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Sample records for extracting phenolic compounds

  1. Phenolic-compound-extraction systems for fruit and vegetable samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Salas, Patricia; Morales-Soto, Aranzazu; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2010-12-03

    This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but it requires long extraction times, giving rise to possible extract degradation. Likewise, solid-phase extraction (SPE) can be used in liquid samples. Modern techniques, which have been replacing conventional ones, include: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). These alternative techniques reduce considerably the use of solvents and accelerate the extraction process.

  2. Extraction of phenolic compounds from melissa using microwave and ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this study, extraction of phenolic compounds from melissa by microwave and ultrasound was studied. In both the microwave and ultrasound extractions, the effects of extraction time (5-20 min for microwave; 5-30 min for ultrasound) and solid-to-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:20, and 1:30 g mL-1) on total phenolic content (TPC) were investigated. Effects of different powers (50% and 80%) were also studied for the ultrasound extraction. As a solvent, water was used. In microwave extractions, the highe...

  3. Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surface methodology (RSM). The antioxidant ... Keywords: Okra flowers, Extraction, Response surface methodology, Phenolics, Antioxidant. Tropical ... After that, the absorbance was measured at 750 nm versus ... M, pH 6.6) and 2.5 mL of 1 % potassium ferricyanide. ..... polyphenolic compounds from okra seeds and skins.

  4. Phenolic compounds from the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Cui Li; Li Xin Yang; Hong Qing Wang; Ruo Yun Chen

    2011-01-01

    From the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu, two new phenolic compounds (3R,4R)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-hydroxycy-clohexanone (1) and (4R)-5-(l-(3,4-dihydrophenyl)-3-oxoburyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (2) were obtained. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Free-radical scavenging activities of them were evaluated.

  5. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

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    R. Scherer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH, and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtained with the methanol extract. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity, and the chlorogenic and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts.

  6. Analysis of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut seed testa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) contain numerous phenolic compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. These secondary metabolites may be isolated as co-products from peanut skins or testae during peanut processing and have potential use in functional food or feed formulations. Peanut skins w...

  7. High pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from citrus peels†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquete, R.; Castro, S. M.; Villalobos, M. C.; Serradilla, M. J.; Queirós, R. P.; Saraiva, J. A.; Córdoba, M. G.; Teixeira, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high pressure processing on the recovery of high added value compounds from citrus peels. Overall, the total phenolic content in orange peel was significantly (P < .05) higher than that in lemon peel, except when pressure treated at 500 MPa. However, lemon peel demonstrated more antioxidant activity than orange peel. Pressure-treated samples (300 MPa, 10 min; 500 MPa, 3 min) demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity comparatively to the control samples. For more severe treatments (500 MPa, 10 min), the phenolic content and antioxidant activity decreased in both lemon and orange peels. This paper was presented at the 8th International Conference on High Pressure Bioscience & Biotechnology (HPBB 2014), in Nantes (France), 15-18 July 2014.

  8. Extracts of Phenolic Compounds from Seeds of Three Wild Grapevines—Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activities and the Content of Phenolic Compounds

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    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from three wild grapevine species: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH• anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds—while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent.

  9. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MENTHA LONGIFOLIA L

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    O. A. Grebennikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents data about qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in water-ethanol extract of perspective clone of Mentha longifolia L. of NBE-NSC selection. Phenolic substances content in water-ethanol extract amounted to 3003.3 mg/100g. 13 components were determined in the extract. The extract contains caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid isomers, rosmarinic acid and glycosides of luteolin. Rosmarinic acid (50.2% prevails among phenolic substances of Mentha longifolia extract. The conclusion is that the use of this extract is possible to create products with high biological value

  10. Microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from four different spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Ferracane, Rosalia; Graziani, Giulia; Ritieni, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2010-09-09

    Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Crocus sativus). The plants were extracted employing ultrasonication and microwave-assisted extractions. The efficiency of extraction of bioactive compounds obtained with the microwave extraction process was in general about four times higher than that resulting from sonication extraction. The various extracts obtained were analyzed for their antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays and for their total polyphenolic content. It can be concluded that microwave-assisted extractions provide significant advantages in terms of extraction efficiency and time savings.

  11. Evaluation of the lipophilicity and stability of phenolic compounds in herbal extracts

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    Małgorzata Materska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Phenolic compounds are secondary plant metabolites, which occur in different parts of cell, according to they lipophilicity. The objective of this study was to determine differences in the content and stability of those compounds in herbal extract fractions marked by increasing lipophilicity. Material and methods. Eight herbal plants were analysed: basil, savory, lovage, lemon balm, peppermint, parsley, oregano and sage. Extracts were prepared from fresh plants harvested in late July, and they were separated into aqueous fractions and isolated with a 40% and 70% methanol solution on C18 silica gel. The total content of phenolics was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method directly after preparation and after three and six months of storage. Results. The stability of fresh herb extracts varied subject to plant species. The lemon balm leaf extract was most abundant in phenolic compounds and showed the highest polyphenol concentrations throughout the storage period. The greatest drop in phenolic compound levels was observed in parsley extracts. Following the separation of raw extracts into three fractions, the highest phenolic compound concentrations were noted in fractions isolated with a 40% methanol solution. The most dynamic changes in polyphenol content were reported in the initial period of storage (three months regardless of the fraction's lipophilicity. Compounds that were not degraded after this period were marked by high stability. Conclusions. Phenolic compounds found in herbal plants are hydrophilic to lipophilic substances which are stable compounds regardless of their affinity for water.

  12. Methodologies for the Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Environmental Samples: New Approaches

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    Cristina Mahugo Santana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic derivatives are among the most important contaminants present in the environment. These compounds are used in several industrial processes to manufacture chemicals such as pesticides, explosives, drugs and dyes. They also are used in the bleaching process of paper manufacturing. Apart from these sources, phenolic compounds have substantial applications in agriculture as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. However, phenolic compounds are not only generated by human activity, but they are also formed naturally, e.g., during the decomposition of leaves or wood. As a result of these applications, they are found in soils and sediments and this often leads to wastewater and ground water contamination. Owing to their high toxicity and persistence in the environment, both, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and the European Union have included some of them in their lists of priority pollutants. Current standard methods of phenolic compounds analysis in water samples are based on liquid–liquid extraction (LLE while Soxhlet extraction is the most used technique for isolating phenols from solid matrices. However, these techniques require extensive cleanup procedures that are time-intensive and involve expensive and hazardous organic solvents, which are undesirable for health and disposal reasons. In the last years, the use of news methodologies such as solid-phase extraction (SPE and solid-phase microextraction (SPME have increased for the extraction of phenolic compounds from liquid samples. In the case of solid samples, microwave assisted extraction (MAE is demonstrated to be an efficient technique for the extraction of these compounds. In this work we review the developed methods in the extraction and determination of phenolic derivatives in different types of environmental matrices such as water, sediments and soils. Moreover, we present the new approach in the use of micellar media coupled with SPME process for the

  13. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Vanja; Putnik, Predrag; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Jukić, Marijana; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2017-06-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays). The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70% aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol), extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min) and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences at a 95% confidence level (p≤0.05). The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols) than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70% aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50% aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval) has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  14. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  15. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Four Different Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ritieni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Crocus sativus. The plants were extracted employing ultrasonication and microwave-assisted extractions. The efficiency of extraction of bioactive compounds obtained with the microwave extraction process was in general about four times higher than that resulting from sonication extraction. The various extracts obtained were analyzed for their antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays and for their total polyphenolic content. It can be concluded that microwave-assisted extractions provide significant advantages in terms of extraction efficiency and time savings.

  16. Decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare L.: different performances regarding bioactivity and phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-09-01

    Bioactivity of oregano methanolic extracts and essential oils is well known. Nonetheless, reports using aqueous extracts are scarce, mainly decoction or infusion preparations used for therapeutic applications. Herein, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and phenolic compounds of the infusion, decoction and hydroalcoholic extract of oregano were evaluated and compared. The antioxidant activity is related with phenolic compounds, mostly flavonoids, since decoction presented the highest concentration of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds, followed by infusion and hydroalcoholic extract. The samples were effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It is important to address that the hydroalcoholic extract showed the highest efficacy against Escherichia coli. This study demonstrates that the decoction could be used for antioxidant purposes, while the hydroalcoholic extract could be incorporated in formulations for antimicrobial features. Moreover, the use of infusion/decoction can avoid the toxic effects showed by oregano essential oil, widely reported for its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

  17. Antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activities of phenolic compounds in the extracts of Indian honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subashini Devarajan; Subhashree Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition potential of phenolic compounds in the extracts of Indian honey.METHODS:Phenolic compounds were extracted from Indian honey through column chromatography.The antioxidant potential of extracted phenolic compounds was measured by two different biochemical assays:ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)assay and scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals.Moreover,α-amylase inhibition assay of phenolic compounds of honey was also evaluated.RESULTS:The scavenging inhibition rate varied from 86.8% to 78.6% from the highest (6mg·mL-1) to the lowest (1.5 mg·mL-1) concentration,whereas,reducing power assay varied from 0.89 Abs to 0.19 Abs from the highest to the lowest concentration.Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was used as reference compound for antioxidant assays.α-amylase inhibition assay is reported from the phenolic honey extracts for the first time.The inhibition rate for α-amylase varied from 88.8% to 30.5% from the highest (20 μg·mL-1) to the lowest concentration (4.μg·mL-1).CONCLUSION:Honey phenolic extract possessed antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activity,thus increasing its potential therapeutic property.

  18. Subcritical water extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from XiLan olive fruit dreg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Ping; Zhong, Qiu-Ping; Li, Meng-Ying; Ma, Han-Ruo

    2015-08-01

    Olive fruit dreg (OFD), waste from olive softdrink processing, has caused disposal problems. Nevertheless, OFD is a good source of functional ingredients, such as phenolic compounds. This study investigated the extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from OFD by using subcritical water (SCW) extraction method, antioxidant activity of SCW extracts, and components of phenolic compounds by LC-MS. SCW extraction experiments were performed in a batch stainless steel reactor at temperatures ranging from 100 to 180 °C at residence time of 5 to 60 min, and at solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:20 to 1:60. Higher recoveries of phenolic compounds [37.52 ± 0.87 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, dry weight (DW)] were obtained at 160 °C, solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:50, and extract time of 30 min than at 2 h extraction with methanol (1.21 ± 0.16 mg GAE/g DW), ethanol (0.24 ± 0.07 mg GAE/g DW), and acetone (0.34 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g DW). The antioxidant activities of the SCW extracts were significantly stronger than those in methanol extracts at the same concentration of total phenolic contents. LC-MS analysis results indicated that SCW extracts contained higher amounts of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, homovanillic acid, gallic acid, hydroxytyrosol, quercetin, and syringic acid. SCW at 160 °C, 30 min, and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:50 may be a good substitute of organic solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, and acetone to recover phenolic compounds from OFD.

  19. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria for the phenolic compounds extraction from artificial textile industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Prasetiawan, Haniif; Hermawan, Sari, Lelita Sakina

    2017-03-01

    Liquid waste in textile industry contains large amounts of dyes and chemicals which are capable of harming the environment and human health. It is due to liquid waste characteristics which have high BOD, COD, temperature, dissolved and suspended solid. One of chemical compound which might be harmful for environment when disposed in high concentration is phenol. Currently, Phenol compound in textile industrial waste has reached 10 ppm meanwhile maximum allowable phenol concentration is not more than 0.2 ppm. Otherwise, Phenol also has economic value as feedstock of plastic, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Furthermore, suitable method to separate phenol from waste water is needed. In this research, liquid - liquid extraction method was used with extraction time for 70 minutes. Waste water sample was then separated into two layers which are extract and raffinate. Thereafter, extract and raffinate were then tested by using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer to obtained liquid - liquid equilibrium data. Aim of this research is to study the effect of temperature, stirring speed and type of solvent to obtain distribution coefficient (Kd), phenol yield and correlation of Three-Suffix Margules model for the liquid - liquid extraction data equilibrium. The highest extraction yield at 80.43 % was found by using 70% methanol as solvent at extraction temperature 50 °C with stirring speed 300 rpm, coefficient distribution was found 216.334. From this research it can be concluded that Three-Suffix Margules Model is suitable to predict liquid - liquid equilibrium data for phenol system.

  20. Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of phenolic compounds in plants with hepatoprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-15

    The liver is one of the most important organs of human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. Given its pivotal role in the excretion of waste metabolites and drugs detoxification, the liver is often subjected to oxidative stress that leads to lipid peroxidation and severe cellular damage. The conventional treatments of liver diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis are frequently inadequate due to side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemical drugs. To overcome this problematic paradox, medicinal plants, owing to their natural richness in phenolic compounds, have been intensively exploited concerning their extracts and fraction composition in order to find bioactive compounds that could be isolated and applied in the treatment of liver ailments. The present review aimed to collect the main results of recent studies carried out in this field and systematize the information for a better understanding of the hepatoprotective capacity of medicinal plants in in vitro and in vivo systems. Generally, the assessed plant extracts revealed good hepatoprotective properties, justifying the fractionation and further isolation of phenolic compounds from different parts of the plant. Twenty-five phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, lignan compounds, phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds, have been isolated and identified, and proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of chemically induced liver damage. In this perspective, the use of medicinal plant extracts, fractions and phenolic compounds seems to be a promising strategy to avoid side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemicals.

  1. Pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from rice (Oryza sativa) grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, W; Saputro, I E; Palma, M; Barroso, C G

    2016-02-01

    An analytical pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) process has been studied for the extraction of phenolic compounds from rice grains. A fractional factorial design (2(7-2)) with a centre point was used to optimize PLE parameters such as solvent composition (EtOAc in MeOH), extraction temperature, pressure, flushing, static extraction time, solvent-purge and sample weight. Extraction temperature, solvent and static extraction time were found to have a significant effect on the response value. The optimized method was validated for selectivity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, recovery and precision. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of a wide variety of rice grains. Seventeen phenolic compounds were detected in the sample and guaiacol, ellagic acid, vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid were identified as the most abundant compounds. Nonetheless, different species of rice show very varied compound diversity and levels of compounds in their grain compositions.

  2. Enzyme-Enhanced Extraction of Phenolic Compounds and Proteins from Flaxseed Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Dias Ribeiro; Daniel Weingart Barreto; Maria Alice Zarur Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) meal, the main byproduct of the flaxseed oil extraction process, is composed mainly of proteins, mucilage, and phenolic compounds. The extraction methods of phenolics either commonly employed the use of mixed solvents (dioxane/ethanol, water/acetone, water/methanol, and water/ethanol) or are done with the aid of alkaline, acid, or enzymatic hydrolysis. This work aimed at the study of optimal conditions for a clean process, using renewable solvents and enzymes, f...

  3. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Laurus nobilis L. and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz-Márquez, Diana B; Martínez-Ávila, Guillermo C; Wong-Paz, Jorge E; Belmares-Cerda, Ruth; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2013-09-01

    Bay leaves (BL) (Laurus nobilis L., Family: Laureceae) are traditionally used to treat some symptoms of gastrointestinal problems, such as epigastric bloating, impaired digestion, eructing and flatulence. These biological properties are mainly attributed to its phenolic compounds. In this paper, ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Laurus nobilis L. (Laureceae) was studied. Effects of several experimental factors, such as sonication time, solid/liquid ratio and concentration of solvent on extraction of phenolic compounds were evaluated through a randomized complete block design with factorial treatment arrangement (3(3)). The best extraction conditions were: 1g plant sample with 12 mL of 35% ethanol, for 40 min, obtaining a yield of phenolic compounds of 17.32±1.52 mg g(-1) of plant. In addition, free radical-scavenging potential of DPPH and lipid oxidation inhibition, by linoleic acid peroxidation of the selected extract was measured in order to evidence their antioxidant properties. Results indicated that high amounts of phenolic compounds can be extracted from L. nobilis by ultrasound-assisted extraction technology.

  4. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Four Different Spices

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Ritieni; Vincenzo Fogliano; Rosalia Ferracane; Giulia Graziani; Monica Gallo

    2010-01-01

    Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanic...

  5. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects.

  6. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction for the Recovery of Phenolic Compounds from Vegetable Sources

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    Nelly Medina-Torres

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable sources and agro-industrial residues represent an important source of phenolic compounds that are useful in a wide range of applications, especially those with biological activities. Conventional techniques of phytochemical extraction have been associated with a high consumption of organic solvents that limits the application of bioactive extracts, leading to the implementation of novel extraction technologies using mechanisms such as Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE. In the present review, an analysis of the involved variables in the extraction yield of phenolic compounds through UAE is presented, highlighting the advantages of this technology based on the results obtained in various optimized studies. A comparison with other technologies and a proposal of its possible application for agro industrial residues as raw material of phenolic compounds is also indicated. Finally, it is concluded that UAE is a technology that is placed within the area of Sustainable Chemistry since it promotes the use of renewable raw materials through the extraction of phenolic compounds, implementing the substitution of organic solvents with solvents that do not present toxic effects, lowering the energy consumption when compared to conventional methods and minimizing process times and temperatures, which is useful for the extraction of thermo-labile compounds.

  7. Optimization of autohydrolysis conditions to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Ramirez, Monica J.; Orrego, Carlos E.

    2017-01-01

    Autohydrolysis, which is an eco-friendly technology that employs only water as extraction solvent, was used to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds (SCG). Experimental assays were carried out using different temperatures (160–200 °C), liquid/solid ratios (5–15 ml/g SCG...

  8. Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and HPLC analyses of the phenolic compounds of extracts from common Mediterranean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Ereifej, Khalil I; Esoh, Ranya B; Al-u'datt, Muhammad H; Alrababah, Mohammad A; Yang, W

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the total phenolic amounts and antioxidant activities of plant extracts obtained from some common Mediterranean plant species collected from different places in Jordan were determined. The phenolic constituents of these extracts were also determined using HPLC. The total phenolic amounts ranged from 52.8 to 876.9 mg GAE per 100 g dry material. The antioxidant activities were evaluated according to the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenger method. Sage (Salvia officinalis) showed the highest antioxidant activity (91%), while the lowest (11.3%) was seen in parsley (Petroselinum crispum). A strong correlation (r = 0.85) between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was found. The phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin and benzoic acid. All the investigated plants contain gallic acid, whose phenolic content ranged from 0.4 to 37.8 mg per 100 g, catechin (0.3-339.9 mg per 100 g), protocatechuic acid (0.3-41.9 mg per 100 g) and gentisic acid (0.3-35.8 mg per 100 g), while caffeic acid (0.3-2.6 mg per 100 g) was detected in six species only. These natural plant phenolics could thus be a good source of antioxidants for applications in food.

  9. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-01-23

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  10. Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Chloe D; Vuong, Quan V; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Roach, Paul D; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2014-10-23

    Olive leaves are an agricultural waste of the olive-oil industry representing up to 10% of the dry weight arriving at olive mills. Disposal of this waste adds additional expense to farmers. Olive leaves have been shown to have a high concentration of phenolic compounds. In an attempt to utilize this waste product for phenolic compounds, we optimized their extraction using water-a "green" extraction solvent that has not yet been investigated for this purpose. Experiments were carried out according to a Box Behnken design, and the best possible combination of temperature, extraction time and sample-to-solvent ratio for the extraction of phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity was obtained using RSM; the optimal conditions for the highest yield of phenolic compounds was 90 °C for 70 min at a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:100 g/mL; however, at 1:60 g/mL, we retained 80% of the total phenolic compounds and maximized antioxidant capacity. Therefore the sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:60 was chosen as optimal and used for further validation. The validation test fell inside the confidence range indicated by the RSM output; hence, the statistical model was trusted. The proposed method is inexpensive, easily up-scaled to industry and shows potential as an additional source of income for olive growers.

  11. Extraction, evolution, and sensory impact of phenolic compounds during red wine maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, L Federico; Harbertson, James F

    2014-01-01

    We review the extraction into wine and evolution of major phenolic classes of sensory relevance. We present a historical background to highlight that previously established aspects of phenolic extraction and retention into red wine are still subjects of much research. We argue that management of the maceration length is one of the most determining factors in defining the proportion and chemical fate of phenolic compounds in wine. The extraction of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins (PAs) is discussed in the context of their individual extraction patterns but also with regard to their interaction with other wine components. The same approach is followed to present the sensory implications of phenolic and phenolic-derived compounds in wine. Overall, we conclude that the chemical diversity of phenolic compounds in grapes is further enhanced as soon as vacuolar and pulp components are released upon crushing, adding a variety of new sensory dimensions to the already present chemical diversity. Polymeric pigments formed by the covalent reaction of anthocyanin and PAs are good candidates to explain some of the observed sensory changes in the color, taste, and mouthfeel attributes of red wines during maceration and aging.

  12. Identification and characterisation of phenolic compounds extracted from Moroccan olive mill wastewater

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    Inass Leouifoudi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater, hereafter noted as OMWW was tested for its composition in phenolic compounds according to geographical areas of olive tree, i.e. the plain and the mountainous areas of Tadla-Azilal region (central Morocco. Biophenols extraction with ethyl acetate was efficient and the phenolic extract from the mountainous areas had the highest concentration of total phenols' content. Fourier-Transform-Middle Infrared (FT-MIR spectroscopy of the extracts revealed vibration bands corresponding to acid, alcohol and ketone functions. Additionally, HPLC-ESI-MS analyses showed that phenolic alcohols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, secoiridoids and derivatives and lignans represent the most abundant phenolic compounds. Nüzhenide, naringenin and long chain polymeric substances were also detected. Mountainous areas also presented the most effective DPPH scavenging potential compared to plain areas; IC50 values were 11.7 ± 5.6 µg/ml and 30.7 ± 4.4 µg/ml, respectively. OMWW was confirmed as a rich source of natural phenolic antioxidant agents.

  13. Aqueous Two-phase Systems with Ultrasonic Extraction Used for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Inonotus obliquus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-xia; LIU Yu-bing; LIU Feng; ZHENG Wei-fa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extracting technology of assessing the maximum yield of phenolic compounds (PC)from Inonotus obliquus by single factor experiments and orthogonal array design methods through aqueous two-phase systems combined with ultrasonic extraction.Methods The range of the independent variables,namely levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate,and ultrasonic time were identified by a first set of single factor experiments.The actual values of the independent variables coded at four levels and three factors were selected based on the results of the single factor experiments.Subsequently,the levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate,and ultrasonic time were optimized using the orthogonal array method.Results The optimum conditions for the extraction of PC were found to use 7.0 mL acetone,5.5 mg ammonium sulfate,with ultrasonic time for 5 min.Under these optimized conditions,the experimental maximum yield of PC was 37.8 mg/g,much higher than that of the traditional ultrasonic extraction (UE,29.0 mg/g).And the PC obtained by this method had stronger anti-oxidative activities than those by traditional UE method.Conclusion These results indicate the suitability of the models developed and the success in optimizing the extraction conditions.This is an economical and efficient method for extracting polyphenols from Ⅰ.obliquus.

  14. Aqueous Two-phase Systems with Ultrasonic Extraction Used for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Inonotus obliquus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Yan-xia; LIU; Yu-bing; LIU; Feng; ZHENG; Wei-fa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extracting technology of assessing the maximum yield of phenolic compounds (PC) from Inonotus obliquus by single factor experiments and orthogonal array design methods through aqueous two-phase systems combined with ultrasonic extraction. Methods The range of the independent variables, namely levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate, and ultrasonic time were identified by a first set of single factor experiments. The actual values of the independent variables coded at four levels and three factors were selected based on the results of the single factor experiments. Subsequently, the levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate, and ultrasonic time were optimized using the orthogonal array method. Results The optimum conditions for the extraction of PC were found to use 7.0 mL acetone, 5.5 mg ammonium sulfate, with ultrasonic time for 5 min. Under these optimized conditions, the experimental maximum yield of PC was 37.8 mg/g, much higher than that of the traditional ultrasonic extraction (UE, 29.0 mg/g). And the PC obtained by this method had stronger anti-oxidative activities than those by traditional UE method. Conclusion These results indicate the suitability of the models developed and the success in optimizing the extraction conditions. This is an economical and efficient method for extracting polyphenols from I. obliquus.

  15. Extraction, Separation, and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Tasioula-Margari; Eleftheria Tsabolatidou

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of individual phenolic compounds extracted from virgin olive oil (VOO), from different Greek olive varieties. Sufficient recoveries (90%) of all individual phenolic compounds were obtained using methanol as an extraction solvent, acetonitrile for residue solubilization, and two washing steps with hexane. Moreover, in order to elucidate structural characteristics of phenolic compounds in VOO, high performance liquid chromatography with a diode...

  16. Extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil by deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Aránzazu; Rodríguez-Juan, Elisa; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rios, José Julian; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are "green" solvents, applied in this study for the extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil (VOO). Different combinations of DES consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) in various mixing ratios with sugars, alcohols, organic acids, and urea, as well as a mixture of three sugars were used. The yields of the DES extractions were compared with those from conventional 80% (v/v) methanol/water. DES showed a good solubility of phenolic compounds with different polarities. The two most abundant secoiridoid derivatives in olive oil, oleacein and oleocanthal, extracted with ChCl/xylitol and ChCl/1,2-propanediol showed an increase of 20-33% and 67.9-68.3% with respect to conventional extraction, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time that phenolic compounds have been extracted from VOO oil using DES. Our results suggest that DES offers an efficient, safe, sustainable, and cost effective alternative to methanol for extraction of bioactive compounds from VOO.

  17. Standardization of Tragopogon graminifolius DC. Extract Based on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Farzaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tragopogon graminifolius DC. (TG, Compositae family, is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases like gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. The aim of the present study is to standardize extracts from TG used for preparation of different dosage forms in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM based on phenolic compounds. For this purpose, total phenolic content and some phenolic compounds were determined in ethanolic extracts from aerial part and root of TG by HPLC method. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH-HPLC methods. Caffeic acid, gallic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and catechin were detected in root and aerial part of TG. ρ-Coumaric acid (6.357 ± 0.014 mg·g−1 was dominant phenolic compound in aerial part followed by ferulic acid (1.24 ± 0.018 mg·g−1. Also, ρ-coumaric acid (2.685 ± 0.031 mg·g−1 was highly abundant in root, followed by catechin (2.067 ± 0.021 mg·g−1. Antioxidant activity of root extract (460.45 ± 0.78 µg Vit.E.E·mL−1 was better than that of aerial part. Generally, phenolic compounds are one of the major constituents of TG and could be used as markers for standardization of dosage forms prepared from this plant. Also, TG demonstrated significant antioxidant activity using DPPH-HPLC method. Phenolic compounds of TG may be responsible for its marked antioxidant properties.

  18. EXTRACTION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF TWO SPECIES ORIGANUM PLANT CONTAINING PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID COMPOUNDS

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    N. Benchikha Benchikha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant of ethanolic extract of two species of Origanum and essential oil of plant Origanum vulgare were investigated and also the total phenolic and flavonoid content measured. The radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. According to the results the leaves extracts have very important values for polyphenols (266.86 mg GAE / g and 194.78 mg GAE / g and high antioxidant activity; DPPH (IC50 = 1.37 g / l and IC50 = 1.53mg / l for species majorana, and vulgare respectively; also the DPPH of essential oil of Origanum vulgare was IC50 = 15.360 mg/l . This data suggest of these extracts as a natural source of phenolic compounds and antioxidant.

  19. EXTRACTION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF TWO SPECIES ORIGANUM PLANT CONTAINING PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benchikha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant of ethanolic extract of two species of Origanum and essential oil of plant Origanum vulgare were investigated and also the total phenolic and flavonoid content measured. The radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. According to the results the leaves extracts have very important values for polyphenols (266.86 mg GAE / g and 194.78 mg GAE / g and high antioxidant activity; DPPH (IC50 = 1.37 g / l and IC50 = 1.53mg / l for species majorana, and vulgare respectively; also the DPPH of essential oil of Origanum vulgare was IC50 = 15.360 mg/l . This data suggest of these extracts as a natural source of phenolic compounds and antioxidant.

  20. Phytochemical analysis, phenolic compounds, condensed tannin content and antioxidant potential in Marwa (Origanum majorana seed extracts

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    Sanju B. Dhull

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of seed extracts of Origanum majorana was evaluated and correlated with total phenolic content (TPC and condensed tannin content (CTC. Ethanol, methanol, acetone and chloroform were used to extract bioactive compounds from seeds of Origanum majorana at 45 °C for 45 minutes. As compared to other solvents, methanol seems to be an important extraction solvent, as maximum amount of bioactive compounds (1.18 mg GAE/g dwb with antioxidant potential was observed in methanolic extract. Total phenolic compounds in seeds were evaluated using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (FC reagent method. Total phenolic compounds in seeds were in the range of 0.10–1.18 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight basis (mg GAE/g dwb. HPLC study confirmed the presence of catechin, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant potential in seed extracts of Origanum majorana confirmed the presence of nutraceutical properties in them which will further be helpful in the preparation of various functional food products.

  1. Identification of the phenolic compounds contributing to antibacterial activity in ethanol extracts of Brazilian red propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Saori; Hatano, Ai; Yoshino, Megumi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Shimamura, Yuko; Masuda, Shuichi; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Tazawa, Shigemi; Araki, Yoko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the quantity and antibacterial activity of the individual phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis. Quantitative analysis of the 12 phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis was carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The main phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis were found to be (3S)-vestitol (1), (3S)-neovestitol (2) and (6aS,11aS)-medicarpin (4) with quantities of 72.9, 66.9 and 30.8 mg g of ethanol extracts(- 1), respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of each compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentrations. In particular, compound 4 exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity among all the assayed compounds against selected bacteria, indicating that 4 is the most active compound in Brazilian red propolis extracts. Thus, Brazilian red propolis may be used as food additives and pharmaceuticals to protect against bacteria.

  2. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic and antioxidative compounds from lizard tail (Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

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    Trakul Prommajak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lizard tail (Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is an Asian herb which has many biological activities, including antioxidative property from polyphenolic compounds. Response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design were employed to study the effect of extraction temperature (30 to 70°C, extraction time (10 to 30 min, ethanol concentration (30 to 70%, and solvent to sample ratio (2 to 6 ml/g on ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from lizard tail and antioxidant capacity of the herb extract. Extraction temperature was the most relevant factor on the responses. Optimal condition was the extraction temperature of 70°C for 30 min, using 60% ethanol concentration at the solvent to sample ratio of 5 ml/g. Model adequacies were confirmed by extraction at the optimal condition and normality of standardized residuals.

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content in methanol extract obtained from leaves Commiphora Myrrha

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    Celia Eliane de Lara da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents shows the study of antioxidant activity and quantification of phenolic content determined for the methanol extract obtained from Commiphora myrrha. The high content of phenolic compounds were evaluated against the potential to sequester free radical through the model 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrizil hydrazyl (DPPH and compared with a standard rutin. The results show that the inhibitory capacity of the extract (IC50 was 0.21 mg.L-1. The extract pursued an antioxidant activity of 91.3% compared to the scavenging ability of rutin standard. The content of phenolic extract was assessed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu determined where the IC50 was 3,02 mg.L-1. The concentration of total phenols was determined 1.176 ± 0.263 mg gallic acid equivalent . g-1 of extract (n=5. The results show that extracts of C. myrrha have high antioxidant potential and additional studies are needed for isolation, characterization and use of their property in pharmaceutical, nutritinal and cosmetology.

  4. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... None of the boiling water extracts of leaf, stick and bark showed inhibitory activity ... preparations for the treatment of itch, piles and typhoid fever while the .... the gallic acid value in fresh Mauritian black tea leaves. (0.006 µg/g ...

  5. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Total Phenol Compounds of Punica granatum Hydro-Alcoholic Extract

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    Elahe Ahmadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Punica granatum is a non-productive form of a plant and is used for the treatment of diseases in traditional medicine. In this study, we evaluate the antibacterial activity and the total phenol compounds of Punica granatum. Materials & Methods: Disk and well diffusion methods and MIC were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of hydro-alcoholic extract on S. aureus and E. coli compared to standard commercial antibiotic disks. Measurement of phenol compounds were performed by Seevers and Daly colorimetric methods (Folin-ciocalteu indicator. Results: 35 and 29 mm inhibition zones in S. aureus and 22 and 17 mm inhibition zones in E. coli were shown by disk and well diffusion method, respectively. Also, 7.8 mg/ml concentration of extract showed the MIC points for two bacteria. Phenol compound of extract was 233.15±5.1 mg/g of extraction. Conclusion: Antibacterial effect of Punica granatum compared to antibiotics indicates the strong activity against examined bacteria. Extensive antibacterial study of Punica granatum is suggested.

  6. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds.

  7. Influence of freezing skin grapes to extract phenolic compounds during red wine maceration

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    Alegria M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality depends on phenolic and aromatic compounds that are mainly located in skins and seeds of grapes and can be better extracted if suitable extraction technologies are applied. An increase in extractability has impact in the mouth feel, color and age ability of the wines. Using liquid or solid CO2 is a way to promote the breakdown of the cells membranes and enhance extraction of these compounds and protecting grapes and wine from oxidation. The main goal was to test the impact of solid CO2 addition to destemmed grapes with a new CO2 dispenser equipment in order to freeze the berry skins and improve the phenolic extraction in an economic and sustainable way in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir. The experiment designed for both cultivars was a treatment with CO2 addition and a control without CO2 addition each one with three replicates. Destemmed grapes submitted to carbonic snow reached temperature of the skins between − 1 and − 4 °C during four minutes under equipment treatment. The consumption of carbon dioxide was estimated around 0.3(kg ⋅kg−1CO2 per berries. Wines of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir from fresh grapes and frozen grapes were made and were being compared in phenolic composition and sensory attributes.

  8. Effect of different solvents on extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer ÇOKLAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of bio compounds from plant materials is one of the most important step of the processes such as dietary supplement production and recovery of the compounds from the industrial wastes. It is highly affected from the factors such as solvent type, particle size, extraction time and temperature. To determine the total phenolics, individual phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of Hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis fruit extracted with different solvents and to specify the best solvent for extraction of phenolics were aimed in this research. Fruits, picked from wild growing trees in Beyşehir, were extracted with water, methanol and methanol:water (1:1 mixture. Highest total phenolics and antioxidant activity were observed in methanol:water extract. While gallic acid was extracted effectively in water, methanol:water mixture was the best solvent for extraction of procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, (-- epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and rutin.

  9. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  10. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88 % of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60 °C, 80 % ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (dw), 25.0 mg quercetin equiv./100 g dw and 28.6 % DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95 % confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants.

  11. Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: Extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    The determination of phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) by means of rapid, low-cost, environment-free methods would be a desirable achievement. A natural deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on glucose and lactic acid was considered as extraction solvent for phenolic compounds in EVOO. DESs are green solvents characterized by high availability, biodegradability, safety, and low cost. The spectrophotometric characteristics of DES extracts of 65 EVOO samples were related to the total phenolic content of the oils, assessed by methanol-water extraction coupled to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. A regression model (ncalibration=45, nvalidation=20), including the absorbance at two wavelengths (257, 324nm), was obtained, with an adjusted R(2)=0.762. Therefore the DES could provide a promising and viable approach for a green screening method of phenolic compounds in EVOO, by means of simple spectrophotometric measurements of extracts, even for on-field analysis (for example in olive mills).

  12. Analysis of phenolic compounds in Matricaria chamomilla and its extracts by UPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghi, G; Hatami, A; Safaei, A; Mehran, M

    2014-01-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is a widely used medicinal plant possessing several pharmacological effects due to presence of active compounds. This study describes a method of using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with photodiode array (PDA) detector for the separation of phenolic compounds in M. chamomilla and its crude extracts. Separation was conducted on C18 column (150 mm × 2 mm, 1.8 μm) using a gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 4% aqueous acetic acid at 25°C. The method proposed was validated for determination of free and total apigenin and apigenin 7-glucoside contents as bioactive compounds in the extracts by testing sensitivity, linearity, precision and recovery. In general, UPLC produced significant improvements in method sensitivity, speed and resolution. Extraction was performed with methanol, 70% aqueous ethanol and water solvents. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents ranged from 1.77 to 50.75 gram (g) of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g and 0.82 to 36.75 g quercetin equivalent (QE)/100 g in dry material, respectively. There was a considerable difference from 40 to 740 mg/100 g for apigenin and 210 to 1110 mg/100 g for apigenin 7-glucoside in dry material.

  13. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM POLYGONUM MULTIFLORUM THUNB. ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Pham Tan Quoc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to determine the best extraction conditions for total phenolic con- tent (TPC and antioxidant capacity (AC of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. Material and methods. The raw material used was Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root powder. Five fac- tors such as solvent type, solvent concentrations, solvent/material ratio, extraction time and microwave power were studied; TPC and AC values were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and DPPH free radical scavenging activity measurement, respectively. In addition, studies involved assaying the HPLC test of extracts and SEM of samples. Results. Optimal results pointed to acetone as the solvent, acetone concentration of 60%, solvent/material ratio of 40/1 (v/w, extraction time of 5 mins and microwave power of 127 W. TPC and AC obtained were approximates 44.3 ±0.13 mg GAE/g DW and 341.26 ±1.54 μmol TE/g DW, respectively. The effect of mi- crowaving on the cell destruction of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Some phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC method, for instance, gallic acid, catechin and resveratrol. Conclusion. These factors significantly affected TPC and AC. We can use acetone as a solvent with micro- wave-assisted extraction to achieve the best result.

  14. Bioactive compounds, RP-HPLC analysis of phenolics, and antioxidant activity of some Portuguese shrub species extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Angelo; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2011-12-01

    In the ecosystem of Serra Da Estrela, some plant species have the potential to be used as raw material for extraction of bioactive products. The goal of this work was to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid contents of the methanolic extracts of some shrubs (Echinospartum ibericum, Pterospartum tridentatum, Juniperus communis, Ruscus aculeatus, Rubus ulmifolius, Hakea sericea, Cytisus multiflorus, Crataegus monogyna, Erica arborea and Ipomoea acuminata), and then to correlate the phenolic compounds and flavonoids with the antioxidant activity of each extract. The Folin-Ciocalteu's method was used for the determination of total phenols, and tannins were then precipitated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP); a colorimetric method with aluminum chloride was used for the determination of flavonoids, and a Dragendorff's reagent method was used for total alkaloid estimation. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene bleaching tests were used to assess the antioxidant activity of extracts. The identification of phenolic compounds present in extracts was performed using RP-HPLC. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity index and total phenolic content of methanolic extracts was observed. The RP-HPLC procedure showed that the most common compounds were ferulic and ellagic acids and quercetin. Most of the studied shrubs have significant antioxidant properties that are probably due to the existence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. It is noteworthy to emphasize that for Echinospartum ibericum, Hakea sericea and Ipomoea acuminata, to the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical studies have been undertaken nor their use in traditional medicine been described.

  15. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Juices from Ten Iranian Pomegranate Cultivars Depend on Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Akhavan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of ten juices from arils and whole pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran were studied. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of juices from whole pomegranate fruit were significantly higher than juices from pomegranate arils, but the variety has a greater influence than the processing method. The main phenolics in the studied juices were punicalagin A (5.40–285 mg/L, punicalagin B (25.9–884 mg/L, and ellagic acid (17.4–928 mg/L. The major and minor anthocyanins of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside (0.7–94.7 mg/L, followed by cyanidin 3-glucoside (0.5–52.5 mg/L, pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside + delphinidin 3-glucoside (0–10.3 mg/L, delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside (0–7.68 mg/L, pelargonidin 3-glucoside (0–9.40 mg/L, and cyanidin-pentoside (0–1.13 mg/L were identified; the latter anthocyanin as well as cyanidin-pentoside-hexoside and delphinidin-pentoside were detected for the first time in Iranian pomegranates. The total phenolic contents were in the range of 220–2931 mg/100 mL. The results indicate that the pomegranate phenolics are not only influenced by extraction method but also—and even more—affected by the cultivar. Moreover, a good correlation was observed between total phenolic content and ABTS and FRAP methods in all pomegranate juices (>0.90. The results of current research can help to select the pomegranate cultivars for commercial juice production.

  16. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  17. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-07-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity.

  18. Extraction, Separation, and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Tsabolatidou, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of individual phenolic compounds extracted from virgin olive oil (VOO), from different Greek olive varieties. Sufficient recoveries (90%) of all individual phenolic compounds were obtained using methanol as an extraction solvent, acetonitrile for residue solubilization, and two washing steps with hexane. Moreover, in order to elucidate structural characteristics of phenolic compounds in VOO, high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) at 280 and 340 nm and HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) in the negative-ion mode were performed. The most abundant phenolic compounds were oleuropein derivatives with m/z 319 and 377 and ligstroside derivatives with m/z 303, 361. Lignans, such as 1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol were also present in substantial quantities in the phenolic fraction. However, pinoresinol was co-eluted with dialdehydic form of ligstroside aglycone (DAFLA) and it was not possible to be quantified separately. The phenolic extracts, obtained from different VOO samples, yielded similar HPLC profiles. Differences, however, were observed in the last part of the chromatogram, corresponding to isomers of the aldehydic form of ligstroside aglycone. Oxidized phenolic products, originating from secoiridoids, were also detected. PMID:26783843

  19. Extraction, Separation, and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tasioula-Margari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of individual phenolic compounds extracted from virgin olive oil (VOO, from different Greek olive varieties. Sufficient recoveries (90% of all individual phenolic compounds were obtained using methanol as an extraction solvent, acetonitrile for residue solubilization, and two washing steps with hexane. Moreover, in order to elucidate structural characteristics of phenolic compounds in VOO, high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD at 280 and 340 nm and HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS in the negative-ion mode were performed. The most abundant phenolic compounds were oleuropein derivatives with m/z 319 and 377 and ligstroside derivatives with m/z 303, 361. Lignans, such as 1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol were also present in substantial quantities in the phenolic fraction. However, pinoresinol was co-eluted with dialdehydic form of ligstroside aglycone (DAFLA and it was not possible to be quantified separately. The phenolic extracts, obtained from different VOO samples, yielded similar HPLC profiles. Differences, however, were observed in the last part of the chromatogram, corresponding to isomers of the aldehydic form of ligstroside aglycone. Oxidized phenolic products, originating from secoiridoids, were also detected.

  20. Extraction, Separation, and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Tsabolatidou, Eleftheria

    2015-08-13

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of individual phenolic compounds extracted from virgin olive oil (VOO), from different Greek olive varieties. Sufficient recoveries (90%) of all individual phenolic compounds were obtained using methanol as an extraction solvent, acetonitrile for residue solubilization, and two washing steps with hexane. Moreover, in order to elucidate structural characteristics of phenolic compounds in VOO, high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) at 280 and 340 nm and HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) in the negative-ion mode were performed. The most abundant phenolic compounds were oleuropein derivatives with m/z 319 and 377 and ligstroside derivatives with m/z 303, 361. Lignans, such as 1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol were also present in substantial quantities in the phenolic fraction. However, pinoresinol was co-eluted with dialdehydic form of ligstroside aglycone (DAFLA) and it was not possible to be quantified separately. The phenolic extracts, obtained from different VOO samples, yielded similar HPLC profiles. Differences, however, were observed in the last part of the chromatogram, corresponding to isomers of the aldehydic form of ligstroside aglycone. Oxidized phenolic products, originating from secoiridoids, were also detected.

  1. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of wild and cultivated murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Riquelme Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade a considerable increase in the number of studies addressing the use of antioxidants from natural sources has led to the identification and understanding of the potential mechanisms of biologically active components. This results from the fact that they can be used to replace synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food. Murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz is a native berry grown in Chile, and in the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied. Hydroalcoholic extracts of dehydrated fruits from two genotypes of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. were produced. Extracts of wild murtilla and 14-4 genotype fruits had 19.35 and 40.28mg GAE/g for Total Phenolic Compounds, 76.48, and 134.35μmol TEAC/g for DPPH, and 157.04 and 293.99 μmol TEAC/g for ABTS, respectively. Components such as quercetin, epicatechin, and gallic, benzoic and hydrocaffeic acids were identified by CG/MS analysis. All of them showed antioxidant activity. Therefore, it is possible to say that the hydroalcoholic extracts of murtilla have antioxidant potential to be used in lipidic food.

  2. Antiradical activity and amount of phenolic compounds in extracts obtained from some plant raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Zbigniew

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids such as yerba mate, guaraná, white and green tea, coffee seeds, chocolate and cacao seed powder and extracts obtained from these raw materials were investigated for their antioxidant features and the amount of phenolic compounds. The level of phenolic compounds was measured with the colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent and antioxidant features was determined with the use of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical. Amounts of phenolic compounds were presented in percentages per mass of extracts and mass of raw materials. Antiradical potential was shown as the number of TAUDPPH units per mg of extracts and g of raw materials. The highest number of antiradical units TAUDPPH as well as the amount of phenolic compounds was calculated for white tea and its extracts and lowest for chocolate. The correlation coefficient between the content of phenolics and antiradical features of raw materials is equal to r=0.994.

  3. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Thomas H.; Meredith A. Wilkes; Ali Khoddami

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the pre...

  4. Determination of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, G.K.J.; Suatoni, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Details are given of a procedure for separation and identification of phenolic compounds in aqueous solution by high-performance liquid chromatography. It can also be applied to non-aqueous samples after preliminary isolation of a polar fraction containing the phenolic compounds.

  5. Optimization of ultrasound extraction of phenolic compounds from coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell powder by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sueli; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Fernandes, Fabiano A N

    2008-01-01

    Coconut is a tropical fruit largely consumed in many countries. In some areas of the Brazilian coast, coconut shell represents more than 60% of the domestic waste volume. The coconut shell is composed mainly of lignin and cellulose, having a chemical composition very similar to wood and suitable for phenolic extraction. In this work, the use of ultrasound to extract phenolic compounds from coconut shell was evaluated. The effect of temperature, solution to solid ratio, pH and extraction time were evaluated through a 2(4) experimental planning. The extraction process was also optimized using surface response methodology. At the optimum operating condition (30 degrees C, solution to solid ratio of 50, 15 min of extraction and pH 6.5) the process yielded 22.44 mg of phenolic compounds per gram of coconut shell.

  6. Optimized methodology for the simultaneous extraction of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, D.; Chirinos, R.; Barreto, O.; Noratto, G.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Maca is a highly appreciated Andean crop with multiple attributed health claims due to its assortment of bioactive compounds. The extraction parameters of glucosinolates (GLs), total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of maca (Lepidium meyenii) hypocotyls were optimized using res

  7. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from ultrasonic treatment of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ya-Qin; Ye, Xing-Qian; Fang, Zhong-Xiang; Chen, Jian-Chu; Xu, Gui-Hua; Liu, Dong-Hong

    2008-07-23

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract phenolic compounds from Satsuma mandarin ( Citrus unshiu Marc.) peels (SMP), and maceration extraction (ME) was used as a control. The effects of ultrasonic time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min), temperature (15, 30, and 40 degrees C), and ultrasonic power (3.2, 8, 30, and 56 W) on phenolic compounds were investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array (PDA) detector was used for the analysis of phenolic acids after alkaline hydrolysis (bound phenolic acids) and flavanone glycosides. The contents of seven phenolic acids (caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid) and two flavanone glycosides (narirutin and hesperidin) in extracts obtained by ultrasonic treatment were significantly higher than in extracts obtained by the maceration method. Moreover, the contents of extracts increased as both treatment time and temperature increased. Ultrasonic power had a positive effect on the contents of extracts. However, the phenolic acids may be degraded by ultrasound at higher temperature for a long time. For example, after ultrasonic treatment at 40 degrees C for 20 min, the contents of caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid decreased by 48.90, 44.20, 48.23, and 35.33%, respectively. The interaction of ultrasonic parameters probably has a complex effect on the extracts. A linear relationship was observed between Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values and total phenolic contents (TPC); the correlation coefficient, R(2), is 0.8288 at 15 degrees C, 0.7706 at 30 degrees C, and 0.8626 at 40 degrees C, respectively. The data indicated that SMPs were rich sources of antioxidants. Furthermore, UAE techniques should be carefully used to enhance the yields of phenolic acids from SMPs.

  8. Antioxidant and antimicrobial phenolic compounds from extracts of cultivated and wild-grown Tunisian Ruta chalepensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Ouerghemmi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of phenolic compounds from cultivated and wild Tunisian Ruta chalepensis L. leaves, stems, and flowers were assessed. The leaves and the flowers exhibited high but similar total polyphenol, flavonoid, and tannin content. Moreover, two organs showed strong, although not significantly different, total antioxidant activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability, and reducing power. Investigation of the phenolic composition showed that vanillic acid and coumarin were the major compounds in the two organs, with higher percentages in the cultivated organs than in the spontaneous organs. Furthermore, R. chalepensis extracts showed marked antibacterial properties against human pathogen strains, and the activity was organ- and origin-dependent. Spontaneous stems had the strongest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From these results, it was concluded that domestication of Ruta did not significantly affect its chemical composition and consequently the possibility of using R. chalpensis organs as a potential source of natural antioxidants and as an antimicrobial agent in the food industry.

  9. Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Various Extracts of Rhus typhina Fruits and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of various extracts (methanol, hexane, dichloro-methane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol water of Rhus typhina fruits and leaves were investigated using different methods and the main phenolic compounds were analyzed by LC-MS. The ethyl acetate extracts from fruits and leaves of R. typhina exhibited the highest DPPH, hydroxyl radical and nitrite scavenging activity, reducing potential and protein protection ability. The phenolic and flavonoïd contents were highest in the ethyl acetate fraction. The LC-MS analysis showed that the contents of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide in leaves are little higher (34.49 and 32.69%, respectively than that (32.49 and 27.89%, respectively in the fruits, the content of rutin in fruits (16.73% is higher than that (7.79% in the leaves. These results implied that the leaves of R. typhina might serve as a natural source of antioxidant using as the food additive for its good nutrition as well as the fruits of Rhus typhina.

  10. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  11. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zaixiang; Wang, Hongxin; Zhu, Song; Chen, Shangwei; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Zhouping

    2012-02-24

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid-liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8-17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5h to 30s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  12. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Zaixiang, E-mail: louzaixiang@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang Hongxin, E-mail: whx200720082009@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zhu Song; Chen Shangwei; Zhang Ming; Wang Zhouping [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2012-02-24

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid-liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8-17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5 h to 30 s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  13. Highly efficient extraction of phenolic compounds by use of magnetic room temperature ionic liquids for environmental remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ning; Li, Min; Zhao, Lijie; Lu, Chengfei; de Rooy, Sergio L; Warner, Isiah M

    2011-09-15

    A hydrophobic magnetic room temperature ionic liquid (MRTIL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetrachloroferrate(III) ([3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)]), was synthesized from trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride and FeCl(3) · 6H(2)O. This MRTIL was investigated as a possible separation agent for solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution. Due to its strong paramagnetism, [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)] responds to an external neodymium magnet, which was employed in the design of a novel magnetic extraction technique. The conditions for extraction, including extraction time, volume ratio between MRTIL and aqueous phase, pH of aqueous solution, and structures of phenolic compounds were investigated and optimized. The magnetic extraction of phenols achieved equilibrium in 20 min and the phenolic compounds were found to have higher distribution ratios under acidic conditions. In addition, it was observed that phenols containing a greater number of chlorine or nitro substituents exhibited higher distribution ratios. For example, the distribution ratio of phenol (D(Ph)) was 107. In contrast, 3,5-dichlorophenol distribution ratio (D(3,5-DCP)) had a much higher value of 6372 under identical extraction conditions. When compared with four selected traditional non-magnetic room temperature ionic liquids, our [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)] exhibited significantly higher extraction efficiency under the same experimental conditions used in this work. Pentachlorophenol, a major component in the contaminated soil sample obtained from a superfund site, was successfully extracted and removed by use of [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)] with high extraction efficiency. Pentachlorophenol concentration was dramatically reduced from 7.8 μg mL(-1) to 0.2 μg mL(-1) after the magnetic extraction by use of [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)].

  14. Phenolic Compounds and Bioactivity of Healthy and Infected Grapevine Leaf Extracts from Red Varieties Merlot and Vranac (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anđelković, Marko; Radovanović, Blaga; Anđelković, Ana Milenkovic; Radovanović, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic composition, radical scavenging activity, and antimicrobial activity of grapevine leaf extracts from two red grape varieties, Vranac and Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.). The extracts were prepared from healthy grapevine leaves and those infected by Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew). The phenolic composition of the grapevine leaf extracts was determined using spectrophotometric assays and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The radical scavenging activity of grapevine leaf extracts was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, and their antimicrobial activity was determined by microwell dilution tests. The total phenolic content was higher in healthy grapevine leaf extracts than in infected grapevine leaf extracts. The RP-HPLC analysis detected significant amounts of flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, and small amounts of stilbenes in the grapevine leaf extracts. Compared with the infected grapevine leaf extracts, the healthy grapevine leaf extracts were richer in flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, but had lower stilbenes contents. All extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity, which was strongly correlated with the total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.978). The extracts showed a stronger antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive bacterial strains than towards Gram-negative bacterial strains and yeast. The phenolic compounds in grapevine leaves were responsible for their strong radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Together, these results demonstrate that grapevine leaves have high nutritional value and can be used as a fresh food and to prepare extracts that can be used as additives in food and medicines.

  15. Analysis of phenolic compounds from corn, oat, and wheat bran extracts by LC-MS-PDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds are among the most common secondary metabolites produced by plants and can exhibit a range of bioactive properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antihypertensive. These natural products have applications in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and functional food or animal fe...

  16. Enhanced extraction of phenolic compounds from coffee industry’s residues through solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Rossana PALOMINO García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of agroindustrial residues is an economical solution to industrial biotechnology. Coffee husk and pulp are abounding residues from coffee industry which can be used as substrates in solid state fermentation process, thus allowing a liberation and increase in the phenolic compound content with high added value. By employing statistical design, initial moisture content, pH value in the medium, and the incubation temperature were evaluated, in order to increase the polyphenol content in a process of solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum. The main phenolic compounds identified through HPLC in fermented coffee residue were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin. Data obtained through HPLC with the radical absorbance capacity assay suggest the fermented coffee husk and pulp extracts potential as a source of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Results showed good perspectives when using P. purpurogenum strain to enhance the liberation of phenolic compounds in coffee residues.

  17. Extraction of phenolic compounds from extra virgin olive oil by a natural deep eutectic solvent: Data on UV absorption of the extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    This data article refers to the paper "Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection" [1]. A deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on lactic acid and glucose was used as green solvent for phenolic compounds. Eight standard phenolic compounds were solubilized in the DES. Then, a set of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples (n=65) were submitted to liquid-liquid extraction by the DES. The standard solutions and the extracts were analyzed by UV spectrophotometry. This article reports the spectral data of both the standard solutions and the 65 extracts, as well as the total phenolic content of the corresponding oils, assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay.

  18. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Eight Phenolic Compounds and Their Conjugated Metabolites after Oral Administration of Rhus verniciflua Extracts in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ming Ji; Kim, In Sook; Park, Jong Suk; Dong, Mi-Sook; Na, Chun-Soo; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2015-06-10

    Rhus verniciflua (Toxicodendron vernicifluum) is a medicinal tree popularly used in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea as a food additive or herbal medicine because of its beneficial effects. R. verniciflua extract (RVE) contains diverse phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, as its major biological active constituents. In this study, the pharmacokinetic profiles of eight phenolic compounds were investigated following oral administration of RVE to rats. The eight phenolic compounds were 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, fisetin, fustin, butin, sulfuretin, taxifolin, and garbanzol. The plasma concentrations of the eight compounds were determined by using a liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer before and after treatment with β-glucuronidase. When 1.5 g/kg RVE was administered, the eight compounds were all detected in plasma, mainly as conjugated forms. These pharmacokinetic data would be useful for understanding the pharmacological effects of RVE.

  19. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Choi, Yong Hee; Jeon, Ju Yeong; Jo, In Hee

    2009-06-10

    Important functional components from Campbell Early grape seed were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technology. The experiments were carried out according to a five level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The best possible combinations of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time with the application of ultrasound were obtained for the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanins from grape seed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables had significant effect on the extraction of functional components with extraction time being highly significant for the extraction of phenolics and antioxidants. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from grape seed include 53.15% ethanol, 56.03 degrees C temperature, and 29.03 min time for the maximum total phenolic compounds (5.44 mg GAE/100 mL); 53.06% ethanol, 60.65 degrees C temperature, and 30.58 min time for the maximum antioxidant activity (12.31 mg/mL); and 52.35% ethanol, 55.13 degrees C temperature, and 29.49 min time for the maximum total anthocyanins (2.28 mg/mL). Under the above-mentioned conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 5.41 mg GAE/100 mL, antioxidant activity was 12.28 mg/mL, and total anthocyanins were 2.29 mg/mL of the grape seed extract, which is well matched with the predicted values.

  20. Effect of Hydrothermal Extraction Condition on The Content of Phenolic Compound Extracted from Rind of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana and Its Antioxidant Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifni Yasa Ash Shiddiqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthone is an antioxidant compound contained in the rind of mangosteen. There are some methods to extract Xanthone from rind of mangosteen, and one of them is hydrothermal extraction. Hydrothermal extraction is a method to obtain xanthone from rind of mangosteen using water at teIn this work, the effect of extraction temperature, pressure, and mode (batch and continuous, and particle size of starting material on the yield and recovery of extracted xanthone and phenolic compounds was investigated. Extraction was carried out at various temperatures (120, 150, and 180oC and pressures (1, 3, and 5 MPa and constant flow rate of 1 mL/min. The xanthone content and antioxidant efficiency of extract was examined by using spectrophotometer, while the concentration of total phenolic compounds in the extract was determined with folin ciocalteu reagent and examined using spectrophotometer In order to confirm the extracted phenolic compounds, the extract residue was analyzed by using FTIR. The experimental result showed that the increase in pressure and temperature caused an increase in total phenolic compound concentration and yield of xanthone. In addition, the result also showed that antioxidant activities were observed in the extract of mangosteen rind.

  1. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  2. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Juices from Ten Iranian Pomegranate Cultivars Depend on Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Akhavan; Mohsen Barzegar; Helmut Weidlich; Zimmermann, Benno F.

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of ten juices from arils and whole pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran were studied. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of juices from whole pomegranate fruit were significantly higher than juices from pomegranate arils, but the variety has a greater influence than the processing method. The main phenolics in the studied juices were punicalagin A (5.40–285 mg/L), punicalagin B (25.9–884 mg/L), and ellagic acid (17.4–928 mg/L). The major ...

  3. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications.

  4. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba N. Rajha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12% than the wet extract (39.8%. The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications.

  5. Optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds in mulberry (Morus nigra) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada-Bellido, Estrella; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Carrera, Ceferino; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G; Barbero, Gerardo F

    2017-03-15

    New ultrasound-assisted extraction methods for the determination of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds present in mulberries have been developed. Several extraction variables, including methanol composition (50-100%), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasound amplitude (30-70%), cycle (0.2-0.7s), solvent pH (3-7) and solvent-solid ratio (10:1.5-20:1.5) were optimized. A Box-Behnken design in conjunction with a response surface methodology was employed to optimize the conditions for the maximum response based on 54 different experiments. Two response variables were considered: total anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds. Extraction temperature and solvent composition were found to be the most influential parameters for anthocyanins (48°C and 76%) and phenolic compounds (64°C and 61%). The developed methods showed high reproducibility and repeatability (RSD<5%). Finally, the new methods were successfully applied to real samples in order to investigate the presence of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds in several mulberry jams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reaction of bromine and chlorine with phenolic compounds and natural organic matter extracts--Electrophilic aromatic substitution and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Rodriguez, Eva M; Allard, Sebastien; Wellauer, Sven; Salhi, Elisabeth; Joll, Cynthia A; von Gunten, Urs

    2015-11-15

    Phenolic compounds are known structural moieties of natural organic matter (NOM), and their reactivity is a key parameter for understanding the reactivity of NOM and the disinfection by-product formation during oxidative water treatment. In this study, species-specific and/or apparent second order rate constants and mechanisms for the reactions of bromine and chlorine have been determined for various phenolic compounds (phenol, resorcinol, catechol, hydroquinone, phloroglucinol, bisphenol A, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, hesperetin and tannic acid) and flavone. The reactivity of bromine with phenolic compounds is very high, with apparent second order rate constants at pH 7 in the range of 10(4) to 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The highest value was recorded for the reaction between HOBr and the fully deprotonated resorcinol (k = 2.1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)). The reactivity of phenolic compounds is enhanced by the activating character of the phenolic substituents, e.g. further hydroxyl groups. With the data set from this study, the ratio between the species-specific rate constants for the reactions of chlorine versus bromine with phenolic compounds was confirmed to be about 3000. Phenolic compounds react with bromine or chlorine either by oxidation (electron transfer, ET) or electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) processes. The dominant process mainly depends on the relative position of the hydroxyl substituents and the possibility of quinone formation. While phenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and bisphenol A undergo EAS, hydroquinone, catechol, gallic acid and tannic acid, with hydroxyl substituents in ortho or para positions, react with bromine by ET leading to quantitative formation of the corresponding quinones. Some compounds (e.g. phloroglucinol) show both partial oxidation and partial electrophilic aromatic substitution and the ratio observed for the pathways depends on the pH. For the reaction of six NOM extracts with bromine, electrophilic aromatic substitution

  7. Microdialysis as a New Technique for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzu, Gianfranco; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Dore, Antonio; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The amount and composition of the phenolic components play a major role in determining the quality of olive oil. The traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method requires a time-consuming sample preparation to obtain the "phenolic profile" of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). This study aimed to develop a microdialysis extraction (MDE) as an alternative to the LLE method to evaluate the phenolic components of EVOO. To this purpose, a microdialysis device and dialysis procedure were developed. "Dynamic-oil" microdialysis was performed using an extracting solution (80:20 methanol/water) flow rate of 2 μL min(-1) and a constant EVOO stream of 4 μL min(-1). The results indicated a strong positive correlation between MDE and the LLE method, providing a very similar phenolic profile obtained with traditional LLE. In conclusion, the MDE approach, easier and quicker in comparison to LLE, provided a reliable procedure to determine the phenolic components used as a marker of the quality and traceability of EVOO.

  8. Optimization of Multistage Extraction of Olive Leaves for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds at Moderated Temperatures and Short Extraction Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to improve the recovery of polyphenols from olive leaves (OL by optimizing a multistage extraction scheme; provided that the olive leaves have been previously steam blanched. The maximum total phenol content expressed in ppm caffeic acid equivalents was obtained at pH 2, particle size 0.315 mm, solid-liquid ratio 1:7 and aqueous ethanol concentration 70% (v/v. The optimum duration time of each extraction stage and the operation temperature, were chosen based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of oleuropein (OLE, verbascoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. The optimum conditions for multistage extraction were 30 min total extraction time (10 min × 3 stages at 85 °C. The 80% of the total yield of polyphenols was obtained at the 1st stage of the extraction. The total extraction yield of oleuropein was found 23 times higher (103.1 mg OLE/g dry weight (d.w. OL compared to the yield (4.6 mg OLE/g d.w. OL obtained by the conventional extraction method (40 °C, 48 h. However, from an energetic and hence from an economical point of view it is preferable to work at 40 °C, since the total extraction yield of polyphenolic compounds was only 17% higher for a double increase in the operating temperature (i.e., 85 °C.

  9. Effect of storage conditions on the biological activity of phenolic compounds of blueberry extract packed in glass bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anita; Akoh, Casimir C; Yi, Weiguang; Fischer, Joan; Krewer, Gerard

    2007-04-04

    Recent research suggests that blueberries are rich in total polyphenols and total anthocyanins. Phenolic compounds are highly unstable and may be lost during processing, particularly when heat treatment is involved. There is no systematic study available providing information on the fate of phenolic compounds during storage and how that affects their biological activity. We provide a systematic evaluation of the changes observed in total polyphenols (TPP), total anthocyanins (TACY), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), phenolic acids, and individual anthocyanins of blueberry extract stored in glass bottles and the ability of blueberry extract to inhibit cell proliferation. The extract was stored at different temperatures (-20 +/- 1, 6 +/- 1, 23 +/- 1, and 35 +/- 1 degrees C). Two cultivars, Tifblue and Powderblue, were chosen for the study. The recoveries of TPP, TACY, and TEAC in blueberry extract after pressing and heating were approximately 25, approximately 29, and approximately 69%, respectively, for both cultivars. The recovery of gallic acid, catechin, and quercetin was approximately 25%. Ferulic acid was not detected in the final extract in both Tifblue and Powderblue cultivars. The recovery of peonidin, malvidin, and cyanidin glycosides was approximately 20% in the final extract in both cultivars. Losses due to storage were less when compared with initial losses due to processing. At -20 degrees C, no statistically significant loss of TPP, TACY, and TEAC was observed up to 30 days (P blueberry extract in order to retain the bioactive components.

  10. Effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Jianjun; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Li, Yin; Shan, Lianju; Lin, Yan; Fan, Wei; Gu, Guoxian

    2006-09-20

    Four kinds of solvent extracts from three Chinese barley varieties (Ken-3, KA4B, and Gan-3) were used to examine the effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley through free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity, and individual and total phenolic contents. Results showed that extraction solvent mixtures had significant impacts on antioxidant activity estimation, as well as different extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley. The highest DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities and reducing power were found in 80% acetone extracts, whereas the strongest *OH scavenging activity, O2*- scavenging activity, and metal chelating activity were found in 80% ethanol, 80% methanol, and water extracts, respectively. Additionally, 80% acetone showed the highest extraction capacity for (+)-catechin and ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acids, 80% methanol for (-)-epicatechin and syringic acid, and water for protocatechuic and gallic acids. Furthermore, correlations analysis revealed that TPC, reducing power, DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities were well positively correlated with each other (p antioxidant activity, 80% acetone was recommended to extract free phenolic compounds from barley. DPPH* scavenging activity and ABTS*+ scavenging activity or reducing power could be used to assess barley antioxidant activity.

  11. Identification and characterization of phenolic compounds in hydromethanolic extracts of sorghum wholegrains by LC-ESI-MS(n).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Ashton, John; Tapsell, Linda C; Johnson, Stuart

    2016-11-15

    Hydromethanolic extracts of brown, red, and white sorghum whole grains were analysed by LC-MS(n) in negative ESI mode within the range m/z 150-550amu. Besides the flavonoids already reported in sorghum, a number of flavonoids were also identified in the sorghum grain for the first time, including flavanones, flavonols and flavanonols, and flavan-3-ol derivatives. Various phenylpropane glycerides were also found in the sorghum grain, the majority of them are reported here for the first time, and a few of them were detected with abundant peaks in the extracts, indicating they are another important class of phenolic compounds in sorghum. In addition, phenolamides were also found in sorghum grain, which have not been reported before, and dicaffeoyl spermidine was detected in high abundance in the extracts of all three type sorghum grains. These results confirmed that sorghum is a rich source of various phenolic compounds.

  12. Wild Roman chamomile extracts and phenolic compounds: enzymatic assays and molecular modelling studies with VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Froufe, Hugo J C; Abreu, Rui M V; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process by which new blood vessels are formed from the pre-existing vasculature, and it is a key process that leads to tumour development. Some studies have recognized phenolic compounds as chemopreventive agents; flavonoids, in particular, seem to suppress the growth of tumor cells modifying the cell cycle. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L.) extracts (methanolic extract and infusion) and the main phenolic compounds present (apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside) was evaluated through enzymatic assays using the tyrosine kinase intracellular domain of the Vascular Endothelium Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), which is a transmembrane receptor expressed fundamentally in endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis, and molecular modelling studies. The methanolic extract showed a lower IC50 value (concentration that provided 50% of VEGFR-2 inhibition) than the infusion, 269 and 301 μg mL(-1), respectively. Regarding phenolic compounds, luteolin and apigenin showed the highest capacity to inhibit the phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, leading us to believe that these compounds are involved in the activity revealed by the methanolic extract.

  13. Further antinociceptive properties of extracts and phenolic compounds from Plinia glomerata (Myrtaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Luiz Gustavo; Santos, Diogo; Serafin, Cláudia; Malheiros, Angela; Delle Monache, Franco; Delle Monache, Giuliano; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Souza, Márcia Maria

    2008-02-01

    This study describes the antinociceptive activity of extracts (methanolic (ME) and acetonic (AE)) and two phenolic compounds, 3,4,3'-trimethoxyflavellagic acid (1) and 3,4,3'-trimethoxy flavellagic acid 4'-O-glucoside (2), from Plinia glomerata leaves, against different experimental models of pain in mice. When evaluated against writhing test, by i.p. route, ME and AE presented calculated ID(50) values (and respective confidence interval) of 3.28 (1.63-6.61) and 24.79 (16.57-37.09) mg/kg, respectively. Given by the oral route at 500 mg/kg, AE and ME extracts inhibited the abdominal constrictions by 60.5% and 35.3%, respectively. In the formalin test (10 mg/kg, i.p.), AE inhibited both phases of pain (45.6% in the first phase; 99.8% in the second phase) whereas ME inhibited 47.8% the first phase, and 92.6% the second phase. In the capsaicin test both extracts showed activity, with calculated ID(50) values of 6.56 (5.69-7.56) and 7.68 (4.94-11.93) mg/kg for AE and ME, respectively. When evaluated against the hot-plate test, both extracts demonstrated activity, but only in high doses. Compound 2, when evaluated against the formalin test (10 mg/kg, i.p.), inhibited both phases of pain (77.6%, first phase; 62%, second phase) whereas 1 inhibited only the first phase, with inhibition of 70%. When tested in the capsaicin and glutamate tests, at 10 mg/kg, i.p., 1 and 2 caused inhibitions of 41.5% and 37.9%, and 37.7% and 54.5%, respectively. These results confirm previous studies carried out by our research group regarding the antinociceptive properties of P. glomerata, stimulating other studies on mechanism of action as well as the determination of additional active principles in this plant.

  14. Enhanced production and extraction of phenolic compounds from wheat by solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012

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    Tapati Bhanja Dey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant phenolic compounds (PCs are gaining popularity day by day for their health promoting properties. Wheat is a very good source of natural antioxidant PCs. In the present study, extraction of PCs was improved by solid-state fermentation (SSF of wheat by Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012 which helped to release the bound compounds from matrix. Different extraction conditions such as solvent composition (water, methanol, 70% methanol, ethanol, 70% ethanol, acetone and 70% acetone, extraction temperature (30–60 °C, extraction time (15–90 min and solid-to-solvent ratio (1:2.5 to 1:20, w/v have been optimized for the extraction of PCs from R. oryzae fermented wheat. Maximum PCs were extracted by water at 40 °C within 45 min with solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:15 (w/v. Compositional analysis of PCs was carried out by UPLC and TLC. Improved ABTS·−+ [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacities, ferric reducing property and in vivo antioxidant capacity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae were observed in case of freeze-dried water extract of fermented wheat as compared to unfermented sample. Hence, SSF could be a promising technology to enhance the production and extraction of phenolic compounds for the design of different functional foods and for the specific use as nutraceuticals.

  15. Surfactant-based ionic liquids for extraction of phenolic compounds combined with rapid quantification using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangzhi; Berton, Paula; Lu, Chengfei; Siraj, Noureen; Wang, Chun; Magut, Paul K S; Warner, Isiah M

    2014-09-01

    A rapid liquid phase extraction employing a novel hydrophobic surfactant-based room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), tetrabutylphosphonium dioctyl sulfosuccinate ([4C4 P][AOT]), coupled with capillary electrophoretic-UV (CE-UV) detection is developed for removal and determination of phenolic compounds. The long-carbon-chain RTIL used is sparingly soluble in most solvents and can be used to replace volatile organic solvents. This fact, in combination with functional-surfactant-anions, is proposed to reduce the interfacial energy of the two immiscible liquid phases, resulting in highly efficient extraction of analytes. Several parameters that influence the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, RTIL type, pH value, and ionic strength of aqueous solutions, were investigated. It was found that, under acidic conditions, most of the investigated phenols were extracted from aqueous solution into the RTIL phase within 12 min. Good linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.1-80.0 μg/mL for all phenols investigated. The precision of this method, expressed as RSD, was determined to be within 3.4-5.3% range. The LODs (S/N = 3) of the method were in the range of 0.047-0.257 μg/mL. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to determination of phenols in real water samples.

  16. Simultaneous extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in Eclipta prostrata using microwave-assisted extraction combined with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Jianhua; Hao, Jifu; Li, Xueke; Guo, Ning

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) combined with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS for the simultaneous extraction, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds in Eclipta prostrata, a common herb and vegetable in China. The optimized parameters of MAE were: employing 50% ethanol as solvent, microwave power 400 W, temperature 70 °C, ratio of liquid/solid 30 mL/g and extraction time 2 min. Compared to conventional extraction methods, the optimized MAE can avoid the degradation of the phenolic compounds and simultaneously obtained the highest yields of all components faster with less consumption of solvent and energy. Six phenolic acids, six flavonoid glycosides and one coumarin were firstly identified. The phenolic compounds were quantified by HPLC-DAD with good linearity, precision, and accuracy. The extract obtained by MAE showed significant antioxidant activity. The proposed method provides a valuable and green analytical methodology for the investigation of phenolic components in natural plants.

  17. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evalua...

  18. Profiling of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Dry Extracts from the Selected Sorbus Species

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    Piotr Michel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant efficiency of dry extracts from inflorescences and/or leaves of seven Sorbus species was studied using four in vitro tests of SET (single electron transfer and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer mechanisms. The 70% methanol extracts and its diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were tested in parallel with the phenolic standards, e.g., caffeic acid, quercetin, BHA, BHT, and TroloxÒ. The SET-type activity of the extracts depended primarily on the extraction solvent. The most valuable extracts were n-butanol and ethyl acetate ones, which activity was high in the DPPH (EC50 = 3.2–5.2 μg/mL, TEAC (2.8–4.0 mmol Trolox®/g, and FRAP (9.8–13.7 mmol Fe2+/g tests, and strongly correlated with the total phenolic levels (39.6–58.2% of gallic acid equivalents. The HPLC-PDA analysis of the extracts led to the identification of chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, and sexangularetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside as the main components. Apart from flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids, proanthocyanidins have also a significant impact on the SET-type activity. The HAT-reactivity of the extracts in the linoleic acid peroxidation test (IC50 = 36.9–228.3 μg/mL depended more strongly on the plant tissue than on the extraction solvent, and its correlation with the phenolic content was weak. Both SET and HAT-type activity of the most potent Sorbus extracts was comparable with the activity of the standards, indicating their great potential as effective sources for health products.

  19. Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauha, J P; Remes, S; Heinonen, M; Hopia, A; Kähkönen, M; Kujala, T; Pihlaja, K; Vuorela, H; Vuorela, P

    2000-05-25

    Plant phenolics, especially dietary flavonoids, are currently of growing interest owing to their supposed functional properties in promoting human health. Antimicrobial screening of 13 phenolic substances and 29 extracts prepared from Finnish plant materials against selected microbes was conducted in this study. The tests were carried out using diffusion methods with four to nine microbial species (Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Flavone, quercetin and naringenin were effective in inhibiting the growth of the organisms. The most active plant extracts were purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) against Candida albicans, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.), willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium L.), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) against bacteria, and white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum. L.) against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Effect of different extracting solvents on antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of a fruit and vegetable residue flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica C. P. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify antioxidant capacity in food products, several methods have been proposed over the years. Among them, DPPH radical is widely used to determine the antioxidant capacity of different substrates. However, it is known that different types of extractants, providing different responses, can extract a variety of bioactive compounds. Besides, storage time seems to interfere in the stability of these substances. Integral use of fruits and vegetables has been proposed along the years as a means of reducing environmental pollution and give a better destination to by-products from food industries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of a fruit and vegetables residue flour (FVR with sequential and non-sequential extraction, in order to evaluate its antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds. And these compounds stability during storage of 180 days. It was observed that in non-sequential extraction, water was able to reduce by 74% the radical; however, at sequential extraction process, using six different extractors, each one was able to reduce at least 40% of DPPH. The total soluble phenolic contents in sequential extraction were 22.49 ± 1.59 mg GAE/g FVR on the first day and 5.35 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g FVR after 180 days.

  1. Surveying the Effect of the Phenol Compounds on Antibacterial Activity of Herbal Extracts: In vitro Assessment of Herbal Extracts in Fasa-Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Due to increase in  bacterial drug resistance, discovering new antibacterial compounds is really important. The objective of this study is to evaluate the phenol compounds effect on antibacterial activity of herbal extracts of Fasa-Fars province in vitro. Materials & Methods: The antibacterial activity of 26 plants was studied by disk diffusion, well, and MIC methods in compare with 13 standard antibiotics against S. aureus and E. coli as control bacteria. Measurement of phenol compounds were performed by Seevers and Daly colorimetric methods using Folin-ciocalteu indicator. Results: Inhibition zone of bacterial growth  against S. aureus in well and disk methods were 32 and 22 mm in using Zataria multiflora, respectively .And there were 23 and 16 mm against E. coli in Zataria multiflora, respectively. Less effects and inhibition zones, less than 15mm on both strains, were seen in using  Saturina hortensis, Cinamomum zeylanicum, ­Artemisia absinthium, ­Urtica dioica, Carum carvi L. cyminum Cuminum, Achillea fragrantissimia, Marticaria chamomilla, Zingiber officinale, Origanum majorana, and Plantago psyllium. Most effective MIC results, 7.8 µg/ml, were related to the extracts of Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum L. Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Laurus nobilis L. Phenol compound amounts were approximately between 66.51±1.9 and 233.15±5.1 mg/gr extract in Zataria multiflora and Plantago psyllium, respectively. Conclusion: Results of antibacterial activity of extracts and relation with phenol compound amounts indicate the antibacterial effect of phenol compounds in herbal extracts.

  2. Solid-phase/supercritical-fluid extraction for liquid chromatography of phenolic compounds in freshwater microalgae and selected cyanobacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejdus, B; Kopecký, J; Benesová, L; Vacek, J

    2009-01-30

    In the present paper a new extraction technique based on the combination of solid-phase/supercritical-fluid extraction (SPE/SFE) with subsequent reversed-phase HPLC is described. The SPE/SFE extractor was originally constructed from SPE-cartridge incorporated into the SFE extraction cell. Selected groups of benzoic acid derivatives (p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, gallic, vanillic and syringic acid), hydroxybenzaldehydes (4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde) and cinnamic acid derivatives (o-coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, sinapic and chlorogenic acid) were extracted. Cyclic addition of binary extraction solvent system based on methanol:water (1:1, v/v) and methanol/ammonia aqueous solution was used for extraction at 40MPa and 80 degrees C. The p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, caffeic and chlorogenic acid; 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde were identified by HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry in SPE/SFE extracts of acid hydrolyzates of microalga (Spongiochloris spongiosa) and cyanobacterial strains (Spirulina platensis, Anabaena doliolum, Nostoc sp., and Cylindrospermum sp.). For the identification and quantification of the compounds the quasi-molecular ions [M-H](-) and specific fragments were analysed by quadrupole mass spectrometry analyzer. Our analysis showed that the microalgae and cyanobacteria usually contained phenolic acids or aldehydes at microg levels per gram of lyophilized sample. The proposed SPE/SFE extraction method would be useful for the analysis of different plant species containing trace amount of polar fraction of phenols.

  3. Melilotus albus and Dorycnium herbaceum extracts as source of phenolic compounds and their antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antioxidant potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgica D. Stefanović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Melilotus albus Medic. and Dorycnium herbaceum Vill. (Fabaceae acetone, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antioxidant activity with quantification of phenolic compound contents. In general, D. herbaceum extracts showed better antibacterial and antioxidant activity than M. albus extracts. Bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis were the most susceptible with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, determined by microdilution method, between 1.25–10 mg/mL. Antifungal activity was lower with the detectable MICs at 10 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL. The plant extracts, using the crystal violet assay, inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm formation in concentration range from 5 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL whereas the effect on mature bacterial biofilm was lower. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals scavenging and reducing power model systems. The intensity of DPPH radicals scavenging activity, expressed as half maximal effective concentration (EC50 values, was from 84.33 μg/mL to >1000 μg/mL. The extracts demonstrated reduced power in a concentration-dependent manner, with ethanol extract as the most active. The total phenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins were determined spectrophotometrically while total extractable tannins were obtained by precipitation method. The phenolic compounds showed differences in their total contents depending on solvents polarities and plant species. Although the plants M. albus and D. herbaceum have not yet been fully explored, these results contribute better understanding of their biotic properties and potential application as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  4. Determination of phenolic compounds in wines by novel matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuti, Lucio; Pellegrino, Roberto

    2008-03-21

    A novel matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction method was developed to extract simultaneously 23 phenolic compounds from wine samples prior to determination by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode. Different parameters of the MSPD technique such as dispersant solid-phase, eluting solvent, and sample ionic strength and pH were optimized. The optimized MSPD procedure requires a small volume of wine (1 mL), commercial silica gel (1.5 g) as dispersant solid-phase and a small volume of ethyl acetate (5 mL) as eluting solvent. Under these conditions, the extraction of the studied compounds was almost complete (mean values of recoveries between 87 and 109%) in a short time (15 min). Moreover, satisfactory standard deviations of repeatability (RSD0.993) and detection limits (wines. Application was illustrated by analysis of different wine samples.

  5. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of grape canes extracts from vineyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Y.; Zhang, A.; Fang, Y.; Liu, M.; Zhao, X.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-11-01

    Grape canes are the main agro-wastes from vineyards. This work studied the antioxidant activities of the defatted methanolic extracts (ME) of canes from 11 genotypes: 5 Vitis vinifera widely known cultivars and 6 Chinese wild varieties from three species (V. amurensis, V. davidii, and V. pentagona) and the antioxidant activities of the ME’s chloroform fractions (CF), ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) and water fractions (WF). Among ME and its three fractions, EAF’s total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) were the highest, at 586 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent and 320 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively. The antioxidant power of the fractions/extracts was in the order EAF > ME > WF > CF, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging power and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity, while the order was EAF > CF > WF >ME based on the β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching activity. Methanolic extracts demonstrated the strongest Fe2+-chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions generally correlated with the TPC and TFC in all assays, except with the Fe2+-chelating test. Grape canes from V. davidii had the highest TPC, TFC and antioxidant activities compared with those from other grape species. Catechin, epicatechin and trans-resveratrol were the predominant phenolic components of fractions/extracts. In light of these valuable bioactivities, grape canes from annual pruning practice considered as waste material have good commercial potential for utilization as a promising natural antioxidant in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, given its low cost and availability in large amounts. (Author)

  6. Extraction and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Rose Hip (Rosa canina L. Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea STĂNILĂ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild berry are a rich of natural compounds which provide them high antioxidant potential. The compounds which provide them these proprieties are known to be vitamins, flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The aim of this study was to extract and characterize bioactive compounds from rose hip (Rosa canina L. currently found in Romania. A qualitative high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS detection in positive ion mode has been used to identify phenolic compounds from rose hip crude extract. The chromatograms revealed the presence of a large number of compounds (19, identified and grouped as phenolic acids and flavones/ols, flavan-3-ols and also anthocyanins. Based on obtained results these berries can be highly recommended as part of our diet. Also this finding represents a contribution to the chemical characterization of phenolic profile of rose hip.

  7. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts for re-use in agriculture obtained by different extraction techniques: phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2014-11-12

    Vine-shoots are an important waste in all viticulture areas that should be re-used with innovative applications. The aim of this work was to produce Airén waste vine-shoot aqueous extracts by four solid-liquid extraction techniques such as conventional solid-liquid extraction (CSLE), solid-liquid dynamic extraction (SLDE-Naviglio), microwave extraction (ME), and pressurized solvent extraction (PSE). Their chemical composition was studied in terms of phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds. The highest concentrated extracts corresponded to CSLE and SLDE-Naviglio, independent of the conditions tested. The CSLE extracts had the highest flavanols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes contents. The volatile composition, quantified for first time in this work, shows that furanic compounds were the most abundant. All extracts showed an interesting mineral content, which may be assimilated by plants. These results show the agricultural potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as grape biostimulants and/or foliar fertilizer.

  8. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim was modeled using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to optimize three extraction variables, including ethanol concentration (X 1), extraction time (X 2), and ratio of aqueous ethanol to raw material (X 3), for the achievement of high extraction yield of the phenolic compounds. The optimized conditions are X 1 of 50% (v/v), X 2 of 27.5 min, and X 3 of 250 mL/g. Und...

  9. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves by multiresponse surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at studying the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) by multi-response surface methodology (RSM) to test their efficiency towards the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves. The extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TF), DPPH scavenging method and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay were considered as response variables while effects of extraction time, percentage of ethanol, and temperature were studied. Extraction time of 20 min, 42% ethanol and 158°C were the MAE optimum conditions for achieving extraction yield of 26 ± 2%, EC50 15 ± 2 μg/mL, 16 ± 1 Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 5.2 ± 0.5 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 86 ± 4 mg GAE/g dry leaf. Regarding PLE, the optimum conditions that allowed extraction yield of 56 ± 2%, EC50 21 ± 3 μg/mL, 12 ± 2 mmol Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 6.5 ± 0.2 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 59 ± 6 mg GAE/g dry leaf were 128°C, 35% of ethanol, and 20 min. PLE enabled the extraction of phenolic compounds with a higher number of hydroxyl-type substituents such as kaempferol diglycoside and its acetyl derivatives and those that are sensitive to high temperatures (glucosinolates or amino acids) while MAE allowed better recoveries of kaempferol, quercetin, and their glucosides derivatives.

  10. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Exotic Gordonia axillaris Fruit: Optimization and Identification of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Lin, Sheng-Jun; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-09-06

    Our previous study reported that the fruit of Gordonia axillaris , an edible wild fruit, possessed strong antioxidant activity. In this study, a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was established to extract antioxidants from the fruit of Gordonia axillaris . The influence of five parameters, including ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature and microwave power, was investigated by single-factor experiments. Three factors, namely ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, were found to exert a major influence on extraction efficacy, and were further studied by response surface methodology to investigate their interactions. Ethanol concentration of 36.89%, solvent/material ratio of 29.56 mL/g, extraction time of 71.04 min, temperature of 40 °C, and microwave power of 400 W were found to be the optimal condition. The TEAC value was 198.16 ± 5.47 µmol Trolox/g DW under the optimal conditions, which was in conformity to the predicted value (200.28 µmol Trolox/g DW). In addition, the MAE method was compared with two conventional methods (Soxhlet extraction and maceration extraction). Results showed that the antioxidant capacity of the extract obtained by MAE method was stronger than that obtained by maceration (168.67 ± 3.88 µmol Trolox/g DW) or Soxhlet extraction (114.09 ± 2.01 µmol Trolox/g DW). Finally, several phenolic compounds in the extract were identified and quantified by UPLC-MS/MS, which were rutin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, 2-hydrocinnamic acid, p -coumaric acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid.

  11. Variation in phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and color in red wine treated with enzymatic extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemolini-Barreto, Luciani Tatsch; Zacaria, Jucimar; Delamare, Ana Paula Longaray; Antonio, Regina Vasconcellos; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    The effect of the addition of enzymatic extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL-Y-7571 during the maceration and fermentation steps of Cabernet Sauvignon wine production was evaluated. The results obtained in the analytical determinations of the wines showed levels within the limits established by legislation and similar to values found in other studies. The results show that by adding the enzyme to the red wines these showed color characteristics considered to be superior to those of the control wine and accelerated the extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. It was observed that by using the commercial enzyme preparation there was an increase of 15 % in polyphenol content compared to the control wine and an increase of 28 % when the crude enzyme extract was used. Anthocyanin content in the wine increased after treatment with the commercial enzyme preparation (10 %) and with the use of the crude enzymatic extract (22 %). Considering all comparison criteria, the K. marxianus enzymatic extract showed results statistically similar or superior to those obtained with the commercial enzyme preparation.

  12. Effect of in Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated Phenolic Compounds of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Pulp Extracts and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydjedd, Siham; Bouriche, Sihem; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Sánchez-Moya, Teresa; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Rezgui, Farouk; Louaileche, Hayette; Kati, Djamel-Edine

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the release and antioxidant capacity of encapsulated and nonencapsulated phenolics carob pulp extracts, unripe and ripe carob pulp extracts were microencapsulated with polycaprolactone via double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. Microcapsules' characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. Total phenolics and flavonoids content and antioxidant activities (ORAC, DPPH, and FRAP) were evaluated after each digestion step. The release of phenolic acids and flavonoids was measured along the digestion process by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The most important phenolics and flavonoids content as well as antioxidant activities were observed after gastric and intestinal phases for nonencapsulated and encapsulated extracts, respectively. The microencapsulation of carob polyphenols showed a protective effect against pH changes and enzymatic activities along digestion, thereby promoting a controlled release and targeted delivery of the encapsulated compound, which contributed to an increase in its bioaccessibility in the gut.

  13. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Hou, Yingying; Tang, Guosheng; Cai, Enbo; Liu, Shuangli; Yang, He; Zhang, Lianxue; Wang, Shijie

    2014-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim was modeled using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to optimize three extraction variables, including ethanol concentration (X 1), extraction time (X 2), and ratio of aqueous ethanol to raw material (X 3), for the achievement of high extraction yield of the phenolic compounds. The optimized conditions are X 1 of 50% (v/v), X 2 of 27.5 min, and X 3 of 250 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield is 4.29 ± 0.033% (n = 3). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). And it indicates that the phenolic compounds from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim possess significant antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis reveals that the main phenolic compound in the extract product was identified as gallic acid, catechin (Cianidanol), p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, ferulaic acid, rutin, benzoic acid, and quercetin.

  14. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim was modeled using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Design (CCD was employed to optimize three extraction variables, including ethanol concentration (X1, extraction time (X2, and ratio of aqueous ethanol to raw material (X3, for the achievement of high extraction yield of the phenolic compounds. The optimized conditions are X1 of 50% (v/v, X2 of 27.5 min, and X3 of 250 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield is 4.29 ± 0.033% (n=3. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. And it indicates that the phenolic compounds from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim possess significant antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis reveals that the main phenolic compound in the extract product was identified as gallic acid, catechin (Cianidanol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, ferulaic acid, rutin, benzoic acid, and quercetin.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-based micellar extraction combined with microcrystalline cellulose as sorbent in dispersive microextraction for the determination of phenolic compounds in propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun; Peng, Li-Qing; Du, Li-Jing; Zhang, Qi-Dong; Xu, Jing-Jing

    2017-04-22

    An ionic liquid-(IL) based micellar extraction combined with microcrystalline cellulose- (MCC) assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction method was developed to extract phenolic compounds from propolis. A total of 20 target compounds were identified by ultra-high- performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The main extraction parameters were optimized and included the ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, sample pH, type of IL, the concentration of [C12mim]Br, extraction time, concentration of MCC, type of sorbent and type of elution solvents. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method exhibited good linearities (r(2) ≥ 0.999) for all plant phenolic compounds with the lower limits of detection in the range of 0.21-0.41 ng/mL. The recoveries ranged from 82.74% to 97.88% for pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. Compared with conventional solvent extraction, the present method was simpler and more efficient and required less organic solvent and a shorter extraction time. Finally, the methodology was successfully used for the extraction and enrichment of phenolic compounds in propolis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from purple sweet potato using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Guan, Qingyan; Guo, Ying; He, Jingren; Liu, Gang; Li, Shuyi; Barba, Francisco J.; Jaffrin, Michel Y.

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize experimental conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of valuable components (anthocyanins and phenolics) from purple sweet potatoes using water as a solvent. The Box-Behnken design was used for optimizing extraction responses of anthocyanin extraction yield, phenolic extraction yield, and specific energy consumption. Conditions to obtain maximal anthocyanin extraction yield, maximal phenolic extraction yield, and minimal specific energy consumption were different; an overall desirability function was used to search for overall optimal conditions: extraction temperature of 68ºC, ultrasonic treatment time of 52 min, and a liquid/solid ratio of 20. The optimized anthocyanin extraction yield, phenolic extraction yield, and specific energy consumption were 4.91 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight, 3.24 mg g-1 fresh weight, and 2.07 kWh g-1, respectively, with a desirability of 0.99. This study indicates that ultrasound-assisted extraction should contribute to a green process for valorization of purple sweet potatoes.

  17. Encapsulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds extracted from spent coffee grounds by freeze-drying and spray-drying using different coating materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Ramirez, Monica J.; Orrego, Carlos E.

    2017-01-01

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques were evaluated for encapsulation of phenolic compounds (PC) extracted from spent coffee grounds. Additionally, the use of maltodextrin, 29 gum arabic and a mixture of these components (ratio 1:1) as wall material to retain the PC and preserve...

  18. Kinetic modeling of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from grape marc: influence of acoustic energy density and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Zhang, Zhihang; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-07-01

    The effects of acoustic energy density (6.8-47.4 W/L) and temperature (20-50 °C) on the extraction yields of total phenolics and tartaric esters during ultrasound-assisted extraction from grape marc were investigated in this study. The ultrasound treatment was performed in a 25-kHz ultrasound bath system and the 50% aqueous ethanol was used as the solvent. The initial extraction rate and final extraction yield increased with the increase of acoustic energy density and temperature. The two site kinetic model was used to simulate the kinetics of extraction process and the diffusion model based on the Fick's second law was employed to determine the effective diffusion coefficient of phenolics in grape marc. Both models gave satisfactory quality of data fit. The diffusion process was divided into one fast stage and one slow stage and the diffusion coefficients in both stages were calculated. Within the current experimental range, the diffusion coefficients of total phenolics and tartaric esters for both diffusion stages increased with acoustic energy density. Meanwhile, the rise of temperature also resulted in the increase of diffusion coefficients of phenolics except the diffusion coefficient of total phenolics in the fast stage, the value of which being the highest at 40 °C. Moreover, an empirical equation was suggested to correlate the effective diffusion coefficient of phenolics in grape marc with acoustic energy density and temperature. In addition, the performance comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction and convention methods demonstrates that ultrasound is an effective and promising technology to extract bioactive substances from grape marc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Walnut Phenolic Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Regulating Colon Cancer Stemness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisoo Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-CSCs potential of walnut phenolic extract (WPE and its bioactive compounds, including (+-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid. In the present study, CD133+CD44+ cells were isolated from HCT116 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS and then treated with WPE. As a result, survival of the CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells was inhibited and cell differentiation was induced by WPE. In addition, WPE down-regulated the CSC markers, CD133, CD44, DLK1, and Notch1, as well as the β-catenin/p-GSK3β signaling pathway. WPE suppressed the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Furthermore, the WPE exhibited stronger anti-CSC effects than its individual bioactive compounds. Finally, the WPE inhibited specific CSC markers in primary colon cancer cells isolated from primary colon tumor. These results suggest that WPE can suppress colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of colon CSCs.

  20. Walnut Phenolic Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Regulating Colon Cancer Stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jisoo; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, JaeHwan; Heo, Seung Chul; Lee, Kook Lae; Choi, Sang-Woon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-07-21

    Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs) which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-CSCs potential of walnut phenolic extract (WPE) and its bioactive compounds, including (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid. In the present study, CD133⁺CD44⁺ cells were isolated from HCT116 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and then treated with WPE. As a result, survival of the CD133⁺CD44⁺ HCT116 cells was inhibited and cell differentiation was induced by WPE. In addition, WPE down-regulated the CSC markers, CD133, CD44, DLK1, and Notch1, as well as the β-catenin/p-GSK3β signaling pathway. WPE suppressed the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Furthermore, the WPE exhibited stronger anti-CSC effects than its individual bioactive compounds. Finally, the WPE inhibited specific CSC markers in primary colon cancer cells isolated from primary colon tumor. These results suggest that WPE can suppress colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of colon CSCs.

  1. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] kernel cake extracts obtained by sequential extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block, Jane Mara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of different Pecan kernel cake extracts (ether, acetone, alcohol and distilled water were estimated and their antioxidant activities were evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and ß-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Color variations of the Pecan kernel cake were determined through an instrumental analysis using the CIE Lab system. Significantly higher levels (p El contenido de taninos condensado y fenoles totales de diferentes extractos de tortas de almendra de pecana (éter, acetona, alcohol y agua destilada fueron estimados y sus actividades antioxidantes fueron evaluadas mediantes los métodos con ABTS, DPPH y el sistema ß-caroteno/ácido linoleico. Las variaciones de color de la torta de almendra de pecana fueron determinadas mediante análisis instrumental usando el sistema CIE Lab. Los contenidos de fenoles totales, taninos condensados y actividad antioxidante, medida mediante los métodos con ABTS Y DPPH (30 min y 24 h, fueron significativamente más altos (p < 0.05 con el extracto de acetona (16.4 mg GAE/g; 31.2 mg CE/g; 235.3 μmol TEAC/g and 68.6 and 100.3 mg TEAC/g, respectivamente. El porcentaje de inhibición de la oxidación en el sistema ß-caroteno/ ácido linoleico vario desde 37.9 a 93.1% con el extracto de acetona a 300 ppm, mostrando resultados significativamente superiores. Las muestras con una mayor tendencia a tonos rojos presento los niveles más altos de taninos condensados.

  2. The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aguirre Joya Jorge; De La Garza Toledo Heliodoro; Zugasti Cruz Alejandro; Belmares Cerda Ruth; Aguilar Cristbal No

    2013-01-01

    To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. Methods: The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal II experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. Results: It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. Conclusions: It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries.

  3. The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Aguirre Joya; Heliodoro, De La Garza Toledo; Alejandro, Zugasti Cruz; Ruth, Belmares Cerda; Noé, Aguilar Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. Methods The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal II experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. Results It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. Conclusions It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries. PMID:23730555

  4. Optimum Conditions for Microwave Assisted Extraction for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla Skin Waste Using Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dailey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop optimal microwave assisted extraction conditions for recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from the macadamia skin, an abundant waste source from the macadamia industry. Water, a safe, accessible, and inexpensive solvent, was used as the extraction solvent and Response Surface Methodology (RSM was applied to design and analyse the conditions for microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. The results showed that RSM models were reliable for the prediction of extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. Within the tested ranges, MAE radiation time and power, as well as the sample-to-solvent ratio, affected the extraction efficiency of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant properties of the macadamia skin; however, the impact of these variables was varied. The optimal MAE conditions for maximum recovery of TPC, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant properties from the macadamia skin were MAE time of 4.5 min, power of 30% (360 W and sample-to-water ratio of 5 g/100 mL. Under these conditions, an extract could be prepared with TPC of 45 mg/g, flavonoids of 29 mg RUE/g of dried macadamia skin.

  5. Effect of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on the levels of phenolic compounds from crude extracts of bark of Spondias luta L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Melo, Mychely S., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: mychely.melo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academinco de Vitoria

    2013-07-01

    Spondias luta L. (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as cajazeira, is a plant widespread in several regions of Brazil, famous for containing phenolic compounds, which are responsible for your characteristic astringent. Ionizing radiations have the ability to cross the material, ionizing atoms and molecules, causing changes in atoms and molecules important. It is known ionizing radiation promotes quantitative and qualitative changes in plant materials, increasing, decreasing or inactivating secondary substances. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation as a modifier of the activity of the phenolic compounds of the bark extract of S. luta L. Methods: For the dosage of phenol extracts (control, irradiated with 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy) were diluted in methanol to a final concentration of 200 mg / L. In test tubes were added 50 μL of extract plus 1 ml of distilled water and 500 μl of Folin (diluted 1:10). After 10 minutes in a dark chamber was added 2.5 ml of calcium carbonate to 20% and the content of the tube was homogenized. After 20 minutes was performed with a spectrophotometer at 735 nm. The assay was performed in triplicate and calculated from a standard curve solution of gallic acid and expressed in μEAG (GAE/mg extract). Results: The control extracts, irradiated to 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy, had, respectively, 6.25, 6.70, 6.25, 6.85, 6.45 μEAG/mg of extract. Conclusion: The results showed no significant change in the amount of phenolic compounds, showing that these compounds are radioresistant extract these doses. (author)

  6. Phenolic compounds present in medicinal mushroom extracts generate reactive oxygen species in human cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, S.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot-water extracts of the higher Basidiomycetes Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach, A. brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Coprinus comatus (O.F. Mull.) Pers., Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst., and Phellinus linteus (Berk. et Curt.) Teng were made, and the resulting polysaccharide mixtures were

  7. Phenolic compounds present in medicinal mushroom extracts generate reactive oxygen species in human cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, S.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot-water extracts of the higher Basidiomycetes Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach, A. brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Coprinus comatus (O.F. Mull.) Pers., Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst., and Phellinus linteus (Berk. et Curt.) Teng were made, and the resulting polysaccharide mixtures were

  8. In Vivo Anti-Candida Activity of Phenolic Extracts and Compounds: Future Perspectives Focusing on Effective Clinical Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Candida species have increasingly deserved a special attention among the medical community. In spite of the presence of Candida species as a human commensal, alarming rates of local and systemic infections have been observed, varying from moderate to severe impact. Currently available antifungal drugs have progressively lost their effectiveness, pointing urgently the problem of the microorganisms with acquired-resistance. Natural matrices are secularly used for numerous purposes, being inclusive and highly effective as antimicrobials. Increasing evidence gives a particular emphasis to the contribution of phenolic extracts and related individual compounds. In vitro studies clearly confirm their prominent effects, but the confirmation through in vivo studies, including the involved mechanisms of action, is not so much deepened. Therefore, the present report aims to provide extensive knowledge about all these aspects, highlighting the most efficient phytochemical formulations, including therapeutic doses. Further studies need to be incited to deepen knowledge on this area, namely, focused on clinical trials to provide safer and more effective antimicrobials than the current ones. PMID:26380266

  9. β-cyclodextrin-bonded silica particles as novel sorbent for stir bar sorptive extraction of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Hakim; Husain, Syed Waqif; Helalizadeh, Masoumeh

    2011-01-01

    A stir bar coated with β-cyclodextrin-bonded-silica (CDS) as novel sorbent has been developed and used to analyze seven phenolic compounds in aqueous samples, followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection. Significant parameters affecting sorption process such as the time and temperature of sorption and desorption, ionic strength, pH and stirring rate have been optimized and discussed. The coating has a high thermal stability up to 300°C and long application lifetime (80 times). The porous structure of CDS coating provides high surface area and allows high extraction efficiency. Under the selected conditions, linearity range of 0.1-400 μg/L, limit of quantifications of 0.08-3.3 μg/L and method detection limits of 0.02-1.00 μg/L have been obtained. A satisfactory repeatability (RSD ≤ 6.5, n = 7) with good linearity (0.9975 ≤ r(2) ≤ 0.9996) of results illustrated a good performance of the present method. The recovery of different natural water samples was higher than 81.5%.

  10. Phenolic characterization of Northeast Portuguese propolis: usual and unusual compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Soraia; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Barros, Cristina; Domingues, M. R. M.; Cardoso, Susana M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an ethanolic extract from Portuguese propolis was prepared, fractionated by highperformance liquid chromatography, and the identification of the phenolic compounds was done by electrospray mass spectrometry in the negative mode. This technical approach allowed the identification of 37 phenolic compounds, which included not only the typical phenolic acids and flavonoids found in propolis from temperate zones but also several compounds in which its occurre...

  11. Phenolic compounds present in Sardinian wine extracts protect against the production of inflammatory cytokines induced by oxysterols in CaCo-2 human enterocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, Fiorella; Guina, Tina; Maina, Marco; Cabboi, Barbara; Deiana, Monica; Tuberoso, Carlo I; Calfapietra, Simone; Chiarpotto, Elena; Sottero, Barbara; Gamba, Paola; Gargiulo, Simona; Brunetto, Vanessa; Testa, Gabriella; Dessì, Maria A; Poli, Giuseppe; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella

    2013-07-01

    Cholesterol auto-oxidation products, namely oxysterols, are widely present in cholesterol-rich foods. They are thought to potentially interfere with homeostasis of the human digestive tract, playing a role in intestinal mucosal damage. This report concerns the marked up-regulation in differentiated CaCo-2 colonic epithelial cells of two key inflammatory interleukins, IL-6 and IL-8, caused by a mixture of oxysterols representative of a high cholesterol diet. This strong pro-inflammatory effect appeared to be dependent on the net imbalance of red-ox equilibrium with the production of excessive levels of reactive oxygen species through the colonic NADPH-oxidase NOX1 activation. Induction of NOX1 was markedly while not fully inhibited by CaCo-2 cell pre-incubation with phenolic extracts obtained from well-selected wines from typical grape varieties grown in Sardinia. Oxysterol-dependent NOX1 activation, as well as interleukin synthesis, were completely prevented by Cannonau red wine extract that contains an abundant phenolic fraction, in particular phenolic acids and flavonoids. Conversely, cell pre-treatment with Vermentino white wine extract with smaller phenolic fraction showed only a partial NOX1 down-regulation and was ineffective in interleukin synthesis induced by dietary oxysterols. It is thus likely that the effects of Sardinian wine extracts against intestinal inflammation induced by dietary oxysterols are mainly due to their high phenolic content: low doses of phenolics would be responsible only for direct scavenging oxysterol-dependent ROS production. Besides this direct activity, an excess of phenolic compounds detectable in red wine, may exert an additional indirect action by blocking oxysterol-related NOX1 induction, thus totally preventing the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory events triggered by dietary oxysterols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative fingerprint and extraction yield of Diospyrus ferrea (willd.) Bakh. root with phenol compounds (gallic acid), as determined by uv-vis and ft-ir spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RVijayalakshmi; RRavindhran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the comparative finger print and extraction yield of D.ferrea root with phenol compound (Gallic acid), as determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy.Method:The UV Vis spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy are adequate techniques to fingerprint comparatively and to evaluate the extraction yield of D.ferrea root extract. The higher extraction yield was recorded in ethanol comparatively superior and richer in phenol (gallic acid). Gallic acid has therapeutic application for inflammatory allergic diseases due to its ability to inhibit histamine. Finger print region was recorded between 500-3500 cm-1 for each extract and functional groups were identified and compared with the standard. Result: The extraction factor was superior in ethanol (270 nm) rich in polar molecules. The FTIR signal at 900, 1500, 1714, 3000, 3100cm-1 considered as a good indicator of phenol (gallic acid).The functional groups of each extract were identified.Conclusion: The UV and FTIR method was validated as a good tool to investigate the finger print and to predict the composition of different root extract of D.ferrea.

  13. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Bulb Extracts of Six Lilium Species Native to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Niu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lily (Lilium is used as an important edible and medical plant species with a vague taxonomic classification and a long history in China. Bulbs of six Lilium species (L. regale, L. concolor, L. pumilum, L. leucanthum, L. davidii var. unicolor and L. lancifolium native to China were investigated with a view to their exploitation as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their phenolic composition and dietary antioxidant potential. The results showed that all bulb extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activities, which generally correlated positively with the total phenolic contents (r = 0.68 to 0.94, total flavonoid contents (r = 0.51 to 0.89 and total flavanol contents (r = 0.54 to 0.95. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis revealed that rutin and kaempferol were the major phenolic components in the extracts. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that L. regale belonged to the group with high phenolic content and strong antioxidant power. L. concolor and L. pumilum were arranged in one group characterized by moderate phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, while L. leucanthum, L. davidii var. unicolor and L. lancifolium were clustered in the third group with low phenolic content and weak antioxidant activity. These strongly suggest that lily bulbs may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  14. Impact of bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolic compounds in biological systems upon the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of Triplaris gardneriana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, José Joaquim Lopes; de Almeida, Thiago Silva; de Medeiros, Jackeline Lima; Vieira, Leonardo Rogério; Moreira, Thaís Borges; Maia, Ana Isabel Vitorino; Ribeiro, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Farias, Davi Felipe; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2017-04-01

    The most studied bioactive potential of phenolic compounds corresponds to antioxidant activity, which in turn, is associated with a reduction in the incidence of various human diseases. However, the total quantity of these bioactive substances in foods and medicinal preparations does not reflect the amount absorbed and metabolized by the body. The present study aimed to investigate the bioaccessibility of Triplaris gardneriana seeds ethanolic extract (EETg) by determination of phenolic composition and antioxidant activities before and after in vitro digestion as well as to estimate its bioavailability by chemical analysis of plasma and urine in animal models after oral administration. The bioaccessibility indexes of phenolic compounds in EETg were 48.65 and 69.28% in the presence and absence of enzymes, respectively. Among the identified phenolics classes, flavonoids, represented by galloylated procyanidins type B, proved to be more bioaccessible, 81.48 and 96.29% in the post-intestinal phase with and without enzymes, respectively. The oral administration in Wistar rats resulted in a significant decrease in plasma of the total antioxidant capacity, TAC, by FRAP assay 4h after beginning the experiment. For urine samples, an increase in TAC by DPPH and FRAP was observed from 1 and 4h after administration, respectively. UPLC-QTOF analysis of urine detected 2 metabolites originated from the degradation of phenolic compounds, i.e. hippuric acid and phenylacetil glycine. These results suggest that phenolic compounds in T. gardneriana are unstable under gastrointestinal conditions, being flavonoids the components with higher bioaccessibility; besides that, they showed limited bioavailability due to their rapid biotransformation and urinary elimination.

  15. Lipid encapsulated phenolic compounds by fluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound present in grain crops and lignocellulose biomass, was encapsulated with saturated triglycerides using a laboratory fluidizer. Stability of t...

  16. Determination of the phenolic content and antioxidant potential of crude extracts and isolated compounds from leaves of Cordia multispicata and Tournefortia bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Da Silva, Thiago B; Souza, Vivian Karoline T; Da Silva, Ana Paula F; Lyra Lemos, Rosangela P; Conserva, Lucia M

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts and four flavonoids isolated from leaves of two Boraginaceae species (Cordia multispicata Cham. and Tournefortia bicolor Sw.) were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, DPPH free radical scavenging and inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid by FTC method. For comparison, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and BHT were used. In general, extracts from T. bicolor (68.8 +/- 0.001 to > 1000 mg/g) showed higher phenolic content than C. multispicata (66.1 +/- 0.009 to 231 +/- 0.07 mg/g), and also scavenged radicals (IC(50) 12.8 +/- 2.5 to 437 +/- 3.5 mg/L) and inhibited lipid peroxide formation (IC(50) 51.2 +/- 2.29 to 89 +/- 0.59 mg/L). For these extracts a good correlation between the phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed, suggesting that T. bicolor is richer in phenolic compounds and that it could serve as a new source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals with potential applications. Chromatographic procedures monitored by antioxidant assays afforded seven compounds, which were identified by spectral analyses (IR, MS and 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with reported data as being trans-phytol (1), taraxerol (2), 3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (4), quercetin (5), tiliroside (6), and rutin (7). Compounds (4-7) were also evaluated and were effective as DPPH quenching (IC(50) 7.7 +/- 3.6 to 79.3 +/- 3.4 mg/L) and as inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC(50) 80.1 +/- 0.98 to 88.7 +/- 3.62 mg/L). This is the first report on the total phenolic content, radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities of these species.

  17. Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

    2014-02-15

    Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimisation of Ultrasonic Conditions as an Advanced Extraction Technique for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla Skin Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dailey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of tons of macadamia skin waste are generated annually with very limited utilisation of this extensive by-product. The aim of this study was to develop optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions for maximized recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Three ultrasonic parameters, including temperature (30–50 °C, time (10–50 min and power (150–250 W, were tested for their impact on the extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant properties. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power had an impact on TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. The optimum ultrasonic conditions for the maximum recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin were found to be a temperature of 40 °C, a time of 35 min and a power of 80%/200 W. Under these optimal conditions, approximately 168 mg of TPC, 135 mg of flavonoids and 188 mg of proanthocyanidins can be extracted from one gram of dried macadamia skin.

  19. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva; Dulce Libna Ambriz-Pérez; Nayely Leyva-López; Ramón Ignacio Castillo-López; José Basilio Heredia

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowled...

  20. Development of a fast extraction method and optimization of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of phenolic compounds in lentil seed coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirali, Mahla; Ambrose, Stephen J; Wood, Stephen A; Vandenberg, Albert; Purves, Randy W

    2014-10-15

    A systematic set of optimization experiments was conducted to design an efficient extraction and analysis protocol for screening six different sub-classes of phenolic compounds in the seed coat of various lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) genotypes. Different compounds from anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, flavanones, flavones, and flavonols sub-classes were first optimized for use as standards for liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with UV detection. The effect of maceration duration, reconstitution solvent, and extraction solvent were investigated using lentil genotype CDC Maxim. Chromatographic conditions were optimized by examining column separation efficiencies, organic composition, and solvent gradient. The results showed that a 1h maceration step was sufficient and that non-acidified solvents were more appropriate; a 70:30 acetone: water (v/v) solvent was ultimately selected. Using a Kinetex PFP column, the organic concentration, gradient, and flow rate were optimized to maximize the resolution of phenolic compounds in a short 30-min analysis time. The optimized method was applied to three lentil genotypes with different phenolic compound profiles to provide information of value to breeding programs.

  1. The Effect of Leonurus sibiricus Plant Extracts on Stimulating Repair and Protective Activity against Oxidative DNA Damage in CHO Cells and Content of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Sitarek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leonurus sibiricus L. has been used as a traditional and medicinal herb for many years in Asia and Europe. This species is known to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity and has demonstrated a reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. All tested extracts of L. sibiricus showed protective and DNA repair stimulating effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells exposed to H2O2. Preincubation of the CHO cells with 0.5 mg/mL of plant extracts showed increased expression level of antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx. LC-MS/MS and HPLC analyses revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds in L. sibiricus plant extracts: catechin, verbascoside, two flavonoids (quercetin and rutin, and five phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. The roots and aerial parts of in vitro L. sibiricus plant extracts, which had the strongest antioxidant properties, may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, as well as protecting DNA via enhanced activation of the antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx regulating intracellular antioxidant capacity. The content of phenolic compounds in in vitro raised plants was greater than the levels found in plants propagated from seeds.

  2. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre L. by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry combined with matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zuofu; Pan, Youzhi; Li, Lu; Huang, Yuyang; Qi, Xiaolin; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie

    2014-11-01

    A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented for the extraction and determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre. This method combines the high efficiency of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and the rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The influential parameters of the matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction were investigated and optimized. The optimized conditions were as follows: silica gel was selected as dispersing sorbent, the ratio of silica gel to sample was selected to be 2:1 (400/200 mg), and 8 mL of 80% methanol was used as elution solvent. Furthermore, a fast and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of nine phenolic compounds in E. palustre. This method was carried out within <6 min, and exhibited satisfactory linearity, precision, and recovery. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction, the proposed matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure possessed higher extraction efficiency, and was more convenient and time saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent amounts. All these results suggest that the developed method represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and determination of active components in plant matrices.

  3. Evaluation of solvent effect on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities from the berries: application of principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeing, Joana Schuelter; Barizão, Erica Oliveira; E Silva, Beatriz Costa; Montanher, Paula Fernandes; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergilio

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the solvent on the extraction of antioxidant compounds from black mulberry (Morus nigra), blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Different extracts of each berry were evaluated from the determination of total phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity, and data were applied to the principal component analysis (PCA) to gain an overview of the effect of the solvent in extraction method. For all the berries analyzed, acetone/water (70/30, v/v) solvent mixture was more efficient solvent in the extracting of phenolic compounds, and methanol/water/acetic acid (70/29.5/0.5, v/v/v) showed the best values for anthocyanin content. Mixtures of ethanol/water (50/50, v/v), acetone water/acetic acid (70/29.5/0.5, v/v/v) and acetone/water (50/50, v/v) presented the highest antioxidant capacities for black mulberries, blackberries and strawberries, respectively. Antioxidants extractions are extremely affected by the solvent combination used. In addition, the obtained extracts with the organic solvent-water mixtures were distinguished from the extracts obtained with pure organic solvents, through the PCA analysis.

  4. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Loreto; Melo, Ricardo; Montero, Ruth; Maisey, Kevin; Mendoza, Leonora

    2017-01-01

    Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria. In this study, synergic interactions between antibiotics and grape pomace extract that contains high concentration of phenolic compounds were evaluated by the checkerboard method in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To define which component of the extract is responsible for the synergic effect, phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC and their relative abundance was determined. Combinations of extract with pure compounds identified there in were also evaluated. Results showed that the grape pomace extract combined with representatives of different classes of antibiotics as β-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains tested with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.155. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was reduced 4 to 75 times. The most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the extract were quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively. All combinations of the extract with the components also showed synergy with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.5 and MIC reductions of 4 to 125 times with both bacteria strains. The relative abundance of phenolic compounds has no correlation with the obtained synergic effect, suggesting that the mechanism by which the synergic effect occurs is by a multi-objective action. It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 μg/mL of extract and 0.6–375 μg/mL antibiotics). Therefore, these combinations are good candidates for testing in animal models in order to enhance the effect of antibiotics of different classes and thus restore the currently unused

  5. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds and complementary phenols from thyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Ramo, Tomás; Romero, Maria-Paz

    2012-03-28

    Besides affecting the oil's sensorial characteristics, the presence of herbs and spices has an impact on the nutritional value of the flavored oils. The aim of the study was to develop a new product based on the phenol-enrichment of a virgin olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds (secoiridoid derivatives) plus additional complementary phenols from thyme (flavonoids). We studied the effect of the addition of phenolic extracts (olive cake and thyme) on phenolic composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, and bitter sensory attribute of olive oils. Results showed that flavonoids from thyme appeared to have higher transference ratios (average 89.7%) from the phenolic extract to oil, whereas secoiridoids from olive presented lower transference ratios (average 35.3%). The bitter sensory attribute of the phenol-enriched oils diminished with an increase of the concentration of phenols from thyme, which might denote an improvement in the consumer acceptance.

  6. Ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with back-extraction coupled with capillary electrophoresis to determine phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Caihong; Tong, Shanshan; Chang, Yunxia; Jia, Qiong; Zhou, Weihong

    2012-04-01

    Ionic liquid (IL) based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with back-extraction coupled with capillary electrophoresis ultraviolet detection was developed to determine four phenolic compounds (bisphenol-A, β-naphthol, α-naphthol, 2, 4-dichlorophenol) in aqueous cosmetics. The developed method was used to preconcentrate and clean up the four phenolic compounds including two steps. The analytes were transferred into room temperature ionic liquid (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C(8) MIM][PF(6) ]) rich-phase in the first step. In the second step, the analytes were back-extracted into the alkaline aqueous phase. The effects of extraction parameters, such as type and volume of extraction solvent, type and volume of disperser, extraction and centrifugal time, sample pH, salt addition, and concentration and volume of NaOH in back-extraction were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the preconcentration factors were 60.1 for bisphenol-A, 52.7 for β-naphthol, 49.2 for α-naphthol, and 18.0 for 2, 4-dichlorophenol. The limits of detection for bisphenol-A, β-naphthol, α-naphthol and 2, 4-dichlorophenol were 5, 5, 8, and 100 ng mL(-1), respectively. Four kinds of aqueous cosmetics including toner, soften lotion, make-up remover, and perfume were analyzed and yielded recoveries ranging from 81.6% to 119.4%. The main advantages of the proposed method are quick, easy, cheap, and effective.

  7. Novel approaches mediated by tailor-made green solvents for the extraction of phenolic compounds from agro-food industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María de Los Ángeles; Espino, Magdalena; Gomez, Federico J V; Silva, María Fernanda

    2018-01-15

    An environmentally friendly method for the phenolic compound extraction from agro-food industrial by-products was developed in order to contribute with their sustainable valorization. A Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent was chemometrically-designed for the first time and compared with traditional solvents in terms of analyte stabilization. The combination of lactic acid, glucose and 15% water (LGH-15) was selected as optimal. A high-efficiency ultrasound-assisted extraction mediated by LGH-15 prior to HPLC-DAD allows the determination of 14 phenols in onion, olive, tomato and pear industrial by-products. NADES synthesis as well as the extraction procedures were optimized by Response Surface Methodology. Thus, phenolic determination in these complex samples was achieved by a simple, non-expensive, eco-friendly and robust system. The application to different matrices demonstrated the versatility of the proposed method. NADES opens interesting perspectives for their potential use as vehicles of bioactive compounds as food additives or pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid.

  9. Influence of the leaf content and herbal particle size on the presence and extractability of quantitated phenolic compounds in Cistus incanus herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Peer; Rusche, Nele; Saake, Bodo; Rohn, Sascha

    2014-11-12

    A variety of Cistus incanus products and thereof a majority of herbal teas are offered by manufacturers despite a classification as Novel Food. For a re-evaluation of this legal status, a characterization of bioactive ingredients will provide data. These teas consist of various compositions of plant parts and particle sizes. Whereas some include high leaf contents with a small particle size, others mainly consist of woody stem parts. For the consumer it is of interest which product yields the highest concentrations of bioactive phenolic compounds in the final infusions. In this study, four commercially available samples were divided into leaves and stems. Additionally, one sample was reconstituted in three mixtures of these plant parts. The amount of wood was determined by cellulose concentration. The aim was to estimate the influence of the plant parts on the concentration of phenolic compounds, which were identified by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and quantitated by LC-DAD. Furthermore, one herbal tea was separated into six fractions with different particle sizes to investigate the influence of particle size on the extractability of phenolic compounds. On basis of the results, the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds in the infusions were yielded when leafy parts with a small particle size were used for brewing.

  10. Assessment of total phenolic compounds and in vitro free radical scavenging potentials of water extracts of ten selected species of Zingiberaceae rhizomes use in folkloric medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekoya, Alafiatayo Akinola; Ahmad, Syahida; Maziah, Mahmood

    2016-05-01

    The use of herbal medicine and traditional healing practices for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of illness and ailment continue to have more awareness among the scientific community due to their safety and also as a source of alternatives to synthetic products. This research assessed the total phenolic compounds and in vitro total antioxidant potentials of water extracts in selected species of Zingiberaceae rhizomes use as spice, drinks and medicine. DPPH and FRAP were used to determine the antioxidant capacity, total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents assays to evaluate the quality of the antioxidant activity and the control was ascorbic acid. The results showed that all extracts contain significant antioxidant activity with Zingiber officinale having the highest activity in all assays. DPPH (222.30mg/TE/g DW), FRAP (98.04mg/TE/g DW), Flavonoid (38.58mg/NGN/g DW) phenolic acid (10.78mg/GAE/g DW) and polyphenols (22.84mg/GAE/g DW). Significant and positive linear correlation were found in DPPH, FRAP and total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents. This study reveals some phytochemicals present in Zingiberaceae species, which might be responsible for their biological activities and reason for it use in folkloric medicine in Southeast Asia.

  11. Study on microwave extraction of phenolic compounds in mushrooms%香菇中酚类物质的微波提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶桐; 贾有青

    2015-01-01

    采用微波提取技术对香菇中的酚类物质进行提取,并通过单因素和正交试验对其提取工艺进行了优化。结果表明,最佳提取工艺为:乙醇体积浓度60%,微波功率400 W,微波时间30 s,料液比1∶25,此条件下香菇中酚类物质的提取率为9.24%。%Microwave extraction technology was used to extract the phenolic compounds in mushrooms, and the extrac-tion process was optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiment. The results show that the optimal extraction pro-cess are 60%ethanol concentration, 400 W microwave power, 30 s microwave time, 1∶25material liquid ratio, the ex-traction rate of phenolic compounds is 9.24%.

  12. Biotransformation and bioconversion of phenolic compounds obtainment: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira Junior, Jose Valdo; Teixeira, Camilo Barroso; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2015-03-01

    Phenolic compounds have recently been recognized for their influence on human metabolism, acting in the prevention of some chronic diseases as well as proving to be important antioxidants in food. Nevertheless, the extraction and concentration processes are usually carried out by organic solvent extraction from natural sources and can generate some drawbacks like phenolic compound degradation, lengthy process times and low yields. As a solution, some eco-friendly technologies, including solid-state fermentation (SSF) or enzymatic-assisted reaction, have been proposed as alternative processes. This article reviews the extraction of phenolic compounds from agro-industrial co-products by solid-state fermentation, even as friendly enzyme-assisted extractions. It also discusses the characteristics of each bioprocess system and the variables that affect product formation, as well as the range of substrates, microorganisms and enzymes that can be useful for the production of bioactive phenolic compounds.

  13. Cloud-point extraction and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography for analysis of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in Thai local wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichapong, Jitlada; Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2014-04-01

    A cloud-point extraction (CPE) was developed for the determination of 12 phenolic compounds (i.e. gallic acid, procatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, guaiacol, p-cresol, o-cresol and 3,5-xylenol) using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detection. The optimum CPE conditions were 2.0% (w/v) Triton X-114, 3.0% (w/v) Na2SO4 and 20-min equilibrated at 45 °C. The surfactant-rich phase was then analyzed by HPLC using a Symmetry C18 column, gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and 1% (v/v) acetic acid, and PDA detection at 280 nm. Under the optimum condition, the target phenolic compounds were separated within 25 min. CPE gave higher enrichment factor up to 15-fold compared to that of direct analysis. The proposed method showed good analytical performances with limits of detection in the range 0.01-0.1 mg L(-1) and precisions with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 5% for retention time and 10% for peak area. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of phenolic compounds in Thai local wine samples. Gallic acid, procatechuic acid, and vanillic acid were the highest phenolics found in the studied wines with the contents up to 172.4, 99.1, and 26.6 mg L(-1), respectively. The recovery of the spiked wine samples (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg L(-1)) were obtained in the range of 90.4-110%. High total phenolic content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity (DPPH method) in the studied wines were also observed.

  14. Antioxidant Activity and Thermal Stability of Oleuropein and Related Phenolic Compounds of Olive Leaf Extract after Separation and Concentration by Salting-Out-Assisted Cloud Point Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos; Katsoyannos, Evangelos; Chatzilazarou, Arhontoula

    2014-04-08

    A fast, clean, energy-saving, non-toxic method for the stabilization of the antioxidant activity and the improvement of the thermal stability of oleuropein and related phenolic compounds separated from olive leaf extract via salting-out-assisted cloud point extraction (CPE) was developed using Tween 80. The process was based on the decrease of the solubility of polyphenols and the lowering of the cloud point temperature of Tween 80 due to the presence of elevated amounts of sulfates (salting-out) and the separation from the bulk solution with centrifugation. The optimum conditions were chosen based on polyphenols recovery (%), phase volume ratio (Vs/Vw) and concentration factor (Fc). The maximum recovery of polyphenols was in total 95.9%; Vs/Vw was 0.075 and Fc was 15 at the following conditions: pH 2.6, ambient temperature (25 °C), 4% Tween 80 (w/v), 35% Na₂SO₄ (w/v) and a settling time of 5 min. The total recovery of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, verbascoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside, at optimum conditions, was 99.8%, 93.0%, 87.6%, 99.3% and 100.0%, respectively. Polyphenolic compounds entrapped in the surfactant-rich phase (Vs) showed higher thermal stability (activation energy (Ea) 23.8 kJ/mol) compared to non-entrapped ones (Ea 76.5 kJ/mol). The antioxidant activity of separated polyphenols remained unaffected as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method.

  15. Antioxidant Activity and Thermal Stability of Oleuropein and Related Phenolic Compounds of Olive Leaf Extract after Separation and Concentration by Salting-Out-Assisted Cloud Point Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatopoulos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A fast, clean, energy-saving, non-toxic method for the stabilization of the antioxidant activity and the improvement of the thermal stability of oleuropein and related phenolic compounds separated from olive leaf extract via salting-out-assisted cloud point extraction (CPE was developed using Tween 80. The process was based on the decrease of the solubility of polyphenols and the lowering of the cloud point temperature of Tween 80 due to the presence of elevated amounts of sulfates (salting-out and the separation from the bulk solution with centrifugation. The optimum conditions were chosen based on polyphenols recovery (%, phase volume ratio (Vs/Vw and concentration factor (Fc. The maximum recovery of polyphenols was in total 95.9%; Vs/Vw was 0.075 and Fc was 15 at the following conditions: pH 2.6, ambient temperature (25 °C, 4% Tween 80 (w/v, 35% Na2SO4 (w/v and a settling time of 5 min. The total recovery of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, verbascoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside, at optimum conditions, was 99.8%, 93.0%, 87.6%, 99.3% and 100.0%, respectively. Polyphenolic compounds entrapped in the surfactant-rich phase (Vs showed higher thermal stability (activation energy (Ea 23.8 kJ/mol compared to non-entrapped ones (Ea 76.5 kJ/mol. The antioxidant activity of separated polyphenols remained unaffected as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method.

  16. Compositional differences in the phenolics compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This study evaluates phenolic composition of commercial and experimental ... white wines, some contained large number of phenolic compounds while the others showed smaller number of ..... Synthesis, Properties, and Significance. Plenum ...

  17. Fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in extracts of Curculiginis Rhizoma by HPLC-diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qingya; Yang, Hui; Chan, Chi-On; Jin, Dengping; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Chen, Sibao

    2013-01-01

    Curculiginis Rhizoma (Curculigo orchioides GAERTN.) is a well-known Chinese herbal medicine, as well as an important Rasayana drug in India. Current criteria of quality control on this herb are to quantitatively analyze single compound curculigoside, which fail to comprehensively evaluate quality of this herb. In this paper, a simple and reliable HPLC coupled with diode array detector (DAD) method was developed to evaluate the quality of Curculiginis Rhizoma through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneously quantitating four phenolic compounds, orcinol glucoside, orcinol, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid and curculigoside. The fingerprint displayed eleven common peaks, and the similarity index of different samples was in a range of 0.890-0.977. Validation of the method was acceptable, with 96.03-102.82% accuracy in recovery test and inter and intra-day precisions were less than 2%. This developed method by having a combination of chromatographic fingerprint and quantitation analysis could be applied to the quality control of Curculiginis Rhizoma.

  18. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants and rosmarinic acid from perilla leaves using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Zhen LI

    Full Text Available Abstract Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of functional components from perilla leaves. The factors investigated were ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The results revealed that ethanol concentration had significant effects on all extraction parameters. Based on the RSM results, the optimal conditions were an ethanol concentration of 56%, a UAE temperature of 54 °C, and a UAE time of 55 min. Under these conditions, the experimental TPC (total phenolic content, RA (rosmarinic acid, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values were 48.85 mg GAE/g DW (mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dry weight, 31.02 mg/g DW, 85.55 μmol Fe2+/g DW and 73.35%, respectively. The experimental values were in agreement with those predicted by RSM models, confirming suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM for optimization of the extraction conditions.

  19. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) wine pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhang, Ling-Li; Yue, Xue-Yang; Liang, Jin; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Xue-Ling; Yue, Peng-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) of total anthocyanins (TA) and phenolics (TP) from Blueberry Wine Pomace (BWP) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was used to predict that the optimized conditions were an extraction temperature of 61.03°C, a liquid-solid ratio of 21.70mL/g and a sonication time of 23.67min. Using the modeled optimized conditions, the predicted and experimental yields of TA and TP were within a 2% difference. The yields of TA and TP obtained through the optimized UAE method were higher than those using a Conventional Solvent Extraction (CSE) method. Seven anthocyanins, namely delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, delphindin-3-O-arabinoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-arabinoside, were found in the BWP extract from both the UAE and CSE methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extract from Stevia rebaudiana stem waste to inhibit fish oil oxidation and identification of its phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Yang, Gangqiang; Sato, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Toshiyasu; Nakano, Toshiki; Xi, Yinci

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the potential for exploiting Stevia rebaudiana stem (SRS) waste as a source of edible plant-based antioxidants finding for the first time that the hot water extract of SRS had significantly higher antioxidant activity against fish oil oxidation than that of the leaf, despite SRS extract having lower total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ORAC values. To locate the major antioxidant ingredients, SRS extract was fractionated using liquid chromatography. Five phenolic compounds (primary antioxidant components in activity-containing fractions) were identified by NMR and HR-ESI-MS: vanillic acid 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), protocatechuic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), chlorogenic acid (4) and cryptochlorogenic acid (5). Further analysis showed that, among compounds 2-5, protocatechuic acid had the highest capacity to inhibit peroxides formation, but exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities in DPPH and ORAC assays. These results indicate that SRS waste can be used as strong natural antioxidant materials in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A hybrid material as a sorbent phase for the disposable pipette extraction technique enhances efficiency in the determination of phenolic endocrine-disrupting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Gabriela; Merib, Josias; Magosso, Hérica A; Bittencourt, Otávio R; Carasek, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the hybrid material 3-n-propyl(3-methylpyridinium) silsesquioxane chloride (Si3Py(+)Cl(-)) was synthesized and investigated as a novel sorbent phase for the disposable pipette extraction (DPX) technique coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-florescence detection. This sorbent phase was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Aqueous samples containing the phenolic endocrine-disrupting compounds bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-octylphenol (4-OP) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) were subjected to DPX procedures and a series of optimizations was performed to determine the ideal extraction conditions using this approach. The proposed sorbent phase exhibited higher extraction efficiency than DPX-RP (reversed phase tips containing styrene-divinylbenzene), commonly used for the determination of the phenolic endocrine- disrupting-compounds under study. Satisfactory analytical performance was achieved with linear ranges from 2 to 100μgL(-1) for 4-t-OP and 1-100μgL(-1) for the other analytes. Limits of detection of 0.60μgL(-1) for 4-t-OP and 0.30μgL(-1) for other analytes, RSDs ranging from 1 to 20% and relative recoveries of 83-116% were obtained. Based on these satisfactory results, this sorbent phase represents a valuable alternative for the extraction of compounds with polar moieties in their structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of nonextractable phenolic compounds in foods: the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2011-12-28

    More than 500 phenolic compounds have been reported as present in foodstuffs, and their intake has been related to the prevention of several chronic diseases. Most of the literature on phenolic compounds focuses on those present in the supernatant of aqueous-organic extractions: extractable phenolics. Nevertheless, significant amounts of phenolic compounds remain in the solid residues after such extractions. These nonextractable phenolics are mostly proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and hydrolyzable tannins that are closely associated with the food matrix. Studies of this fraction of dietary phenolic compounds are scarce, and the few there are usually refer to particular types of phenolics rather than to the fraction as a whole. The present review reports the state-of-the-art methods that currently exist for analyzing nonextractable phenolic compounds in foods.

  3. Centrifugal partition extraction in the pH-zone-refining displacement mode: an efficient strategy for the screening and isolation of biologically active phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Reynaud, Romain; Hubert, Jane

    2013-10-15

    Centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) was developed for the first time in the pH-zone-refining mode to fractionate a crude bark extract of the African tree Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae). The fractionation process was performed at a flow rate of 20mL/min using a biphasic solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in the ascending mode. Sodium hydroxide (40mM) and trifluoroacetic acid (30mM) were used as retainer and displacer agents, respectively. In a single run of 67min, 3g of the initial crude extract were successfully separated into fractions selectively enriched in ionizable triterpenes, ellagic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The antioxidant potential of the initial crude extract, isolated compounds and fraction pools was also evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable free radical scavenging assay, providing an interesting view about the effect of the degree of substitution of ellagic acid derivatives on their radical scavenging activity. This study will demonstrate that centrifugal partition extraction used in the pH-zone-refining mode can be proposed as an efficient strategy for the rapid screening of natural phenolic compounds.

  4. Theoretical investigation on the bond dissociation enthalpies of phenolic compounds extracted from Artocarpus altilis using ONIOM(ROB3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p):PM6) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Nguyen Minh; Duong, Tran; Pham, Linh Thuy; Nam, Pham Cam

    2014-10-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed to predict the antioxidant property of phenolic compounds extracted from Artocarpus altilis. The Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization energy (IE), and proton dissociation enthalpy (PDE) of the phenolic compounds have been computed. The ONIOM(ROB3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p):PM6) method is able to provide reliable evaluation for the BDE(Osbnd H) in phenolic compounds. An important property of antioxidants is determined via the BDE(Osbnd H) of those compounds extracted from A. altilis. Based on the BDE(Osbnd H), compound 12 is considered as a potential antioxidant with the estimated BDE value of 77.3 kcal/mol in the gas phase.

  5. Distribution, antioxidant and characterisation of phenolic compounds in soybeans, flaxseed and olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Ereifej, Khalil; Alli, Inteaz

    2013-08-15

    The distribution of free and bound phenolic compounds present in soybean, flaxseed and olive were investigated. The phenolic compounds were fractionated on the basis on their solubility characteristics in water, alcohol, dilute base and dilute acid. Reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used for identification of individual components of phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity (AA%) of free and bound phenolic compounds was measured using the linoleic acid/β-carotene assay. The water-soluble phenolic compound fractions represented 68-81%, 50-72% and 46-56% of the total phenolic compounds measured in full-fat soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Methanolic extraction of free phenolic compounds without heat, solubilised 21-56%, 42-62% and 34-51% of the total phenolic compounds measured in soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively; methanol extraction of free phenolic compounds with heat solubilised a further 24-34%, 31-37% and 36-37% of phenolic compounds from soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Further dilute alkali and dilute acid solubilised the remaining 10-40%, 1-21% and 12-29% of the total phenolic compounds from soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Results indicated that the full-fat meals of soybean, flaxseed and olive showed higher antioxidant activity compared to defatted meals. RP-HPLC and LC-MS/MS profil1 for soybean, flaxseed and olive indicate two classes of phenolic compounds designated as free and bound phenolic compounds.

  6. Preparation and characterization of porous DVB copolymers and their applicability for adsorption (solid-phase extraction) of phenol compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiesiak, Magdalena; Podkoscielna, Beata

    2010-12-01

    Using DVB, three new porous copolymers in the form of microspheres were prepared, characterized and used as adsorbents for phenol and its chlorinated derivatives. As the monomers: 4,4'-bis(maleimidodiphenyl)methane (BM), 2,3-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methylacryloyloxy-propoxy)naphthalene (2,3-NAF) and 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (GLY) were used. All the studied materials were synthesized under the same conditions by means of suspension copolymerization. The DVB copolymers were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, TG and DSC analyses and N 2 sorption. The off-line solid-phase extraction method (SPE) was used to estimate sorption properties of the copolymers. The results show that the newly obtained materials are mesoporous but their shape of pores and chemical structures are different. BM-DVB and GLY-DVB are characterized by slit-shaped pores and wide pore size distribution. 2,3-NAF-DVB also possesses slit pores but distribution of pore size is narrower. Of those studied BM-DVB is the most interesting material. It has good sorption properties and heat resistance.

  7. Seed oil extraction from red prickly pear using hexane and supercritical CO2 : assessment of phenolic compound composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Barba, Francisco J; Angelotti, Armel; Bouaziz, Fatma; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2017-01-01

    Investigating Opuntia species for their seed oil content is of much importance owing to their potential use for food and in cosmetic applications. These oils have an important content in unsaturated fatty acids as well as antioxidant compounds (e.g. polyphenols, vitamin E), which have been associated with the prevention of some chronic diseases. Moreover, Opuntia stricta oils possess important antimicrobial activities. For instance, the main focus of this study was to compare the effectiveness of conventional (hexane extraction) and novel (supercritical (SC)-CO2 ) extraction methods for the recovery of oil and phenolic compounds from O. stricta seeds. The oil yield of both extracts was then compared and the polyphenol content and composition of both extracts were determined by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Additionally, antioxidant (DPPH assay) and antimicrobial activities (disc diffusion method) of O. stricta seed oils were determined. The oil yield (based on Soxhlet's method) of O. stricta seeds was determined using SC-CO2 (49.9 ± 2.2%), and hexane (49.0 ± 1.5%). Although obtaining similar oil extraction yields using the two methods, the extracted oil using SC-CO2 was more enriched in polyphenols (172.2 ± 11.9 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) g(-1) oil) than that extracted using hexane (76.0 ± 6.9 µg GAE g(-1) of oil). Polyphenol profiles showed that the SC-CO2 process led to the yield of more compounds (45) than that using hexane extraction (11). Moreover, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of SC-CO2 extract showed a high percentage of inhibition. SC-CO2 extraction of O. stricta seed oil led to extraction of oil with a similar yield to that with hexane extraction, but with higher polyphenol content. The extract containing polyphenols exhibited high antioxidant and antibacterial properties, demonstrating their great potential as feedstock for high-oil quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of

  8. Specific phenolic compounds and sensory properties of a new dealcoholized red wine with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárrega, Maria Amparo; Varela, Paula; Fromentin, Emilie; Feuillère, Nicolas; Issaly, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Villanueva, Sonia; Moro, Carlos; Guadarrama, Alberto; Fiszman, Susana

    2014-09-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has a long history of human consumption and possesses notable antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. This work evaluated the feasibility to provide a new functional beverage based on a dealcoholized red wine matrix supplemented by a pomegranate extract. The potential bioactive compounds in the pomegranate extract, punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid, were analyzed during the downstream process in order to evaluate the functional dose in the final beverage. The addition of pomegranate extract to the dealcoholized red wine resulted in a product with more intense yeast odor, acidity, yeast flavor, and astringency and with a less intense berry flavor. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated and the results revealed the existence of a niche of consumers willing to consume dealcoholized wine enriched with pomegranate extract. After tasting, 50% and 40% of those consumers initially interested by this product concept declared to be interested to purchase the control sample and the functional beverage, respectively. The daily consumption of two servings of 250 mL of this new pomegranate-enriched dealcoholized wine provides 82 mg of total ellagitannins, corresponding to the sum of punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid.

  9. Antinociception produced by Thalassia testudinum extract BM-21 is mediated by the inhibition of acid sensing ionic channels by the phenolic compound thalassiolin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Olivier P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs have a significant role in the sensation of pain and constitute an important target for the search of new antinociceptive drugs. In this work we studied the antinociceptive properties of the BM-21 extract, obtained from the sea grass Thalassia testudinum, in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The action of the BM-21 extract and the major phenolic component isolated from this extract, a sulphated flavone glycoside named thalassiolin B, was studied in the chemical nociception test and in the ASIC currents of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons obtained from Wistar rats. Results Behavioral antinociceptive experiments were made on male OF-1 mice. Single oral administration of BM-21 produced a significant inhibition of chemical nociception caused by acetic acid and formalin (specifically during its second phase, and increased the reaction time in the hot plate test. Thalassiolin B reduced the licking behavior during both the phasic and tonic phases in the formalin test. It was also found that BM-21 and thalassiolin B selectively inhibited the fast desensitizing (τ Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ASIC-current inhibitor derived of a marine-plant extract, and in a phenolic compound. The antinociceptive effects of BM-21 and thalassiolin B may be partially because of this action on the ASICs. That the active components of the extract are able to cross the blood-brain barrier gives them an additional advantage for future uses as tools to study pain mechanisms with a potential therapeutic application.

  10. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  11. Physicochemical properties, phenolic acids and volatile compounds of oil extracted from dry alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Farga, A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the chemical composition, physicochemical properties, phenolic acids and volatile compounds of alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy seed oil were evaluated. The crude oil content was 11.49%, ash 6.88%, moisture 6.12%, protein content 14.60%, total carbohydrate 24.77% and fiber 36.13%. The oil contain a high quantity of unsaturated fatty acids (74.63 mg·100 g−1 with oleic (C18:1 (57.77%, palmitic (C16:0 (18.65% and linoleic (C18:2 (12.88% acids as the most abundant. The relative density was 0.88 and the iodine value 105.59. The color analysis showed a value of 28.33 Y+1.43 R. The oil also had a high relative oxidative stability. The tocol composition showed that α-tocotrienol, γ-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol were in a higher concentration than the rest. Seven phenolic acids (caffeic, vanillic, galic, p-coumaric, ascorbic, cinnamic and ferulic were detected, with ascorbic acid as the predominant one (5.44 mg·100 g−1. In relation to the volatile composition, 48 compounds were found with Z-10-Pentadecen-1-ol (56.73%; Hexadecenoic acid, Z-11- (18.52%; 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z- (3.93% and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z-, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl ethyl ester (3.04% as the most abundant. These findings demonstrated the potential of alhydwan seeds to be used as a good source of quality edible oil.En este estudio se ha determinado la composición química, las propiedades físico-químicas, ácidos fenólicos y compuestos volátiles de aceites de semillas de alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy. Las semillas contenían un 11.49% de aceite, 6.88% de cenizas, 6,12% de humedad, 14.60% de proteínas, 24.77% de carbohidratos totales y 36.13% de fibra. El aceite contiene 74,63 mg·100 g−1 de ácidos grasos insaturados, con oleico (C18: 1 (57,77%, palmítico (C16: 0 (18,65% y linoleico (C18: 2 (12,88% como los más abundantes. La densidad relativa fue de 0,88 y el índice de yodo de 105,59. El análisis del color mostró un valor de

  12. Comparison of different extraction procedures for the comprehensive characterization of bioactive phenolic compounds in Rosmarinus officinalis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás Linares, I; Arráez-Román, D; Herrero, M; Ibáñez, E; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2011-10-21

    In the present work, a comparative study between two environmentally friendly and selective extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) have been carried out focusing in the bioactive phenolic compounds present in Rosmarinus officinalis. For the analysis of the SFE and PLE extracts, a new methodology for qualitative characterization has been developed, based on the use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), equipped with two different detection systems coupled in series: diode array detector (DAD) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detector connected via an electrospray ionization interface (ESI). The use of a small particle size C(18) column (1.8 μm) provided a great resolution and made possible the separation of several isomers. Moreover, UV-visible spectrophotometry is a valuable tool for identifying the class of phenolic compounds, whereas MS data enabled to structurally characterize the compounds present in the extracts. The applied methodology was useful for the determination of many well-known phenolic compounds present in R. officinalis, such as carnosol, carnosic acid, rosmadial, rosmanol, genkwanin, homoplantaginin, scutellarein, cirsimaritin and rosmarinic acid, as well as other phenolic compounds present in other species belonging to Lamiaceae family.

  13. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazal Akyol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato’s skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the “alternative” food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed.

  14. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-05-27

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato's skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the "alternative" food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed.

  15. Two new phenolic compounds from Artemisia sphaerocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Bao Zhao; Lin Xi Li; Xiu Hua Liu; Ming Jing Li; Wen Ling Wang

    2007-01-01

    Two new phenolic compounds were isolated from whole plant of Artemisia sphaerocephala. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods as 4-(1-hydroxylethyl)-phenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 4-O-acetophenone-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-β-D-glucopyranoside.

  16. Peroxidase extraction from jicama skin peels for phenol removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, T.; Lau, S. Y.; Khor, E. H.; Danquah, M. K.

    2016-06-01

    Phenol and its derivatives exist in various types of industrial effluents, and are known to be harmful to aquatic lives even at low concentrations. Conventional treatment technologies for phenol removal are challenged with long retention time, high energy consumption and process cost. Enzymatic treatment has emerged as an alternative technology for phenol removal from wastewater. These enzymes interact with aromatic compounds including phenols in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, forming free radicals which polymerize spontaneously to produce insoluble phenolic polymers. This work aims to extract peroxidase from agricultural wastes materials and establish its application for phenol removal. Peroxidase was extracted from jicama skin peels under varying extraction conditions of pH, sample-to-buffer ratio (w/v %) and temperature. Experimental results showed that extraction process conducted at pH 10, 40% w/v and 25oC demonstrated a peroxidase activity of 0.79 U/mL. Elevated temperatures slightly enhanced the peroxidase activities. Jicama peroxidase extracted at optimum extraction conditions demonstrated a phenol removal efficiency of 87.5% at pH 7. Phenol removal efficiency was ∼ 97% in the range of 30 - 40oC, and H2O2 dosage has to be kept below 100 mM for maximum removal under phenol concentration tested.

  17. Isolation and identification of plant phenolic compounds in birch leaves: Air pollution stress and leaf phenolics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loponen, Jyrki Mikael

    Chromatographic (analytical and preparative HPLC), chemical (hydrolysis) and spectroscopic (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) techniques proved to be suitable tools for the structure identification of plant phenolic compounds. More than 30 individual phenolic compounds were detected and quantified. Detailed information of the structures of individual compounds was determined after isolation from birch leaves. Ten flavonoid glycosides were identified. Two of them, myricetin-3-O-α-L-(acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-α-L-(4/prime'-O-acetyl)- rhamnopyranoside, have been rarely found in birch leaves. Further, some characterized major phenolics with non- flavonoid structures in our study were 1-O-galloyl- β-D-(2-O-acetyl)-glucopyranose, gallic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, cis- and trans-forms of 3- and 5-p-coumaroylquinic acids. The presence of gallotannin group was evidenced by strong positive correlations between concentrations of these gallotannins (preliminary identified by HPLC and UV spectra) and the protein precipitation capacity of extracts. Content of gallotannins decreased with leaf growth and maturation. It is known that concentrations of phenolic compounds regularly increase in slowly growing stressed plants and therefore, it is natural that they are also sensitive to different forms of air pollution. Total content and the contents of some individual phenolics correlated negatively with the distance from the pollution source in our study area. In addition to comparing absolute concentrations of compounds in question, the within-tree correlations or within-tree variations of the relevant compounds between polluted and control areas were an alternative approach. Differences in pairwise correlations between the investigated leaf phenolic compounds indicated the competition between some gallotannins and p-coumaroylquinic acids on the polluted but not on the control site. Air pollution seems to be a stress factor for birch trees associated with

  18. Phenolic compounds from Anaphalis aureo-punctata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan-Qi; LOU Ning; LI Yu

    2003-01-01

    @@ From the ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Anaphalis aureo-punctata, a new acylated flavonoid glycoside 3-O-kaempferol-3-O-acetyl-6-O-(p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), and five known phenolic compounds 3-O-kaempferol-6- O- ( p-coumaroyl )-β-D-glucopyranoside ( 2 ), kaempferol-3- O-β-D-glucopyranoside 3,6-(4′-hydroxystyryl)-4-methoxy-2-pyrone (4), 2H-pyran-2-one, 6-[ 2-( 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy ) phenyl ) ethenyl ]-4-methoxy-( E ) (5) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic hexacosyl ester (6) were isolated. Their structures were established by spectral methods (UV, IR, MS, 1D, 2D-NMR). The flavonoid glycosides, 1, 2 and 3 showed markedly inhibited oxidative DNA strand breaks induced by Fenton reaction and NADH/PMS in a concentration-dependent manner.

  19. Nature of phenolic compounds in coffee melanoidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carina; Ribeiro, Miguel; Cruz, Ana C S; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A; Bunzel, Mirko; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-08-06

    Phenolic compounds are incorporated into coffee melanoidins during roasting mainly in condensed form (42-62 mmol/100 g) and also in ester-linked form (1.1-1.6 mmol/100 g), with incorporation levels depending on the green coffee chlorogenic acid content. The phenolic compounds are incorporated in different coffee melanoidin populations, but mainly in those soluble in 75% ethanol (82%), a significant correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and the amount of protein and color characteristics of the different melanoidin populations being observed. The incorporation of phenolic compounds into coffee melanoidins is a significant pathway of chlorogenic acid degradation during roasting, representing 23% of the chlorogenic acids lost. These account for the nearly 26% of the material not accounted for by polysaccharides and proteins present in coffee melanodins. The cleavage mechanism and the efficiency of alkaline fusion used to release condensed phenolics from coffee melanoidins suggest that the phenolic compounds can be linked to the polymeric material by aryl-ether, stilbene type, and/or biphenyl linkages.

  20. Effect of power ultrasound application on aqueous extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.): experimental kinetics and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, M R; Comas-Serra, F; Femenia, A; Rosselló, C; Simal, S

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of both conventional (mechanical stirring, 200rpm) and acoustic (55±5kHz, 435±5W/L) aqueous extraction of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity from grape pomace by-products (Vitis vinifera L.) have been experimentally evaluated and modeled at different extraction temperatures (20, 35 and 50°C). A gradual and significant increase of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts was observed as the temperature increased, the highest values being obtained in the case of the extraction assisted acoustically. According to the results, the acoustic assistance of the extraction process led to aqueous extracts with phenolic and antioxidant characteristics similar to those obtained with mechanical stirring, working under lower temperature conditions and during less operating time. Specifically, the conventional extraction of total phenolics at 35 and 50°C did not differ significantly from extractions assisted with power ultrasound at 20 and 35°C, respectively; and the acoustic process required approximately 3, 4 and 8 times less time, at 20, 35 and 50°C, than the conventional extraction to obtain extracts with similar characteristics. The extraction curves obtained for total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, measured by the ABTS and FRAP methods, were properly represented by a modified Weibull model for both conventional and acoustic extractions within the temperature range 20-50°C, presenting an average percentage of explained variance⩾97.9%, and an average mean relative error⩽7.0%. A high correlation (r(2)⩾0.992) was observed between the experimental and simulated values for all the quality attributes in study.

  1. Comparison of Conventional and Ultrasound-assisted Extraction Techniques on Mass Fraction of Phenolic Compounds from Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An innovative ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is the rapid non-thermal extraction technique, which in comparison to conventional extraction (CE), offers high reproducibility in a short time with simplified manipulation, reduced solvent consumption and lower energy. Optimization of ultrasonic conditions was conducted for devices with nominal output power of 100 and 400 W, including the influence of geometrical parameters of probes regarding ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results show...

  2. Phenol-oxidizing enzyme expression in Lentinula edodes by the addition of sawdust extract, aromatic compounds, or copper in liquid culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanesaka, Eiji; Takeda, Hironori; Yoshida, Motonobu

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how the addition of a sawdust extract from Castanopsis cuspidata, several aromatic compounds, and copper affected the expression of a phenol-oxidizing enzyme in the white-rot basidiomycete, Lentinula edodes. Compared to liquid media that had not been supplemented with sawdust extract (MYPG), MYPG containing low (MYPG-S100) or high (MYPG-S500) concentrations of sawdust extract had a marked effect on the promotion of mycelial growth. No manganese peroxidase (MnP) production was observed in either MYPG or MYPG-S100 media until 35 days after inoculation. However, MnP production was enhanced by culture in MYPG-S500, with a marked increase observed suddenly at 14 days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed that the transcription of the lemnp2 gene coding extracellular MnP was initially observed at detectable levels at day 10 after the initial inoculation of MYPG-S500, increasing gradually thereafter until days 22-25. However, laccase (Lcc) production was not observed in any of the media until 35 days after inoculation. Addition of 10 mM aromatic compounds - 1,2-benzenediol, 2-methoxyphenol, hydroquinone, and 4-anisidine--into the MYPG-S500 medium completely inhibited MnP production and did not enhance any Lcc production. While the addition of 1 or 2 mM Cu2+ (CuSO4 x 5H2O) to MYPG-S500 medium completely inhibited MnP production, this Cu2+ addition caused a marked increase in Lcc production at 17 and 6 days after the addition, respectively.

  3. A new phenolic compound from Crinum asiaticum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Sun; Wei Dong Zhang; Yun Heng Shen; Chuan Zhang; Hui Liang Li

    2008-01-01

    A new phenolic compound was isolated from the ethanol extract of the bulbs of Crinum asiaticum L.var.sinicum Baker.Its structure was defined as 1-(2-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl)phenyl-6-O-caffeoyl-β-D-gluco-pyranoside on the basis of spectroscopic evidences.

  4. Analysis of phenolic compounds for poultry feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds have generated significant interest recently as feed additives that can impart bioactive characteristics such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal properties to a feed formulation [1-2]. Such natural compounds may offer some preventive benefit to the routine administra...

  5. Encapsulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds extracted from spent coffee grounds by freeze-drying and spray-drying using different coating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Lina F; Ramirez, Monica J; Orrego, Carlos E; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2017-12-15

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques were evaluated for encapsulation of phenolic compounds (PC) extracted from spent coffee grounds. Additionally, the use of maltodextrin, gum arabic and a mixture of these components (ratio 1:1) as wall material to retain the PC and preserve their antioxidant activity was also assessed. The contents of PC and flavonoids (FLA), as well as the antioxidant activity of the encapsulated samples were determined in order to verify the efficiency of each studied condition. Additional analyses for characterization of the samples were also performed. Both the technique and the coating material greatly influenced the encapsulation of antioxidant PC. The best results were achieved when PC were encapsulated by freeze-drying using maltodextrin as wall material. Under these conditions, the amount of PC and FLA retained in the encapsulated sample corresponded to 62% and 73%, respectively, and 73-86% of the antioxidant activity present in the original extract was preserved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of solid-liquid and enzyme-assisted extraction of phenolic compound from three species of tropical Sargassum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspita, M.; Deniel, M.; Widowati, I.; Radjasa, O. K.; Douzenel, P.; Bedoux, G.; Bourgougnon, N.

    2017-02-01

    Sargassum has been well acknowledged for the potential natural product of its phlorotannins. Solid-liquid extraction (SLE) is the most common method used to extract them. However, this method has some drawbacks such as low yield and toxic. An alternative ecofriendly method has been proposed, i.e. enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), proven to be more efficient. The aim is to compare the efficiency of SLE and EAE concerning their extraction yield, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. S. aquifolium, S. ilicifolium and S. polycystum were extracted using water, methanol, methanol 50%, and ethanol 75% and enzymes (Viscozyme and Protamex). Total phenolic content (TPC) was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant activity via DPPH and FRAP analysis. This study implied that bioactivity of Sargassum extracted with enzymes is better compared to the one using organic solvents.

  7. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  8. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to electrospray time-of-flight and ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry to identify phenolic compounds from a Cistus ladanifer aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arroyo, S; Barrajón-Catalán, E; Micol, V; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2010-01-01

    Cistus ladanifer is an aromatic shrub that is widespread in the Mediterranean region. The labdanum exudate is used in the fragrance industry and has been characterised. However, there is not enough information about the phenolic content of the raw plant, the aerial part of it being a very rich source of bioactive compounds. Characterisation of the bioactive compounds of the raw plant and its aerial parts. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric detection was used to carry out the comprehensive characterisation of a Cistus ladanifer shrub aqueous extract. Two different MS techniques were coupled to HPLC: time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Many well-known compounds present in Cistus ladanifer were characterised, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, ellagitanins, hexahydroxydiphenoyl and derivatives, and other compounds. The method described simultaneously separated a wide range of phenolic compounds and the proposed characterisation of the major compounds of this extract was carried out. It is important to highlight that, to our knowledge, this is the first time that a Cistus ladanifer aqueous extract from the raw plant has been characterised.

  9. Orthogonal Test Optimizing Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Compound from Chinese Pine Pollen%正交试验法优化松花粉中酚类化合物超声提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2012-01-01

    目的:优化松花粉中酚类化合物的超声提取工艺.方法:采用正交设计试验对松花粉中酚类化合物超声提取过程中乙醇浓度、超声时间、超声温度等因素进行优化.结果:超声提取松花粉酚类化合物的最佳工艺条件为:乙醇浓度40%,超声提取时间30分钟,超声提取温度50℃,在此条件下,松花粉酚类化合物提取率可达4.2 mg/g.结论:采用超声辅助提取松花粉酚类化合物,时间短、得率高,是一种高效、快捷的方法.%Objective: To optimize ultrasonic extraction technology of phenolic compound from Chinese pine pollen. Method: factors such as ethanol concentration, extraction time, temperature and others, which influenced ultrasonic extraction of phenolic compound, were optimized through orthogonal test. Result: The best condition was determined as: 40% of ethanol concentration, 30min of extraction time and extraction temperature 50 °C, under the condition, maximal extraction yield of phenolic compound reached 4.2mg/g. Conclusion: Ultrasonic extraction technology is an effective and rapid method for extracting phenols from Chinese Pine Pollen.

  10. Characterisation of phenolic compounds in processed fibres from the juice industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpino-Rius, Antoni; Eras, Jordi; Vilaró, Francisca; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon

    2015-04-01

    The content of phenolic compounds was determined in nine industrially processed fibres derived from the juice industry. Apple, peach, and pear as non-citrus fruit fibres were examined, as well as orange peel and flesh, tangerine peel and flesh, and lemon flesh as citrus fruit fibres, and carrot as vegetable fibre. The extractable phenolic profile of all fibres was obtained by UPLC-PDA-FLR-MS/MS. Forty phenolic compounds were identified and their concentrations determined. In addition, bound phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins were measured in solid residues in order to determine the phenolic compounds remaining. Also, to allow the comparison of the profiles and contents in the fresh fruit and fibres, we analysed extractable and bound phenolic compounds in lyophilized peel and pulp from fresh fruit. The profile and phenolic content of the fibres was similar to that of the fresh fruit, except for flavan-3-ols, which registered lower values.

  11. Evaluation of the Organic Acids Ability for Extraction of Anthocyanins and Phenolic Compounds from Different Sources and Their Degradation Kinetics During Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Sepideh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of anthocyanin and phenolic acids has always received much attention due to their extensive range of colors and potential beneficial health effects. In this study extraction of anthocyanins from barberry, eggplant peel and red cabbage was investigated by using different organic solvents. Soluble solid content, antioxidant capacity, total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolic content were determined and then degradation kinetics of anthocyanin in different solution during freezing process was assayed. In order to examine the effect of different acids on the degree of extraction of anthocyanin and total phenol, varied concentration of hydrochloric, citric and acetic acids were dissolved in a mixture of water and ethanol to prepare acidified aqueous solution. Results indicated that citric acid solution is one of the best solvents for phenolic and anthocyanin extraction which showed the best scavenging activity of DPPH radical. Results from degradation kinetics of total monomeric anthocyanins revealed that stability of anthocyanins in the solution depended on temperature and other ingredients which are present in the medium. Moreover, the present data confirmed that barberry and red cabbage acidified extracts could be one of the more stable natural food colorants based on anthocyanins.

  12. Bismuth nanoparticles for phenolic compounds biosensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C; Cadevall, Miquel; Guix, Maria; Ros, Josep; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-02-15

    The rapid determination of trace phenolic compounds is of great importance for evaluating the total toxicity of contaminated water samples. Nowadays, electrochemical tyrosinase (Tyr) based biosensors constitute a promising technology for the in situ monitoring of phenolic compounds because of their advantages such as high selectivity, low production cost, promising response speed, potential for miniaturization, simple instrumentation and easy automatization. A mediator-free amperometric biosensor for phenolic compounds detection based on the combination of bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) and Tyr for phenol detections will be hereby reported. This is achieved through the integration of BiNPs/Tyr onto the working electrode of a screen printed electrode (SPE) by using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. BiNPs/Tyr biosensor is evaluated by amperometric measurements at -200 mV DC and a linear range of up to 71 μM and 100 μM and a correlation coefficient of 0.995 and 0.996 for phenol and catechol, respectively. The very low DC working potential ensures the avoidance of interferences making this biosensor an advantageous device for real sample applications. In addition, the response mechanism including the effect of BiNPs based on electrochemical studies and optical characterizations will be also discussed. The obtained results may open the way to many other BiNPs applications in the biosensing field.

  13. Development and validation of ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from waste spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ponmurugan, Karuppiah; Maran Jeganathan, Prakash

    2017-01-01

    In this current work, Box-Behnken statistical experimental design (BBD) was adopted to evaluate and optimize USLE (ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction) of phytochemicals from spent coffee grounds. Factors employed in this study are ultrasonic power, temperature, time and solid-liquid (SL) ratio. Individual and interactive effect of independent variables over the extraction yield was depicted through mathematical models, which are generated from the experimental data. Determined optimum process conditions are 244W of ultrasonic power, 40°C of temperature, 34min of time and 1:17g/ml of SL ratio. The predicted values were in correlation with experimental values with 95% confidence level, under the determined optimal conditions. This indicates the significance of selected method for USLE of phytochemicals from SCG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts from ten Algerian Ficus carica L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhila Mahmoudi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: All tested extracts contain phenolic compounds and exhibited an antioxidant activity and an antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Further researches on identification and purification of phenolic compounds are required.

  15. Phenolic contents and bioactive potential of peach fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrani, Abderrahmane; Krisa, Stéphanie; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Da Costa, Grégory; Temsamani, Hamza; Renouf, Elodie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Madani, Khodir; Mesnil, Marc; Monvoisin, Arnaud; Richard, Tristan

    2016-07-01

    Several cultivars of peach fruit (Prunus persica L.) were investigated. Their phenolic composition and concentration were assessed by LC-MS. Concentrations were calculated in mg per g of dry weight extract. Their antioxidant capacity (Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, DPPH, ABTS, PFRAP and ICA), inhibitory property against β-amyloid and α-synuclein fibril formation and protective capacity against Aβ-induced toxicity on PC12 cell lines (viability assessed by MTT assay and intracellular ROS production by DCFH-DA assay) were evaluated. Fifteen different phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. In particular, new isorhamnetin derivatives were identified. Phenolic contents were ranged between 19 and 82mg/g. Spring Belle extract had the highest content and Romea the lowest. Except for the ICA assay, a good correlation between phenolic content and the antioxidant capacities of peach fruit extracts was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are major contributors to their antioxidant capacity. Results indicate that the phenolic extract of peach cultivars inhibits Aβ and αS fibril formation and protects PC12 cell lines against Aβ-induced toxicity.

  16. Tunisian table olive phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, N; Roblain, D; Thonart, P; Hamdi, M

    2008-05-01

    For the 1st time, 4 olive cultivars, the Meski, Chemlali, Besbessi, and Tounsi, from the Tunisian market were investigated to evaluate the phenolic compounds' contribution in nutritional value of table olives. From the Meski cultivar, we have chosen 4 different samples to evaluate differences within the same cultivar. Basic characteristics and total phenolic content were evaluated in flesh and kernel. The highest value of flesh phenolic content was observed in sample M4 of the Meski cultivar; however, the lowest value was observed in the Besbessi cultivar and they were 1801 and 339 mg GA/100 g dry weight, respectively. The main simple phenolic compounds identified in flesh extracts are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and vanillic acid. Oleuropein was not detected in any samples. The antioxidant activity of Tunisian olive flesh varies between 212 and 462 muM TEAC/g of dry weight. Antioxidant activity of olives was related to their phenolic content but we found a low correlation between phenolic content and TEAC.

  17. Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF.

  18. Antioxidant potential of phenolic extracts of Mimusops elengi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Durre Shahwar; Muhammad Asam Raza

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant potential of the phenolic extracts of Mimusops elengi (M. elengi) L. (Sapotaceae). Methods:The extract of stem bark and seeds of M. elengi were prepared in methanol and acetone:water (7:3). The acetone: water was further partitioned with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Antioxidant activity of the extracts and partitioned fractions of M. elengi was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (DPPH), inhibition of lipid peroxidation [ferric thiocyanate (FTC)], and total antioxidant activity (phosphomolybdate method). Total phenolics content were calculated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results:The stem bark extract partitioned with ethyl acetate exhibited highest amount of total phenols (98.0 mg GAE/g dry weight), among all other extracts, with 92.0%DPPH radical scavenging activity at concentration of 0.5 mg/mL, while methanol extract (stem bark) had maximum inhibition of lipid peroxidation (62.0%) and total antioxidant activity (771.0 mg/g GAE/g). A positive correlation occurred between total phenols and radical scavenging activity (R2= 0.922 9) and total antioxidant activity (R2= 0.945 1). Conclusions: Our study suggested that antioxidant activity of stembark extract of M. elengi is due the presence of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the bark extract is a valuable source of natural antioxidants.

  19. Phenolic Extracts from Acacia mangium Bark and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 °C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  20. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-14

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  1. Natural Biodegradation of Phenolic Compounds in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of field data and theoretical approaches is used to assess the natural attenuation and status of a complex plume of phenolic compounds (phenol, cresols, xylenols) in a deep, consolidated, UK Permo-Triassic sandstone aquifer. Biodegradation of the phenolic compounds at concentrations up to 12500mg·L-1 is occurring under aerobic, NO-3-reducing, Mn/Fe-reducing, SO2-4-reducing and methanogenic conditions in the aquifer, with the accumulation of inorganic and organic metabolites in the plume. An electron and carbon balance for the plume suggests that only 6% of the source term has been degraded in 50 years. The residual contaminant mass in the plume significantly exceeds estimates of electron acceptor inputs, indicating that the plume will grow. Two detailed vertical profiles through the plume show that contaminant distributions are controlled more by source history than by biodegradation processes. Microbiological and mass balance studies show that biodegradation is greatest at the plume fringe where contaminant concentrations are diluted by transverse mixing. Active bacterial populations exist throughout the plume but biodegradation is inhibited in the plume core by high contaminant concentrations. Stable isotope studies show that SO2-4-reduction is particularly sensitive to contaminant concentration. The aquifer is not oxidant-deficient but natural attenuation of the phenolic compounds in this system is limited by toxicity from the pollutant load and the bioavailability of electron acceptors. Natural attenuation of these contaminants will increase only after increased dilution of the plume.

  2. Phenol-Rich Compounds Sweet Gel: A Statistically More Effective Antibiotic than Cloxacillin Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrab Dashtdar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to obtain a natural antibiotic from Phenol-rich compounds; for the dressing and the treatment of chronic wounds. Methods: The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was prepared by blending four natural herbal extracts, Acacia catechu (L.F., Momia (Shilajit,

  3. Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. In the last few years, the identification and development of phenolic compounds or extracts from different plants has become a major area of health- and medical-related research. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on phenolic extraction, purification, analysis and quantification as well as their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of phenolics in-vitro and in-vivo animal models are viewed, including recent human intervention studies. Finally, possible mechanisms of action involving antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity as well as interference with cellular functions are discussed.

  4. Soluble free phenolic compound contents and antioxidant capacity of bread and durum wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine phenolic compounds and the total antioxidant capacity in the grain of ten bread (T. aestivum L. and ten durum (T. durum Desf. wheat genotypes. Soluble free forms of total phenolics, flavonoids, PVPP (polyvinylpolypyrrolidone bound phenolics, proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids were investigated. In addition, the correlation coefficients between total antioxidant capacities and the concentration of different soluble free phenolic compounds, as well as between soluble free total phenolics and phenolic acids, flavonoids and PVPP bound phenolics were determined. Significant differences in the content of aceton/water extractable total phenolics, PVPP bound phenolics and phenolic acids between and within two wheat species were found. On the average, durum wheat samples had about 1.19-fold higher total phenolic compounds and about 1.5-fold higher PVPP bound phenolics than bread wheat samples. Three phenolic acids, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic, were detected in wholemeal bread wheat. Caffeic acid was not found in durum wheat samples whilst ferulic acid was the most abundant. Proanthocyanidins in bread and durum wheat genotypes were not detected. The antioxidant capacity measured as the DPPH radical scavenging activity was similar in wholemeal of bread and durum wheat, however, significant differences were observed among genotypes within species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31069

  5. The influence of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on the action of phenolic compounds Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan in the microbiological control of crude extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique F. dos; Silva, Edvane B. da, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR); Sena, Kesia Xisto da Fonseca R. de; Silva, Bruna L., E-mail: kxfrs@bol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Lima, Claudia S. de A., E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2009-07-01

    Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan, known popularly as angico is a tree founded in northeastern of Brazil, and has great economic and ecological interest. These trees are characterized by high levels of tannins. To evaluate the influence of gamma radiation in plant extracts of barks and leaves of angico, we got extracts of barks and leaves in 70% ethanol, which was filtered and evaporated until dryness. It were classified in four groups (non-irradiated, 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy). The total phenols were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteau method, and the tannins, using the precipitation of casein. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was observed using the paper disk diffusion methods against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, acid-alcohol-resistant bacteria: and yeasts. The halos greater than 10 mm were considered actives. It was also performed the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using Gram positive and alcohol-acid resistant bacteria. The results showed that tannins of A. colubrina, were 52 to 57% of total phenols, and leaves, 58 to 60%. The percentage of total phenols and tannins in the barks and leaves of A. colubrina have not statistically significant change when compared with the irradiated control. These results suggest that A. colubrina has antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive and alcohol-acid -resistant bacteria, confirmed by MIC. The extracts of leaves it was additionally actives against the Gram-negative and against the yeast C. albicans. These results show that the gamma radiation has not influence about the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of barks and leaves of A. colubrina. (author)

  6. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  7. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L. Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Abaza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analytical methods used to extract, identify, and/or quantify phenolic compounds in olive leaves.

  8. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L.) Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Leila; Taamalli, Amani; Nsir, Houda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2015-11-03

    Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analytical methods used to extract, identify, and/or quantify phenolic compounds in olive leaves.

  9. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Wild Blackberry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Mirosława; Wojdyło, Aneta; Cebulak, Tomasz; Oklejewicz, Krzysztof

    2015-06-26

    Twenty three different wild blackberry fruit samples were assessed regarding their phenolic profiles and contents (by LC/MS quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)) by two different extraction methods. Thirty four phenolic compounds were detected (8 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 3 hydroxycinnamic acids, 6 ellagic acid derivatives and 2 flavones). In samples, where pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was used for extraction, a greater increase in yields of phenolic compounds was observed, especially in ellagic acid derivatives (max. 59%), flavonols (max. 44%) and anthocyanins (max. 29%), than after extraction by the ultrasonic technique extraction (UAE) method. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the PLE method was more suitable for the quantitative extraction of flavonols, while the UAE method was for hydroxycinnamic acids.

  10. Influence of the acetification process on phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, W; Stumpf, C; Fürst, P

    2000-08-01

    Little is known about the change of phenolic compounds and total phenolic content by the acetification process. The aim of this study was to assess the contents of selected phenolic compounds of cider and red and white wines in comparison to phenolic profiles in corresponding vinegars by using a new HPLC method for the simultaneous separation and quantification of polar phenolic acids and less polar flavonoids. Identifications were made by retention times and by means of mass spectra. Additionally, total phenolic contents of wines and vinegars were determined photometrically. The decrease in total phenol content by the acetification process was highest for cider vinegars (40%) and lower for red and white wine vinegars (13 and 8%, respectively). A decrease in the contents of individual phenolic compounds of vinegars from white white and ciders was not observed. In contrast, the contents of individual phenolic compounds in red wine vinegar decreased approximately 50%.

  11. Phenolic compounds in Rosaceae fruits from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, Catalina; Riihinen, Kaisu; Ruales, Jenny; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    2009-02-25

    RP-HPLC-DAD was used to study the content of phenolic compounds in four Ecuadorian fruits (strawberry, Andean blackberry, plum, and capuli cherry). Compounds were identified using spectral characteristics of representative standards and reference samples. Further, LC-MS with MS/MS was used to confirm molecular assignments in previously unstudied capuli cherry. Gallic acid was detected in Andean blackberry, and galloyl esters were detected in strawberries. Both these berries contained ellagic acid derivatives as major compounds, followed by anthocyanins, cyanidin, and pelargonidin glycosides. Plums and capuli cherry showed similar profiles of phenolic compounds, with chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids being the most important hydroxycinnamates. (-)-Epicatechin was found in high amounts in Andean blackberry, plums, and capuli cherry, while (+)-catechin was only found in capuli cherry. Proanthocyanidins were major compounds in all fruits, and all contained considerable amounts of quercetin derivatives and smaller amounts of kaempferol derivatives. LC-MS analysis of capuli cherry revealed dimeric and trimeric procyanidins, quercetin and kaempferol hexosides and pentosides, and a kaempferol-O,C-dipentoside.

  12. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-01-01

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250

  13. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Ngoc Minh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight. The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes.

  14. Cytotoxic and Antimigratory Activities of Phenolic Compounds from Dendrobium brymerianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornprom Klongkumnuankarn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of a methanol extract prepared from the whole plant of Dendrobium brymerianum led to the isolation of eight phenolic compounds. Among the isolated compounds (1–8, moscatilin (1, gigantol (3, lusianthridin (4, and dendroflorin (6 showed appreciable cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 196.7, 23.4, 65.0, and 125.8 μg/mL, respectively, and exhibited antimigratory property at nontoxic concentrations. This study is the first report on the biological activities of this plant.

  15. Differences in the Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera Seeds Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power.

  16. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenol compounds from Ligustrum lucidum fructus by response surface method%响应面法优化女贞子多酚的超声提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵岩; 徐莹; 徐殿文; 郭世杰; 蔡恩博; 刘双利; 杨鹤; 张连学

    2015-01-01

    目的:利用响应面分析法对女贞子多酚的提取工艺进行优化,为女贞子多酚的工业化提取和综合利用奠定基础。方法在单因素试验的基础上,利用响应面分析法考察乙醇的体积分数、液固比、超声提取时间对多酚提取率的影响,并以多酚提取率为响应值,模拟得到二次多项式回归方程的预测模型。结果女贞子多酚类化合物的最佳超声提取工艺为乙醇体积分数12.3%、超声提取时间14.2 min、液固比96.5 mL/g,在最佳工艺条件下多酚得率为6.15%。结论该工艺简单、合理、耗能低,多酚提取率高、速度快、得到的多酚提取物无有毒试剂残留,该工艺适合工业化生产,为女贞子多酚的综合利用奠定了基础。%Objective To optimize the extraction process of phenol compounds from Ligustrum lucidum by response surface method in order to provide theoretical parameters for its exploiture extraction and comprehensive utilization. Methods On the basis of single-factor experiments, the influence of ethanol concentration, liquid-solid ratio, and ultrasonic extraction time on extraction rate of the phenol was analyzed by response surface method, regarding extraction ratio of the phenol as the response value to get the forecast model of quadratic polynomial equation. Results The optimum conditions for extracting phenol compounds from Ligustrum lucidum were found as follow: ethanol concentration 12.3%, ultrasonic extraction time 14.2 min, and liquid-solid ratio 96.5 mL/g. Under these optimum conditions, the yield of polyphenols was 6.15%. Conclusion This optimized extraction technology is simple, reliable and efficient for polyphenols extraction, and there is no poisonous reagents in the polyphenols extraction. The process is suitable for industrialize production, which lays a foundation for the comprehensive utilization of fruits Ligustrum lucidum polyphenols.

  17. Betalains and phenolics in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) peel extracts: extraction and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, T; Loponen, J; Pihlaja, K

    2001-01-01

    The extraction of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) peel betalains and phenolics was compared with two extraction methods and solvents. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined according to a modification of the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The profiles of extracts were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compounds of beetroot peel extracted with 80% aqueous methanol were characterised from separated fractions using HPLC- diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) techniques. The extraction methods and the choice of solvent affected noticeably the content of individual compounds in the extract. The betalains found in beetroot peel extract were vulgaxanthin I, vulgaxanthin II, indicaxanthin, betanin, prebetanin, isobetanin and neobetanin. Also cyclodopa glucoside, N-formylcyclodopa glucoside, glucoside of dihydroxyindol-carboxylic acid, betalamic acid, L-tryptophan, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and traces of unidentified flavonoids were detected.

  18. Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... of phenols, COD and nitrogenous compounds in the wastewater. Keywords: ammonia ... Biological treatment has been widely used only to treat the ..... MOLVA M (2004) Removal of phenol from industrial wastewa- ters using ...

  19. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Gözlekçi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar" was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.

  20. Dietary phenolic compounds and vitamin e bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The human diet contains a vast number of dietary phenolic compounds of which vitamin E represents only one class. Vitamin E is a generic name for all substances exerting the biological functions of α-tocopherol. The two quantitatively most important E vitamers are α- and γ-tocopherol (α-T and γ-T). The fat soluble vitamin E is absorbed and transported in the circulation to the liver where α-T is preferentially re-secreted into the bloodstream while the other vitamers are degraded by cytochrom...

  1. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from Gynura divaricata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Wan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenolic constituents were the principle bioactivity compounds exist in Gynura divaricata, little phenolic compounds were reported from the plant previously. Materials and Methods: 60% ethanol extract from the leaves of Gynura divaricata were isolated and purified by column chromatography of Silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified by UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques. Additionally, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-mass (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analytical method was developed to identify some minor constituents in the n-butanol fraction of the ethanol extract of Gynura divaricata. Results: Six flavonols and one Dicaffeoylquinic acid were isolated from the leaves of Gynura divaricata, and these compounds were identified as follows: quercetin (1, kaempferol (2, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (4, kaempferol-3,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7. A total of 13 compounds, including 9 flavonol glycosides and 4 phenolic acids, were tentatively identified by comparing their retention time (RT, UV, and MS spectrum values with those that had been identified and the published data. Conclusion: This was the first time to use the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method to identify the phytochemicals of the genera Gynura. Moreover, compounds (6 and (7 have been isolated for the first time from the genus Gynura.

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of individual and combined phenolics in Olea europaea leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2010-05-01

    Olive leaves, an agricultural waste, have great potential as a natural antioxidant. The current study was made to assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both the individual and combined phenolics in olive leaf extract. A combined phenolics mixture was prepared by amount ratios of the phenolic compounds in the olive leaf extract. The results showed that both the individual and combined phenolics exhibited good radical scavenging abilities, and also revealed superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. In terms of antimicrobial activity, both oleuropein and caffeic acid showed inhibition effects against microorganisms. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect of the combined phenolics was significantly higher than those of the individual phenolics. These results show that the combination of olive leaf extract phenolics possessed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. This study indicates that olive leaf extract might be a valuable bioactive source, and would seem to be applicable in both the health and medical food.

  3. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants.

  4. Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

  5. Characterization of phenolic compounds from lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Sari; Kartimo, Heikki; Mattila, Sampo; Tolonen, Ari

    2006-12-27

    Phenolic compounds from the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were identified using LC-TOFMS, LC-MS/MS, and NMR experiments. The compounds were extracted from the plant material using methanol in an ultrasonicator and further isolated and purified using solid-phase extraction and preparative liquid chromatographic techniques. A total of 28 phenolic compounds were at least tentatively identified, including flavonols, anthocyanidins, catechins and their glycosides, and different caffeoyl and ferulic acid conjugates. This is apparently the first report of coumaroyl-hexose-hydroxyphenol, caffeoyl-hexose-hydroxyphenol, coumaroyl-hexose-hydroxyphenol, quercetin-3-O-alpha-arabinofuranoside, kaempferol-pentoside, and kaempferol-deoxyhexoside in the plant, and the flavonol acylglycosides quercetin-3-O-[4' '-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl)]-alpha-rhamnose and kaempferol-3-O-[4' '-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl)]-alpha-rhamnose are presented here for the first time ever. In addition, more detailed structure in comparison to earlier reports is described for some compounds previously known to exist in lingonberry.

  6. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  7. Potentiation of the bioavailability of blueberry phenolic compounds by co-ingested grape phenolic compounds in mice, revealed by targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Dubé, Pascal; Varin, Thibault V; Calon, Frédéric; Desjardins, Yves

    2016-08-10

    The low bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds, resulting from poor absorption and high rates of metabolism and excretion, is a concern as it can limit their potential beneficial effects on health. Targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces of mice supplemented for 15 days with a blueberry extract, a grape extract or their combination revealed significantly increased plasma concentrations (3-5 fold) of blueberry phenolic metabolites in the presence of a co-ingested grape extract, associated with an equivalent decrease in their appearance in feces. Additionally, the repeated daily administration of the blueberry-grape combination significantly increased plasma phenolic concentrations (2-3-fold) compared to animals receiving only a single acute dose, with no such increase being observed with individual extracts. These findings highlight a positive interaction between blueberry and grape constituents, in which the grape extract enhanced the absorption of blueberry phenolic compounds. This study provides for the first time in vivo evidence of such an interaction occurring between co-ingested phenolic compounds from fruit extracts leading to their improved bioavailability.

  8. Monitoring the phenolic compounds of Greek extra-virgin olive oils during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Kali; Tasioula-Margari, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples, of five Greek olive varieties, were stored in dark glass bottles (headspace 0.5%) in a basement without central heating for 24 months. Quantitative variations of the phenolic compounds and their degradation products were monitored over time. The differences observed in the initial total phenolic compounds concentration (ranging between 250.77 and 925.75 mg/kg) were attributed to extraction system, olive variety, and maturity stage. Even after 24 months, the degree of reduction in total phenolic compounds did not exceed 31%. The reduction was more pronounced in dialdehydic forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones (DAFOA and DAFLA), indicating a more active participation in the hydrolysis and oxidation processes of the more polar secoiridoids. The initial total phenolic content was the main factor correlated to the degradation rate of the phenolic compounds. The decrease in secoiridoid derivatives, gave rise to hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol content and to the formation of four oxidized products.

  9. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Archela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main constituents in wines is the phenolic compounds that comprise the phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. Those have an important paper on the wines properties like flavor, appearance, astringent and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, phenolics have been extensively study in having antioxidant properties that may help in the prevention of disease like certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, strokes and other diseases related to aging. So is important the development of the phenolic compounds determination methods to be more selective, fast and easy operation. This paper brings a review of the methods employed on phenolics determination until this year.

  10. ORAChromatography and total phenolics content of peanut root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kevin W; Balota, Maria; Eigel, William N; Mallikarjunan, Parameswarakumar; Tanko, James M; Zhou, Kequan; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2011-04-01

    A large number of compounds have been reported in peanut plants. Many of these compounds are phytoalexins, which are produced by plants experiencing environmental stress and often exhibit antioxidant activity. It is difficult to determine which of the many compounds has the greatest impact on total antioxidant capacity in a mixture. The objectives of this research were to examine the oxygen-radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) value and total phenolic contents of peanut root extracts and peanut root extract fractions collected via HPLC. Peanut roots were extracted from four different cultivars (Brantley, NC-12, Phillips, and Wilson) with 70% aqueous ethanol with ultrasonic assistance. Each cultivar was sampled in duplicate. The extracts were fractionated into 18 3-min fractions by HPLC using a C-18 column. Fractions and crude extracts were freeze dried. ORAC values and total phenolic content were then determined for all fractions and crude extracts. Fractions had a significant effect on the μM TE/mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE). ORAC values ranged from -46.89 μM TE to 185 μM TE in HPLC fractions. ORAChromatography can be used to focus on antioxidants in complex samples.

  11. In vitro study of antioxidant and scavenger properties of phenolic compounds from Lychnophora species

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    Cristiane F. F. Grael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the antioxidant effects of thirteen phenolic compounds isolated from plants of the genus Lychnophora. Two assays were performed to evaluate these effects: a cellular test that measured the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence produced by neutrophils stimulated with opsonized zymosan and a cell-free test involving horseradish peroxidase-H2O2-luminol. In both assays, the antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds was dependent on their concentration and chemical structure. Our results suggest that the ability of phenolic compounds from Lychnophora species to scavenge and inhibit the generation of ROS may be a mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Lychnophora spp.

  12. Biological activity of acetylated phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Apostolakis, Constantinos; Pliakis, Emmanuel; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi

    2007-01-10

    In recent years an effort has been made to isolate and identify biologically active compounds that are included in the Mediterranean diet. The existence of naturally occurring acetylated phenolics, as well as studies with synthetic ones, provide evidence that acetyl groups could be correlated with their biological activity. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is implicated in atherosclerosis, whereas its inhibitors seem to play a protective role against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the biological activity of resveratrol and tyrosol and their acetylated derivatives as inhibitors of PAF-induced washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Acetylation of resveratrol and tyrosol was performed, and separation was achieved by HPLC. Acetylated derivatives were identified by negative mass spectrometry. The data showed that tyrosol and its monoacetylated derivatives act as PAF inhibitors, whereas diacetylated derivatives induce platelet aggregation. Resveratrol and its mono- and triacetylated derivatives exert similar inhibitory activity, whereas the diacetylated ones are more potent inhibitors. In conclusion, acetylated phenolics exert the same or even higher antithrombotic activity compared to the biological activity of the initial one.

  13. Identification of phenolic compounds in tissues of the novel olive cultivar hardy's mammoth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Danielle; Antolovich, Michael; Herlt, Tony; Prenzler, Paul D; Lavee, Shimon; Robards, Kevin

    2002-11-06

    A methodological approach to phenolic profiling making extensive use of LC-MS with extracted ion chromatograms was applied to extracts of five different olive tissues: pulp, seed, stone, new-season leaves, and old-season leaves. Tissue extracts of the cultivars Hardy's Mammoth, Corregiola, Verdale, and Manzanillo were analyzed by HPLC with UV and ESI MS detection. Chromatograms of samples of green Hardy's Mammoth drupes, a uniquely Australian olive cultivar, were dominated by a large, broad peak. This peak was not attributable to oleuropein, which is usually the dominant phenolic compound in green olive fruit, but the phenolic compound I. This compound was isolated by semipreparative HPLC and characterized by 1D- and 2D-NMR. Extraction studies showed that the compound was not likely to be an artifact of an enzymatic degradation process. Tritium labeling studies were used to establish a possible relationship between the biosynthesis of I and oleuropein.

  14. Two new phenolic compounds from Ardisia gigantifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yang; Ping Wen; Nai Li Wang; Xin Sheng Yao

    2008-01-01

    Two new compounds were isolated from the 60% ethanol extract of the dried rhizome of Ardisia gigantifolia Stapf. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods as (+)-5-(1,2-dihydroxypentyl)-benzene-1,3-diol and (-)-5-(1,2-dihydroxypentyl) benzene-1,3-diol.

  15. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  16. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lisa; Cicerale, Sara

    2016-12-16

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  17. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

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    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  18. Supercritical Extraction from Vinification Residues: Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, and Phenolic Compounds in the Oil Seeds from Different Varieties of Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agostini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel, harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40% in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%, 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives.

  19. Effects of Ultrasonic Irradiation on Phenolic Compounds in Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    2000-05-01

    Red wine has been of interest recently because many poly-phenols, that are considered to be good for health, are contained therein. Since ultrasonic irradiation accelerates maturation, its effects on phenolic compounds in wine were investigated in this study. Effects were evaluated using the indices developed by Glories. It was found that weak ultrasonic irradiation promotes an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds in red wine.

  20. Spectroscopic analysis of phenolic compounds for food and feed formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit several bioactive properties including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal characteristics with potential applications as additives in functional food and feed formulations. Phenolic compounds occur in plants as secondary metabolites and may be recovered as a co-...

  1. Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Euphorbia Tirucalli L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keline Medeiros de Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources can benefit human health. The aim of this work was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. followed by identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds, as well as their antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS•+ assay. Identification of phenolic compounds was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and antimicrobial activities were verified by agar dilution methods and MIC values. Total phenolic content ranged from 7.73 to 30.54 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalent. Extracts from dry plants showed higher antioxidant activities than those from fresh ones. The DPPH EC50 values were approximately 12.15 μg/mL and 16.59 μg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS method yielded values higher than 718.99 μM trolox/g for dry plants, while by the Rancimat® system yielded protection factors exceeding 1 for all extracts, comparable to synthetic BHT. Ferulic acid was the principal phenolic compound identified and quantified through HPLC-UV in all extracts. The extracts proved effective inhibitory potential for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results showed that extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. have excellent antioxidant capacity and moderate antimicrobial activity. These can be attributed to the high concentration of ferulic acid.

  2. Influence of various phenolic compounds on phenol hydroxylase activity of a Trichosporon cutaneum strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerginova, Maria; Manasiev, Jordan; Shivarova, Nedka; Alexieva, Zlatka

    2007-01-01

    The phenol-degrading strain Trichosporon cutaneum R57 utilizes various aromatic and aliphatic compounds as a sole carbon and energy source. The intracellular activities of phenol hydroxylase [EC 1.14.13.7] of a Trichosporon cutaneum R57 strain grown on phenol (0.5 g/l) were measured. Different toxic phenol derivatives (cresols, nitrophenols and hydroxyphenols) were used as substrates in the reaction mixture for determination of the enzyme activity. The data obtained showed that the investigated enzyme was capable to hydroxylate all applied aromatic substrates. The measured activities of phenol hydroxylase varied significantly depending on the aromatic compounds used as substrates. The rate of phenol hydroxylase activity with phenol as a substrate (1.0 U/mg total cell protein) was accepted as 100%.

  3. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

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    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  4. Effect of Steam Blanching and Drying on Phenolic Compounds of Litchi Pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessy, Honest N E; Hu, Zhuoyan; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Molin

    2016-06-03

    The effects of different treatment methods on the stability and antioxidant capacity of the bioactive phenolic compounds of litchi pericarps were investigated. Fresh litchi pericarps were open air-dried, steam-blanched for 3 min in combination with hot air oven drying at 60 and 80 °C, and unblanched pericarps were dried in a hot air oven at 40, 60, 70 and 80 °C until equilibrium weight was reached. The total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and individual procyanidins, and antioxidant activity were analyzed. The combination of blanching and drying at 60 °C significantly (p phenolic compounds, individual procyanidins, and the extracts' antioxidant capacity compared with the unblanched hot air oven-dried and open air-dried pericarps. Drying of fresh unblanched litchi pericarps in either open air or a hot air oven caused significant losses (p phenolic compounds and individual procyanidins, leading to a reduction in the antioxidant activity. A similar increase, retention or reduction was reflected in flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins because they are sub-groups of phenolic compounds. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity of the treated pericarps were significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.927, p phenolic compounds. Thus, the combination of steam blanching and drying treatments of fresh litchi pericarps could produce a stable and dry litchi pericarp that maintains phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity as a raw material for further recovery of the phytochemicals.

  5. Dynamic changes in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in oats (Avena nuda L.) during steeping and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Guo; Tian, Cheng Rui; Hu, Qing Ping; Luo, Ji Yang; Wang, Xiang Dong; Tian, Xiang Dong

    2009-11-11

    Samples from naked oat were steeped and germinated under controlled conditions in an incubator. Changes of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were investigated in oats during steeping and germination. Results revealed that phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of oats varied with the difference in steeping and germination stages. Compared with raw grains, short-term steeping treatment did not show significant effects (p > 0.05) on phenolic content. Germination can significantly result in the decrease in bound phenolic and the increase in free and total phenolics. Main phenolic acids and avenanthramides were isolated and quantified by HPLC analysis. During steeping, phenolic acids decreased (p 0.05). During germination, gallic and caffeic acids first increased (p 0.05) during the last stage of germination. Oat extracts exhibited increasing high antioxidant activity with the steeping and germination going on, which may explain that antioxidant activity correlated (p < 0.01) significantly with the content of phenolic compounds.

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Phenolics Extracted from Ananas comosus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikarimayum HARIPYAREE; Kshetrimayum GUNESHWOR; Maibam DAMAYANTI

    2010-01-01

    Phenolics were extracted from the fruit tissues of Ananas comosus L. var. queen, cv. �Meitei Keehom�, a variety of pineapple grown in Manipur, India, after skin peeling, purified and their antioxidant properties were analyzed. The antioxidant properties were assessed based on the ability of fruit phenolics in absolute methanol to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals and compared to antioxidant compounds like ascorbic acid and pyragallol. Pineapple fruit phenolics sca...

  7. Optimization of extraction conditions of total phenolics, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanin of oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Banat, Fawzi; Rababah, Anfal; Ereifej, Khalil; Yang, Wade

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic extracts and antioxidant activity and anthocyanins of varieties of the investigated plants. These plants include oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate. The optimum extraction conditions including temperature and solvent of the extraction process itself were investigated. Total phenolic and anthocyanin extracts were examined according to Folin-Ciocalteu assay and Rabino and Mancinelli method, respectively. The effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on extracts of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins were studied. Plant samples were evaluated for their antioxidant chemical activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl assay, to determine their potential as a source of natural antioxidant. Results showed that all tested plants exhibited appreciable amounts of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract (60 °C) of sour pomegranate peel contained the highest phenolic extract (4952.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Terebinth green seed had the lowest phenolic extract (599.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Anthocyanins ranged between 3.5 (terebinth red seed) and 0.2 mg/100 g of dry material (thyme). Significant effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on total phenolics and anthocyanin extracts were found. The methanol and 60 °C of extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting phenolic compounds. The distilled water and 60 °C extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting anthocyanin.

  8. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S; da Silva, Juliana; Sousa, Karen; Ambrozio, Mariana L; de Almeida, Aline; Dos Santos, Carla Eliete I; Dias, Johnny F; Allgayer, Mariangela C; Dos Santos, Marcela S; Pereira, Patrícia; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Picada, Jaqueline N

    2016-01-01

    Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200-2,000 mg kg(-1)). The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg(-1). However, PSAE (50-200 mg·kg(-1)) and the phenolic compounds (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients.

  9. Phenolic compounds among the bioactive molecules in Ginkgo biloba L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The interest for natural antioxidants has been increasing over the years. Phenolic compounds comprise a very large group of biologically active molecules, being appreciated for their beneficial effects on health (physiologically active compounds with anti-allergic, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects) [1-3]. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic compounds of Ginkgo biloba L...

  10. Triterpenes and phenolic compounds in apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Yanrong

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), a popular and widely cultivated fruit world-wide, contains bioactive triterpenes and phenolic compounds with potentially valuable pharmacological functions. This thesis investigated the effects of pre-harvest and postharvest factors on concentrations of these bioactive compounds in apples. It also studied the effect of ozone treatment, before or during storage, combined with cold storage on triterpene and phenolic compound concentrations in apples and the ant...

  11. Health promoting and sensory properties of phenolic compounds in food

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; Mariana Veras de Carvalho; Lauro Melo

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds have been extensively studied in recent years. The presence of these compounds in various foods has been associated with sensory and health promoting properties. These products from the secondary metabolism of plants act as defense mechanisms against environmental stress and attack by other organisms. They are divided into different classes according to their chemical structures. The objective of this study was to describe the different classes of phenolic compounds, the ma...

  12. Phenolic compounds: their journey after intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velderrain-Rodríguez, G R; Palafox-Carlos, H; Wall-Medrano, A; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Chen, C-Y O; Robles-Sánchez, M; Astiazaran-García, H; Alvarez-Parrilla, E; González-Aguilar, G A

    2014-02-01

    Plant foods are rich in phenolic compounds (PCs) that display multifaceted bioactions in health promotion and disease prevention. To exert their bioactivity, they must be delivered to and absorbed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, transported in circulation, and reach the target tissues. During the journey from ingestion to target tissues and final excretion, PCs are subjected to modifications by many factors during their absorption, deposition, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and consequently their bioefficacy may be modified. Consistent with all nutrients in foods, PCs must first be released from the food matrix through mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic forces to facilitate absorption along the GI tract, particularly in the upper small intestine section. Further, glycosylation of PCs directs the route of their absorption with glycones being transported through active transportation and aglycones through passive diffusion. After enteral absorption, the majority of PCs are extensively transformed by the detoxification system in enterocytes and liver for excretion in bile, feces, and urine. The journey of PCs from consumption to excretion appears to be comparable to many synthetic medications, but with some dissimilarities in their fate and bioactivity after phase I and II metabolism. The overall bioavailability of PCs is determined mainly by chemical characteristics, bioaccessibility, and ADME. In this review, factors accounting for variation in PCs bioavailability are discussed because this information is crucial for validation of the health benefits of PCs and their mechanism of action.

  13. Bioactivity of phenolic acids: Metabolites versus parent compounds: A review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids are present in our diet in different foods. In particular, mushrooms are a good source of these molecules. Due to their bioactive properties, phenolic acids are extensively studied and there is evidence of their role in disease prevention. Nevertheless, in vivo, these compounds are metabolized and circulate in the organism as glucuronated, sulfated and methylated metabolites, displaying higher or lower bioactivity. To clarify the importance of the metabolism of phenolic acids, ...

  14. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga García-Martínez

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63 proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11-16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18-22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9-13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis in adulthood and the elderly.

  15. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11–16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18–22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9–13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly. PMID:26930190

  16. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11-16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18-22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9-13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly.

  17. Spectrophotometric Assays of Major Compounds Extracted from Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Solène

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes spectrophotometric assays of major compounds extracted from microalgae and macroalgae, i.e., proteins, carbohydrates, pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobiliproteins) and phenolic compounds. In contrast to other specific analytical techniques, such as high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) or mass spectrometry (MS), commonly applied to purified extracts to reveal more detailed composition and structure of algal compound families, these assays serve as a first assessment of the global contents of extracts.

  18. Evaluation of phenolic compounds of two Lygeum spartum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGS

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... The plant is of interest due to its tolerance to environmental stress. There are two levels ... (2007) found that the L. spartum could be found in soils ... 2010). Phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids and .... factors (such as geographic and climatic factors), genetic factors .... bicolor) and sorghum products.

  19. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of mulberry (Morus spp. L., Moraceae extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojković Marija M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry (Morus spp. L., Moraceae fruits, leaves, bark and branch have been used in traditional medicine as diuretic, hypoglycemic and hypotensive. The mechanism of their effects is correlated with the content of active components. Objective of this work was to evaluate and compare antioxidant properties of different extracts of two Morus species growing in Serbia: Morus alba L. (white mulberry and Morus nigra L. (black mulberry. Potential antioxidant activity, content of antioxidant compounds (phenolics and flavonoids and radical scavenging capacity, tested by DPPH method, were evaluated. The phenolic and flavonoid composition of different Morus extracts was determined by the HPLC method. The extracts prepared from fruits, leaves and roots of M. alba and M. nigra exhibited different characteristics. The highest extraction yield was achieved by M. alba leaves extraction (23.40%. M. nigra roots extract shown the highest total phenolics (186.30 mg CAE/g, while highest total flavonoids content (67.37 mg RE/g was determined for M. nigra leaves extracts. In addition, black mulberry leaves extracts with the highest antioxidant activity had the highest phenolic acids contents. The dominant phenolic components in the samples were rutin and chlorogenic acid. All investigated mulberry dry extracts shown high content of phenolic compounds and significant antioxidant activity. This work contributes to knowledge of the antioxidant properties of Morus species. The obtained results may be useful in the evaluation of new dietary supplements and food products.

  20. Effect of phenolic compounds on the rapid direct enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-15

    May 15, 2009 ... Wastewater treatment plant and other effluents (e.g. tannery ... As phenolic compounds have extensive industrial applica- ... The European Union (EU) lists the ... microtitre-plate reader (Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc., USA). All.

  1. Artificial neural network modelling of the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of bananas submitted to different drying treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Barroca, Maria João; Gonçalves, Fernando J; Alves, Mariana; Oliveira, Solange; Mendes, Mateus

    2015-02-01

    Bananas (cv. Musa nana and Musa cavendishii) fresh and dried by hot air at 50 and 70°C and lyophilisation were analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. All samples were subject to six extractions (three with methanol followed by three with acetone/water solution). The experimental data served to train a neural network adequate to describe the experimental observations for both output variables studied: total phenols and antioxidant activity. The results show that both bananas are similar and air drying decreased total phenols and antioxidant activity for both temperatures, whereas lyophilisation decreased the phenolic content in a lesser extent. Neural network experiments showed that antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds can be predicted accurately from the input variables: banana variety, dryness state and type and order of extract. Drying state and extract order were found to have larger impact in the values of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds.

  2. ULTRASONIC-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF ANTIOXIDANT PHENOLIC COUMPOUNDS FROM EUCHEUMA COTTONII

    OpenAIRE

    Dyah Hesti Wardhani; Denni Kartika Sari; Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2014-01-01

    The influences of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions on phenolic compounds of Eucheuma cottonii seaweeed were investigated. The effects of temperature, time and liquid-solid ratio were evaluated based on the total phenolic content (TPC). The result showed a significant variability of effect of temperature, time, and liquid-solid ratio on TPC. Application of ultrasound reduced the optimum temperature, time and liquid-solid ratio of the extraction when compared to the conventional ...

  3. Phenolic compounds in Rosaceae fruit and nut crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogah, Onwuchekwa; Watkins, Carolyn S; Ubi, Benjamin Ewa; Oraguzie, Nnadozie C

    2014-10-01

    The demand for new fruit cultivars with high levels of phytochemicals, in particular phenolic compounds, has received increasing attention from biochemists, pharmaceutical companies, plant breeders, and the general public due to their health benefits. This review focuses on the economically important Rosaceae, which contains varying proportions and concentrations of these compounds. The paper discusses the common phenolics in the Rosaceae including phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols, anthocyanins, and dihydrochalcones. The nonextractable phenolics are also presented but not discussed in detail. The metabolism and bioavailability of phenolics, as well as human and environmental factors that affect their concentration and composition, are highlighted. Furthermore, the paper presents different approaches for biofortification and posits that breeding may be the most viable and sustainable option as it improves other fruit quality traits simultaneously and increases confidence in adoption of new cultivars with enhanced consumer appeal.

  4. Influence of microwaves treatment of rapeseed on phenolic compounds and canolol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Zheng, Chang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, Changsheng; Li, Wenlin; Huang, Fenghong

    2014-02-26

    Rapeseeds were treated with microwaves under 800 W for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 min at a frequency of 2450 MHz, and oil was extracted with a press to investigate the influence on phenolic compounds, including sinapine, the main free phenolic acids, and canolol content in the rapeseeds and oil from them. The results indicated that sinapine and sinapic acid was the main phenolic compound and free phenolic acid in the rapeseed, respectively, and canolol was the main phenolic compound in the oil from rapeseed by cold press. Microwave treatment significantly influenced phenolic compounds content in the rapeseeds and oil from them. The sinapine, sinapic acid, and canolol content in rapeseed first increased and then decreased depending on the period of microwave radiation (p rapeseed increased to the maximum and was approximately six times greater than that of the unroasted rapeseed. The amount of canolol formed was significantly correlated with the content of sinapic acid and sinapine (for sinapic acid, r = -0.950, p oil extracted by press. Almost all of the sinapine remained in the cold-pressed cake and only 1.4-2.7% of the sinapic acid, whereas approximately 56-83% of the canolol was transferred to the oil. The transfer ratio of canolol significantly increased with microwave radiation time (p rapeseed benefited improving the oxidative stability of oil.

  5. Profile analysis and correlation across phenolic compounds, isoflavones and antioxidant capacity during germination of soybeans (Glycine max L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guzmán-Ortiz, Fabiola A; San Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Valverde, María E; Rodríguez-Aza, Yolanda; Berríos, José De J; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of germination on the content of phenolic compounds, isoflavones and antioxidant activity of soybean extracts obtained from ungerminated soy...

  6. TLC analysis of some phenolic compounds in kombucha beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Black and green tea contains a wide range of natural phenolic compounds Flavanoids and their glycosides, catechins and the products of their condensation, and phenolic acids are the most important. Kombucha beverage is obtained by fermentation of tea fungus on black or green tea sweetened with sucrose. The aim of this paper was to investigate the composition of some phenolic compounds, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, myricetin, gallic and tanic acid, and monitoring of their status during tea fungus fermentation. The method used for this study was thin layer chromatography with two different systems. The main phenolic compounds in the samples with green tea were catechin and epicatechin, and in the samples with black tea it was quercetin.

  7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Acacia confusa flowers and buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu Tang; Chang, Wei Chun; Chen, Ping Sheng; Chang, Tzu Cheng; Chang, Shang Tzen

    2011-04-01

    Acacia confusa Merr. (Leguminosae), a species native to Taiwan, is widely distributed on the hills and lowlands of Taiwan, and has been used in traditional medicines. In this study, the application of ultrasound-assisted extraction was used to extract the phenolic compounds from A. confusa flowers and buds for the first time. Among the extraction methods, it can significantly enhance the contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in A. confusa flower and bud extracts using ultrasound-assisted extraction (10  min×12 times). Considering both the solvent consumption and the time needed for extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction was found to be the most practical approach for the rapid and efficient extraction of bioactive phenolic constituents. In addition, gallic acid, myricitrin-3-rhamnoside, quercitrin-3-rhamnoside, europetin-3-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, rhamnetin-3-glucoside, and rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside were also quantified in different extracts by RP-HPLC. It is clear that ultrasound-assisted extraction is an efficient method for extracting phenolic compounds from A. confusa flowers and buds.

  8. Antioxidant activity relationship of phenolic compounds in Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Slobodan S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum; Clusiaceae has been used in traditional and modern medicine for a long time due to its high content of biologically active phenolics. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for their fractionation and identification, and to determine the most active antioxidant compounds in plant extract. Results An LC-MS method which enables fast qualitative and semiquantitative analysis was developed. The composition determined is in agreement with the previous results, where 6 flavonoids, 4 naphthodianthrones and 4 phloroglucinols have been identified. Significant antioxidant activity was determined for most of the fractions by DPPH assay (the lowest IC50 of 0.52 μg/ml, NO scavenging (6.11 μg/ml, superoxide scavenging (1.86 μg/ml, lipid peroxidation (0.0079 μg/ml and FRAP (the highest reduction capacity of 104 mg Fe equivalents/g assays. Conclusion LC-MS technique has been successfully applied for a quick separation and identification of the major components of H. perforatum fractions. Majority of the fractions analyzed have expressed a very high antioxidative activity when compared to synthetic antioxidants. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to flavonoids and phenolic acids, while phloroglucinols and naphthodianthrones showed no significant activity. It is demonstrated that it is possible to obtain, by fractionation, H. perforatum preparations with significantly increased phloroglucinols-to-naphthodianthrones ratio (up to 95:5.

  9. Comparison of biological activity of phenolic fraction from roots of Alhagi maurorum with properties of commercial phenolic extracts and resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds have different biological properties, including antioxidative activities, but they may also be prooxidants. The effect of phenolic fraction from roots of Alhagi maurorum on oxidative protein/lipid damages (determined by such parameters as levels of protein thiol groups and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive species--TBARS) in human blood platelets and human plasma after treatment with hydrogen peroxide--H2O2 (which is the strong biologic oxidant and inflammatory mediator) was studied in vitro. We also studied the effect of A. maurorum extract on blood platelet activation corresponding to thrombin-induced arachidonic acid pathway. Moreover, the present work was designed to study the effect of A. maurorum extract on selected physiological function of blood platelets--adhesion of blood platelets to collagen in vitro. The action of phenolic fraction from A. maurorum was compared with the selected commercial phenolic extracts: extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox®), extract from bark of Yucca schidigera and monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). Exposure of blood platelets or plasma to H2O2 resulted in a decrease of the level of thiol groups in proteins, and an increase of TBARS. In the presence of phenolic fraction from A. maurorum (0.5-50 µg/ml), a reduction of thiol groups oxidation together with the decrease of autoperoxidation of lipids and lipid peroxidation caused by H2O2 or thrombin was observed. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of A. maurorum extract on adhesion of thrombin-activated platelets to collagen were also found. The phenolic fraction from A. maurorum acts as an antioxidant and can be useful as the natural factor protecting against diseases associated with oxidative stress. Tested fraction from A. maurorum has more effective antioxidative activity and antiplatelet properties than aronia extract or other commercial extract, however differences between their actions

  10. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos S. Porto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200–2,000 mg kg−1. The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg−1. However, PSAE (50–200 mg·kg−1 and the phenolic compounds (10–100 mg·kg−1 did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10–100 mg·kg−1 decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients.

  11. Determination of phenolic compounds by a polyphenol oxidase amperometric biosensor and artificial neural network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutés, A; Céspedes, F; Alegret, S; del Valle, M

    2005-02-15

    The determination of phenolic compounds is significant given its toxicity, even at very low concentration levels. Amperometric determination of phenols is a simple technique available. Direct oxidation of phenols can be used, but another possibility is the use of polyphenol oxidase (tyrosinase) enzyme biosensors that oxidises the phenolic compounds into their corresponding quinones. Reduction of the resulting quinones accomplishes the amplification of the amperometric signal, as long as the result of the reduction process is the corresponding cathecol, this being able to be oxidised again by the polyphenol oxidase immobilized on the surface of the biosensor. In this communication, simultaneous determination of different phenols was carried out combining biosensor measurements with chemometric tools, in what is known as electronic tongue. The departure information used was the overlapped reduction voltammogram generated with the amperometric biosensor based on polyphenol oxidase. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used for extraction and quantification of each compound. Phenol, cathecol and m-cresol formed the three-analyte study case resolved in this work. Good prediction ability was attained, and so, the separate quantification of these three phenols was accomplished.

  12. Analysis of twenty phenolic compounds in human urine: hydrochloric acid hydrolysis, solid-phase extraction based on K2CO 3-treated silica, and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dasheng; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; Lin, Yuanjie; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; She, Jianwen; Xu, Qian; Wu, Chunhua; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2015-05-01

    This study developed a new method for the analysis of 20 phenolic compounds in human urine. The urine samples were prepared by hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup. We found that HCl hydrolysis is of similar effectiveness to, and much cheaper than, the traditional enzymatic method. Vanillic acid was co-eluted with butyl paraben and interfered with the determination of butyl paraben in urine. K2CO3-treated-silica-gel SPE was designed to efficiently eliminate interference from the endogenous organic acids (especially vanillic acid) in urine. After derivatization, the samples were analyzed by large-volume-injection gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS-MS). Good linearity (R (2) ≥ 0.996) was established in the range 0.1-100 ng mL(-1) for all analytes. Method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.7-9.8 pg mL(-1). Intraday (n = 5) and interday (n = 5 days) validation was performed, with satisfactory accuracy (recovery: 70-126 % and 73-107 %, respectively) and precision (RSD ≤ 19 %) at two levels (low: 0.1 and 0.5 ng mL(-1); high: 5 and 10 ng mL(-1)). The method was used in a population study and achieved more than 85 % detection for most analytes; mean analyte concentrations were in the range 0.01-185 ng mL(-1). The method is suitable for the analysis of multiple phenolic metabolites in human urine.

  13. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Dekdouk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects.

  14. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekdouk, Nadia; Malafronte, Nicola; Russo, Daniela; Faraone, Immacolata; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Ameddah, Souad; Severino, Lorella; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. PMID:26557862

  15. Total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents in different extracts of Artemisia absinthium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Singh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The A. absinthium is commonly known as wormwood having antipyretic, antimicrobial, antifungal, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Natural bioactive compounds like phenols and flavonoids are the important secondary metabolites in plant posses high scavenging ability of free radical and reactive oxygen species produced in mammals. To maximize these agents in the extract different solvents viz. aqueous, ethanolic and chloroform are used for the extraction procedure (among these different extractions. Current study was aimed to determine the levels of total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents. Observations suggested that ethanolic extract has significantly high (P<0.05 concentration of flavonoids, phenolic and tannin contents as compared to aqueous and chloroform extracts. Therefore, ethanolic extract of A. absinthium has greater potential to scavenge free radicals/ ROS and can produce more beneficial effects as compared to aqueous and chloroform extracts. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 101-104

  16. Gas phase plasma impact on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zoran; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Kljusurić, Jasenka Gajdoš; Jambrak, Anet Režek; Zorić, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of gas phase plasma on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy combined with partial least squares for monitoring the stability of phenolic compounds during plasma treatment was explored, too. Experiments are designed to investigate the effect of plasma operating conditions (treatment time 3, 5, 7 min; sample volume 3, 4, 5 cm(3); gas flow 0.75, 1, 1.25 dm(3) min(-1)) on phenolic compounds and compared to pasteurized and untreated pomegranate juice. Pasteurization and plasma treatment resulted in total phenolic content increasing by 29.55% and 33.03%, respectively. Principal component analysis and sensitivity analysis outputted the optimal treatment design with plasma that could match the pasteurized sample concerning the phenolic stability (5 min/4 cm(3)/0.75 dm(3) min(-1)). Obtained results demonstrate the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy that can be successfully used to evaluate the quality of pomegranate juice upon plasma treatment considering the phenolic compounds.

  17. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Manuel Lorenzo; Paulo Eduardo Sichetti Munekata

    2016-01-01

    Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food.In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food applications.

  18. Phenolic compounds of green tea:Health benefits and technological application in food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin de-rivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mecha-nisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food applications.

  19. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food

  20. Ceratonia siliqua L. hydroethanolic extract obtained by ultrasonication: antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds profile and effects in yogurts functionalized with their free and microencapsulated forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Irada; Barros, Lillian; Fernandes, Isabel P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Ferchichi, Ali; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive extracts were obtained from powdered carob pulp through an ultrasound extraction process and then evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity. Ten minutes of ultrasonication at 375 Hz were the optimal conditions leading to an extract with the highest antioxidant effects. After its chemical characterization, which revealed the preponderance of gallotannins, the extract (free and microencapsulated) was incorporated in yogurts. The microspheres were prepared using an extract/sodium alginate ratio of 100/400 (mg mg(-1)) selected after testing different ratios. The yogurts with the free extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the samples added with the encapsulated extracts, showing the preserving role of alginate as a coating material. None of the forms significantly altered the yogurt's nutritional value. This study confirmed the efficiency of microencapsulation to stabilize functional ingredients in food matrices maintaining almost the structural integrity of polyphenols extracted from carob pulp and furthermore improving the antioxidant potency of the final product.

  1. Extraction of phenols from lignin microwave-pyrolysis oil using a switchable hydrophilicity solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dongbao; Farag, Sherif; Chaouki, Jamal; Jessop, Philip G

    2014-02-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of lignin, an aromatic polymer byproduct from paper-pulping industry, produces char, gases, and lignin pyrolysis oil. Within the oil are valuable phenolic compounds such as phenol, guaiacol and catechol. In this work, we describe a method using switchable hydrophilicity solvents (SHS) to extract phenols as a mixture from lignin microwave-pyrolysis oil at the scale of 10 g of bio-oil. Even at this small scale, losses are small; 96% of the bio-oil was recovered in its three fractions, 72% of guaiacol and 70% of 4-methylguaiacol, the most abundant phenols in the bio-oil, were extracted and 91% of the solvent SHS was recovered after extraction. The starting material (lignin microwave-pyrolysis oil) and the three fractions resulted from SHS extraction were characterized by GC-MS and quantitative (13)C{(1)H} and (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of myrtle (Myrtus communis) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amensour, Mahassine; Sendra, Esther; Abrini, Jamal; Bouhdid, Samira; Pérez-Alvarez, José Angel; Fernández-López, Juana

    2009-06-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of myrtle (Myrtus communis) leaves and berries were measured to find new potential sources of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content was assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by three methods: diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, the reducing antioxidant power assay and beta-carotene linoleic acid assay. The total phenol content of myrtle extracts ranged between 9.0 and 35.6 mg GAE per g extract. For each solvent, leaf extracts contained significantly higher amount of total phenolic compounds than berry extracts. All of the extracts presented antioxidant capacity assessed by the three methods, but at different levels depending on the concentration, the extraction solvent and the part of the plant used. Generally, leaf extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than berry extracts, while the overall antioxidant strength was in the order methanol > water > ethanol in leaf extracts and methanol > ethanol > water in berry extracts. The phenolic content exhibited a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity: DPPH assay showed the highest correlation (r = 0.949), followed by the reducing power assay (r = 0.914) and the lowest for the beta-carotene linoleic acid assay (r = 0.722).

  3. Phenols and antioxidant activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis from Algarve, South of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Nunes, Susana; Dandlen, Susana Anahi; Cavaco, Ana Margarida; Antunes, Maria Dulce

    2010-12-01

    Propolis is a natural honeybee product known to be beneficial for human health, with a complex chemical composition, highly dependent on the collection site. The objective of the present research was to evaluate phenols and antioxidant activity of propolis samples collected in three main areas of Algarve, South of Portugal. Water revealed to be less effective for extracting phenolic compounds from propolis than the methanol and water/ethanol. The last two were good extraction solvents of phenols. Nevertheless water/ethanol was the solvent chosen because it was able to extract phenols in considerable amounts being less toxic than methanol. In spring, higher amounts of phenols (total phenols, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols) were detected in hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis than in winter. Among the three main areas of Algarve where samples were collected, those from Barrocal had the highest levels of polyphenols, independent on the season (winter or spring). Within each area, the levels of phenols changed according to the zone. Concerning antioxidant activity, samples from Barrocal presented better radical scavenging abilities than those from the remaining areas, independent on the antioxidant method and collection season. Such results correlated closely with the levels of total phenols, flavones and flavonols in samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of phenolic compounds in honey using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Pagano, Imma; Carabetta, Sonia; Di Sanzo, Rosa; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2014-03-21

    Honey is a valuable functional food rich in phenolic compounds with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Analysis of the phenolic compounds in honey is a very promising tool for the quality control, the authentication and characterization of botanical origin, and the nutraceutical research. This work describes a novel approach for the rapid analysis of five phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids in honey. Phenolic compounds were rapidly extracted and concentrated from diluted honey by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection (HPLC-UV). Some important parameters, such as the nature and volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, pH and salt effect were carefully investigated and optimized to achieve the best extraction efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, an exhaustive extraction for twelve of the investigated analytes (recoveries >70%), with a precision (RSDDLLME to the extraction of other honey phytochemicals, such as abscisic acid, was also demonstrated. The main advantages of developed method are the simplicity of operation, the rapidity to achieve a very high sample throughput and low cost.

  5. Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorder in clinical practice, which affects approximately 5-10% of the people during their life. The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various diseases is constantly developing throughout the world. This is particularly true with regard to phenolic compounds that probably constitute the largest group of plants secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds have attracted special attention due to their health-promoting characteristics. In the past ten years a large number of the studies have been carried out on the effects of phenolic compounds on human health. Many studies have been carried out that strongly support the contribution of polyphenols to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes mellitus, and suggest a role in the prevention of peptic ulcer. Polyphenols display a number of pharmacological properties in the GIT area, acting as antisecretory, cytoprotective, and antioxidant agents. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds have been widely studied, but it has become clear that their mechanisms of action go beyond the modulation of oxidative stress. Various polyphenolic compounds have been reported for their anti-ulcerogenic activity with a good level of gastric protection. Besides their action as gastroprotective, these phenolic compounds can be an alternative for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Therefore, considering the important role of polyphenolic compounds in the prevention or reduction of gastric lesions induced by different ulcerogenic agents, in this review, we have summarized the literature on some potent antiulcer plants, such as, Oroxylum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Olea europaea L., Foeniculum vulgare, Alchornea glandulosa, Tephrosia purpurea, and so on, containing phenolic compounds, namely, baicalein, cinnamic acid, oleuropein, rutin, quercetin, and tephrosin

  6. Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbul, Sabiha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab; Mohd, Asif; Mohd, Akhtar

    2011-07-01

    Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorder in clinical practice, which affects approximately 5-10% of the people during their life. The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various diseases is constantly developing throughout the world. This is particularly true with regard to phenolic compounds that probably constitute the largest group of plants secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds have attracted special attention due to their health-promoting characteristics. In the past ten years a large number of the studies have been carried out on the effects of phenolic compounds on human health. Many studies have been carried out that strongly support the contribution of polyphenols to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes mellitus, and suggest a role in the prevention of peptic ulcer. Polyphenols display a number of pharmacological properties in the GIT area, acting as antisecretory, cytoprotective, and antioxidant agents. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds have been widely studied, but it has become clear that their mechanisms of action go beyond the modulation of oxidative stress. Various polyphenolic compounds have been reported for their anti-ulcerogenic activity with a good level of gastric protection. Besides their action as gastroprotective, these phenolic compounds can be an alternative for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Therefore, considering the important role of polyphenolic compounds in the prevention or reduction of gastric lesions induced by different ulcerogenic agents, in this review, we have summarized the literature on some potent antiulcer plants, such as, Oroxylum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Olea europaea L., Foeniculum vulgare, Alchornea glandulosa, Tephrosia purpurea, and so on, containing phenolic compounds, namely, baicalein, cinnamic acid, oleuropein, rutin, quercetin, and tephrosin, respectively, as active

  7. Anti-inflammatory Natural Prenylated Phenolic Compounds - Potential Lead Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezáni, Viliam; Šmejkal, Karel; Hošek, Jan; Tomášová, Veronika

    2017-08-10

    Natural phenolics are secondary plant metabolites, which can be divided into several categories with the common structural feature of phenolic hydroxyl. The biological activity of phenolics is often modified and enhanced by prenylation by prenyl and geranyl; higher terpenoid chains are rare. The type of prenyl connection and modification affects their biological activity. This review summarizes information about prenylated phenols and some of their potential sources, and provides an overview of their anti-inflammatory potential in vitro and in vivo. The literature search was performed using Scifinder and keywords prenyl, phenol, and inflammation. For individual compounds, an additional search was performed to find information about further activities and mechanisms of effects. We summarized the effects of prenylated phenolics in vitro in cellular or biochemical systems on the production and release of inflammation-related cytokines; their effects on inhibition of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases; the effects on production of nitric oxide, antiradical and antioxidant activity; and the effect on the inhibition of the release of enzymes and mediators from neutrophils, mast cells and macrophages. The information about the antiphlogistic potential of prenylated phenolics is further supported by a review of their action in animal models. Almost 400 prenylated phenols were reviewed to overview their anti-inflammatory effect. The bioactivity of several prenylated phenols was confirmed also using in vivo assays. A pool of natural prenylated phenols represents a source of inspiration for synthesis, and prenylated phenols as components of various medicinal plants used to combat inflammation could be their active principles. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  9. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Artemisia absinthium using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Saliha; Aybastıer, Onder; Işık, Esra

    2013-11-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Artemisia absinthium. The central composite design was employed, the extracts were characterised by the determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic contents of extracts were determined by Folin method and also total antioxidant capacities of extracts were determined by ABTS and CUPRAC methods. The phenolic compounds of A. absinthium at optimum extraction conditions were determined by HPLC-DAD. The optimum conditions were determined as HCl concentration between 0.41 and 0.44mol/L, methanol volume between 55% and 59% (v/v), extraction temperature between 64 and 70°C, extraction time between 101 and 107min. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95% confidence level, thus indicating the suitability of response surface methodology in optimising the ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from A. absinthium.

  10. Identification and Phytotoxicity Assessment of Phenolic Compounds in Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (Boneseed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Harun, Md Abdullah Yousuf; Johnson, Joshua; Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall W

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (boneseed), a weed of national significance in Australia, threatens indigenous species and crop production through allelopathy. We aimed to identify phenolic compounds produced by boneseed and to assess their phytotoxicity on native species. Phenolic compounds in water and methanol extracts, and in decomposed litter-mediated soil leachate were identified using HPLC, and phytotoxicity of identified phenolics was assessed (repeatedly) through a standard germination bioassay on native Isotoma axillaris. The impact of boneseed litter on native Xerochrysum bracteatum was evaluated using field soil in a greenhouse. Collectively, we found the highest quantity of phenolic compounds in boneseed litter followed by leaf, root and stem. Quantity varied with extraction media. The rank of phenolics concentration in boneseed was in the order of ferulic acid > phloridzin > catechin > p-coumaric acid and they inhibited germination of I. axillaris with the rank of ferulic acid > catechin > phloridzin > p-coumaric acid. Synergistic effects were more severe compared to individual phenolics. The litter-mediated soil leachate (collected after15 days) exhibited strong phytotoxicity to I. axillaris despite the level of phenolic compounds in the decomposed leachate being decreased significantly compared with their initial level. This suggests the presence of other unidentified allelochemicals that individually or synergistically contributed to the phytotoxicity. Further, the dose response phytotoxic impacts exhibited by the boneseed litter-mediated soil to native X. bracteatum in a more naturalistic greenhouse experiment might ensure the potential allelopathy of other chemical compounds in the boneseed invasion. The reduction of leaf relative water content and chlorophyll level in X. bracteatum suggest possible mechanisms underpinning plant growth inhibition caused by boneseed litter allelopathy. The presence of a substantial quantity of free

  11. Soluble and bound phenolic compounds in different Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Montilla, Elyana; Hillebrand, Silke; Antezana, Amalia; Winterhalter, Peter

    2011-07-13

    In nine Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) varieties the content of phenolic compounds as well as the anthocyanin composition has been determined. The phenotypes under investigation included four red and five blue varieties (Kulli, Ayzuma, Paru, Tuimuru, Oke, Huaca Songo, Colorado, Huillcaparu, and Checchi). In purple corn, phenolic compounds were highly concentrated in cell walls. Thus, simultaneous determination of soluble and bound-form phenolics is essential for analysis, extraction, and quantification. The present study reports the determination of soluble and insoluble-bound fraction of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) in Bolivian purple corn varieties. Enzymatic, thermal, and alkaline hydrolyses were used to obtain the cell wall-linked phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid values ranged from 132.9 to 298.4 mg/100 g, and p-coumaric acid contents varied between 251.8 and 607.5 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively, and were identified as the main nonanthocyanin phenolics. The total content of phenolic compounds ranged from 311.0 to 817.6 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW, and the percentage contribution of bound to total phenolics varied from 62.1 to 86.6%. The total monomeric anthocyanin content ranged from 1.9 to 71.7 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g DW. Anthocyanin profiles are almost the same among the different samples. Differences are observed only in the relative percentage of each anthocyanin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside and its malonated derivative were detected as major anthocyanins. Several dimalonylated monoglucosides of cyanidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin were present as minor constituents.

  12. Directional liquefaction of biomass for phenolic compounds and in situ hydrodeoxygenation upgrading of phenolics using bifunctional catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Chung-yun Hse; Kui Wang; Zhongzhi Yang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds derived from biomass are important feedstocks for the sustainable production of hydrocarbon biofuels. Hydrodeoxygenation is an effective process to remove oxygen-containing functionalities in phenolic compounds. This paper reported a simple method for producing hydrocarbons by liquefying biomass and upgrading liquefied products. Three phenolic...

  13. Componential profile and amylase inhibiting activity of phenolic compounds from Calendula officinalis L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.

  14. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagna Fiammetta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive (Olea europaea L. fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF, suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the

  15. Scavenging Capacities of Some Wines and Wine Phenolic Extracts

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    Ioannis G. Roussis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different wines – a sweet red, a dry red, a sweet white, and a dry white – to scavenge the stable 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH. and to determine their phenolic composition. Both red wines contained, apart from anthocyanins, also higher concentration of total phenolics, tartaric esters, and flavonols than the two white wines. All wines exhibited scavenging activity analogous to their total phenolic content. However, their phenolics differed in antiradical potency, which was visible in their EC50 values. The dry red wine, Xinomavro, had a lower EC50 value, indicating the higher antiradical potency of its phenolics. The scavenging capacities of phenolic extracts from Xinomavro red wine on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen were also assessed. Wine total extract was fractionated by extraction, and each of the three fractions was then subfractionated by column chromatography into two subfractions. Wine total extract, and its fractions and subfractions exhibited scavenging capacity on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen, indicating the activity of many wine phenolics. The most active wine extracts towards hydroxyl radicals were characterized by the high peaks of flavanols, anthocyanins and flavonols in their HPLC-DAD chromatograms. The most active extract towards superoxide radicals was rich in flavanols and anthocyanins. The characteristic phenolics of the most active wine extracts towards singlet oxygen were flavanols, flavonols and phenolic acids. The ability of all red wine phenolic extracts to scavenge singlet oxygen, along with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, emphasizes its health functionality.

  16. Phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of olive (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cobrançosa) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Marcelino, Filipa; Valentão, Patricia; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa; Estevinho, Leticia; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

    2007-05-26

    We report the determination of phenolic compounds in olive leaves by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD, and the evaluation of their in vitro activity against several microorganisms that may be causal agents of human intestinal and respiratory tract infections, namely gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Seven phenolic compounds were identified and quantified: caffeic acid, verbascoside, oleuropein, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 4'-O-glucoside. At low concentrations olive leaves extracts showed an unusual combined antibacterial and antifungal action, which suggest their great potential as nutraceuticals, particularly as a source of phenolic compounds.

  17. Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, Antimutagenic Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Allium orientale BOISS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Ceylan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first study to investigate the antibiofilm, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and phenolic compounds of Allium orientale. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of A. orientale was determined by a broth microdilution method. Antibiofilm activity was evaluated by microplate biofilm assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using three complementary assays; namely, DPPH scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid, and total phenolic compounds assays. Phenolic compounds were evaluated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenic effect of extracts was analyzed by the Ames test. In RP-HPLC analysis, (+-catechin, apigenin and caffeic acid were identified as major phenolic compounds in the aerial parts of A. orientale. The aerial parts extract possessed the highest total phenolic content (120.979 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, which were in good correlation with its significant DPPH (IC50 42.18 ± 1.68 mg/mL and lipid peroxidation (89.98 ± 0.69% at 10 mg/mL concentration capacities. A. orientale exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with MICs ranging from 3.125 to 25 mg/mL. Escherichia coli biofilm formation was inhibited maximum by the aerial parts extract to an extent of 68.51%. The strongest antimutagenic activity was observed at 2.5 mg/plate concentration of aerial parts extract against Salmonella typhimurium TA98.These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of A.orientale could become useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant, antibiofilm and antimutagenic agent.

  18. Effect of salinity stress on phenolic compounds and carotenoids in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kee-Jai; Kim, Bum-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Woong; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2012-12-01

    The effect of salinity stress on the nutritional quality of buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 1, 3, 5, and 7d was investigated by analysis of the antioxidant activity and levels of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Treatment with various concentrations of NaCl (10, 50, 100, and 200mM) resulted in an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in the sprouts compared with the control (0mM). The phenolic contents of sprouts treated with 10, 50, and 100mM after 7d of cultivation were 57%, 121%, and 153%, respectively, higher than that of the control (0mM NaCl). Moreover, the accumulation of phenolic compounds was primarily caused by an increase in the levels of 4 compounds: isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin. The carotenoid content of sprouts treated with 50 and 100mM NaCl was twice higher than that of the control. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of the sprouts was increased by NaCl treatment. Although the growth rate of sprouts decreased with >50mM NaCl, these results suggest that treatment of an appropriate concentration of NaCl improves the nutritional quality of sprouts, including the level of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity.

  19. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Vincent L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L. caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr., and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus.

  20. Influence of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds of minimally processed baby carrots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Suzy F., E-mail: fmayumi@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Galvao, Natascha S.; Lanfer-Marquez, Ursula M., E-mail: lanferum@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-07-01

    Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables provide several health benefits including risk reduction of oxidative stress-related diseases. These benefits have been associated with bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. Minimally processed products are a growing segment in food retail establishments due its practicality and convenience without significantly altering fresh-like characteristics. To extend the shelf life of these products, an application of ionizing radiation is an alternative, based on a physical and non-thermal method of preservation. The effect of irradiation on phenolic compounds of minimally processed baby carrots have not been reported in literature yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of phenolic compounds in baby carrots after the irradiation process. Samples of minimally processed baby carrots were purchased at a local supermarket and irradiated with doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Phenolic compounds were extracted from shredded carrots with MeOH and analyzed spectrophotometrically by the Folin Ciocalteau method using a gallic acid standard curve. The results showed that the phenolic contents decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing radiation dose. In non-irradiated baby carrots (control), the levels of phenolic compounds were about 330 μg eq. gallic acid/g, while irradiated samples with 0.5 kGy, showed an approximately 10% reduction when compared with the control. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused a loss of 20%. Although the radiation has affected the phenolic content, the process seems to be interesting by maintaining their fresh-like characteristics. (author)

  1. Composition and health effects of phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baoru; Liu, Pengzhan

    2012-06-01

    Epicatechin, aglycons and glycosides of B-type oligomeric procyanidins and flavonols, phenolic acids and C-glycosyl flavones are the major groups of phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus spp). The total content of phenolic compounds is higher in the leaves and flowers than in the fruits. Procyanidins dominate in the fruits, whereas flavonol glycosides and C-glycosyl flavones are most abundant in the leaves. Genotype and developmental/ripening stage have strong impacts. Procyanidin glycosides and C-glycosyl flavones may be chemotaxonomic markers differentiating species and varieties of hawthorn. Future research shall improve the separation, identification and quantification of procyanidins with degree of polymerisation (DP) ≥ 6, procyanidin glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and some flavonol glycosides. In vitro and animal studies have shown cardioprotective, hypolipidaemic, hypotensive, antioxidant, radical-scavenging and anti-inflammatory potentials of hawthorn extracts, suggesting different phenolic compounds as the major bioactive components. However, the varying and insufficiently defined composition of the extracts investigated, as a result of different raw materials and extraction methods, makes comparison of the studies very difficult. Clinical evidence indicates that some hawthorn extracts may increase the exercise tolerance of patients with congestive heart failure. More clinical studies are needed to establish the effects of hawthorn, especially in healthy humans.

  2. Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and biological properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalić, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Surjak, Jana; Možina, Sonja Smole; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalinić, Ana; Simat, Vida; Katalinić, Višnja

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and β-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  3. The Potential Protective Effects of Phenolic Compounds against Low-density Lipoprotein Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Pegg, Ronald B

    2017-01-01

    The exact mechanism(s) of atherosclerosis in humans remains elusive, but one theory hypothesizes that this deleterious process results from the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Research suggests that foods rich in dietary phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity can mitigate the extent of LDL oxidation in vivo. With regard to the different classes of flavonoids, there appears to be a structurefunction relationship between the various moieties/constituents attached to the flavonoids' three ring system and their impact at retarding LDL oxidation. This article summarizes the findings to date of both in vitro and in vivo studies using foods or phenolic extracts isolated from foodstuffs at inhibiting the incidence of LDL oxidation. Three bases: SCOPUS, Web Science, and PubMed were used for search. An often used method for the determination of antioxidant properties of natural phenolic compounds is the LDL oxidation assay. LDLs are isolated from human plasma and their oxidation is induced by Cu2+ ions or 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The sample is incubated with a phenolic extract or individual/isolated phenolic compounds. LDL oxidation is then monitored by various chemical methods (e.g., measurement of the generation of conjugated dienes and trienes). This technique confirmed the antioxidant properties of several extracts as obtained from plant material (e.g., grapes, berries, orange, grapefruit, coffee, tea, chocolate, olives, nuts) as well as the individual phenolic compounds (e.g., luteolinidin, apigenidin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, quercetin, rutin). Several studies in vivo confirmed protective effects of phenolic compounds against LDL oxidation. They covered the healthy subjects with hyperlipidaemia, overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome, heavy smokers, patients receiving haemodialysis, patients with peripheral vascular disease, and subjects at high cardiovascular risk. The studies comprise

  4. Phenolic Antioxidants Identified by ESI-MS from Yerba Maté (Ilex paraguariensis and Green Tea (Camelia sinensis Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia O Carvalho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of green yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis and green tea (Camellia sinensis are good sources of phenolic antioxidants, as already described in the literature. The subject of this study were organic extracts from yerba maté, both green and roasted, and from green tea. Their phenolic profiles were characterized by direct infusion electrospray insertion mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and their free radical scavenging activity was determined by the DPPH assay. Organic extracts containing phenolic antioxidants might be used as natural antioxidants by the food industry, replacing the synthetic phenolic additives used nowadays. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from green yerba maté, roasted yerba maté and green tea showed excellent DPPH scavenging activity (>89%. The ether extracts from green and roasted yerba maté displayed a weak scavenging activity, different from the behavior observed for the green tea ether extract. The main phenolic compounds identified in green yerba maté water and ethanolic extracts were: caffeic acid, quinic acid, caffeoyl glucose, caffeoylquinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, dicaffeoylquinic acid and rutin. After the roasting process two new compounds were formed: caffeoylshikimic acid and dicaffeoylshikimic acid. The ethanolic extracts from yerba maté, both roasted and green, with lower content of phenolic compounds (3.80 and 2.83 mg/mL presented high antioxidant activity and even at very low phenolic concentrations, ether extract from GT (0.07 mg/mL inhibited DPPH over 90%.

  5. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and related enzymes such as phenol biosynthesizing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and phenol catabolizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) are determinants for sorghum utilization as human food because they influence product properties during and after sorghum pr

  6. Impact of ultrasound on solid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from maritime pine sawdust waste. Kinetics, optimization and large scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meullemiestre, A; Petitcolas, E; Maache-Rezzoug, Z; Chemat, F; Rezzoug, S A

    2016-01-01

    Maritime pine sawdust, a by-product from industry of wood transformation, has been investigated as a potential source of polyphenols which were extracted by ultrasound-assisted maceration (UAM). UAM was optimized for enhancing extraction efficiency of polyphenols and reducing time-consuming. In a first time, a preliminary study was carried out to optimize the solid/liquid ratio (6g of dry material per mL) and the particle size (0.26 cm(2)) by conventional maceration (CVM). Under these conditions, the optimum conditions for polyphenols extraction by UAM, obtained by response surface methodology, were 0.67 W/cm(2) for the ultrasonic intensity (UI), 40°C for the processing temperature (T) and 43 min for the sonication time (t). UAM was compared with CVM, the results showed that the quantity of polyphenols was improved by 40% (342.4 and 233.5mg of catechin equivalent per 100g of dry basis, respectively for UAM and CVM). A multistage cross-current extraction procedure allowed evaluating the real impact of UAM on the solid-liquid extraction enhancement. The potential industrialization of this procedure was implemented through a transition from a lab sonicated reactor (3 L) to a large scale one with 30 L volume.

  7. Evaluation of Phenolic Content of Turmeric hydroalcoholic Extract in Iran by Singleton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bahrami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds have an important role as essential metabolites for plants growth and reproduction, as well as protecting agents against pathogens. These compounds are important sources of antioxidants which act as reducing agents and hydrogen donors. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and plants rich in poly phenols is associated with the reduced risk of certain cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes and Alzheimer’s diseases. Curcuma langa or Turmeric is a tropical plant that natively grows in South and Southeast Asia. This plant has been used as a spice as well as a herbal drug in traditional medicine in India. Recently, many studies have been conducted on the medical effects of this plant and still some researches are ongoing. Turmeric possesses a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects. It seems that pharmacological activities of turmeric is related to poly phenolic compounds existing in this plant. Methods: This study was performed on the hydroalcoholic extract of the turmeric rhizome experimentally with a repetition of several times. Results of this study were presented via means±SD. In the present research poly phenolic contents of turmeric extract was evaluated using tannic acid standard. Results: The study findings demonstrated that 1µg hydroalcoholic extract contains 0.59±0.051µmoleTAE of poly phenolic compounds. Conclusion: This study revealed that phenolic contents of turmeric hydroalcoholic extraction is noticeable and it seems that phenolic contents are caused by curcuminoids compounds that exist in this plant.

  8. Mass transfer in stirred tank for phenolic extraction from coal tar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Wibowo, Bahy; Rafiqi, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Coal production in Indonesia on 2014 reached 368.9 million tons. The used of coal utilization using pyrolysis process to produce coal tar is 15.8% by weight. Coal tar solution containing phenol as much as 8.06% (v / v) were extracted using a solvent of 80 % methanol. Time extraction is conducted for 30 minutes by making every 5 minutes. Samples are then separated to form two layers so that become layer of extract and raffinate. Extract and raffinate layer was then tested by using UV - Vis sektrofotometer so that the data obtained experimental results.The reserach about phenomenon and models of mass transfering and taking the phenol compound from coal tir is less. The result shows, the highest extracted of concentration phenol in 40°C, tank diameter 9cm, stirrer diameter 3,5cm, stirring speed of 250rpm and at 20 minutes extraction time got 2,35% concentration of phenol. Thus, the increasing temperature and stirred velocity will increase phenol concentration. In other hand, decreasing tank diameter will increase phenol concentration.

  9. Phenolic compound profiles and antioxidant capacity of Persea americana Mill. peels and seeds of two varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosińska, Agnieszka; Karamać, Magdalena; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-05-09

    Avocado processing by the food and cosmetic industries yields a considerable amount of phenolic-rich byproduct such as peels and seeds. Utilization of these byproducts would be favorable from an economic point of view. Methanolic (80%) extracts obtained from lyophilized ground peels and seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) of the Hass and Shepard varieties were characterized for their phenolic compound profiles using the HPLC-PAD technique. The structures of the identified compounds were subsequently unambiguously confirmed by ESI-MS. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracts contained four polyphenolic classes: flavanol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonol glycosides. The presence of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and procyanidin A trimers was identified in seeds of both varieties. Intervarietal differences were apparent in the phenolic compound profiles of peels. Peels of the Shepard variety were devoid of (+)-catechin and procyanidin dimers, which were present in the peels of the Hass variety. Peels of both varieties contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin derivatives. The differences in the phenolic profiles between varietals were also apparent in the different antioxidant activity of the extracts. The peel extracts had a higher total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity when compared to the seed extracts. The highest TEAC and ORAC values were apparent in peels of the Haas variety in which they amounted to 0.16 and 0.47 mmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were apparent between the TEAC values of seeds of the two varieties but the ORAC values differed significantly (p < 0.05). Overall these findings indicate that both the seeds and peel of avocado can be utilized as a functional food ingredient or as an antioxidant additive.

  10. Study on the phenolic compounds extraction and separation in mid low-temperature coal tar of northern Shaanxi%陕北中低温煤焦油中酚类化合物的提取与分离研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琪娟; 马晓迅; 孙长顺; 徐军礼

    2013-01-01

    The high content of the phenolic compounds (it is mainly elementary phenolic compounds) in mid low-temperature coal tar of northern Shaanxi, about 1/3 of it. Compared with the composition of the high-temperature coal tar, learn about extraction and separation of phenolic compounds in the high-temperature coal tar,put forward the work and the direction of the research which should be done on extraction and separation of the phenolic compounds in mid low-temperature coal tar.%陕北中低温煤焦油中酚(主要是低级酚)含量高,约占1/3左右.通过与高温煤焦油组成比较,借鉴高温煤焦油中酚类化合物的有关提取与分离情况,提出了中低温煤焦油中酚类的提取与分离方面应开展的工作和研究方向.

  11. Antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus seedcake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail, N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of kenaf seedcake methanolic extract (CME and fractions obtained from it using ethyl acetate (EAF, hexane (HF and water (WF were investigated. Total phenolic contents were 64.5, 36.1, 31.3 and 14.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight in EAF, CME, WF, and HF, respectively. Kenaf seedcake extract/fractions showed inhibitory activity of β-carotene bleaching and corn oil oxidation. Also, the extract/fractions were scavenged for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. The EAF extract showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity followed by the CME, WF and HF extracts. Therefore, the rich phenolic fractions of kenaf seedcake may represent a potential source of natural antioxidants. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in CME and HF extracts were gallic, (+-catechin, chlorogenic, hydroxybenzoic, syringic, and vanillin.Se ha investigado la actividad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos procedentes de tortas de semillas de kenaf (CME y de las fracciones obtenidas usando acetato de etilo (EAF, hexano (HF y agua (WF. Los contenidos fenólicos totales fueron 64,5, 36,1, 31,3 y 14,6 mg de equivalente de ácido gálico/g de peso seco, en EAF, CME, WF, y HF, respectivamente. Los extractos/fracciones de semillas de kenaf mostraron actividad inhibitoria de blanqueo del β-caroteno y oxidación del aceite de maíz. Además, los extractos/fracciones fueron captadores de radicales del 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil. El extracto EAF mostró la mayor actividad captadora de radicales de DPPH seguido por los extractos de CME, WF y HF. Por lo tanto, las fracciones ricas en fenoles de las tortas de semilla de kenaf pueden representar una fuente potencial de antioxidantes naturales. Los compuestos fenólicos predominantes identificados mediante HPLC-DAD en extractos de CME y HF fueron gálico, (+-catequina, ácido clorogénico, hidroxibenzoico, siríngico, y vainillina.

  12. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attioua

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... natural habitat in Ivory Coast, in the forest region near Abidjan .... Structure of the isolated compounds from T. ivoiriensis: 1, .... Complex tannins are generally considered to have .... Forest production for tropical America.

  13. A WATER-COMPATIBLE PHENOLIC HYDROXYL MODIFIED POLYSTYRENE AS AN ADSORBENT FOR ADSORBING PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A water-compatible phenolic hydroxyl modified polystyrene adsorbent (AM-1) foradsorbing and removing phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions was prepared by covalent bonding of phenolic hydroxyl groups to the surface of porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads, this resin can be used directly without wetting process. A comparison of the sorption properties of the new resin and Amberlite XAD-4 toward four phenolic compounds, phenol, p-cresol, p-chlorophenol,and p-nitrophenol was made. The capacities of equilibrium adsorption of AM-l for all four phenolic compounds increased around 20% over that of Amberlite XAD-4, which may be contributed to phenol hydroxyl group on the surface and the unusual pore distributior. At their dilute solution, the equilibrium adsorption capacities of AM-1 for phenol increased about 62% over that of Amberlite X4D-4, while equilibrium adsorption capacities of the other three phenolic compounds increased 4-35%, suggesting an advantage of AM-I over Amberlite XAD-4 in the collection of phenol.Freundlich isotherm equations and isosteric adsorption enthalpies for the four phenolic compounds indicate a physical adsorption process on the Amberlite XAD-4 and AM-I resins. Column studies for phenol show that AM-1 resin has excellent adsorption and desorption performance.

  14. Simultaneous determination of four phenolic compounds in extracts of aerial parts of Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. R. Br. (Convolvulaceae by HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Maes Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other applications, Ipomoea pes-caprae is popularly used to treat jellyfish stings, supporting the development of a product for dermatological use. Hydroethanolic spray-dried extract was chosen for the further development of phytomedicines, and a stability-indicative HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the determination of isoquercitrin and isochlorogenic acids A, B and C. The method was developed using a C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm with an acetonitrile:water mobile phase at pH 3.0 in a gradient run. The four constituents and other unidentified components of the extract were appropriately resolved without interference of degradation products after stress tests (acid, alkali, neutral, oxidant, photolysis. The method showed linearity in the isoquercitrin concentration range from 5.0-50.0 µg mL-1, with adequate precision (RSD% < 2.5% for the intra- and inter-day studies, accuracy (recovery of 100.0 ± 2.0%, and robustness. Both the herbal drug and spray-dried extract of I. pes-caprae were subjected to stability studies in accelerated and long-term conditions over four months. The samples maintained their characteristics and marker contents (< 10% of variation.

  15. Structure elucidation and antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds from Rhynchosia suaveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Aluru; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Reddy, Netala Vasudeva; Vijaya, Tartte; Devillee, Alexandre; Bodo, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    A new benzophenone, 2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxybenzophenone (1), together with a known C-glycosylxanthone, mangiferin (2) and two known C-glycosylflavones, isovitexin (3) and isoorientin (4), were isolated from the flowers of Rhynchosia suaveolens DC. (Fabaceae). The structure of the new compound (1) and the known compounds (2-4) were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectral studies. The plant extracts, as well as the isolated compounds, were evaluated for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Among the isolated compounds, mangiferin (2) and isoorientin (4) showed significant radical scavenging activity comparable with that of ascorbic acid.

  16. Fast Detection of Phenolic Compounds in Extracts of Easter Pears (Pyrus communis from the Atacama Desert by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC–Q/Orbitrap/MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Simirgiotis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A small Chilean variety of pears growing in the town of Toconao, an oasis located at the northeastern edge of the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile, was studied by means of modern PDA and high resolution mass spectral data (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-orbitrap-MS/MS. In addition, the antioxidant features of the fruits were compared with the varieties Packhman’s Triumph and Abate Fetel and correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds. The non-pigmented phenolics were fingerprinted and related to the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA, and total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods. The machine allowed a fast separation of 15 min employing a flow rate of 1 mL per minute and could accurately identify 25 compounds, including several isorhamnetin derivatives and phenolic acids, present in the peel and pulps of this Chilean variety for the first time. The compounds were monitored using a wavelength range of 210–800 nm. The native small Chilean pear showed the highest antioxidant activity measured as the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power and superoxide anion scavenging activity (8.61 ± 0.65 μg/mL, 712.63 ± 12.12 micromols trolox equivalents (μmol/TE/100 g FW, and 82.89% ± 2.52% at 100 μg/mL, respectively.

  17. [Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of dimeric phenol compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Masahiro

    2008-08-01

    We studied the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of monomeric and dimeric phenol compounds. Dimeric compounds had higher antioxidant activities than monomeric compounds. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping experiments showed that phenol compounds with an allyl substituent on their aromatic rings directly scavenged superoxide, and that only eugenol trapped hydroxyl radicals. We developed a generation system of the hydroxyl radical without using any metals by adding L-DOPA and DMPO to PBS or MiliQ water in vitro. We found that eugenol trapped hydroxyl radicals directly and is metabolized to a dimer. On the other hand, dipropofol, a dimer of propofol, has strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. However, it lacks solubility in water and this property is assumed to limit its efficacy. We tried to improve the solubility and found a new solubilization method of dipropofol in water with the addition of a monosaccharide or ascorbic acid.

  18. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta from Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofu Dai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1, isovanillin (2, 6-deoxyjacareubin (3, scopoletin (4, syringaldehyde (5, pinoresinol (6, p-coumaric acid (7, ficusol (8, balanophonin (9 and ethamivan (10, which possess significant antioxidant activities. The relative order of DPPH· scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS·+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava.

  19. Antioxidant phenolic compounds of cassava (Manihot esculenta) from Hainan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bo; Hu, Lifei; Mei, Wenli; Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Luo, Ying; Wei, Xiaoyi; Dai, Haofu

    2011-12-07

    An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1), isovanillin (2), 6-deoxyjacareubin (3), scopoletin (4), syringaldehyde (5), pinoresinol (6), p-coumaric acid (7), ficusol (8), balanophonin (9) and ethamivan (10), which possess significant antioxidant activities. The relative order of DPPH· scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference) > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS·+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound) > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava.

  20. Flavoenzyme-catalyzed oxygenations and oxidations of phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, M.J.H.; Fraaije, M.W.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Laane, C.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Flavin-dependent monooxygenases and oxidases play an important role in the mineralization of phenolic compounds. Because of their exquisite regioselectivity and stereoselectivity, these enzymes are of interest for the biocatalytic production of fine chemicals and food ingredients. In our group, we h

  1. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods.

  2. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Whole Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) With or Without Microwave Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of extracting phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from buckwheat with water, 50% aqueous ethanol, or 100% ethanol using microwave irradiation or a water bath for 15 min at various temperatures (23 – 150 °C). The phenolic content of...

  3. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  4. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-12-20

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  5. 槟榔花提取物中没食子酸等9种多酚类化合物的测定%Analysis of Nine Phenolic Compounds of Areca Inflorescence Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春梅; 黄玉林; 程芳芳; 王仁才; 沈雁; 唐敏敏; 陈卫军

    2011-01-01

    The separation conditions of chromatography were optimized with a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic photodiode array detection(RP-HPL£-PAD)method for the determination of nine polyphenols in three Areca inflorescences. The relationship of glacial acetic acid concentration in mobile phase and the . Retention time, the effects of mobile phase composition, flow phase and the proportion of methanol were discussed respectively. Then the influence of gradient separation conditions was established. At the same time, three Areca inflorescences extracts of phenolic compounds were quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that the three extracts all contained gallic acid, coumalic acid, epicatechin, fumalic acid, naringenin and rutin, in which the contents of epicatechin, gallic acid and coumalic acid were higher than others.%采用反相高效液相色谱-二极管阵列检测法(RP-HPLC-PAD)对槟榔花3种提取物中多酚类化合物的色谱分析条件进行优化,分别探讨流动相的组成、流动相中醋酸浓度、醋酸与甲醇的比例和柱温对保留时间的影响,确定梯度分离条件,并对3种不同槟榔花提取物中多酚类化合物进行定量分析.结果表明,3种提取物中均含没食子酸、香豆酸、表儿茶素、阿魏酸、芦丁和柚皮素,其中表儿茶素、没食子酸和香豆酸的含量相对较高.

  6. Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. Stigma Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds and Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. belongs to the Iridaceae family. The stigma of saffron has been widely used as spice, medicinal plant, and food additive in the Mediterranean and Subtropical countries. Recently, attention has been paid to the identification of new sources of safe natural antioxidants for the food industry. The antioxidant activities of spices are mainly attributed to their phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Saffron is one of the spices believed to possess antioxidant properties, but information on its antioxidant activity and phenolic, flavonoids compound are rather limited, therefore this research was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of saffron stigmas extracted with different solvents. The phenolic and flavonoid compounds of saffron were also examined using reversed phase (RP-HPLC. Results showed that saffron stigma possess antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of saffron stigma at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 68.2% and 78.9%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic saffron extract was 6.54 ± 0.02 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids, 5.88 ± 0.12 mg rutin equivalent/g DW, which were also higher than values obtained from the ethanolic and boiling water extracts. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses indicated the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol as two bioactive compounds. In summary, saffron stigmas showed antioxidant activity and methanol appeared to be the best solvent to extract the active components, among which the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol might contribute towards the stigma’s antioxidant properties. Hence, saffron stigma could be applied as a natural antioxidant

  7. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  8. Purification of RNA by SDS solubilization and phenol extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Donald C; Ares, Manuel; Hannon, Gregory J; Nilsen, Timothy W

    2010-06-01

    This protocol describes a method for RNA purification by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solubilization and phenol extraction. It is of wide utility and is used routinely to deproteinize RNAs in biological material that has been solubilized in SDS, an ionic detergent that dissolves membranes, disrupts protein-nucleic acid interactions, and inactivates ribonucleases. Once solubilized, addition of phenol or phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (PCA) completely denatures the protein, and it becomes insoluble in aqueous solution. PCA extraction is the method of choice for preparing cytoplasmic RNA from tissue culture cells or in any other situation (e.g., enzyme reactions) where solubilization in SDS is easily achievable.

  9. Recent Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Unifloral Honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulu, Marco; Spano, Nadia; Pilo, Maria I; Sanna, Gavino

    2016-04-08

    Honey is one of the most renowned natural foods. Its composition is extremely variable, depending on its botanical and geographical origins, and the abundant presence of functional compounds has contributed to the increased worldwide interest is this foodstuff. In particular, great attention has been paid by the scientific community towards classes of compounds like phenolic compounds, due to their capability to act as markers of unifloral honey origin. In this contribution the most recent progress in the assessment of new analytical procedures aimed at the definition of the qualitative and quantitative profile of phenolic compounds of honey have been highlighted. A special emphasis has been placed on the innovative aspects concerning the extraction procedures, along with the most recent strategies proposed for the analysis of phenolic compounds. Moreover, the centrality of validation procedures has been claimed and extensively discussed in order to ensure the fitness-for-purpose of the proposed analytical methods. In addition, the exploitation of the phenolic profile as a tool for the classification of the botanical and geographical origin has been described, pointing out the usefulness of chemometrics in the interpretation of data sets originating from the analysis of polyphenols. Finally, recent results in concerning the evaluation of the antioxidant properties of unifloral honeys and the development of new analytical approaches aimed at measuring this parameter have been reviewed.

  10. Effect of steam explosion treatment on barley bran phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lingxiao; Huang, Luolian; Zhang, Ying

    2012-07-25

    A steam explosion pretreatment process followed by methanol extraction has been applied for releasing and extracting phenolic compounds, as well as other effective components, from barley bran. The steam explosion treatment was performed at different temperatures ranging from 210 to 250 °C, with a residence time of 30 s. The effect of residence time was also studied in the range 10 s to 120 s at 220 °C. The extracts were evaluated for their total soluble phenolic content (TSPC) including total free phenolic acids (TFPC) and total soluble conjugates (TSC), identified phenolic acids, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and total methanol extracts (TME). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector (PDA) was used in this study for the analysis of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid in barley bran before and after steam explosion. Our results indicate that TSPC and TAC increased with residence time. They also increased dramatically with temperature up to 220 °C. After steam explosion at 220 °C for 120 s, the TSPC reached 1686.4 gallic acid equivalents mg/100 g dry weight, which was about 9-fold higher than that of the untreated sample. The TSPC and TAC obtained were highly positively correlated (r = 0.918-0.993), which meant that the increase of TAC for the steam explosion pretreated barley bran extracts was due, at least in part, to the increase of TSPC in the methanol soluble fraction. Also, under optimum conditions, the WSC in aqueous solution was 5 times as much as that of the untreated sample, which demonstrated that steam explosion also hydrolyzes carbohydrates into water-soluble sugars. It can be concluded that a proper and reasonable steam explosion pretreatment could be applied to release the bound phenolic compounds and enhance the antioxidant capacity of barley bran extracts.

  11. Antioxidant and Nitrite-Scavenging Capacities of Phenolic Compounds from Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Tops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane tops were extracted with 50% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and n-butyl alcohol successively. Eight phenolic compounds in EtOAc extracts were purified through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and then identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectra. The results showed that eight phenolic compounds from EtOAc extracts were identified as caffeic acid, cis-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, quercetin, apigenin, albanin A, australone A, moracin M, and 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone. The antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of different solvent extracts correlated positively with their total phenolic (TP contents. Amongst various extracts, EtOAc extracts possessed the highest TP content and presented the strongest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenthiaazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and nitrite-scavenging capacity. Thus, sugarcane tops could be promoted as a source of natural antioxidant.

  12. 多指标综合评价优选大血藤酚酸类化合物的提取工艺%Multi-index Evaluation of Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Sargentodoxa cuneata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓翀; 颜永刚

    2011-01-01

    目的:筛选出大血藤酚酸类化学成分的最佳提取工艺.方法:首先建立HPLC测定大血藤中没食子酸、原儿茶酸、绿原酸方法,采用正交试验设计,以提取时间、甲醇体积分数、溶媒用量、提取次数为因素考察大血藤回流提取方法,以没食子酸、原儿茶酸、绿原酸为评价指标,确定最佳提取条件.结果:优选工艺为用10倍量80%甲醇提取3次,每次30 min.结论:采用多指标综合评价法优化大血藤酚酸类化学成分提取工艺合理、可行.%Objective: To screen out the best extraction technique of chemical composition of phenolic acids from cuneata.Method: The HPLC method for determination of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and chlorogenic acid in Sargentodoxa cuneata was firstly established.The orthogonal experimental design was used to study the optimum extraction with extracting time, ethanol concentration, solvent usage, extraction times as factors, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid as the evaluation index to determine the best extraction technology.Result: the optimum extraction technology was 80% ethanol concentration, 10 times of solvent usage, extracted for 30min, 3 times of extraction.Conclusion: A multi-index evaluation method can optimize the extraction process conditions of chemical composition of phenolic acids from S.cuneata and provide a reference for separation and purification of total phenolic acids from S.cuneata.

  13. Degradation of phenolic compounds by using advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M. [Univ. de los Andes, Escuela Basica de Ingenieria, La Hechicera, Merida (Venezuela); Hincapie, M. [Dept. de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ambiental, Univ. de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Curco, D.; Contreras, S.; Gimenez, J.; Esplugas, S. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    A new empirical kinetic equation [r = k{sub 1}c - k{sub 2} (c{sub 0} - c)] is proposed for the photocatalytic degradation of phenolic compounds. This equation considers the influence of the intermediates in the degradation of the pollutant. The correct formulation of the contaminant mass balance in the experimental device that operates in recycle mode was done. The proposed empirical kinetic equation fitted quite well with the experimental results obtained in the TiO{sub 2}-photocatalytic degradation of phenol. (orig.)

  14. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Eun, J.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by different oxidised phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid at different concentrations were investigated. Oxidised phenolic compounds were covalently attached to gelatin as indica

  15. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis, while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract, and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05. As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  16. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  17. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hua Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract, which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  18. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.

  19. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat’s Claw: Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Navarro Hoyos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and 13C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22 were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225–494 gallic acid equivalents/g than for wood extracts (40–167 gallic acid equivalents/g. A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers [(+-catechin and (−-epicatechin], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure, flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa. Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  20. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Hoyos, Mirtha; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Murillo Masis, Renato; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Zamora Ramirez, William; Monagas, Maria J; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-12-18

    The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and (13)C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22) were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225-494 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for wood extracts (40-167 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids), flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin)], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure) and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure), flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family) and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa). Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  1. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  2. A WATER—COMPATIBLE PHENOLIC HYDROXYL ODIFIED POLYSTYRENE AS AN ADSORBENT FOR ADSORBING PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAimin; FeiZhenghao; 等

    2001-01-01

    A water-compatible phenolic hydroxyl modified polystyrene adsorbent (AM-1) for adsorbing and removing phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions was prepared by covalent bonding of phenolic hydroxyl groups to the surface of porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads,this resin can be used directly without wetting process.A comparison of the sorption properites of the new resin and Amberlite XAD-4 toward four phenolic compounds,phenol,p-cresol,p-chlorophenol,and p-nitrophenol was made.The capacities of equilibrium adsorption of AM-1 for all four phenolic compounds increased around 20% over that of Amberlite XAD-4,which may be contributed to pheonl hydroxyl group on the surface and the unusual poe distribution.At their dilute solution,the equilibrium adsorption capacities of AM-1 for phenol increased aout 62% over that of Amberlite XAD-4,while equilibrium adsorption capacities of the other three phenolic compounds increased 4-35%,suggesting an advantage of AM-1 over Amberlite XAD-4 in the collection of phenol.Freundlich isotherm equations and isosteric adsorption enthalpies for the four phenolic compunds indicate a physical adsorption process on the Amberlite XAD-4 and AM-1 resins,Column studies for phenol show that AM-1 resin has excellent adsorption and desorption performance.

  3. Diurnal Influence on Phenol Compound Dynamic into Leaves of Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Zhivetiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Content of phenol compound in leaves of Alchemilla subcrenata, Achillea asiatica, Taraxacum officinale, Veronica chamaedrys was researched. The dynamics of alteration of phenol compound content during round the clock in October was determined. The dependence of phenol compound substance in leaves of study plants on temperature was shown.

  4. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89...... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....

  5. EXTRACTION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF TWO SPECIES ORIGANUM PLANT CONTAINING PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID COMPOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benchikha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant of ethanolic extract of two species of Origanum and essential oil of plant Origanum vulgare were investigated and also the total phenolic and flavonoid content measured. The radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. According to the results the leaves extracts have very important values for polyphenols (266.86 mg GAE / g and 194.78 mg GAE / g and high antioxidant activity; DPPH (IC50 = 1.37 g / l and IC50 = 1.53mg / l for species majorana, and vulgare respectively; also the DPPH of essential oil of Origanum vulgare was IC50 = 15.360 mg/l . This data suggest of these extracts as a natural source of phenolic compounds and antioxidant.

  6. Characterization and deposit-forming tendency of polar compounds in cracked components of gasoline. Identification of phenols and aromatic sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.; McCarty, F.; Ehrmann, U.; Lima, L. de; Carvajal, N.; Rojas, A. (INTEVEP S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

    1994-01-01

    Acidic compounds in cracked components of gasoline, isolated by extraction with aqueous solutions of sodium bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide, were identified as phenol and its mono-, di-, tri- and tetramethyl- derivatives. Aromatic sulfur compounds separated as the hexane and benzene fractions by chromatography on an alumina column were identified as thiophene, its mono-, di- and trimethyl- derivatives, ethylthiophene, benzothiophene and methylbenzothiophene. The identification of the phenolic compounds was achieved by IR, hydrogen-1 and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS. Additionally, for complete identification of sulfur compounds a GC equipped with a selective sulfur detector was used. ISD Induction System Deposit (ISD) tests showed a decreased deposit-forming tendency for phenol compounds and no significant deposit formation for aromatic sulfur compounds or other fractions isolated. 10 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of the protective effect of chemical additives in the oxidation of phenolic compounds catalysed by peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Juliana Arriel; Chagas, Pricila Maria Batista; Silva, Maria Cristina; Dos Santos, Custódio Donizete; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte

    2016-01-01

    The use of oxidoredutive enzymes in removing organic pollutants has been the subject of much research. The oxidation of phenolic compounds in the presence of chemical additives has been the focus of this study. In this investigation, the influence of the additives polyethylene glycol and Triton X-100 was evaluated in the phenol oxidation, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and total phenolic compounds present in coffee processing wastewater (CPW) at different pH values, performed by turnip peroxidase and peroxidase extracted from soybean seed hulls. The influence of these additives was observed only in the oxidation of phenol and caffeic acid. In the oxidation of other studied phenolic compounds, the percentage of oxidation remained unchanged in the presence of these chemical additives. In the oxidation of CPW in the presence of additives, no change in the oxidation of phenolic compounds was observed. Although several studies show the importance of evaluating the influence of additives on the behaviour of enzymes, this study found a positive response from the economic point of view for the treatment of real wastewater, since the addition of these substances showed no influence on the oxidation of phenolic compounds, which makes the process less costly.

  8. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  9. Radiation induced chemical changes of phenolic compounds in strawberries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitfellner, F.; Solar, S. E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.at; Sontag, G

    2003-06-01

    In unirradiated strawberries four phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), the flavonoids (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and glycosides from kaempferol and quercetin were determined by reversed phase chromatography with diode array detection. Characteristic linear dose/concentration relationships were found for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and two unidentified compounds. One of them may be usable as marker to prove an irradiation treatment.

  10. Phenol-Rich Compounds Sweet Gel: A Statistically More Effective Antibiotic than Cloxacillin Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Khan, Gazala Afreen; Kardi, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to obtain a natural antibiotic from Phenol-rich compounds; for the dressing and the treatment of chronic wounds. Methods: The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was prepared by blending four natural herbal extracts, Acacia catechu (L.F.), Momia (Shilajit), Castanea sativa, and Ephedra sinica stapf, with combination of a sweet gel medium, including honey, maple saps, Phoenix dactylifera L. (date), pomegranate extract and Azadirachta indica gum as a stabilizer. The combinations were screened by using a well-diffusion assay with cloxacillin as a control. Pseudomonas spp. was tested with our novel antimicrobial compound. The zones of inhibition in agar culture were measured for each individual component and for the compound, and the results were compared with those of the control group which had been treated with cloxacillin. Data were expressed as means ± standard deviations. Quantitative analyses were performed using the paired t-test. Results: The antibiotic effect of the Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was statistically shown to be more significant than that of cloxacillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our novel approach to fighting the antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas proved to be successful. The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was found to be suitable for use as an alternative medicine and bioactive dressing material, for the treatment of patients with various types of wounds, including burns, venous leg ulcers, ulcers of various etiologies, leg ulcers on the feet of diabetic, unhealed graft sampling sites, abscesses, boils, surgical wounds, necrotic process, post-operative and neonatal wound infection, and should be considered as an alternative to the usual methods of cure. PMID:27695634

  11. Distribution of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidative Activities of Rice Kernel and Their Relationships with Agronomic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kesarwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of two Japonica rice cultivars, Taikeng no. 16 (medium and slender grain and Kaohsiung no. 139 (short and round grain, grown under organic and conventional farming were examined. Analyses shows that Kaohsiung no. 139 contains the highest amount of secondary metabolites and continuous farming can increase its production. Results also suggest that phenolic content under different agronomic practices, has not shown significant differences but organically grown rice has proven to be better in higher accumulation of other secondary metabolites (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, flavonoid content, and ferrous chelating capacity. In nutshell, genetic traits and environment have significant effect on phenolic compounds and the least variation reported under agronomic practices.

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Natural Phenolic Compounds on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Pizzolitto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of Aspergillus species on crops, it appears to be highly desirable to apply strategies to prevent their growth, as well as to eliminate or reduce their presence in food products. For this reason, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the effects of ten natural phenolic compounds on the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and to determine which physicochemical properties are involved in the antifungal activity. According to the results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the individual compounds, isoeugenol, carvacrol, and thymol were the most active phenolic components (1.26 mM, 1.47 mM, and 1.50 mM, resp., followed by eugenol (2.23 mM. On the other hand, creosol, p-cresol, o-cresol, m-cresol, vanillin, and phenol had no effects on fungal development. Logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (log P, refractivity index (RI, and molar volume (MV were demonstrated to be the descriptors that best explained the antifungal activity correlated to lipophilicity, reactivity of the components, and steric aspect. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds with antifungal activity.

  13. Relationship structure-antioxidant activity of hindered phenolic compounds

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    Weng, X. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the structure and the antioxidant activity of 21 hindered phenolic compounds was investigated by Rancimat and DPPH· tests. 3-tert-butyl-5-methylbenzene-1,2-diol is the strongest antioxidant in the Rancimat test but not in the DPPH· test because its two hydroxyl groups have very strong steric synergy. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-hydroxy-methylphenol exhibits a strong antioxidant activity as 2,6-ditertbutyl- 4-methoxyphenol does in lard. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4- hydroxy-methylphenol also exhibits stronger activity than 2-tert-butyl-4- methoxyphenol. The methylene of 2,6-ditert-butyl-4-hydroxy-methylphenol can provide a hydrogen atom to active free radicals like a phenolic hydroxyl group does because it is greatly activated by both the aromatic ring and hydroxyl group. Five factors affect the antioxidant activities of the phenolic compounds: how stable the phenolic compound free radicals are after providing hydrogen atoms; how many hy drogen atoms each of the phenolic compounds can provide; how fast the phenolic compounds provide hydrogen atoms; how easily the phenolic compound free radicals can combine with more active free radicals, and whether or not a new antioxidant can form after the phenolic compound provides hydrogen atoms.La relación entre estructura y la actividad antioxidante de 21 compuestos fenólicos con impedimentos estéricos fue investigado mediante ensayos con Rancimat y DPPH·. El 3-terc-butil-5-metilbenceno-1,2-diol es el antioxidante más potente en los ensayos mediante Rancimat pero no mediante ensayos con DPPH·, porque sus dos grupos hidroxilo tienen una fuerte sinergia estérica. El 2,6-Di-terc-butil-4-hidroxi-metil-fenol mostró una actividad antioxidante tan fuerte como el 2,6-di-ter-butil-4-metoxifenol en ensayos con manteca de cerdo. El 2,6-di-terc-butil-4-hidroxi-metilfenol también mostró una actividad más fuerte que el 2-terc-butil-4-metoxifenol. El grupo metileno del 2,6-di-ter-butil-4-hidroxi

  14. Enhancing Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potentials of Antidesma thwaitesianum by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Poontawee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE has increasingly gained attention as an alternative technique for extraction of natural products without leaving toxic residues in extracts. Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg. (Phyllanthaceae, or ma mao, has been reported to exhibit antioxidant health benefits due to its phenolic constituents. To determine whether SFE technique could impact on phenolic contents and associated antioxidant potentials, ripe fruits of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and conventional solvents (ethanol, water. The results showed that the SC-CO2 extract contained significantly higher yield, total phenolic, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents than those obtained from ethanol and water. It also demonstrated the greatest antioxidant activities as assessed by ABTS radical cation decolorization, DPPH radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. Further analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD/MSD revealed the presence of catechin as a major phenolic compound of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae, with the maximum amount detected in the SC-CO2 extract. These data indicate that SFE technology improves both quantity and quality of Antidesma thwaitesianum fruit extract. The findings added more reliability of using this technique to produce high added value products from this medicinal plant.

  15. Preparative Separation of Phenolic Compounds from Halimodendron halodendron by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Three phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2, and 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5, along with a phenolic mixture were successfully separated from the ethyl acetate crude extract of Halimodendron halodendron by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC with chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (4:3:2:0.05, v/v as the two-phase solvent system. The phenolic mixture from HSCCC was further separated by preparative HPLC and purified by Sephadex LH-20 to afford quercetin (3 and 3-O-methylquercetin (4. Seven hundred mg of ethyl acetate crude extract was separated by HSCCC to obtain six fractions which were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The HSCCC separation obtained total of 80 mg of the mixture of quercetin (3 and 3-O-methylquercetin (4 (26.43% and 71.89%, respectively in fraction 2, 14 mg of 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5 at 95.14% of purity in fraction 3, 15 mg of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1 at 92.83% of purity in fraction 5, 12 mg of isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2 at 97.99% of purity in fraction 6. This is the first time these phenolic compounds have been obtained from H. halodendron, and their chemical structures identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis.

  16. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Hieracium pilosella L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Čanadanovic-Brunet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity ofwater, ethanol and methanol Hieracium pilosella L.extracts is reported. The antioxidative activity was tested by spectrophotometrically measuring their ability to scavenge a stable DPPH· free radical and a reactive hydroxyl radical trapped by DMPO during the Fenton reaction, using the ESR spectroscopy. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were evaluated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and a colorimetric method, respectively. A HPLC method was used for identification of some phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and umbelliferone. The antioxidant activity of the investigated extracts slightly differs depending on the solvent used. The concentration of 0.30 mg/mL of water, ethanol and methanol extract is less effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals (56.35, 58.73 and 54.35%, respectively in comparison with the DPPH· radical scavenging activity (around 95% for all extracts. The high contents of total phenolic compounds (239.59–244.16 mg GAE/g of dry extract and total flavonoids (79.13–82.18 mg RE/g of dry extract indicated that these compounds contribute to the antioxidative activity.

  17. Electrochemical Incineration of Phenolic Compounds from the Hydrocarbon Industry Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Medel; Erika Bustos; Karen Esquivel; Godínez, Luis A.; Yunny Meas

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical incineration using boron-doped diamond electrodes was applied to samples obtained from a refinery and compared to the photo-electro-Fenton process in order to selectively eliminate the phenol and phenolic compounds from a complex matrix. Due to the complex chemical composition of the sample, a pretreatment to the sample in order to isolate the phenolic compounds was applied. The effects of the pretreatment and of pH on the degradation of the phenolic compounds were evaluated. ...

  18. Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-β-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extract...

  19. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-11-15

    The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of phenols biodegradation by compound specific stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi; Gilevska, Tetyana; Wenzig, Felix; Hans, Richnow; Vogt, Carsten

    2015-04-01

    Biodegradation of phenol and alkylphenols has been described under both oxic and anoxic conditions. In the absence of molecular oxygen, the degradation of phenolic compounds is initiated by microorganisms through carboxylation, fumarate addition to the methyl moiety or anoxic hydroxylation of the methyl moiety. Comparatively, under aerobic condition, the initiation mechanisms are revealed to be monoxygenation or dihydroxylation for phenol and ring hydroxylation or methyl group oxidation for cresols. While several studies biochemically characterized the enzymes and reaction mechanisms in the relevant degradation pathways, isotope fractionation patterns were rarely reported possibly due to constraints in current analytical methods. In this study, the carbon isotope fractionation patterns upon the degradation of phenol and cresols by several strains were analyzed by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry connected with liquid chromatography (LC-IRMS). The corresponding enrichment factors for carbon (ƐC) have been obtained. Cresols degradation by various strains showed generally moderate carbon isotope fractionation patterns with notable differences. For p-cresol degradation, five strains were examined. The aerobic strain Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCIMB8250 exploits ring hydroxylation by molecular oxygen as initial reaction, and a ƐC value of -1.4±0.2‰ was obtained. Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes NCIMB 9867, an aerobic strain initiating cresols degradation via oxygen-dependent side chain hydroxylation, yielded a ƐC value of -2.3±0.2‰. Under nitrate-reducing conditions, Geobacter metallireducens DSM 7210 and Azoarcus buckelii DSM 14744 attacks p-cresol at the side chain by monohydroxylation using water as oxygen source; the two strains produced ƐC values of -3.6±0.4‰ and -2±0.1‰, accordingly. The sulfate-reducing Desulfosarcina cetonica DSM 7267 activating cresols by fumarate addition to the methyl moiety yielded ƐC values of -1.9±0.2‰ for p

  1. Phenolic and Volatile Composition of a Dry Spearmint (Mentha spicata L. Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Cirlini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports a complete mass spectrometric characterization of both the phenolic and volatile fractions of a dried spearmint extract. Phenolic compounds were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MSn and a total of 66 compounds were tentatively identified, being the widest phenolic characterisation of spearmint to date. The analysis suggests that the extract is composed of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives (230.5 ± 13.5 mg/g with smaller amounts of salvianolic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones, and flavanones. Head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique, that was applied to characterize the volatile fraction of spearmint, identified molecules belonging to different chemical classes, such as p-cymene, isopiperitone, and piperitone, dihydroedulan II, menthone, p-cymen-8-ol, and β-linalool. This comprehensive phytochemical analysis can be useful to test the authenticity of this product rich in rosmarinic acid and other phenolics, and when assessing its biological properties. It may also be applied to other plant-derived food extracts and beverages containing a broad range of phytochemical compounds.

  2. Phenolic and Volatile Composition of a Dry Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirlini, Martina; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Nieman, Kristin M; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-08-03

    The present paper reports a complete mass spectrometric characterization of both the phenolic and volatile fractions of a dried spearmint extract. Phenolic compounds were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS(n)) and a total of 66 compounds were tentatively identified, being the widest phenolic characterisation of spearmint to date. The analysis suggests that the extract is composed of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives (230.5 ± 13.5 mg/g) with smaller amounts of salvianolic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones, and flavanones. Head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique, that was applied to characterize the volatile fraction of spearmint, identified molecules belonging to different chemical classes, such as p-cymene, isopiperitone, and piperitone, dihydroedulan II, menthone, p-cymen-8-ol, and β-linalool. This comprehensive phytochemical analysis can be useful to test the authenticity of this product rich in rosmarinic acid and other phenolics, and when assessing its biological properties. It may also be applied to other plant-derived food extracts and beverages containing a broad range of phytochemical compounds.

  3. Yeast α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Gynura medica Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1, quercetin (2, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4, rutin (5, chlorogenic acid (6 and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7. All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1–7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively.

  4. Two New Phenolic Compounds from Schizonepeta tenuifolia (Benth. Briq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Hua Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new phenolic compounds, Schitenoside A (1 and Schitenoside B (2, have been isolated together with six known compounds: 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl ethanol 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, benzyl 7-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (6, m-hydroxybenzoic acid (7 and trans-caffeic acid (8, from the Schizonepeta tenuifolia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds (3-7 were isolated from Schizonepeta genus for the first time. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a week antibacterial activity against four test strains, involving both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria .

  5. ULTRASONIC-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF ANTIOXIDANT PHENOLIC COUMPOUNDS FROM EUCHEUMA COTTONII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Hesti Wardhani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influences of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE conditions on phenolic compounds of Eucheuma cottonii seaweeed were investigated. The effects of temperature, time and liquid-solid ratio were evaluated based on the total phenolic content (TPC. The result showed a significant variability of effect of temperature, time, and liquid-solid ratio on TPC. Application of ultrasound reduced the optimum temperature, time and liquid-solid ratio of the extraction when compared to the conventional extraction. The highest phenolic content (4.44 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight was obtained at 3:1(v/w of liquid-solid ratio, 55oC of temperature and 35 min of extraction time. At this condition, the extract showed ability to scavenging 91% of 1,1-diphenyl 2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and 10.9% of H2O2. High ability of the extract to scavenge DPPH radical but low in scavenging H2O2 indicated that the extract dominated by primary antioxidant compounds which work by donating hydrogen atoms to bind free radical.

  6. Phenolic compounds from blueberries can inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Weiguang; Fischer, Joan; Krewer, Gerard; Akoh, Casimir C

    2005-09-07

    Research has shown that diets rich in phenolic compounds may be associated with lower risks of several chronic diseases including cancer. This study systematically evaluated the bioactivities of phenolic compounds in rabbiteye blueberries and assessed their potential antiproliferation and apoptosis induction effects using two colon cancer cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2. Polyphenols in three blueberry cultivars, Briteblue, Tifblue, and Powderblue, were extracted and freeze-dried. The extracts were further separated into phenolic acids, tannins, flavonols, and anthocyanins using an HLB cartridge and LH20 column. Some individual phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified by HPLC with >90% purity in anthocyanin fractions. The dried extracts and fractions were added to the cell culture medium to test for antiproliferation activities and induction of apoptosis. Flavonol and tannin fractions resulted in 50% inhibition of cell proliferation at concentrations of 70-100 and 50-100 microg/mL in HT-29 and Caco-2 cells, respectively. The phenolic acid fraction showed relatively lower bioactivities with 50% inhibition at approximately 1000 microg/mL. The greatest antiproliferation effect among all four fractions was from the anthocyanin fractions. Both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell growth was significantly inhibited by >50% by the anthocyanin fractions at concentrations of 15-50 microg/mL. Anthocyanin fractions also resulted in 2-7 times increases in DNA fragmentation, indicating the induction of apoptosis. The effective dosage levels are close to the reported range of anthocyanin concentrations in rat plasma. These findings suggest that blueberry intake may reduce colon cancer risk.

  7. Food Ingredient Extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush: Variation in Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Stander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlings of the same age, cultivated under the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for individual compound content, total polyphenol (TP content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in a number of assays. An HPLC method was developed and validated to allow quantification of xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin, flavanones (hesperidin, eriocitrin, a flavone (scolymoside, a benzophenone (iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside and dihydrochalcones (phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-glucoside, 3-hydroxyphloretin-3',5'-di-C-hexoside. Additional compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectrometric detection, with the presence of the 3-hydroxyphloretin-glycoside, an iriflophenone-di-O,C-hexoside, an eriodictyol-di-C-hexoside and vicenin-2 being demonstrated for the first time. Variability of the individual phenolic compound contents was generally higher than that of the TP content and TAC values. Among the phenolic compounds, scolymoside, hesperidin and iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside contents were the most variable. A combination of the measured parameters could be useful in product standardization by providing a basis for specifying minimum levels.

  8. Modification of Phenolic Oximes for Copper Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents which are capable of transporting transition metal salts. Chapter 1 reviews current solvent extractant technology for metal recovery, including the limited knowledge of the effect of substituents on extractive efficacy. Advances in leaching technology have...

  9. Extraction of phenol using trialkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) in kerosene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urtiaga, A.M.; Ortiz, I. [Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    A group of extractants based on phosphine oxides have been reported as an alternative to conventional polar solvents for phenol-liquid-liquid extraction. Among phosphoryl extractants, Cyanex 923 (a mixture of four trialkylphosphine oxides, alkyl = normal, C{sub 6}, C{sub 8}) has proved to combine high extraction efficiency and low water solubility, obviating the necessity of removing the solvent from the aqueous raffinate, a need associated with the use of methyl isobutyl ketone and isopropyl ether, the solvents most widely employed for this application. Phosphoryl extractants are solvating extractants, and are known to form relatively strong and reversible hydrogen bonds with phenols. The fact that most of these systems show a strong nonideality in the organic phase makes a general theoretical treatment of the equilibria almost impossible, leading to the necessity of obtaining a large number of data in order to describe the equilibria for design purposes. In this work the effect of the concentration of phenol in the aqueous phase on the partition coefficient for phenol in Cyanex 923-kerosene/water systems is investigated at six different concentrations of the extractant in the organic phase: 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 70% v/v of Cyanex 923-kerosene/water systems is investigated at six different concentrations of the extractant in the organic phase: 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 70% v/v of Cyanex 923 in kerosene. The initial concentrations of phenol in the aqueous phase were in the 1000 mg/L < C{sub PhOH} < 50,000 mg/L range.

  10. Antioxidant Activities of Phenolic Compounds in Green and White Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-wei Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols and tannins have implications for health and nutrition because of their antioxidant activities. Foods with high content of phenolics, such as fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes, show decreasing incidence of several diseases upon their consumption. However, there are limited reports on ant oxidative properties of tannins present in legumes. Faba bean seed has been known for high content of condensed tannin which is attributed as one of the ant nutritional factors in this highly proteinaceous pulse crop. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate and characterize the phenolic compounds in different tissues of this pulse and their ant oxidative activities. Fairly good amount of phenolics were observed in all tissues extract which was quite evident from their high FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power value. It was further, observed that the extract prepared from its seeds presented a potent radical scavenger activity as indicated by its high capacity to reduce the free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, whereas the tannin-free extract indicated loss of ant oxidative activities. The seed extract also interacted with superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals as well as the oxidant species, hydrogen peroxide. Thus, our results provide evidence that the extract prepared from different tissues of faba bean shows antioxidant and radical scavenging activities largely because of its condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins.

  11. Predicting the reactivity of phenolic compounds with formaldehyde. II, continuation of an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohru Mitsunaga; Anthony H. Conner; Charles G. Jr. Hill

    2002-01-01

    Phenol–formaldehyde resins are important adhesives used by the forest products industry. The phenolic compounds in these resins are derived primarily from petrochemical sources. Alternate sources of phenolic compounds include tannins, lignins, biomass pyrolysis products, and coal gasification products. Because of variations in their chemical structures, the...

  12. [Phenolic compounds in leaves insertions of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeľová, Daniela; Bittner Fialová, Silvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Czigle, Szilvia

    Lamiaceae plants mostly accumulate active ingredients in their leaves. The subfamily Nepetoideae, including the genus Mentha L., is characterized by the presence of essential oil and antioxidant phenolics, chiefly hydroxycinnamic acids with predominance of rosmarinic acid, and flavonoids. Mentha × piperita and M. spicata are the most broadly used mints in both medicine and industry, while M. x villosa is less known in our country. Herbal drugs in the form of leaves are usually analysed unpartitioned, while single leaves insertions have only been studied occasionally. Therefore, the aim of this work was the quantification of the active compounds content in the leaves pairs of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná, using pharmacopoeial methods: total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (THD) and luteolin-type flavonoids. THD content ranged from 6.7% to 9.4% in the leaves pairs water extracts, and from 6.6% to 14.0% in methanol extracts. Flavonoids contents, expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ranged from 4.0% to 8.8% in water extracts, and from 4.0% to 10.5% in methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) expressed as SC50 ranged from 10.2 to 16.9 μg.ml-1 (drug dry weight) in water extracts, and from 10.7 to 21.6 μg.ml-1 in methanol extracts. The highest content of phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activity were found to be in the top sheet, while the lowest content of phenolic compounds and lowest antioxidant activity were detected in the leaves of the middle stem part.Key words: Mentha × villosa Huds cv. Snežná hydroxycinnamic derivatives rosmarinic acid luteolin-7-O-glucoside DPPH.

  13. Identification of phenolic compounds from lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and hybrid bilberry (Vaccinium x intermedium Ruthe L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkanen, Juho; Mattila, Sampo; Jaakola, Laura; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tolonen, Ari

    2009-10-28

    Phenolic compounds from leaves of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and the natural hybrid of bilberry and lingonberry (Vaccinium x intermedium Ruthe L., hybrid bilberry) were identified using LC/TOF-MS and LC/MS/MS after extraction from the plant material in methanol in an ultrasonicator. The phenolic profiles in the plants were compared using the LC/TOF-MS responses. This is the first thorough report of phenolic compounds in hybrid bilberry. In total, 51 different phenolic compounds were identified, including flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, flavonols and their glycosides, and various phenolic acid conjugates. Of the identified compounds, 35 were detected in bilberry, 36 in lingonberry, and 46 in the hybrid. To our knowledge, seven compounds were previously unreported in Vaccinium genus and many of the compounds are reported for the first time from bilberry and lingonberry.

  14. Optimizing a culture medium for biomass and phenolic compounds production using Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Zárate-Chaves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was aimed at optimizing a culture medium for biomass production and phenolic compounds by using Ganoderma lucidum. The culture was optimized in two stages; a Plackett-Burman design was used in the first one for identifying key components in the medium and a central composite design was used in the second one for optimizing their concentration. Both responses (biomass and phenolic compounds were simultaneously optimized by the latter methodology regarding desirability, and the optimal concentrations obtained were 50.00 g/L sucrose, 13.29 g/L yeast extract and 2.99 g/L olive oil. Maximum biomass production identified in these optimal conditions was 9.5 g/L and that for phenolic compounds was 0.0452 g/L, this being 100% better than that obtained in the media usually used in the laboratory. Similar patterns regarding chemical characterization and biological activity towards Aspergillus sp., from both fruiting body and mycelium-derived secondary metabolites and extracts obtained in the proposed medium were observed. It was shown that such statistical methodologies are useful for optimizing fermentation and, in the specific case of G. lucidum, optimizing processes for its production and its metabolites in submerged culture as an alternative to traditional culture.

  15. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds of Lonicerae macranthoides by HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Chen, Lin; Shi, Shuyun; Cai, Ping; Liang, Xuejuan; Zhang, Shuihan

    2016-05-30

    Lonicerae macranthoides with strong antioxidant activity is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and folk tea/beverage. However, detailed information about its antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds is limited. Then at first, we comparatively evaluated total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activities of water extract, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of L. macranthoides. Ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest level of TPC (207.38 mg GAE/g DW), TFC (53.06 mg RE/g DW) and the best DPPH scavenge activity and reducing power. n-Butanol fraction showed the best ABTS(+) and O2(-) scavenging activities. Interestingly, water extract, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed stronger antioxidant activities than positive control, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). After that, thirty-one antioxidant phenolic compounds, including twenty-two phenolic acids and nine flavonoids, were screened by DPPH-HPLC experiment and then identified using HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. It is noted that twenty-one compounds (1, 3-4, 6-17, 19, 23, 26, 28-29, and 31), as far as was known, were discovered from L. macranthoide for the first time, and eleven of them (3-4, 10-17, and 23) were reported in Lonicera species for the first time. Results indicated that L. macranthoides could serve as promising source of rich antioxidants in foods, beverages and medicines for health promotion.

  16. Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6′-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.

  17. Partition behavior of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in oil-brine mixtures during thermal processing for fish canning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Fiore, Francesca; Della Medaglia, Dorotea; Ambrosino, Maria Luisa; Medina, Isabel

    2002-05-08

    The chemical modifications and partitioning toward the brine phase (5% salt) of major phenol compounds of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) were studied in a model system formed by sealed cans filled with oil-brine mixtures (5:1, v/v) simulating canned-in-oil food systems. Filled cans were processed in an industrial plant using two sterilization conditions commonly used during fish canning. The partitioning of phenolic compounds toward brine induced by thermal processing was studied by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the phenol fraction extracted from oils and brine. Hydroxytyrosol (1), tyrosol (2), and the complex phenolic compounds containing 1 and 2 (i.e., the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon 3, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon 4, and the oleuropein aglycon 6) decreased in the oily phase after sterilization with a marked partitioning toward the brine phase. The increase of the total amount of 1 and 2 after processing, as well as the presence of elenolic acid 7 released in brine, revealed the hydrolysis of the ester bond of hydrolyzable phenolic compounds 3, 4, and 6 during thermal processing. Both phenomena (partitioning toward the water phase and hydrolysis) contribute to explain the loss of phenolic compounds exhibited by EVOO used as filling medium in canned foods, as well as the protection of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-EVOO fish products.

  18. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC) of phenolic compounds from the shoots of Rubus idaeus 'Glen Ample' cultivar variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Marta; Głód, Daniel; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława

    2016-03-20

    In this study the application of two-dimensional LC (2D LC) for qualitative analysis of polyphenols and simple phenols in the shoots of Rubus idaeus 'Glen Ample' variety is presented. In the preliminary analysis, the methanol extract of the shoots was analyzed by one-dimensional LC. One-dimensional LC separation profiles of phenolics from R. idaeus 'Glen Ample' shoots were dependent on column type, mobile phase composition and gradient program used. Two-dimensional LC system was built from connecting an octadecyl C-18 silica column in the first dimension and pentafluorophenyl column in the second dimension, coupled with DAD and MS (ESI, APCI, DUIS ionization) detectors. A total of 34 phenolic compounds belonging to the groups of phenolic acids, ellagitannins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and ellagic acid conjugates were identified in the shoots of R. idaeus 'Glen Ample'. The established 2D LC method offers an effective tool for analysis of phenolics present in Rubus species.

  19. In situ catalytic hydrogenation of model compounds and biomass-derived phenolic compounds for bio-oil upgrading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Zhongzhi Yang; Chung-yun Hse; Qiuli Su; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    The renewable phenolic compounds produced by directional liquefaction of biomass are a mixture of complete fragments decomposed from native lignin. These compounds are unstable and difficult to use directly as biofuel. Here, we report an efficient in situ catalytic hydrogenation method that can convert phenolic compounds into saturated cyclohexanes. The process has...

  20. Development of novel antibiofouling materials from natural phenol compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelikani, Rahul; Kim, Dong Shik

    2007-03-01

    Biofilms consist of a gelatinous matrix formed on a solid surface by microbial organisms.Biofilm is caused due to the adhesion of microbes to solid surfaces with production of extracellular polymers and the process of the biofilm formation is reffered to as biofouling.Biofouling causes serious problems in chemical, medical and pharmaceutical industries.Although there have been some antibiofouling materials developed over the years,no plausible results have been found yet.Natural polyphenolic compounds like flavanoids,cathechins have strong antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.Recently,apocynin,a phenol derivative,was polymerized to form oligomers,which can regulate intracellular pathways in cancer cells preventing cell proliferation and migration.These natural phenolic compounds have never been applied to solid surfaces to prevent biofouling.It is thought that probably because of the difficulty to crosslink them to form a stable coating.In this study,some novel polyphenolic compounds synthesized using enzymatic technique from cashew nut shell liquid,a cheap and renewable byproduct of the cashew industry are used as coating materials to prevent biofouling.The interaction of these materials with microbes preventing fouling on surfaces and the chemico-physical properties of the materials causing the antibiofouling effect will be discussed.It is critical to understand the antibiofouling mechanism of these materials for better design and application in various fields.

  1. Sulfonation of phenols extracted from the pyrolysis oil of oil palm shells for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Mariyamni; Seng, Goh Meng

    2008-01-01

    The cost of chemicals prohibits many technically feasible enhanced oil recovery methods to be applied in oil fields. It is shown that by-products from oil palm processing can be a source of valuable chemicals. Analysis of the pyrolysis oil from oil palm shells, a by-product of the palm oil industry, reveals a complex mixture of mainly phenolic compounds, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The phenolic compounds were extracted from the pyrolysis oil by liquid-liquid extraction using alkali and an organic solvent and analyzed, indicating the presence of over 93% phenols and phenolic compounds. Simultaneous sulfonation and alkylation of the pyrolysis oil was carried out to produce surfactants for application in oil fields. The lowest measured surface tension and critical micelle concentration was 30.2 mNm(-1) and 0.22 wt%, respectively. Displacement tests showed that 7-14% of the original oil in place was recovered by using a combination of surfactants and xanthan (polymer) as additives.

  2. Phenolic compounds involved in grafting incompatibility of Vitis spp: development and validation of an analytical method for their quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Sara; Assunção, Maria; Brazão, João; Zanol, Geni; Eiras-Dias, José Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Graft incompatibility of Vitis spp is an unresolved worldwide problem with important economic consequences. Grafting comprises a complex set of morphological and physiological alterations, in which the phenolic compounds seem to be strongly involved. Therefore, a detailed analysis and recognition of structural phenolic compounds diversity in the two partners of a Vitis graft is of great importance to evaluate their role as markers of graft establishment. To optimise a sample extraction method, and to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonols in the graft union so as to understand their behaviour in the metabolism of the scion-rootstock system, using compatible and incompatible combinations of a Syrah cultivar and two rootstocks (R110 and SO4). Sixty extracts of Vitis grafting tissues were prepared and analysed by HPLC for the qualitative and quantitative determination of their phenolic profile. Among the phenolic compounds identified in the samples, one benzoic acid (gallic acid), three cinnamic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) and two flavonols (catechin and epicatechin) are potentially suitable as markers of graft incompatibility. The method developed presents good performance and lends itself readily for application in routine analysis of the phenolic composition of Vitis grafting tissues to distinguish compatible and incompatible combinations in the graft callusing stage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The phenolic compounds: a commercial argument in the economic war to come on the quality of olive oil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servili Maurizio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is deeply related to the amount of its minor compounds, chiefly volatile and phenolic compounds, which confer the sensory note and the remarkable nutritional and biological properties of this traditional Mediterranean fruit juice. Several agronomic aspects and technological factors affect the qualitative and quantitative composition of these compounds in EVOO. The most abundant natural antioxidants of EVOO are tocopherols, carotenoids and hydrophilic phenols. The EVOO phenols represent a group of secondary plant metabolites not often present in other oils and fats. The class of the hydrophilic phenols includes phenolic alcohols and acids, flavonoids, lignans and secoiridoids. The latter group is exclusively found in the Oleacease family plants of which the olive is the only edible fruit and it is considered as the most important fraction from a biological point of view. In particular, the secoiridoids are the most relevant phenols associated to health and biological proprieties and, at the same time, they are responsible for the bitter and pungency sensory notes of EVOO. The new approach to the EVOO extraction technologies is oriented towards the improvement of the virgin olive oil healthy and sensory properties by optimizing the oil mechanical extraction process conditions.

  4. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  5. Extraction of valuable compounds from mangosteen pericarps by hydrothermal assisted sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmudah, Siti; Lestari, Sarah Duta; Shiddiqi, Qifni Yasa'Ash; Widiyastuti, Winardi, Sugeng; Wahyudiono, Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2015-12-01

    Valuable compounds, such as xanthone and phenolic compounds, from mangosteen pericarps was extracted by hydrothermal treatment at temperatures of 120-160 °C and pressures of 5 MPa using batch and semi-batch extractor. This method is a simple and environmentally friendly extraction method requiring no chemicals other than water. Under these conditions, there is possibility for the formation of phenolic compounds from mangosteen pericarps from decomposition of bounds between lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose via autohydrolysis. In order to increase the amount of extracted valuable compounds, sonication pre-treament was performed prior to the hydrothermal extraction process. 30 min of sonication pre-treatment could increase significantly the amount of xanthone and phenolic compounds mangosteen pericarps extraction. In batch-system, the xanthone recovery approach to 100 % at 160 °C with 30 min sonication pre-treatment for 150 min extraction time. Under semi-batch process, the total phenolic compounds in the extract was 217 mg/g sample at 160 °C with 30 min sonication pre-treatment for 150 min total extraction time. The results revealed that hydrothermal extraction assisted sonication pre-treatment is applicable method for the isolation of polyphenolic compounds from other types of biomass and may lead to an advanced plant biomass components extraction technology.

  6. Phenolic compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) heartwood. Effect of toasting at cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Castanea sativa Mill., before and after toasting in cooperage, were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, and some low molecular weight phenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins were found. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds were lignin constituents as the acids gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, ferulic, and ellagic, the aldehydes protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, coniferylic, and sinapic, and the coumarin scopoletin. Their patterns were somewhat different those of oak because oak does not contain compounds such protocatechuic acid and aldehyde and is composed of much lower amounts of gallic acid than chestnut. Vescalagin and castalagin were the main ellagitannins, and acutissimin was tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. Moreover, some gallotannins were tentatively identified, including different isomers of di, tri, tetra, and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, and di and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucopyranose, comprising 20 different compounds, as well as some ellagic derivatives such as ellagic acid deoxyhexose, ellagic acid dimer dehydrated, and valoneic acid dilactone. These ellagic derivatives as well as some galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. The profile of tannins was therefore different from that of oak wood because oak only contains tannins of the ellagitannins type. Seasoned and toasted chestnut wood showed a very different balance between lignin derivatives and tannins because toasting resulted in the degradation of tannins and the formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignin degradation. Moreover, the different toasting levels provoked different balances between tannins and lignin constituents because the intensity of lignin and tannin degradation was in relation to the intensity of toasting.

  7. Phenolic Rich Extract from Clinacanthus nutans Attenuates Hyperlipidemia-Associated Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarega, Nadarajan; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Md Esa, Norhaizan; Zawawi, Norhasnida; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans is used as traditional medicine in Asia but there are limited scientific studies to support its use. In this study, the stem and leaf of C. nutans were extracted using solvents of differing polarities, and their antioxidant capacities were determined using multiple antioxidant assays. The water and aqueous methanolic leaf extracts were further fractionated and their antioxidant capacities and phenolic compositions were tested. Furthermore, the efficacies of the water and aqueous methanolic leaf extracts were tested against hyperlipidemia-induced oxidative stress in rats. Serum and hepatic antioxidant and oxidative stress markers were tested after feeding the rats with high fat diet together with the extracts or simvastatin for 7 weeks. The results indicated that both leaf extracts attenuated oxidative stress through increasing serum antioxidant enzymes activity and upregulating the expression of hepatic antioxidant genes. Multiple phenolic compounds were detected in the extracts and fractions of C. nutans, although protocatechuic acid was one of the most abundant and may have contributed significantly towards the bioactivities of the extracts. However, synergistic effects of different phenolics may have contributed to the overall bioactivities. C. nutans can be a good source of functional ingredients for the management of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  8. Phenolic Rich Extract from Clinacanthus nutans Attenuates Hyperlipidemia-Associated Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadarajan Sarega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans is used as traditional medicine in Asia but there are limited scientific studies to support its use. In this study, the stem and leaf of C. nutans were extracted using solvents of differing polarities, and their antioxidant capacities were determined using multiple antioxidant assays. The water and aqueous methanolic leaf extracts were further fractionated and their antioxidant capacities and phenolic compositions were tested. Furthermore, the efficacies of the water and aqueous methanolic leaf extracts were tested against hyperlipidemia-induced oxidative stress in rats. Serum and hepatic antioxidant and oxidative stress markers were tested after feeding the rats with high fat diet together with the extracts or simvastatin for 7 weeks. The results indicated that both leaf extracts attenuated oxidative stress through increasing serum antioxidant enzymes activity and upregulating the expression of hepatic antioxidant genes. Multiple phenolic compounds were detected in the extracts and fractions of C. nutans, although protocatechuic acid was one of the most abundant and may have contributed significantly towards the bioactivities of the extracts. However, synergistic effects of different phenolics may have contributed to the overall bioactivities. C. nutans can be a good source of functional ingredients for the management of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  9. Detection and quantification of phenolic compounds in olive oil by high resolution {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophoridou, Stella [NMR Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Voutes, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Dais, Photis [NMR Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Voutes, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: dais@chemistry.uoc.gr

    2009-02-09

    High resolution {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy has been employed as a versatile and rapid method to analyze the polar fraction of extra virgin olive oils containing various classes of phenolic compounds. The strategy for identification of phenolic compounds is based on the NMR chemical shifts of a large number of model compounds assigned by using two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, 2D NMR was applied to phenolic extracts in an attempt to discover additional phenolic compounds. The {sup 1}H NMR methodology was successful in detecting simple phenols, such as p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, homovanillyl alcohol, vanillin, free tyrosol, and free hydroxytyrosol, the flavonols apigenin and luteolin, the lignans (+) pinoresinol, (+) 1-acetoxypinoresinol and syringaresinol, two isomers of the aldehydic form of oleuropein and ligstroside, the dialdehydic form of oleuropein and ligstroside lacking a carboxymethyl group, and finally total hydroxytyrosol and total tyrosol reflecting the total amounts of free and esterified hydroxytyrol and tyrosol, respectively. The absolute amount of each phenolic constituent was determined in the polar fraction by using anhydrous 1,3,5-triazine as an internal standard.

  10. Fusarium graminearum growth inhibition mechanism using phenolic compounds from Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural antifungal substances is motivated by the need for alternatives to existing methods that are not always applicable, efficient, or that do not pose risk to consumers or the environment. Furthermore, studies on the behaviour of toxigenic species in the presence of natural fungicides have enabled their safe application in the food chain In this study, Spirulina LEB-18 phenolic extract was assessed for its antifungal activity on 12 toxigenic strains of Fusarium graminearum isolated from barley and wheat. The susceptible metabolic pathways were assessed through the determination of structural compounds (glucosamine and ergosterol and enzyme activity of the microorganisms' primary metabolism. The results indicate that phenolic extracts reduced the growth rate of the toxigenic species investigated. The IC50 was obtained by applying 3 to 8% (p/p of phenolic compounds in relation to the culture medium. The use of this natural fungicide proved promising for the inhibition of fungal multiplication, especially in terms of the inactivation of enzymatic systems (amylase and protease of Fusarium graminearum.

  11. Characterization, phenolic compounds and functional properties of Cucumis melo L. peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallek-Ayadi, Sana; Bahloul, Neila; Kechaou, Nabil

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the phytochemical composition and functional properties of the melon peels, considered as a by-product. Melon peels (maazoun cultivar) are rich in nutritional ingredients such as carbohydrates (69.77%) and ash (3.67%). They contain significant amounts of total dietary fibers (41.69%) and antioxidants as polyphenols and flavonoids (332mg/100g extract and 95.46mg/100g extract, respectively). The identification and the quantification of the phenolic compounds of melon peels were performed by high performance liquid chromatography apparatus. The obtained results indicate that hydroxybenzoic acids and flavones constitute their main phenolic classes. 3-Hydroxybenzoic acid is the major phenolic compound in the melon peels by 33.45mg/100g, followed by apigenin-7-glycoside (29.34mg/100g). Determination of the functional properties (water and oil retention capacities) and color shows that melon peels have properties that may be useful in industrial applications.

  12. Phenolic compounds from Andean mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum) tubers display protection against soybean oil oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betalleluz-Pallardel, I; Chirinos, R; Rogez, H; Pedreschi, R; Campos, D

    2012-06-01

    Phenolic compounds from mashua tuber were evaluated as potential antioxidants to retard the oxidation of crude soybean oil submitted to accelerated storage and frying. During the accelerated storage, an ethanolic crude extract, a purified extract, an aqueous fraction and an ethyl acetate fraction from mashua containing different gallic acid equivalent concentrations (100, 300 and 600 ppm) in oil were evaluated at 55 °C. After 15 days of storage, better effects were evidenced against soybean oil oxidation at 300 and 600 ppm of ethyl acetate fraction in comparison to 200 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene and the control (no antioxidant added). During the frying process at ∼180 °C, principal component analysis revealed that the content of trienes and dienes were strongly correlated with the frying batch. Ethyl acetate fraction at 200 ppm showed the highest efficacy against oil oxidation in terms of polar compound values, free fatty acids and conjugated dienes and trienes in comparison to the oil containing 200 ppm tert-butylhydroquinone and control. Differential scanning calorimetry corroborated the efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction phenolic and it is strongly recommended as method for validation of results. This study provides strong evidence related to the excellent protective effects against soybean oil oxidation of mashua phenolics. This crop could be utilized as an alternative source of natural antioxidants by the oil industry.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. Fruits. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Junqueira-Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic. LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit’s characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives.

  14. Effectiveness of Phenolic Compounds against Citrus Green Mould

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    Simona M. Sanzani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stored citrus fruit suffer huge losses because of the development of green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum. Usually synthetic fungicides are employed to control this disease, but their use is facing some obstacles, such public concern about possible adverse effects on human and environmental health and the development of resistant pathogen populations. In the present study quercetin, scopoletin and scoparone—phenolic compounds present in several agricultural commodities and associated with response to stresses—were firstly tested in vitro against P. digitatum and then applied in vivo on oranges cv. Navelina. Fruits were wound-treated (100 µg, pathogen-inoculated, stored and surveyed for disease incidence and severity. Although only a minor (≤13% control effect on P. digitatum growth was recorded in vitro, the in vivo trial results were encouraging. In fact, on phenolic-treated oranges, symptoms appeared at 6 days post-inoculation (DPI, i.e., with a 2 day-delay as compared to the untreated control. Moreover, at 8 DPI, quercetin, scopoletin, and scoparone significantly reduced disease incidence and severity by 69%–40% and 85%–70%, respectively, as compared to the control. At 14 DPI, scoparone was the most active molecule. Based on the results, these compounds might represent an interesting alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  15. Phenolic Compounds from Wine as Natural Preservatives of Fish Meat

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    Pedro Aredes Aredes-Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the antibacterial effect of phenolic compound combinations and total polyphenols of Argentinean red wine varieties against Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Listeria monocytogenes using commercial fish meat as model food. Rutin-quercetin combination and three wine varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec and Merlot caused cellular death of both bacteria on fish meat at 4 °C. Rutin-quercetin combination was effective on fish meat even at 20 °C. Clarified wines did not affect the bacteria, indicating that wine polyphenols are responsible for the observed effect. The use of wine phenolic compounds as antibacterial agent could be used to prevent contamination and extend the shelf life of fish meat. A big finding of this work is the use of rutin–quercetin combination as preservative for the conservation of fish meat and its transport to the fish market, which is an effective antibacterial agent even when the transport temperature is not constant.

  16. Mineral analysis, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds in wine residues flour

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    Bennemann Gabriela Datsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the mineral content (N, P, K, S, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds in flours produced from residues of different grape cultivars from the wineries in the Southern region of Brazil. Mineral analysis showed a significant difference for all grape cultivar, with the exception for phosphorus content. Residues from cv. Seibel showed higher levels of N, Cu and Mg. The cultivars Ancelotta, Tanat and Bordô present higher contents of K, Zn, Mn, Fe and Ca. For the concentration of anthocyanins, cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon (114.7 mg / 100g, Tannat (88.5 mg / 100 g and Ancelotta (33.8 mg/100 g had the highest concentrations. The cultivars Pinot Noir (7.0 g AGE / 100 g, Tannat (4.3 g AGE / 100 g, and Ancelotta (3.9 g AGE / 100 g had the highest content of phenolic compounds. Considering these results, it became evident the potential of using the residue of winemaking to produce flour for human consumption, highlighting the grapes ‘Tannat' and ‘Ancellotta'.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from lemon balm and peppermint leaves

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    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Voća, Sandra; Dobričević, Nadica; Pliestić, Stjepan; Galić, Ante; Boričević, Ana; Borić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction (frequency, time, temperature) on the content of bioactive compounds as well as on the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from fresh lemon balm and peppermint leaves. Total phenols, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids, and radical scavenging capacity were determined. Moreover, the relationship between bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity was studied by linear regression. A significant increase in all studied bioactive compounds during ultrasonic extraction for 5 to 20 min was found. With the classical extraction method, the highest amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were determined, and the maximum amounts of total chlorophylls and carotenoids were determined during 20 min ultrasonic extraction. The correlation analysis revealed a strong, positive relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds.

  18. Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfalleh, Walid; Tlili, Nizar; Nasri, Nizar; Yahia, Yassine; Hannachi, Hédia; Chaira, Nizar; Ying, Ma; Ferchichi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to determine the phenolic, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant capacities from fruits (juices, peels, and seed oils) of 6 Tunisian pomegranate ecotypes. Total anthocyanins were determined by a differential pH method. Hydrolyzable tannins were determined with potassium iodate. The tocopherol (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol) contents were, respectively, 165.77, 107.38, and 27.29 mg/100 g from dry seed. Four phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in pomegranate peel and pulp using the high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet method: 2 hydroxybenzoic acids (gallic and ellagic acids) and 2 hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic and p-coumaric acids). Juice, peel, and seed oil antioxidants were confirmed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. The highest values were recorded in peels with 25.63 mmol trolox equivalent/100 g and 22.08 mmol TE/100 g for FRAP and ORAC assay, respectively. Results showed that the antioxidant potency of pomegranate extracts was correlated with their phenolic compound content. In particular, the highest correlation was reported in peels. High correlations were also found between peel hydroxybenzoic acids and FRAP ORAC antioxidant capacities. Identified tocopherols seem to contribute in major part to the antioxidant activity of seed oil. The results implied that bioactive compounds from the peel might be potential resources for the development of antioxidant function dietary food.

  19. Isolation of phenolic compounds from iceberg lettuce and impact on enzymatic browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Franziska; Glomb, Marcus A

    2013-03-20

    Enzymatic browning is generally reported as the reaction between phenolic substances and enzymes. The quality of iceberg lettuce is directly linked to this discoloration. In particular, the color change of lettuce stems considerably reduces consumer acceptance and thus decreases sales revenue of iceberg lettuce. Ten phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, phaseolic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-(6″-malonyl)-glucoside) were isolated from Lactuca sativa var. capitata by multilayer countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, syringin was identified for the first time in iceberg lettuce. This polyphenolic ingredient was previously not mentioned for the family of Cichorieae in general. The purity and identity of isolated compounds were confirmed by different NMR experiments, HPLC-DAD-MS, and HR-MS techniques. Furthermore, the relationship between discoloration of iceberg lettuce and enzymatic browning was thoroughly investigated. Unexpectedly, the total concentration of phenolic compounds and the activity of polyphenol oxidase were not directly related to the browning processes. Results of model incubation experiments of plant extract solutions led to the conclusion that in addition to the typical enzymatic browning induced by polyphenol oxidases, further mechanisms must be involved to explain total browning of lettuce.

  20. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected medicinal plants and fungi containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds

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    Diaz Patricia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to determine the relationship between the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the thirteen herbs and two fungi extracts, and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods Antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: an antioxidant activity assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a DPPH ((2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay to assess free radical scavenging, an assay assessing ferrous ions or iron (II chelating ability, and a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activities were determined by measuring the inhibition of nitric oxide and TNF-α production in lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-activated J774A.1 macrophages. Their cytotoxicities against macrophages were determined by MTT assay. Results A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the plant extracts was found. The plant extracts with high phenolic and flavonoid content also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity with good cell viability. Conclusion The selected herbs could be a rich source of antioxidants and free radical scavenging compounds. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were correlated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts from the herbs.

  1. Metabolic and Microbial Modulation of the Large Intestine Ecosystem by Non-Absorbed Diet Phenolic Compounds: A Review

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    Juana I. Mosele

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds represent a diverse group of phytochemicals whose intake is associated with a wide spectrum of health benefits. As consequence of their low bioavailability, most of them reach the large intestine where, mediated by the action of local microbiota, a series of related microbial metabolites are accumulated. In the present review, gut microbial transformations of non-absorbed phenolic compounds are summarized. Several studies have reached a general consensus that unbalanced diets are associated with undesirable changes in gut metabolism that could be detrimental to intestinal health. In terms of explaining the possible effects of non-absorbed phenolic compounds, we have also gathered information regarded their influence on the local metabolism. For this purpose, a number of issues are discussed. Firstly, we consider the possible implications of phenolic compounds in the metabolism of colonic products, such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA, sterols (cholesterol and bile acids, and microbial products of non-absorbed proteins. Due to their being recognized as affective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents, the ability of phenolic compounds to counteract or suppress pro-oxidant and/or pro-inflammatory responses, triggered by bowel diseases, is also presented. The modulation of gut microbiota through dietetic maneuvers including phenolic compounds is also commented on. Although the available data seems to assume positive effects in terms of gut health protection, it is still insufficient for solid conclusions to be extracted, basically due to the lack of human trials to confirm the results obtained by the in vitro and animal studies. We consider that more emphasis should be focused on the study of phenolic compounds, particularly in their microbial metabolites, and their power to influence different aspects of gut health.

  2. Metabolic and Microbial Modulation of the Large Intestine Ecosystem by Non-Absorbed Diet Phenolic Compounds: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosele, Juana I; Macià, Alba; Motilva, Maria-José

    2015-09-18

    Phenolic compounds represent a diverse group of phytochemicals whose intake is associated with a wide spectrum of health benefits. As consequence of their low bioavailability, most of them reach the large intestine where, mediated by the action of local microbiota, a series of related microbial metabolites are accumulated. In the present review, gut microbial transformations of non-absorbed phenolic compounds are summarized. Several studies have reached a general consensus that unbalanced diets are associated with undesirable changes in gut metabolism that could be detrimental to intestinal health. In terms of explaining the possible effects of non-absorbed phenolic compounds, we have also gathered information regarded their influence on the local metabolism. For this purpose, a number of issues are discussed. Firstly, we consider the possible implications of phenolic compounds in the metabolism of colonic products, such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA), sterols (cholesterol and bile acids), and microbial products of non-absorbed proteins. Due to their being recognized as affective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents, the ability of phenolic compounds to counteract or suppress pro-oxidant and/or pro-inflammatory responses, triggered by bowel diseases, is also presented. The modulation of gut microbiota through dietetic maneuvers including phenolic compounds is also commented on. Although the available data seems to assume positive effects in terms of gut health protection, it is still insufficient for solid conclusions to be extracted, basically due to the lack of human trials to confirm the results obtained by the in vitro and animal studies. We consider that more emphasis should be focused on the study of phenolic compounds, particularly in their microbial metabolites, and their power to influence different aspects of gut health.

  3. Chromatographic analysis of water and wine samples for phenolic compounds released from food-contact epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C; Larroque, M

    1997-02-01

    Food-contact epoxy resins can release phenolic compounds such as phenol, m-cresol, bisphenol F, bisphenol A, 4-tert-butylphenol, bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) into foodstuffs. A validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorometric detection is described for the simultaneous analysis of these compounds in wine and mineral water. Sample preparation by solid-liquid extraction enables detection limits of 2.5 micrograms/L in wine and 0.25 microgram/L in mineral water to be achieved. Recovery rates are close to 100%, except for BFDGE and BADGE (around 60% in wine and 75% in mineral water).

  4. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) using liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo, Irene; Jauregui, Olga; Sánchez-Rabaneda, Ferran; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

    2004-06-16

    Liquid chromatography (LC) diode array detection (DAD) coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for the rapid and sensitive identification of water-soluble phenolic compounds in fennel waste. The plant material was first extracted and then chromatographed on Sephadex LH-20 to afford seven fractions, each of them being subjected to LC-MS analysis. Identification of the compounds was carried out by interpretation of UV, MS, and MS/MS spectra. Forty-two phenolic substances were identified, 27 of which had not previously been reported in fennel, including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid glycosides, and flavonoid aglycons.

  5. Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Coal Gasification Wastewater by Biofilm Reactor with Isolated Klebsiella sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Fang; HongJun Han; ChunYan Xu; Qian Zhao; LingHan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of phenolic compounds by one strain isolated from coal gasification wastewater ( CGW ) . 16S rRNA gene sequences homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate is belonged to the genus Klebsiella sp. The effect of different phenolic compounds on the isolate was investigated by determining OD600 and phenoloxidase activity, of which the results showed that the isolate can utilize phenol, 4-methyl phenol, 3, 5-dimethyl phenol and resorcinol as carbon resources. The biofilm reactor ( formed by the isolate) can resist the influent concentration of phenolic compounds as high as 750 mg/L when fed with synthetic CGW and incubated at optimum conditions. The capacity of improving the biodegradability of CGW through degrading phenolic compounds was testified with fed the biofilm reactor with real CGW. Thus, it might be an effective strain for bioaugmentation of CGW treatment.

  6. Phenolic derivatives and other chemical compounds from Cochlospermum regium

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    Soraya Solon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium of Cochlospermum regium (Mart. & Schr. Pilger, which has been associated with antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical investigation produced seven phenol derivatives: ellagic acid, gallic acid, dihydrokaempferol, dihydrokaempferol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, dihydrokaempferol-3-O-β-(6"-galloyl-glucopyranoside, pinoresinol, and excelsin. It also contained two triacylbenzenes, known as cochlospermines A and B. The hydroethanolic extract and its fractions exhibited antimicrobial activity (0.1 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gallic acid showed activity against S. aureus. Dihydrokaempferol-3-O-β-(6"-galloyl-glucopyranoside is reported here for the first time in the literature.

  7. Soluble Phenolic Compounds in Different Cultivars of Red Clover and Alfalfa, and their Implication for Protection against Proteolysis and Ammonia Production in Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Isabelle A; Goff, Ben M; Flythe, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) contains soluble phenolic compounds with roles in inhibiting proteolysis and ammonia production. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been found to have a low phenolic content, but few alfalfa and red clover cultivars have been compared for phenolic content. Total soluble phenolics were quantified by a Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay in nine red clover and 27 alfalfa cultivars. Mean total phenolic contents of red clover and alfalfa were 36.5 ± 4.3 mg/gdw and 15.8 ± 1.4 mg/gdw, respectively, with the greater standard deviation of red clover possibly indicating more diversity in phenolic content. Because different phenolic standards had different response factors in the colorimetric assay, the red clover and 11 alfalfa cultivars were analyzed by HPLC to determine if the differences in total soluble phenolics between genera reflected differences in the amounts of phenolics or in the classes of phenolics responding to the colorimetric assay. Two red clover cultivars differed in total phenolics and phaselic acid. Alfalfa produced different phenolic compounds from red clover, at lower concentrations. Extracts of two red clover cultivars were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and the bands were assayed for activity against Clostridium sticklandii, a bovine ruminal hyper ammonia-producing bacterium (HAB). Only biochanin A had anti-HAB activity. Inhibitory amounts indicated that five red clover cultivars could be suitable sources of anti-HAB activity.

  8. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature.

  9. Alleviating Effect of Phenol Compounds on Cucumber Fusarium Wilt and Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; ZHANG Chun-lan; SHEN Qi-rong

    2003-01-01

    The amount of phenol compounds in the soil increased after adding organic material into the soil. It was found that p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and frulic acid alleviated Fusarium wilt of cucumber, the alleviating effect of p-hydroxybenzoic acid was the best, followed by p-coumaric acid and frulic acid. The total amount of bacterial, actinomyces and fungus in high phenol compounds treatment decreased than that of control treatment, while the microorganisms' amount in low phenol compounds treatment increased. Phenol compounds inhibit the growth of pathogen.

  10. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds

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    Euna eOh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically-important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane permeability changes in C. jejuni by phenolic compounds were determined by measuring the level of intracellular uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN. Antibiotic accumulation assays were performed to evaluate the level of ciprofloxacin accumulation in C. jejuni. Six phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and taxifolin, significantly increased the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in several human and poultry isolates. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed in ciprofloxacin- and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni strains. The phenolic compounds also substantially increased membrane permeability and antibiotic accumulation in C. jejuni. Interestingly, some phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and taxifolin, significantly reduced the expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. Phenolic compounds increased the NPN accumulation in the cmeB mutant, indicating phenolic compounds may affect the membrane permeability. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that combinational treatment of C. jejuni with antibiotics and phenolic compounds synergistically inhibits C. jejuni by impacting both antimicrobial influx and efflux.

  11. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Euna; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2015-01-01

    The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane permeability changes in C. jejuni by phenolic compounds were determined by measuring the level of intracellular uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN). Antibiotic accumulation assays were performed to evaluate the level of ciprofloxacin accumulation in C. jejuni. Six phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and taxifolin, significantly increased the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in several human and poultry isolates. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed in ciprofloxacin- and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni strains. The phenolic compounds also substantially increased membrane permeability and antibiotic accumulation in C. jejuni. Interestingly, some phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and taxifolin, significantly reduced the expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. Phenolic compounds increased the NPN accumulation in the cmeB mutant, indicating phenolic compounds may affect the membrane permeability. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that combinational treatment of C. jejuni with antibiotics and phenolic compounds synergistically inhibits C. jejuni by impacting both antimicrobial influx and efflux.

  12. Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Activity of Olive (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cobrançosa Leaves

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    José Alberto Pereira

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the determination of phenolic compounds in olive leaves by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD, and the evaluation of their in vitro activity against several microorganisms that may be causal agents of human intestinal and respiratory tract infections, namely Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and fungi (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Seven phenolic compounds were identified and quantified: caffeic acid, verbascoside, oleuropein, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 4’-O-glucoside. At low concentrations olive leafs extracts showed an unusual combined antibacterial and antifungal action, which suggest their great potential as nutraceuticals, particulalry as a source of phenolic compounds.

  13. Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios of Phenolic Compounds in Secondary Particulate Organic Matter Formed by Photooxidation of Toluene

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    Irei, Satoshi; Huang, Lin; Auld, Janeen; Collin, Fabrice; Hastie, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios for phenolic compounds in secondary particulate organic matter (POM) formed by photooxidation of toluene were studied. Secondary POM generated by photooxidation of toluene using a continuous-flow reactor and an 8 cubic meter indoor smog chamber was collected, and then extracted with acetonitrile. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in the extracts by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer, and their compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios were determined by a gas chromatograph coupled with a combustion furnace followed by an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The majority of the products, including methylnitrophenols and methylnitrocatechols, were isotopically depleted by 5 to 6 permil compared to the initial isotope ratio for toluene, whereas the isotope ratio for 4_nitrophenol remained the same as the initial isotope ratio for toluene. Based on the reaction mechanisms postulated in literature, stable carbon isotope ratios of these produc...

  14. Phenolic compounds from Citrus leaves: antioxidant activity and enzymatic browning inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khettal, Bachra; Kadri, Nabil; Tighilet, Karim; Adjebli, Ahmed; Dahmoune, Farid; Maiza-Benabdeslam, Fadila

    2017-03-01

    Background Phenolic compounds from Citrus are known to be a topic of many studies due to their biological properties including antioxidant activity. Methods Methanolic and aqueous extracts were isolated from Citrus leaves of different species (C. clementina, C. limon, C. hamlin, C. navel, C. aurantifolia, C. aurantium and C. grandis) harvested in Algeria. Results The results showed that aqueous extracts of all species are rich in total phenolic compounds and flavonoids (from 68.23 to 125.28 mg GAE/g DM) and (from 11.99 to 46.25 mg QE/g DM) respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were examined for in vitro antioxidant properties using various antioxidant assays. For aqueous extracts, C. limon showed an important DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 35.35 µg/mL), and C. clementina exerted the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity (1,174.43 µM ET/g DM) and a significant ferric reducing potential (30.60 mg BHAE/g DM). For methanolic extracts, C. clementina showed the highest antioxidant activity for all the realized assays (IC50 41.85 µg/mL, 378.63 µM ET/g DM and 13.85 mg BHAE/g DM) for DPPH, ABTS radicals scavenging activities and ferric reducing potential respectively. Antiperoxidase and antipolyphenol oxidase activities of these samples were also evaluated. Conclusions In this investigation, the assessment of antiperoxidase activity proved that the leaves extracts of different species were able to inhibit peroxidase activity. However, this inhibition varied with the species and the source of these enzymes. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts of different species showed moderate inhibition of polyphenol oxidase, while no effect on these enzymes was obtained with methanolic extracts.

  15. Effects of blending wheatgrass juice on enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of traditional kombucha beverage

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    Tzu-Ying Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional kombucha is a fermented black tea extract and sugar. Sweetened black tea (10% w/v and wheatgrass juice (WGJ were mixed in various ratios and used as fermentation substrate for enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Starter, comprising of yeast (Dekkera bruxellensis and acetic acid bacteria (Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus and Gluconobacter roseus, was inoculated at 20% (v/v, and fermented statically at 29 ± 1°C for 12 days. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of the modified kombucha were higher than those of traditional preparations. All WGJ-blended kombucha preparations were characterized as having higher concentrations of various phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, and chlorogenic acid as compared to traditional ones. Addition of WGJ resulted in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging ability of kombucha being > 90%, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity increased from 5.0 μmol trolox equivalents/mL to 12.8 μmol trolox equivalents/mL as the ratio of WGJ increased from 0% to 67% (v/v. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained using a 1:1 (v/v black tea decoction to WGJ ratio and 3 days of fermentation, producing various types of phenolic acids. These results suggest that intake of fermented black tea enhanced with wheatgrass juice is advantageous over traditional kombucha formulas in terms of providing various complementary phenolics and might have more potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  16. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Phenolics Extracted from Ananas comosus L.

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    Adhikarimayum HARIPYAREE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics were extracted from the fruit tissues of Ananas comosus L. var. queen, cv. �Meitei Keehom�, a variety of pineapple grown in Manipur, India, after skin peeling, purified and their antioxidant properties were analyzed. The antioxidant properties were assessed based on the ability of fruit phenolics in absolute methanol to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals and compared to antioxidant compounds like ascorbic acid and pyragallol. Pineapple fruit phenolics scavenged DPPH, superioxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals in a dose dependent way. In DPPH assay, the IC50 values of pineapple phenolics, ascorbic acid and pyragallol were 12.2?g/ml, 17.82?g/ml and 15.92?g/ml respectively. In superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, the IC50 values of pineapple phenolics were 11.42?g/ml and 55.292?g/ml, for ascorbic acid 49.62?g/ml, 48.52?g/ml and that of pyragallol was 15.672?g/ml and 60.62?g/ml. The IC50 value was lowest in pineapple phenolics than ascorbic acid and pyragallol in DPPH and superoxide anion assays. But it is higher than ascorbic acid and lower than pyragallol in hydroxyl radical assay. The lower the IC50 values, the higher the antioxidant activities. The phenolics extracted from this variety of pineapple exhibit excellent free radical scavenging activity. The result shows that pineapple and its active constituents may be used in further antioxidative therapy.

  17. Phenolic Compounds from Allium schoenoprasum, Tragopogon pratensis and Rumex acetosa and Their Antiproliferative Effects

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    Petr Saha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that phenolic compounds have antiproliferative and tumour arresting effects. The aim of this original study was to investigate the content of phenolic compounds (PhC in flowers of Allium schoenoprasum (chive, Tragopogon pratensis (meadow salsify and Rumex acetosa (common sorrel and their effect on proliferation of HaCaT cells. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated in vitro using the following concentrations of phenolic compounds in cultivation medium: 100, 75, 50 and 25 µg/mL. Phenolic composition was also determined by HPLC. The results indicate that even low concentrations of these flowers’ phenolic compounds inhibited cell proliferation significantly and the possible use of the studied herb’s flowers as sources of active phenolic compounds for human nutrition.

  18. Determination of phenolic compounds and evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Campomanesia adamantium leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, I.D.; Coelho, R.G.; Honda, N.K.; Silva, J.R.M.; Cardoso, C.A.L. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: claudia@uems.br; Kataoka, V.M.F. [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Dourados, MS (Brazil). Curso de Quimica; Vilegas, W. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2008-10-15

    Five flavanones and three chalcones were isolated from Campomanesia adamantium Berg. (Myrtaceae) leaves. The contents of these compounds were determined by HPLC. The phenolic contents were also determined. The monitoring of the antioxidant activity was carried out by inhibition of peroxidation using the linoleic acid system and radical-scavenging (DPPH). The plants were collected from 4 distinct cities of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The different samples exhibited a range of 4.67-232.35 mg/g chalcones and 15.62-50.71 mg/g flavanones and phenolic contents of the 7.24-21.19 mg/g gallic acid. All extracts showed high antioxidant activity with a wide range of the radical-scavenging (DPPH) from 52.0 to 92.2 % and inhibition oxidation of linoleic acid from 14.6 to 94.2%. (author)

  19. Lettuce and chicory byproducts as a source of antioxidant phenolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach, Rafael; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Ferreres, Federico

    2004-08-11

    A process to obtain enriched antioxidant phenolic extracts from lettuce (baby, romaine, and iceberg cultivars) and chichory byproducts as a way to valorize these byproducts was developed. Two extraction protocols using water and methanol as solvent were used. Amberlite XAD-2 nonionic polymeric resin was used to purify the extracts. The extraction yield, phenolic content, and phenolic yield were evaluated as well as the antioxidant capacity of the extracts (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays). Baby and romaine lettuce byproducts showed the highest water extract yields [27 and 26 g of freeze-dried extracts/kg of byproduct fresh weight (fw), respectively], whereas baby and iceberg lettuce showed highest methanol extract yields (31 and 23 g of freeze-dried extracts/kg of byproduct fw, respectively). Methanol extraction yielded a raw extract with a high phenolic content, the baby and chicory extracts being the richest with approximately 50 mg of phenolics/g of freeze-dried extract. Regarding the purified extracts, water extraction yielded a higher phenolic content, baby and chicory being also the highest with mean values of approximately 190 and 300 mg of phenolics/g of freeze-dried extract, respectively. Both raw and purified extracts from baby and chicory showed the higher antioxidant contents (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays). The antioxidant capacity was linearly correlated with the phenolic content. The results obtained indicate that lettuce byproducts could be, from the industrial point of view, an interesting and cheap source of antioxidant phenolic extracts to funcionalize foodstuffs.

  20. Improvement of grape and wine phenolic content by foliar application to grapevine of three different elicitors: Methyl jasmonate, chitosan, and yeast extract.

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    Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Baroja, Elisa; Santamaría, Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2016-06-15

    Phenolic compounds play a key role in grape and wine organoleptic properties, being therefore a key parameter in wine quality. Elicitor application constitutes an interesting field of research since it is indirectly involved in the accumulation of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of three different elicitors on both grape and wine phenolic content. Methyl jasmonate, chitosan, and a commercial yeast extract were applied to the canopy at veraison and one week later. Results showed that foliar treatments carried out with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract achieved the best results, increasing grape and wine anthocyanin content when compared to the control. Moreover, the application of the yeast elicitor also enhanced grape stilbene content. In contrast, the chitosan treatment did not have a substantial impact on the phenolic compounds. The results of this study indicate that methyl jasmonate and yeast extract applications could be a simple practice to increase grape and wine phenolic content.

  1. Total phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and α-glucosidase inhibition by Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L.

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    Malek Besbes Hlila

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and their composition of total polyphenol and flavonoids. Methods: The different samples were tested for their antiradical activities by using 2, 2’- azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. In α-glucosidase activity, α-glucosidase (0.3 IU/mL and substrate, 2500 µmol/ L p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside were used; absorbance was registered at 405 nm. Results: The leaves acetonic extract exhibited the strongest α-glucosidase inhibition [IC50 = (0.0035 ± 0.001 µg/mL], which was 20-fold more active than the standard product (acarbose [IC50 = (0.07 ± 0.01 µg/mL]. Acetonic extract of the leaves exhibited the highest quantity of total phenolic [(95.54 ± 0.04 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg] and flavonoid [(55.16 ± 0.25 µg quercetin equivalent/mg]. The obtained findings presented also that this extract was detected with best antioxidant capacity [IC50 = (0.015 ± 0.01 µg/mL] against DPPH and a value of IC50 equal to (0.02 ± 0.01 µg/mL against ABTS. Positive relationship between polyphenolic content of the tested Euphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and its antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS was detected. Elevated positive linear correlation was got between ABTS and total phenolic (R2 = 0.751. Conclusions: The findings clearly demonstrate that the use of a polar solvent enables extraction of significant quantities of phenol compounds and flavonoids.

  2. Total phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential andα-glucosidase inhibition by TunisianEuphorbia paralias L.

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    Malek Besbes Hlila; Kaouther Majouli; Fethia Harzallah Skhiri; Hichem Ben Jannet; Mahjoub Aouni; Maha Mastouri; Boulbaba Selmi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine the potential antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of TunisianEuphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and their composition of total polyphenol and flavonoids. Methods: The different samples were tested for their antiradical activities by using 2, 2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. In α-glucosidase activity,α-glucosidase (0.3 IU/mL) and substrate, 2 500µmol/Lp-nitrophenylα-D-glucopyranoside were used; absorbance was registered at 405 nm. Results:The leaves acetonic extract exhibited the strongestα-glucosidase inhibition [IC50=(0.0035 ± 0.001)µg/mL], which was 20-fold more active than the standard product (acarbose) [IC50 = (0.07 ± 0.01)µg/mL]. Acetonic extract of the leaves exhibited the highest quantity of total phenolic [(95.54 ± 0.04)µg gallic acid equivalent/mg] and flavonoid [(55.16 ± 0.25)µg quercetin equivalent/mg]. The obtained findings presented also that this extract was detected with best antioxidant capacity [IC50 = (0.015 ± 0.01)µg/mL] againstDPPH and a value of IC50 equal to (0.02 ± 0.01)µg/mL againstABTS. Positive relationship between polyphenolic content of the testedEuphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and its antioxidant activity (DPPH andABTS) was detected. Elevated positive linear correlation was got betweenABTS and total phenolic (R2 = 0.751). Conclusions: The findings clearly demonstrate that the use of a polar solvent enables extraction of significant quantities of phenol compounds and flavonoids.

  3. Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts.

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    Ajila, C M; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Rao, U J S Prasada

    2010-12-01

    Mango is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. As it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. During its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. Bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The prominent phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid. The phenolic acid derivatives present in acetone extracts of raw and ripe peels were tentatively identified by LC-MS. Gallic acid, syringic acid, mangiferin, ellagic acid, gentisyl-protocatechuic acid, quercetin were the phenolic compounds identified in both raw and ripe peels, while raw peel showed the presence of glycosylated iriflophenone and maclurin derivatives also. β-Carotene was the major carotenoid followed by violaxanthin and lutein. Thus, both raw and ripe mango peel extracts have different phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which will have various pharmaceutical applications.

  4. Effect of phenolic compounds and osmotic stress on the expression of penicillin biosynthetic genes from Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum strain

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    Sumaya Ferreira Guedes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenol and phenolic compounds are aromatic pollutants that inhibit biological treatment of wastewaters. Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum is a halotolerant fungus that previously showed the ability to degrade phenol and resorcinol in high salinity conditions. The presence of the penicillin biosynthetic cluster in P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum was recently described. In this article, we examined the expression of pcbAB, pcbC and penDE, genes responsible for δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase, isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase activities, respectively, in P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum. A quantitative PCR (qPCR approach was used to determine how these genes were expressed in media with 2% and 5.9% NaCl supplemented with phenol, catechol, hydroquinone and resorcinol as the sole carbon source. The effect of salt on the capability of P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum to degrade aromatic compounds was measured using HPLC. qPCR analysis of RNA extracted from P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum indicated that the expression levels of pcbAB, pcbC and penDE decreased in high saline concentrations compared to the levels expressed in media with glucose. High concentrations of salt significantly repress the expression of pcbAB and penDE. The pcbC gene was expressed differentially in catechol containing medium. There was no evident relationship between the expression levels of penicillin biosynthetic genes and yields of penicillin. Meanwhile, the presence of phenol and phenolic compounds seems to positively influence the antibiotic production; high concentrations of salt stimulated penicillin production. These results support the hypothesis that phenol, phenolic compounds and high concentrations of salt could act like a stress factor for P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum resulting in higher yields of β-lactam antibiotic production.

  5. Olive oils from Algeria: Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

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    Laincer, F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against six bacteria of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from eleven Algerian varieties were investigated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by determining the scavenging effect on the DPPH and ABTS.+ radicals. The antimicrobial activity was measured as a zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC on human harmful and foodborne pathogens. The results show that total phenols was significantly (p .+ radicals (r = 0.76. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and to a lesser extent B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg·mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg·mL-1, respectively. The results reveal that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.Se ha estudiado la composición fenólica y las actividades antioxidante y antimicrobiana, contra seis bacterias, de extractos de aceites de oliva de once variedades argelinas. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó mediante la determinación del efecto captador de radicales de DPPH y ABTS.+. La actividad antimicrobiana se midió como zona de inhibición y como concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC sobre bacterias perjudiciales humanas y agentes patógenos transmitidos por los alimentos. Los resultados mostraron que los fenoles totales está significativamente (p .+ (r= 0,76. Entre las bacterias ensayadas, S. aureus y, en menor grado B. subtilis mostraron la mayor sensibilidad; el MIC varió de 0,6 a 1,6 mg·mL-1 y 1,2 a 1,8 mg·mL-1 respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que los aceites de oliva argelinos pueden constituir una buena fuente de antioxidantes y agentes antimicrobianos.

  6. Ellagic acid, phenolic acids, and flavonoids in Malaysian honey extracts demonstrate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

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    Kassim, Mustafa; Achoui, Mouna; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Mohd, Mustafa Ali; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd

    2010-09-01

    Natural honey has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world. This study looked into the extraction of Malaysian honey and the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts. It was hypothesized that honey extracts contain varying amounts of phenolic compounds and that they possess different in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. Honey extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and compare phenolic compounds, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography was used for their quantification. Subsequently, honey methanol extract (HME) and honey ethyl acetate extract (HEAE) were tested in vitro for their effect on nitric oxide production in stimulated macrophages. The extracts were also tested for their effects on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) cytotoxicity in L929 cells. The major phenolics in the extracts were ellagic, gallic, and ferulic acids; myricetin; chlorogenic acid; and caffeic acid. Other compounds found in lower concentrations were hesperetin, p-coumaric acid, chrysin, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol. Ellagic acid was the most abundant of the phenolic compounds recorded, with mean concentrations of 3295.83 and 626.74 μg/100 g of honey in HME and HEAE, respectively. The median maximal effective concentrations for in vitro nitric oxide inhibition by HEAE and HME were calculated to be 37.5 and 271.7 μg/mL, respectively. The median maximal effective concentrations for protection from TNF cytotoxicity by HEAE and HME were 168.1 and 235.4 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, HEAE exhibited greater activity in vitro, whereas HME contained a higher concentration of phenolic compounds per 100 g of honey. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenolic Compounds of Pinus brutia Ten.: Chemical Investigation and Quantitative Analysis Using an Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Electrospray Ionization Source

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    İbrahim Kıvrak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, phenolic content of Pinus brutia ’s bark was examined using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization source (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS working in multiple reaction monitoring mode. U ltrasonic extraction method with 50% ethanol solution was used for the extraction of bark. The bark of Pinus brutia consisted of 15 compounds: gallic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, catechin hydrate, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, myricetin, resveratrol, luteolin, naringenin, kaempferol. Major compound detected was catechin hydrate (28.305 mg 100 g -1 extract. The phenolic compounds of Pinus brutia extract and pycnogenol were compared, and it is shown that both of them consisted of considerable amount of phenolic compounds.

  8. Water Extract of Mentha x villosa: Phenolic Fingerprint and Effect on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialovaa, Silvia; Veizerova, Lucia; Nosalova, Viera; Drabikova, Katarina; Tekelova, Daniela; Grancai, Daniel; Sotnikova, Ruzena

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative analysis of the water extract of Mentha x villosa Huds. leaves was performed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and quantitative analysis was made by reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (LC-DAD). Sixteen phenolic compounds were identified and quantified consisting of 8 phenolic acids/derivatives and 8 flavonoid glycosides (quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, coumaroyl-hexoside, caffeic acid, coumaroylquinic acid, lithospermic acid, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid A, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, chrysoeriol-7-O-rutinoside, and hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside). Luteolin-7- O-rutinoside (25.6 ± 0.7 mg/g dry extract) and rosmarinic acid (17.9 ± 0.4 mg/g dry extract) were the most abundant. High antioxidant activity of this phenolic-rich water extract was confirmed in vitro by DPPH and ABTS tests and ex vivo in the ischemia-reperfusion injured rat superior mesenteric artery. Thus, the water extract of M. x villosa leaves seems to be a promising agent in prevention of tissue injury caused by oxidative stress.

  9. Antioxidant activities and total phenol content of Inula viscosa extracts selected from three regions of Morocco

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    Naima; Chahmi; Jaouad; Anissi; Sanae; Jennan; Abdellah; Farah; Khalid; Sendide; Mohammed; El; Hassouni

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antioxidant activity,total phenolic and flavonoid content of ethanol(E) and ethyl acetate(A) extracts of Inula viscosa aerial parts selected from three regions of Morocco(Imouzzer.Sefrou and Taounate).Methods:Antioxidants properties were measured by three different test systems of assay namely free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyI-1-picrylhydrazyl,total antioxidant capacity and iron-reducing capacity.Total phenolic content was measured by FolinCiocalteu reagent.Results:All the extracts showed significant antioxidant activities and contained important levels of phenols.The ethanol extract(0.3 mg/mL) from Sefrou showed the greatest antioxidant capacity in the three systems of assay,which was probably due to its high content of polyphenols(274.39±6.94) mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry extract.Total flavonoid content was found equal for all extracts.Conclusions:Our results of antioxidant assays were justified and partially supported the popular usage of the tested plants.The high antioxidant activity found in the plant from Sefrou and its great biomass in this region suggested that Inula viscosa is a good source of natural antioxidants compounds which might have benefits for health.

  10. Undesirable Enzymatic Browning in Crustaceans: Causative Effects and Its Inhibition by Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat; Ahmad, Mehraj; Arfat, Yasir Ali; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable enzymatic browning mediated by polyphenol oxidase (E.C. 1.14.18.1) on the surface of seafood from crustaceans have been a great concern to food processors, causing quality losses of seafood products. Seafoods especially from crustaceans are worldwide consumed due to their delicacy and nutritional value. However, black spot formation (melanosis) is the major problem occurring in crustaceans during postmortem handling and refrigerated storage induce deleterious changes in organoleptic properties and, therefore, decreases commercial value. Polyphenoloxidase (PPO), the copper-containing metalloprotein involved in oxidation of phenol to quinone is the major biochemical reaction of melanosis formation. This enzymatic mechanism causes unappealing blackening in postharvest crustaceans. To alleviate the melanosis formation in crustaceans, use of phenolic compounds from plant extract can serve as antimelanotics and appears to be a good alternative to the conventional sulfites which are associated with health-related disorders. In this review, we focuses on the unique features about the structure, distribution, and properties of PPO as well as mechanism of melanosis formation and provide a comprehensive deeper insight on the factors affecting melanosis formation and its inhibition by various antimelanotics including newly discovered plant phenolic compounds.

  11. Anthocyanin and other phenolic compounds in Ceylon gooseberry (Dovyalis hebecarpa) fruits.

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    Bochi, Vivian Caetano; Godoy, Helena Teixeira; Giusti, M Monica

    2015-06-01

    Ceylon gooseberry is a deep-purple exotic berry that is being produced in Brazil with great market potential. This work aimed to determine major phenolic compounds in this specie by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS. Samples were collected in two different seasons. Pulp and skin were analyzed separately. Non-acylated rutinoside derivatives of delphinidin (∼60-63%) and cyanidin (∼17-21%) were major anthocyanins tentatively identified. All anthocyanins had higher concentration in skin than in pulp (64-82 and 646-534mg of cyaniding-3-glucoside equivalents/100g skin and pulp, respectively). Moreover, anthocyanin profile changed between sampling dates (p<0.05). Mainly for delphinidin-3-rutinoside which could be a result of season variation. In this specie, non-anthocyanin polyphenols represent less than 35% of total extracted polyphenols. The tentative identification proposed a flavonol and three ellagitannins as major compounds of the non-anthocyanin phenolics fraction. Finally, anthocyanin is the major phenolic class in this fruit and its composition and content are significantly affected by season.

  12. Antibacterial, Antiradical Potential and Phenolic Compounds of Thirty-One Polish Mushrooms.

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    Natalia Nowacka

    Full Text Available Among many sources of natural bioactive substances, mushrooms constitute a huge and almost unexplored group. Fungal compounds have been repeatedly reported to exert biological effects which have prompted their use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was analysis of chemical composition and biological activity of 31 wild growing mushroom species (including saprophytic and parasitic from Poland.Qualitative and quantitative LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fourteen phenolic acids in the mushrooms analysed was performed. Moreover, total phenolic content was determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidative activity of ethanolic extracts towards DPPH• free radical was examined. Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, M. luteus and Gram-negative (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis microbial strains was analyzed.As a result, the first such broad report on polyphenolic composition, antiradical and antimicrobial potential of wild growing Polish mushrooms was developed. Mushroom extracts were found to contain both benzoic (protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, syringic and cinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic. Total phenolic content in mushrooms ranged between 2.79 and 53.13 mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dried extract in Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum and Fomes fomentarius, respectively. Fungi showed much differentiated antiradical activity, from highly active F. fomentarius to poorly effective Russula fragilis (IC50 1.39 to 120.54 mg per mg DPPH•, respectively. A quite considerable relationship between phenolic content and antiradical activity has been demonstrated. Mushrooms varied widely in antimicrobial potential (MIC from 0.156 to 5 mg/ml. Generally, a slightly higher activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative strains was observed. This is the first study concerning the chemical composition and biological activity

  13. Phenolic compounds from the aerial parts of Prangos ferulaceae, with antioxidant activity

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    Seyed Mehdi Razavi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prangos ferulaceae (Apiaceae is a perennial herb indigenous to Iran where it is used as a medicinal plant. In folk medicine, extracts of the roots and fruits of the plant have been used for the treatment of digestive disorders, healing scars, and to stop bleeding. In the present work, we report the presence of some phenolic compounds from the aerial parts of the plant. Material and Methods: The air-dried powder of Prangos ferulaceae leaves were Soxhlet extracted, successively, with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. A portion of concentrated residue of methanol extract was fractionated with an SPE-C18 cartridge using different mixtures of methanol-water. The 40% methanol fraction was analyzed by preparative HPLC using a methanol and water gradient to afford 4 compounds. Results: The purified compounds using preparative HPLC were: a glucosilated coumarin, celereoside and three flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-glucoside, and isorhamnetin 3-O- glucorhamnoside. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by UV, IR, 1D, and 2 D NMR spectral data. Quercetin glucoside and isorhamnetin glucoside exhibited strong antioxidant activity in the DPPH test with an RC50 value of 36.2 and 64.4 ug/mL respectively. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the P. ferulaceae aerial parts contain antioxidant flavonoids and furanocoumarins and that the plants bioactivities and medicinal potential might be attributed to presence of these compounds.

  14. Phenols and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of aqueous extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction from artichoke by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, Rossana; Paradiso, Annalisa; Fasciano, Cristina; Trani, Antonio; Faccia, Michele; de Pinto, Maria Concetta; Gambacorta, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Artichoke by-products are rich in phenolic compounds although they represent a waste for the food industry. This paper examines the application of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for obtaining organic solvent-free extracts rich in nutraceuticals from artichoke scraps. Application of ultrasounds for 60 minutes on test samples, using water as a solvent, improved recovery of phenolic substances compared with untreated samples. Among the phenols detected by high performance liquid chromatography, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acids were identified. In vivo treatments of tobacco BY-2 cells with ultrasonic extracts consistently enhanced their antioxidant power, making the cells more resistant to heat stress. UAE applied to artichoke by-products, using water as a solvent, appears to be a powerful eco-friendly technique that can provide extracts rich in nutraceuticals and turn waste products into resources. The extracts could be advantageously utilized in the food industry to produce functional foods.

  15. Influence of Controlled Postflowering Temperature and Daylength on Individual Phenolic Compounds in Four Black Currant Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicki, Tomasz L; Aaby, Kjersti; Sønsteby, Anita; Heide, Ola M; Wold, Anne-Berit; Remberg, Siv F

    2016-02-03

    The effects of postflowering temperature and daylength on the concentration of individual phenolic compounds were studied in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) berries under controlled phytotron conditions. The four cultivars studied varied greatly in their concentrations of individual phenolic compounds and temperature stability for accumulation. The concentrations of a wide range of identified phenolic compounds were strongly influenced by temperature over the 12-24 °C range, often with opposite temperature gradient patterns for compounds within the same subclass. Accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonols increased under natural long day conditions, which provided an increased daily light integral, while under identical light energy conditions, photoperiod had little or no effect on the concentration of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, with the exception of members of the hydroxycinnamic acid subclass, the concentration of most phenolic compounds was higher in berries ripened outdoors than in the phytotron, apparently due to screening of UV-B radiation by the glass cover.

  16. Phenolic compounds from the whole plants of Gentiana rhodantha (Gentianaceae).

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    Xu, Min; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2011-10-01

    Gentiana rhodantha Franch. ex Hemsl. (Gentianaceae), an annual herb widely distributed in the southwest of China, has been medicinally used for the treatment of inflammation, cholecystitis, and tuberculosis by the local people of its growing areas. Chemical investigation on the whole plants led to the identification of eight new phenolic compounds, rhodanthenones A-D (1-4, resp.), apigenin 7-O-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-glucopyranoside (5), 1,2-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzene 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 1,2-dihydroxy-4,6-dimethoxybenzene 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), and methyl 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoate (8), together with eleven known compounds, 9-19. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and cytotoxicity tests against five human cancer cell lines showed that only rhodanthenone D (4) and mangiferin (12) exhibited 18.4 and 13.4% of AChE inhibitory effects at a concentration of 10(-4) M, respectively, while compounds 1-5 and the known xanthones lancerin (11), mangiferin (12), and neomangiferin (13) displayed no cytotoxicity at a concentration of 40 μM. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. [Pollution status of phenolic compounds in the soil and sediment from a chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiexia; Wei, Enze; Xian, Qiming

    2014-08-01

    A determination method of 12 phenolic compounds in soil and sediment samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis coupled with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for clean-up was developed. The method detection limits (MDLs) varied from 0. 410 μg/kg to 13. 1 μg/kg (dry weight), and the average recoveries ranged from 70. 7% to 122% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1. 2% to 16%. Based on this method, the levels of 12 phenolic compounds were investigated in 17 soil surrounding a chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River and seven sediment samples collected in the river. It was found that 11 of the 12 phenolic compounds were detected in all of the 24 samples, and only hydroquinone was below the MDL. The contents of the total 12 phenolic compounds were 10. 16-30. 66 mg/kg in the soil and 18. 00-29. 83 mg/kg in the sediment, with the average contents of 18. 26 and 22. 51 mg/kg respectively. It showed that 4-nitro- phenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2-chlorohydroquinone, 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6- trichlorophenol were five major phenolic contaminants in the soil and sediment in this study. The pollution levels of the 12 phenolic compounds were low in the soil of the chemical industrial park as well as in the sediment of the Yangtze River, which implied a comparatively low risk for the environment.

  18. Rapid and comprehensive evaluation of (poly)phenolic compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice by UHPLC-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Calani, Luca; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Galaverna, Gianni; García-Viguera, Cristina; Bruni, Renato; Crozier, Alan; Del Rio, Daniele

    2012-12-13

    The comprehensive identification of phenolic compounds in food and beverages is a crucial starting point for assessing their biological, nutritional, and technological properties. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been described as a rich source of (poly)phenolic components, with a broad array of different structures (phenolic acids, flavonoids, and hydrolyzable tannins) and a quick, high throughput, and accurate screening of its complete profile is still lacking. In the present work, a method for UHPLC separation and linear ion trap mass spectrometric (MSn) characterization of pomegranate juice phenolic fraction was optimized by comparing several different analytical conditions. The best solutions for phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and ellagitannins have been delineated and more than 70 compounds have been identified and fully characterized in less than one hour total analysis time. Twenty-one compounds were tentatively detected for the first time in pomegranate juice. The proposed fingerprinting approach could be easily translated to other plant derived food extracts and beverages containing a wide array of phytochemical compounds.

  19. Evaluation of Nutritive Value, Phenolic Compounds and in vitro Digestion Charactristics of Barberry (Berberis Vulgaris Foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Modaresi

    2016-11-01

    fiber, ether extract, total phenolic compounds, total tannins, condensed tannins, hydrolysable tannins and some mineral content (Na, Cl, Ca, K and P. The in vitro gas production method was used for estimation the DM fermentation parameters. Results and Discussion The chemical composition of foliage barberry is almost the same with the few studies conducted in this regard. Minor differences between the results of this study and the other results showed that the colleagues can be due to differences in climate and environmental conditions and physiological characteristics of the plant's genetics. The results showed that addition of urea, Sodium hydroxide and Calcium hydroxide led to a significant reduction of total phenolic compounds, total tannins and hydrolysable tannins compared with the control sample. The in vitro gas production and fermentative parameters were improved flowing urea, sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide treatment. The results showed that treatment with urea was more effective in reduction of tannins and improvement the fermentative parameters of branches and leaves of Barberry compared to other treatments. Conclusion Based on our results and high levels of phenolic compounds in the waste foliage barberry sprayed with a solution of 5% (based on dry matter of urea, sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide significantly reduced the amount of total phenolic compounds, tannins and hydrolysable tannin in the leaves of Berber is vulgaris lesions, but polyethylene glycol had no significant effect. On the contrary condensed tannin conditions and the maximum reduction in the concentration of condensed tannins were observed in the group had been sprayed with polyethylene glycol. The amount of gas produced in laboratory conditions, parameters of rumen fermentation and feed efficiency in experimental treatments with urea, sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide recovered.

  20. Isolation of functional RNA from plant tissues rich in phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderbauer, A; Sandermann, H; Ernst, D

    1991-08-15

    A method for the isolation of RNA from different tissues of trees (seedlings, saplings, and adult trees) is described. Using this procedure it is possible to remove large amounts of disturbing polyphenolic compounds from nucleic acids. The method involves an acetone treatment of the freeze-dried and powdered plant material, the use of high salt concentrations in the extraction buffer and an aqueous two-phase system. These steps were combined with the conventional phenol/chloroform extraction and CsCl centrifugation. The method has been successfully applied to the isolation and purification of RNA from pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus mugo Turr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The functional quality of RNA extracted by this procedure has been characterized by its uv spectrum, by agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide staining, Northern blot hybridization, and in vitro translation.

  1. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice (Oryza sativa bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa dos Santos Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice bran in order to evaluate the effect of solid state fermentation on these properties. The process was performed with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae CTT 1217 in tray reactors at 30 °C for 120 hours. Samples of fermented rice bran were collected every 24 hours. Antioxidant property was evaluated by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method and through the inhibition of enzymatic oxidation and lipid peroxidation of olive oil. The methanol extract of the biomass obtained at 96 hours of fermentation inactivated 50% of free radical in 15 minutes. The same extract reduced the peroxide value in the olive oil by 57% after 30 days of storage. The aqueous extract of the biomass obtained at 120 hours was the most efficient inhibitor of the darkening reaction catalyzed by peroxidase.

  2. Hplc analysis of phenolic acids in mountain germander (Teucrium montanum L extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol and water extracts were obtained by extraction of mountain germander (Teucrium montanum L. The total phenolic content in extracts was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The 1-butanol extract had the highest phenolic content (296.00 mg/g. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to define qualitative and quantitative content of phenolic acids in mountain germander extracts. The largest number of phenolic acids were determined in ethyl acetate and 1-butanol extracts, while these acids were not present in petroleum ether extract. The highest content of phenolic acids (28.619 mg/g had ethyl acetate extract and gentisic acid (14.432 mg/g was its major component. Despite of a large number of phenolic acids in 1-butanol extract their content was only 3.740 mg/g.

  3. Solid-phase extraction of antioxidant compounds from commercial cranberry extract and its antiradical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the fractionation and determination of major antioxidant compounds (phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and vitamin C in commercial cranberry extract. The total content of phenolics, flavonoids and total and monomers of anthocyanins, determined spectrophotometrically, was 1.67 mg/g, 0.41 mg/g, 5.12 mg/g and 3.32 mg/g. The content of vitamin C, determined volumetrically, was 121.74 mg/g. Commercial cranberry extract was dissolved in 80 % acetone and the solution was fractionated using solid phase extraction (SPE in order to abstract vitamin C, neutral and acidic phenols. The free radical scavenging activity of the cranberry extract and its fractions was investigated on stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals employing electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The most effective fractions were those containing vitamin C (AADPPH= AAOH=100%, neutral (AADPPH=89.50% and AAOH=43.11% and acidic (AADPPH=83.98% and AAOH=38.58% phenols. The presence of vitamin C, abstracted from cranberry extract, was determined by Fe(III-mediated ascorbate oxidation which yields characteristic ESR doublet spectrum of ascorbyl radical.

  4. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L.) Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Abaza; Amani Taamalli; Houda Nsir; Mokhtar Zarrouk

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analyt...

  5. Antiviral activities of extracts and phenolic components of two Spondias species against dengue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the search for natural plant products to fight viral diseases has been increasing. In this work, two Spondias species, namely S. mombin and S. tuberosa, found in Ceará state (Brazil, and their main phenolic components were evaluated against dengue virus. In vitro antiviral tests were performed against type-2 dengue virus by the MTT method and standard cytopathic effect reduction assay in C6/36 cells. Cytotoxicity was also evaluated by MTT. The presence of phenolic compounds quercetin, rutin, and ellagic acid in plant extracts was characterized by HPLC analysis. Both Spondias species extracts and components were nontoxic to the cells whereas rutin and quercetin displayed relevant antiviral activity with IC50 of 362.68 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL, respectively.

  6. Comparative antiadhesive properties of crude extract and phenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of Tribulus pterocarpus during severe hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczynska, Malgorzata; Malinowska, Joanna; Morel, Agnieszka; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Olas, Beata

    2013-06-01

    The phenolic fraction and the crude extract from Tribulus pterocarpus have different biological activity, including antiplatelet-antiadhesive properties. Since it is demonstrated that hyperhomocysteinemia may act as stimulator of blood platelet activation (platelet adhesion, aggregation, and secretion), but various antiplatelet compounds are able to reduce hyperactivation of blood platelets induced by hyperhomocysteinemia. The aim of our present experiments was to investigate in vitro one of the step in platelet activation process - platelet adhesion to collagen induced by the model of severe hyperhomocyateinemia in the presence of the phenolic fraction and the crude extract from T. pterocarpus. Severe hyperhomocysteinemia was induced by reduced form of Hcy in the concentrations 0.1mM and 1mM, or using HTL in the concentrations 0.1, 0.5 and 1 μM. Adhesion of blood platelets to collagen was determined according to Tuszynski and Murphy. We observed that the phenolic fraction and the crude extract from T. pterocarpus have the inhibitory effect on platelet adhesion during severe hyperhomocysteinemia. The action of tested phenolic and crude extract was concentration-dependent, but the phenolic fraction was stronger antiadhesive action than the crude extract. We suggest that T. pterocarpus may be good source of antiplatelet compounds during hyperhomocysteinemia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Removal of Phenol from Dilute Solutions by Predispersed Solvent Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Predispersed solvent extraction (PDSE) is a new method for separating solutes from aqueous solution by solvent extraction and one which has shown promise for extraction from extremely dilute solution very efficient and very quick. The use of colloidal liquid aphrons in predispersed solvent extraction may ameliorate the problems such as emulsion formation, reduction of interfacial mass transfer and low interfacial mass transfer areas in solvent extraction process. In present paper, colloidal liquid aphrons are successfully generated using kerosene as a solvent, tributyl phosphate(TBP) as an extractant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulphate(SDBS) as surfactant in aqueous phase and Tween-80 in oil phase. Extraction of phenol from dilute solution was studied by using colloidal liquid aphrons and colloidal gas aphrons in a semi-batch extraction column. It has been found that the PDSE process is more suitable for extraction of dilute solutions. It has also been discovered that the PDSE process has a great advantage over traditional single-stage extraction process.

  8. Use of Modified Phenolic Thyme Extracts (Thymus vulgaris) with Reduced Polyphenol Oxidase Substrates as Anthocyanin Color and Stability Enhancing Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Oscar; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen

    2015-12-14

    Residual enzymatic activity in certain foods, particularly of polyphenoloxidase (PPO), is responsible for the majority of anthocyanin degradation in food systems, causing also parallel losses of other relevant nutrients. The present work explored the feasibility of modifying phenolic profiles of thyme extracts, by use of chromatographic resins, to obtain phenolic extracts capable of enhancing anthocyanin colour and stability in the presence of PPO activity. Results indicated that pretreatment of thyme extracts with strong-anion exchange resins (SAE) enhanced their copigmentation abilities with strawberry juice anthocyanins. Phenolic chromatographic profiles, by HPLC-PDA, also demonstrated that thyme extracts subjected to SAE treatments had significantly lower concentrations of certain phenolic compounds, but extracts retained their colour enhancing and anthocyanin stabilization capacities though copigmentation. Additional testing also indicated that SAE modified extract had a lower ability (73% decrease) to serve as PPO substrate, when compared to the unmodified extract. Phenolic profile modification process, reported herein, could be potentially used to manufacture modified anthocyanin-copigmentation food and cosmetic additives for colour-stabilizing applications with lower secondary degradation reactions in matrixes that contain PPO activity.

  9. Use of Modified Phenolic Thyme Extracts (Thymus vulgaris with Reduced Polyphenol Oxidase Substrates as Anthocyanin Color and Stability Enhancing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Residual enzymatic activity in certain foods, particularly of polyphenoloxidase (PPO, is responsible for the majority of anthocyanin degradation in food systems, causing also parallel losses of other relevant nutrients. The present work explored the feasibility of modifying phenolic profiles of thyme extracts, by use of chromatographic resins, to obtain phenolic extracts capable of enhancing anthocyanin colour and stability in the presence of PPO activity. Results indicated that pretreatment of thyme extracts with strong-anion exchange resins (SAE enhanced their copigmentation abilities with strawberry juice anthocyanins. Phenolic chromatographic profiles, by HPLC-PDA, also demonstrated that thyme extracts subjected to SAE treatments had significantly lower concentrations of certain phenolic compounds, but extracts retained their colour enhancing and anthocyanin stabilization capacities though copigmentation. Additional testing also indicated that SAE modified extract had a lower ability (73% decrease to serve as PPO substrate, when compared to the unmodified extract. Phenolic profile modification process, reported herein, could be potentially used to manufacture modified anthocyanin-copigmentation food and cosmetic additives for colour-stabilizing applications with lower secondary degradation reactions in matrixes that contain PPO activity.

  10. Phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition of organic and conventional grown pecan kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, differences in contents of phenolic compounds and fatty acids in pecan kernels of organically versus conventionally grown pecan cultivars (‘Desirable’, ‘Cheyenne’, and ‘Wichita’) were evaluated. Although we were able to identify nine phenolic compounds (gallic acid, catechol, catechin...

  11. Liquid phase in situ hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived phenolic compounds to hydrocarbons over bifunctional catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Chung-yun Hse; Zhongzhi Yang; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find an effective method for converting renewable biomass-derived phenolic compounds into hydrocarbons bio-fuel via in situ catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. The in situ hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived phenolic compounds was carried out in methanol-water solvent over bifunctional catalysts of Raney Ni and HZSM-5 or H-Beta. In the in...

  12. Food processing strategies to enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability in plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Elez-Martínez, Pedro

    2017-06-13

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of plant-based foods, as their presence is related to protective effects on health. To exert their biological activity, phenolic compounds must be released from the matrix during digestion in an absorbable form (bioaccessible) and finally absorbed and transferred to the bloodstream (bioavailable). Chemical structure and matrix interactions are some food-related factors that hamper phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability, and that can be counteracted by food processing. It has been shown that food processing can induce chemical or physical modifications in food that enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability. These changes include: (i) chemical modifications into more bioaccessible and bioavailable forms; (ii) cleavage of covalent or hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic forces that attach phenolic compounds to matrix macromolecules; (iii) damaging microstructural barriers such as cell walls that impede the release from the matrix; and (iv) create microstructures that protect phenolic compounds until they are absorbed. Indeed, food processing can produce degradation of phenolic compounds, however, it is possible to counteract it by modulating the operating conditions in favor of increased bioaccessibility and bioavailability. This review compiles the current knowledge on the effects of processing on phenolic compounds bioaccessibility or bioavailability, while suggesting new guidelines in the search of optimal processing conditions as a step forward towards the design of healthier foods.

  13. Biodegradation of phenolic compounds with oxidases from sorghum and non-defined mixed bacterium media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obame, C. E. L.; Savadogo, P. W.; Mamoudou, D. H.; Dembele, R. H.; Traore, A. S.

    2009-07-01

    The biodegradation of the phenolic compounds is performed using oxidative enzymes, e. g. polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) and peroxidases (POXs). These oxidases displaying a wide spectrum for the oxidation of phenolic compounds were isolated either from sorghum or mixed bacteria. Spectrophotometric methods were used to assess the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of PPOs as well as the hydrogen-dependant oxidation of POXs. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content in Different Salvia officinalis L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Viorica Pop (Cuceu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants to improve health is an ancient practice and in recent years it has been observed an increasing interest of scientific researchers for the study of plants with biological properties and active principles responsible for their therapeutic effects. Salvia officinalis L. is considered the queen of herbs and belongs to the Lamiaceae (Labiatae family. Due to the increasing interest in plants health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize various extracts of Romanian sage regarding their content in compounds with antioxidant activity. Three different techniques and five solvents were used for extraction of bioactive compounds from Salvia officinalis L. The total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of plant extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and respectively by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Methanolic extract exhibited the highest content in phenolic compound (1974.89 mg GAE/100g dw as well ass the strongest antioxidant capacity (85.12%.

  15. PHENOLIC COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF BLACKBERRIES

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    VIVIANE MARCELA CELANT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to evaluate the content of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and flavonoids extracted with 80% ethanol and water, and antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS of five blackberry cultivars produced in Western Paraná, Brazil. Brazos, Tupy, Arapaho, Choctaw and Guarani blackberries were studied. Soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid of fruits were also characterized. Total phenolic compounds ranged from 8.23 to 14.98 mg GAE g-1 (f.w. and Arapaho cultivar exhibited the highest contents in both solvents. Anthocyanins ranged from 2.57 to 9.42 mg ECy3glu g-1 (f.w., being the solvent ethanol 80% more efficient than the water, and Choctaw cultivar showing the highest content. Flavonoids ranged from 0.46 to 1.14 mg EQ g-1 (f.w. and Guarani cultivar showed the highest content. High linear correlations were found between total phenolics and antioxidant capacity in both extraction solvents. However, linear correlations between anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were observed only for the aqueous solvent. Ascorbic acid ranged from 87.87 to 134.09 mg 100 g-1, with emphasis on Brazos cultivar. The aqueous extract showed greater ability to scavenge ABTS radical, but the ethanolic extract was more efficient for the DPPH radical. Blackberries produced under Western Paraná conditions showed high levels of antioxidants with emphasis on Arapaho cultivar. This study showed that water and ethanol solvents influence different results on phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of blackberries.

  16. Phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts from Pistacia atlantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigane, Ghayth; Ghazghazi, Hanene; Aouadhi, Chedia; Ben Salem, Ridha; Nasr, Zouheir

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the secondary metabolites related to Pistacia atlantica Desf as well as their biological activities. Results show that using ethanol as a solvent exhibited the highest content of total phenolics and flavonoids (68.23 mg GAE g(-1) of DW and 44 mg RE g(-1) of DW), followed by aqueous one (20.07 mg GAE g(-1) of DW and 15 mg RE g(-1) of DW). Good correlation (Data not shown) was obtained between the DPPH radical-scavenging activities and total phenolics contents. Many similarities were observed between the results of the DPPH (IC50 = 32 and 200 μg mL(-1)) and ABTS (IC50 = 42 and 300 μg mL(-1)) assays. All tested extracts contained phenolic compounds exhibited an antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Further, researches for identification and purification of phenolic compounds are required.

  17. Assessment of priority phenolic compounds in sediments from an extremely polluted coastal wetland (Lake Maryut, Egypt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed A

    2013-01-01

    Although high concentrations of trace organic pollutants were recorded along the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast and its corresponding coastal wetlands, no published data are available for the levels of phenolic compounds. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the levels of phenolic compounds in sediments of a heavily polluted coastal wetland (Lake Maryut, Egypt). For that purpose, a method was optimized for the extraction and detection of chlorophenols, methylphenols, and nitrophenols in sediments using GC-MS. Sediments were extracted with 0.1 M NaOH/methanol by sonication. Cleanup of sediment extracts using liquid-liquid extraction and SPE was found important to remove most of the interfering co-extracts. The proposed analytical methodology was validated by analysis of matrix spikes. Detection limits were 0.063-0.694 μg/kg dw for sediments. Good recoveries (70-110%) and precision values (RSD Lake Maryut. Results revealed that higher concentrations were observed in the main basin (MB) of Lake Maryut affected by the discharge of effluents from a primary wastewater treatment plant, direct discharge of industrial effluents, domestic wastes, and agricultural effluents from Qalaa Drain (QD). Chlorophenols (CPs) were the major group detected in the lake sediments followed by methylphenols (MPs) and nitrophenols (NPs). CPs were dominated by 2-, 4-, and 3-chlorophenols. Concentrations of CPs were higher at the north and northwestern parts of the MB indicating the influence of industrial effluents discharged into the lake. On the other hand, higher concentrations of NPs were observed at the south and southwestern parts of the MB, which is subjected to the discharge of agricultural and domestic effluents via QD. Results of the risk assessment revealed that phenol, cresols, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 4-NP, 2-CP, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and 2,4-dimethylphenol are contaminants of concern and that adverse ecological effects could possibly occur to benthic species from the exposure to

  18. COSMO-RS-based extractant screening for phenol extraction as model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghoff, B.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Haan, A.B. de

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this investigation is the development of a fast and reliable extractant screening approach. Phenol extraction is selected as the model process. A quantum chemical conductor-like screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS) is combined with molecular design considerations. For this purpo

  19. Batch liquid-liquid extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, M.S.A.; Shibata, C. [Department of Biochemical Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Paiva, J.L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnical School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Zilli, M. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Converti, A.

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this work is the study of batch liquid-liquid extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions in a bench-scale well-mixed reactor. The influence of the ratio of phase volumes, temperature, and rotational speed on phenol removal (0.72-1.1 % w/w) was investigated using methyl isobutyl ketone as an extracting solvent. For this purpose, the ratio of phase volumes were set at 0.1 and 0.2, the temperature at 10, 20, and 30 C, and the rotational speed at 300, 400, and 500 rpm. A physical model based on the material balance of the phases as well as the equation of mass flux between the phases allowed the estimation of the overall coefficient of mass transfer coupled with the superficial area. Moreover, it proved to fit, satisfactorily well, the experimental data of residual phenol concentration in the organic phase versus time under all the conditions investigated. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, T L; Herrero, M; Ibáñez, E

    2013-05-03

    In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-β-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in vitro assays, whereas the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was employed to estimate the total phenols content. On the other hand, extracts were chemically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that EAE enhanced the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity compared to a non-enzymatic control. PLE extracts presented higher amount of phenols and antioxidant capacity than enzyme-assisted extracts, reaching the highest values on water extracts (193.18mggallicacid/gextract and EC50=6.81μg/mL). Among the bioactive phenolic compounds identified in lemon balm, rosmarinic acid was the main component, although other important compounds were also identified, such as caffeic acid derivatives (salvianolic acids, lithospermic acid) and rosmarinic acid derivatives (rosmarinic acid hexoside, sagerinic acid, sulfated rosmarinic acid). The present study confirms that EAE and PLE can be considered alternative methods for the extraction of natural compounds with biological activity from natural sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Addition of Phenols Compounds to Meat Dough Intended for Salami Manufacture and its Antioxidant Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Cardazzo, Barbara; Carraro, Lisa; Taticchi, Agnese; Balzan, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    A purified extract of phenols compounds (65% of phenolic content of which decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone represented 45% of the wet mass) obtained from vegetation water (a by-product of oil mill) was added to a ground meat dough intended for salami manufacture in two concentration levels: 75 and 150 mg/100 g of dough (F1 and F2, respectively). The control batch was composed of lean and fat cuts of pork in 70:30 ratio, 2.7% salt and a mixed starter culture of staphylococci and pediococci. After stuffing into natural casings, salamis were aged until they reached a total weight loss of 30%. The product was then sliced and packaged in a protective atmosphere (nitrogen:carbon dioxide 80:20) and placed in a refrigerator thermostat (2-4°C) with alternating 12 h of artificial light and darkness. The samples were analysed for the measurement of pH, water activity, organic acidity, peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation at the time of slicing and after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage into the refrigerated thermostat. The pH and water activity were not substantially different between the control and the two enriched batches. The peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation values in the two batches with phenols were at least substantially lower than the control sample. In conclusion, the phenol compounds obtained from vegetation water have shown no interference with the ripening process while protecting the dough from oxidation. PMID:27800353

  2. The Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compounds Accumulation in Leaves of Various Kinds of Kalanchoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. SAZHINA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of actual problems of modern pharmacology is creation of new medicines on the basis of vegetable raw materials. In this plan some succulents present a great interest in particular some kinds of the genus Kalanchoe, such as Kalanchoe pinnata (K.pinnata and Kalanchoe Daigremontiana (K.daigremontiana. Their leaves contain useful mineral salts, organic acids and the numerous phenolic compounds (PC. Education and accumulation of these PC depends on genetic features of a plant and numerous factors of environment. Besides, these representatives of a secondary metabolism cause biological, including antioxidant activity (AOA of this or that species of a plant, that is ability its component to inhibit oxidizing free radical processes. Use of modern methods of antioxidant properties research for plant extracts or juice of this or that plant allow to study and reveal their medicinal value at higher level.In the present work the comparative analysis of measurement results of the total phenols content and their activity in leave juice of various kinds of Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe L. is carried out by ammetric and chemiluminescence methods for the purpose of identification among them the most active producers of phenol metabolites. Objects of research were juice samples of 34 kinds of the genus Kalanchoe, grown up in a succulent collection in Timiryazev Institute of plant physiology RAS (Moscow, Russia. Among the studied samples two most active from the point of view of their antioxidant properties Kalanchoe kinds: K.scapigera and K.rhombopilosa are revealed. Both methods show considerably higher values of the phenol metabolite content in leave juice of these plants and their AOA in comparison with K.pinnata and K.daigremontiana. For possible expansion for use of specified types of Kalanchoe as sources of biologically active compounds, additional researches of biochemical structure, antibacterial, antimicrobic and other properties of these plant components is

  3. Addition of phenols compounds to meat dough intended for salami manufacture and its antioxidant effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Novelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A purified extract of phenols compounds (65% of phenolic content of which decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone represented 45% of the wet mass obtained from vegetation water (a by-product of oil mill was added to a ground meat dough intended for salami manufacture in two concentration levels: 75 and 150 mg/100 g of dough (F1 and F2, respectively. The control batch was composed of lean and fat cuts of pork in 70:30 ratio, 2.7% salt and a mixed starter culture of staphylococci and pediococci. After stuffing into natural casings, salamis were aged until they reached a total weight loss of 30%. The product was then sliced and packaged in a protective atmosphere (nitrogen:carbon dioxide 80:20 and placed in a refrigerator thermostat (2-4°C with alternating 12 h of artificial light and darkness. The samples were analysed for the measurement of pH, water activity, organic acidity, peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation at the time of slicing and after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage into the refrigerated thermostat. The pH and water activity were not substantially different between the control and the two enriched batches. The peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation values in the two batches with phenols were at least substantially lower than the control sample. In conclusion, the phenol compounds obtained from vegetation water have shown no