there is a reduced adherence of bacteria to PEM-treated and Thymol (0.064%) treated experimental pellicle compared with the negative control (p biofilms is also lower than that of negative control (p dental biofilm by affecting the adhering and retention capacities of the bacterial species in the dental biofilms.

  19. Using the OSL single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol with quartz extracted from building materials in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Solongo, S.; Murray, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the application of the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol to the optically stimulated luminescence signal from quartz extracted from fired bricks acid unfired mortar in retrospective dosimetry. The samples came from a radioactive materials storage facility, with ambient...... dose rates of about 0.1 mGy/h. A detailed dose-depth profile was analysed from one brick, and compared with dose records from area TL dosemeters. Small-aliquot dose-distributions were analysed from the mortar samples; one associated with the exposed brick, and one from a remote site exposed only...

  20. Extracting heterogeneous compliance of a single fracture from seismic scattering coupled with perturbation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minato, S.; Ghose, R.

    2013-01-01

    We have presented a new methodology to model the scattered wavefield due to a heterogeneous distribution of compliance along a single fracture and then to invert this compliance distribution or its power spectral density (PSD) from the scattered seismic response. We illustrate the validity through

  1. Extraction of the beta-factor for single quantum dots coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Sapienza, Luca; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the β-factor, describing the coupling efficiency of light emitted by single InAs/GaAs semiconductor quantum dots into a photonic crystal waveguide mode. The β-factor is evaluated by means of time resolved frequency-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy. The emission...

  2. Comparison of bioavailable vanadium in alfalfa rhizosphere soil extracted by an improved BCR procedure and EDTA, HCl, and NaNO₃ single extractions in a pot experiment with V-Cd treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui; Song, Liuting

    2015-06-01

    The BCR sequential extraction procedure was compared with EDTA, HCl, and NaNO3 single extractions for evaluating vanadium bioavailability in alfalfa rhizosphere soil. The amounts of vanadium extracted by these methods were in the following order: BCR (bioavailable V) > EDTA ≈ HCl > NaNO3. Both correlation analysis and stepwise regression were adopted to illustrate the extractable vanadium between different reagents. The correlation coefficients between extracted vanadium and the vanadium contents in alfalfa roots were R NaNO3 = 0.948, R HCl = 0.902, R EDTA = 0.816, and R bioavailable V = 0.819. The stepwise multiple regression equation of the NaNO3 extraction was the most significant at a 95 % confidence interval. The influence of pH, total organic carbon, and cadmium content of soil to vanadium bioavailability were not definite. In summary, both the BCR sequential extraction and the single extraction methods were valid approaches for predicting vanadium bioavailability in alfalfa rhizosphere soil, especially the single extractions.

  3. A single extraction and HPLC procedure for simultaneous analysis of phytosterols, tocopherols and lutein in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Margaret; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-12-15

    A saponification/extraction procedure and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method were developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of phytosterols, tocopherols and lutein (a carotenoid) in soybeans. Separation was achieved on a phenyl column with a ternary, isocratic solvent system of acetonitrile, methanol and water (48:22.5:29.5, v/v/v). Evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was used to quantify β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, and α-, δ- and γ-tocopherols, while lutein was quantified with visible light absorption at 450 nm. Peak identification was verified by retention times and spikes with external standards. Standard curves were constructed (R(2)>0.99) to allow for sample quantification. Recovery of the saponification and extraction was demonstrated via analysis of spiked samples. Also, the accuracy of results of four soybeans using the described saponification and HPLC analytical method was validated against existing methods. This method offers a more efficient alternative to individual methods for quantifying lutein, tocopherols and sterols in soybeans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Algorithm for extracting multiple object waves without Fourier transform from a single image recorded by spatial frequency-division multiplexing and its application to digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Akamatsu, Takanori; Arai, Yasuhiko; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    We propose a novel algorithm that does not require any Fourier transform to extract multiple object waves in a single image recorded with spatial frequency-division multiplexing. Smoothing is utilized to extract the desired object-wave information from a spatially multiplexed image. Numerical and experimental results show its validity and applicability for image and Fresnel digital holography. Our investigations clarify the speeding up of both the object-wave extractions and multiple object-image reconstructions quantitatively.

  5. Direct immersion single drop micro-extraction method for multi-class pesticides analysis in mango using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pano-Farias, Norma S; Ceballos-Magaña, Silvia G; Muñiz-Valencia, Roberto; Jurado, Jose M; Alcázar, Ángela; Aguayo-Villarreal, Ismael A

    2017-12-15

    Due the negative effects of pesticides on environment and human health, more efficient and environmentally friendly methods are needed. In this sense, a simple, fast, free from memory effects and economical direct-immersion single drop micro-extraction (SDME) method and GC-MS for multi-class pesticides determination in mango samples was developed. Sample pre-treatment using ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and factors affecting the SDME procedure (extractant solvent, drop volume, stirring rate, ionic strength, time, pH and temperature) were optimized using factorial experimental design. This method presented high sensitive (LOD: 0.14-169.20μgkg -1 ), acceptable precision (RSD: 0.7-19.1%), satisfactory recovery (69-119%) and high enrichment factors (20-722). Several obtained LOQs are below the MRLs established by the European Commission; therefore, the method could be applied for pesticides determination in routing analysis and custom laboratories. Moreover, this method has shown to be suitable for determination of some of the studied pesticides in lime, melon, papaya, banana, tomato, and lettuce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Semi-automated procedures for shoreline extraction using single RADARSAT-1 SAR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Fugura, A.'kif; Billa, Lawal; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2011-12-01

    Coastline identification is important for surveying and mapping reasons. Coastline serves as the basic point of reference and is used on nautical charts for navigation purposes. Its delineation has become crucial and more important in the wake of the many recent earthquakes and tsunamis resulting in complete change and redraw of some shorelines. In a tropical country like Malaysia, presence of cloud cover hinders the application of optical remote sensing data. In this study a semi-automated technique and procedures are presented for shoreline delineation from RADARSAT-1 image. A scene of RADARSAT-1 satellite image was processed using enhanced filtering technique to identify and extract the shoreline coast of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. RADSARSAT image has many advantages over the optical data because of its ability to penetrate cloud cover and its night sensing capabilities. At first, speckles were removed from the image by using Lee sigma filter which was used to reduce random noise and to enhance the image and discriminate the boundary between land and water. The results showed an accurate and improved extraction and delineation of the entire coastline of Kuala Terrenganu. The study demonstrated the reliability of the image averaging filter in reducing random noise over the sea surface especially near the shoreline. It enhanced land-water boundary differentiation, enabling better delineation of the shoreline. Overall, the developed techniques showed the potential of radar imagery for accurate shoreline mapping and will be useful for monitoring shoreline changes during high and low tides as well as shoreline erosion in a tropical country like Malaysia.

  7. SNPPhenA: a corpus for extracting ranked associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and phenotypes from literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Diaz, Alberto; Taghizadeh, Nasrin; Chitsaz, Hamidreza; Chavoshinejad, Ramyar

    2017-04-07

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are among the most important types of genetic variations influencing common diseases and phenotypes. Recently, some corpora and methods have been developed with the purpose of extracting mutations and diseases from texts. However, there is no available corpus, for extracting associations from texts, that is annotated with linguistic-based negation, modality markers, neutral candidates, and confidence level of associations. In this research, different steps were presented so as to produce the SNPPhenA corpus. They include automatic Named Entity Recognition (NER) followed by the manual annotation of SNP and phenotype names, annotation of the SNP-phenotype associations and their level of confidence, as well as modality markers. Moreover, the produced corpus was annotated with negation scopes and cues as well as neutral candidates that play crucial role as far as negation and the modality phenomenon in relation to extraction tasks. The agreement between annotators was measured by Cohen's Kappa coefficient where the resulting scores indicated the reliability of the corpus. The Kappa score was 0.79 for annotating the associations and 0.80 for the confidence degree of associations. Further presented were the basic statistics of the annotated features of the corpus in addition to the results of our first experiments related to the extraction of ranked SNP-Phenotype associations. The prepared guideline documents render the corpus more convenient and facile to use. The corpus, guidelines and inter-annotator agreement analysis are available on the website of the corpus: http://nil.fdi.ucm.es/?q=node/639 . Specifying the confidence degree of SNP-phenotype associations from articles helps identify the strength of associations that could in turn assist genomics scientists in determining phenotypic plasticity and the importance of environmental factors. What is more, our first experiments with the corpus show that linguistic-based confidence

  8. Extracting intrinsic dynamic parameters of biomolecular folding from single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gi-Moon; Makarov, Dmitrii E

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule studies in which a mechanical force is transmitted to the molecule of interest and the molecular extension or position is monitored as a function of time are versatile tools for probing the dynamics of protein folding, stepping of molecular motors, and other biomolecular processes involving activated barrier crossing. One complication in interpreting such studies, however, is the fact that the typical size of a force probe (e.g., a dielectric bead in optical tweezers or the atomic force microscope tip/cantilever assembly) is much larger than the molecule itself, and so the observed molecular motion is affected by the hydrodynamic drag on the probe. This presents the experimenter with a nontrivial task of deconvolving the intrinsic molecular parameters, such as the intrinsic free energy barrier and the effective diffusion coefficient exhibited while crossing the barrier from the experimental signal. Here we focus on the dynamical aspect of this task and show how the intrinsic diffusion coefficient along the molecular reaction coordinate can be inferred from single-molecule measurements of the rates of biomolecular folding and unfolding. We show that the feasibility of accomplishing this task is strongly dependent on the relationship between the intrinsic molecular elasticity and that of the linker connecting the molecule to the force probe and identify the optimal range of instrumental parameters allowing determination of instrument-free molecular dynamics. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC-12 or HFC-134a F Appendix F to Subpart B of... Refrigerant Other Than CFC-12 or HFC-134a Foreword These specifications are for equipment that recover, but does not recycle, any single, specific automotive refrigerant other than CFC-12 or HFC-134a, including...

  10. Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction of triazines from waters using oxidized single-walled carbon nanohorns as sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Soto, Juan Manuel; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2012-07-06

    This article evaluates the usefulness of dispersed single-walled carbon nanohorns as sorbent for the isolation and preconcentration of triazines from waters. For this purpose, the carbon nanoparticles were oxidized to increase their solubility in aqueous media in order to obtain a stable dispersion that can be used as extractant of the selected pollutants. Then, 1 mL of the dispersion containing the oxidized single-walled carbon nanohorns at a concentration of 0.2 g/L was added to 10 mL of sample and stirred for 2 min using a vortex. Then, the whole volume was passed through a disposable 0.45 μm Nylon filter which retained the nanoparticles enriched with the triazines. Further elution with methanol permitted the gas chromatographic analysis of the analytes and subsequent identification and quantification by mass spectrometry working under the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). The limits of detection (LODs) were in low nanogram per liter level, which allowed the detection of the selected triazines at the concentration stated by legislation. The precision of the method, calculated as relative standard deviation, was acceptable in all instances. Finally, the recovery study carried out in different water samples provided average values between 87% and 94%. The results obtained revealed the applicability of oxidized single-walled carbon nanohorns for the proposed analytical problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Salient Region Detection by Fusing Foreground and Background Cues Extracted from Single Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangqiang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliency detection is an important preprocessing step in many application fields such as computer vision, robotics, and graphics to reduce computational cost by focusing on significant positions and neglecting the nonsignificant in the scene. Different from most previous methods which mainly utilize the contrast of low-level features, various feature maps are fused in a simple linear weighting form. In this paper, we propose a novel salient object detection algorithm which takes both background and foreground cues into consideration and integrate a bottom-up coarse salient regions extraction and a top-down background measure via boundary labels propagation into a unified optimization framework to acquire a refined saliency detection result. Wherein the coarse saliency map is also fused by three components, the first is local contrast map which is in more accordance with the psychological law, the second is global frequency prior map, and the third is global color distribution map. During the formation of background map, first we construct an affinity matrix and select some nodes which lie on border as labels to represent the background and then carry out a propagation to generate the regional background map. The evaluation of the proposed model has been implemented on four datasets. As demonstrated in the experiments, our proposed method outperforms most existing saliency detection models with a robust performance.

  12. Light-gated single CdSe nanowire transistor: photocurrent saturation and band gap extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang, E-mail: yangzh08@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Ritun; Kudera, Stefan; Krahne, Roman, E-mail: roman.krahne@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Nanochemistry department (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    CdSe nanowires are popular building blocks for many optoelectronic devices mainly owing to their direct band gap in the visible range of the spectrum. Here we investigate the optoelectronic properties of single CdSe nanowires fabricated by colloidal synthesis, in terms of their photocurrent–voltage characteristics and photoconductivity spectra recorded at 300 and 18 K. The photocurrent is identified as the secondary photocurrent, which gives rise to a photoconductive gain of ∼35. We observe a saturation of the photocurrent beyond a certain voltage bias that can be related to the finite drift velocity of electrons. From the photoconductivity spectra, we determine the band gap energy of the nanowires as ∼1.728 eV, and we resolve low-energy peaks that can be associated with sub-bandgap states.Graphical Abstract.

  13. Subnanometer-resolution electron cryomicroscopy-based domain models for the cytoplasmic region of skeletal muscle RyR channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serysheva, Irina I; Ludtke, Steven J; Baker, Matthew L; Cong, Yao; Topf, Maya; Eramian, David; Sali, Andrej; Hamilton, Susan L; Chiu, Wah

    2008-07-15

    The skeletal muscle Ca(2+) release channel (RyR1), a homotetramer, regulates the release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to initiate muscle contraction. In this work, we have delineated the RyR1 monomer boundaries in a subnanometer-resolution electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) density map. In the cytoplasmic region of each RyR1 monomer, 36 alpha-helices and 7 beta-sheets can be resolved. A beta-sheet was also identified close to the membrane-spanning region that resembles the cytoplasmic pore structures of inward rectifier K(+) channels. Three structural folds, generated for amino acids 12-565 using comparative modeling and cryo-EM density fitting, localize close to regions implicated in communication with the voltage sensor in the transverse tubules. Eleven of the 15 disease-related residues for these domains are mapped to the surface of these models. Four disease-related residues are found in a basin at the interfaces of these regions, creating a pocket in which the immunophilin FKBP12 can fit. Taken together, these results provide a structural context for both channel gating and the consequences of certain malignant hyperthermia and central core disease-associated mutations in RyR1.

  14. Direct sub-nanometer scale electron microscopy analysis of anion incorporation to self-ordered anodic alumina layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rovira, L.; Lopez-Haro, M.; Hungria, A.B.; El Amrani, K. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Republica Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sanchez-Amaya, J.M. [Titania, Ensayos y Proyectos Industriales, S.L. Parque Tecnobahia, Edificio RETSE, Nave 4, 11500 El Puerto de Santa Maria (Cadiz) (Spain); Calvino, J.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Republica Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Botana, F.J., E-mail: javier.botana@uca.e [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Republica Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Morphological and chemical characterization at atomic scale of porous alumina layers anodised in ordered regimes. {yields} Characterization based on the use of FEG-SEM, STEM-HAADF, STEM-EELS and STEM-X-EDS. {yields} Nanoscale distribution of P-, C- and S-bearing species in the pore wall. - Abstract: Ordered porous alumina layers prepared by two-step anodising in phosphoric, oxalic and sulphuric acids have been characterized at sub-nanometer scale using electron microscopy techniques. FEG-SEM and STEM-HAADF images allowed estimating the pore size, cell wall and pore wall thicknesses of the layers. Nanoanalytical characterization has been performed by STEM-EELS and STEM-X-EDS. Detailed features of the spatial distribution of anions in the pore wall of the films have been obtained. Maximum concentration of P-species occurs, approximately, at the middle of the pore wall; adjacent to the pore for C-species, whereas the distribution of S-species appears to be uniform.

  15. Biochar as a sorbent for chlorinated hydrocarbons - sorption and extraction experiments in single and bi-solute systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiter, Inga J.; Wefer-Roehl, Annette; Graber, Ellen R.; Schüth, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Biochar (BC) is increasingly deemed a potential sorbent for contaminants in soil and water remediation, and brownfield restoration. In this study, sorption and extraction experiments were performed to assess the potential of three different BCs to sorb and retain the chlorinated hydrocarbons trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). BCs studied were produced from wood chips, grain husk, and cattle manure at 450 °C. A commercially available activated carbon (AC) served as a reference. The sorption behaviour was studied in batch experiments in single solute and bi-solute systems. Resulting isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model. To assess the desorption behaviour, a five-step extraction scheme (water at 40°C, water at 80°C, methanol at 50°C, toluene at 50°C, and n-hexane at 50°) was developed, utilizing Accelerated Solvent Extraction. Isotherms revealed distinct differences in sorption behaviour depending on BC feedstock. Sorption capacity ranked as follows: wood chip BC > grain husk BC > cattle manure BC for both contaminants. This sequence could be attributable to an increasing specific surface area, an increasing amount of carbon, and a decreasing ash content of the sorbents. It is noteworthy that all three BCs were more effective in adsorbing TCE, which is surprising, given the higher logKow of PCE. The reverse was observed for the AC. Here, sorption is purely driven by the hydrophobicity of the compound rather than sorbent properties. In bi-solute experiments, PCE sorbed as good as or stronger than TCE, yet the total mass of sorbed compounds increased slightly. In contrast, AC showed a significant decrease of TCE sorption and no significant changes in the total mass sorbed. Extraction experiments revealed that for all BCs a large fraction of the contaminants could not be readily desorbed. In all cases, water remobilized < 5 % of the total contaminant mass and up to 70 % could not be extracted by any of the solvents. The findings suggest

  16. Extracting q̂ from single inclusive data at RHIC and at the LHC for different centralities: a new puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Carlota; Armesto, Néstor; Luzum, Matthew; Salgado, Carlos A.; Zurita, Pía

    2017-08-01

    We present here an extraction of the jet transport coefficient, q̂, using RHIC and LHC single-inclusive high-pT data for different centralities. We fit a K-factor that determines the deviation of this coefficient from an ideal estimate, K ≡ q̂ / (2ɛ 3 / 4), where ɛ is given by hydrodynamic simulations. As obtained already in previous studies, this K-factor is found to be larger at RHIC than at the LHC. However it is, unexpectedly, basically no-dependent on the centrality of the collision. Taken at face value this result, the K-factor would not depend on local properties of the QGP as temperature, but on global collision variables such as the center of mass energy.

  17. Note : Interference technique for minimally invasive, subnanometer, microsecond measurements of displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dujovne, I.; Kerssemakers, J.; Capello, G.; Dekker, C.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel high-resolution technique for single-molecule experiments, viz., differential traveling wave tracking. This is an interference-based scattering technique where we use gold nanoparticles for high scattering intensities and incorporate differential measurements along one in-plane

  18. Extraction and Purification of Glucoamylase and Protease Produced by Aspergillus awamori in a Single-Stage Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous extraction and purification of glucoamylase and protease produced concomitantly by Aspergillus awamori Nakazawa MTCC 6652 in a single fermentor using solid-state fermentation (SSF has been studied. Soaking for 2 h at room temperature (around 30 °C in 10 % glycerol was found to be most suitable for optimum simultaneous extraction of glucoamylase and protease with the yield of 8645.8 U/g of glucoamylase and 798.6 U/g of protease in dry substrate. Crude extract to acetone ratio of 1:2 yielded optimum simultaneous precipitation of glucoamylase (35.3 % and protease (61.9 % with 4.06- and 7.17-fold purification, respectively. Ion exchange chromatography showed specific activities of purified fractions of 253.2 U/mg of glucoamylase and 59.7 U/mg of protease, with 22.1 and 40.8 % recovery, respectively. After gel filtration chromatography specific activity, recovery and purification of glucoamylase were found to be 306.8 U/mg, 4.6 % and 6.25-fold, respectively, whereas those of protease were 85.6 U/mg, 12.9 % and 17.0-fold, respectively. SDS-PAGE and zymogram studies of the purified enzymes indicated the presence of three starch-hydrolyzing isoforms of glucoamylase with molecular mass of approx. 109.6, 87.1, and 59.4 kDa and two types of acid protease with molecular mass of approx. 47.9 and 35.5 kDa. These findings can be very useful for enzyme industry, where glucoamylases and proteases are used concurrently.

  19. A Online NIR Sensor for the Pilot-Scale Extraction Process in Fructus Aurantii Coupled with Single and Ensemble Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Model performance of the partial least squares method (PLS alone and bagging-PLS was investigated in online near-infrared (NIR sensor monitoring of pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used as a reference method to identify the active pharmaceutical ingredients: naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. Several preprocessing methods and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS and moving window partial least squares (MWPLS variable selection methods were compared. Single quantification models (PLS and ensemble methods combined with partial least squares (bagging-PLS were developed for quantitative analysis of naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. SiPLS was compared to SiPLS combined with bagging-PLS. Final results showed the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of bagging-PLS to be lower than that of PLS regression alone. For this reason, an ensemble method of online NIR sensor is here proposed as a means of monitoring the pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii, which may also constitute a suitable strategy for online NIR monitoring of CHM.

  20. Determination of glucose in human stomach cancer cell extracts and single cells by capillary electrophoresis with a micro-biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Ma, Yanfang; Zhao, Man; Zhou, Minfeng; Xiao, Yan; Sun, Zifei; Tong, Lili

    2016-10-21

    Bioactive species in cells can provide information about signal transduction, cell function, and the effects of disease treatment. In this article, a novel micro-biosensor was fabricated to detect glucose in individual human stomach cancer cells (MGC80-3 cells) with capillary electrophoresis (CE). We fabricated the micro-biosensors by immobilizing a single-walled carbon nanotube-glucose oxidase (GOx)-glutaraldehyde (GA) bio-composite at the palladium nanoparticle (PdNPs) modified Pt electrode. The linear concentration of glucose ranged from 2.0μM to 1.0mM, with a detection limit of 0.5μM. Using this method, the mean amount of glucose in MGC80-3 cell extracts and in single cells was 20.0 fmol and 20±6 fmol (n=10), respectively. The micro-biosensor exhibited high sensitivity, stability, and a long operating life, which are likely due to the biocompatible environment provided by BSA and GA, and the adsorption and faster electron transfer of SWNTs and PdNPs to GOx. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Imaging and Force Recognition of Single Molecular Behaviors Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Li; Dan Dang; Lianqing Liu; Ning Xi; Yuechao Wang

    2017-01-01

    The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has provided a powerful tool for investigating the behaviors of single native biological molecules under physiological conditions. AFM can not only image the conformational changes of single biological molecules at work with sub-nanometer resolution, but also sense the specific interactions of individual molecular pair with piconewton force sensitivity. In the past decade, the performance of AFM has been greatly improved, which makes it widely used ...

  2. Note: Interference technique for minimally invasive, subnanometer, microsecond measurements of displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujovne, Irene; Kerssemakers, Jacob; Cappello, G; Dekker, Cees

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel high-resolution technique for single-molecule experiments, viz., differential traveling wave tracking. This is an interference-based scattering technique where we use gold nanoparticles for high scattering intensities and incorporate differential measurements along one in-plane direction to subtract mechanical noise and drift of the system. In addition, out-of-plane distances are measured via scattered light intensity in a total internal reflectance illumination field. In plane, we demonstrate a rms noise level of only 0.10 nm at 10 kHz and less than 0.5 nm at 600 kHz.

  3. Direct imaging the upconversion nanocrystal core/shell structure at the subnanometer level: shell thickness dependence in upconverting optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Che, Renchao; Li, Xiaomin; Yao, Chi; Yang, Jianping; Shen, Dengke; Hu, Pan; Li, Wei; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2012-06-13

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles have shown considerable promise in solid-state lasers, three-dimensional flat-panel displays, and solar cells and especially biological labeling and imaging. It has been demonstrated extensively that the epitaxial coating of upconversion (UC) core crystals with a lattice-matched shell can passivate the core and enhance the overall upconversion emission intensity of the materials. However, there are few papers that report a precise link between the shell thickness of core/shell nanoparticles and their optical properties. This is mainly because rare earth fluoride upconversion core/shell structures have only been inferred from indirect measurements to date. Herein, a reproducible method to grow a hexagonal NaGdF(4) shell on NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystals with monolayer control thickness is demonstrated for the first time. On the basis of the cryo-transmission electron microscopy, rigorous electron energy loss spectroscopy, and high-angle annular dark-field investigations on the core/shell structure under a low operation temperature (96 K), direct imaging the NaYF(4):Yb,Er@NaGdF(4) nanocrystal core/shell structure at the subnanometer level was realized for the first time. Furthermore, a strong linear link between the NaGdF(4) shell thickness and the optical response of the hexagonal NaYF(4):Yb,Er@NaGdF(4) core/shell nanocrystals has been established. During the epitaxial growth of the NaGdF(4) shell layer by layer, surface defects of the nanocrystals can be gradually passivated by the homogeneous shell deposition process, which results in the obvious enhancement in overall UC emission intensity and lifetime and is more resistant to quenching by water molecules.

  4. Determination of oil reservoir radiotracer (S14CN-) in a single step using a plastic scintillator extractive resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagán, H; Tarancón, A; Stavsetra, L; Rauret, G; García, J F

    2012-07-29

    The analysis of radiotracers is important in the study of oil reservoir dynamics. One of the most widely used radiotracer is S(14)CN(-). Prior to activity measurements by Liquid Scintillation (LS), routine determinations require the pretreatment steps of purification and concentration of the samples using anion exchange columns. The final elution media produces samples with high salt concentration that may lead to problems with phase separation during the LS measurement. Plastic Scintillation (PS) is an alternative technique that provides a solid surface that can be used as a platform for the immobilisation of selective extractants to obtain a PS resin. The proposed procedure unifies chemical separation and sample measurement preparation in a single step, serving to reduce the number of reagents needed and manpower required for the analysis while also avoiding mixed waste production by LS. The objective of this study is to develop a PS resin for the determination of (14)C-labelled thiocyanate radiotracer in water samples. For this purpose, the immobilisation procedure was optimised, including optimisation of the proportion of PS microspheres:extractant and the use of a control blank to monitor the PS resin immobilisation process. The breakthrough volume was studied and the detection and quantification limits for 100 mL of sample were determined to be 0.08 Bq L(-1) and 0.31 Bq L(-1), respectively. The established procedure was applied to active samples from oil reservoirs and errors lower than 5% in the sample determinations were obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Combination of electromembrane extraction and liquid-phase microextraction in a single step: Simultaneous group separation of acidic and basic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) were combined in a single step for the first time to realize simultaneous and clear group separation of basic and acidic drugs. Using 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for EME and dihexyl ether...... as the SLM for LPME, basic and acidic drugs were extracted and separated simultaneously from a low pH sample by EME and LPME, respectively. After 15 min of extraction, basic drugs (citalopram and sertraline) were exhaustively extracted, whereas the recoveries for acidic drugs (ketoprofen and ibuprofen) were...... in the range of 76%-86%. Longer extraction time provided higher recoveries for the acidic drugs, but this somewhat deteriorated the group separation. Matrices effects from the coexisting acidic drugs/basic drugs were tested, and we observed that simultaneous EME/LPME was not affected by coexisting drugs...

  6. Determination of essential oils composition of blanket-leaf (Stachys byzantina C. Koch.) by microwave assisted extraction coupled to headspace single-drop microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafil, Zahra; Babashpour-Asl, Marzieh; Piryaei, Marzieh

    2018-01-26

    The composition of essential oils from Stachys byzantina was studied by simple method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) following microwave assisted headspace single-drop microextraction (MA-HS-SDME) method. Several parameters affecting MA-HS-SDME such as sample mass, solvent volume, extraction time, microwave power and the nature of extracting solvent were optimised. The MA-HS-SDME method was compared with traditional hydrodistillation (HD) method. Within the study elaborated, thirty-eight components were extracted and identified. Compared with HD, MA-HS-SDME is an easy, rapid and efficient method for the analysis of essential oils in S. byzantina.

  7. An efficient and reliable DNA extraction method for preimplantation genetic diagnosis: a comparison of allele drop out and amplification rates using different single cell lysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ah; Yoon, Jung Ah; Kang, Moon Joo; Choi, Young Min; Chae, Soo Jin; Moon, Shin Yong

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate methods of DNA extraction from single cells for their suitability to amplify and provide a correct diagnosis of target disease genes. Experimental study. University hospital laboratory. Two normal adult male and female blood donors. Exon 51 of the dystrophin gene and the ZFX/ZFY gene were amplified from single lymphocytes using nested PCR. Five different methods of DNA extraction were tested (lysis in distilled water with freezing and thawing using liquid nitrogen, lysis in distilled water, alkaline lysis buffer, Proteinase K/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer, and N-lauroylsarcosine salt solution). Allele drop out and amplification rate. The amplification efficiency from single unaffected lymphocytes was 89.0% using the liquid nitrogen method, 88.1% with the distilled water lysis method, 97.5% with the alkaline lysis buffer method, 91.5% with the Proteinase K/SDS lysis buffer method, and 84.8% using the N-lauroylsarcosine salt solution method. The mean allele drop out rate was 16.7%, 43.9%, 2.0%, 9.8%, and 18.9%, respectively, for each lysis method using single male lymphocytes as a template. Based on these results, DNA extraction using an alkaline lysis buffer results in more efficient rates of DNA amplification and less allele drop out than the other methods of DNA extraction tested. This method is suitable for the lysis of single cells in clinical preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

  8. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelidium elegans extract (GEE is derived from a red alga from the Asia–Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted <2 days. Therefore, the LD50 of GEE is likely to be >5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  9. Dynamic ultrasonic nebulisation extraction coupled with headspace ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction for the analysis of the essential oil in Forsythia suspensa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinjuan; Wei, Hongmin; Teng, Xiane; Zhang, Hanqi; Shi, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted much attention as an extraction solvent instead of traditional organic solvent in single-drop microextraction. However, non-volatile ionic liquids are difficult to couple with gas chromatography. Thus, the following injection system for the determination of organic compounds is described. To establish an environmentally friendly, simple, and effective extraction method for preparation and analysis of the essential oil from aromatic plants. The dynamic ultrasonic nebulisation extraction was coupled with headspace ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction(UNE-HS/IL/SDME)for the extraction of essential oils from Forsythia suspense fruits. After 13 min of extraction for 50 mg sample, the extracts in ionic liquid were evaporated rapidly in the gas chromatography injector through a thermal desorption unit (5 s). The traditional extraction method was carried out for comparative study. The optimum conditions were: 3 μL of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was selected as the extraction solvent, the sample amount was 50 mg, the flow rate of purging gas was 200 mL/min, the extraction time was 13 min, the injection volume was 2 μL, and the thermal desorption temperature and time were 240 °C and 5 s respectively. Comparing with hydrodistillation (HD), the proposed method was environment friendly and efficient. The proposed method is environmentally friendly, time saving, with high efficiency and low consumption. It would extend the application range of the HS/SDME and would be useful especially for aromatic plants analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effect of Dangguibohyul-Tang, a Mixed Extract of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis, on Allergic and Inflammatory Skin Reaction Compared with Single Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus or Angelica sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Yeon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dangguibohyul-tang (DBT, herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus (AM and Angelica sinensis (AS at a ratio of 5 : 1, has been used for the treatment of various skin diseases in traditional medicine. We investigated the effect of DBT on allergic and inflammatory skin reaction in atopic dermatitis-like model compared to the single extract of AM or AS. DBT treatment showed the remission of clinical symptoms, including decreased skin thickness and scratching behavior, the total serum IgE level, and the number of mast cells compared to DNCB group as well as the single extract of AM- or AS-treated group. Levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β and inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, and phospho-MAPKs were significantly decreased in AM, AS, and DBT groups. These results demonstrated that AM, AS, and DBT may have the therapeutic property on atopic dermatitis by inhibition of allergic and inflammatory mediators and DBT formula; a mixed extract of AM and AS based on the herb pairs theory especially might be more effective on antiallergic reaction as compared with the single extract of AM or AS.

  11. Effect of Dangguibohyul-Tang, a Mixed Extract of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis, on Allergic and Inflammatory Skin Reaction Compared with Single Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus or Angelica sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Kyuseok; Yang, Woong Mo

    2016-01-01

    Dangguibohyul-tang (DBT), herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Angelica sinensis (AS) at a ratio of 5 : 1, has been used for the treatment of various skin diseases in traditional medicine. We investigated the effect of DBT on allergic and inflammatory skin reaction in atopic dermatitis-like model compared to the single extract of AM or AS. DBT treatment showed the remission of clinical symptoms, including decreased skin thickness and scratching behavior, the total serum IgE level, and the number of mast cells compared to DNCB group as well as the single extract of AM- or AS-treated group. Levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, and phospho-MAPKs) were significantly decreased in AM, AS, and DBT groups. These results demonstrated that AM, AS, and DBT may have the therapeutic property on atopic dermatitis by inhibition of allergic and inflammatory mediators and DBT formula; a mixed extract of AM and AS based on the herb pairs theory especially might be more effective on antiallergic reaction as compared with the single extract of AM or AS.

  12. Transvenous extraction of cardiac rhythm device leads: a report of the experience from a single referral centre in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Skevos; Kasiakogias, Alexandros; Pirounaki, Maria; Gatzoulis, Kostas; Sotiropoulos, Ilias; Dilaveris, Polichronis; Traxanas, Kostas; Vouliotis, Apostolos-Ilias; Voliotis, Apostolos; Manakos, Kostas; Konstantinidis, Dimitris; Trantalis, George; Lymperiadis, Dimitrios; Stavropoulos, George; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Kallikazaros, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    As rates of implanted cardiac electronic devices continue to rise, lead extraction procedures are crucial for the management of complications. The optimal method for such procedures has been constantly debated. We sought to review our experience of lead extraction using a conventional technique. This was a retrospective study of lead extraction procedures in a major referral centre in Greece. Leads were extracted in a series of 66 consecutive patients (69% men, age range 53-90 years) who visited our centre between August 2008 and June 2012. The extraction procedure was performed in the catheterization lab with a widely used system composed of a locking stylet and sheath. A total of 120 leads were extracted (51 atrial, 69 ventricular) including 19 defibrillator leads and 9 coronary sinus leads. The most frequent indication for lead extraction was infective endocarditis (28 patients, 42%), followed by generator pocket infection (22 patients, 33%), and lead malfunction (16 patients, 24%). Extraction was achieved through the venous entry-site approach in all procedures. The leads were completely extracted in 65 patients (98.5%). Only one complication was recorded: perforation of the right atrium in one patient (1.5%), who eventually underwent emergency cardiac surgery with a good outcome. Our data confirm that a conventional mechanical technique is highly effective for successful extraction of all types of implanted cardiac electronic device leads and is associated with very limited complications.

  13. Extracting time-frequency feature of single-channel vastus medialis EMG signals for knee exercise pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Peiyang; Zhu, Xuyang; Su, Steven W; Guo, Qing; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    The EMG signal indicates the electrophysiological response to daily living of activities, particularly to lower-limb knee exercises. Literature reports have shown numerous benefits of the Wavelet analysis in EMG feature extraction for pattern recognition. However, its application to typical knee exercises when using only a single EMG channel is limited. In this study, three types of knee exercises, i.e., flexion of the leg up (standing), hip extension from a sitting position (sitting) and gait (walking) are investigated from 14 healthy untrained subjects, while EMG signals from the muscle group of vastus medialis and the goniometer on the knee joint of the detected leg are synchronously monitored and recorded. Four types of lower-limb motions including standing, sitting, stance phase of walking, and swing phase of walking, are segmented. The Wavelet Transform (WT) based Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) approach is proposed for the classification of four lower-limb motions using a single-channel EMG signal from the muscle group of vastus medialis. Based on lower-limb motions from all subjects, the combination of five-level wavelet decomposition and SVD is used to comprise the feature vector. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is then configured to build a multiple-subject classifier for which the subject independent accuracy will be given across all subjects for the classification of four types of lower-limb motions. In order to effectively indicate the classification performance, EMG features from time-domain (e.g., Mean Absolute Value (MAV), Root-Mean-Square (RMS), integrated EMG (iEMG), Zero Crossing (ZC)) and frequency-domain (e.g., Mean Frequency (MNF) and Median Frequency (MDF)) are also used to classify lower-limb motions. The five-fold cross validation is performed and it repeats fifty times in order to acquire the robust subject independent accuracy. Results show that the proposed WT-based SVD approach has the classification accuracy of 91.85%±0.88% which

  14. Optimized extraction of a single-chain variable fragment of antibody by using aqueous micellar two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpiedi, Luciana P; Nerli, Bibiana B; Taqueda, Maria E S; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the purification of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody by using liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous micellar two-phase systems was optimized by means of central composite design. Protein partitioning assays were performed by using the selected system composition in previous works: Triton X-114 at 4% wt/wt, yeast fermentation supernatant at 60% wt/wt, McIlvaine buffer pH 7.00. The other system component concentrations, Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB), Fabsorbent™ F1P HF (HF) and NaCl, were selected as independent variables. ScFv recovery percentage (%R) and purification factor (PF) were selected as the responses. According to the optimization process both, scFv recovery percentage and purification factor were favored with the addition of HF and NaCl in a range of concentrations around the central point of the second central composite design (HF 0.0120% w/w, CB 0.0200% w/w, NaCl 0.200% w/w). These experimental conditions allowed the concentration and pre-purification of scFv in the micelle-rich bottom phase of the systems with a recovery percentage superior to 88% and a purification factor of approximately 3.5. These results improved the previously presented works and demonstrated the convenience of using aqueous micellar two-phase systems as a first step in the purification of scFv molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Permeation characteristics of hypericin across Caco-2 monolayers in the presence of single flavonoids, defined flavonoid mixtures or Hypericum extract matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verjee, Sheela; Kelber, Olaf; Kolb, Christiane; Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Butterweck, Veronika

    2017-03-12

    The major aim of this study was to get a detailed understanding of the exposure and fate of hypericin in the Caco-2 cell system when combined with various flavonoids, mixtures of flavonoids or Hypericum perforatum extract matrix (STW3-VI). The permeation characteristics of hypericin in the absence or presence of quercetin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, hyperoside and rutin were tested. Hypericin (5 μm) was mixed with single flavonoids (20 μm) or with different flavonoid combinations (each flavonoid 4 or 10 μm, total flavonoid concentration: 20 μm). Further, the uptake of hypericin (5 μm) in the presence of H. perforatum extract matrix (7.25, 29 and 58 μg/ml) was studied. Following application of hypericin to the apical side of the monolayer, only negligible amounts of the compound were found in the basolateral compartment. From all tested flavonoids, only quercitrin increased the basolateral amount of hypericin. Dual flavonoid combinations were not superior compared to the single combinations. The amount of hypericin in the basolateral compartment increased concentration-dependently in the presence of extract matrix (from 0 to 7.5%). Comparing the effects of various flavonoid mixtures vs the extract matrix, it can be concluded that, besides flavonoids, the extract seems to contain further compounds (e.g. phenolic acids or proanthocyanidins) which substantially improve the permeation characteristics of hypericin. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Data on a single oral dose of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia pericarp extract on flow-mediated vasodilation and blood pressure in young adult humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Miyashita

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes the flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD responses, represented by changes in arterial diameter, and blood pressure changes in young adults after a single oral dose of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia pericarp extract or placebo (cross-over design. Ten healthy men and 10 healthy women participated in this study. Ultrasonic diagnostic equipment was used to monitor arterial diameter changes, indicative of FMD, for 110 s after the administration of the camu camu extract or placebo. In addition, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were recorded.

  17. A high-throughput RNA extraction for sprouted single-seed malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rich in polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the exces...

  18. Absence of QTc-interval-prolonging or hemodynamic effects of a single dose of bitter-orange extract in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Bokyung; Cios, Deborah; Kluger, Jeffrey; White, C Michael

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic effects of a single dose of commercially available bitter-orange dried-fruit extract, which is increasingly being used in dietary supplements. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. University of Connecticut, Storrs Campus. Eighteen healthy volunteers aged 18 years or older. Subjects were given either placebo or bitter-orange dried-fruit extract (450 mg standardized to 27 mg of m- or p-synephrine) in phase 1. The opposite treatment was given during phase 2 after a washout period of at least 7 days. The rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval and blood pressure were measured before dosing and at 1, 3, 5, and 8 hours after dosing. Mean+/-SD values of the maximum postdose values were compared between groups. Subjects receiving bitter-orange extract versus those receiving placebo had similar postdose QTc intervals (402+/-29 vs 403+/-24 msec, p=0.653), systolic blood pressure (114+/-10 vs 115+/-8 mm Hg, p=0.686) and diastolic blood pressure (68+/-9 vs 68+/-8, p=0.879). Bitter-orange dried-fruit extract standardized to m- or p-synephrine 27 mg did not significantly alter the QTc interval or blood pressure after a single dose was administered. Future studies are necessary to ensure the safety of this herbal product with multiple doses.

  19. Subnanometer Ga 2 O 3 Tunnelling Layer by Atomic Layer Deposition to Achieve 1.1 V Open-Circuit Potential in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chandiran, Aravind Kumar

    2012-08-08

    Herein, we present the first use of a gallium oxide tunnelling layer to significantly reduce electron recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC). The subnanometer coating is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and leading to a new DSC record open-circuit potential of 1.1 V with state-of-the-art organic D-π-A sensitizer and cobalt redox mediator. After ALD of only a few angstroms of Ga 2O 3, the electron back reaction is reduced by more than an order of magnitude, while charge collection efficiency and fill factor are increased by 30% and 15%, respectively. The photogenerated exciton separation processes of electron injection into the TiO 2 conduction band and the hole injection into the electrolyte are characterized in detail. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Absolute measurement of subnanometer scale vibration of cochlear partition of an excised guinea pig cochlea using spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Choudhury, Niloy; Jacques, Steven L.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct measurement of absolute vibration parameters from different locations within the mammalian organ of Corti is crucial for understanding the hearing mechanics such as how sound propagates through the cochlea and how sound stimulates the vibration of various structures of the cochlea, namely, basilar membrane (BM), recticular lamina, outer hair cells and tectorial membrane (TM). In this study we demonstrate the feasibility a modified phase-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system to provide subnanometer scale vibration information from multiple angles within the imaging beam. The system has the potential to provide depth resolved absolute vibration measurement of tissue microstructures from each of the delay-encoded vibration images with a noise floor of ~0.3nm at 200Hz.

  1. The smallest resonator arrays in atmosphere by chip-size-grown nanowires with tunable Q-factor and frequency for subnanometer thickness detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengming; Tang, Chaolong; Song, Jinhui

    2015-02-11

    A chip-size vertically aligned nanowire (NW) resonator arrays (VNRs) device has been fabricated with simple one-step lithography process by using grown self-assembled zinc oxide (ZnO) NW arrays. VNR has cantilever diameter of 50 nm, which breakthroughs smallest resonator record (>100 nm) functioning in atmosphere. A new atomic displacement sensing method by using atomic force microscopy is developed to effectively identify the resonance of NW resonator with diameter 50 nm in atmosphere. Size-effect and half-dimensional properties of the NW resonator have been systematically studied. Additionally, VNR has been demonstrated with the ability of detecting nanofilm thickness with subnanometer (<10(-9)m) resolution.

  2. SI-traceable absolute distance measurement over more than 800 meters with sub-nanometer interferometry by two-color inline refractivity compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Meyer, Tobias; Mildner, Jutta; Pollinger, Florian

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we demonstrate two-color inline refractivity compensation in a heterodyne synthetic wavelength interferometer for a measurement of absolute distances over several hundred meters with sub-millimeter accuracy. Two frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers with a coherence length of more than 1 km are used as light sources. Direct SI traceability is achieved by controlling the lasers' frequency difference in the radio frequency regime. The resulting synthetic wavelengths at 532 nm and 1064 nm are used for the absolute distance measurement and dispersion-based inline refractive index compensation. A standard deviation of 50 μm is achieved for distances up to 864 m. This performance corresponds to a standard deviation of the observable, the difference of the four optical wavelengths, on a sub-nanometer level. Comparison against white light interferometry confirms sub-millimeter accuracy over this distance. Temporally resolved data over 864 m provide quantitative insights into the influence of chromatic beam paths.

  3. Sub-nanometer surface chemistry and orbital hybridization in lanthanum-doped ceria nano-catalysts revealed by 3D electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sean M; Fernandez-Garcia, Susana; Calvino, José J; Midgley, Paul A

    2017-07-14

    Surface chemical composition, electronic structure, and bonding characteristics determine catalytic activity but are not resolved for individual catalyst particles by conventional spectroscopy. In particular, the nano-scale three-dimensional distribution of aliovalent lanthanide dopants in ceria catalysts and their effect on the surface electronic structure remains unclear. Here, we reveal the surface segregation of dopant cations and oxygen vacancies and observe bonding changes in lanthanum-doped ceria catalyst particle aggregates with sub-nanometer precision using a new model-based spectroscopic tomography approach. These findings refine our understanding of the spatially varying electronic structure and bonding in ceria-based nanoparticle aggregates with aliovalent cation concentrations and identify new strategies for advancing high efficiency doped ceria nano-catalysts.

  4. Efficacy of a single dose of low-level laser therapy in reducing pain, swelling, and trismus following third molar extraction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landucci, A; Wosny, A C; Uetanabaro, L C; Moro, A; Araujo, M R

    2016-03-01

    The clinical efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for the reduction of pain, swelling, and trismus following the surgical extraction of third molars was evaluated. Mandibular third molars, with similar radiographic positions on two distinct sections, were extracted from 22 patients. Immediately after extraction from the randomly selected right or left side, LLLT was applied (study group). The same extraction procedure was performed 21 days later on the other third molar, without the application of LLLT (control group). LLLT was applied at 10 points: four intraoral in close proximity to the socket and six extraoral along the masseter muscle. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analogue scale, swelling was measured as the distance from the tragus to the median base of the mentum, and trismus was assessed by the extent of mouth opening. Data were collected at four time points: before surgery, immediately after surgery, 48h postoperatively, and 7 days postoperatively. Compared with the control group, the study group showed significant reductions in pain, swelling, and trismus at 48h and 7 days postoperatively. In conclusion, a single dose of LLLT was effective at reducing the postoperative discomforts (pain, swelling, and trismus) associated with third molar extraction surgery. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antipruritic effect of the single oral administration of German chamomile flower extract and its combined effect with antiallergic agents in ddY mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Ria; Ogino, Fumiko

    2005-10-03

    The single peroral administration of the ethyl acetate extract or essential oil of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) showed remarkable antipruritic effects in the compound 48/80-induced itch-scratching test in ddY mice, if suitable vehicle was used. The ethyl acetate extract or essential oil of German chamomile dissolved in the vehicle of 10% ethanol, 10% Tween 80 and 80% physiological saline was orally administrated 2 h before pruritus provocation by compound 48/80 subcutaneous injection. The ethyl acetate extract or essential oil of German chamomile showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of the compound 48/80-induced scratching without affecting spontaneous motor activity. The antipruritic effects of antihistamine H1 antagonists, oxatomide (10 mg/kg) and fexofenadine (10 mg/kg), were only partial in this test. However, the antipruritic effects of these agents were remarkably enhanced by the combined administration of the ethyl acetate extract of German chamomile (300 mg/kg). Thus, the co-medication with the ethyl acetate extract, or essential oil of German chamomile and antihistamines might be effective for the pruritus which could not be perfectly resolved alone by conventional antihistamines.

  6. Combination of Electromembrane Extraction and Liquid-Phase Microextraction in a Single Step: Simultaneous Group Separation of Acidic and Basic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid; Shen, Xiantao; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-07-07

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) were combined in a single step for the first time to realize simultaneous and clear group separation of basic and acidic drugs. Using 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for EME and dihexyl ether as the SLM for LPME, basic and acidic drugs were extracted and separated simultaneously from a low pH sample by EME and LPME, respectively. After 15 min of extraction, basic drugs (citalopram and sertraline) were exhaustively extracted, whereas the recoveries for acidic drugs (ketoprofen and ibuprofen) were in the range of 76%-86%. Longer extraction time provided higher recoveries for the acidic drugs, but this somewhat deteriorated the group separation. Matrices effects from the coexisting acidic drugs/basic drugs were tested, and we observed that simultaneous EME/LPME was not affected by coexisting drugs at high concentration. This approach was further investigated from human plasma. Extraction recoveries were strongly dependent on dilution of plasma with buffer and on extraction time. Finally, this simultaneous EME/LPME approach was evaluated in combination with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS. The linearity ranges for the basic and acidic drugs were 10-600 ng/mL and 1-60 μg/mL, respectively, with R(2) > 0.997 for all analytes. The repeatability at three different levels for all analytes was less than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were found to be 4.0-6.3 ng/mL and 0.6-0.9 μg/mL for basic and acidic drugs, respectively. Simultaneous EME/LPME enabled efficient group separation of basic and acidic analytes under optimum experimental conditions for both EME and LPME.

  7. Phytoformulation of Sassurea lappa plant extract: A Single blind, noninvasive and split face study of cream on various skin parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Qazi; Akhtar, Naveed; Khan, Barkat Ali

    2017-09-01

    Saussurea lappa (SL) has been reported for its antioxidant and anti-ageing properties. Due to this reason it can be incorporated in a stable phytoformulations for cosmetic use. The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-aging potential of cosmetic o/w emulsion containing the botanical extract of SL. An emulsion (o/w) was prepared using TEGO® Care 450 (Polyglceryl-3-Methyl Glucose Distearate) emulsifier and final emulsion was loaded with 4 % extract of SL in aqueous phase. This emulsion evaluated for its antioxidant and anti-ageing properties on healthy human subjects using a non-invasive technique called surface evaluation of living skin (SELS). The formulation containing SL extract showed significant (p<0.05) changes in Skin roughness (SEr) as -3.13%, -6.26%, -9.39%; Skin Scaliness (SEsc) as - 4.19%, -8.39%, -12.58%; Skin wrinkles (SEw) as -0.5%, -1.08%, -1.63%; and Skin smoothness (SEsm) as 3.28%, 6.57%, 9.85%, respectively, after 30, 60 and 90 days of continous use. Topical application of the cosmetic cream containing SL extract exerts have a significant anti-aging effects, perhaps due to the presence of Kaempferol, gallic acid, Caffeic acid and other essential phenolics.

  8. A Systematic Review on Effect of Single-Dose Preoperative Antibiotics at Surgical Osteotomy Extraction of Lower Third Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Karoline Brørup; Laulund, Anne Sofie; Jørgensen, Henrik L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of preoperative antibiotic administered perorally, intravenously, intramuscularly, or topically for preventing infection and alveolar osteitis in lower third molar surgi...

  9. Preconcentration of thallium (I) by single drop microextraction with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy detection using dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 as extractant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Arbab-Zavar, Mohammad Hossien; Darroudi, Abolfazl; Salehi, Thiery

    2009-08-15

    A simple single drop liquid-phase microextraction (SDME) technique, combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS) is developed both to preconcentrate and determine thallium (I) ions in aqueous solutions. The ions were transferred from 10.0 ml of aqueous sample (donor phase) containing 0.5 ml of 1% picric acid as the ion-pair agent into a 3 microl microdrop of nitrobenzene (acceptor phase) containing dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 as the complexing agent. The latter will help to improve the extraction efficiency of the analyte. After the ions have been extracted, the acceptor drop was directly injected into a graphite furnace for thallium (I) determination. Several parameters such as the extracting solvent, extraction time, temperature, concentration of picric acid and crown ether, drop volume and stirring rate were examined. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limit (L.O.D.) was 0.7 ng ml(-1). The relative standard deviation for five replicate analysis of 10 ng ml(-1) of thallium (I) was 5.1%. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 3-22 ng ml(-1). The results for determination of thallium in reference material, spiked tap water and seawater demonstrated the accuracy, recovery and applicability of the presented method. The enrichment factor was 50.

  10. Microfluidic extraction and stretching of chromosomal DNA from single cell nuclei for DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaozhu; Takebayashi, Shin-Ichiro; Bernardin, Evans; Gilbert, David M; Chella, Ravindran; Guan, Jingjiao

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a novel method for genetic characterization of single cells by integrating microfluidic stretching of chromosomal DNA and fiber fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In this method, individually isolated cell nuclei were immobilized in a microchannel. Chromosomal DNA was released from the nuclei and stretched by a pressure-driven flow. We analyzed and optimized flow conditions to generate a millimeter-long band of stretched DNA from each nucleus. Telomere fiber FISH was successfully performed on the stretched chromosomal DNA. Individual telomere fiber FISH signals from single cells could be resolved and their lengths measured, demonstrating the ability of the method to quantify genetic features at the level of single cells.

  11. Single-particle cryo-EM at crystallographic resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer. Now, this method rivals X-ray crystallography in terms of resolution and can be used to determine atomic structures of macromolecules that are either refractory to crystallization or difficult to crystallize in specific functional states. In this review, I discuss the recent breakthroughs in both hardware and software that transformed cryo-microscopy, enabling understanding of complex biomolecules and their functions at atomic level. PMID:25910205

  12. A 5-year comparison of marginal bone level following immediate loading of single-tooth implants placed in healed alveolar ridges and extraction sockets in the maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberi, Antoine N; Sabbagh, Joseph M; Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Noujeim, Ziad F; Salameh, Ziad A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present investigation was to evaluate marginal bone level after 5-year follow-up of implants placed in healed ridges and fresh extraction sockets in maxilla with immediate loading protocol. Thirty-six patients in need of a single-tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla received 42 Astra Tech implants (Astra Tech Implant system™, Dentsply Implants, Mölndal, Sweden). Implants were placed either in healed ridges (group I) or immediately into fresh extraction sockets (group II). Implants were restored and placed into functional loading immediately by using a prefabricated abutment. Marginal bone level relative to the implant reference point was recorded at implant placement, crown cementation, 12, 36, and 60 months following loading using intra-oral radiographs. Measurements were made on the mesial and distal sides of each implant. Overall, two implants were lost from the group II, before final crown cementation: they were excluded from the study. The mean change in marginal bone loss (MBL) after implant placement was 0.26 ± 0.161 mm for 1 year, and 0.26 ± 0.171 mm for 3 years, and 0.21 ± 0.185 mm for 5 years in extraction sockets and was 0.26 ± 0.176 mm for 1 year and 0.21 ± 0.175 mm for 3 years, and 0.19 ± 0.172 mm for 5 years in healed ridges group. Significant reduction of marginal bone was more pronounced in implants inserted in healed ridges (P implant after cementation of the provisional (P immediately loaded implants placed either in extraction sockets or healed ridges were similar. Functional loading technique by using prefabricated abutment placed during the surgery time seems to maintain marginal bone around implant in both healed and fresh extraction sites.

  13. Microfluidic extraction and stretching of chromosomal DNA from single cell nuclei for DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaozhu; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Bernardin, Evans; Gilbert, David M.; Chella, Ravindran; Guan, Jingjiao

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for genetic characterization of single cells by integrating microfluidic stretching of chromosomal DNA and fiber fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In this method, individually isolated cell nuclei were immobilized in a microchannel. Chromosomal DNA was released from the nuclei and stretched by a pressure-driven flow. We analyzed and optimized flow conditions to generate a millimeter-long band of stretched DNA from each nucleus. Telomere fiber FISH was...

  14. Extractives content in cooperage oak wood during natural seasoning and toasting; influence of tree species, geographic location, and single-tree effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doussot, Franck; De Jéso, Bernard; Quideau, Stéphane; Pardon, Patrick

    2002-10-09

    The chemical composition of cooperage oak wood is highly variable, depending upon the tree species (Quercus robur L. versus Quercus petraea Liebl.), its geographic location, and the single-tree effect. In the process of cask-making, natural seasoning and toasting contribute strongly to the modification of the oak wood chemical composition and therefore influence wine cooperaging. HPLC and GC quantification of ellagitannins and volatile compounds such as whiskey-lactones, eugenol, and vanillin over a sample set of 61 pedunculate oaks and 72 sessile oaks originating from six different forests showed that natural drying leads to a decrease of the ellagitannins and total extractives content level and a quasi constant level of the volatile compounds. Toasting (medium type) drastically enhanced the loss of ellagitannins and the gain in volatile compounds. Statistical treatment showed that the species effect remained significant throughout the process of drying and toasting, but not the provenance. The poor correlation with ring width of extractives levels measured on fresh timber remained unchanged as did the single-tree effect, with high variability found for all chemical parameters. These results provide further evidence that cooperage oak selection should not be based solely on the wood grain or the provenance but rather on a species-provenance combination.

  15. Selective Single-Step Separation of a Mixture of Three Metal Ions by a Triphasic Ionic-Liquid-Water-Ionic-Liquid Solvent Extraction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Blockx, Jonas; De Coster, Hendrik; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-08-10

    In a conventional solvent extraction system, metal ions are distributed between two immiscible phases, typically an aqueous and an organic phase. In this paper, the proof-of-principle is given for the distribution of metal ions between three immiscible phases, two ionic liquid phases with an aqueous phase in between them. Three-liquid-phase solvent extraction allows separation of a mixture of three metal ions in a single step, whereas at least two steps are required to separate three metals in the case of two-liquid-phase solvent extraction. In the triphasic system, the lower organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid betainium- or choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, whereas the upper organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The triphasic system was used for the separation of a mixture of tin(II), yttrium(III), and scandium(III) ions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Removal of lead and yellow 44 acid dye in single and binary component systems by raw Posidonia oceanica and the cellulose extracted from the raw biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi-Dhaouadi, Sonia; Ben Douissa-Lazreg, Najoua; M'Henni, M Farouk

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the sorption behaviour of Pb(II) and C.I. Acid Yellow 44 on Posidonia oceanica, an abundant Mediterranean biomass. A comparison with sorption onto cellulose extracted from the raw material was carried out to identify those site characteristics that play a predominant role in the adsorption of both dye and metal ions. Kinetic and equilibrium studies were performed for single and binary component systems, and the experimental data were analyzed by a non-linear method. The pseudo second-order kinetic model was successfully applied for both dye and metal retention onto sorbents in single and binary systems. Both sorbents were found to be more effective for lead than for Yellow 44 removal. However, lead sorption was more effective on raw P. oceanica suggesting that the metal ions are sorbed into the whole available biomass sites (cellulose and lignin). An opposite behaviour was reported for Yellow 44 sorption, which was found to be more effective on the extracted cellulose than raw P. oceanica. This finding proves that the only available sites for dye sorption are the cellulosic ones. The binary component experimental studies indicated competition between dye and lead for the available sites of raw P. oceanica. However, this competition was found to be less prevalent for sorption by cellulose extracted from raw P. oceanica suggesting that, in binary component systems, the cellulosic sites are equally available for both pollutants, the only limiting parameter being the size of the molecular sorbate. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to fit the experimental data using the non-linear method for parameter determination.

  17. Technical Reproducibility of Single-Nucleotide and Size-Based DNA Biomarker Assessment Using DNA Extracted from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shenli; Tan, Iain B.; Sapari, Nur S.; Grabsch, Heike I.; Okines, Alicia; Smyth, Elizabeth C.; Aoyama, Toru; Hewitt, Lindsay C.; Inam, Imran; Bottomley, Dan; Nankivell, Matthew; Stenning, Sally P.; Cunningham, David; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Tsuburaya, Akira; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Soong, Richie; Tan, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues has been used in the past to analyze genetic polymorphisms. We evaluated the technical reproducibility of different types of assays for gene polymorphisms using DNA extracted from FFPE material. By using the MassARRAY iPLEX system, we investigated polymorphisms in DPYD (rs1801159 and rs3918290), UMPS (rs1801019), ERCC1 (rs11615), ERCC1 (rs3212986), and ERCC2 (rs13181) in 56 FFPE DNA samples. By using PCR, followed by size-based gel electrophoresis, we also examined TYMS 5′ untranslated region 2R/3R repeats and GSTT1 deletions in 50 FFPE DNA samples and 34 DNAs extracted from fresh-frozen tissues and cell lines. Each polymorphism was analyzed by two independent runs. We found that iPLEX biomarker assays measuring single-nucleotide polymorphisms provided consistent concordant results. However, by using FFPE DNA, size-based PCR biomarkers (GSTT1 and TYMS 5′ untranslated region) were discrepant in 32.7% (16/49, with exact 95% CI, 19.9%–47.5%; exact binomial confidence limit test) and 4.2% (2/48, with exact 95% CI, 0.5%–14.3%) of cases, respectively, whereas no discrepancies were observed using intact genomic DNA. Our findings suggest that DNA from FFPE material can be used to reliably test single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, results based on size-based PCR biomarkers, and particularly GSTT1 deletions, using FFPE DNA need to be interpreted with caution. Independent repeated assays should be performed on all cases to assess potential discrepancies. PMID:25746798

  18. The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a Single Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Bevin A.; Conroy, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber (Asteraceae) has been extensively employed as a diuretic in traditional folk medicine and in modern phytotherapy in Europe, Asia, and the Americas without prior clinical trial substantiation. Objectives In this pilot study, a high-quality fresh leaf hydroethanolic extract of the medicinal plant T. officinale (dandelion) was ingested by volunteers to investigate whether an increased urinary frequency and volume would result. Design Volume of urinary output and fluid intake were recorded by subjects. Baseline values for urinary frequency and excretion ratio (urination volume:fluid intake) were established 2 days prior to dandelion dosing (8 mL TID) and monitored throughout a 1-day dosing period and 24 hours postdosing. Results For the entire population (n = 17) there was a significant (p diuresis in human subjects. PMID:19678785

  19. Extracting physical chemistry from mechanics: a new approach to investigate DNA interactions with drugs and proteins in single molecule experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M S

    2015-09-01

    In this review we focus on the idea of establishing connections between the mechanical properties of DNA-ligand complexes and the physical chemistry of DNA-ligand interactions. This type of connection is interesting because it opens the possibility of performing a robust characterization of such interactions by using only one experimental technique: single molecule stretching. Furthermore, it also opens new possibilities in comparing results obtained by very different approaches, in particular when comparing single molecule techniques to ensemble-averaging techniques. We start the manuscript reviewing important concepts of DNA mechanics, from the basic mechanical properties to the Worm-Like Chain model. Next we review the basic concepts of the physical chemistry of DNA-ligand interactions, revisiting the most important models used to analyze the binding data and discussing their binding isotherms. Then, we discuss the basic features of the single molecule techniques most used to stretch DNA-ligand complexes and to obtain "force × extension" data, from which the mechanical properties of the complexes can be determined. We also discuss the characteristics of the main types of interactions that can occur between DNA and ligands, from covalent binding to simple electrostatic driven interactions. Finally, we present a historical survey of the attempts to connect mechanics to physical chemistry for DNA-ligand systems, emphasizing a recently developed fitting approach useful to connect the persistence length of DNA-ligand complexes to the physicochemical properties of the interaction. Such an approach in principle can be used for any type of ligand, from drugs to proteins, even if multiple binding modes are present.

  20. Rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite nanoparticles for the determination of free fatty acid content in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Zhao, Qin; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-09

    This study proposes a rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) for determining the quantities of eight free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and behenic acid (C22:0) in oil. The amine-functionalized mesoporous Fe(3)O(4) magnetic NPs were applied as a sorbent for MSPE of FFAs from oil samples in a process that is based on hydrophilic interaction. The extraction can be completed rapidly in a dispersive mode with the aid of vigorous vortex. Additional tedious processing steps such as centrifugation and evaporation of organic solvent were not necessary with this procedure. Furthermore, esterification of FFAs can be accomplished during the desorption procedure by using methanol/sulfuric acid (99:1, v/v) as the desorption solvent. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the matrix solvent for extraction, the desorption solvent and desorption time, and the amount of sorbent and extraction time. The pretreatment process was rapid under optimal conditions, being accomplished within 15 min. When coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), a rapid, simple, and convenient MSPE-GC-FID method for the determination of FFAs in oil samples was established with a total analysis time within 25 min. The limits of detection for the target FFAs were found to be 7.22-26.26 ng/mL. Recoveries in oil samples were in the range of 81.33-117.75%, with RSDs of <6.4% (intraday) and <6.9% (interday). This method was applied successfully to the analysis of dynamic FFA formation in four types of edible oils subjected to an accelerated storage test. The simple, rapid, and cost-effective method developed in the current study offers a potential application for the extraction and

  1. Robust extraction of the N1-effect in dichotic listening using hardy space mappings of auditory late single trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Strauss, Farah I; Strauss, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    It is known that signs of (early) auditory selective attention are reflected in the N1-wave of auditory late potentials. In recent years, we have analyzed this N1-effect using multiscale neurofunctional modeling and (instantaneous) phase synchronization measures of Hardy space mapped data. To acquire the electroencephalographic data in dichotic listening, we repeated the seminal experiment of Hillyard et al. which first described the N1-effect. Here we apply for the first time phase synchronization measures to these dichotic data and compare the results to the conventional time-domain analysis. Our results suggest that a single trial synchronization analysis of the instantaneous phase at the α/θ-border shows the N1-attention effect even more clear than the original averaged time-domain representation. It is concluded that the presented method is a robust tool to analyse (early) signs of selective attention in dichotic listening tasks.

  2. Extracting the field-effect mobilities of random semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube networks: A critical comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schießl, Stefan P.; Rother, Marcel; Lüttgens, Jan; Zaumseil, Jana

    2017-11-01

    The field-effect mobility is an important figure of merit for semiconductors such as random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, owing to their network properties and quantum capacitance, the standard models for field-effect transistors cannot be applied without modifications. Several different methods are used to determine the mobility with often very different results. We fabricated and characterized field-effect transistors with different polymer-sorted, semiconducting SWNT network densities ranging from low (≈6 μm-1) to densely packed quasi-monolayers (≈26 μm-1) with a maximum on-conductance of 0.24 μS μm-1 and compared four different techniques to evaluate the field-effect mobility. We demonstrate the limits and requirements for each method with regard to device layout and carrier accumulation. We find that techniques that take into account the measured capacitance on the active device give the most reliable mobility values. Finally, we compare our experimental results to a random-resistor-network model.

  3. A Method for Extracting the Free Energy Surface and Conformational Dynamics of Fast-Folding Proteins from Single Molecule Photon Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy holds the promise of providing direct measurements of protein folding free energy landscapes and conformational motions. However, fulfilling this promise has been prevented by technical limitations, most notably, the difficulty in analyzing the small packets of photons per millisecond that are typically recorded from individual biomolecules. Such limitation impairs the ability to accurately determine conformational distributions and resolve sub-millisecond processes. Here we develop an analytical procedure for extracting the conformational distribution and dynamics of fast-folding proteins directly from time-stamped photon arrival trajectories produced by single molecule FRET experiments. Our procedure combines the maximum likelihood analysis originally developed by Gopich and Szabo with a statistical mechanical model that describes protein folding as diffusion on a one-dimensional free energy surface. Using stochastic kinetic simulations, we thoroughly tested the performance of the method in identifying diverse fast-folding scenarios, ranging from two-state to one-state downhill folding, as a function of relevant experimental variables such as photon count rate, amount of input data, and background noise. The tests demonstrate that the analysis can accurately retrieve the original one-dimensional free energy surface and microsecond folding dynamics in spite of the sub-megahertz photon count rates and significant background noise levels of current single molecule fluorescence experiments. Therefore, our approach provides a powerful tool for the quantitative analysis of single molecule FRET experiments of fast protein folding that is also potentially extensible to the analysis of any other biomolecular process governed by sub-millisecond conformational dynamics. PMID:25988351

  4. Potential of maize single-cross hybrids for extraction of inbred lines using the mean components and mixed models with microsatellite marker information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestre, M; Von Pinho, R G; Souza, J C; Machado, J C

    2008-10-21

    The present study examined the importance of mean (m+a' and d) components in the performance of single-cross hybrids for the formation of new populations and determined the contribution of the mixed model (best linear unbiased predictor of random effects, BLUP) method associated with molecular markers for the choice of crosses to obtain interpopulation hybrids. Ten single-cross commercial hybrids of different companies were used for this purpose, producing all possible double-cross hybrids through a complete diallel. The hybrids were evaluated in 15 locations in the agricultural year 2005/2006, using randomized complete block design with three repetitions. In three of these locations, estimates of m+a' and d were obtained. DNA was extracted from the single-cross hybrids and 20 SSR primers were used, nine of which were linked to QTL for yield. There was no correlation between m+a' of the single-cross hybrids with general combining ability (r = -0.15) inferring that populations with lines with high means do not always produce good hybrids. Also, it was observed that the correlation between the genetic distances with specific combining ability varied from 0.31 to 0.80 in the inter-group hybrids, while in the intra-group hybrids these estimates were low and non-significant. The heritability value obtained by BLUP was high and greater than that obtained by ordinary least squares (h(2) = 0.95 and 0.86), confirming the greater selection accuracy by the BLUP method. There were no differences between the accuracy values obtained with microsatellite information and without this information, inferring that there was no advantage of progenitor information on balanced data. It can be concluded that the estimate m+a' should not be used as a deciding parameter about the potential for extracting lines from a given population. The heritability and accuracy values obtained by BLUP allow the inference that it is possible to predict success in the choice of progenitors to obtain

  5. A 5- Year Comparison of Marginal Bone Level Following Immediate Loading of Single-Tooth Implants Placed in Healed Alveolar Ridges and Extraction Sockets in the Maxilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Nicolas Berberi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The aim of present investigation was to evaluate marginal bone level after 5-year follow-up of implants placed in healed ridges and fresh extraction sockets in maxilla with immediate loading protocol.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients in need of a single tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla received 42 Astra Tech implants (Astra Tech Implant system™, Dentsply Implants, Mölndal, Sweden. Implants were placed in healed ridges (group I or immediately into extraction sockets (group II. Implants were restored and placed into functional loading immediately by using a prefabricated abutment. Marginal bone level relative to the implant reference point was recorded at implant placement, crown cementation, 12, 36 and 60 months following loading using intra-oral radiographs. Measurements were made on the mesial and distal sides of each implantResults: Overall, two implants were lost from the group II, before final crown cementation: they were excluded from the study and all remaining implants osseointegrated successfully after 5 years of functional loading. The mean change in marginal bone loss after implant placement was 0.267±0.161 for one year, and 0.265±0.171 for three years and 0.213±0.185 for five years in extraction sockets and was 0.266±0.176 for one year and 0.219±0.175 for three years and 0.194±0.172 for five years in healed ridges group. Significant reduction of marginal bone loss was more pronounced in implants inserted in healed ridges (P

  6. Photosynthetic Performance of the Imidazolinone Resistant Sunflower Exposed to Single and Combined Treatment by the Herbicide Imazamox and an Amino Acid Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrinka Anastasova Balabanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The herbicide imazamox may provoke temporary yellowing and growth retardation in IMI-R sunflower hybrids, more often under stressful environmental conditions. Although photosynthetic processes are not the primary sites of imazamox action, they might be influenced; therefore, more information about the photosynthetic performance of the herbicide-treated plants could be valuable for a further improvement of the Clearfield technology. Plant biostimulants have been shown to ameliorate damages caused by different stress factors on plants, but very limited information exists about their effects on herbicide-stressed plants. In order to characterize photosynthetic performance of imazamox-treated sunflower IMI-R plants, we carried out experiments including both single and combined treatments by imazamox and a plant biostimulants containing amino acid extract. We found that imazamox application in a rate of 132 μg per plant (equivalent of 40 g active ingredient ha-1 induced negative effects on both light-light dependent photosynthetic redox reactions and leaf gas exchange processes, which was much less pronounced after the combined application of imazamox and amino acid extract.

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetics study of orientin in rat plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS after intravenous administration of single orientin and Trollius chinensis Bunge extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Sun, Qi; Song, Yang; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Tingjian; Meng, Fanhao

    2017-11-17

    Orientin showed a broad array of biological activities, and it is the major bioactive compound in the Trollius chinensis Bunge. Thus, this paper was conducted to investigate the comparative pharmacokinetics of orientin after intravenous administration of single orientin and Trollius chinensis Bunge extract. Sample preparation involved a simple one-step deproteinization procedure with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid in an isocratic elution way. The detection was accomplished by multiple reaction monitoring mode with the positive electrospray ionization. The pharmacokinetic properties of orientin were compared after the intravenous administrations of pure orientin and Trollius chinensis Bunge extract to rats with approximately the same dosage of 10mg/kg. Results of the study indicated that the pharmacokinetics of orientin in rat plasma have significant differences between two groups. It is workable on the clinical uses of therapeutic dosing of orientin and Trollius chinensis Bunge. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Contact effects analyzed by a parameter extraction method based on a single bottom-gate/top-contact organic thin-film transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Shunsuke; Yamada, Hirofumi; Noda, Kei

    2018-03-01

    Contact effects in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) were examined by using our previously proposed parameter extraction method from the electrical characteristics of a single staggered-type device. Gate-voltage-dependent contact resistance and channel mobility in the linear regime were evaluated for bottom-gate/top-contact (BGTC) pentacene TFTs with active layers of different thicknesses, and for pentacene TFTs with contact-doped layers prepared by coevaporation of pentacene and tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ). The extracted parameters suggested that the influence of the contact resistance becomes more prominent with the larger active-layer thickness, and that contact-doping experiments give rise to a drastic decrease in the contact resistance and a concurrent considerable improvement in the channel mobility. Additionally, the estimated energy distributions of trap density in the transistor channel probably reflect the trap filling with charge carriers injected into the channel regions. The analysis results in this study confirm the effectiveness of our proposed method, with which we can investigate contact effects and circumvent the influences of characteristic variations in OTFT fabrication.

  9. Studies of single-walled carbon nanotubes-induced hepatotoxicity by NMR-based metabonomics of rat blood plasma and liver extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bencheng; Zhang, Huashan; Lin, Zhiqing; Fang, Yanjun; Tian, Lei; Yang, Honglian; Yan, Jun; Liu, Huanliang; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Zhuge

    2013-05-01

    The toxicological effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated after intratracheal instillation in male Wistar rats over a 15-day period using metabonomic analysis of 1H (nuclear magnetic resonance) NMR spectra of blood plasma and liver tissue extracts. Concurrent liver histopathology examinations and plasma clinical chemistry analyses were also performed. Significant changes were observed in clinical chemistry features, including alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and total cholesterol, and in liver pathology, suggesting that SWCNTs clearly have hepatotoxicity in the rat. 1H NMR spectra and pattern recognition analyses from nanomaterial-treated rats showed remarkable differences in the excretion of lactate, trimethylamine oxide, bilineurin, phosphocholine, amylaceum, and glycogen. Indications of amino acid metabolism impairment were supported by increased lactate concentrations and decreased alanine concentrations in plasma. The rise in plasma and liver tissue extract concentrations of choline and phosphocholine, together with decreased lipids and lipoproteins, after SWCNTs treatment indicated a disruption of membrane fluidity caused by lipid peroxidation. Energy, amino acid, and fat metabolism appeared to be affected by SWCNTs exposure. Clinical chemistry and metabonomic approaches clearly indicated liver injury, which might have been associated with an indirect mechanism involving nanomaterial-induced oxidative stress.

  10. Modulation of inflammatory gene expression by a bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract and single anthocyanins considering their limited stability under cell culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, Sven; Trieu, Hai-Linh; Richling, Elke

    2012-09-12

    Studies with nonintestinal models indicate that anthocyanin-rich extracts can modulate inflammatory gene expression and may help prevent development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This work investigated the influence of a bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract (BE) and comprising anthocyanins on pro-inflammatory genes in IFN-γ/IL-1β/TNF-α stimulated human colon epithelial cells (T84) by qRT-PCR and cytokine arrays. Moreover, the stability of selected anthocyanins under cell culture conditions was examined to assess their anti-inflammatory properties. BE and single anthocyanins significantly inhibited the expression and secretion of IBD-associated pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IP-10, I-TAC, sICAM-1, GRO-α) in the stimulated cells. The anti-inflammatory activity thereby strongly depends on the aglycon structure (hydroxylation and methylation pattern) and the sugar moiety. In contrast to anthocyanidins, which were highly unstable in cell culture medium, suggesting that their degradation products might contribute to the inhibitory effects assigned to the parent compounds, anthocyanins have higher stability and may directly contribute to BE's effects.

  11. The role of chemometrics in single and sequential extraction assays: a review. Part II. Cluster analysis, multiple linear regression, mixture resolution, experimental design and other techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, Agnese; Abollino, Ornella; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-03-04

    Single and sequential extraction procedures are used for studying element mobility and availability in solid matrices, like soils, sediments, sludge, and airborne particulate matter. In the first part of this review we reported an overview on these procedures and described the applications of chemometric uni- and bivariate techniques and of multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on variable reduction to the experimental results obtained. The second part of the review deals with the use of chemometrics not only for the visualization and interpretation of data, but also for the investigation of the effects of experimental conditions on the response, the optimization of their values and the calculation of element fractionation. We will describe the principles of the multivariate chemometric techniques considered, the aims for which they were applied and the key findings obtained. The following topics will be critically addressed: pattern recognition by cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and other less common techniques; modelling by multiple linear regression (MLR); investigation of spatial distribution of variables by geostatistics; calculation of fractionation patterns by a mixture resolution method (Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distributions, CISED); optimization and characterization of extraction procedures by experimental design; other multivariate techniques less commonly applied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of single and combined administration of fermented barley extract and gamma-aminobutyric acid on the development of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokazono, Hideki; Omori, Toshiro; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects single and combined administration of fermented barley extract P (FBEP), prepared from barley-shochu distillery by-products, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Single administration of FBEP and GABA dose-dependently reduced the development of AD-like skin lesions in mice. GABA reduced the development of AD-like skin lesions by suppressing serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and splenocyte interleukin (IL)-4 production, while FBEP reduced skin lesions without affecting the IgE or cytokine production. However, in mice with induced AD-like skin lesions, combined administration of FBEP and GABA decreased serum IgE levels and splenic cell IL-4 production, and increased splenic cell interferon-gamma production. These results suggest that combined administration of FBEP and GABA alleviated AD-like skin lesions in the NC/Nga mice by adjusting the Th1/Th2 balance to a Th1-predominant immune response.

  13. Immediate loading of post-extractive versus delayed placed single implants in the anterior maxilla: outcome of a pragmatic multicenter randomised controlled trial 1-year after loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marco; Barausse, Carlo; Pistilli, Roberto; Jacotti, Michele; Grandi, Giovanni; Tuco, Lorenzo; Felice, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of immediate post-extractive single implants with delayed implants, placed in preserved sockets after 4 months of healing. Implants that achieved an insertion torque of at least 35 Ncm were immediately non-occlusally loaded. Just after tooth extraction, and in the presence of less than 4 mm of vertical loss of the buccal bone in relation to the palatal wall, 106 patients requiring a single immediate post-extractive implant in the maxilla from second to second premolar were randomly allocated to immediate implant placement (immediate group; 54 patients) or to socket preservation using anorganic bovine bone covered by a resorbable collagen barrier (delayed group; 52 patients), according to a parallel group design at three different centres. Bone-to-implant gaps were to be filled with anorganic bovine bone, however this was not carried out in 17 patients (corresponding to 40% of those who should have been grafted). Four months after socket preservation, delayed implants were placed. Implants inserted with an insertion torque of at least 35 Ncm were immediately loaded with non-occluding provisional single crowns, then replaced after 4 months by definitive crowns. Patients were followed up to 1 year after loading. Outcome measures were implant failures, complications, aesthetics assessed using the pink esthetic score (PES), peri-implant marginal bone level changes and patient satisfaction recorded by blinded assessors. Nineteen (35%) implants were not immediately loaded in the immediate group versus 39 (75%) implants in the delayed placement group because an insertion torque superior to 35 Ncm could not be obtained. Six patients dropped out 4 months after loading from the delayed group versus none in the immediate group. Two implants failed in the immediate group (6%) versus none in the delayed group, with the difference showing no statistical significance (difference in proportions = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.11; P = 0.187). Eight minor

  14. Interlayer exchange coupling, dipolar coupling and magnetoresistance in Fe/MgO/Fe trilayers with a subnanometer MgO barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozioł-Rachwał, A. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Skowroński, W.; Frankowski, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Chęciński, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Ziętek, S.; Rzeszut, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Ślęzak, M.; Matlak, K.; Ślęzak, T. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Stobiecki, T. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Korecki, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 8, 30-239 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    Fe/MgO/Fe trilayers with a subnanometer MgO tunnel barrier were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Longitudinal magnetooptic Kerr effect measurements confirmed the existence of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) between the Fe layers for 2 Å

  15. Exploring the Potential of Different-Sized Supported Subnanometer Pt Clusters as Catalysts for Wet Chemical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Rondelli, Manuel

    2017-05-10

    The use of physicochemical preparation techniques of metal clusters in the ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) allows for high control of cluster nuclearity and size distribution for fundamental studies in catalysis. Surprisingly, the potential of these systems as catalysts for organic chemistry transformations in solution has not been explored. To this end, single Pt atoms and Pt clusters with two narrow size distributions were prepared in the UHV and applied for the hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene to p-chloroaniline in ethanol. Following the observation of very high catalytic turnovers (approaching the million molecules of p-nitroaniline formed per Pt cluster) and of size-dependent activity, this work addresses fundamental questions with respect to the suitability of these systems as heterogeneous catalysts for the conversion of solution-phase reagents. For this purpose, we employ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization before and after reaction to assess the stability of the clusters on the support and the question of heterogeneity versus homogeneity in the catalytic process.

  16. Facial bone alterations on maxillary anterior single implants for immediate placement and provisionalization following tooth extraction: a superimposed cone beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Taichiro; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Keizo; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) study was to describe the facial bone changes around single implants for immediate placement and provisionalization following tooth extraction in the maxillary anterior. The data between 2008 and 2013 were collected retrospectively. Superimposed facio-palatal cross-sectional CBCT images for the implants were derived from preoperative and postoperative radiographs via standardized CBCT processes. Horizontal and vertical facial measurements on the implants were identified at preoperative and approximately 1-year postoperative follow-ups. Correlation coefficient for those parameters was evaluated. A total of 12 single implants in 12 patients were included in this study. The mean loading period was 13.3 months (range 12-15 months). The median data of preoperative bone thickness 0.54 mm (A), preoperative vertical bone level 1.46 mm (B), postoperative bone thickness 1.77 mm (C), postoperative vertical bone level 1.08 mm (D), horizontal distance from outer surface of preoperative facial bone to implant surface 2.08 mm (E), horizontal gap distance 1.41 mm (E-A), horizontal bone resorption -0.26 mm (E-C), and vertical bone resorption -0.25 mm (B-D) were obtained. The data at the implant platform level (IPL) were selected for the horizontal measurements. Spearman's analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlations between B and D, C and E, E and E-A, and B and E-C (P maxillary anterior showed excellent outcomes with the small facial bone alterations around the implants. Neither preoperative facial bone thickness nor horizontal gap distance influenced the amount of facial bone resorptions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Determination of synephrine in bitter orange raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M; Hildreth, Jana

    2007-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantify synephrine in bitter orange raw material, extracts, and dietary supplements. Single-laboratory validation has been performed on the method to determine the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection/limit of quantification (LOQ), ruggedness, and linearity for p-synephrine and 5 other biogenic amines: octopamine, phenylephrine (m-synephrine), tyramine, N-methyltyramine, and hordenine, which may be present in bitter orange. p-Synephrine was found to be the primary biogenic amine present in all materials tested, accounting for >80% of the total biogenic amine content in all samples except a finished product. Repeatability precision for synephrine was between 1.48 and 3.55% RSD. Synephrine recovery was between 97.5 and 104%. The minor alkaloids were typically near the LOQ of the method (300-900 microg/g) in the test materials, and between-day precision for the minor compounds was poor because interferences could sometimes be mistakenly identified as one of the minor analytes. Recoveries of the minor components ranged from 99.1 to 103% at approximately 6000 microg/g spike level, to 90.7 to 120% at 300 microg/g spike level.

  18. A novel strategy with standardized reference extract qualification and single compound quantitative evaluation for quality control of Panax notoginseng used as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S P; Qiao, C F; Chen, Y W; Zhao, J; Cui, X M; Zhang, Q W; Liu, X M; Hu, D J

    2013-10-25

    Root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi in Chinese) is one of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) based functional food. Saponins are the major bioactive components. The shortage of reference compounds or chemical standards is one of the main bottlenecks for quality control of TCMs. A novel strategy, i.e. standardized reference extract based qualification and single calibrated components directly quantitative estimation of multiple analytes, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. The feasibility and credibility of this methodology were also assessed with a developed fast HPLC method. Five saponins, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1 were rapidly separated using a conventional HPLC in 20 min. The quantification method was also compared with individual calibration curve method. The strategy is feasible and credible, which is easily and effectively adapted for improving the quality control of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of gold nanoparticle uptake by tomato plants using enzymatic extraction followed by single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yongbo; Zhang, Weilan; Xue, Runmiao; Ma, Xingmao; Stephan, Chady; Shi, Honglan

    2015-03-03

    Plant uptake and accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) represent an important pathway for potential human expose to NPs. Consequently, it is imperative to understand the uptake of accumulation of NPs in plant tissues and their unique physical and chemical properties within plant tissues. Current technologies are limited in revealing the unique characteristics of NPs after they enter plant tissues. An enzymatic digestion method, followed by single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) analysis, was developed for simultaneous determination of gold NP (AuNP) size, size distribution, particle concentration, and dissolved Au concentration in tomato plant tissues. The experimental results showed that Macerozyme R-10 enzyme was capable of extracting AuNPs from tomato plants without causing dissolution or aggregation of AuNPs. The detection limit for quantification of AuNP size was 20 nm, and the AuNP particle concentration detection limit was 1000 NPs/mL. The particle concentration recoveries of spiked AuNPs were high (79-96%) in quality control samples. The developed SP-ICP-MS method was able to accurately measure AuNP size, size distribution, and particle concentration in the plant matrix. The dosing study indicated that tomato can uptake AuNPs as intact particles without alternating the AuNP properties.

  20. Determination of oil reservoir radiotracer (S{sup 14}CN{sup -}) in a single step using a plastic scintillator extractive resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagan, H.; Tarancon, A. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Stavsetra, L. [Department for Reservoir and Exploration Technology, Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Instituttveien 18, N-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Rauret, G. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, J.F., E-mail: jfgarcia@ub.edu [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-07-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new procedure for S{sup 14}CN{sup -} radiotracer determination using PS resin was established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The minimum detectable activity for a 100 mL sample is 0.08 Bq L{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The minimum quantifiable activity for a 100 mL sample is 0.31 Bq L{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PS resin is capable to quantify S{sup 14}CN{sup -} radiotracer samples with errors lower than 5%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PS resin is also capable to quantify complex matrices obtained from oil reservoirs. - Abstract: The analysis of radiotracers is important in the study of oil reservoir dynamics. One of the most widely used radiotracer is S{sup 14}CN{sup -}. Prior to activity measurements by Liquid Scintillation (LS), routine determinations require the pretreatment steps of purification and concentration of the samples using anion exchange columns. The final elution media produces samples with high salt concentration that may lead to problems with phase separation during the LS measurement. Plastic Scintillation (PS) is an alternative technique that provides a solid surface that can be used as a platform for the immobilisation of selective extractants to obtain a PS resin. The proposed procedure unifies chemical separation and sample measurement preparation in a single step, serving to reduce the number of reagents needed and manpower required for the analysis while also avoiding mixed waste production by LS. The objective of this study is to develop a PS resin for the determination of {sup 14}C-labelled thiocyanate radiotracer in water samples. For this purpose, the immobilisation procedure was optimised, including optimisation of the proportion of PS microspheres:extractant and the use of a control blank to monitor the PS resin immobilisation process. The breakthrough volume was studied and the detection and quantification limits for 100 mL of sample were determined to be 0.08 Bq L{sup -1

  1. Randomized, split-body, single-blinded clinical trial of topical broccoli sprout extract: Assessing the feasibility of its use in keratin-based disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Michelle L.; Guss, Lark; Fahey, Jed; Cohen, Bernard; Hakim, Jill M. C.; Sung, Sarah; Lu, Rosemary G.; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Epidermolysis bullosa simplex is a skin-blistering disorder caused by mutations in keratin (K)14 or K5. Treatment with nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 inducer sulforaphane ameliorated skin blistering in Krt14-null mice, correlating with induction of K17. To be therapeutically useful for epidermolysis bullosa simplex, topical broccoli sprout extract (BSE), enriched for sulforaphane, would ideally induce the expression of homologous keratins (eg, K6, K17, K16) in the basal layer of human epidermis without impacting expression of defective keratins (K5/K14). Objective The purpose of this 1-week, randomized, split-body, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to assess the impact of BSE on keratin expression. Methods Five subjects (34–71 years old) applied BSE (500 nmol of sulforaphane/mL) or vehicle alone to the inner aspect of the arm daily. Expression of keratin, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, and other markers was assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and indirect immunofluorescence. Results One subject (age 71 years) was excluded a posteriori because of poor tissue quality. Topical BSE activated nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and up-regulated K17 in the epidermis of all subjects, had variable effects on K16 and K6 expression, and did not alter expression of K14 or K5. Limitations Small sample size is a limitation. Conclusion BSE represents an attractive therapeutic candidate for K14-associated epidermolysis bullosa simplex. PMID:27889290

  2. Single and joint antibacterial activity of aqueous garlic extract and Manuka honey on extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ainau R; Afegbua, Seniyat L

    2018-01-24

    Multidrug resistance and recent technological advances have renewed interest in natural product drug discovery from ancient remedies such as Allium sativum (garlic) and honey. This study assessed antibacterial activity of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and Manuka honey on extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. Thirty clinical isolates of E. coli were collected and screened for ESBL production by double-disc synergy test. Single and joint antibacterial activity of AGE and Manuka honey against ESBL-producing E. coli were determined by agar well dilution and checkerboard methods, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of AGE ranged from 125-250 mg/mL and 250-500 mg/mL, respectively. MIC and MBC of Manuka honey ranged from 12.5-25% v/v and 25-50% v/v, respectively. The combination of AGE and Manuka honey exhibited different effects on selected ESBL-producing E. coli; synergism (1/4H+1/16G), additive (1/8H+1/2G, 1/2H+1/16G), indifference (1/16H+MICG, MICH+1/16G, 2MICH+1/32G) and antagonism (4MICH+1/32G). Manuka honey exhibited greater antibacterial activity against ESBL-producing E. coli than AGE. Antibacterial activity, and the interaction of AGE and Manuka honey against ESBL-producing E. coli are dependent on their concentration. Studies assessing antibacterial activity of potent phytochemicals in AGE and honey would provide insights to mechanisms of interaction for development of new drug leads.

  3. Spectrophotometric investigation of the interactions between cationic (C.I. Basic Blue 9) and anionic (C.I. Acid Blue 25) dyes in adsorption onto extracted cellulose from Posidonia oceanic in single and binary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Douissa, Najoua; Dridi-Dhaouadi, Sonia; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk

    2016-01-01

    Extracted cellulose from Posidonia oceanica was used as an adsorbent for removal of a cationic (Basic blue 9, BB) and anionic textile dye (Acid blue 25, AB) from aqueous solution in single dye system. Characterization of the extracted cellulose and extracted cellulose-dye systems were performed using several techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential and Boehm acid-base titration method. Adsorption tests showed that the extracted cellulose presented higher adsorption of BB than AB in single dye system, revealing that electrostatic interactions are responsible, in the first instance, for the dye-adsorbent interaction. In single dye systems, the extracted cellulose presented the maximum adsorption capacities of BB and AB at 0.955 mmol.g(-1) and 0.370 mmol.g(-1), respectively. Adsorption experiments of AB dye on extracted cellulose saturated by BB dye exhibited the release of the latter dye from the sorbent which lead to dye-dye interaction in aqueous solution due to electrostatic attraction between both species. Interaction of BB and AB dyes were investigated using spectrophotometric analysis and results demonstrated the formation of a molecular complex detected at wavelengths 510 and 705 nm when anionic (AB) and cationic (BB) dye were taken in equimolar proportions. The adsorption isotherm of AB, taking into account the dye-dye interaction was investigated and showed that BB dye was released proportionately by AB equilibrium concentration. It was also observed that AB adsorption is widely enhanced when the formation of the molecular complex is disadvantaged.

  4. Determination of {sup 236}U in environmental samples by single extraction chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Guosheng [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan); Division of Nuclear Technology and Applications, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Radiographic Techniques and Equipment, Beijing, 100049 (China); Tazoe, Hirofumi [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi, E-mail: myamada@hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan)

    2016-11-09

    In order to measure trace {sup 236}U and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U in environmental samples with a high matrix effect, a novel and simple method was developed that makes the digestion and purification procedures compatible with advanced triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A total dissolution of sample with HF + HNO{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} was followed by chromatographic separation with a single resin column containing normal type DGA resin (N,N,N′,N’-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) as the extractant system. The analytical accuracy and precision of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratios, measured as {sup 236}U{sup 16}O{sup +}/{sup 238}U{sup 16}O{sup +}, were examined by using the reference materials IAEA-135, IAEA-385, IAEA-447, and JSAC 0471. The low method detection limit (3.50 × 10{sup −6} Bq kg{sup −1}) makes it possible to perform routine monitoring of environmental {sup 236}U due to global fallout combined with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident fallout (>10{sup −5} Bq kg{sup −1}). Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to measure {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratios and {sup 236}U activities in soil samples contaminated by the accident. The low {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios ((1.50–13.5) × 10{sup −8}) and {sup 236}U activities ((2.25–14.1) × 10{sup −2} mBq kg{sup −1}) indicate {sup 236}U contamination was mainly derived from global fallout in the examined samples. - Highlights: • A simple {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U analytical method has been developed. • The separation required just one DGA column chromatography. • {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios in soil were measured by ICP-MS/MS. • {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios of (1.50–13.5) × 10{sup −8} were observed in Japanese samples. • {sup 236}U activities of (2.25–14.1) × 10{sup −2} mBq kg{sup −1} were found in Japanese samples.

  5. Protocol: a fast, comprehensive and reproducible one-step extraction method for the rapid preparation of polar and semi-polar metabolites, lipids, proteins, starch and cell wall polymers from a single sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed A; Jüppner, Jessica; Bajdzienko, Krzysztof; Giavalisco, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The elucidation of complex biological systems requires integration of multiple molecular parameters. Accordingly, high throughput methods like transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics have emerged to provide the tools for successful system-wide investigations. Unfortunately, optimized analysis of different compounds requires specific extraction procedures in combination with specific analytical instrumentation. However, the most efficient extraction protocols often only cover a restricted number of compounds due to the different physico-chemical properties of these biological compounds. Consequently, comprehensive analysis of several molecular components like polar primary metabolites next to lipids or proteins require multiple aliquots to enable the specific extraction procedures required to cover these diverse compound classes. This multi-parallel sample handling of different sample aliquots is therefore not only more sample intensive, it also requires more time and effort to obtain the required extracts. To circumvent large sample amounts, distributed into several aliquots for the comprehensive extraction of most relevant biological compounds, we developed a simple, robust and reproducible two-phase liquid-liquid extraction protocol. This one-step extraction protocol allows for the analysis of polar-, semi-polar and hydrophobic metabolites, next to insoluble or precipitated compounds, including proteins, starch and plant cell wall components, from a single sample. The method is scalable regarding the used sample amounts but also the employed volumes and can be performed in microcentrifuge tubes, enabling high throughput analysis. The obtained fractions are fully compatible with common analytical methods, including spectroscopic, chromatographic and mass spectrometry-based techniques. To document the utility of the described protocol, we used 25 mg of Arabidopsis thaliana rosette leaves for the generation of multi-omics data sets, covering

  6. Observation of a rare earth ion-extractant complex arrested at the oil-water interface during solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Yu, Hao; Luo, Guangming; Bera, Mrinal K; Hou, Binyang; Schuman, Adam W; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Antonio, Mark R; Soderholm, L; Schlossman, Mark L

    2014-09-11

    Selective extraction of metal ions from a complex aqueous mixture into an organic phase is used to separate toxic or radioactive metals from polluted environments and nuclear waste, as well as to produce industrially relevant metals, such as rare earth ions. Selectivity arises from the choice of an extractant amphiphile, dissolved in the organic phase, which interacts preferentially with the target metal ion. The extractant-mediated process of ion transport from an aqueous to an organic phase takes place at the aqueous-organic interface; nevertheless, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this process despite its importance. Although state-of-the-art X-ray scattering is uniquely capable of probing molecular ordering at a liquid-liquid interface with subnanometer spatial resolution, utilizing this capability to investigate interfacial dynamical processes of short temporal duration remains a challenge. We show that a temperature-driven adsorption transition can be used to turn the extraction on and off by controlling adsorption and desorption of extractants at the oil-water interface. Lowering the temperature through this transition immobilizes a supramolecular ion-extractant complex at the interface during the extraction of rare earth erbium ions. Under the conditions of these experiments, the ion-extractant complexes condense into a two-dimensional inverted bilayer, which is characterized on the molecular scale with synchrotron X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence measurements. Raising the temperature above the transition leads to Er ion extraction as a result of desorption of ion-extractant complexes from the interface into the bulk organic phase. XAFS measurements of the ion-extractant complexes in the bulk organic phase demonstrate that they are similar to the interfacial complexes.

  7. Observation of a Rare Earth Ion–Extractant Complex Arrested at the Oil–Water Interface During Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Wei; Yu, Hao; Luo, Guangming; Bera, Mrinal K.; Hou, Binyang; Schuman, Adam W.; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Antonio, Mark R.; Soderholm, L.; Schlossman, Mark L.

    2014-09-11

    Selective extraction of metal ions from a complex aqueous mixture into an organic phase is used to separate toxic or radioactive metals from polluted environments and nuclear waste, as well as to produce industrially relevant metals, such as rare earth ions. Selectivity arises from the choice of an extractant amphiphile, dissolved in the organic phase, which interacts preferentially with the target metal ion. The extractant-mediated process of ion transport from an aqueous to an organic phase takes place at the aqueous–organic interface; nevertheless, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this process despite its importance. Although state-of-the-art X-ray scattering is uniquely capable of probing molecular ordering at a liquid–liquid interface with subnanometer spatial resolution, utilizing this capability to investigate interfacial dynamical processes of short temporal duration remains a challenge. We show that a temperature-driven adsorption transition can be used to turn the extraction on and off by controlling adsorption and desorption of extractants at the oil–water interface. Lowering the temperature through this transition immobilizes a supramolecular ion–extractant complex at the interface during the extraction of rare earth erbium ions. Under the conditions of these experiments, the ion–extractant complexes condense into a two-dimensional inverted bilayer, which is characterized on the molecular scale with synchrotron X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence measurements. Raising the temperature above the transition leads to Er ion extraction as a result of desorption of ion–extractant complexes from the interface into the bulk organic phase. XAFS measurements of the ion–extractant complexes in the bulk organic phase demonstrate that they are similar to the interfacial complexes.

  8. What do results of common sequential fractionation and single-step extractions tell us about P binding with Fe and Al compounds in non-calcareous sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Jiří; Borovec, Jakub; Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef

    2013-02-01

    Correct identification of P forms together with their main Fe and Al binding partners in non-calcareous sediments is of crucial importance for evaluation of P cycling in water bodies. In this paper, we assess extraction methods frequently used for this purpose, i.e., a sequential five-step fractionation (water, bicarbonate buffered dithionite solution (BD), NaOH, HCl, nitric-perchloric acid), ascorbate extraction (pH ~7.5), and oxalate extraction (pH ~3), directly on a range of laboratory prepared Fe and Al minerals enriched with adsorbed P. Extraction selectivity and efficiency for particular P, Fe and Al forms were also verified by specific combinations of these extraction methods applied on freshwater sediment samples. In the sequential fractionation, BD was highly effective in dissolving both amorphous and crystalline Fe (hydr)oxides and the associated P, while neither FeS nor Al (hydr)oxides were dissolved. The following NaOH extraction effectively dissolved both amorphous and crystalline Al (hydr)oxides. The high solubilizing power of BD and NaOH to dissolve crystalline Fe and Al oxides that have only a small P-sorption ability prevents the use of resulting Fe/P and Al/P ratios as simple predictors of total P sorption capacity of sediments and soils. Ascorbate non-selectively extracted small proportions of FeS and amorphous Fe and Al (hydr)oxides, but significant amounts of adsorbed P, which hinders its use for the characterization of P forms in non-calcareous sediments. Similar nonselective characteristics were found for oxalate extractions. As oxalate extracts most of the adsorbed phosphate, it is not possible to use it unambiguously to determine specific Fe/P and Al/P ratios of active complexes. However, this method is convenient (and more selective than NaOH step in the sequential fractionation) for the determination of amorphous Al (hydr)oxides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effectiveness of Articaine and Lidocaine Single Buccal Infiltration versus Conventional Buccal and Palatal Injection Using Lidocaine during Primary Maxillary Molar Extraction: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Naveen Kumar Reddy; Nirmala, S V S G; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Despite the advent of modern injection techniques, palatal injection continues to be a painful experience for children. To compare the pain experienced during extraction of maxillary primary molars with conventional lignocaine anesthesia versus lignocaine and articaine buccal infiltration in children aged 6-14 years. A prospective randomized triple blinded study was conducted with ninety children (n = 90), randomly allocated to receive lignocaine conventional anesthesia (Group I [control group]), and buccal infiltration using articaine (Group II [articaine group]) or lignocaine (Group III [lignocaine group]). A composite score of self-report (faces pain scale-revised), behavioral measure (face legs activity cry consolability scale), and a physiological response (pulse rate) was measured following maxillary primary molar extraction. To test the mean difference between two groups, Students' t-test was used and among the three groups, one-way ANOVA with post hoc test was used. Articaine group had significantly lower pain scores for self-report (P 0.05) between articaine and control groups during primary maxillary molar extraction. Maxillary primary molar extraction procedure can be successfully accomplished by bypassing the palatal injection. Articaine buccal infiltration can be considered as an alternative to conventional local anesthesia for the extraction of maxillary primary molars.

  10. Oral health-related quality of life changes after placement of immediately loaded single implants in healed alveolar ridges or extraction sockets: a 5-year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Stefanie; Raes, Filiep; Cooper, Lyndon; Giner Tarrida, Luis; Vervaeke, Stijn; Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2017-06-01

    The impact of single implants on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is scarcely investigated, especially when combined with immediate placement and loading in extraction sockets. The aim was to describe prospectively the changes of OHRQoL with single implants placed in the esthetic zone in healed ridges or in extraction sockets after 5 years. Ninety-six patients, enrolled at three clinical centers, received 102 single implants placed in a healed ridge (n = 54 implants/50 patients) or in extraction sockets (n = 48 implants/46 patients). Implants were immediately provisionalized, and permanent crowns were cemented after 12 weeks. Oral health impact profile questionnaires (OHIP-14) were completed before surgery, after 1 (provisional crown), 6 (permanent crown), 12 and 60 months, respectively. The overall OHIP-14 score pertains to seven domains with two items each and was assessed on a Likert scale of 0-4 (0 = never and 4 = very often). The evolution of the total OHIP-14 score and changes within all OHIP domains over time and between groups were assessed with a linear mixed-effect model analysis. After 5 years, overall implant survival was 98%. The total OHIP-14 score for both groups combined decreased from 0.50 at baseline to 0.17 at 6 months (P problems as reflected by a low overall OHIP score. However, OHRQoL improves less in the extraction group, reflecting that replacing a missing tooth is perceived as more beneficial than replacing a present tooth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Acoustical and optical radiation pressure and the development of single beam acoustical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Louis; Marchiano, Régis; Baresch, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Studies on radiation pressure in acoustics and optics have enriched one another and have a long common history. Acoustic radiation pressure is used for metrology, levitation, particle trapping and actuation. However, the dexterity and selectivity of single-beam optical tweezers are still to be matched with acoustical devices. Optical tweezers can trap, move and position micron size particles, biological samples or even atoms with subnanometer accuracy in three dimensions. One limitation of optical tweezers is the weak force that can be applied without thermal damage due to optical absorption. Acoustical tweezers overcome this limitation since the radiation pressure scales as the field intensity divided by the speed of propagation of the wave. However, the feasibility of single beam acoustical tweezers was demonstrated only recently. In this paper, we propose a historical review of the strong similarities but also the specificities of acoustical and optical radiation pressures, from the expression of the force to the development of single-beam acoustical tweezers.

  12. Superlocalization of single molecules and nanoparticles in high-fidelity optical imaging microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Sun, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning

    2011-07-01

    Superlocalization of single molecules and nanoparticles with a precision of subnanometer to a few tens of nanometers is crucial for elucidating nanoscale structures and movements in biological and chemical systems. A novel design of ultraflat and ultrathin glass/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid microdevices is introduced to provide almost uncompromised optical imaging quality for on-chip superlocalization and super-resolution imaging of single molecules and nanoparticles under a variety of microscopy modes. The performance of the high-fidelity (Hi-Fi) optical imaging microfluidic device was validated by precisely mapping micronecklaces made of fluorescent microtubules and 40 nm gold nanoparticles and by demonstrating the activation and excitation cycles of single Alexa Fluor 647 dyes for direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy in PDMS-based microchannels for the first time. Furthermore, the microdevice's feasibility for multimodality microscopy imaging was demonstrated by a vertical scan of live cells in epi-fluorescence and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy modes simultaneously.

  13. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings

  14. A single supplement of a standardised bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract (36 % wet weight anthocyanins) modifies glycaemic response in individuals with type 2 diabetes controlled by diet and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Nigel; Cruickshank, Morven; Moar, Kim-Marie; Bestwick, Charles; Holst, Jens J; Russell, Wendy; Horgan, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Dietary strategies for alleviating health complications associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are being pursued as alternatives to pharmaceutical interventions. Berries such as bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) that are rich in polyphenols may influence carbohydrate digestion and absorption and thus postprandial glycaemia. In addition, berries have been reported to alter incretins as well as to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may also affect postprandial glycaemia. The present study investigated the acute effect of a standardised bilberry extract on glucose metabolism in T2D. Male volunteers with T2D (n 8; BMI 30 (sd 4) kg/m(2)) controlling their diabetes by diet and lifestyle alone were given a single oral capsule of either 0·47 g standardised bilberry extract (36 % (w/w) anthocyanins) which equates to about 50 g of fresh bilberries or placebo followed by a polysaccharide drink (equivalent to 75 g glucose) in a double-blinded cross-over intervention with a 2-week washout period. The ingestion of the bilberry extract resulted in a significant decrease in the incremental AUC for both glucose (P = 0·003) and insulin (P = 0·03) compared with the placebo. There was no change in the gut (glucagon-like peptide-1, gastric inhibitory polypeptide), pancreatic (glucagon, amylin) or anti-inflammatory (monocyte chemotactic protein-1) peptides. In addition there was no change in the antioxidant (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing ability of plasma) responses measured between the volunteers receiving the bilberry extract and the placebo. In conclusion the present study demonstrates for the first time that the ingestion of a concentrated bilberry extract reduces postprandial glycaemia and insulin in volunteers with T2D. The most likely mechanism for the lower glycaemic response involves reduced rates of carbohydrate digestion and/or absorption.

  15. Treatment of an adult with a normodivergent, mild skeletal Class III pattern, and a Bolton′s discrepancy using a single mandibular incisor extraction plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjay Suri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34½-year-old pathologist with active social and professional interaction sought orthodontic solutions for severe esthetic and functional impairment. She felt due to spaced and protruding maxillary incisors, but had not got treatment previously as she did not want to wear metallic appliances. The diagnosis revealed a skeletal Class III normodivergent pattern with relative mandibular excess tooth material. Treatment with multibracket fixed appliances using ceramic brackets, extraction of a mandibular central incisor, maxillary incisor crown recontouring with interproximal reduction, and using gentle space closure mechanics ameliorated the problems and provided an esthetically pleasing, functionally adequate occlusion with good intercuspation.

  16. Anatomical Remodeling of Buccal Bone Plate in 35 Premaxillary Post-Extraction Immediately Restored Single TPS Implants: 10-Year Radiographic Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Perrotti, Vittoria; Putignano, Angelo; Malchiodi, Luciano; Vozza, Iole; Calvo Guirado, José Luis

    2016-04-01

    The anatomical remodeling technique (ART) was proposed to place postextraction implants with the aid of specific osteotomes. This study is a clinical and radiographic evaluation with 10-year follow-up of anterior postextraction single implants placed with the ART and immediately restored. Thirty-five patients, with a hopeless tooth in the anterior maxilla, were included in the study and 35 implants were inserted according to the ART. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed at baseline (T0), after 6 (T1) and 14 months (T2), 4 years after surgery (T3) and every other year up to the 10-year follow-up (T4, T5, and T6). Implant success, survival, and failure rates were evaluated according to the International Congress of Oral Implantologists Pisa Consensus Conference criteria. Twenty-nine patients and 29 implants were available for the 10-year data analysis. After 10 years, the accumulated mean marginal bone loss was 2.69 ± 0.42 mm. The cumulative survival rate of the implants was 100%. Immediately loaded postextractive implants, placed according to the ART, have been proved to be a predictable method to rehabilitate single tooth in the anterior maxilla.

  17. Immediate, immediate-delayed (6 weeks) and delayed (4 months) post-extractive single implants: 4-month post-loading data from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Pietro; Zucchelli, Giovanni; Cannizzaro, Gioacchino; Barausse, Carlo; Diazzi, Michele; Trullenque-Eriksson, Anna; Esposito, Marco

    To compare the clinical outcome of single implants placed immediately after tooth extraction with implants placed 6 weeks after tooth extraction (immediate-delayed placement), and with implants placed after 4 months of extraction and socket healing (delayed placement). Two hundred and ten patients requiring a single implant-supported crown to replace a tooth to be extracted were randomised to receive immediate post-extractive implants (70 patients), immediate-delayed implants at 6 weeks (70 patients), and delayed implants after 4 months of healing (70 patients), according to a parallel group design. When needed, patients of the immediate and immediate-delayed group had the socket grafted with a bone substitute and covered with a resorbable membrane at implant placement. Sockets randomised to delayed implants were grafted in the same manner if poorly preserved or in the aesthetic areas (from second upper to second upper premolars). Implants inserted with at least 25 Ncm torque were left to heal unloaded for 4 months, whereas those inserted with less than 25 Ncm were left to heal unloaded for 6 months. Temporary crowns were delivered and were to be replaced by definitive ones after 4 months. Outcome measures were crown and implant failures, complications, peri-implant marginal bone level changes, aesthetics assessed using the pink esthetic score (PES) and patient satisfaction recorded by blinded assessors. Three patients dropped out from the immediate, five from the immediate-delayed and six from the delayed group up to 4-months post-loading. Four implants (6.0%) failed in the immediate, four (6.2%) in the immediate-delayed and one (1.6%) from the delayed group (P (chi-square test) = 0.369). Apart from the crown failures due to implant losses, no other crown had to be remade. Five immediate, six immediate-delayed and three delayed implants were affected by one complication each (P (chi-square test) = 0.601). Mean peri-implant marginal bone

  18. Immediate, immediate-delayed (6 weeks) and delayed (4 months) post-extractive single implants: 1-year post-loading data from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marco; Zucchelli, Giovanni; Cannizzaro, Gioacchino; Checchi, Luigi; Barausse, Carlo; Trullenque-Eriksson, Anna; Felice, Pietro

    To compare the clinical outcome of single implants placed immediately after tooth extraction with implants placed 6 weeks after tooth extraction (immediate-delayed placement), and with implants placed after 4-month extraction and socket healing (delayed placement). Two-hundred and ten (210) patients requiring a single implant-supported crown to replace a tooth to be extracted were randomised to receive immediate post-extractive implants (70 patients), immediate-delayed implants at 6 weeks (70 patients), and delayed implants after 4 months of healing (70 patients) according to a parallel group design. When needed, patients of the immediate and immediate-delayed group had the socket grafted with a bone substitute and covered with a resorbable membrane at implant placement. Sockets randomised to delayed implants were grafted in the same manner if poorly preserved or in the aesthetic areas (from second upper to second upper premolars). Implants inserted with at least 25 Ncm torque were left to heal unloaded for 4 months, whereas those inserted with less than 25 Ncm were left to heal unloaded for 6 months. Temporary crowns were delivered and were to be replaced by definitive ones after 4 months. Outcome measures were crown and implant failures, complications, peri-implant marginal bone level changes, aesthetically assessed using the pink esthetic score (PES), and patient satisfaction recorded by blinded assessors. Patients were followed up to 1 year post-loading. One year after loading, three patients dropped out from the immediate group, five from the immediate-delayed group, and six from the delayed group. Four implants (6%) failed in the immediate, four (6.2%) in the immediate-delayed, and one (1.6%) from the delayed group (P (chi-square test) = 0.369). Apart from the crowns (which failed due to implant losses), no other crown had to be remade. Six immediate, six immediate-delayed and four delayed implants were affected by one complication each (P

  19. Blotting-free and lossless cryo-electron microscopy grid preparation from nanoliter-sized protein samples and single-cell extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Stefan A; Albiez, Stefan; Bieri, Andrej; Syntychaki, Anastasia; Adaixo, Ricardo; McLeod, Robert A; Goldie, Kenneth N; Stahlberg, Henning; Braun, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We present a sample preparation method for cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) that requires only 3-20nL of sample to prepare a cryo-EM grid, depending on the protocol used. The sample is applied and spread on the grid by a microcapillary. The procedure does not involve any blotting steps, and real-time monitoring allows the water film thickness to be assessed and decreased to an optimum value prior to vitrification. We demonstrate that the method is suitable for high-resolution cryo-EM and will enable alternative electron microscopy approaches, such as single-cell visual proteomics. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Short term study of human skin irritation by single application closed patch test: assessment of four multiple emulsion formulations loaded with botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of skin irritation potential is a major concern in safety assessment of cosmetics, when long-term use of these products are expected. Non-invasive bioengineering probes have been used previously to measure skin irritation potential of cosmetic ingredients. Experimentation carried out to weigh up the skin irritation potential of four multiple emulsion formulations via visual and non-invasive measurements. Immediate effects of formulations and comparison of two assessment techniques were also tried to establish. Four multiple emulsion formulations one control (without botanical active) and three containing the functional botanical actives plus additives were tested in this study using the following techniques: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), COLIPA visual scoring method (CVSM), Mexameter MPA 5 (Courage + Khazaka, Germany) and capacitance [Corneometer MPA 5 (Courage + Khazaka, Germany)]. Visual examination and non-invasive measurements were performed at baseline and after 24 h. The formulations were applied on the forearm of 12 healthy volunteers of same sexes aged 20-25 years. We found that none of the formulation produced irritation both on visual and instrumental evaluation. However, formulations MeB and MeC have comparable immediate effects on dryness, erythema, melanin and TEWL. Formulation MeC produced more effective results on different parameters, may be due to synergistic effect of two extracts, while MeA failed to produce any immediate effects on skin parameters. Moreover results of both assessment methods are parallel to each other. None of the formulation produce irritant effects, barrier impairment effects or immediate effects except for the formulation MeC which produced appreciable results than other formulations but statistically these results were insignificant (p > 0.05). Based on these results, it could be concluded that formulations may be implied safely as skin rejuvenating candidates.

  1. Immediate non-occlusal loading of immediate post-extractive versus delayed placement of single implants in preserved sockets of the anterior maxilla: 1-year post-loading outcome of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Pietro; Pistilli, Roberto; Barausse, Carlo; Trullenque-Eriksson, Anna; Esposito, Marco

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of immediate post-extractive single implants with delayed implants placed in preserved sockets after 4 months of healing. Implants that achieved an insertion torque of at least 35 Ncm were immediately non-occlusally loaded. Just after tooth extraction, and in the presence of less than 4 mm of vertical loss of the buccal bone in relation to the palatal wall, 50 patients requiring a single immediate post-extractive implant in the maxilla from second to second premolar were randomly allocated for either immediate implant placement (immediate group; 25 patients) or for socket preservation using an algae-derived (phycogenic) bone substitute, covered by a resorbable collagen barrier (delayed group; 25 patients), according to a parallel group design in one centre. Bone-to-implant gaps were filled with an algae-derived bone substitute. Four months after socket preservation, delayed implants were placed. Implants inserted with an insertion torque of at least 35 Ncm were immediately loaded with non-occluding provisional single crowns, then replaced, after 4 months, by definitive crowns. Patients were followed up to 1 year after loading. Outcome measures were implant failures, complications, aesthetics assessed using the pink esthetic score (PES), peri-implant marginal bone level changes and patient satisfaction, recorded by blinded assessors. Nine (36%) implants were not immediately loaded in the immediate group versus 19 (76%) implants in the delayed placement group, because an insertion torque superior to 35 Ncm could not be obtained, the difference being statistically significant (difference = - 0.40, 95% CI: -0.652 to -0.148, P = 0.010). Two patients dropped out 4 months after loading in the delayed group versus none in the immediate group. Two implants failed in the immediate group (8%) versus none in the delayed group, with the difference showing no statistical significance (considering 25 and 23 patients, the difference in proportions was

  2. Sharpening high resolution information in single particle electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J J; Luque, D; Castón, J R; Carrascosa, J L

    2008-10-01

    Advances in single particle electron cryomicroscopy have made possible to elucidate routinely the structure of biological specimens at subnanometer resolution. At this resolution, secondary structure elements are discernable by their signature. However, identification and interpretation of high resolution structural features are hindered by the contrast loss caused by experimental and computational factors. This contrast loss is traditionally modeled by a Gaussian decay of structure factors with a temperature factor, or B-factor. Standard restoration procedures usually sharpen the experimental maps either by applying a Gaussian function with an inverse ad hoc B-factor, or according to the amplitude decay of a reference structure. EM-BFACTOR is a program that has been designed to widely facilitate the use of the novel method for objective B-factor determination and contrast restoration introduced by Rosenthal and Henderson [Rosenthal, P.B., Henderson, R., 2003. Optimal determination of particle orientation, absolute hand, and contrast loss in single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. J. Mol. Biol. 333, 721-745]. The program has been developed to interact with the most common packages for single particle electron cryomicroscopy. This sharpening method has been further investigated via EM-BFACTOR, concluding that it helps to unravel the high resolution molecular features concealed in experimental density maps, thereby making them better suited for interpretation. Therefore, the method may facilitate the analysis of experimental data in high resolution single particle electron cryomicroscopy.

  3. Development of an ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of seven flavonoids in rat plasma: Application to a comparative pharmacokinetic investigation of Ginkgo biloba extract and single pure ginkgo flavonoids after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Xiao, Jie; Hou, Huiping; Li, Pei; Yuan, Ziyue; Xu, Huarong; Liu, Ran; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2017-08-15

    For deeper pharmacokinetic investigation and further curative application of ginkgo flavonoids, a delicate, efficient and precise UFLC-MS/MS technique for synchronous quantitation of seven flavonoids, apigenin, luteolin, naringenin, quercetin, diosmetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in rat plasma has been established. After mixing with the internal standard (IS) linarin, bio-samples were pretreated via ethyl acetate for liquid-liquid extraction, then isolated at 0.2ml/min flow rate on a Venusil MP C 18 chromatographic column (100mm×2.1mm, 3μm) by means of gradient elution. 0.1% formic acid-water and methanol system was used as the mobile phase. Mass spectrometric inspection was conducted on a 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in patterns of negative ion and multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM). All calibration curves proved favorable linearity (R 2 ≥0.9918) in linear ranges. Intra-day and inter-day precisions didn't exceed 14.0% for all the analytes, and the accuracy was within 6.9%. Extraction recoveries of analytes and IS were less than ±15.0% of nominal concentrations. This method has been under thorough and firm verification for a comparative pharmacokinetic research after gavage between Ginkgo biloba extract and single pure ginkgo flavonoids. The results demonstrated that there're evident pharmacokinetic discrepancies, and possible structural influences were innovatively proposed. Generally, substitution with 3-hydroxylation, a double bond in ring C, ring B methoxylation often confer longer onset period. The existence of ring B catechol group gives rise to faster clearance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Simultaneous detection and quantification of amphetamines, diazepam and its metabolites, cocaine and its metabolites, and opiates in hair by LC-ESI-MS-MS using a single extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eleanor I; Wylie, Fiona M; Oliver, John S

    2008-09-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous identification and quantification of amphetamines, diazepam and its metabolites, cocaine and its metabolites, and opiates from hair using a single extraction method. As part of the method development, Gemini C18, Synergi Hydro RP, and Zorbax Stablebond-Phenyl LC columns were tested with three different mobile phases. Analyte recovery and limit of detection were evaluated for two different solid-phase extraction methods that used Bond Elut Certify and Clean Screen cartridges. Phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) was chosen as the optimum hair incubation medium because of the high stability of cocaine and 6-monoacetylmorphine using this method and faster sample preparation. The optimized method was fully validated. Linearity was established over the concentration range 0.2-10 ng/mg hair, and the correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.99. Total extraction recoveries were greater than 76%, detection limits were between 0.02 and 0.09 ng/mg, and the intra- and interday imprecisions were generally less than 20% in spiked hair. The intra- and interbatch imprecision of the method for a pooled authentic hair sample ranged from 1.4 to 23.4% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 8.3 to 25.4% RSD, respectively, for representative analytes from the different drug groups. The percent matrix effect ranged from 63.5 to 135.6%, with most analytes demonstrating ion suppression. Sixteen postmortem samples collected from suspected drug-related deaths were analyzed for the 17 drugs of abuse and metabolites included in the method. The method was sufficiently sensitive and specific for the analysis of drugs and metabolites in postmortem hair samples. There is scope for the inclusion of other target drugs and metabolites in the method.

  5. A Randomized Single Blind Parallel Group Study Comparing Monoherbal Formulation Containing Holarrhena antidysenterica Extract with Mesalamine in Chronic Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Johari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidences of side effects and relapses are very common in chronic ulcerative colitis patients after termination of the treatment. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to compare the treatment with monoherbal formulation of Holarrhena antidysenterica with Mesalamine in chronic ulcerative colitis patients with special emphasis to side effects and relapse. Settings and Design: Patients were enrolled from an Ayurveda Hospital and a private Hospital, Gujarat. The study was randomized, parallel group and single blind design. Materials and Methods: The protocol was approved by Institutional Human Research Ethics Committee of Anand Pharmacy College on 23rd Jan 2013. Three groups (n = 10 were treated with drug Mesalamine (Group I, monoherbal tablet (Group II and combination of both (Group III respectively. Baseline characteristics, factors affecting quality of life, chronicity of disease, signs and symptoms, body weight and laboratory investigations were recorded. Side effects and complications developed, if any were recorded during and after the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were expressed as mean ± SEM. Data was statistically evaluated using t-test, Wilcoxon test, Mann Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis test and ANOVA, wherever applicable, using GraphPad Prism 6. Results: All the groups responded positively to the treatments. All the patients were positive for occult blood in stool which reversed significantly after treatment along with rise in hemoglobin. Patients treated with herbal tablets alone showed maximal reduction in abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bowel frequency and stool consistency scores than Mesalamine treated patients. Treatment with herbal tablet alone and in combination with Mesalamine significantly reduced the stool infection. Patients treated with herbal drug alone and in combination did not report any side effects, relapse or complications while 50% patients treated with Mesalamine exhibited the relapse with

  6. High-Resolution "Fleezers": Dual-Trap Optical Tweezers Combined with Single-Molecule Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Kevin D; Comstock, Matthew J; Chemla, Yann R

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in optical tweezers have greatly expanded their measurement capabilities. A new generation of hybrid instrument that combines nanomechanical manipulation with fluorescence detection-fluorescence optical tweezers, or "fleezers"-is providing a powerful approach to study complex macromolecular dynamics. Here, we describe a combined high-resolution optical trap/confocal fluorescence microscope that can simultaneously detect sub-nanometer displacements, sub-piconewton forces, and single-molecule fluorescence signals. The primary technical challenge to these hybrid instruments is how to combine both measurement modalities without sacrificing the sensitivity of either one. We present general design principles to overcome this challenge and provide detailed, step-by-step instructions to implement them in the construction and alignment of the instrument. Lastly, we present a set of protocols to perform a simple, proof-of-principle experiment that highlights the instrument capabilities.

  7. Engineering Single Nanopores on Gold Nanoplates by Tuning Crystal Screw Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yueming; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Xiaohu

    2017-09-01

    Compared with the large variety of solid gold nanostructures, synthetic approaches for their hollow counterparts are limited, largely confined to chemical and irradiation-based etching of preformed nanostructures. In particular, the preparation of through nanopore structures is extremely challenging. Here, a unique strategy for direct synthesis of gold nanopores in solution without the need for sacrificial templates or postsynthesis processing is reported. By controlling the degree of crystal screw dislocation, a single through pore with diameter ranging from sub-nanometer to tens of nanometers, in the center of large gold nanoplates, can be engineered with precision. Ionic current rectification behaviors are observed using the gold nanopore, potentially enabling new capabilities in biosensing, sequencing, and imaging. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic properties of ticlopidine: an open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, single-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Hyung; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Lee, Yong-Oh; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Jang, In-Jin; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2010-02-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract is an herbal medicine used in the treatment of vascular disorders that may be coadministered with antiplatelet agents such as ticlopidine. Regulatory authorities requested evaluation of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between these entities, according to the drug-development guidance for fixed-dose combination formulations in Korea. This study was performed to evaluate the potential pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between ticlopidine and Ginkgo biloba extract. An open-label, randomized, 2-period, 2-treatment, 2-sequence, single-dose crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male volunteers. All volunteers were randomly assigned to a sequence group for the 2 treatments, which consisted of ticlopidine 250 mg alone and ticlopidine 250 mg with Ginkgo biloba extract 80 mg, separated by a 1-week washout period between the treatments. Bleeding time was determined just before dosing and at 5, 12, and 48 hours after dosing. Platelet aggregation was evaluated before dosing and at 4, 8, 26, and 48 hours after dosing. Blood samples (8 mL) from each of the volunteers were collected from an indwelling intravenous cannula inserted into a forearm vein before dosing and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after dosing. Ticlopidine concentrations were determined by a validated method using HPLC and ultraviolet detection. Adverse events were identified using general health-related questions, vital signs, physical examinations, ECGs, and laboratory tests. A total of 24 healthy men participated in the study (mean [SD] age, 24.1 [4.3] years; weight, 66.6 [7.4] kg; height, 174.7 [5.0] cm). The baseline corrected bleeding times were not significantly different between the ticlopidine-alone and ticlopidine/ Ginkgo biloba groups, and changes in platelet aggregation were not significantly different between the groups. Likewise, the pharmacokinetic parameters of ticlopidine were not significantly different

  9. Ancient DNA extraction from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan

    2012-01-01

    A variety of protocols for DNA extraction from archaeological and paleobotanical plant specimens have been proposed. This is not surprising given the range of taxa and tissue types that may be preserved and the variety of conditions in which that preservation may take place. Commercially available DNA extraction kits can be used to recover ancient plant DNA, but modifications to standard approaches are often necessary to improve yield. In this chapter, I describe two protocols for extracting DNA from small amounts of ancient plant tissue. The CTAB protocol, which I recommend for use with single seeds, utilizes an incubation period in extraction buffer and subsequent chloroform extraction followed by DNA purification and suspension. The PTB protocol, which I recommend for use with gourd rind and similar tissues, utilizes an overnight incubation of pulverized tissue in extraction buffer, removal of the tissue by centrifugation, and DNA extraction from the buffer using commercial plant DNA extraction kits.

  10. A tunable single-monochromator Raman system based on the supercontinuum laser and tunable filters for resonant Raman profile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.-L.; Liu, H.-N.; Tan, P.-H.

    2017-08-01

    Resonant Raman spectroscopy requires that the wavelength of the laser used is close to that of an electronic transition. A tunable laser source and a triple spectrometer are usually necessary for resonant Raman profile measurements. However, such a system is complex with low signal throughput, which limits its wide application by scientific community. Here, a tunable micro-Raman spectroscopy system based on the supercontinuum laser, transmission grating, tunable filters, and single-stage spectrometer is introduced to measure the resonant Raman profile. The supercontinuum laser in combination with transmission grating makes a tunable excitation source with a bandwidth of sub-nanometer. Such a system exhibits continuous excitation tunability and high signal throughput. Its good performance and flexible tunability are verified by resonant Raman profile measurement of twisted bilayer graphene, which demonstrates its potential application prospect for resonant Raman spectroscopy.

  11. A tunable single-monochromator Raman system based on the supercontinuum laser and tunable filters for resonant Raman profile measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X-L; Liu, H-N; Tan, P-H

    2017-08-01

    Resonant Raman spectroscopy requires that the wavelength of the laser used is close to that of an electronic transition. A tunable laser source and a triple spectrometer are usually necessary for resonant Raman profile measurements. However, such a system is complex with low signal throughput, which limits its wide application by scientific community. Here, a tunable micro-Raman spectroscopy system based on the supercontinuum laser, transmission grating, tunable filters, and single-stage spectrometer is introduced to measure the resonant Raman profile. The supercontinuum laser in combination with transmission grating makes a tunable excitation source with a bandwidth of sub-nanometer. Such a system exhibits continuous excitation tunability and high signal throughput. Its good performance and flexible tunability are verified by resonant Raman profile measurement of twisted bilayer graphene, which demonstrates its potential application prospect for resonant Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  13. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  14. Imaging and Force Recognition of Single Molecular Behaviors Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Dang, Dan; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao

    2017-01-01

    The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has provided a powerful tool for investigating the behaviors of single native biological molecules under physiological conditions. AFM can not only image the conformational changes of single biological molecules at work with sub-nanometer resolution, but also sense the specific interactions of individual molecular pair with piconewton force sensitivity. In the past decade, the performance of AFM has been greatly improved, which makes it widely used in biology to address diverse biomedical issues. Characterizing the behaviors of single molecules by AFM provides considerable novel insights into the underlying mechanisms guiding life activities, contributing much to cell and molecular biology. In this article, we review the recent developments of AFM studies in single-molecule assay. The related techniques involved in AFM single-molecule assay were firstly presented, and then the progress in several aspects (including molecular imaging, molecular mechanics, molecular recognition, and molecular activities on cell surface) was summarized. The challenges and future directions were also discussed. PMID:28117741

  15. Imaging and Force Recognition of Single Molecular Behaviors Using Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Dang, Dan; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao

    2017-01-22

    The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has provided a powerful tool for investigating the behaviors of single native biological molecules under physiological conditions. AFM can not only image the conformational changes of single biological molecules at work with sub-nanometer resolution, but also sense the specific interactions of individual molecular pair with piconewton force sensitivity. In the past decade, the performance of AFM has been greatly improved, which makes it widely used in biology to address diverse biomedical issues. Characterizing the behaviors of single molecules by AFM provides considerable novel insights into the underlying mechanisms guiding life activities, contributing much to cell and molecular biology. In this article, we review the recent developments of AFM studies in single-molecule assay. The related techniques involved in AFM single-molecule assay were firstly presented, and then the progress in several aspects (including molecular imaging, molecular mechanics, molecular recognition, and molecular activities on cell surface) was summarized. The challenges and future directions were also discussed.

  16. High-throughput quantification of more than 100 primary- and secondary-metabolites, and phytohormones by a single solid-phase extraction based sample preparation with analysis by UHPLC-HESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Martin; Brütting, Christoph; Baldwin, Ian T; Kallenbach, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Plant metabolites are commonly functionally classified, as defense- or growth-related phytohormones, primary and specialized metabolites, and so forth. Analytical procedures for the quantifications of these metabolites are challenging because the metabolites can vary over several orders of magnitude in concentrations in the same tissues and have very different chemical characteristics. Plants clearly adjust their metabolism to respond to their prevailing circumstances in very sophisticated ways that blur the boundaries among these functional or chemically defined classifications. But if plant biologists want to better understand the processes that are important for a plant's adaptation to its environment, procedures are needed that can provide simultaneous quantifications of the large range of metabolites that have the potential to play central roles in these adjustments in a cost and time effective way and with a low sample consumption. Here we present a method that combines well-established methods for the targeted analysis of phytohormones, including jasmonates, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins, and extends it to the analysis of inducible and constitutive defense compounds, as well as the primary metabolites involved in the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites and responsible for nutritional quality (e.g., sugars and amino acids). The method is based on a single extraction of 10-100 mg of tissue and allows a broad quantitative screening of metabolites optimized by their chemical characteristics and concentrations, thereby providing a high throughput analysis unbiased by the putative functional attributes of the metabolites. The tissues of Nicotiana attenuata which accumulate high levels of nicotine and diterpene glycosides, provide a challenging matrix that thwarts quantitative analysis; the analysis of various tissues of this plant are used to illustrate the robustness of the procedure. The method described has the

  17. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  18. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited to high oleic acid oil and water purification property (Katayon et al., 2006; Foid et al., 2001 and. Folkard et al., 1993), whereas it contains up to. 332.5 g of crude protein per kg of sample (Jose et al., 1999). Studies to characterize the interaction effects of pH and salts on the extraction of. PROTEIN EXTRACTABILITY ...

  19. Advances in Single-Particle Electron Cryomicroscopy Structure Determination applied to Sub-tomogram Averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Russo, Christopher J; Löwe, Jan; Passmore, Lori A; Scheres, Sjors H W

    2015-09-01

    Recent innovations in specimen preparation, data collection, and image processing have led to improved structure determination using single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here we explore some of these advances to improve structures determined using electron cryotomography (cryo-ET) and sub-tomogram averaging. We implement a new three-dimensional model for the contrast transfer function, and use this in a regularized likelihood optimization algorithm as implemented in the RELION program. Using direct electron detector data, we apply both single-particle analysis and sub-tomogram averaging to analyze radiation-induced movements of the specimen. As in single-particle cryo-EM, we find that significant sample movements occur during tomographic data acquisition, and that these movements are substantially reduced through the use of ultrastable gold substrates. We obtain a sub-nanometer resolution structure of the hepatitis B capsid, and show that reducing radiation-induced specimen movement may be central to attempts at further improving tomogram quality and resolution. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Microcystis extracts and single cells have differential impacts on the demography of cladocerans: a case study on Moina cf. micrura isolated from the Mediterranean coastal shallow lake (L'Albufera, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandini, S.; Miracle, M. R.; Vicente, E.; Sarma, S. S. S.; Gulati, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria often have a deleterious effect on zooplankton. We hypothesized that the presence of either M. aeruginosa cells or microcystin extracts from M. aeruginosa would have a significant impact on the population growth rate, survivorship, and fecundity of Moina cf. micrura isolated from

  1. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Siah Lee; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John P.; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25–90 °C), time (0.25–5...

  2. Accuracy of nimodipine gel extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler, Douglas R; Stump, Sarah E; Cook, Aaron M

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, use of nimodipine in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients unable to swallow required extraction of gel from inside the commercially available capsule. Despite the Black-Box warning against inadvertent intravenous administration, bedside extraction of the gel from the capsule continues to be a common practice in some institutions. The accuracy of bedside extraction has not been formally evaluated. Twenty-eight nurses from the neurology and neurosurgical ICUs at a single center attempted to extract nimodipine gel from 2 capsules, each using the method currently approved by the US FDA. The primary outcome was mean weight of extracted gel per capsule, which was compared to both gel weight from batch compounded pharmacy syringes and a pre-calculated appropriate weight for 30 mg nimodipine gel. Simulated bedside extraction provided lower yield than pharmacy-compounded syringes (22.6 ± 4.6 mg vs 30.4 ± 0.59 mg, p = 0.001). Bedside extraction provided inconsistent and low yield (75.4 ± 15.32 % of possible dose extracted, p = 0.0001 for comparison of means between bedside extraction syringes and predicted gel weight). Pharmacy-compounded syringes provided consistent high yield (101.3 ± 2.0 % of possible dose extracted, p = 0.14 for comparison of means between pharmacy syringes and predicted gel weight). Combined with reports of significant patient harm and death with inadvertent intravenous administration, this study suggests that there is no role for bedside extraction of nimodipine in clinical practice.

  3. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  4. Assessment of the rate of premolar extraction space closure in the maxillary arch with the AcceleDent Aura appliance vs no appliance in adolescents: A single-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Peter; Fisher, Elizabeth; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-arm parallel trial was to assess the effect of the AcceleDent Aura appliance (OrthoAccel Technologies, Houston, Tex) on the rate of maxillary premolar extraction space closure in adolescent patients. Forty Class II adolescents treated with full fixed appliances and maxillary premolar extractions participated in this randomized clinical trial. They were recruited in a private practice and treated by 1 clinician. Randomization was accomplished in blocks of 10 patients assigned to either a no-appliance group or the AcceleDent Aura appliance group with the allocations concealed in opaque, sealed envelopes. Both the operator and the outcome assessor were blinded; however, it was not feasible to blind the patients. Models were taken of the maxillary arch at the start of space closure and just before complete space closure. The space was measured parallel to the occlusal plane from the cusp tips of the teeth mesial and distal to the extraction spaces. There was no clinically (0.05 mm per month; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.24, 0.34) or statistically significant difference in the rate of space closure (P = 0.74). In both the univariable and multivariable analyses, the mean rate of tooth movement was slower by 0.13 mm per month (95% CI, -.26, .005) on the left side compared with the right side, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). The AcceleDent Aura appliance had no effect on the rate of maxillary premolar extraction space closure. Only a few participants were considered to be good compliers with the appliance. However, the rate of space closure in the good compliers was similar to the overall group and did not appear to influence the result. This trial was not registered. The protocol was not published before trial commencement. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct conversion of inulin and extract of tubers of Jerusalem artichoke into single cell oil by co-cultures of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa TJY15a and immobilized inulinase-producing yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Hai; Chi, Zhe; Zhang, Fang; Guo, Feng-Jun; Li, Mei; Song, Wei-Bo; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2011-05-01

    In this study, it was found that the immobilized inulinase-producing cells of Pichia guilliermondii M-30 could produce 169.3 U/ml of inulinase activity while the free cells of the same yeast strain only produced 124.3 U/ml of inulinase activity within 48 h. When the immobilized inulinase-producing yeast cells were co-cultivated with the free cells of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa TJY15a, R. mucilaginosa TJY15a could accumulate 53.2% oil from inulin in its cells and cell dry weight reached 12.2g/l. Under the similar conditions, R. mucilaginosa TJY15a could accumulate 55.4% (w/w) oil from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in its cells and cell dry weight reached 12.8 g/l within 48 h. When the co-cultures were grown in 2l fermentor, R. mucilaginosa TJY15a could accumulate 56.6% (w/w) oil from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in its cells and cell dry weight reached 19.6g/l within 48 h. Over 90.0% of the fatty acids from the yeast strain TJY15a grown in the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers was C(16:0), C(18:1) and C(18:2), especially C(18:1) (50.6%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards diffractive imaging with single pulses of FEL radiation. Dynamics within irradiatied samples and their influence on the analysis of imaging data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fenglin

    2010-08-15

    3D single particle coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) of bioparticles (such as proteins, macromolecules and viruses) is one of the main possible applications of the new generation of light sources: free-electron lasers (FELs), which are now available at FLASH (Hamburg, Germany) and LCLS (Stanford, U.S.A.). The extremely bright and ultrashort FEL pulses potentially enable CDI to achieve high resolution down to subnanometer length scale. However, intense FEL pulses cause serious radiation damage in bioparticles, even during single shots, which may set the resolution limits for CDI with FELs. Currently, since the signal-to-noise ratio is very low for small biological particles, direct experimental study of radiation damage in the single particle imaging is fairly difficult. Single atomic (noble gas) clusters become good objects to reveal effects of radiation damage processes on CDI with FEL radiation. This thesis studies three aspects of the radiation damage problem, which are treated in three independent chapters: (1) Molecular Dynamics simulations to quantitively describe radiation damage processes within irradiated atomic clusters during single pulses; (2) reconstruction analysis of single-shot CDI diffraction patterns of atomic clusters, which may potentially help to understand the radiation damage occurring in biological samples; and (3) testing the effects of coating water layers in CDI, which is supposed to minimize the radiation damage in irradiated bioparticles. (orig.)

  7. A single supplement of a standardised bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract (36 % wet weight anthocyanins) modifies glycaemic response in individuals with type 2 diabetes controlled by diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoggard, Nigel; Cruickshank, Morven; Moar, Kim-Marie

    2013-01-01

    and thus postprandial glycaemia. In addition, berries have been reported to alter incretins as well as to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may also affect postprandial glycaemia. The present study investigated the acute effect of a standardised bilberry extract on glucose metabolism....... There was no change in the gut (glucagon-like peptide-1, gastric inhibitory polypeptide), pancreatic (glucagon, amylin) or anti-inflammatory (monocyte chemotactic protein-1) peptides. In addition there was no change in the antioxidant (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing ability of plasma...

  8. Solvent Extraction of Pr and Nd from Chloride Solution by Mixtures of Acidic Extractants and LIX 63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Lee, Man Seung [Mokpo National University, Chonnam (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ho Seok [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Mixtures of acidic extractants and LIX 63 were employed to improve the extraction efficiency of Pr and Nd from chloride solutions. The effect of the composition of the extractant mixtures has been studied. The order of metal extraction by single acidic extractant was D2EHPA > PC88A > Cyanex 272 > Cyanex 301. The addition of LIX 63 to the acidic extractants resulted in a synergistic effect, and the strength of the effect was the reverse order of that found for extraction by single extractants. Moreover, mixing of saponified Cyanex 272 and LIX 63 enhanced the extraction, while the addition of Alamine 336 to the mixtures of Cyanex 272 and LIX 63 depressed the extraction.

  9. BEAM EXTRACTION FROM THE SNS RING AND DESIGN OF EXTRACTION KICKERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TSOUPAS, N.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; LEE, Y.Y.; MI, J.L.; SOUKAS, A.; WANG, J.G.; WEI, J.; ZHANG, S.Y.

    2000-06-30

    The accumulator ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [1] will accumulate a proton beam, injected from a LINAC, into a single bunch containing {approximately} 2.1 x 10{sup 14} protons at a maximum energy of 1.3 GeV. The single bunch with length {approximately}650 nsec and a gap of {approximately}290 nsec will circulate into the accumulator ring for {approximately}1.0 msec before it is extracted into the RTBT transfer line. The accumulation, extraction frequency is set at 60 Hz. This paper discusses the extraction process and the requirements of the fast beam extraction system.

  10. Study on extraction process and activity of plant polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaogen; Wang, Xiaojing; Fan, Shuangli; Chen, Jiezhong

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that plant polysaccharides have many pharmacological activities, such as hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and tumor inhibition. The pharmacological activities of plant polysaccharides were summarized. The extraction methods of plant polysaccharides were discussed. Finally, the extraction process of Herba Taraxaci polysaccharides was optimized by ultrasonic assisted extraction. Through single factor experiments and orthogonal experiment to optimize the optimum extraction process from dandelion polysaccharide, optimum conditions of dandelion root polysaccharide by ultrasonic assisted extraction method for ultrasonic power 320W, temperature 80°C, extraction time 40min, can get higher dandelion polysaccharide extract.

  11. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  12. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  13. Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass in papaya extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of papaya fruit were used as substrate for single cell protein (SCP) production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 500 g of papaya fruit was extracted with different volumes of sterile distilled water. Extraction with 200 mL of sterile distilled water sustained highest cell growth. Biochemical analysis of dry biomass ...

  14. Scalable single point power extraction for compact mobile and stand-alone solar harvesting power sources based on fully printed organic photovoltaic modules and efficient high voltage DC/DC conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Valverde, Rafael; Villarejo, José A.; Hösel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Patterns for fully printed polymer solar cells are presented that inherently enable scaling of the power output with single point electrical energy connection is presented. Connection is made to only one end of the printed foil that can be rolled out for light energy harvesting. The power level...... (AM1.5G, 1000 W m−2). As a demonstration we present a scalable fully integrated and compact power unit for mobile applications comprising solar energy harvesting OPV modules, power conversion and storage. Applications possible include electrical charging of mobile devices, illumination using LED lamps...... takes place in a HVDC–DC converter that is tailored specifically for operation with polymer solar cells by regulation on the input side. The system charges a lithium-polymer battery thus enabling storage of 82 Wh for a printed OPV foil measuring 0.305 m×9 m having a nominal power output of at least 15 W...

  15. Activation of surface lattice oxygen in single-atom Pt/CeO 2 for low-temperature CO oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Lei; Mei, Donghai; Xiong, Haifeng; Peng, Bo; Ren, Zhibo; Pereira Hernandez, Xavier I.; DelaRiva, Andrew; Wang, Meng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kovarik, Libor; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2017-12-14

    While single-atom catalysts can provide high catalytic activity and selectivity, application in industrial catalysts demands long term performance and the ability to regenerate the catalysts. We have investigated the factors that lead to improved catalytic activity of a Pt/CeO2 catalyst for low temperature CO oxidation. Single-atom Pt/CeO2 becomes active for CO oxidation under lean condition only at elevated temperatures, because CO is strongly bound to ionic Pt sites. Reducing the catalyst, even under mild conditions, leads to onset of CO oxidation activity even at room temperature. This high activity state involves the transformation of mononuclear Pt species to sub-nanometer sized Pt particles. Under oxidizing conditions, the Pt can be restored to its stable, single-atom state. The key to facile regeneration is the ability to create mobile Pt species and suitable trapping sites on the support, making this a prototypical catalyst system for industrial application of single-atom catalysis.

  16. Single port access adrenalectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Sean A; Curcillo, Paul G; Ginsberg, Phillip C; Saba, Salim C; Jaffe, Jamison S; Harmon, Justin D

    2008-08-01

    To report the first single port access (SPA) adrenalectomy to minimize patient discomfort through a less invasive procedure. We performed the first SPA in a 63-year-old, otherwise healthy Caucasian female who had a 4.5-cm left adrenal mass that was incidentally discovered on computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis. Through a 2-cm single longitudinal supraumbilical incision extended down to the abdominal fascia, three 5-mm ports were placed through separate facial entry points, to make a triangular port arrangement. The adrenal vein was identified and ligated using hemoclips. The remainder of the dissection was done using hemocoagulation. The adrenal gland was extracted via an EndoCatch bag device by removing one 5-mm port and upsizing to a 12-mm port. We report on the first SPA adrenalectomy. Although this technology is still in its infancy, the use of a single port for surgery provides a means to provide a potentially better patient outcome with a less invasive procedure.

  17. Effect of a Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSan™, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Palm Therkelsen

    Full Text Available Ingestion of AndoSan™, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects because of reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with ulcerative colitis. In this randomized single-blinded placebo controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSan™ also resulted in clinical effects.50 patients with symptomatic ulcerative colitis were block-randomized and blinded for oral daily intake of AndoSan™ or placebo for the 21 days' experimental period. The patients reported scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSan™ group (n = 24 symptoms improved from baseline (day 0 to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI of 5.88 (4.92-6.83, 4.71 (3.90-5.52 (p = 0.002 and 4.50 (3.70-5.30 (p = 0.001. Corresponding improved mean scores (±SD for total fatigue were 16.6 (5.59, 14.1 (4.50 (p = 0.001 and 15.1 (4.09 (p = 0.023. These scores in the placebo group (n = 26 were not improved. When comparing the two study groups using mixed model statistics, we found significant better scores for the AndoSan™-patients. HRQoL for dimensions bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health improved in the AndoSan™ group. There were no alterations in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin.Beneficiary effects on symptoms, fatigue and HRQoL from AndoSan™ consumption were demonstrated in this per-protocol study, supporting its use as a supplement to conventional medication for patients with mild to moderate symptoms from ulcerative colitis. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSan™ in this study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01496053.

  18. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (... 15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 μL was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3.......5 was found to be optimal. The EME efficiency was also dependent on the acceptor solution composition, and the extraction time was found to be an important element for exhaustive extraction. When EME was carried out for 25 min with an extraction voltage of 15 V, the system-current across the SLM was less than...

  19. Optimization of Shikonin Homogenate Extraction from Arnebia euchroma Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Yuangang Zu; Lei Yang; Tingting Liu; Chunjian Zhao; Xiaoyu Sui; Wenjie Wang; Chunhui Ma

    2013-01-01

    An efficient homogenate extraction technique was employed for extracting shikonin from Arnebia euchroma. The homogenate extraction procedure was optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. The proposed method gave the best result with the highest extraction efficiency in the shortest extraction time. Based on single-factor experiments, a three-factor-three-level experimental design has been developed by Box-Behnken design. The optimal conditions were 78% ethanol as s...

  20. Extraction and determination of total flavonoids in jujube by alcohol extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y. B.; Ru, X.; Yu, M.; Wang, S. W.; Lu, L.; Qiao, A. N.; Guo, A. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Jujube is a ripe fruit of Rhamnaceae. Its main active component is flavonoids, so the extraction and determination of total flavonoids in jujube will help to develop and utilize the medicinal value of jujube. In this study, the total flavonoids were extracted from jujube by alcohol extraction method. Through single factor investigation and orthogonal test, it was found that the total flavonoids content in jujube was the highest under the condition of 70°C, material ratio of 1:40, and extraction of 30 min by 70% ethanol. The content of total flavonoids in the extract of jujube was 1.57% at the wavelength of 510 nm by UV and rutin as the standard. The method was evaluated by methodological study, and it was determined that this method could be used as the detection of total flavonoids in jujube extraction.

  1. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  2. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  3. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  4. Extraction of bioactive compounds against cardiovascular diseases from Lentinula edodes using a sequential extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Diego; Piris, Adriana J; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Prodanov, Marin; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2018-02-01

    Three extraction methods were sequentially combined to obtain fractions from Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushrooms) containing bioactive compounds against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Fruiting bodies were first extracted with plain water, obtained residue was then submitted to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and remaining residue submitted to hot water extraction. Sequential design allowed re-utilization of the non-extracted material as raw material for the successive extractions increasing extraction yields and separating interesting compounds. Obtained fractions contained different amounts of ß-glucans, chitins, eritadenine, lenthionine, ergosterol, proteins/peptides and phenolic compounds conferring them different bioactivities. Water soluble fractions showed high antioxidant activities (ABTS+• and DPPH• scavenging capacity and reducing power), they were also able to inhibit one of the main enzymes involved in hypertension (angiotensin-I converting enzyme) and the key enzyme of cholesterol metabolism (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase). The latter inhibitory activity was also noticed in SFE extracts although ergosterol and other lipid-like molecules were isolated. Dietary fibers were separated in the third extraction. Therefore, with this sequential extraction procedure bioactive compounds against CVDs can be selectively separated from a single batch of shiitake powder. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Optimization of Shikonin Homogenate Extraction from Arnebia euchroma Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient homogenate extraction technique was employed for extracting shikonin from Arnebia euchroma. The homogenate extraction procedure was optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. The proposed method gave the best result with the highest extraction efficiency in the shortest extraction time. Based on single-factor experiments, a three-factor-three-level experimental design has been developed by Box-Behnken design. The optimal conditions were 78% ethanol as solvent, homogenate extraction time of 4.2 min, 10.3 liquid to solid ratio and two extraction cycles. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by stability, repeatability and recovery experiments. The developed homogenate extraction method provided a good alternative for the extraction of shikonin from A. euchroma. The results indicated that the proposed homogenate extraction was a convenient, rapid and efficient sample preparation technique and was environmental friendly. Furthermore, homogenate extraction has superiority in the extraction of thermally sensitive compounds from plant matrices.

  6. Assessment of single extraction methods for the prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the bioavailability of metals, their biological uptake and eco-toxicological effect on soil biota can be understood better in terms of their biogeochemical forms, the study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, ...

  7. Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2013-05-28

    A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

  8. Single cell protein extraction from orange wastes using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOW) and orange pulp wastes (OPW) using Aspergillus niger isolate No. 5 by solid state fermentation. Maximum protein enrichment of 52.48% and 46.50% were made using the substrates of SOW and OPW, respectively, on the seventh day of ...

  9. Optimizing the extraction of antibacterial compounds from pineapple leaf fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Zhikai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five different solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and distilled water were used to extract antibacterial compounds from pineapple leaf fiber. Compounds extracted using acetone showed the greatest antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, measured by inhibition zone diameter. Three extraction parameters including temperature, time and solid-liquid ratio were optimized through orthogonal experiment based on single factor investigations for achieving maximum active substance extraction rate and bacteriostatic effect. Results showed that using acetone, the optimum extraction conditions for temperature, time and solid-liquid ratio were 45°C, 8 h, and 1:40 (g/ml, respectively.

  10. Compositional variance in extracted particulate matter using different filter extraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, K. J.; Wexler, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Collection and subsequent extraction of particulate matter (PM) from filter substrates is a common requirement for in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies, as well as chemical analyses such as ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Several filter extraction protocols exist and different laboratories employ different methods, potentially biasing inter-study comparisons. Previous studies have shown significant differences in extraction efficiency between techniques and identified the relevant extraction artifacts. However, a comprehensive inter-comparison of different methods based on the chemical composition of the extracted PM has never been conducted. In the current study, an exhaustive suite of chemical analyses is performed on PM extracted from glass micro-fiber filters using techniques commonly employed in different laboratories: Multi-solvent extraction (MSE) and spin-down extraction (SDE). PM samples were collected simultaneously during field studies conducted in an urban and rural setting using a high-volume PM2.5 sampler. Results show remarkable compositional variance between the PM extracts for all chemical components analyzed, including metals, water soluble ions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, non-aromatic organics, elemental carbon and organic carbon. Mass closure was greater than 90% for MSE but deviated substantially for SDE. Detailed retrospective gravimetric analysis of archived SDE samples revealed that a process-based loss of PM mass is the root cause of the differences. These losses are shown to be compositionally biased, both externally between different PM mixtures and internally within a given PM mixture. In combination, the results of this study are the first to demonstrate (i) an exhaustive chemical characterization of a single PM extract, (ii) the significance of directly characterizing the extracted PM used in toxicological studies, (iii) the existence of substantial compositional biases between

  11. The optimal extraction parameters and anti-diabetic activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetic activity of FIBL on alloxan induced diabetic mice were studied. The optimal extraction parameters of FIBL were obtained by single factor test and orthogonal test, as follows: ethanol concentration 60 %, ratio of solvent to raw material 30 ...

  12. comparison of protein extraction methods for the leaves of ficus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. I. Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    11-16]. There are also researchers using the hybrid technique such as combination of TCA-acetone/Phenol based extraction [17]. Since no single protocol or solvent system can capture the entire proteome, and therefore.

  13. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction procedure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) of capsaicinoids from hot Chili peppers were determined for large scale preparation. First, single factor experiments were performed to optimize the extraction procedure of capsaicinoids, and initial optimized results were: ratio of solvent to ...

  14. Optimal process for the extraction and identification of flavonoids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study has been carried out to investigate the effects of single factors such as temperature, extraction time, concentration of ethanol, material ratio and no. of extractions on the contents of flavonoids present in the leaves of Polyalthia longifolia. On this basis, an L16 orthogonal design of experiment was used to determine ...

  15. Study on extraction process of tannins from Semen cuscutae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the extraction methods of tannin constituents from Semen Cuscutae and their anti-papilloma effects. Single factor test and orthogonal design methods were used to determine the optimal extraction method; the mouse skin papilloma model induced by DMBA/croton oil was established, ...

  16. Ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids and phenolics from loquat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol was used to extract flavonoids and phenolics from loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. Ruantiaobaisha) flowers with ultrasonic pharmaceutical managing machine. Single-factor and orthogonal experiment were used to investigate the optimum extraction condition. The results showed that, the combination of 30°C, ...

  17. Extractant Design by Covalency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Angela Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozimor, Stosh Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cross, Justin Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, Enrique Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Macor, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  18. Extraction of polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loucif Seiad L.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of certain parameters on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols from an Algerian tree (Pinus Halepensis Mill. Extraction was conducted in a stirred closed extractor. Our study was conducted to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic contents (TPC using Folin Ciocalteu method. A response surface methodology (RSM was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on extraction followed by a composite design (CD approach. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were for a temperature of 45°C and for the smallest particles.

  19. Rapid metal extractability tests from polluted mining soils by ultrasound probe sonication and microwave-assisted extraction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salgado, Sara; Quijano, M Ángeles

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasonic probe sonication (UPS) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were used for rapid single extraction of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from soils polluted by former mining activities (Mónica Mine, Bustarviejo, NW Madrid, Spain), using 0.01 mol L-1 calcium chloride (CaCl2), 0.43 mol L-1 acetic acid (CH3COOH), and 0.05 mol L-1 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at pH 7 as extracting agents. The optimum extraction conditions by UPS consisted of an extraction time of 2 min for both CaCl2 and EDTA extractions and 15 min for CH3COOH extraction, at 30% ultrasound (US) amplitude, whereas in the case of MAE, they consisted of 5 min at 50 °C for both CaCl2 and EDTA extractions and 15 min at 120 °C for CH3COOH extraction. Extractable concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The proposed methods were compared with a reduced version of the corresponding single extraction procedures proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme (SM&T). The results obtained showed a great variability on extraction percentages, depending on the metal, the total concentration level and the soil sample, reaching high values in some areas. However, the correlation analysis showed that total concentration is the most relevant factor for element extractability in these soil samples. From the results obtained, the application of the accelerated extraction procedures, such as MAE and UPS, could be considered a useful approach to evaluate rapidly the extractability of the metals studied.

  20. Probing Polymers with Single Fluorescent Molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, N.; Vallée, R.A.L.; van Dijk, E.M.H.P.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of single molecules to study local, nanoscale polymer dynamics is presented. Fluorescence lifetime fluctuations were used to extract the number of polymer segments (Ns) taking part in the rearranging volume around the probe molecule below the glass transition temperature. Ns was dependent on

  1. The prospects of a subnanometer focused neon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, F H M; McVey, Shawn; Farkas, Louis; Notte, John A; Tan, Shida; Livengood, Richard H

    2012-01-01

    The success of the helium ion microscope has encouraged extensions of this technology to produce beams of other ion species. A review of the various candidate ion beams and their technical prospects suggest that a neon beam might be the most readily achieved. Such a neon beam would provide a sputtering yield that exceeds helium by an order of magnitude while still offering a theoretical probe size less than 1-nm. This article outlines the motivation for a neon gas field ion source, the expected performance through simulations, and provides an update of our experimental progress. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Growth and properties of subnanometer thin titanium nitride films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Van Hao, B.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This research brings new insights into the relation between properties of ultra-thin conductive metal nitrides made by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and their possible industrial applications. The advantage of conductive nitrides over pure metals is (i) better established ALD processes allowing

  3. Subnanometer to nanometer transition metal CO oxidation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajda, Stefan; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Yasumatsu, Hisato

    2017-12-26

    The present invention provides a catalyst defined in part by a conductive substrate; a film overlaying a surface of the substrate; and a plurality of metal clusters supported by the layer, wherein each cluster comprises between 8 and 11 atoms. Further provided is a catalyst defined in part by a conductive substrate; a layer overlaying a surface of the substrate; and a plurality of metal clusters supported by the layer, wherein each cluster comprises at least two metals.

  4. Heterodyne interferometric system with subnanometer accuracy for measurement of straightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Ming

    2004-07-01

    A generalized laser interferometer system based on three design principles, i.e., heterodyne frequency, prevention of mixing, and perfect symmetry, is described. These design principles give rise to an interferometer in a highly stable system with no periodic nonlinearity. A novel straightness sensor, consisting of a straightness prism and a straightness reflector, is incorporated into the generalized system to form a straightness interferometer. A Hewlett-Packard commercial linear interferometer was used to validate the interferometer's parameters. Based on the present design, the interferometer has a gain of 0.348, a periodic nonlinearity of less than 40 pm, and a displacement noise of 12 pm/mean square root of Hz at a bandwidth of 7.8 kHz. This system is useful for precision straightness measurements.

  5. Single-drop reactive extraction/extractive reaction with forced convective diffusion and interphase mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Leonid S.; Red, X. B., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for time-dependent forced convective diffusion-reaction having convection by a recirculating flow field within the drop that is hydrodynamically coupled at the interface with a convective external flow field that at infinity becomes a uniform free-streaming flow. The concentration field inside the droplet is likewise coupled with that outside by boundary conditions at the interface. A chemical reaction can take place either inside or outside the droplet, or reactions can take place in both phases. The algorithm has been implemented, and for comparison results are shown here for the case of no reaction in either phase and for the case of an external first order reaction, both for unsteady behavior. For pure interphase mass transfer, concentration isocontours, local and average Sherwood numbers, and average droplet concentrations have been obtained as a function of the physical properties and external flow field. For mass transfer enhanced by an external reaction, in addition to the above forms of results, we present the enhancement factor, with the results now also depending upon the (dimensionless) rate of reaction.

  6. EXTRACT OF Vitex simplicifolia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HYPOLIPID. EXTRACT OF Vitex simplicifolia. Department of Human Physiology, Fa. *Corresponding author: zafa. ABSTRACT. The effects of oral administration and lipid profile levels of alloxan induced conducted with 30 Wister rats, assigned of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex sim.

  7. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  9. Nano-electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.

    2013-01-01

    The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 μL acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE......), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary...... as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction...

  10. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between single nucleotide polymorphism of apoVLDL-II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... Genomic DNAs were extracted from 400 chickens from four ... single cysteine at residue number 75 (Jackson et al.,. 1977). ApoVLDL-II is ... DNA extraction. Whole blood samples were collected from 400 chickens at 6 weeks of age. They were obtained from four different commercial broiler lines, which were ...

  12. Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  14. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  15. Corneal astigmatism following cataract extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, M S; Wishart, P K; Gregor, Z J

    1986-01-01

    The changes in corneal curvature in the first six months after cataract extraction were studied by performing sequential keratometry on a group of 57 patients. 8/0 Virgin silk interrupted sutures were used for the closure of corneoscleral incisions, and 10/0 monofilament tied in double running (bootlace) or single running (continuous) fashion was used for corneal wound closure. A high degree of with-the-rule astigmatism was evident in all patients two weeks postoperatively, but thereafter the character of the astigmatism produced by 8/0 virgin silk and 10/0 monofilament closure was quite different: in the 8/0 virgin silk group there was an early and pronounced shift in the axis of astigmatism to against-the-rule, whereas in the 10/0 monofilament group there was little further change in the astigmatism unless the sutures were removed. Wound compression and wound gape as factors responsible for these changes are discussed. PMID:3539177

  16. Wide-coverage relation extraction from MEDLINE using deep syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhung T H; Miwa, Makoto; Tsuruoka, Yoshimasa; Chikayama, Takashi; Tojo, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    Relation extraction is a fundamental technology in biomedical text mining. Most of the previous studies on relation extraction from biomedical literature have focused on specific or predefined types of relations, which inherently limits the types of the extracted relations. With the aim of fully leveraging the knowledge described in the literature, we address much broader types of semantic relations using a single extraction framework. Our system, which we name PASMED, extracts diverse types of binary relations from biomedical literature using deep syntactic patterns. Our experimental results demonstrate that it achieves a level of recall considerably higher than the state of the art, while maintaining reasonable precision. We have then applied PASMED to the whole MEDLINE corpus and extracted more than 137 million semantic relations. The extracted relations provide a quantitative understanding of what kinds of semantic relations are actually described in MEDLINE and can be ultimately extracted by (possibly type-specific) relation extraction systems. PASMED extracts a large number of relations that have previously been missed by existing text mining systems. The entire collection of the relations extracted from MEDLINE is publicly available in machine-readable form, so that it can serve as a potential knowledge base for high-level text-mining applications.

  17. Pore network extraction for fractured porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; van Dijke, M. I. J.; Geiger, S.; Ma, J.; Couples, G. D.; Li, X.

    2017-09-01

    Although flow through fractured rocks involves many different length-scales, it is crucial for the prediction of continuum-scale single- and multi-phase flow functions to understand, at the pore-scale, the interaction between the rock matrix and fractures. Here we present a pore-network extraction method in which the pore diameters and fracture apertures are of similar size. The method involves a shrinking algorithm to extract a hybrid skeleton of medial axes and surfaces, and it includes a workflow to convert the medial surfaces of fractures into dense networks of virtual medial axes, allowing generation of an integrated pore-network for the entire pore space. Appropriate single- and two-phase flow properties are assigned to network elements representing the fractures. We validate the method via comparisons between pore network flow simulations and an analytical solution, direct flow simulations and experimental observations. The network calculations are several orders of magnitude faster than the direct simulations.

  18. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds, which are by-products of the wine industry. Grape seed extract is available in capsules and ... take anticoagulants (blood thinners), such as warfarin or aspirin. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care ...

  19. Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sapra

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations.

  20. Extraction of cyanobacterial endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, John; Linke, Thomas A; Kapralos, Con; Nicholson, Brenton C; Steffensen, Dennis A

    2004-02-01

    To simplify our efforts in acquiring toxicological information on endotoxins produced by cyanobacteria, a method development study was undertaken to identify relatively hazard-free and efficient procedures for their extraction. One article sourced and two novel methods were evaluated for their ability to extract lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) or endotoxins from cyanobacteria. The Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay was employed to compare the performance of a novel method utilizing a 1-butanol-water (HBW) solvent system to that of Westphal's (1965) phenol-water system (HPW) for the extraction of endotoxin from various cyanobacteria. The traditional HPW method extracted from 3- to 12-fold more endotoxin from six different cyanobacterial blooms and culture materials than did the novel HBW method. In direct contrast, the novel HBW method extracted ninefold more endotoxin from a non-microcystin producing Microcystis aeruginosa culture as compared to the HPW method. A solvent system utilizing N,N'-dimethylformamide-water (HDW) was compared to both the HPW and HBW methods for the extraction of endotoxin from natural samples of Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and a 1:1 mixture of Microcystis aeruginosa/Microcystisflos-aquae. The LAL activities of these extracts showed that the novel HDW method extracted two- and threefold more endotoxin from the Anabaena sample that did the HBW and HPW methods, respectively. The HDW method also extracted approximately 1.5-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae sample as compared to both the HBW and HPW methods. On the other hand, the HBW method extracted 2- and 14-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae/Microcystis aeruginosa mixture than did the HPW and HDW methods, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that significant disparities exist between the physicochemical properties of the cell wall constituents not only of different cyanobacterial species but also of different strains of

  1. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  2. NLC Extraction Line Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nosochkov, Y. M.; Raubenheimer, T. O.

    2001-01-01

    In this note, we briefly review the current lattice of the NLC extraction line which was designed for the nominal NLC beam parameters. Then we describe the beam parameters for the high luminosity option with larger beam disruption parameter and discuss its effect on beam loss in the extraction line. Finally, we present a summary of the optics study aimed at minimizing the beam loss with high disruption beams.

  3. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid using ionic liquid solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    ...]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main...

  4. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  5. Extraction of ultrashort DNA molecules from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutaker, Rafal M; Reiter, Ella; Furtwängler, Anja; Schuenemann, Verena J; Burbano, Hernán A

    2017-02-01

    DNA extracted from herbarium specimens is highly fragmented; therefore, it is crucial to use extraction protocols that retrieve short DNA molecules. Improvements in extraction and DNA library preparation protocols for animal remains have allowed efficient retrieval of molecules shorter than 50 bp. Here, we applied these improvements to DNA extraction protocols for herbarium specimens and evaluated extraction performance by shotgun sequencing, which allows an accurate estimation of the distribution of DNA fragment lengths. Extraction with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) buffer decreased median fragment length by 35% when compared with cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB); modifying the binding conditions of DNA to silica allowed for an additional decrease of 10%. We did not observe a further decrease in length for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) versus double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) library preparation methods. Our protocol enables the retrieval of ultrashort molecules from herbarium specimens, which will help to unlock the genetic information stored in herbaria.

  6. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549, breast (MCF-7, liver (HepG2 and colon (HT-29 cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  7. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. PMID:27706082

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of extraction conditions assisted by ultrasound on the quality of extracts obtained from Mesembryanthemum edule shoots. Methods: The extraction procedure was carried out in an ultrasonic bath. The effect of two solvents (methanol and ethanol) and two extraction times (5 and 10 min) ...

  9. Determination of Lipophilic Extractives in Ionic Liquid Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Lipophilic Extractives in Ionic Liquid Extracts of Eucalyptus Pulp by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. ... The effect of temperature of the added precipitating solvent during cellulose regeneration on the recovery of extractives was also studied. Recovery of extractives increased with increasing ...

  10. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  11. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  12. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Gourab, E-mail: bansal@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 380025 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm{sup 2} as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated.

  13. Silicon Dioxide Thin Film Mediated Single Cell Nucleic Acid Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Evgeny; Dominova, Irina; Shusharina, Natalia; Botman, Stepan; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Patrushev, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    A limited amount of DNA extracted from single cells, and the development of single cell diagnostics make it necessary to create a new highly effective method for the single cells nucleic acids isolation. In this paper, we propose the DNA isolation method from biomaterials with limited DNA quantity in sample, and from samples with degradable DNA based on the use of solid-phase adsorbent silicon dioxide nanofilm deposited on the inner surface of PCR tube. PMID:23874571

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF FLAVONOIDS FROM TARTARY BUCKWHEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (FTB). Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions and orthogonal experiment were performed to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimum UAE conditions for FTB were as followings: ethanol concentration of 65%, solid:liquid ratio of 1:40 g/ml, extraction time of...

  15. Single DNA denaturation and bubble dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Ralf [Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, James Franck Strasse, 85747 Garching (Germany); Ambjoernsson, Tobias [Chemistry Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hanke, Andreas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas, 80 Fort Brown, Brownsville (United States); Fogedby, Hans C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arhus, Ny Munkegade, 8000 Arhus C (Denmark)], E-mail: metz@ph.tum.de

    2009-01-21

    While the Watson-Crick double-strand is the thermodynamically stable state of DNA in a wide range of temperature and salt conditions, even at physiological conditions local denaturation bubbles may open up spontaneously due to thermal activation. By raising the ambient temperature, titration, or by external forces in single molecule setups bubbles proliferate until full denaturation of the DNA occurs. Based on the Poland-Scheraga model we investigate both the equilibrium transition of DNA denaturation and the dynamics of the denaturation bubbles with respect to recent single DNA chain experiments for situations below, at, and above the denaturation transition. We also propose a new single molecule setup based on DNA constructs with two bubble zones to measure the bubble coalescence and extract the physical parameters relevant to DNA breathing. Finally we consider the interplay between denaturation bubbles and selectively single-stranded DNA binding proteins.

  16. Extraction with supercritical gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Extraction with compressed fluids in the critical region is discussed in terms of the marked effect on solvent properties that can be brought about by small changes in pressure or temperature. The theoretical background and experimental data are described, including the classification of the phase behaviour of binary systems. A number of application studies are quoted, and comparison is made with liquid solvent extraction and distillation. Apart from such topics as the breaking of azeotropes, the main area of study is in performing separations on the basis of volatility where the general level of volatility is low. In the field of natural products these include the removal of undesirable substances such as caffeine and nicotine and the isolation of valuable constituents such as food essences and drugs. For fossil fuels, applications are described in enhanced oil recovery, fractionation of heavy petroleum liquids and extraction of liquids from coal.

  17. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  18. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition

  19. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In

  20. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  1. Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  2. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  3. Antioxidant activity of Matricaria chamomilla L. extract and clinical efficacy of cosmetic formulations containing this extract and its isolated compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda T. Nóbrega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Topical application of antioxidants has proven to be effective in protecting the skin against oxidative damage. Matricaria chamomilla L. extract has been used in cosmetic formulations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of chamomile extract as well as the clinical efficacy on skin hydration and mechanical properties of skin. The antioxidant activity of chamomile extract was evaluated by chemiluminescence (IC50 = 0.14 μg/mL. Stable formulations were supplemented with 0,5 cg/g α-bisabolol or cg/gwith 5,0 of Matricaria chamomile glycolic extract or with 0,01 cg/g of apigenin and applied on the volar forearm and face of 25 female subjects. Skin physiology was assessed before and after 2 hours (single application and after a 2- and 4-week period of daily application. After a single application, all formulations increased the stratum corneum water content but only α-bisabolol and chamomile extract formulations reduced TEWL. The formulation with chamomile extract has shown the most pronounced result in the reduction of TEWL (27%. However, after 2- and 4-week application, only the extract formulation increased stratum corneum water content compared with the vehicle. Chamomile extract was effective in neutralizing free radicals and therefore presents an interesting potential in cosmetic formulations for this purpose.

  4. A short review of headspace extraction and ultrasonic solvent extraction for honey volatiles fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Marijanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey volatiles exhibit a potential role in distinguishing honeys as a function of botanical origin, but heating of honey generates artefacts such as compounds of Strecker degradation and Maillard reaction products. This short review is focused on the most recently applied methods for honey volatiles fingerprinting (without generation of thermal artefacts: headspace extraction (dynamic headspace extraction (DHE, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE. These methods display a varying degree of selectivity and effectiveness depending upon the compounds involved and the extraction conditions. Recent developments of these methods are discussed, with application examples drawn from the literature as well from our own research. Flavour qualities of the honey are very much dependent on the volatile and semivolatile organic compounds present in both the sample matrix and the headspace aroma. Therefore the use of one single technique is not adequate for reliable honey volatiles profiling, but combined use of headspace extraction and ultrasonic solvent extraction could be a useful tool for the characterization of the honey and identification of its botanical source through typical volatile marker compounds.

  5. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves.

  6. Extract of Acanthospermum hispidum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Extract of Acanthospermum hispidum. *Chika A, Onyebueke D.C and Bello S.O. aDepartment of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences,. Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Sokoto, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. The current study is aimed at investigating the antidiabetic activity of the leaves of Acanthospermum ...

  7. CARICA PAPAYA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Powdered leaves of Carica papaya (L.) were extracted with ethanol and ... isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas species ... fractions were inactive against P. aeruginosa at all concentrations used in ..... Food. Chem. 51:5579-5597. Sofowora, A. (1993): Medicinal plants and ...

  8. SPS extraction systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    One of the 3-m long electrostatics septa. The septum itself consists of 0.15 mm thick molybdenum wires with a 1.5 mm pitch. Each of the two SPS extraction systems will contain four of these electrostatic septa.

  9. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Document Server

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  10. EXTRACAPSULAR CATARACT EXTRACTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in leprosy patients. Sight restoration to blind leprosy patients prevents them from injuring their anaesthetic limbs. The visual outcome and complications of extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implant in 42 leprosy and 91 non-leprosy patients were compared.

  11. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  12. SPS slow extraction septa

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    SPS long straight section (LSS) with a series of 5 septum tanks for slow extraction (view in the direction of the proton beam). There are 2 of these: in LSS2, towards the N-Area; in LSS6 towards the W-Area. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  13. ALTERNANTHERA NODIFLORA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... concentrations (100mg/ml, 75mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml) of both extracts were determined ... of the powdered plant sample was soaked in 100ml of methanol for the same 24hours at room temperature with occasional stirring. The content was .... To the above solution 2 drops of olive oil was added.

  14. SINGLE: single photon sensitive cryogenic light detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biassoni, Matteo; SINGLE Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Thermal detectors operated at few mK as calorimeters are a powerful tool for the study of rare particle physics processes. In order to implement particle identification, light detection can be effectively performed by means of other thermal detectors operated as light sensors. This configuration can be used also in large scale, thousand-channels setups, but the light sensors must be sensitive enough to detect few, possibly a single, photons. The SINGLE project described here aims at producing silicon based, large area devices that can be operated as thermal detectors with single-photon sensitivity, and demonstrate the reliability of the performance, scalability of the production process and integrability with present and next generation cryogenic experiments for the search for rare events.

  15. Quantitative Structure-Relative Volatility Relationship Model for Extractive Distillation of Ethylbenzene/p-Xylene Mixtures: Application to Binary and Ternary Mixtures as Extractive Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young-Mook; Oh, Kyunghwan; You, Hwan; No, Kyoung Tai [Bioinformatics and Molecular Design Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Yukwon; Shul, Yong-Gun; Hwang, Sung Bo; Shin, Hyun Kil; Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Namseok; Son, Hyoungjun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Young Hwan [Sangji University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwang-Hwi [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Ethylbenzene (EB) and p-xylene (PX) are important chemicals for the production of industrial materials; accordingly, their efficient separation is desired, even though the difference in their boiling points is very small. This paper describes the efforts toward the identification of high-performance extractive agents for EB and PX separation by distillation. Most high-performance extractive agents contain halogen atoms, which present health hazards and are corrosive to distillation plates. To avoid this disadvantage of extractive agents, we developed a quantitative structure-relative volatility relationship (QSRVR) model for designing safe extractive agents. We have previously developed and reported QSRVR models for single extractive agents. In this study, we introduce extended QSRVR models for binary and ternary extractive agents. The QSRVR models accurately predict the relative volatilities of binary and ternary extractive agents. The service to predict the relative volatility for binary and ternary extractive agents is freely available from the Internet at http://qsrvr.o pengsi.org/.

  16. Optimization of Protein Extraction and Decoloration Conditions for Tea Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyun CUI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To optimize alkaline method for extracting proteins from tea residue (TR, the effect of extraction conditions on tea protein extraction rate (TPER was investigated. Single factor experiment showed the extraction temperature 80 °C, extraction time 100 min, pH value 13 and liquid–solid ratio 40:1 as the optimal extraction conditions. The orthogonal test revealed that the maximum TPER reached 29.71% under the following optimal combination of conditions: extraction temperature 70 °C, extraction time 60 min, pH 12 and liquid–solid ratio 50:1. For optimizing the purification of tea residue proteins, isoelectric point precipitation (pI, ammonium sulfate precipitation (aS and isoelectric point plus ammonium sulfate precipitation (iPAS were compared. The result showed that the highest protein precipitation rate (PPR was 89.70% which was generated by using iPAS. Furthermore, powdered activated carbon was chosen as the most suitable decolorant for the extracted proteins.

  17. [Investigation on Spray Drying Technology of Auricularia auricular Extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Chen, Hui; Xie, Yuan; Chen, Peng; Wang, Luo-lin

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of spray drying technology of Auricularia auricular extract and its optimum process. On the basis of single factor test, with the yield of dry extract and the content of polysaccharide as indexes, orthogonal test method was used to optimize the spray drying technology on the inlet air temperature, injection speed and crude drug content. Using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography(TLC) and pharmacodynamics as indicators, extracts prepared by traditional alcohol precipitation drying process and spray drying process were compared. Compared with the traditional preparation method, the extract prepared by spray drying had little differences from the polysaccharide content, TLC and the function of reducing TG and TC, and its optimum technology condition were as follows: The inlet air temperature was 180 °C, injection speed was 10 ml/min and crude drugs content was 0. 4 g/mL. Auricularia auricular extract by spray drying technology is stable and feasible with high economic benefit.

  18. [Extract berberine hydrochloride by aqueous two-phase system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi-Fu; Xiang, Xiao-Qi; Zeng, Wei-Xiang; Wu, Ting; Tian, Chun-Lian

    2011-10-01

    To study the aqueous two-phase system which could be used for extraction of berberine hydrochloride. Three aqueous two-phase systems were used for extraction experiment firstly, the best one was chosen from that, and then the single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment were carried out. 10 mL 95% ethanol with 10 mL 2.2 mol/L ammonium sulfate could make a aqueous two-phase system, added 600 mg berberine hydrochloride whose purity was 53.22% into it, regulated its pH to 4, then the system was put into water-bath heater (70 degrees C) for 30 min, the extraction rate could reach 99.29%; Collected the extraction liquid, dried it under 40 degrees C, the purity of berberine hydrochloride was 88.43%. This system is a suitable aqueous two-phase system for extraction of berberine hydrochloride.

  19. Extraction of plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William P; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the preparation of extracts from plants using organic solvents, with emphasis on common problems encountered and methods for their reduction or elimination. In addition to generally applicable extraction protocols, methods are suggested for selectively extracting specific classes of plant-derived compounds, and phytochemical procedures are presented for the detection of classes of compounds encountered commonly during extraction, including selected groups of secondary metabolites and interfering compounds. Successful extraction begins with careful selection and preparation of plant samples and thorough review of the appropriate literature for suitable protocols for a particular class of compounds or plant species. During the extraction of plant material, it is important to minimize interference from compounds that may co-extract with the target compounds, and to avoid contamination of the extract, as well as to prevent decomposition of important metabolites or artifact formation as a result of extraction conditions or solvent impurities.

  20. Variability extraction and modeling for product variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsbauer, Lukas; Lopez-Herrejon, Roberto Erick; Egyed, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Fast-changing hardware and software technologies in addition to larger and more specialized customer bases demand software tailored to meet very diverse requirements. Software development approaches that aim at capturing this diversity on a single consolidated platform often require large upfront investments, e.g., time or budget. Alternatively, companies resort to developing one variant of a software product at a time by reusing as much as possible from already-existing product variants. However, identifying and extracting the parts to reuse is an error-prone and inefficient task compounded by the typically large number of product variants. Hence, more disciplined and systematic approaches are needed to cope with the complexity of developing and maintaining sets of product variants. Such approaches require detailed information about the product variants, the features they provide and their relations. In this paper, we present an approach to extract such variability information from product variants. It identifies traces from features and feature interactions to their implementation artifacts, and computes their dependencies. This work can be useful in many scenarios ranging from ad hoc development approaches such as clone-and-own to systematic reuse approaches such as software product lines. We applied our variability extraction approach to six case studies and provide a detailed evaluation. The results show that the extracted variability information is consistent with the variability in our six case study systems given by their variability models and available product variants.

  1. Extractable Work from Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Perarnau-Llobet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work, we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyze this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems that are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  2. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    . We tested the accuracy and robustness of the new method using Landsat 5 TM images of several water bodies in Denmark, Switzerland, Ethiopia, South Africa and New Zealand. Kappa coefficient, omission and commission errors were calculated to evaluate accuracies. The performance of the classifier...... of various sorts of environmental noise and at the same time offers a stable threshold value. Thus we introduced a new Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI) improving classification accuracy in areas that include shadow and dark surfaces that other classification methods often fail to classify correctly...... and omission errors by 50% compared to those resulting from MNDWI and about 25% compared to ML classifiers. Besides, the new method was shown to have a fairly stable optimal threshold value. Therefore, AWEI can be used for extracting water with high accuracy, especially in mountainous areas where deep shadow...

  3. QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: Single Photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, S

    2000-12-22

    Quantum cryptography offers the potential of totally secure transfer of information, but as Benjamin discusses in this Perspective, its practical implementation hinges on being able to generate single photons (rather than two or more) at a time. Michler et al. show how this condition can be met in a quantum dot microdisk structure. Single molecules were also recently shown to allow controlled single-photon emission.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of the interactions of medicinal plant extracts and drugs with lipid bilayer membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopec, Wojciech; Telenius, Jelena; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    Several small drugs and medicinal plant extracts, such as the Indian spice extract curcumin, have a wide range of useful pharmacological properties that cannot be ascribed to binding to a single protein target alone. The lipid bilayer membrane is thought to mediate the effects of many such molecu......Several small drugs and medicinal plant extracts, such as the Indian spice extract curcumin, have a wide range of useful pharmacological properties that cannot be ascribed to binding to a single protein target alone. The lipid bilayer membrane is thought to mediate the effects of many...

  5. Single photon quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Villing, André; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-10-28

    We report the full implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol using a stream of single photon pulses generated by a stable and efficient source operating at room temperature. The single photon pulses are emitted on demand by a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in a diamond nanocrystal. The quantum bit error rate is less that 4.6% and the secure bit rate is 7700 bits/s. The overall performances of our system reaches a domain where single photons have a measurable advantage over an equivalent system based on attenuated light pulses.

  6. Single-atom nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Prati, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Single-Atom Nanoelectronics covers the fabrication of single-atom devices and related technology, as well as the relevant electronic equipment and the intriguing new phenomena related to single-atom and single-electron effects in quantum devices. It also covers the alternative approaches related to both silicon- and carbon-based technologies, also from the point of view of large-scale industrial production. The publication provides a comprehensive picture of the state of the art at the cutting edge and constitutes a milestone in the emerging field of beyond-CMOS technology. Although there are

  7. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different stru......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    activity by methanol and ethanol extracts of. Mesembryanthemum edule shoots after 5 and 10 min of sonication (n = 3, p< 0.05). DISCUSSION. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of plant extracts largely depend on extraction conditions and compositions [12]. Antioxidant molecules and capacities are influenced by.

  9. ELEVATION ON BOINLING POINT OF COFFE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telis-Romero J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise in boiling point of coffee extract was experimentally measured at soluble solids concentrations in the range of 9.2 to 52.4ºBrix and pressures between 5.8 × 10³ and 9.4 × 10(4 Pa (abs.. Different approaches to representing experimental data, including the Dühring's rule, the Antoine equation and empirical models proposed in the literature were tested. In the range of 9.2 to 16.2ºBrix, the rise in boiling point was nearly independent of pressure, varying only with extract concentration. Considerable deviations of this behavior began to occur at concentrations higher than 16.2ºBrix. Experimental data could best be predicted by adjusting an empirical model which consists of a single equation that takes into account the dependence of rise in boiling point on pressure and concentration.

  10. K-targeted metabolomic analysis extends chemical subtraction to DESIGNER extracts: selective depletion of extracts of hops (Humulus lupulus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Alvarenga, René F; Friesen, J Brent; Nikolić, Dejan; Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G; van Breemen, Richard; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2014-12-26

    This study introduces a flexible and compound targeted approach to Deplete and Enrich Select Ingredients to Generate Normalized Extract Resources, generating DESIGNER extracts, by means of chemical subtraction or augmentation of metabolites. Targeting metabolites based on their liquid-liquid partition coefficients (K values), K targeting uses countercurrent separation methodology to remove single or multiple compounds from a chemically complex mixture, according to the following equation: DESIGNER extract = total extract ± target compound(s). Expanding the scope of the recently reported depletion of extracts by immunoaffinity or solid phase liquid chromatography, the present approach allows a more flexible, single- or multi-targeted removal of constituents from complex extracts such as botanicals. Chemical subtraction enables both chemical and biological characterization, including detection of synergism/antagonism by both the subtracted targets and the remaining metabolite mixture, as well as definition of the residual complexity of all fractions. The feasibility of the DESIGNER concept is shown by K-targeted subtraction of four bioactive prenylated phenols, isoxanthohumol (1), 8-prenylnaringenin (2), 6-prenylnaringenin (3), and xanthohumol (4), from a standardized hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract using specific solvent systems. Conversely, adding K-targeted isolates allows enrichment of the original extract and hence provides an augmented DESIGNER material. Multiple countercurrent separation steps were used to purify each of the four compounds, and four DESIGNER extracts with varying depletions were prepared. The DESIGNER approach innovates the characterization of chemically complex extracts through integration of enabling technologies such as countercurrent separation, K-by-bioactivity, the residual complexity concepts, as well as quantitative analysis by (1)H NMR, LC-MS, and HiFSA-based NMR fingerprinting.

  11. Spectrophotometric Determination of Microamounts of Uranium previous Extraction with TBP-MIC; Determinacion Espectrofotometrica de Microcantidades de Uranio previa extraccin con Metilisobutilcetona-Fosfato de Tributilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Palomino, J.; Palomares Delgado, F.; Petrement, J.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1962-07-01

    Selective extraction of uranium in nitric acid medium with a mixture of Tbp-MIC (1:10) has been achieved. Aluminium nitrate was used as salting agent. Complexing agents were added in order to avoid extraction of impurities. Extraction conditions have been studied so that extraction is almost practically complete in a single run. (Author) 19 refs.

  12. Tooth extraction decision model in periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelut, A; Rousval, B; Fromentin, O; Feghali, M; Mora, F; Bouchard, P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build, around several types of input data, a decision analysis model for dental extraction strategy in periodontitis patients. The decision analysis was based on the following scenario: a fictitious adult chronic periodontitis patient with no chief complaint, being referred to make a decision of extraction on one single tooth presenting a periodontal defect that may affect the decision-making process. A decision tree was used to identify the treatment options within the next 5 years. Scientific evidences were based on probabilities given by a literature analysis using a systematic approach. Clinical expertize was based on subjective utilities (SUs) assigned by an experts' panel. Expected utilities (EUs) were used to rank the following options: no treatment (EU(1)) or periodontal treatment (EU(2)); extraction followed by a tooth-supported fixed partial denture - FPD - (EU(3)) or an implant-supported single crown - ISC - (EU(4)). The robustness analysis calculation indicates that the probability of tooth survival needed to be equal to 0.78 in order that the passive option becomes optimal. However, EU(1) was impossible to calculate due to the lack of available probabilities. The EU intervals were 79-96, 86-89 and 94-95 for EU(2), EU(3) and EU(4), respectively. Consequently, the FPD option is dominated by the ISC option, and it is not possible to conclude to a difference between the periodontal and the ISC therapy. Within the limits of this model, tooth extraction followed by FPD is the worst strategy compared with ISC or periodontal therapies.

  13. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  14. Contact dermatitis to botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Cohen, David E

    2002-09-01

    A review of the literature of reported cases of contact dermatitis to a variety of natural herbal extracts is Presented. Natural extracts are commonly used ingredients in many cosmetic preparations and homeopathic remedies. Although the term natural botanical extracts inherently purports to have beneficial and benign properties, these extracts can cause adverse reactions in individuals. As such, dermatologists should be cognizant of these agents as possible sources of allergenicity in patients presenting with contact dermatitis. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  15. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  16. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  17. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  18. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  19. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  20. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  1. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory....

  2. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  3. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  4. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Popescu

    2013-01-01

    Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  5. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  6. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  7. Quantum Phase Extraction in Isospectral Electronic Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-04-28

    Quantum phase is not a direct observable and is usually determined by interferometric methods. We present a method to map complete electron wave functions, including internal quantum phase information, from measured single-state probability densities. We harness the mathematical discovery of drum-like manifolds bearing different shapes but identical resonances, and construct quantum isospectral nanostructures possessing matching electronic structure but divergent physical structure. Quantum measurement (scanning tunneling microscopy) of these 'quantum drums' [degenerate two-dimensional electron states on the Cu(111) surface confined by individually positioned CO molecules] reveals that isospectrality provides an extra topological degree of freedom enabling robust quantum state transplantation and phase extraction.

  8. Liquid-liquid extraction in flow analysis: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Cristina I.C.; Santos, Joao L.M. [REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Lima, Jose L.F.C., E-mail: limajlfc@ff.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Zagatto, Elias A.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 96, Piracicaba 13400-970 (Brazil)

    2009-10-12

    Liquid-liquid extractions (LLE) are a common sample pre-treatment in many analytical applications. This review aims at providing a critical overview of the distinct automated continuous flow-based approaches that were developed for liquid-liquid extraction with the purpose of pre-concentration and/or separation of multiple analytes, such as ultra-trace metal and metalloid species, phenolic compounds, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, etc., hyphenated with many detection technique such as UV/vis spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometric detection systems and luminescent detectors, including distinct extraction strategies and applications like single and multiple extraction schemes, wetting film extraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, back extraction, closed-loop systems and the utilisation of zone sampling, chromatomembranes and iterative reversal techniques. The analytical performance of the developed flow-based LLE methods and the influence of flow manifold components such as the segmenter, extraction coil and phase separator, is emphasised and object of discussion. An overall presentation of each system components, selectivity, advantages and shortcomings is carried out and exemplified with selected applications.

  9. Liquid-liquid extraction in flow analysis: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Cristina I C; Santos, João L M; Lima, José L F C; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2009-10-12

    Liquid-liquid extractions (LLE) are a common sample pre-treatment in many analytical applications. This review aims at providing a critical overview of the distinct automated continuous flow-based approaches that were developed for liquid-liquid extraction with the purpose of pre-concentration and/or separation of multiple analytes, such as ultra-trace metal and metalloid species, phenolic compounds, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, etc., hyphenated with many detection technique such as UV/vis spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometric detection systems and luminescent detectors, including distinct extraction strategies and applications like single and multiple extraction schemes, wetting film extraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, back extraction, closed-loop systems and the utilisation of zone sampling, chromatomembranes and iterative reversal techniques. The analytical performance of the developed flow-based LLE methods and the influence of flow manifold components such as the segmenter, extraction coil and phase separator, is emphasised and object of discussion. An overall presentation of each system components, selectivity, advantages and shortcomings is carried out and exemplified with selected applications.

  10. Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL; Lin, Yupo J [Naperville, IL; Hestekin', Jamie A [Fayetteville, AR; Henry, Michael P [Batavia, IL; Pujado, Peter [Kildeer, IL; Oroskar, Anil [Oak Brook, IL; Kulprathipanja, Santi [Inverness, IL; Randhava, Sarabjit [Evanston, IL

    2010-09-21

    The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

  11. A RAPID DNA EXTRACTION METHOD IS SUCCESSFULLY APPLIED TO ITS-RFLP ANALYSIS OF MYCORRHIZAL ROOT TIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for extracting DNA from intact, single root tips using a Xanthine solution was developed to handle very large numbers of analyses of ectomycorrhizas. By using an extraction without grinding we have attempted to bias the extraction towards the fungal DNA in the man...

  12. Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Paclitaxel from Taxus x media Using Ionic Liquids as Adjuvants: Optimization of the Process by Response Surface Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhijian Tan; Qiao Li; Chaoyun Wang; Wanlai Zhou; Yuanru Yang; Hongying Wang; Yongjian Yi; Fenfang Li

    2017-01-01

    ...) using methanol solution. The extraction conditions of methanol concentration, IL type and amount, solid-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and ultrasonic irradiation time were investigated in single factor experiments...

  13. Fission product solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

    1998-02-01

    Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

  14. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to study the potential of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts in production of nanoparticles and the effect of the extraction solvent on the produced nanoparticles. Methanol and dichloromethane extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. Both the extracts of P. gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. successfully produced small and polydispersed nanoparticles with low aggregates in early hours of the biotransformation. Methanol extract produced spherical and many single nanoparticles, whereas dichloromethane produced porous polyhedral and more aggregated nanoparticles. Methanol extract of this plant seems to be quiet useful for industrial scale production of nanoparticles.

  15. An efficient modified method for plant leaf lipid extraction results in improved recovery of phosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, Sunitha; Enninful, Regina; Roth, Mary R; Tamura, Pamela; Jagadish, Krishna; Welti, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    Lipidomics plays an important role in understanding plant adaptation to different stresses and improving our knowledge of the genes underlying lipid metabolism. Lipidomics involves lipid extraction, sample preparation, mass spectrometry analysis, and data interpretation. One of the practical challenges for large-scale lipidomics studies on plant leaves is the requirement of an efficient and rapid extraction method. A single-extraction method with a polar solvent mixture gives results comparable to a widely used, multi-extraction method when tested on both Arabidopsis thaliana and Sorghum bicolor leaf tissue. This single-extraction method uses a mixture of 30 parts chloroform, 25 parts isopropanol, 41.5 parts methanol, and 3.5 parts water (v/v/v/v) and a 24-h extraction time. Neither inclusion of ammonium acetate nor inclusion of acetic acid increased extraction efficiency. The extract produced by this method can be used for analysis by mass spectrometry without a solvent evaporation step. The amount of lipid extracted, including phosphatidic acid, is comparable to widely used, more labor-intensive methods. The single-extraction protocol is less laborious, reducing the potential for human error.

  16. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Mangiferin from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tang-Bin; Xia, En-Qin; He, Tai-Ping; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen

    2014-01-27

    Mangiferin is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and analgesic effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 44% ethanol, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 38:1, and extraction for 19.2 min at 60 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 58.46 ± 1.27 mg/g. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of mango leaves, and also indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of mangiferin from plant materials.

  17. The Pressure Enhances the Extraction Yield of Total Triterpenoids from Ganoderma Lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Peilong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure used as a single factor was applied to extract triterpenoids from ganoderma lucidum. In this paper, the conditions of HPCL-Recator extraction were optimized, the optimum extraction parameters were respectively as following: 90°C, 1Mpa, 30min, 50ml/g, 70% (v/v ethanol, and the highest extraction yield of triterpenoids reached 1.41% (mg/g. Ultrasonic-assited extraction (UAE, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE were also optimized, and the the highest extraction yield were 1.08% and 1.21%. The results showed that the high pressure extraction is more efficient than the conventional UAE and MAE.

  18. Influence of a highly purified senna extract on colonic epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, B A; Karrenbeld, A; van Der Sluis, T; Koudstaal, J; de Vries, E G; Kleibeuker, J H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic use of sennoside laxatives often causes pseudomelanosis coli. A recent study suggested that pseudomelanosis coli is associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. A single high dose of highly purified senna extract increased proliferation rate and reduced crypt length in

  19. Efficacy of standardised herbal extracts in type 1 diabetes - an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the hypoglycemic activity of Withania somnifera Dunal, Allium sativum Linn., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) Schult, Ferula foetida (Bunge.) Reg. and Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. extracts have been studied in an experimental model of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes was induced in albino rats by a single ...

  20. Antiproliferative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of length and weight of isolated tumor from rat induced with DMBA only was 2.4 cm and 2.8 g respectively. DNA smears obtained from single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) suggested possible DMBA-induced damage which was significantly prevented owing to the effect of the leaf extract of M. pruriens.

  1. Ethanol stem bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria ameliorates MPTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The Parkinson's disease was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of MPTP. After 72h of induction, the young adult male rats were treated with oral administration of stem bark ethanol extract of the plant daily for 2 weeks. The blood chemistry, antioxidant markers and brain dopamine levels were ...

  2. hypoglycaemic activity of the alcoholic extract of musa sapientum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musacaeae) sucker was studied in alloxamised and fasted rabbits. The results showed that a single dose-level of 5mg/kg of this extract reduced the blood glucose level by 90% after 18 hours of administration per os, in all experimental animals.

  3. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bunge extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabete model rats was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of ten rats each: negative control group, normal control group, reference group (glibenclamide1 mg/kgbody weight) as well as AMB extract groups, ...

  4. The Aqueous Calyx Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Lowers Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    using single pouch machine type (ART 400 Eureka,. Gmbh, Germany). Ethical Clearance. Before the commencement of the study, approval was obtained from ..... Obiefuna, P.C.M, Owolabi, O.A, Adegunloye, B. J,. Obiefuna, I.P and Sofola, O.A (1993).The petal extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa produces relaxation of isolated rat ...

  5. Haematotoxicity of Ethanol Extract of Adenium obesum (Forssk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Forssk.) Roem. &. Schult stem bark in Wistar rats in relation to haematological parameters. Methods: This involved the administration of single dose of 300 mgkg-1, 2000 mgkg-1 and 5000 mgkg-1 of the extract by oral gavage separately to three ...

  6. Acute toxicity effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... forest zones, straight tapering boles branching from low down often gregarious and effectively killing out grasses. (Dalziel, 1937). .... Histopathological changes observed in various organs of dead rats treated with single dose (i.p.) of leaf extract of A. leiocarpus. Observed changes. Dose. (mg/kg). Lungs.

  7. Investigation of the Effect of Aqeous Mistletoe Leaf Extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous leaf extract of the mistletoe was investigated for hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolaemic effect in diabetic rabbits. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rabbits in groups I-II by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at 100mg/kg body weight. Following confirmation of hyperglycaemia, groups I and II ...

  8. Effect of Cream Formulation of Fenugreek Seed Extract on Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: A water-in-oil emulsion cream base without fenugreek seed extract which served as control, ... Galactomannan is a natural effective .... single site at face. The Cutometer generates a graph depicting immediate deformation or skin extensibility (Ue), delayed distension. (Uv), final deformation (Uf), immediate.

  9. Haematotoxicity of ethanol extract of Adenium obesum (Forssk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forssk.) Roem. & Schult stem bark in Wistar rats in relation to haematological parameters. Methods: This involved the administration of single dose of 300 mgkg-1, 2000 mgkg-1 and 5000 mgkg-1 of the extract by oral gavage separately to three ...

  10. Hypoglycaemic Activity of Acalypha fruticosa Forssk Extracts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The rabbits were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n = 3) and treated with a single oral dose. Group 1 served as normal control and received 2 % dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 3 ml/kg); group 2 served as standard treatment and received metformin (300 mg/kg); groups 3 - 8 received different extracts of Acalypha ...

  11. Ethanolic leaf extract of Langenaria breviflora (bitter gourd) inhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... Methodology and result: Ulceration in the rat was induced by a single oral dose of indomethacin (60 mg/kg body weight). Ulcerated rats were orally administered with Lagenaria breviflora extract at 200 mg/kg body weight once daily for 21 .... Areas of mucosal damage were expressed as a percentage of the ...

  12. Anti-dyslipidemic and Antioxidant Potentials of Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The activity of the methanol extract of the whole plant of Kalanchoe crenata (MEKC) was studied for the treatment of diabetes-induced nephropathy in rats. Methods: Five-day old Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection (90 ìg/kg body weight) to induce diabetes. Kidney disease onset in ...

  13. Microwave extraction of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Blekić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction presents novel extraction and treatment method for food processing. In paper, several examples of microwave extraction of bioactive compounds are presented. Also, novel innovative equipment for microwave extraction and hydrodiffusion with gravitation is presented. Advantage of using novel equipment for microwave extraction is shown, and it include, shorter treatment time, less usage or without any solvent use. Novel method is compared to standard extraction methods. Some positive and negative aspects of microwave heating can be observed, and also its influence on development of oxidation in sunflower oil subjected to microwave heating. Also, use of microwaves for the extraction of essential oils is shown. One can also see the advantages of solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs in comparison with the standard extraction, and determination of antioxidant components in rice bran oil extracted by microwave-assisted method. Comparison of microwave and ultrasound extraction, as well as positive and negative aspects of the combination of microwaves and ultrasound is described.

  14. [Biophysics of single molecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, I N; Deriusheva, E I

    2011-01-01

    The modern methods of research of biological molecules whose application led to the development of a new field of science, biophysics of single molecules, are reviewed. The measurement of the characteristics of single molecules enables one to reveal their individual features, and it is just for this reason that much more information can be obtained from one molecule than from the entire ensample of molecules. The high sensitivity of the methods considered in detail makes it possible to come close to the solution of the basic problem of practical importance, namely, the determination of the nucleotide sequence of a single DNA molecule.

  15. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  16. Single-Tooth Modeling for 3D Dental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianran Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated single-tooth modeling scheme is proposed for the 3D dental model acquired by optical digitizers. The cores of the modeling scheme are fusion regions extraction, single tooth shape restoration, and single tooth separation. According to the “valley” shape-like characters of the fusion regions between two adjoining teeth, the regions of the 3D dental model are analyzed and classified based on the minimum curvatures of the surface. The single tooth shape is restored according to the bioinformation along the hole boundary, which is generated after the fusion region being removed. By using the extracted boundary from the blending regions between the teeth and soft tissues as reference, the teeth can be separated from the 3D dental model one by one correctly. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve satisfying modeling results with high-degree approximation of the real tooth and meet the requirements of clinical oral medicine.

  17. Single-Tooth Modeling for 3D Dental Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tianran; Liao, Wenhe; Dai, Ning; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Yu, Qing

    2010-01-01

    An integrated single-tooth modeling scheme is proposed for the 3D dental model acquired by optical digitizers. The cores of the modeling scheme are fusion regions extraction, single tooth shape restoration, and single tooth separation. According to the "valley" shape-like characters of the fusion regions between two adjoining teeth, the regions of the 3D dental model are analyzed and classified based on the minimum curvatures of the surface. The single tooth shape is restored according to the bioinformation along the hole boundary, which is generated after the fusion region being removed. By using the extracted boundary from the blending regions between the teeth and soft tissues as reference, the teeth can be separated from the 3D dental model one by one correctly. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve satisfying modeling results with high-degree approximation of the real tooth and meet the requirements of clinical oral medicine.

  18. Single molecule electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyunwook; Reed, Mark A; Lee, Takhee

    2011-04-12

    Single molecule electronic devices in which individual molecules are utilized as active electronic components constitute a promising approach for the ultimate miniaturization and integration of electronic devices in nanotechnology through the bottom-up strategy. Thus, the ability to understand, control, and exploit charge transport at the level of single molecules has become a long-standing desire of scientists and engineers from different disciplines for various potential device applications. Indeed, a study on charge transport through single molecules attached to metallic electrodes is a very challenging task, but rapid advances have been made in recent years. This review article focuses on experimental aspects of electronic devices made with single molecules, with a primary focus on the characterization and manipulation of charge transport in this regime. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Stresses of Single Parenting Page Content Article Body What are some ways ... way. Check your local library for books on parenting. Local hospitals, the YMCA, and church groups often ...

  20. Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA has identified solvent extraction for vegetable oil production processes as major sources of a single hazardous air pollutant (HAP), n-hexane. Learn more about the rule requirements and regulations, as well as find compliance help

  1. Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive...

  2. [Study on biopharmaceutics classification system for Chinese materia medica of extract of Huanglian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yin, Xiu-Wen; Wang, Zi-Yu; Li, Xue-Lian; Pan, Meng; Li, Yan-Ping; Dong, Ling

    2017-11-01

    One of the advantages of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) is expanding the classification research level from single ingredient to multi-components of Chinese herb, and from multi-components research to holistic research of the Chinese materia medica. In present paper, the alkaloids of extract of huanglian were chosen as the main research object to explore their change rules in solubility and intestinal permeability of single-component and multi-components, and to determine the biopharmaceutical classification of extract of Huanglian from holistic level. The typical shake-flask method and HPLC were used to detect the solubility of single ingredient of alkaloids from extract of huanglian. The quantitative research of alkaloids in intestinal absorption was measured in single-pass intestinal perfusion experiment while permeability coefficient of extract of huanglian was calculated by self-defined weight coefficient method. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Single Crystal Faceplate Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-25

    7]. Much the research at Allied-Signal, Inc. in garnet layer growth has been involved with the kinetics of crystallization of garnet from LPE melts...acceptable resolution and light output characteristics. Single crystal faceplates being evaluated are composed of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) with an...1.1 Single Crystal Faceplate Developments Allied Signal, Inc. has done extensive development work in epitaxial layering of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG

  4. Hypericum perforatum extract modulates cortical plasticity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerto, Carmen; Boo, Hyunji; Hu, Charles; Sandilya, Priam; Krish, Anita; Chusid, Eileen; Coira, Diego; Aguglia, Eugenio; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2018-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum (HYP) extract is one of the most commonly used complementary alternative medicines (CAMs) for the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression. Non-invasive brain stimulation protocols can be used to investigate the effect of psychoactive substances on the human brain. In this study, we explored the effect of a single dose of HYP extract (WS 5570) intake on corticospinal excitability and plasticity in humans. Twenty-eight healthy subjects were required to intake 900 mg of either HYP extract or placebo. Cortical excitability was assessed using single and paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The electrophysiological parameters of motor threshold, recruitment of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), cortical silent period (CSP), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF) were tested before and 2 and 5 h after the oral intake. Spinal and neuromuscular excitability and peripheral nerve excitability were measured by F response and M-wave. Cortical plasticity was induced using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Subjects received either HYP extract or placebo before anodal and cathodal tDCS of the primary motor cortex. Plasticity was assessed by MEP amplitudes. HYP extract reversed cathodal tDCS-induced long-term depression (LTD)-like plasticity into facilitation, as compared to placebo. HYP extract did not have a significant effect on anodal tDCS-induced plasticity and TMS measures of motor cortex and spinal/neuromuscular excitability. Our findings suggest that a single oral dose of HYP extract modulates cortical plasticity in healthy subjects and provide new insight into its possible mechanism of action in humans.

  5. Cross sections for short pulse single and double ionization ofhelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Alicia; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2007-11-27

    In a previous publication, procedures were proposed for unambiguously extracting amplitudes for single and double ionization from a time-dependent wavepacket by effectively propagating for an infinite time following a radiation pulse. Here we demonstrate the accuracy and utility of those methods for describing two-photon single and one-photon double ionization of helium. In particular it is shown how narrow features corresponding to autoionizing states are easily resolved with these methods.

  6. Toxicologic evaluation of licorice extract as a cigarette ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmines, E L; Lemus, R; Gaworski, C L

    2005-09-01

    Licorice extract (block, powder or liquid) may be applied to cigarette tobacco at levels of about 1-4% to enhance and harmonize the flavor characteristics of smoke, improve moisture holding characteristics of tobacco, and act as a surface active agent for ingredient application. Neat material pyrolysis studies, and smoke chemistry and biological activity studies (bacterial mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, micronucleus, and sub-chronic inhalation) with mainstream smoke, or mainstream smoke preparations from cigarettes containing various target levels (1.5-12%) of the licorice extracts were performed to provide data for an assessment of the use of licorice extract as a cigarette tobacco ingredient. At simulated tobacco burning temperatures up to 900 degrees C all forms of neat licorice extract pyrolyzed extensively, yielding small amounts of benzene, toluene, phenol and acetaldehyde with no indication that licorice extracts would transfer intact to mainstream smoke. As a single ingredient added to cigarette tobacco, block licorice extract at a target level of 12.5% increased smoke constituents including selected PAH, arsenic, lead, phenol and formaldehyde (on a TPM basis), while licorice extract powder (target level of 8% tobacco) increased select PAH, phenol and formaldehyde (on a TPM basis). Lower target application levels (including typical application levels) of block, powder or liquid licorice extract did not significantly alter the smoke chemistry profile. Biological tests indicated no relevant difference in the genotoxic or cytotoxic potential of either mainstream smoke (or smoke preparations) from cigarettes with added licorice extracts compared to control cigarettes. In sub-chronic 90-day rat inhalation studies, the mainstream smoke from cigarettes with 12.5% added block and 8% added powder licorice extract contained higher formaldehyde concentrations compared to control cigarette smoke. Female rats in the 12.5% block licorice extract exposure group displayed an

  7. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanne, Haritha; Burte, Narayan Pandurang; Prasanna, V; Gujjula, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO3) and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S3 O9). Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements.

  8. A SINGLE-COLUMN PROCEDURE ON BOND ELUT CERTIFY FOR SYSTEMATIC TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF DRUGS IN PLASMA AND URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHEN, XH; WIJSBEEK, J; FRANKE, JP; DEZEEUW, RA

    A single-column solid-phase extraction procedure was developed for the screening of acidic, neutral, and basic drugs from plasma. The recoveries of all 25 tested drugs exceeded 82%. After the plasma had been diluted with phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), the drugs were extracted using a single Bond Elut

  9. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  10. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  11. Parallel RNA extraction using magnetic beads and a droplet array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xu; Chen, Chun-Hong; Gao, Weimin; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid extraction is a necessary step for most genomic/transcriptomic analyses, but it often requires complicated mechanisms to be integrated into a lab-on-a-chip device. Here, we present a simple, effective configuration for rapidly obtaining purified RNA from low concentration cell medium. This Total RNA Extraction Droplet Array (TREDA) utilizes an array of surface-adhering droplets to facilitate the transportation of magnetic purification beads seamlessly through individual buffer solutions without solid structures. The fabrication of TREDA chips is rapid and does not require a microfabrication facility or expertise. The process takes less than 5 minutes. When purifying mRNA from bulk marine diatom samples, its repeatability and extraction efficiency are comparable to conventional tube-based operations. We demonstrate that TREDA can extract the total mRNA of about 10 marine diatom cells, indicating that the sensitivity of TREDA approaches single-digit cell numbers. PMID:25519439

  12. Chemical composition and in vitro anti-algal activity of Potamogeton crispus and Myriophyllum spicatum extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany M. Haroon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the phytochemical constituents and anti-algal activities of crude extracts from dry macrophytes species, Potamogeton crispus and Myriophyllum spicatum. Organic solvents differed in polarity including petroleum ether, methylene chloride, chloroform, acetone and methanol were used to extract the phytochemical compounds and gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analyzer was used for the detection of these compounds. Generally, the results indicated that the composition and mass fraction of phytochemical constituents varied with plant species and extraction solvents. The growth inhibition effects of separate and mixed plants extracts on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were studied. In addition, the effects of mixed extracts on ten taxonomically different freshwater microalgae species, using the single-species and mixed culture species tests were also studied. Among the five different extracts tested chloroform extract and mixed extracts of the two plant species showed the highest anti-algal potential with P. subcapitata. The sensitivity of microalgae species tested in single-species cultures to P. crispus and M. spicatum extracts found to be group-specific, in which cyanophyte Anabaena flos-aquae var. treleasei and the diatoms Gomphoneis eriense var. apiculate and Tryblionella hungarica were more sensitive compared to the tested green microalgae species. In addition, the inhibitory effects of macrophyte extracts decreased for the mixed microalgae cultures. The extracts of P. crispus and M. spicatum showed the presence of some bioactive compounds that could contribute toward the phyto-algicidal properties of these plants.

  13. 40 Gbit/s NRZ Packet-Length Insensitive Header Extraction for Optical Label Switching Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seoane, Jorge; Kehayas, E; Avramopoulos, H.

    2006-01-01

    A simple method for 40 Gbit/s NRZ header extraction based on envelope detection for optical label switching networks is presented. The scheme is insensitive to packet length and spacing and can be single-chip integrated cost-effectively......A simple method for 40 Gbit/s NRZ header extraction based on envelope detection for optical label switching networks is presented. The scheme is insensitive to packet length and spacing and can be single-chip integrated cost-effectively...

  14. Optimized microwave-assisted extraction of 6-gingerol from Zingiber officinale Roscoeand evaluation of antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhou, Chun-Li; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Dong; Li, Quan-Hong

    2014-01-01

    6-Gingerol is one of the most pharmacologically active and abundant components in ginger, which has a wide array of biochemical and pharmacologic activities. In recent years, the application of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) for obtaining bioactive compounds from plant materials has shown tremendous research interest and potential. In this study, an efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was developed to extract 6-gingerol from ginger. The extraction efficiency of MAE was also compared with conventional extraction techniques. Fresh gingers (Zingiber officinale Rose.) were harvested at commercial maturity (originally from Shandong, laiwu, China). In single-factor experiments for the recovery of 6-gingerol, proper ranges of ratio of liquid to solid, ethanol proportion, microwave power, extraction time were determined. Based on the values obtained in single-factor experiments, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to determine the best combination of extraction variables on the yield of 6-gingerol. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: microwave power 528 W, ratio of liquid to solid 26 mL·g(-1), extraction time 31 s and ethanol proportion 78%. Furthermore, more 6-gingerol and total polyphenols contents were extracted by MAE than conventional methods including Maceration (MAC), Stirring Extraction (SE), Heat reflux extraction (HRE), Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), as well as the antioxidant capacity. Microwave-assisted extraction showed obvious advantages in terms of high extraction efficiency and antioxidant activity of extract within shortest extraction time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of ginger powder materials after different extractions were obtained to provide visual evidence of the disruption effect. To our best knowledge, this is the first report about usage of MAE of 6-gingerol extraction from ginger, which could be referenced for the extraction of other active compounds from herbal plants.

  15. Pure zeolite synthesis from silica extracted from coal fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, N.; Querol, X.; Plana, F.; Andres, J.M.; Janssen, M.; Nugteren, H. [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. Earth Science ' Jaume Almera'

    2002-07-01

    Pure zeolites can be synthesised from silica extracted from fly ash by alkaline leaching. If the process is optimised the solid residue arising from this extraction may also contain a relatively high content of zeolitic material mixed with residual fly ash components. Both the pure and the impure zeolitic material have a high potential for application in waste-water and flue gas-cleaning technologies. The silica extraction potential of 23 European coal fly ashes covering most of the possible fly ash types is investigated in this study. Optimisation of leaching processes, by varying temperature, time and alkali/fly ash rates, permitted extraction yields up to 140 g of SiO{sub 2} per kg using a single step process, but the extraction yields may reach up to 210 g kg{sup -1} by applying thermal pre-treatments prior to the extraction. The solid residue arising from the silica extraction experiments shows a high NaP1 zeolite content. A high Si/Al ratio of the glass matrix, the occurrence of easily soluble silica phases in the original fly ash and a high reactive surface area were found to be the major parameters influencing silica extraction. High purity 4A and X zeolitic material was obtained by combining the silica extracts from the Meirama fly ash and a waste solution from the Al-anodising industry. The results allowed conversion of the silica extraction yields to an equivalent 630 g of pure 4A-X zeolite per kg of fly ash with a cation exchange capacity of 4.7 meq g{sup -1}.

  16. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large

  17. Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Profile of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Acute toxicity study was performed by administering a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of the extract to 5 rats while distilled water was given to another 5 ... Histopathology did not reveal any sign of lesions or pathological changes in the organs that could be attributed to treatment with the plant extract.

  18. Producing ashless coal extracts by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgur Sonmez; Elife Sultan Giray [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Chemistry

    2011-06-15

    To produce ashless coal extracts, three Turkish coals were extracted with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), NMP/ethylenediamine (EDA) (17/1, vol/vol) mixture and NMP/tetralin (9/1, vol/vol) mixture through thermal extraction and microwave extraction. Solvent extraction by microwave irradiation (MI) was found to be more effective than that by thermal extraction. Extraction yield of coals in NMP enhanced by addition of a little EDA, but tetralin addition showed variances according to extraction method used. While tetralin addition caused a decrease in the thermal extraction yield, it increased the yield of the extraction by MI. Following the extraction, the solid extracts were produced with ash content ranging from 0.11% to 1.1%. Ash content of solid extract obtained from microwave extraction are less than ash contents of solid extracts obtained from thermal extraction. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Metadata Extraction and Search Interfaces - Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demidova, Elena; Zenz, Gideon; Olmedilla, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The Metadata Extraction and Search Interfaces offer a framework which allows for crawling specific knowledge resources and extraction their metadata. Furthermore, extracted metadata can be made persistently available for search using Metadata Extraction Listener and Search Interfaces of the

  20. Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Francisco, Angelica D; De Guzman, Florecita; Tigno, Xenia T

    2003-01-01

    Carica papaya seed extract is currently being marketed as a nutritional supplement with purported ability "to rejuvenate the body condition and to increase energy". The product claims to improve immunity against common infection and body functioning. The present study was initiated to analyze the chemical constituents of the Carica Seed Extract and determine the potential immunomodulatory properties of the different bioactive fractions. These immunomodulatory activities of crude Carica Seed Extract and its bioactive fractions were examined in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation assays and complement-mediated hemolytic assay. Three major observations were made in this study: (1) the crude Carica Seed Extract and two other bioactive fractions significantly enhanced the phytohemagglutinin responsiveness of lymphocytes; (2) none of the Carica Seed Extract (at the concentrations used in this study) was able to protect the lymphocytes from the toxic effects of chromium; and (3) some of the bioactive fractions of Carica Seed Extract were able to significantly inhibit the classical complement-mediated hemolytic pathway. These findings provide evidence for immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of Carica Seed Extract. No single compound is likely responsible for these activities. Further purification, isolation and characterization of the active components are needed.

  1. Soy Sauce Residue Oil Extracted by a Novel Continuous Phase Transition Extraction under Low Temperature and Its Refining Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Yong; He, Liping; Dai, Weijie; Lai, Yingyi; Yao, Xueyi; Cao, Yong

    2014-04-09

    On the basis of previous single-factor experiments, extraction parameters of soy sauce residue (SSR) oil extracted using a self-developed continuous phase transition extraction method at low temperature was optimized using the response surface methodology. The established optimal conditions for maximum oil yield were n-butane solvent, 0.5 MPa extraction pressure, 45 °C temperature, 62 min extraction time, and 45 mesh raw material granularity. Under these conditions, the actual yield was 28.43% ± 0.17%, which is relatively close to the predicted yield. Meanwhile, isoflavone was extracted from defatted SSR using the same method, but the parameters and solvent used were altered. The new solvent was 95% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction was performed under 1.0 MPa at 60 °C for 90 min. The extracted isoflavones, with 0.18% ± 0.012% yield, mainly comprised daidzein and genistein, two kinds of aglycones. The novel continuous phase transition extraction under low temperature could provide favorable conditions for the extraction of nonpolar or strongly polar substances. The oil physicochemical properties and fatty acids compositions were analyzed. Results showed that the main drawback of the crude oil was the excess of acid value (AV, 63.9 ± 0.1 mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (POV, 9.05 ± 0.3 mmol/kg), compared with that of normal soybean oil. However, through molecular distillation, AV and POV dropped to 1.78 ± 0.12 mg KOH/g and 5.9 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively. This refined oil may be used as feedstuff oil.

  2. [Research on certified reference material of emodin in rhubarb and its alcohol extract, water extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Ying; Liu, Shu-Cong; Du, Guan-Hua; Ma, Lin; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Qin, Hai-Lin; Lv, Yang

    2016-02-01

    The certified reference materials (CRMs) of emodin in rhubarb and its alcohol extract, water extract were developed by using quantity transfer technology from single chemical composition to the complex systems. The CRM of emodin was used for quantity transfer, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to determine the contents of emodin in different matrix composition. By establishing mathematical model and calculating the parts of uncertainty, the uncertainty values were finally gotten. CRMs of emodin in rhubarb, alcohol extract and water extract were accomplished. The content values of emodin were 0.40% ±0.03%, 1.15%±0.18%, 0.16%±0.08% (k=2,P=0.95), respectively. The established method for quantity transfer has successfully solved the technical problems that the value of active ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine can't be traced to SI units. The series of CRMs are assigned as grade primary reference materials, which are useful for quality control of the emodin content, also provide the accurate and reliable CRM, materials standard and standard methods. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  4. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  5. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique....

  6. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  7. Extraction and physicochemical properties of polysaccharides from Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Muzao by ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaolong; Peng, Qiang; Yuan, Yuepeng; Liu, Fang; Wang, Min

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction (UAATPE) performed via a one-step procedure was applied to extract polysaccharides from Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Muzao. Using an ethanol/ammonium sulfate system as a multiphase solvent, effects of UAATPE on extraction of ZMP, such as solvent-to-material ratio, composition of aqueous two-phase system, and extraction time and temperature, were investigated using response surface methodology on basis of results of single-factor experiment. The final optimal conditions were ATPS composition: 29% ethanol and 15% (NH4)2SO4, extraction time: 38min, extraction temperature: 48°C, solvent-to-material ratio: 30, and microwave power: 70W. Under these conditions, the experimental extraction yield was 8.18%. Chemical analysis revealed that ZMP were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galactose, and galacturonic acid, at a ratio of 1.46:2.47:2.27:1.12:1.00:1.57:5.40, respectively. The structures were also characterized with UV, FTIR, and SEM. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities showed ZMP had moderately antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for purification and extraction of silicone passive samplers used for the monitoring of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Berit; Kraus, Uta R; Theobald, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 °C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66-101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85-126 %).

  9. Single-Cell Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Samy; Amer, Sara; Ali, Ahmed; Abouleila, Yasmine; Oga, April; Masujima, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of a cell is always changing. Cells move, divide, communicate, adapt, and are always reacting to their surroundings non-synchronously. Currently, single-cell metabolomics has become the leading field in understanding the phenotypical variations between them, but sample volumes, low analyte concentrations, and validating gentle sample techniques have proven great barriers toward achieving accurate and complete metabolomics profiling. Certainly, advanced technologies such as nanodevices and microfluidic arrays are making great progress, and analytical techniques, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), are gaining popularity with high-throughput methodology. Nevertheless, live single-cell mass spectrometry (LCSMS) values the sample quality and precision, turning once theoretical speculation into present-day applications in a variety of fields, including those of medicine, pharmaceutical, and agricultural industries. While there is still room for much improvement, it is clear that the metabolomics field is progressing toward analysis and discoveries at the single-cell level.

  10. Single atom microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Pennycook, Stephen J; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos

    2012-12-01

    We show that aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy operating at low accelerating voltages is able to analyze, simultaneously and with single atom resolution and sensitivity, the local atomic configuration, chemical identities, and optical response at point defect sites in monolayer graphene. Sequential fast-scan annular dark-field (ADF) imaging provides direct visualization of point defect diffusion within the graphene lattice, with all atoms clearly resolved and identified via quantitative image analysis. Summing multiple ADF frames of stationary defects produce images with minimized statistical noise and reduced distortions of atomic positions. Electron energy-loss spectrum imaging of single atoms allows the delocalization of inelastic scattering to be quantified, and full quantum mechanical calculations are able to describe the delocalization effect with good accuracy. These capabilities open new opportunities to probe the defect structure, defect dynamics, and local optical properties in 2D materials with single atom sensitivity.

  11. Single trial ERP reading based on Parallel Factor Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderperren, K.; Mijović, B.; Novitskiy, N.; Vanrumste, B.; Stiers, P.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.; Lagae, L.; Sunaert, S.; Wagemans, J.; van Huffel, S.; de Vos, M.

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of task-related single trial ERP features has recently gained much interest, in particular in simultaneous EEG-fMRI applications. In this study, a specific decomposition known as parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used, in order to retrieve the task-related activity from the raw

  12. Production of single cell proterin from brewery spent grains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of single cell protein (SCP) by the propagation of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisae obtained from the Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshtxli was studied by using the extract of spent grains obtained from the International Beer and Beverage Industries, Kacltuia, Nigeria as a substrate in a medium ...

  13. determination of lipophilic extractives in ionic liquid extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    EXTRACTS OF EUCALYPTUS PULP BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY - ... Key words: Dissolving pulp, Extractives, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Green .... regeneration of the cellulose the samples were filtered while hot using glass fibre filters. Then, the retained cellulose on the filter paper was washed using 5 ...

  14. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  15. Single Cell Oncogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin

    It is believed that cancer originates from a single cell that has gone through generations of evolution of genetic and epigenetic changes that associate with the hallmarks of cancer. In some cancers such as various types of leukemia, cancer is clonal. Yet in other cancers like glioblastoma (GBM), there is tremendous tumor heterogeneity that is likely to be caused by simultaneous evolution of multiple subclones within the same tissue. It is obvious that understanding how a single cell develops into a clonal tumor upon genetic alterations, at molecular and cellular levels, holds the key to the real appreciation of tumor etiology and ultimate solution for therapeutics. Surprisingly very little is known about the process of spontaneous tumorigenesis from single cells in human or vertebrate animal models. The main reason is the lack of technology to track the natural process of single cell changes from a homeostatic state to a progressively cancerous state. Recently, we developed a patented compound, photoactivatable (''caged'') tamoxifen analogue 4-OHC and associated technique called optochemogenetic switch (OCG switch), which we believe opens the opportunity to address this urgent biological as well as clinical question about cancer. We propose to combine OCG switch with genetically engineered mouse models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and high grade astrocytoma (including GBM) to study how single cells, when transformed through acute loss of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and TP53 and gain of oncogenic KRAS, can develop into tumor colonies with cellular and molecular heterogeneity in these tissues. The abstract is for my invited talk in session ``Beyond Darwin: Evolution in Single Cells'' 3/18/2016 11:15 AM.

  16. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...... potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions...

  17. Abu Dhabi's strategic tunnel enhancement programme: odour extraction system approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, Scott; Witherspoon, Jay; Orakzai, Shahzad; Krause, T

    2012-01-01

    The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has experienced tremendous growth since the mid-1970s resulting in significant overloading of its existing sewerage system. Master planning determined that the best long-term wastewater collection and conveyance solution was construction of a deep tunnel sewer system. Implementation of this massive project faced numerous challenges, including the goal of no odours and limited odour control facilities. To accomplish this, the consultant team examined a unique approach of a single odour control system installed at the proposed downstream tunnel pumping station. Rigorous analysis utilising computer-based models confirmed the viability of this approach. However, other approaches including multiple satellite (localised or regional) odour extraction systems were considered. To better understand entrained air forces at vortex drops, and to confirm the preferred odour extraction approach, physical modelling of drop structures and overall tunnel system was implemented. Results and findings concluded that a regional odour extraction system approach was preferred over a single (centralised) extraction approach. This paper focuses on the process of selecting the preferred odour extraction approach and preliminary capacity sizing of regional systems.

  18. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  19. Simultaneous Multicolor Single-Molecule Tracking with Single-Laser Excitation via Spectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Phelps, Carey; Wang, Jing; Lin, Li-Jung; Bittel, Amy; Scott, Zubenelgenubi; Jacques, Steven; Gibbs, Summer L; Gray, Joe W; Nan, Xiaolin

    2018-01-23

    Single-molecule tracking (SMT) offers rich information on the dynamics of underlying biological processes, but multicolor SMT has been challenging due to spectral cross talk and a need for multiple laser excitations. Here, we describe a single-molecule spectral imaging approach for live-cell tracking of multiple fluorescent species at once using a single-laser excitation. Fluorescence signals from all the molecules in the field of view are collected using a single objective and split between positional and spectral channels. Images of the same molecule in the two channels are then combined to determine both the location and the identity of the molecule. The single-objective configuration of our approach allows for flexible sample geometry and the use of a live-cell incubation chamber required for live-cell SMT. Despite a lower photon yield, we achieve excellent spatial (20-40 nm) and spectral (10-15 nm) resolutions comparable to those obtained with dual-objective, spectrally resolved Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy. Furthermore, motions of the fluorescent molecules did not cause loss of spectral resolution owing to the dual-channel spectral calibration. We demonstrate SMT in three (and potentially more) colors using spectrally proximal fluorophores and single-laser excitation, and show that trajectories of each species can be reliably extracted with minimal cross talk. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sharon Suhono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post

  1. Single bubble sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light

  2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Single cell metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Matthias; Zenobi, Renato

    Recent discoveries suggest that cells of a clonal population often display multiple metabolic phenotypes at the same time. Motivated by the success of mass spectrometry (MS) in the investigation of population-level metabolomics, the analytical community has initiated efforts towards MS-based single

  4. TRANSVERSITY SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOER,D.

    2001-04-27

    The theoretical aspects of two leading twist transversity single spin asymmetries, one arising from the Collins effect and one from the interference fragmentation functions, are reviewed. Issues of factorization, evolution and Sudakov factors for the relevant observables are discussed. These theoretical considerations pinpoint the most realistic scenarios towards measurements of transversity.

  5. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.

  6. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis; Camurri, Antonio; Costa, Cristina

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer and

  7. Beyond the Single Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Yekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of world literature have the opportunity to help students explore the more complex reality behind the stereotypes that they often see in the media. If we don't encourage students to challenge one-dimensional "single stories" that characterize an entire people--whether Muslims, Russians, Mexicans, African Americans, Chinese,…

  8. Single umbilical artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The umbilical cord usually contains two arteries and one vein. The vein carries the oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus. The arteries carry the deoxygenated blood and the waste products from the fetus to the placenta. Occasionally, primary agenesis or secondary atrophy of one of the arteries occurs resulting in single umbilical artery.

  9. Single umbilical artery

    OpenAIRE

    Shanthi Ramesh; Sangeetha Hariprasath; Gunasekaran Anandan; P John Solomon; Vijayakumar, V.

    2015-01-01

    The umbilical cord usually contains two arteries and one vein. The vein carries the oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus. The arteries carry the deoxygenated blood and the waste products from the fetus to the placenta. Occasionally, primary agenesis or secondary atrophy of one of the arteries occurs resulting in single umbilical artery.

  10. Single umbilical artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Shanthi; Hariprasath, Sangeetha; Anandan, Gunasekaran; Solomon, P John; Vijayakumar, V

    2015-04-01

    The umbilical cord usually contains two arteries and one vein. The vein carries the oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus. The arteries carry the deoxygenated blood and the waste products from the fetus to the placenta. Occasionally, primary agenesis or secondary atrophy of one of the arteries occurs resulting in single umbilical artery.

  11. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta...

  12. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  13. Soft tissue preservation and pink aesthetics around single immediate implant restorations: a 1-year prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Cosyn, Jan; Bruyn, Hugo De; Cleymaet, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To document soft tissue aspects using a specific protocol for immediate implant treatment (IIT) following single-tooth removal; (2) To evaluate whether this protocol allows preservation of pink aesthetics as objectively assessed. Material and methods: Patients with a thick gingival biotype and intact buccal bone wall upon extraction of a single tooth in the aesthetic zone (15 – 25) were consecutively treated. The protocol included flapless extraction and implant surgery, socke...

  14. Studies on the extraction of wheat germ oil by commercial hexane

    OpenAIRE

    El Kinawy, Omayma S.; Megahad, Ola. A.

    2002-01-01

    Extraction of an edible oil from wheat germ, an important byproduct of wheat milling industry in Egypt, using commercial hexane was studied. The extraction was carried out in a single and in two successive stages using different solvent-to-solid ratios from 2 to 6 m3/ ton. The results showed that a good oil recovery (about 75%) can be achieved using 4 m3 hexane for each ton germ extracted in a single stage. This amount of solvent can be reduced to 2.5 m3/ ton if the process is carried out in ...

  15. Deep eutectic solvents as novel extraction media for protein partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Ding, Xueqin; Chen, Jing; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-05-21

    Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvent (DES) were synthesized, including choline chloride (ChCl)-urea, tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl)-urea, tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPMBr)-urea and ChCl-methylurea. An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) based ChCl-urea DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of BSA was influenced by the mass of the DES, concentration of K2HPO4 solution, separation time and extraction temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through an orthogonal experiment with the four factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the average extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.94%, 99.72%, 100.05% and 100.05% (each measured three times). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision, repeatability and stability experiments were 0.5533% (n = 5), 0.8306% (n = 5) and 0.9829% (n = 5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and the DES in the extraction process, and the CD spectra proved that the conformation of BSA did not change after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding interactions and the salting-out effect played important roles in the transfer process, and the aggregation and surrounding phenomenon were the main driving forces for the separation. All of these results proved that ionic liquid (IL)-based ATPSs could potentially be substituted with DES-based ATPSs to offer new possibilities in the extraction of proteins.

  16. Pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical evaluation of extracts from different plant parts of indigenous origin for their hypoglycemic responses in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Khan, Barkat Ali; Majid, Abdul; Khan, Haji M Shoaib; Mahmood, Tariq; Gulfishan; Saeed, Tariq

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of different plant extracts in single and in combined formulation, in experimentally induced "diabetic rabbits". The extracts were obtained from seeds of Syzygium jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia and leaves of Azadirachta indica. Treatment of diabetes with plant extracts was started at 8 days after alloxan injection. Rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, each group consisting of six rabbits. Each group of rabbits was given a dose of granules containing 200 mg/kg b.w. concentrated ethanolic extract of a plant while the fourth group was given a dose of granules consisting of combined extract of all three folk plants. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. Serum glucose estimation was done by glucose oxidase kit method. Anti-diabetic effect was produced after 72 h in groups 1, 2 and 3 that were administered with a dose of granules of ethanolic extract of single plant but in group 4, treated with 200 mg/kg body weight of combined extract of all three plants, hypoglycemic effect was produced after 96 h. Hypoglycemic effects may be induced in rabbits by administration of extracts of various plant parts. The hypoglycemic effect produced by granules of single plant extract was more pronounced than antidiabetic effect produced by combining three extracts in a single formulation.

  17. ACTIVITIES OF ACACIA NILOTICA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Recophin was used against Escherischia coli,. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Shigella dysenteriae. Ethanol and chloroform/water extracts of. Acacia nilotica stem bark appear to have the highest antibacterial activities on the bacterial isolates tested, followed by methanol and ethyl acetate extracts ...

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  19. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  20. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  1. Supercritical fluid extraction: spectroscopic study of interactions comparison to solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustenholtz Farawila, A

    2005-06-15

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO{sub 2}) was chosen to study Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of cesium and uranium. At first, crown ethers were considered as chelating agents for the SFE of cesium. The role of water and its interaction with crown ethers were especially studied using Fourier-Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy in SF-CO{sub 2}. A sandwich configuration between two crown ethers and a water molecule was observed in the SF-CO{sub 2} phase for the first time. The equilibrium between the single and the bridge configurations was defined. The enthalpy of the hydrogen bond formation was also calculated. These results were then compared to the one in different mixtures of chloroform and carbon tetra-chloride using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). To conclude this first part and in order to understand the whole picture of the recovery of cesium, I studied the role of water in the equilibrium between the cesium and the di-cyclo-hexano18-crown-6.In a second part, the supercritical fluid extraction of uranium was studied in SF-CO{sub 2}. For this purpose, different complexes of Tributyl Phosphate (TBP), nitric acid and water were used as chelating and oxidizing agents. I first used FT-IR to study the TBP-water interaction in SF-CO{sub 2}. These results were then compared to the one obtained with NMR in chloroform. NMR spectroscopy was also used to understand the TBP-nitric acid-water interaction first alone and then in chloroform. To conclude my research work, I succeeded to improve the efficiency of uranium extraction and stripping into water for a pilot-plant where enriched uranium is extracted from incinerated waste coming from nuclear fuel fabrication. TBP-nitric acid complexes were used in SF-CO{sub 2} for the extraction of uranium from ash. (author)

  2. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief... the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) to remit the upfront premium to... manage and process upfront single family mortgage insurance premium collections and corrections to submit...

  3. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of hypoglycemic properties of the root extract of Uveria chamae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emordi Jonathan Emeka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycaemic properties and preliminary phytochemical screening of Uveria chamae. The hypoglycaemic properties of Uveria chamae was assessed on normoglycaemic rat that received single dose of the extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight and blood glucose levels estimated at 2, 4, and 6 hours (single dose study. The hypoglycaemic property of the extract was also evaluated in normoglycemic rats by oral glucose tolerance test. Phytochemical screening of the extract for the presence of secondary metabolites was performed with standard methods. The extract showed a significant (p<0.05 reduction in blood glucose levels at 2h and 6h compared to control. The oral glucose tolerance test result also showed a significant decrease (p<0.05 in blood glucose levels . The study showed that the extract, Uveria chamae has hypoglycaemic properties which may be accounted for by the presence of the phytochemicals.

  4. An absorbing microwave micro-solid-phase extraction device used in non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziming; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Xu; Wu, Lijie; Su, Rui; Zhao, Yajing; Jiang, Chengfei; Zhang, Hanqi; Ma, Qiang; Lu, Chunmei; Dong, Deming

    2013-01-14

    A single-step extraction-cleanup method, including microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE), was developed for the extraction of ten organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and fruit samples. Without adding any polar solvent, only one kind of non-polar solvent (hexane) was used as extraction solvent in the whole extraction step. Absorbing microwave μ-SPE device, was prepared by packing activated carbon with microporous polypropylene membrane envelope, and used as not only the sorbent in μ-SPE, but also the microwave absorption medium. Some experimental parameters effecting on extraction efficiency was investigated and optimized. 1.0 g of sample, 8 mL of hexane and three absorbing microwave μ-SPE devices were added in the microwave extraction vessel, the extraction was carried out under 400 W irradiation power at 60°C for 10 min. The extracts obtained by MAE-μ-SPE were directly analyzed by GC-MS without any clean-up process. The recoveries were in the range of 93.5-104.6%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 8.7%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigations of various extracts of Morinda lucida for antimalarial actions on Plasmodium berghei berghei in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obih, P O; Makinde, M; Laoye, O J

    1985-01-01

    Morinda lucida extracts, the stem bark, the root bark and the leaves were screened for antimalarial activity in a "4-day schizontocidal test' against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of P. berghei berghei in mice. Each extract was administered as a single daily dose on days 0, 1, 2 and 3 to mice that had received an intraperitoneal inoculum of 1 X 10(7) infected erythrocytes. Each extract produced a degree of suppression of parasitaemia. The most promising result was obtained with chromatographic fractions of the stem bark extracts, the highest dose producing 96.4% suppression of parasitaemia.

  6. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  7. Watching single molecules dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amit Dinesh

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy, from ATP hydrolysis or ion flow, into mechanical motion. A variety of increasingly precise mechanical probes have been developed to monitor and perturb these motors at the single molecule level. Several outstanding questions can be best approached at the single molecule level. These include: how far does a motor progress per energy quanta consumed? how does its reaction cycle respond to load? how many productive catalytic cycles can it undergo per diffusional encounter with its track? and what is the mechanical stiffness of a single molecule connection? A dual beam optical trap, in conjunction with in vitro ensemble motility assays, has been used to characterize two members of the myosin superfamily: muscle myosin II and chick brain myosin V. Both move the helical polymer actin, but myosin II acts in large ensembles to drive muscle contraction or cytokinesis, while myosin V acts in small numbers to transport vesicles. An optical trapping apparatus was rendered sufficiently precise to identify a myosin working stroke with 1nm or so, barring systematic errors such as those perhaps due to random protein orientations. This and other light microscopic motility assays were used to characterize myosin V: unlike myosin II this vesicle transport protein moves through many increments of travel while remaining strongly bound to a single actin filament. The step size, stall force, and travel distance of myosin V reveal a remarkably efficient motor capable of moving along a helical track for over a micrometer without significantly spiraling around it. Such properties are fully consistent with the putative role of an organelle transport motor, present in small numbers to maintain movement over long ranges relative to cellular size scales. The contrast between myosin II and myosin V resembles that between a human running on the moon and one walking on earth, where the former allows for faster motion when in larger ensembles but for less

  8. Single Bunch Monopole Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podobedov, B.; Heifets, S.; /SLAC

    2005-09-12

    We study single bunch stability with respect to monopole longitudinal oscillations in electron storage rings. Our analysis is different from the standard approach based on the linearized Vlasov equation. Rather, we reduce the full nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation to a Schroedinger-like equation which is subsequently analyzed by perturbation theory. We show that the Haissinski solution [3] may become unstable with respect to monopole oscillations and derive a stability criterion in terms of the ring impedance.

  9. ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION COMBINED WITH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was initiated to address a recurring problem of elevated detection limits above required risk-based concentrations for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds in high moisture content solid samples. This project was initiated, in cooperation with the EPA Region 1 Laboratory, under the Regional Methods Program administered through the ORD Office of Science Policy. The aim of the project was to develop an approach for the rapid removal of water in high moisture content solids (e.g., wetland sediments) in preparation for analysis via Method 8270. Alternative methods for water removal have been investigated to enhance compound solid concentrations and improve extraction efficiency, with the use of pressure filtration providing a high-throughput alternative for removal of the majority of free water in sediments and sludges. In order to eliminate problems with phase separation during extraction of solids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction, a variation of a water-isopropanol extraction method developed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, CO is being employed. The concentrations of target compounds in water-isopropanol extraction fluids are subsequently analyzed using an automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE)-GC/MS method developed in our laboratory. The coupled approaches for dewatering, extraction, and target compound identification-quantitation provide a useful alternative to enhance sample throughput for Me

  10. Microaesthetics of The Smile: Extraction vs. Non-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Sanam; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar

    2012-04-01

    To compare microaesthetics in pre- and post-orthodontic cases, treated with non-extraction and extraction treatment and assessed whether the achieved microaesthetic parameters are comparable to the proposed norms. Quasi-experimental study. Orthodontic Clinic, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2005 to December 2009. Orthodontic records of 31 cases treated with non-extraction therapy and 26 cases treated with extraction of upper first premolars were selected. Patients were of Pakistani origin, aged between 12 to 30 years. Microaesthetics was assessed by measuring maxillary central incisor crown width-height ratio, connectors between the maxillary anterior sextant, gingival zenith level of the maxillary lateral incisor and golden percentage of the anterior teeth using the patients' plaster models and intraoral frontal photographs. Measurements of the golden percentage were made using the software Adobe Photoshop, whereas all other parameters were measured on the plaster casts using a digital vernier caliper. Paired t-test, independent t-test and one sample t-test were used to make comparisons within the groups, between the groups, and to compare the posttreatment values with the proposed norms, respectively. Statistical significance level was set at p ² 0.05. A statistically significant improvement in the microaesthetic parameters was observed for both extraction and non-extraction subjects (p < 0.05) after orthodontic treatment. Values closer to the proposed norms were achieved more readily in the non-extraction group. Microaesthetics of the smile is improved with orthodontic treatment. It is recommended that greater consideration be given to the microaesthetic parameters of the smile during the finishing stages particularly when utilizing extraction mechanics during orthodontic treatment.

  11. Influence of Extraction Parameters on Hydroalcohol Extracts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A 33 factorial design was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol concentration (50, 70 and 90 % v/v), extraction time (2, 6 and 10 h), and particle size of the herbal drug (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mm) on the pH, dry residue and myrsinoic acid B (MAB) content of hydroalcoholic extracts by high performance liquid ...

  12. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Broumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

  13. Single-drop liquid phase microextraction accelerated by surface acoustic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anliang; Zha, Yan

    2013-03-01

    A single-drop liquid phase microextraction method is presented, in which surface acoustic wave (SAW) is used for accelerating extraction speed. A pair of interdigital transducers with 27.5 MHz center frequency is fabricated on a 128° yx-LiNbO3 substrate. A radio frequency signal is applied to one of interdigital transducers to excite SAW. Plastic straw is filled with PDMS, leaving 1 mL for holding sample solution. Plastic straw with sample solution droplet is then dipping into extractant, into which SAW is radiated. Mass transportation from sample solution to extractant drop is accelerated due to acoustic streaming, and extraction time is decreased. An ionic liquid and an acid green-25 solution are used for extraction experiments. Results show that the extraction process is almost finished within 2 min, and extraction speed is increased with radio frequency signal power. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The reverse single radial immunodiffusion technique for detecting antibodies to Dermatophilus congolensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, A A

    1980-04-26

    The reverse single radial immunodiffusion technique was used to detect Dermatophilus congolensis antibody in sera collected from animals previously infected to varying levels with D congolensis. Ammonium sulphate and trichloroacetic acid extracts of five different strains of D congolensis obtained from different geographical locations were used as antigens. All the extracts showed variations in their sensitivities in detecting D congolensis antibody in the various serum samples. Multiple antibodies were detected by some extracts while some showed negative antibody reaction to all extracts. Two extracts also showed cross-reactions with the serum from an animal that was infected by Nocardia species. Trichloroacetic acid extracts of all the strains were found to be more active serologically, detecting antibody in more sera and giving sharper and clearer reactions than ammonium sulphate extracts.

  15. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants' extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, S; Chen, Y; Saravanan, D; Sundram, K M; Yoga Latha, L

    2011-01-01

    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed.

  16. Extraction and characterization of mucilage from Crotalaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucilages from the leaves, stem and root of Crotalaria senegalensis Linn. (Fam. Fabaceae) has been extracted using both the cold and hot extraction methods. The results obtained showed that the hot extraction method (HEM) is a better extraction method than the cold extraction method (CEM) as the yields were:- 10.2%; ...

  17. Physical characteristics and antioxidant effect of polysaccharides extracted by boiling water and enzymolysis from Grifola frondosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yina; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Ting; Zhou, Ye; Han, Liang; Yang, Liuqing

    2011-06-01

    Grifola frondosa has been widely consumed in China and other Asian countries. Recent studies on G. frondosa have focused on the activities of polysaccharides extracted by water, and the activities of polysaccharides extracted by enzymolysis have not been studied. In this work, the relationship between the physical properties and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides extracted from G. frondosa by boiling water and enzymolysis was studied. Five polysaccharide extracts from the fruit body of G. frondosa were prepared by different extracting methods including boiling water, single enzyme enzymolysis with three different single enzymes (cellulose, pectinase, and pancreatin), and combined enzyme enzymolysis (cellulose:pectinase:pancreatin; 2:2:1). Characteristics such as the viscosity, Mw, polysaccharide content, protein content, infrared spectra, and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated. The highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by the extracts prepared by combined enzyme extraction. The correlation analysis between antioxidant activity and polysaccharide content, protein content, Mw or viscosity indicated that the Mw had a more important role in antioxidant activity. Overall, the results indicate that the combined enzyme polysaccharide extracts can be developed as a new potential natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytotoxicity and oral acute toxicity studies of Lantana camara leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Badakhshan Mahdi; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2011-05-03

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of Lantana camara methanol extract. In order to evaluate the toxicity of Lantana camara, the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract on adult mice and cytotoxicity test on Vero cell line were investigated. A fixed large dose of 2 g/kg body weight of L. camara leaf extract was administrated by a single oral gavage according to the OECD procedure. In 2 weeks, L. camara leaf extract showed no obvious acute toxicity. While female mice lost body weight after being treated with single dose of leaf extract in acute toxicity test, male ones lost organ mass, particularly for heart and kidney. The biochemical liver function tests showed significantly elevated TBIL and ALT in the L. camara leaf extract treated female mice group compared with the control group. Cytotoxicity effect of leaf extract of L. camara was estimated through a MTT assay. Cytotoxicity tests on Vero cell line disclosed that leaf extract at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL inhibited the growth of cells 2.5 times less than did Triton 100 × 1%. More interestingly, the cytotoxicity initiated to decline at elevated concentrations of this extract. The results of both tests confirm that L. camara shows a pro toxic effect.

  19. Cytotoxicity and Oral Acute Toxicity Studies of Lantana camara Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of Lantana camara methanol extract. Methods: In order to evaluate the toxicity of Lantana camara, the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract on adult mice and cytotoxicity test on Vero cell line were investigated. A fixed large dose of 2 g/kg body weight of L. camara leaf extract was administrated by a single oral gavage according to the OECD procedure. Results: In 2 weeks, L. camara leaf extract showed no obvious acute toxicity. While female mice lost body weight after being treated with single dose of leaf extract in acute toxicity test, male ones lost organ mass, particularly for heart and kidney. The biochemical liver function tests showed significantly elevated TBIL and ALT in the L. camara leaf extract treated female mice group compared with the control group. Cytotoxicity effect of leaf extract of L. camara was estimated through a MTT assay. Cytotoxicity tests on Vero cell line disclosed that leaf extract at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL inhibited the growth of cells 2.5 times less than did Triton 100× 1%. More interestingly, the cytotoxicity initiated to decline at elevated concentrations of this extract. Conclusions: The results of both tests confirm that L. camara shows a pro toxic effect.

  20. Thermal behavior of Liquidambar orientalis mill wood before and after extraction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Terzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extractives on the thermal behavior of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. (storax wood is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. To evaluate the effects of polar and apolar extractives on the thermal behavior of wood, sawdust samples from the heartwood of L. orientalis are extracted with either cold water (48 h, hot water (48 h, or ethanol/toluene (1:2 v/v (6 h prior to thermal analysis. Thermogravimetry (TG curves show that polar and apolar extractives promote char formation, increase the amount of residue, and improve the thermal behavior of L. orientalis wood. In addition, derivative thermogravimetry (DTG curves demonstrate that thermal degradation of un-extracted and cold water-extracted wood samples occurs in a single step, while a two-step degradation pattern is seen for hot water- and ethanol/toluene-extracted wood samples. It is also observed that first degradation reactions in hot water and ethanol/toluene-extracted wood samples occur faster than those in unextracted and cold water-extracted wood samples. Although there are approximately half the number of extracted apolar compounds compared to polar compounds, the removal of both types of compounds affect the thermal properties of L. orientalis wood to the same degree. It is thus deduced that apolar extractives significantly affect the thermal behavior of L. orientalis wood.

  1. Optimization of Subcritical Water Extraction of Resveratrol from Grape Seeds by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subcritical water extraction (SWE is a high-efficiency and environment-friendly extraction method. The extraction of resveratrol (RES of grape seeds obtained from the wine production process was proposed using subcritical water extraction (SWE. The effects of different extraction process parameters on RES yield were investigated by single factors. Extraction optimization was conducted using response surface methodology (RSM. Extraction temperature was proven to be the most significant factor influencing RES yield. The optimal conditions was as follows: extraction pressure of 1.02 MPa, temperature of 152.32 °C, time of 24.89 min, and a solid/solvent ratio of 1:15 g/mL. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted extraction RES yield was 6.90 μg/g and the recoveries was up to 91.98%. Compared to other previous studies, this method required less pollution and less treatment time to extract RES from grape seeds. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly extraction techniques.

  2. Response Surface Optimized Infrared-Assisted Extraction and UHPLC Determination of Flavonoid Types from Flos Sophorae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Mou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-factor experiment and Box-Behnken design were applied to optimize the infrared-assisted extraction (IRAE of rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin from Flos sophorae. Four factors (extract solvent, solid-liquid ration, extraction time, infrared power affecting the extraction yield of flavonoids were studied. Under optimized conditions the extraction yield was 33.199 ± 0.24 mg/g, which substantially improved, compared with heating reflux extraction (HRE and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE, while extraction time was only 9 min. The eluents were rich in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azobis (2-methyl-propionamidine dihydrochloride radical scavenging potential (IC50 of DPPH: 53.44 ± 0.01 μg/mL, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC: 3785.83 ± 52 μmol/g than the extracts obtained by HRE and UAE. In addition, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was optimized for the identification and quantification of the tested flavonoids, and the method was validated based on its correlation coefficient (r, reproducibility (RSD, n = 5, and recovery values, which were 0.9994–0.9998, 0.74–1.83%, and 97.78–102.94%, respectively. These results confirmed that high extraction yield of flavonoids results in stronger antioxidant values and response surface methodology optimization of IRAE is a promising alternative to traditional extraction techniques for flavonoids from medicinal plants.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of European archaeological M. leprae DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Watson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy was common in Europe eight to twelve centuries ago but molecular confirmation of this has been lacking. We have extracted M. leprae ancient DNA (aDNA from medieval bones and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typed the DNA, this provides insight into the pattern of leprosy transmission in Europe and may assist in the understanding of M. leprae evolution. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Skeletons have been exhumed from 3 European countries (the United Kingdom, Denmark and Croatia and are dated around the medieval period (476 to 1350 A.D.. we tested for the presence of 3 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 10 aDNA extractions. M. leprae aDNA was extracted from 6 of the 10 bone samples. SNP analysis of these 6 extractions were compared to previously analysed European SNP data using the same PCR assays and were found to be the same. Testing for the presence of SNPs in M. leprae DNA extracted from ancient bone samples is a novel approach to analysing European M. leprae DNA and the findings concur with the previously published data that European M. leprae strains fall in to one group (SNP group 3. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the suggestion that the M. leprae genome is extremely stable and show that archaeological M. leprae DNA can be analysed to gain detailed information about the genotypic make-up of European leprosy, which may assist in the understanding of leprosy transmission worldwide.

  4. [Corneal astigmatism after tunnel incision for cataract extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubiszewska, T; Mrzygłód, S; Warczyński, A; Krzysztofik, R

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the development of astigmatism after cataract extraction depending on the kind of incision Astigmatism was examined in 107 eyes of 92 patients, who underwent cataract extraction, mostly with IOL's implantation. In 52 eyes phacoemulsification with tunnel incision, measuring 5 mm in 27 and 8 mm in 25, was performed. In the control group of 55 eyes incision with scleral flap measured 2/5 of the corneal circumference. In cases with 5 mm incisions no sutures were used, in 8 mm incisions wounds were closed with single sutures and in control group the double continuous sutures were applied. Astigmatism was measured in two days, one week, four weeks and 3 months after surgery. Post-operative astigmatism decreased gradually and after 3 months was average 0.14 D in the eyes without sutures, 0.68 D in those with single ones and 1.78 D in the control group.

  5. Novel Fluorinated Tensioactive Extractant Combined with Flotation for Decontamination of Extractant Residual during Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Chang, Zhidong; Liu, Yao; Choe, Chol Ryong

    2017-12-01

    Solvent-extraction is widely used in chemical industry. Due to the amphiphilic character, a large amount of extractant remains in water phase, which causes not only loss of reagent, but also secondary contamination in water phase. Novel fluorinated extractants with ultra-low solubility in water were regarded as effective choice to reduce extractant loss in aqueous phase. However, trace amount of extractant still remained in water. Based on the high tensioactive aptitude of fluorinated solvent, flotation was applied to separate fluorinated extractant remaining in raffinate. According to the data of surface tension measurement, the surface tension of solution was obviously decreased with the addition of fluorinated extractant tris(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoropentyl) phosphate (FTAP). After flotation, the FTAP dissolved in water can be removed as much as 70%, which proved the feasibility of this key idea. The effects of operation time, gas velocity, pH and salinity of bulk solution on flotation performance were discussed. The optimum operating parameters were determined as gas velocity of 12ml/min, operating time of 15min, pH of 8.7, and NaCl volume concentration of 1.5%, respectively. Moreover, adsorption process of FTAP on bubble surface was simulated by ANSYS VOF model using SIMPLE algorithm. The dynamic mechanism of flotation was also theoretically investigated, which can be considered as supplement to the experimental results.

  6. EXTRACTION OF CURVED FIBERS FROM 3D DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Gaiselmann

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A segmentation algorithm is proposed which automatically extracts single fibers from tomographic 3D data of fiber-based materials. As an example, the algorithm is applied to a non-woven material used in the gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. This porous material consists of a densely packed system of strongly curved carbon fibers. Our algorithm works as follows. In a first step, we focus on the extraction of skeletons, i.e., center lines of fibers. Due to irregularities like noise or other data artefacts, it is only possible to extract fragments of center lines. Thus, in a second step, we consider a stochastic algorithm to adequately connect these parts of center lines to each other, with the general aim to reconstruct the complete fibers such that the curvature properties of real fibers are reflected correctly. The quality of the segmentation algorithm is validated by applying it to simulated test data.

  7. Simulations of Beam Injection and Extraction into Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cavenago, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Charge breeding, consistiting of injecting singly charged ion into ECRIS(Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources) to extract an highly charged ion beam, is a promising technique for rare or radioactive ion beam. Efficiency and extracted beam temperature are dominated by the strong collisional diffusion of charged ion inside source. A computer code, named BEAM2ECR, written to simulate details of the injection, ionization, collision and extraction processes is described.* A model of injection plasma sheath and of source fringe field were recently added. Neutral injection is also supported, for comparison with other techniques, like gas feeding or metal vapor injection. Results, clearly favouring near axis injection for most cases are described. Code is written in C-language and possibility of concurrent execution over a Linux cluster was recently added.

  8. Coil for LEAR extraction septum

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.

  9. TSCA Inventory Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...

  10. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  11. Detection of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA in single mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Joseph E; Kishore, Rani B; Levin, Barbara C; Albanetti, Thomas; Boire, Nicholas; Knipe, Ashley; Helmerson, Kristian; Deckman, Koren Holland

    2010-12-16

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome mutations can lead to energy and respiratory-related disorders like myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fiber disease (MERRF), mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke (MELAS) syndrome, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). It is not well understood what effect the distribution of mutated mtDNA throughout the mitochondrial matrix has on the development of mitochondrial-based disorders. Insight into this complex sub-cellular heterogeneity may further our understanding of the development of mitochondria-related diseases. This work describes a method for isolating individual mitochondria from single cells and performing molecular analysis on that single mitochondrion's DNA. An optical tweezer extracts a single mitochondrion from a lysed human HL-60 cell. Then a micron-sized femtopipette tip captures the mitochondrion for subsequent analysis. Multiple rounds of conventional DNA amplification and standard sequencing methods enable the detection of a heteroplasmic mixture in the mtDNA from a single mitochondrion. Molecular analysis of mtDNA from the individually extracted mitochondrion demonstrates that a heteroplasmy is present in single mitochondria at various ratios consistent with the 50/50 heteroplasmy ratio found in single cells that contain multiple mitochondria.

  12. Detection of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA in single mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Reiner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genome mutations can lead to energy and respiratory-related disorders like myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fiber disease (MERRF, mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke (MELAS syndrome, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON. It is not well understood what effect the distribution of mutated mtDNA throughout the mitochondrial matrix has on the development of mitochondrial-based disorders. Insight into this complex sub-cellular heterogeneity may further our understanding of the development of mitochondria-related diseases. METHODOLOGY: This work describes a method for isolating individual mitochondria from single cells and performing molecular analysis on that single mitochondrion's DNA. An optical tweezer extracts a single mitochondrion from a lysed human HL-60 cell. Then a micron-sized femtopipette tip captures the mitochondrion for subsequent analysis. Multiple rounds of conventional DNA amplification and standard sequencing methods enable the detection of a heteroplasmic mixture in the mtDNA from a single mitochondrion. SIGNIFICANCE: Molecular analysis of mtDNA from the individually extracted mitochondrion demonstrates that a heteroplasmy is present in single mitochondria at various ratios consistent with the 50/50 heteroplasmy ratio found in single cells that contain multiple mitochondria.

  13. Extraction separation of no-carrier-added {sup 103}Pd from irradiated Rh target, Cu and Zn using {alpha}-furyldioxime, dimethylglyoxime and {alpha}-benzildioxime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi [Isotopes Research Group, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box: 31485/498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: msadeghi@nrcam.org; Shirazi, Behrouz [Isotopes Research Group, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box: 31485/498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Solvent extraction of no-carrier-added {sup 103}Pd from irradiated rhodium target hydrochloric solution was investigated using {alpha}-furyldioxime, dimethylglyoxime and {alpha}-benzildioxime as extracts in chloroform. The best extractant yield for a single run was 96.9% with dimethylglyoxime from 0.93 M HCl and {sup 103}Pd purity was better than 99.99%.

  14. Liquid-liquid extraction system with microstructured coiled flow inverter and other capillary setups for single-stage extraction applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurt, Safa Kutup; Vural Gürsel, Iris; Hessel, Volker; Nigam, Krishna D P; Kockmann, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification via miniaturization has become an attractive research field for industry and R&D especially for the production of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals due to enhanced mass and heat transport. Fabrication of helically coiled tubular devices (HCTDs) in micro-scale can further

  15. Dental extractions during anticoagulant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavi, Y; Sharon, A; Gutman, D; Laufer, D

    1981-04-01

    1. 15 patients, whose therapy with the anticoagulant Coumarin was not discontinued, were observed for bleeding following dental extractions. 2. There was no significant bleeding in these patients as compared to 15 others whose Coumarin therapy was temporarily interrupted. 3. Patients with prosthetic heart valves should preferably be hospitalized for dental extractions. but Coumarin/anticoagulant therapy need not be discontinued. The procedures can safely be done within a therapeutic range of 20-30% P.T.

  16. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  17. extracts as potential dietary supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Strugała

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In times of worsening civilization diseases the interest in natural healing substances is on the increase. To reduce unwanted side effects of many synthetic drugs, it is reasonable to introduce to the daily diet foods rich in natural compounds of plant origin that are beneficial for health. The purpose of the study was to determine the biological activity and stability of selected ethanol extracts of the fruit of chokeberry, blackcurrant, hawthorn, rosehip, quince and Japanese quince as potential nutraceuticals.Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined in relation to model phospholipid membranes (IC50 PC. Antiradical activity was determined in a test with the DPPH• radical (IC50 DPPH. Also the inhibition of enzymatic (1-LOX oxidation of linoleic acid was determined at the beginning of the period of storage of the extracts at room temperature and after 12 months. Results: After 12 months of storage the highest antioxidant stability was shown by blackcurrant extract (1.5% increase in IC50 PC, the highest antiradical stability by quince extract (1.0% reduction in IC50 DPPH, and the highest stability of 1-LOX enzyme inhibition by chokeberry extract (6.3% reduction in inhibition at a concentration of 8 μg∙ml-1. Japanese quince extract showed the strongest regenerating properties with respect to oxidized phospholipid membranes and the highest ability to eliminate the free radical DPPH•. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ethanol extracts of the fruits (in particular blackcurrant, chokeberry and Japanese quince are a potential source of dietary supplements of expected effectiveness in preventive treatment.

  18. [Single umbilical artery (SUA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staribratova, D; Belovezhdov, V; Milchev, N; Batashki, I; Apiosjan, Zh

    2010-01-01

    Single umbilical artery (SUA) is the most common abnormality of the umbilical cord. It is associated with an increased incidence of atresia of hollow organs, renal abnormalities, limb reduction defects and spontaneous abortions. The aim of our study is to establish the association of SUA with types of malformations and the corresponding pathology of pregnancy and parturition. Although our investigation is in proof of the association of SUA with anomalies of GIT, CCS and CNS, most of our cases exhibit circulatory disturbances leading to pathology of pregnancy and delivery.

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... technologies (also called next generation sequencing or NGS) have the potential to completely transform forensic genetic investigations as we know them today. Here, we will make a short introduction to NGS and explain how NGS may combine analysis of the traditional forensic genetic markers with analysis...

  20. Modulatory effects of ethanol extract of Spondias Mombin leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups G and H served as the negative control groups and received 0.2 ml diluted propylene glycol (vehicle for the extract) and distilled water respectively. Group I received distilled water for 7 consecutive days and 2.5mg/kg NaAsO2 as a single oral dose on the 7th day. Heamatological (packed cell volume, red blood cell ...