Sample records for extracting olivine fo-fa

  1. Nickel Extraction from Olivine: Effect of Carbonation Pre-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. Santos


    Full Text Available In this work, we explore a novel mineral processing approach using carbon dioxide to promote mineral alterations that lead to improved extractability of nickel from olivine ((Mg,Fe2SiO4. The precept is that by altering the morphology and the mineralogy of the ore via mineral carbonation, the comminution requirements and the acid consumption during hydrometallurgical processing can be reduced. Furthermore, carbonation pre-treatment can lead to mineral liberation and concentration of metals in physically separable phases. In a first processing step, olivine is fully carbonated at high CO2 partial pressures (35 bar and optimal temperature (200 °C with the addition of pH buffering agents. This leads to a powdery product containing high carbonate content. The main products of the carbonation reaction include quasi-amorphous colloidal silica, chromium-rich metallic particles, and ferro-magnesite ((Mg1−x,FexCO3. Carbonated olivine was subsequently leached using an array of inorganic and organic acids to test their leaching efficiency. Compared to leaching from untreated olivine, the percentage of nickel extracted from carbonated olivine by acid leaching was significantly increased. It is anticipated that the mineral carbonation pre-treatment approach may also be applicable to other ultrabasic and lateritic ores.

  2. Olivine dissolution in the presence of heterotrophic bacteria (Pseudomonas reactants) extracted from Icelandic groundwater of the CO2 injection pilot site (United States)

    Shirokova, Liudmila; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Benezeth, Pascale; Gerard, Emmanuelle; Menez, Benedicte; Alfredsson, Helgi


    This work is aimed at experimental modeling of the effect of heterotrophic bacteria on dissolution of important rock-forming mineral, olivine, at the conditions of CO2 storage and sequestration. Heterotrophic aerobic gram-negative bacteria were extracted from deep underground water (HK31, 1700 m deep and, t = 25-30°C) of basaltic aquifer located within the Hellisheidi CO2 injection pilot site (Iceland). Following this sampling, we separated, using culture on nutrient agar plates, four different groups of gram-negative aerobic bacteria. The enzymatic activity of studied species has been evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and their genetic identification was performed using 18-S RNA analysis. The optimal growth conditions of bacteria on Brain Hearth Broth nutrient have been determined as 5 to 37°C and growth media pH varied from 7.0-8.2. Culturing experiments allowed determining the optimal physico-chemical conditions for bacteria experiments in the presence of basic Ca, Mg-containing silicates. Olivine (Fo92) was chosen as typical mineral of basalt, widely considered in carbon dioxide sequestration mechanisms. Dissolution experiments were performed in constant-pH (7 to 9), bicarbonate-buffered (0.001 to 0.05 M) nutrient-diluted media in batch reactors at 0-30 bars of CO2 in the presence of various biomass of Pseudomonas reactants. The release rate of magnesium, silica and iron was measured as a function of time in the presence of live, actively growing, dead (autoclaved or glutaraldehyde-treated) cells and bacteria exometabolites. Both nutrient media diluted 10 times (to 100 mg DOC/L) and inert electrolyte (NaCl, no DOC) were used. Our preliminary results indicate that the pH and dissolved organic matter are the first-order parameters that control the element release from olivine at far from equilibrium conditions. The SEM investigation of reacted surfaces reveal formation of surface roughness with much stronger mineral alteration in the presence of live bacteria

  3. Is Garnet Stronger Than Olivine? (United States)

    Katayama, I.; Karato, S.


    Garnet and olivine are two important minerals in two geochemically distinct rock types, peridotite and eclogite. Consequently, the relative strength between garnet and olivine is a key factor in understanding the geodynamic behavior of two distinct geochemical "reservoirs". Here we investigated rheology of garnet by shear deformation experiments using the Griggs-type solid medium apparatus. Garnet and olivine samples, whose compositions are Alm46Prp52Grs2 and Fo90 respectively, were together sandwiched between alumina pistons in simple shear geometry. Because of uncertainty in reading differential stress from an external load-cell, we used dislocation density of deformed olivine crystals to infer stress level during deformation. Oxygen fugacity was buffered by the Ni/NiO reaction, and the water content was relatively low (mechanism according to the stress exponent of ~3 based on the stress and strain-rate relation and dynamic recrystallization in deformed garnet. The difference in strain between the garnet and olivine samples is small when the samples are deformed at a higher strain-rate. This may be due to significant contribution of Peierls mechanism in olivine at higher stress because of lower Peierls stress for olivine (9GPa) than garnet (~16GPa). Although our experiments indicated that garnet is weaker than olivine, the creep strength of garnet is likely depending on its chemical composition. If we calculate strength of pyrope based on homogenous temperature normalization (Karato et al. 1995), pyrope is more resistant than olivine. This is consistent with the well-known observation that Mg-rich garnet in mantle peridotite is usually less deformed than olivine. In contrast, garnet in subducted oceanic crust contains higher Fe content, suggesting that garnet-rich layer is weaker than the surrounding peridotitic upper mantle. Our results provide new insights into the geodynamic behavior of garnet-rich regions including the processes of separation of a garnetite

  4. Mineral magnetism of dusty olivine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappe, Sophie-Charlotte L. L.; Church, Nathan S.; Kasama, Takeshi


    The magnetic properties of olivine-hosted Fe-Ni particles have been studied to assess the potential of "dusty olivine" to retain a pre-accretionary remanence in chondritic meteorites. Both body-centered (bcc) and face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe-Ni phases were formed by reduction of a terrestrial...... olivine precursor. The presence of Ni complicates the magnetic properties during heating and cooling due to the fcc-bcc martensitic transition. First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams contain a central ridge with a broad coercivity distribution extending to 600 mT, attributed to non-interacting single...... a credible recorder of pre-accretionary magnetic fields. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union....

  5. Production and Application of Olivine Nano-Silica in Concrete (United States)

    Mardiana, Oesman; Haryadi


    The aim of this research was to produce nano silica by synthesis of nano silica through extraction and dissolution of ground olivine rock, and applied the nano silica in the design concrete mix. The producing process of amorphous silica used sulfuric acid as the dissolution reagent. The separation of ground olivine rock occurred when the rock was heated in a batch reactor containing sulfuric acid. The results showed that the optimum mole ratio of olivine- acid was 1: 8 wherein the weight ratio of the highest nano silica generated. The heating temperature and acid concentration influenced the mass of silica produced, that was at temperature of 90 °C and 3 M acid giving the highest yield of 44.90%. Characterization using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR ) concluded that amorphous silica at a wavenumber of 1089 cm-1 indicated the presence of siloxane, Si-O-Si, stretching bond. Characterization using Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) showed the surface and the size of the silica particles. The average size of silica particles was between 1-10 μm due to the rapid aggregation of the growing particles of nano silica into microparticles, caused of the pH control was not fully achieved.

  6. Trace elements in olivine and the petrogenesis of the intermediate, olivine-phyric shergottite NWA 10170 (United States)

    Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Udry, Arya


    Olivine-phyric shergottites represent primitive basaltic to picritic rocks, spanning a large range of Mg# and olivine abundances. As primitive olivine-bearing magmas are commonly representative of their mantle source on Earth, understanding the petrology and evolution of olivine-phyric shergottites is critical in our understanding of Martian mantle compositions. We present data for the olivine-phyric shergottite Northwest Africa (NWA) 10170 to constrain the petrology with specific implications for magma plumbing-system dynamics. The calculated oxygen fugacity and bulk-rock REE concentrations (based on modal abundance) are consistent with a geochemically intermediate classification for NWA 10170, and overall similarity with NWA 6234. In addition, we present trace element data using laser ablation ICP-MS for coarse-grained olivine cores, and compare these data with terrestrial and Martian data sets. The olivines in NWA 10170 contain cores with compositions of Fo77 that evolve to rims with composition of Fo58, and are characterized by cores with low Ni contents (400-600 ppm). Nickel is compatible in olivine and such low Ni content for olivine cores in NWA 10170 suggests either early-stage fractionation and loss of olivine from the magma in a staging chamber at depth, or that Martian magmas have lower Ni than terrestrial magmas. We suggest that both are true in this case. Therefore, the magma does not represent a primary mantle melt, but rather has undergone 10-15% fractionation in a staging chamber prior to extrusion/intrusion at the surface of Mars. This further implies that careful evaluation of not only the Mg# but also the trace element concentrations of olivine needs to be conducted to evaluate pristine mantle melts versus those that have fractionated olivine (±pyroxene and oxide minerals) in staging chambers.

  7. Photoluminescence of hole centers in olivine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, A.I.; Denisov, I.G.; Lopatin, O.N. [Kazan State University (Russian Federation)


    The intracenter luminescence of O{sup {minus}} hole centers is first detected in olivine crystals. The holes are shown to be localized at the three structural different oxygens of SiO{sub 4} and AlO{sub 4} tetrahedra. This explains the three-component structure of the luminescence band (420-470 nm) and of its excitation band (340-390). The energy level diagram of the O{sup {minus}} center in olivine crystals is constructed and the electronic transitions corresponding to its excitation and luminescence are shown. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. TEM Investigation of Shock-Induced Polymorphic Transformation of Olivine (United States)

    Pittarello, L.; Ji, G.; Schryvers, D.; Yamaguchi, A.; Debaille, V.; Claeys, Ph.


    In a shock vein crosscutting a L6 chondrite, olivine clasts with a Fe-rich ringwoodite rim and with core consisting of Mg-rich wadsleyite and olivine domains and Fe-rich olivine veinlets were observed. The formation process is discussed.

  9. Lithium Zoning in Kīlauea Olivine: Growth vs. Diffusion? (United States)

    Shea, T.; Lynn, K. J.; Garcia, M. O.; Costa Rodriguez, F.


    Lithium is a fast-diffusing element with the potential to characterize magmatic processes that occur on timescales of hours to days [1]. However, Li diffusion in olivine is complex. Experimental studies show that it can diffuse via two paths: a `fast' interstitial mechanism and a `slow' vacancy mechanism [1]. Charge balancing relationships with other incompatible trace elements may also play a role in Li diffusion [2]. A detailed study of lithium zoning in natural olivine was undertaken to better understand how Li is correlated with other trace elements and determine if Li diffusion profiles can be used to extract meaningful timescales of magmatic processes. Olivine crystals from the Keanakāko`i explosive period at Kīlauea Volcano (HI) were used in this study because (a) the lavas and tephra generally contain phenocrysts of only olivine in a rapidly quenched glass, which avoid complications of multi-phase systems and post-eruptive diffusion; (b) we previously constrained the magmatic histories of these crystals using major and minor elements; and (c) at concentrations (e.g. 1-10 ppm) and temperatures (e.g. 1150-1250 °C) typical of Kīlauea basalts, Li diffusion is probably dominated by the vacancy mechanism [1]. Euhedral crystals were carefully oriented and mounted on either the a- or b- crystallographic axes (c-axis is always within the plane of section) and polished to the crystal core. High precision LA-ICP-MS analyses of Li (2σ = 0.08 ppm), Na, Al, P, and Cr complement EPMA profiles of Si, Mg, Fe, Ni, and Ca (200 nA current). Core-to-rim transects were collected along two axes (c and a or b) to identify potential diffusion anisotropy effects for Li and other elements. Li zoning is correlated with Na, indicative of a growth signature (also observed for Al, P, and Cr), or is decoupled from incompatible trace elements and have profiles that indicate diffusive re-equilibration. Modeling of Li diffusion profiles yields timescales of hours to days, which probably

  10. Evaluation of olivine refractories for TES (United States)

    Gay, B. M.; Cochrane, R. L.; Palmour, H., III; Paisley, M. J.


    The principal objectives of this program are to (1) experimentally determine the degree of improvement in thermal and mechanical performance that can be obtained with an olivine thermal storage brick made of domestic materials using advanced processing techniques compared with state-of-the-art as represented by commercial European bricks, (2) conduct an assessment of existing German ceramic process technology and determine its adaptability to domestic raw materials and manufacturing practices, and (3) investigate, on a limited basis, method for further improvement of domestic-olivine brick. To date, accomplishments include (1) installation of improved, computer-based instrumentation, (2) the use of this system to determine performance characteristics of a set of heat storage refractories under cyclic use conditions, (3) acquisition of the services of a knowledgeable European consultant, (4) continued lab-scale process/property optimization studies, and (5) comparative testing of olivine-based and magnesite-based heat storage refractories in the calorimetric test facility at Purdue University.

  11. Search for Olivine Spectral Signatures on the Surface of Vesta (United States)

    Palomba, E.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Farina, M.; Frigeri, A.; Longobardo, A.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; hide


    The occurrence of olivines on Vesta were first postulated from traditional petrogenetic models which suggest the formation of olivine as lower crustal cumulates. An indirect confirmation is given by their presence as a minor component in some samples of diogenite meteorites, the harzburgitic diogenites and the dunitic diogenites, and as olivine mineral clasts in howardites. Another indication for this mineral was given by interpretations of groundbased and Hubble Space Telescope observations that suggested the presence of local olivine-bearing units on the surface of Vesta. The VIR instrument onboard the DAWN mission has been mapping Vesta since July 2011. VIR acquired hyperspectral images of Vesta s surface in the wavelength range from 0.25 to 5.1 m during Approach, Survey and High Altitude Mapping (HAMO) orbits that allowed a 2/3 of the entire asteroid surface to be mapped. The VIR operative spectral interval, resolution and coverage is suitable for the detection and mapping of any olivine rich regions that may occur on the Vesta surface. The abundance of olivine in diogenites is typically lower than 10% but some samples richer in olivine are known. However, we do not expect to have extensive exposures of olivine-rich material on Vesta. Moreover, the partial overlap of olivine and pyroxene spectral signatures will make olivine difficult to detect. Different spectral parameters have been used to map olivine on extraterrestrial bodies, and here we discuss the different approaches used, and develop new ones specifically for Vesta. Our new methods are based on combinations of the spectral parameters relative to the 1 and 2 micron bands (the most prominent spectral features of Vesta surface in the visible and the infrared), such as band center locations, band depths, band areas, band area ratios. Before the direct application to the VIR data, the efficiency of each approach is evaluated by means of analysis of laboratory spectra of HED meteorites, pyroxenes, olivines

  12. Vaporization Studies of Olivine via Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Costa, G. C. C.; Jacobson, N. S.


    Olivine is the major mineral in the Earth's upper mantle occurring predominantly in igneous rocks and has been identified in meteorites, asteroids, the Moon and Mars. Among many other important applications in planetary and materials sciences, the thermodynamic properties of vapor species from olivine are crucial as input parameters in computational modelling of the atmospheres of hot, rocky exoplanets (lava planets). There are several weight loss studies of olivine vaporization in the literature and one Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) study. In this study, we examine a forsterite-rich olivine (93% forsterite and 7% fayalite, Fo93Fa7) with KEMS to further understand its vaporization and thermodynamic properties.

  13. Diffusive Fractionation of Lithium Isotopes in Olivine (United States)

    Homolova, V.; Richter, F. M.; Watson, E. B.; Chaussidon, M.


    Systematic lithium isotope variations along concentration gradients found in olivine and pyroxene grains from terrestrial, lunar and martian rocks have been attributed to diffusive isotopic fractionation [Beck et al., 2006; Tang et al., 2007]. In some cases, these isotopic excursions are so large that a single grain may display isotopic variability that spans almost the entire range of documented terrestrial values [Jeffcoate et al., 2007]. In this study, we present the results of experiments to examine diffusive isotopic fractionation of lithium in olivine. The experiments comprised crystallographically oriented slabs of San Carlos olivine juxtaposed with either spodumene powder or a lithium rich pyroxene crystal. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa and 0.1MPa over a temperature range of 1000 to 1125⁰C. Oxygen fugacity in the 0.1MPa experiments was controlled using the wustite-magnetite and nickel-nickel oxide solid buffer assemblages. Lithium concentrations generally decrease smoothly away from the edges of the grains; however, experiments involving diffusion parallel to the a-axis consistently show peculiar wavy or segmented concentration profiles. Lithium diffusivity parallel to the c-axis is on the order of 1E-14m2/s at 1100⁰C. The diffusivity parallel to the c-axis is more than an order of magnitude faster than diffusion parallel to the b-axis and correlates positively with oxygen fugacity. The lithium isotopic composition, δ7Li = 1000‰ * ((δ7Lisample- δ7Ligrain center)/ δ7Ligrain center), shows a decrease away from the edge of the grain to a minimum value (up to 70‰ lighter) and then an abrupt increase back to the initial isotopic composition of the olivine grain. This isotopic profile is similar to those found in natural grains and an experimental study on diffusive fractionation of lithium isotopes in pyroxene [Richter et al., 2014]. Results from the present study are modeled using the approach of Dohmen et al. [2010], which assumes lithium

  14. Mineralogical Comparison of Olivine in Shergottites and A Shocked L Chondrite: Implications for Shock Histories of Brown Olivine (United States)

    Takenouchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Zolensky, M. E.


    Most Martian meteorites are heavily shocked, exhibiting numerous shock features, for example undulatory extinction of olivine and pyroxene, the presence of diaplectic glass ("maskelynite") and the formation of shock melt. Among these shock features, olivine darkening ("brown" olivine) is unique in Martian meteorites because no other meteorite group shows such a feature. Although the presence of brown olivine in shergottites was reported thirty years ago, detailed observation by TEM has not been performed until the NWA 2737 chassignite was discovered, whose olivine is darkened, being completely black in hand specimen. Fe metal nano-particles were found in NWA 2737 olivine which are considered to have been formed by olivine reduction during heavy shock. Subsequently, magnetite nano-particles were also found in other Martian meteorites and the coexistence of Fe metal and magnetite nano-particles was reported in the NWA 1950 shergottite and some Fe metal nano-particles were mantled by magnetite. Therefore, the formation process of nano-particles seems to be complex. Because "brown" olivine is unique to Martian meteorites, they have a potential to constrain their shock conditions. In order to better understand the shock history of Martian meteorites, we compared olivine in several shergottites with that in a highly-shocked L chondrite which contains ringwoodite.

  15. Anisotropy of electrical conductivity in dry olivine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Frane, W L; Roberts, J J; Toffelmier, D A; Tyburczy, J A


    [1] The electrical conductivity ({sigma}) was measured for a single crystal of San Carlos olivine (Fo{sub 89.1}) for all three principal orientations over oxygen fugacities 10{sup -7} < fO{sub 2} < 10{sup 1} Pa at 1100, 1200, and 1300 C. Fe-doped Pt electrodes were used in conjunction with a conservative range of fO{sub 2}, T, and time to reduce Fe loss resulting in data that is {approx}0.15 log units higher in conductivity than previous studies. At 1200 C and fO{sub 2} = 10{sup -1} Pa, {sigma}{sub [100]} = 10{sup -2.27} S/m, {sigma}{sub [010]} = 10{sup -2.49} S/m, {sigma}{sub [001]} = 10{sup -2.40} S/m. The dependences of {sigma} on T and fO{sub 2} have been simultaneously modeled with undifferentiated mixed conduction of small polarons and Mg vacancies to obtain steady-state fO{sub 2}-independent activation energies: Ea{sub [100]} = 0.32 eV, Ea{sub [010]} = 0.56 eV, Ea{sub [001]} = 0.71 eV. A single crystal of dry olivine would provide a maximum of {approx}10{sup 0.4} S/m azimuthal {sigma} contrast for T < 1500 C. The anisotropic results are combined to create an isotropic model with Ea = 0.53 eV.

  16. Disequilibrium growth of olivine in mafic magmas revealed by phosphorus zoning patterns of olivine from mafic-ultramafic intrusions (United States)

    Xing, Chang-Ming; Wang, Christina Yan; Tan, Wei


    Olivine from mafic-ultramafic intrusions rarely displays growth zoning in major and some minor elements, such as Fe, Mg and Ni, due to fast diffusion of these elements at high temperatures. These elements in olivine are thus not useful in deciphering magma chamber processes, such as magma convection, multiple injection and mixing. High-resolution X-ray elemental intensity mapping reveals distinct P zoning patterns of olivine from two mafic-ultramafic intrusions in SW China. Polyhedral olivine grains from lherzolite and dunite of the Abulangdang intrusion show P-rich dendrites similar to those observed in volcanic rocks. Rounded olivine grains from net-textured Fe-Ti oxide ores of the Baima layered intrusion have irregular P-rich patches/bands crosscut and interlocked by P-poor olivine domains. P-rich patches/bands contain 250 to 612 ppm P, much higher than P-poor olivine domains with 123 to 230 ppm P. In electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) maps, P-rich patches/bands within a single olivine grain have the same crystallographic orientation, indicating that they were remnants of the same crystal. Thus, both P-rich patches/bands and P-poor olivine domains in the same grain show a disequilibrium texture and clearly record two-stage growth. The P-rich patches/bands are likely the remnants of a polyhedral olivine crystal that formed in the first stage, whereas the P-poor olivine domains containing rounded Ti-rich magnetite and Fe-rich melt inclusions may have formed from an Fe-rich ambient melt in the second stage. The complex P zoning of olivine can be attributed to the dissolution of early polyhedral olivine and re-precipitation from the Fe-rich ambient melt. The early polyhedral olivine was in chemical disequilibrium with the ambient melt that may have been developed by silicate liquid immiscibility in a crystal mush. Our study implies that olivine crystals in igneous cumulates with an equilibrium appearance may have experienced disequilibrium growth processes

  17. Dynamic recrystallization and grain growth in olivine rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellermann Slotemaker, A.


    A mechanism based description of the rheology of olivine is essential for modeling of upper mantle geodynamics. Previously, mantle flow has been investigated using flow laws for grain size insensitive (GSI) dislocation creep and/or grain size sensitive (GSS) diffusion creep of olivine. Generally,

  18. Chemical dispersion among Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalts (United States)

    Ryder, Graham; Steele, Alison


    Analysis of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalts for major and minor elements suggests that the hypothesis that the coarser-grained varieties (olivine microgabbros) consist of two chemical groups is incorrect. Instead, it is found that there is a single group including vesicular, coarse-grained, and fine-grained basalts. For the entire suite, the dispersion of compositions along the olivine trend is too great to be explained by short-range unmixing of an unfractionated flow. It is suggested that the general trend for the suite is olivine separation, probably through crystal settling. The textures, mineralogical characteristics, and chemical variation of the olivine-normative basalts are shown to be consistent with a sequence of thin fractionating flows, all from a common parent.

  19. A novel route for FePO4 olivine synthesis from sarcopside oxidation (United States)

    Crouzet, Camille; Recham, Nadir; Brunet, Fabrice; Findling, Nathaniel; David, Rénald; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar


    Heterosite FePO4 is synthesized for the first time by direct thermal oxidation of sarcopside Fe3(PO4)2. Both FePO4 and Fe3(PO4)2 have a pseudo olivine structure. Complete isostructural conversion of sarcopside into FePO4 is achieved at a temperature of 450 °C within 3 days according to the reaction Fe3(PO4)2 + ¾ O2 → 2 FePO4 + ½ Fe2O3 which leads to the extraction of iron from the sarcopside structure. Appropriate heating ramp must be applied in order to avoid the crystallization of Fe7(PO4)6. Electrochemical performances of the oxidation product are consistent with those of olivine FePO4.

  20. Visualizing redox orbitals and their potentials in olivine materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Hafiz, Hasnain; Suzuki, K.; Barbiellini, B.; Orikasa, Y.; Callewaert, V.; Kaprzyk, S.; Itou, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamada, R.; Uchimoto, Y.; Sakurai, Y.; Sakurai, H.; Bansil, A.

    The key reactions that take place in lithium batteries are reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions, which involve transfer of conduction electrons from the lithium anode to an orbital of the cathode. Our study of high-energy x-ray Compton scattering spectroscopy on olivine lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) shows that inelastic scattering spectra of high-energy photons yield faithful reconstructions of the redox orbitals. The knowledge of the redox orbital-momentum distribution allows the extraction of information related to kinetic energies involved in the redox reactions and the visualization of trends in the voltage. Our results demonstrate that x-ray Compton scattering spectroscopy provides unique descriptors for monitoring fundamental quantum mechanical effects determining the battery voltage in olivine materials.

  1. Ringwoodite lamellae in olivine: Clues to olivine-ringwoodite phase transition mechanisms in shocked meteorites and subducting slabs (United States)

    Chen, Ming; El Goresy, Ahmed; Gillet, Philippe


    The first natural occurrence of ringwoodite lamellae was found in the olivine grains inside and in areas adjacent to the shock veins of a chondritic meteorite, and these lamellae show distinct growth mechanism. Inside the veins where pressure and temperature were higher than elsewhere, ringwoodite lamellae formed parallel to the {101} planes of olivine, whereas outside they lie parallel to the (100) plane of olivine. The lamellae replaced the host olivine from a few percent to complete. Formation of these lamellae relates to a diffusion-controlled growth of ringwoodite along shear-induced planar defects in olivine. The planar defects and ringwoodite lamellae parallel to the {101} planes of olivine should have been produced in higher shear stress and temperature region than that parallel to the (100) plane of olivine. This study suggests that the time duration of high pressure and temperature for the growth of ringwoodite lamellae might have lasted at least for several seconds, and that an intracrystalline transformation mechanism of ringwoodite in olivine could favorably operate in the subducting lithospheric slabs in the deep Earth.

  2. Boron, beryllium, and lithium, partitioning in olivine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neroda, Elizabeth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    A one atmosphere experimental study was performed to determine the mineral/melt partition coefficients for B, Be, and Li in forsteritic olivine. Two compositions were chosen along the 1350{degrees}C isotherm, 1b (Fo{sub 17.3} Ab{sub 82.7} An{sub 0} by weight) and 8c (Fo{sub 30} Ab{sub 23.3} An{sub 47.8}, by weight) were then combined in equal amounts to form a composition was doped with 25ppm Li, B, Yb, Nb, Zr, Sr, and Hf, 50ppm Sm, and 100ppm Be, Nd, Ce, and Rb. Electron and ion microprobe analyses showed that the olivine crystals and surrounding glasses were homogeneous with respect to major and trace elements. Partition coefficients calculated from these analyses are as follows: 1b: D{sub B} = 4.41 ({+-} 2.3) E-03, D{sub Be} = 2.86 ({+-} 0.45) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.54 ({+-} 0.21) E-01, 50/50: D{sub B} = 2.86 ({+-} 0.5) E-03, D{sub Be} = 2.07 ({+-} 0.09) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.51 ({+-} 0.18) E-01, 8c: D{sub B} = 6.05 ({+-} 1.5) E-03, D{sub Be} = 1.81 ({+-} 0.03) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.31 ({+-} 0.09) E-01. The results of this study will combined with similar data for other minerals as part of a larger study to understand the partitioning behavior of B, Be, and Li in melting of the upper mantle at subduction zones.

  3. Deciphering magma histories through phosphorus zoning in olivine (United States)

    Ersoy, Ö.; Nikogosian, I.; Mason, P. R. D.; van Bergen, M.


    Since olivine is usually the first major phase to crystallize from basaltic magma, its primary chemistry is a sensitive tracer of the early evolution of volcanic systems. However, fast diffusion and homogenization under magmatic conditions frequently modifies the original composition of olivine, which hampers the reconstruction of cooling histories and magma evolution from the chemistry and zoning patterns of phenocrysts in erupted products. Phosphorous is a notable exception due to its sluggish diffusion in olivine crystals and silicate melts, as igneous olivines almost always display complex zoning patterns. Phosphorus zoning in olivine has been linked either to crystallization rate variations and diffusion controlled growth or to strong compositional controls on melt-mineral partitioning. We illuminate the versatility of P-in-olivine with a comprehensive EPMA and LA-ICPMS dataset on olivines from Italian potassium rich mafic lavas and the primitive melt inclusions (MI) that they host. The olivines are characterized by P concentrations from limit of quantification (22 ppm) to 435 ppm P with MIs containing up to 2.2 wt.% P2O5. High resolution (1-2 μm per pixel) element maps show both fine oscillatory and large scale sector zoning in P, which is uncorrelated with zoning in any other element. The MIs are virtually always surrounded by P-depleted zones that are also depleted in Cr and enriched in Al and Ti, which we attribute to a combination of supply-limited slow growth and melt compositional controls on partitioning behavior imposed by the boundary layer. We demonstrate that P zoning carries valuable information on the nature and timing of magmatic events such as mingling/mixing, wall-rock assimilation and subsequent re-equilibration processes. P-in-olivine is most promising to distinguish multiple generations of MIs, as a guide to study their mode of entrapment and to disclose the origin of primary heterogeneities.

  4. Chemical zonation in olivine-hosted melt inclusions: A record of syn-eruptive cooling (United States)

    Newcombe, M. E.; Fabbrizio, A.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, C.; Le Voyer, M.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Saal, A. E.; Stolper, E. M.


    During the last few minutes to hours of a volcanic eruption, olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) cool and crystallize olivine on their walls, producing olivine-depleted boundary layers in the melt adjacent to their olivine hosts. Competition between diffusive relaxation of these boundary layers into the centers of the MIs and replenishment of the boundary layers by continued olivine crystallization produces concentration profiles that are preserved in glassy MIs. The concentration profile of a given element in a single MI depends on the diffusion coefficient of the element in the melt, its partition coefficient between melt and olivine, and the growth rate of the olivine. Concentration profiles thus differ from element to element in a single MI, and also from inclusion to inclusion depending on the size of the MI and its thermal history. An implication of this chemical zonation is that analyses of zoned MIs, even if made near the centers of the MIs, will be diffusively fractionated relative to a simple olivine extraction path (i.e., the diffusion of fast-diffusing elements such as Ca can extend to the center of a ~150 μm radius MI). We have developed a model that uses measured MgO concentration profiles across compositionally zoned, naturally glassy, olivine-hosted MIs to constrain the thermal histories of the MIs in the last few minutes to hours of an eruption. We have applied this model to MIs sampled from three different magmatic settings: (1) glassy rims of pillow basalts sampled from the Siqueiros transform fault; (2) a hornito on Santiago Island, (Galapagos); (3) a lava flow on a submarine flank of Fernandina Island (Galapagos). Cooling rates of five MIs from the Siqueiros transform fault range from ~0.08-3 K/s. Most MIs from this sample suite require two-stage, linear cooling histories from liquidus temperatures to ~1000°C with a slower-cooling first stage followed by a faster-cooling second stage, over a time period of a few minutes to just over one hour

  5. Detection of new olivine-rich locations on Vesta (United States)

    Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Zinzi, Angelo; Ammannito, Eleonora; Marchi, Simone; Tosi, Federico; Zambon, Francesca; Capria, Maria Teresa; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.; Cloutis, Edward A.


    The discovery of olivine on Vesta's surface by the VIR imaging spectrometer onboard the Dawn space mission has forced us to reconsider our views of Vestan petrogenetic models. Olivines were expected to be present in the interior of Vesta: in the mantle of a vertically layered body as invoked by the magma ocean models, or at the base (or within) the mantle-crust boundary as proposed by fractionation models. Olivines have been detected by VIR-Dawn in two wide areas near Arruntia and Bellicia, regions located in the northern hemisphere. Interestingly, these olivine-rich terrains are far from the Rheasilvia and the more ancient Veneneia basins, which are expected to have excavated the crust down to reach the mantle. In this work we present our attempts to identify other undetected olivine rich areas on Vesta by using spectral parameters sensitive to olivine such as the Band Area Ratio (BAR) and other specific parameters created for the detection of olivines on Mars (forsterite, fayalite and a generic olivine index). As a preliminary step we calibrated these parameters by means of VIS-IR spectra of different HED meteorite samples: behaviors versus sample grain size and albedo were analyzed and discussed. We selected the BAR and the Forsterite Index as the best parameters that can be used on Vesta. A cross-correlation analysis has been applied in order to detect olivine signature on the VIR hyperspectral cubes. These detections have then been confirmed by an anti-correlation analysis between the BAR and one of the olivine parameters, independent of the first method applied. In agreement with the recent discovery, Arruntia and Bellicia were found to be as the most olivine-rich areas, i.e. where the parameter values are strongest. In addition we detected 6 new regions, all but one located in the Vesta north hemisphere. This result confirms again that the old petrogenetic models cannot be straightforwardly applied to Vesta and should be reshaped in the view of these new

  6. Comparison of domestic olivine and European magnesite for electrically charged thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laster, W.R.; Gay, B.M.; Palmour, H.; Schoenhals, R.J.


    Electrically charged thermal energy storage (TES) heaters employing high heat capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these devices, low cost off-peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800/sup 0/C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored energy from the core by forced air circulation. The recent increase in use of off-peak TES units in the U.S. has led to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but underutilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials. Using the method of ASHRAE Standard 94.2, the thermal performance of two commercially available room-size TES units was determined experimentally with two different storage materials, North Carolina olivine and German magnesite. Comparisons are made and conclusions are drawn.

  7. Nondestructive Method for Bulk Chemical Characterization of Barred Olivine Chondrules (United States)

    Montoya-Perez, M. A.; Cervantes-de la Cruz, K. E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.


    This work develops a bulk chemical characterization of barred olivine chondrules based on the XRF analysis using a portable equipment at the National Research and Conservation Science Laboratory of Cultural Heritage (LANCIC-IF) in Mexico City.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laboratory measurements quantifying the effect of Fe substituting for Mg in olivine are necessary to distinguish compositional from temperature, grain size and grain...

  9. New shock-induced transformations of olivines in Martian meteorites (United States)

    Reynard, B.; van de Moortele, B.; Beck, P.; Gillet, P.; McMillan, P. F.


    Transient high pressures and temperatures generated during the impact of meteors or asteroids on planetary surfaces can induce phase transformations in low-pressure minerals that mimic those occurring at depth within the silicate mantle of terrestrial planets. For olivine, phase transitions to the high-pressure polymorphs wadsleyite and ringwoodite are observed in shocked chondrites. Melting transitions have also been reported in some samples. We have investigated the transformations of the olivine presenting an unusually black color in two newly-described Martian meteorites NWA2737 and NWA1950. The shock conditions were not sufficient to cause melting or transformation into the high-pressure polymorphs. The black color of the olivines is due to the presence of Fe-Ni metallic nanoparticles that result from loss of oxygen during the shock event. Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicate that the shocked "olivines" have a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure similar to that observed in the metastable transformations of olivine at high pressure and low temperature, and of wadsleyite at low pressure and moderate temperatures. We propose a metastable phase diagram of olivine including a new hcp phase that accounts for the observations in natural samples and the experimental results.

  10. Water, lithium and trace element compositions of olivine from Lanzo South replacive mantle dunites (Western Alps): New constraints into melt migration processes at cold thermal regimes (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Alessio; Tribuzio, Riccardo; Ottolini, Luisa; Hamada, Morihisa


    Replacive mantle dunites are considered to be shallow pathways for extraction of mantle melts from their source region. Dunites offer a unique possibility to unravel the compositional variability of the melts produced in the upper mantle, before mixing and crystal fractionation modify their original signature. This study includes a quantification of H2O, Li and trace elements (Ni, Mn, Co, Sc, V, Ti, Zr, Y and HREE) in olivine from large replacive dunite bodies (>20 m) within a mantle section exposed in the Western Italian Alps (Lanzo South ophiolite). On the basis of olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel compositions, these dunites were previously interpreted to be formed by melts with a MORB signature. Variations in Ni, Mn, Co and Ca contents in olivine from different dunite bodies suggested formation by different melt batches. The variable H2O and Li contents of these olivines agree with this idea. Compared to olivine from residual peridotites and olivine phenocrysts in MORB (both having H2O 1 ppm), the Lanzo South dunite olivine has high H2O (18-40 ppm) and low Li (0.35-0.83 ppm) contents. Geochemical modelling suggests that the dunite-forming melts were produced by low melting degrees of a mixed garnet-pyroxenite-peridotite mantle source, with a contribution of a garnet pyroxenite component variable from 20 to 80%. The Lanzo dunites experienced migration of melts geochemically enriched and mainly produced in the lowermost part of the melting region. Extraction of enriched melts through dunite channels are probably characteristic of cold thermal regimes, where low temperatures and a thick mantle lithosphere inhibit mixing with melts produced at shallower depths.

  11. Minor elements in lunar olivine as a petrologic indicator (United States)

    Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.


    Accurate electron microprobe analyses (approximately 50 ppm) were made for Al, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, and Ni in Mg-rich olivines which may derive from early lunar crust or deeper environments. Low-Ca contents consistently occur only in olivines from dunitic and troctolitic breccia: spinel troctolite and other rock types have high-Ca olivines suggesting derivation by near-surface processes. Rock 15445 has olivine with distinctly low CaO (approximately 0.01 wt.%). Chromium ranges to higher values (max.0.2 oxide wt.%) than for terrestrial harzburgites and lherzolites but is similar to the range in terrestrial komatiites. Divalent chromium may be indicated over trivalent Cr because olivines lack sufficient other elements for charge balance of the latter. NiO values in lunar specimens range from 0.00 to 0.07 wt.% and a weak anticorrelation with Cr2O3 suggests an oxidation state effect. Al2O3 values are mostly below 0.04-wt.% and show no obvious correlation with fragment type. TiO2 values lie below 0.13-wt.% and seem to correlate best with crystallization rate and plagioclase content of the host rock. High values of Al2O3 and TiO2 reported by other workers have not been confirmed, and are probably wrong.

  12. Arsenic Sorption on Mechanically Activated Magnetite and Olivine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Bujňáková


    Full Text Available Arsenic sorption on mechanically activated minerals such as magnetite Fe3O4 (Kiruna, Sweden and olivine (Mg,Fe2SiO4 (Ǻheim,Norway has been studied and compared in this work. Experiments were carried out with non-activated and mechanically activatedsamples. The activation of both minerals was performed in a planetary mill at different milling conditions. The specific surface areaand consequent sorption activity were enhanced by mechanical activation. The using of olivine seems to be better than magnetite fromthe point of view of milling time, which is necessary for achievement of the same sorption effect.

  13. Chemical zonation in olivine-hosted melt inclusions (United States)

    Newcombe, M. E.; Fabbrizio, A.; Zhang, Youxue; Ma, C.; Le Voyer, M.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Saal, A. E.; Stolper, E. M.


    Significant zonation in major, minor, trace, and volatile elements has been documented in naturally glassy olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Siqueiros Fracture Zone and the Galapagos Islands. Components with a higher concentration in the host olivine than in the melt (e.g., MgO, FeO, Cr2O3, and MnO) are depleted at the edges of the zoned melt inclusions relative to their centers, whereas except for CaO, H2O, and F, components with a lower concentration in the host olivine than in the melt (e.g., Al2O3, SiO2, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, S, and Cl) are enriched near the melt inclusion edges. This zonation is due to formation of an olivine-depleted boundary layer in the adjacent melt in response to cooling and crystallization of olivine on the walls of the melt inclusions, concurrent with diffusive propagation of the boundary layer toward the inclusion center. Concentration profiles of some components in the melt inclusions exhibit multicomponent diffusion effects such as uphill diffusion (CaO, FeO) or slowing of the diffusion of typically rapidly diffusing components (Na2O, K2O) by coupling to slow diffusing components such as SiO2 and Al2O3. Concentrations of H2O and F decrease toward the edges of some of the Siqueiros melt inclusions, suggesting either that these components have been lost from the inclusions into the host olivine late in their cooling histories and/or that these components are exhibiting multicomponent diffusion effects. A model has been developed of the time-dependent evolution of MgO concentration profiles in melt inclusions due to simultaneous depletion of MgO at the inclusion walls due to olivine growth and diffusion of MgO in the melt inclusions in response to this depletion. Observed concentration profiles were fit to this model to constrain their thermal histories. Cooling rates determined by a single-stage linear cooling model are 150-13,000 °C h-1 from the liquidus down to ~1,000 °C, consistent with previously determined cooling rates for

  14. Ringwoodite Rims Around Olivine Fragments in Melt Vein of Antarctic Chondrite GRV 022321: Transformation Kinetics (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Li, X.; Sharp, T. G.; DeCarli, P. S.


    Ringwoodite rims around olivine in shocked veins of chondrites GRV 022321 were investigated by electron microscopes to elucidate mechanisms of transformation and Mg-Fe diffusion of olivine to ringwoodite, and estimate shock duration using kinetics.

  15. Ringwoodite-Olivine Assemblages in Dhofar 922 L6 Melt Veins (United States)

    Badjukov, D. D.; Brandstätter, F.; Kurat, G.; Libowitzky, E.; Raitala, J.


    Melt veins in the L6 chondrite Dhofar 922 contain olivine - ringwoodite assemblages. Compositions of these co-existing olivine and ringwoodite correspond to the formation of the assemblages at 1200 C and 12.7 GPa.

  16. An Olivine-free mantle source of Hawaiian shield basalts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobolev, A.V.; Hofmann, A.W.; Sobolev, S.V.; Nikogosian, I.


    More than 50 per cent of the Earth's upper mantle consists of olivine and it is generally thought that mantle-derived melts are generated in equilibrium with this mineral. Here, however, we show that the unusually high nickel and silicon contents of most parental Hawaiian magmas are inconsistent

  17. Olivine Crystallization and Mantle Potential Temperatures Beneath Yellowstone (United States)

    Wonderly, A.; Putirka, K. D.; Atosa, A.; Hurwitz, S.


    New basalt samples from the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field provide evidence for some of the most primitive liquids yet recovered for the region, and yield clues regarding mantle processes. The sample distribution covers a large area and an extended period, and one sample in particular (basalt of Warm River) contains 11% MgO, with olivines that are in equilibrium with the host whole rock. Using olivine thermometry, we calculate both olivine crystallization and mantle potential temperatures (Tp, the temperature a parcel of mantle would have if it rose adiabatically to Earth's surface without melting) to test whether the alleged Yellowstone hot spot is truly hot. These tests make use of thermometers from (1) and (2), and we compare temperatures at Yellowstone with estimates from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project, HSDP-2 (2, 3) and the Siqueiros Transform, near the East Pacific Rise (4). Assessment of olivine-liquid equilibrium is based on the Fe-Mg exchange coefficient between olivine and liquid, which is assumed to be 0.30+/-0.03 (5). In total, the Yellowstone lavas have mean crystallization temperatures of 1251+/-41°C (n=79) with a maximum of 1327°C. The mean temperature is similar to crystallization temperatures of basalts from Siqueiros (1264+/-21°C), but lower than the mean temperature for HDSP samples (1343+/-50°C). Mantle potential temperatures appear to approach an olivine-control line, which if valid, yields a mantle potential temperature of 1610°C, slightly higher than most Snake River Plain (SRP) lavas (Tp =1540°C). Applying the same model to lavas from the Siqueiros Transform yields a Tp of 1400°C, and so excess temperatures (relative to MORB) along the SRP are in the range of 140-209°C, consistent with a mantle plume interpretation for the Yellowstone hot spot track. These calculations presume that primitive melts have equilibrated with mantle olivine of Fo90 in composition; given the FeO contents of SRP lavas, parental liquids should

  18. Lithium isotope fractionation by diffusion in minerals Part 2: Olivine (United States)

    Richter, Frank; Chaussidon, Marc; Bruce Watson, E.; Mendybaev, Ruslan; Homolova, Veronika


    Recent experiments have shown that lithium isotopes can be significantly fractionated by diffusion in silicate liquids and in augite. Here we report new laboratory experiments that document similarly large lithium isotopic fractionation by diffusion in olivine. Two types of experiments were used. A powder-source method where lithium from finely ground spodumene (LiAlSi2O6) diffused into oriented San Carlos olivine, and piston cylinder annealing experiments where Kunlun clinopyroxene (∼30 ppm lithium) and oriented San Carlos olivine (∼2 ppm lithium) were juxtaposed. The lithium concentration along traverses across the run products was measured using both laser ablation as a source for a Varian 820-MS quadrupole mass spectrometer and a CAMECA 1270 secondary ion mass spectrometer. The CAMECA 1270 was also used to measure the lithium isotopic fractionation across olivine grains recovered from the experiments. The lithium isotopes were found to be fractionationed by many tens of permil in the diffusion boundary layer at the grain edges as a result of 6Li diffusing significantly faster than 7Li. The lithium concentration and isotopic fractionation data across the olivine recovered from the different experiments were modeled using calculations in which lithium was assumed to be of two distinct types - one being fast diffusing interstitial lithium, the other much less mobile lithium on a metal site. The two-site diffusion model involves a large number of independent parameters and we found that different choices of the parameters can produce very comparable fits to the lithium concentration profiles and associated isotopic fractionation. Because of this nonuniqueness we are able to determine only a range for the relative diffusivity of 6Li compared to 7Li. When the mass dependence of lithium diffusion is parameterized as D6Li /D7Li =(7 / 6) β , the isotope fractionation for diffusion along the a and c crystallographic direction of olivine can be fit by β = 0.4 ± 0

  19. Corona textures in Proterozoic olivine melanorites of the equeefa suite, Natal metamorphic province, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grantham, GH


    Full Text Available Olivine-plagioclase and phlogopite-plagioclase coronas have been identified from olivine melanorites of the mid- to late Proterozoic Equeefa Suite in southern Natal, South Africa. Olivine, in contact with plagioclase, is mantled by a shell of clear...

  20. Olivine and Carbonate Globules in ALH84001: A Terrestrial Analog, and Implications for Water on Mars (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.


    Carbonate globules in ALH84001 are associated with small olivine grains an unexpected finding because the olivines equilibrated at high T while the carbonate is chemically zoned and unequilibrated. A possible explanation comes from a terrestrial analog on Spitsbergen (Norway), where some carbonate globules grew in cavities left by aqueous dissolution of olivine. For ALH84001, the same process may have acted, with larger olivines dissolved out and smaller ones shielded inside orthopyroxene. Carbonate would have been deposited in holes where the olivine had been. Later shocks crushed remaining void space, and mobilized feldspathic glass around the carbonates.

  1. Biosygnatures on olivines in search of past life on Mars (United States)

    Jakus, Natalia; Manecki, Maciej; Faehnrich, Karol; Młynarska, Maria; Słupski, Paweł


    Biosignatures indicate past and present activity of living organisms. Only inorganic biosignatures, e.g. results of interactions between the minerals and the microorganisms in Martian soils could resist harsh environmental conditions on Mars. However, it may be difficult to distinguish the traces of the organism activities from the effects of "natural" chemical and physical processes. In this study, an acidiophilic, chemoautotrophic, iron-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans were incubated with magnesium-iron silicate (olivine) crystals to identify the potential development of biogenic textures on the surface. The Mg-rich olivines were separated from the gabbro rock (Trodos, Cyprus). The isometric crystals were up to 2 mm in size. All the grains were cleaned in ultrasonic bath and fixed on the epoxy stubs. This enabled the observation of the very same surfaces before and after the experiments allowing inspection of natural etch pits and weathering patterns present before inoculation as well as the forms resulting from the experiments. The stubs with the olivines were sterilized with ethanol prior to the experiments. Bacteria were isolated from old pyrite mine in Klucze near Olkusz (Southern Poland). A liquid media K9 was used through the experiments (Silverman and Ludgren, 1959). The experiments were run in triplicates. Olivine grains were placed in the inoculated medium and incubated for 7 days at 28 C. An abiotic experiment was run as control. Additionally, the experiments in modified (iron deficient) medium were designed to stimulate potential active scavenging for Fe by bacteria-mediated dissolution. In the Fe-deficient medium, the negligible amount of iron was present only to initiate the bacteria growth: the only source of Fe was the olivine grain throughout the experiment. After 7 days of incubation the olivine grains were removed and air-dried. The alterations of the crystals by both, purely inorganic and biologically mediated dissolution were

  2. Olivine plus partially molten iron-sulfide: The best proxy for the genesis of fragmented-, rounded-, and mixed-type-olivine pallasites (United States)

    Solferino, Giulio; Gregor, Golabek


    The origin of pallasite meteorites, composed of olivine, FeNi, FeS +/- pyroxene, where olivine could be present as well-rounded grains or highly angular fragments, and occasionally both of them in close proximity (mixed-type pallasites) is still unclear. Most recent studies indicated mixing of Fe-Ni-S from an impactor's core with the silicate mantle of a planetesimal target body as the most likely mechanism for their formation. Yet, only end-member type experimental works (i.e., olivine+FeNi, olivine+Ni, olivine+molten FeS) were used to address the formation of equilibrium-like texture of rounded olivine-bearing pallasites and the origin of mixed-type samples remained unclear. This novel investigation employs annealing experiments with olivine plus partially molten Fe(Ni)-S of a composition similar to those of average pallasite to define the grain growth rate of olivine. The resulting phase assemblage at experimental conditions consists of olivine + solid Fe(Ni) + FeS melt, which corresponds is identical to that present during natural pallasites formation. The grain growth rate was computed after digital image analysis of BSE images. Additionally a 2D finite-difference numerical model was employed to identify the best conditions (e.g., time of impact, depth of intrusion of the Fe-Ni-S) for the genesis of rounded olivine pallasites and to define a realistic scenario for the formation of mixed-type pallasites for the first time. The results of annealing experiments indicate olivine grain growth rate in partially molten Fe-S as follows: d ^ n - d0 ^ n = k0 exp(-Ea/RT) t, where, d is the grain size at time t, d0 is the starting grain size, n = 3.70 (61) the growth exponent, k0 = 3.20 μm ^ n s ^ -1 a characteristic constant, Ea = 101 (78) kJ/mol the activation energy for a specific growth process, R the gas constant, and T the absolute temperature. This is a substantially slower growth than in the case of olivine surrounded by FeS melt (i.e., n = 2.42). Yet, it is

  3. Effect of water activity on rates of serpentinization of olivine (United States)

    Lamadrid, Hector M.; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Klein, Frieder; Ulrich, Sarah; Dolocan, Andrei; Bodnar, Robert J.


    The hydrothermal alteration of mantle rocks (referred to as serpentinization) occurs in submarine environments extending from mid-ocean ridges to subduction zones. Serpentinization affects the physical and chemical properties of oceanic lithosphere, represents one of the major mechanisms driving mass exchange between the mantle and the Earth's surface, and is central to current origin of life hypotheses as well as the search for microbial life on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. In spite of increasing interest in the serpentinization process by researchers in diverse fields, the rates of serpentinization and the controlling factors are poorly understood. Here we use a novel in situ experimental method involving olivine micro-reactors and show that the rate of serpentinization is strongly controlled by the salinity (water activity) of the reacting fluid and demonstrate that the rate of serpentinization of olivine slows down as salinity increases and H2O activity decreases.

  4. The solubility of olivine in basaltic liquids - An ionic model (United States)

    Herzberg, C. T.


    A model is presented which enables the temperature at which olivine is in equilibrium with any alkali-depleted basaltic compound to be calculated to within + or - 30 C. It is noted that the error increases substantially when applied to terrestrial basalts which contain several weight percent alkalis. In addition the model predicts and quantifies the reduced activity of SiO4(4-) monomers due to increasing SiO2 concentrations in the melt. It is shown that the coordination of alumina in melts which precipitate olivine only appears to be dominantly octahedral, while titanium acts as a polmerizing agent by interconnecting previously isolated SiO4(4-) monomers. It is concluded that the model is sufficiently sensitive to show that there are small repulsive forces between Mg(2+) and calcium ions which are in association with normative diopside in the melt.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra


    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL:, organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  6. Constraints from olivine-hosted melt inclusions in primitive magmas


    Jennings, Eleanor S.; Gibson, Sally A.; Maclennan, John; Heinonen, Jussi S.


    We present major and trace element compositions of 154 re-homogenised olivine-hosted melt inclusions found in primitive rocks (picrites and ferropicrites) from the Mesozoic Paraná–Etendeka and Karoo Continental Flood Basalt (CFB) provinces. The major element compositions of the melt inclusions, especially their Fe/Mg ratios, are variable and erratic, and attributed to the re-homogenisation process during sample preparation. In contrast, the trace element compositions of both the picrite and f...

  7. Olivine and pyroxene-rich deposits in Holden Crater, Mars (United States)

    Glotch, T. D.


    Holden crater is a ~150 km diameter crater centered at 326 E, 26S breached in the south by Uzboi Vallis. Holden has been proposed as a possible landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover and has been the subject of intense scrutiny due to its potential as a paleolake basin. Near the region where Uzboi Vallis breaches the southern Holden Crater wall are layered rocks that have been suggested to be aqeously deposited. Additionally, fan-shaped deposits originate in the southern and western crater walls that have been interpreted as alluvial fans and fan deltas. New analyses of THEMIS and TES data indicate that both the basement and layered rocks - those interpreted to have been deposited in an aqueous environment - near the breach point of Holden crater are olivine and pyoxene- rich. Based on THEMIS IR imagery, these units have a higher thermal inertia than the surrounding terrain. The higher-TI units correspond with lighter-toned layered units seen in THEMIS Vis and MOC imagery that also have a distinct mafic signature in THEMIS daytime IR false-color decorrelation stretch images. The fan deposit in western Holden Crater, which has been proposed as a specific landing site for MSL may also have an elevated olivine abundance based on TES data. High olivine and pyroxene abundances in the sedimentary units of Holden crater do not preclude the presence of water in the history of the crater. However, based on analysis of TES and THEMIS data over the region, there is no evidence for extended chemical weathering present at the surface. Olivine-rich bedrock is likely to be a regional property as it is also present in chaos terrain to the northeast of Holden which is the source of the Landon Vallis outflow channel. These regions should be considered high priority targets for future investigations by OMEGA and CRISM.

  8. Value enhancement of olivine process dust through air classification (United States)

    Kleiv, R. A.


    As a result of the production of dry olivine sand products at A/S Olivin's production plant at Åheim in western Norway, an annual quantity of some 20000-30000 t of process dust is produced. The bulk of this material is currently being sold as a slag conditioner at a relatively low price; hence, alternative uses of the process dust are now being sought. Information regarding the chemical composition of the material as a function of particle size facilitates product modifications through exclusion or mixing of individual size fractions. This paper demonstrates how such information can be obtained from air classification experiments when these are combined with chemical analysis of the produced size fractions. The classification and subsequent analysis of the olivine process dust revealed that the finer size fractions had high loss on ignition (LOI) values and were relatively low in MgO when compared with the bulk analysis. Removal of the finer fractions resulted in a remaining coarse product of significantly higher quality. The coarse material could be used as a raw material for further processing; it could be recycled or it could constitute a new product in itself.

  9. Ringwoodite growth rates from olivine with ~75 ppmw H2O: Metastable olivine must be nearly anhydrous to exist in the mantle transition zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Frane, Wyatt L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration; Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Atmospheric, Earth and Energy Division; Sharp, Thomas G. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration; Mosenfelder, Jed L. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences; Leinenweber, Kurt [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration


    It has been previously demonstrated that as little as 300 ppmw H2O increases wadsleyite and ringwoodite growth rates to magnitudes that are inconsistent with the metastable olivine hypothesis. To further test this hypothesis, we present new ringwoodite growth rate measurements from olivine with ~75 ppmw H2O at 18 GPa and 700, 900, and 1100 °C. These growth rates are nearly identical to those from olivine with ~300 ppmw H2O, and significantly higher than those from nominally anhydrous olivine. We infer that transformation of olivine with 75-300 ppmw H2O is primarily enhanced by hydrolytic weakening of reaction rims, which reduces the elastic strain-energy barrier to growth. We present a new method for fitting nonlinear nominally anhydrous data, to demonstrate that reduction of growth rates by elastic strain energy is an additional requirement for metastable olivine. In conclusion, based on previous thermokinetic modeling, these enhanced growth rates are inconsistent with the persistence of metastable olivine wedges into the mantle transition zone. Metastable persistence of olivine into the mantle transition-zone would therefore require < 75 ppmw H2O.

  10. Solubility of Helium in Olivine at 1 Atmosphere (United States)

    Parman, S. W.; Kurz, M. D.; Hart, S. R.; Grove, T. L.


    We have measured the solubility of He in olivine at 1 atm. Previous measurements of noble gas solubility in mantle minerals have found mineral/melt partition coefficients (D) that are higher [1;2] or close to [3] the D values of U and Th in the mantle. In contrast, geochemical systematics suggest that DHe is lower than DU and DTh. Our experiments were specifically designed to avoid gas trapped in melt pockets or between sintered grains, which may have affected previous studies [1;2]. The starting materials are gem quality San Carlos olivine and synthetic pure forsterite. These materials were examined before and after the experiments for inclusions and bubbles using optical, scanning electron and scanning transmission electron microscopic techniques. No bubbles were found. The primary experiments were performed on cm size grains to avoid trapping of gas in sintered powders. The experiments were run for 17-21 days at 1350° C, in crucibles made from large San Carlos olivine crystals, in an atmosphere of 50% He and 50% a mix of CO2 and H2 (to control fO2 at NNO and QFM). At no time was the olivine in contact with a melt phase. To examine the effects of powder sintering, experiments that span a range of smaller grain sizes (100-1000 microns) were also performed. He concentrations in the olivines were measured by noble gas mass spectrometry using sequential in vacuo crushing followed by melting of the powders. The experimental results are consistent: 8.3(+/-2.6) e-7 cc STP He/g are released by crushing and 6.2(+/-1.3) e-7 cc He STP/g are released by melting. Over 50% of the total gas is released by crushing. Powdered samples release unusually high amounts of gas on the first crush step (interpreted to be trapped between grains), but subsequently follow the same release pattern as the unpowdered samples and yield the same solubility values (excluding the first step). The consistency of the results over a range of compositions, grain sizes and fO2 conditions, and our

  11. Production of 21Ne in depth-profiled olivine from a 54 Ma basalt sequence, Eastern Highlands (37° S), Australia (United States)

    Matchan, Erin L.; Honda, Masahiko; Barrows, Timothy T.; Phillips, David; Chivas, Allan R.; Fifield, L. Keith; Fabel, Derek


    In this study we investigate the cosmogenic neon component in olivine samples from a vertical profile in order to quantify muogenic 21Ne production in this mineral. Samples were collected from an 11 m thick Eocene basalt profile in the Eastern Highlands of southeastern Australia. An eruption age of 54.15 ± 0.36 Ma (2σ) was determined from 40Ar/39Ar step-heating experiments (n = 6) on three whole-rock samples. A 36Cl profile on the section indicated an apparent steady state erosion rate of 4.7 ± 0.5 m Ma-1. The eruption age was used to calculate in situ produced radiogenic 4He and nucleogenic 3He and 21Ne concentrations in olivine. Olivine mineral separates (n = 4), extracted from the upper two metres of the studied profile, reveal cosmogenic 21Ne concentrations that attenuate exponentially with depth. However, olivine (Fo68) extracted from below 2 m does not contain discernible 21Ne aside from magmatic and nucleogenic components, with the exception of one sample that apparently contained equal proportions of nucleogenic and muogenic neon. Modelling results suggest a muogenic neon sea-level high-latitude production rate of 0.02 ± 0.04 to 0.9 ± 1.3 atoms g-1 a-1 (1σ), or Earth's surface. These data support a key implicit assumption in the literature that accumulation of muogenic 21Ne in olivine in surface samples is likely to be negligible/minimal compared to spallogenic 21Ne.

  12. Experimental constraints on the origin of olivine-rich troctolites by melt-rock reactions (United States)

    Francomme, Justine; Fumagalli, Patrizia; Borghini, Giulio


    Studies on oceanic lithosphere suggest that melt-rock reactions play a key role in the origin of olivine-rich troctolites. To provide experimental constraints on these processes, we performed reactive dissolution and crystallization high pressure experiments in a piston-cylinder apparatus. Experimental charges consist of three layers: (1) basalt glass powder, (2) fine powder of San Carlos olivine (Fo90) mixed with 9% of basalt, and (3) carbon spheres used as a melt trap. We used three synthetic MORB-type glasses with composition spanning from primitive to evolved tholeiite, (Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.74, 0.62 and 0.58. Experiments have been conducted at 0.5 GPa and 0.7 GPa, following an isobaric step-cooled temperature path (from 1300˚ C to 1150˚ C), to induce reactive dissolution of olivine and in-situ crystallization of interstial phases from the reacted melt. Therefore, melt compositions and pressure effects can be investigated by evaluating the development of textures, and variations in resulting phases abundance and mineral chemistry. Experiments are layered with a lithological sequence ranging from basal olivine-gabbro to troctolite, olivine-rich troctolite and dunite. Troctolites are the result of crystallization of reacted melts and show poikilitic textures, with plagioclase and clinopyroxene including both small rounded and euhedral olivines. Evidence of disequilibrium relations are testified by occurrence of resorbed embayed olivines consistent with dissolution processes. In the troctolites and dunite layers greater abundance of interstitial phases are observed at lower pressure suggesting greater extent of melt-olivine reaction favoured by higher dissolution of olivine. On the other hand, higher pressure expands the stability of clinopyroxene at higher temperatures, therefore inhibiting melt-rock interactions by early crystallization of interstitial reacted melts. Melt composition affects the abundance of interstitial phases with most primitive MORB leading to

  13. Fracture-related intracrystalline transformation of olivine to ringwoodite in the shocked Sixiangkou meteorite (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Li, Hui; El Goresy, Ahmed; Liu, Jing; Xie, Xiande


    Magnesium-iron olivine in the Sixiangkou L6 chondrite contains abundant fractures induced by plastic deformation during shock metamorphism. This study reports the discovery of lamellar ringwoodite that incoherently nucleated and grew along planar and irregular fractures in olivine. Magnesium-iron interdiffusion took place between olivine matrix and crystallizing ringwoodite at high pressures and high temperatures, which resulted in higher FeO content in ringwoodite lamellae than in olivine. This suggests that a quasi-hydrostatic high pressure lasting for several minutes should have been produced in the shock veins of the meteorite. The intracrystalline transformation of olivine to ringwoodite also has implications for phase transitions in subducting lithospheric slabs because planar and irregular fractures are commonly produced in olivine that suffered plastic deformation.

  14. Normalized Homologous Temperature of Olivine: Implications for the Effect of Iron Content on Mantle Deforamtio (United States)

    Wang, Q.


    The flow laws and fabric transition of olivine under different thermal-mechanical conditions are generally obtained from HP-HT experiments on San Carlos olivine (Fo90), which hampers our understanding of the effect of iron content on the mantle flow and deforamtion. Because the melting temperature is related with the strength of the bonds binding a crystalline material together, the normalized homologous temperature T/Tm(P), is defined by the ratio between the absolute temperature of olivine and its melting point Tm at certain pressure P. Using the forsterite-fayalite melting loop at room pressure, the generalized mean is adopted to predict the dependence of Tm on pressure and iron content of olivine up to 7.5 GPa. Using T/Tm(P), we can evaluate the integreted effect of temperature and pressure on the deformation mechanisms of olivine. A new olivine fabric diagram is set up as a function T/Tm(P) and water content. The result indicates that the A-type olivine fabric becomes dominant at T/Tm(P) > 0.72, while the B- and C-type olivine fabrics are favorable at T/Tm(P) < 0.7, no matter their water content. Partial melting will produce resudies with higher Fo number in olivine, and consequently, a more rigid mantle with higher Tm. The relatively smaller T/Tm(P) of olivine beneath cratons can explain the long-term stability of the continental roots. In addition, a 2D profile of olivine T/Tm(P) for the oceanic lithosphere shows good correlation between T/Tm(P) and the distribution of earthquakes. Therefore T/Tm(P) of olivine can be used as a parameter to model the rheology of the upper manlte, especailly when taking into account of the compostional change in different tectonic processes.

  15. Modification of olivine CPO during high temperature annealing (United States)

    Boneh, Y.; Hansen, L. N.; Wallis, D.; Skemer, P. A.


    Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) is generated during deformation by dislocation creep or dislocation accommodated grain-boundary sliding. Once deformation ceases, recovery may lead to modifications of CPO and consequent seismic anisotropy. It has been shown previously in metals that the anisotropy of a material's texture and grain-boundary energy inhibits the growth of grains with high Schmid factor and promote abnormal grain growth of grains with low Schmid factor. When materials experience preferential growth of certain crystal orientations during annealing, the overall CPO will be modified. Here we investigate the manner in which high-temperature static annealing affects texture in a highly deformed olivine aggregate. The sample studied here is a synthetic Fo50 olivine aggregate that was previously deformed in torsion to shear strains up to 10. The sample, which has a mean grain-size of 10 microns and a narrow, unimodal grain-size distribution, exhibits a strong A-type CPO. Sub-samples of the deformed specimen were statically annealed using a piston cylinder apparatus at T = 1250º C, P = 1 GPa for up to one week. After annealing, the samples were cut into thin sections and the crystal orientations were measured by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). The samples show clear evidence for abnormal grain growth (with maximum grain sizes of 1 mm). The abnormal large grains grow at the expense of the smaller matrix grains, and grain-size distributions become distinctly bimodal. The small grains not consumed by abnormal grain growth have similar CPO strength, symmetry, and orientation compared with the starting material's CPO. The crystallographic orientation of abnormal grains is typically 10-30 degrees away from the original CPO. This observation is consistent with predictions that abnormal grain growth favors grains with low initial Schmid factors. We conclude that reorientation and weakening of olivine CPO is expected during periods of tectonic

  16. Environmental monitoring at the Seqi olivine mine 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Asmund, Gert

    The olivine mine at Seqi in West Greenland operated between 2005 and 2010. Since 2004, environmental monitoring studies have been conducted at Seqi every year in order to assess premining conditions and subsequently the impact from mining during operation. This report contains the results from......) in 2010. Consequently, the environmental impact of the mine at Seqi has decreased and is considered insignificant for the Niaquungunaq fjord system....... monitoring studies conducted in 2010. Results from previous years have shown that operation of the mine caused levels of some elements, particularly chromium and nickel, to increase in lichens, blue mussels and seaweed within the surrounding area compared to pre-mining conditions. The main source...

  17. Annealing behaviour of ion tracks in olivine, apatite and britholite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afra, B. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Lang, M. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Bierschenk, T.; Rodriguez, M.D. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Weber, W.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ewing, R.C. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Kirby, N. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Kluth, P., E-mail: [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)


    Ion tracks were created in olivine from San Carlos, Arizona (95% Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), apatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO4){sub 3}(F,Cl,O)) from Durango, Mexico, and synthetic silicates with the apatite structure: Nd{sub 8}Sr{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} and Nd{sub 8}Ca{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} using 1.6 and 2.2 GeV Au ions. The morphology and annealing behaviour of the tracks were investigated by means of synchrotron based small angle X-ray scattering in combination with ex situ annealing. Tracks in olivine annealed above ∼400 °C undergo a significant change in track radius due to recrystallisation of the damage tracks. At temperatures higher than 620 °C, the scattering images indicate fragmentation of the track cylinders into smaller subsections. Ion tracks were annealed at elevated temperatures up to 400 °C in the Durango and Ca-britholite, and up to 560 °C in Sr-britholite. While there was a significant change in the track radii in the Durango apatite, tracks in the two synthetic samples remained almost unchanged.

  18. Carbon Sequestration in Olivine and Basalt Powder Packed Beds. (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Wells, Rachel K; Giammar, Daniel E


    Fractures and pores in basalt could provide substantial pore volume and surface area of reactive minerals for carbonate mineral formation in geologic carbon sequestration. In many fractures solute transport will be limited to diffusion, and opposing chemical gradients that form as a result of concentration differences can lead to spatial distribution of silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation. Glass tubes packed with grains of olivine or basalt with different grain sizes and compositions were used to explore the identity and spatial distribution of carbonate minerals that form in dead-end one-dimensional diffusion-limited zones that are connected to a larger reservoir of water in equilibrium with 100 bar CO 2 at 100 °C. Magnesite formed in experiments with olivine, and Mg- and Ca-bearing siderite formed in experiments with flood basalt. The spatial distribution of carbonates varied between powder packed beds with different powder sizes. Packed beds of basalt powder with large specific surface areas sequestered more carbon per unit basalt mass than powder with low surface area. The spatial location and extent of carbonate mineral formation can influence the overall ability of fractured basalt to sequester carbon.

  19. Diffusion Modeling of Cooling Rates of Relict Olivine in Semarkona Chondrules (United States)

    Hewins, R. H.; Ganguly, J.; Mariani, E.


    Diffusive exchange profiles between relict olivine and melt-grown olivine in Semarkona Type IIA chondrules were oriented by EBSD to correct D. Results for Fe-Mg (D from Dohmen) and Cr (Ito and Ganguly) are concordant at 300°-400°C/hr.

  20. Experimentally determined subsolidus metal-olivine element partitioning with applications to pallasites (United States)

    Donohue, Patrick H.; Hill, Eddy; Huss, Gary R.


    Pallasite meteorites, which consist primarily of olivine and metal, may be remnants of disrupted core-mantle boundaries of differentiated asteroids or planetesimals. The early thermal histories of pallasites are potentially recorded by minor- and trace-element zonation in olivine. However, constraining this history requires knowledge of element behavior under the conditions of pallasite formation, which is lacking for many of the main elements of interest (e.g., Co, Cr, Mn). In this study, we experimentally determined metal/olivine partition coefficients for Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, and Mn in a pallasite analogue at subsolidus temperatures. Metal/olivine partition coefficients (KM) increase in the order KMn < KCr < 1 < KFe < KCo < KNi, with five orders of magnitude separating KMn from KNi. Transition metals also become more siderophile with increasing experimental temperature (900-1550 °C). The experiments incidentally produced diffusion profiles in olivine for these elements; our results suggest they diffuse through olivine at similar rates. Core compositions of pallasite olivines are consistent with high-temperature equilibration with FeNi-metal. Olivine zonation toward crystal rims varies significantly for the investigated transition metals. We suggest rim zonation results from partial re-equilibration during late stage crystallization of minor phases (e.g., chromite, phosphates). This re-equilibration occurred over short timescales relative to overall pallasite cooling, likely tied to initial cooling rates on the order of 100-300 °C/Myr.

  1. Synthesis of nanometer-sized fayalite and magnesium-iron(II) mixture olivines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kovarik, Libor; Zhang, Xin; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, Bernard Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.; Loring, John S.


    Olivines are divalent orthosilicates with important geologic, biological, and industrial significance and are typically comprised of mixtures of Mg2+ and Fe2+ ranging from forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to fayalite (Fe2SiO4). Investigating the role of Fe(II) in olivine reactivity requires the ability to synthesize olivines that are nanometer-sized, have different percentages of Mg2+ and Fe2+, and have good bulk and surface purity. This article demonstrates a new method for synthesizing nanosized fayalite and Mg-Fe mixture olivines. First, carbonaceous precursors are generated from sucrose, PVA, colloidal silica, Mg2+, and Fe3+. Second, these precursors are calcined in air to burn carbon and create mixtures of Fe(III)-oxides, forsterite, and SiO2. Finally, calcination in reducing CO-CO2 gas buffer leads to Fe(II)-rich olivines. XRD, Mössbauer, and IR analyses verify good bulk purity and composition. XPS indicates that surface iron is in its reduced Fe(II) form, and surface Si is consistent with olivine. SEM shows particle sizes predominately between 50 and 450 nm, and BET surface areas are 2.8-4.2 m2/g. STEM HAADF analysis demonstrates even distributions of Mg and Fe among the available M1 and M2 sites of the olivine crystals. These nanosized Fe(II)-rich olivines are suitable for laboratory studies with in situ probes that require mineral samples with high reactivity at short timescales.

  2. Olivine Major and Trace Element Compositions in Southern Payenia Basalts, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj


    Olivine major and trace element compositions from 12 basalts from the southern Payenia volcanic province in Argentina have been analyzed by electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The olivines have high Fe/Mn and low Ca/Fe and many fall at the end...

  3. Ringwoodite Lamellae in Olivine from the L6 S6 Chondrite Tenham: Constraints on the Transformation Mechanism (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.


    Here, we document the occurrence of ringwoodite lamellae in partially transformed olivine in Tenham, and discuss the likely transformation mechanism as incoherent transformation along distinct crystallographic planes in olivine, rather than coherent intracrystalline transformation.

  4. Rheological weakening due to phase mixing in olivine + orthopyroxene aggregates (United States)

    Kohlstedt, D. L.; Tasaka, M.; Zimmerman, M. E.


    To understand the processes involved in rheological weakening due to phase mixing, we conducted torsion experiments on samples composed of iron-rich olivine + orthopyroxene. Samples with volume fractions of pyroxene of fpx= 0.1, 0.3, and 0.4 were deformed in torsion at a temperature of 1200°C and a confining pressure of 300 MPa using a gas-medium apparatus. The value of the stress exponent, n, decreases with increasing strain, γ, with the rate of decrease depending on fpx. In samples with larger amounts of pyroxene, fpx = 0.3 and 0.4, n decreases from n = 3.5 at lower strains of 1 ≤ γ ≤ 3 to n = 1.7 at higher strains of 24 ≤ γ ≤ 25. In contrast, the sample with fpx = 0.1, n = 3.5 at lower strain decreases only to n = 3.0 at higher strains. In samples with larger fpx, the value of p changes from p = 1 at lower strains to p = 3 at higher strains. Furthermore, Hansen et al. (2012) observed that n = 4.l and p = 0.7 in samples without pyroxene (fpx = 0) regardless of strain. For samples with larger fpx, these values of n and p indicate that the deformation mechanism changes with strain, whereas for samples with smaller fpxno change in mechanism occurs. The microstructures in our samples with larger amounts of pyroxene provide insight into the change in deformation mechanism identified from the experimental results. First, elongated olivine and pyroxene grains align sub-parallel to the shear direction with a strong crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) in samples deformed to lower strains for which n = 3.5. Second, mixtures of small, rounded grains of both phases, with a nearly random CPO develop in samples deformed to higher strains that exhibit a smaller stress exponent and strain weakening. The microstructural development forming well-mixed fine-grained olivine-pyroxene aggregates can be explained by the diffusivity difference between Si, Me (= Fe or Mg), and O, such that transport of MeO is significantly faster than that of SiO2. These mechanical

  5. PartialLy Shock-Transformed Olivine in Shocked Chondrites: Mechanisms of Solid-State Transformation (United States)

    Sharp, T. G.; Xie, Z.


    High-pressure minerals, produced by shock meta-morphism, are common in and around melt veins in highly shocked chondrites. These minerals either crys-tallized from silicate melt in the shock-vein or formed by solid- state transformation of host-rock fragments entrained in the melt or along shock-vein margins. Olivine- ringwoodite transformation kinetics can be used to constrain shock duration if one knows P-T conditions and transformation mechanisms. Here we examine the solid-state transformation of olivine to ringwoodite and the formation of ringwoodite lamellae in Tenham. Partially transformed olivines show a variety of ringwoodite textures. Some have granular textures whereas others have straight or curved ringwoodite lamellae, made up of distinct (1 to 2 ?m) crystals. Many of these polycrystalline ringwoodite lamellae occur in pairs. Where these paired lamellae cross the are offset, suggesting that the lamellae are associated with shearing. Electron diffraction reveals that the ringwoodites in the polycrystalline lamellae, occur in roughly the same crystallographic orientation, defining a lattice-preferred orientation. TEM also shows that the remnant olivine is highly deformed, with high densities of complex dislocations. This olivine has a poorly organized sub-grain structure that grades into polycrystalline olivine. The nearby untransformed olivine is also highly de-formed, but less than the partially transformed olivine. TEM images of complex dislocation and sub-grain microstructures suggests that the transformation of olivine to ringwoodite involves extensive deformation. High densities of dislocations provide potential sites for heterogeneous nucleation of ringwoodite and may enhance Fe-Mg inter-diffusion. The differential stress at the initial stage of the shock results in high strains and local heating. The paired ringwoodite lamellae in olivine appear to result from shearing and possibly shear heating, where nucleation occurs on both sides of a shear

  6. Domestic olivine versus magnesite as a thermal energy storage material: Performance comparisons for electrically heated room-size units in accordance with ASHRAE standard 94.2 (United States)

    Laster, W. R.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Gay, B. M.; Palmour, H., III


    Electrically heated thermal energy storage (TES) heaters employing high heat capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these heaters, low cost off peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800 C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored heat from the core by forced air circulation. Recently significant interest in the use of off peak TES units in the US has occurred, leading to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but under utilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper, the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials.

  7. Dissolution-Assisted Pattern Formation During Olivine Carbonation (United States)

    Lisabeth, Harrison; Zhu, Wenlu; Xing, Tiange; De Andrade, Vincent


    Olivine and pyroxene-bearing rocks in the oceanic crust react with hydrothermal fluids producing changes in the physical characteristics and behaviors of the altered rocks. Notably, these reactions tend to increase solid volume, reducing pore volume, permeability, and available reactive surface area, yet entirely hydrated and/or carbonated rocks are commonly observed in the field. We investigate the evolution of porosity and permeability of fractured dunites reacted with CO2-rich solutions in laboratory experiments. The alteration of crack surfaces changes the mechanical and transport properties of the bulk samples. Analysis of three-dimensional microstructural data shows that although precipitation of secondary minerals causes the total porosity of the sample to decrease, an interconnected network of porosity is maintained through channelized dissolution and coupled carbonate precipitation. The observed microstructure appears to be the result of chemo-mechanical coupling, which may provide a mechanism of porosity maintenance without the need to invoke reaction-driven cracking.

  8. Additional Sr Isotopic Heterogeneity in Zagami Olivine-Rich Lithology (United States)

    Misawa, K.; Niihara, T.; Shih, C.-Y; Reese, Y. D.; Nyquist, L. E.; Yoneda, S.; Yamashita, H.


    Prior isotopic analyses of Zagami have established differing initial Sr-87/Sr-86 (ISr) ratios of among Zagami lithologies, fine-grained (FG), coarse-grained (CG), and dark mottled lithologies (DML)]. The Zagami sample (KPM-NLH000057) newly allocated from the Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History contained DML and the Ol-rich lithology which included more ferroan olivines (Ol-rich: Fa(sub 97- 99) vs late-stage melt pockets: Fa(sub 90-97)]). We have combined mineralogy-petrology and Rb-Sr isotopic studies on the Kanagawa Zagami sample, which will provide additional clues to the genesis of enriched shergottites and to the evolution of Martian crust and mantle

  9. Olivine-gabbros and olivine-rich troctolites genesis through melt-rock reactions in oceanic spreading lithosphere: an experimental study up to 0.7 GPa (United States)

    Francomme, Justine E.; Fumagalli, Patrizia; Borghini, Giulio


    Extensive melt-rock reaction and melt impregnation significantly affect not only the physical and chemical properties at mantle-crust transition, but also control the evolution of migrating melts. We performed reactive dissolution and crystallization experiments at pressure ≤ 0.7 GPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus to provide experimental constraints on genesis of olivine-rich troctolites and olivine-gabbros at mantle-crust transition in oceanic spreading lithosphere by melt-rock reaction. Our experiments are carried out by using Salt-Pyrex-Graphite-Magnesium assemblies and graphite-lined platinum capsules. Experimental charges are prepared with three layers: (1) basalt powder, (2) fine powder (1-10μm) of San Carlos olivine (Fo90.1), and (3) carbon spheres used as a melt trap. Three synthetic MORB-type melts have been used, two tholeiitic basalts (Mg#: 0.62, SiO2: 47.70 wt%, Na2O: 2.28 wt% and Mg#: 0.58, SiO2: 49.25 wt%, Na2O: 2.49 wt%) and a primitive one (Mg#: 0.74, SiO2: 48.25 wt%, Na2O: 1.80 wt%), in order to investigate the effect of melt composition. A rock/melt ratio of 0.7 has been kept fixed. Experiments have been conducted at temperatures from 1200 to 1300°C, at both step cooling and isothermal conditions for different run durations (from 12 to 72 hrs). They resulted in layered samples in which all the initial San Carlos olivine powder, analog of a dunitic pluton infiltrated by basaltic melt, is replaced by different lithologies from olivine-rich troctolite to olivine gabbro. In isothermal experiments, reacted melts have been successfully trapped in the carbon spheres allowing their chemical analysis; as expected the reacted melt has a higher Mg# than the initial one (e.g. from Mg#=0.62 to 0.73). Across the different lithologies Mg# of olivine is decreasing from the olivine-rich troctolite to the gabbro. Replacive olivine-rich troctolite has a poikilitic texture with rounded euhedral olivine and interstitial poikilitic plagioclase and clinopyroxene

  10. Calibrations of phase abundance, composition, and particle size distribution for olivine-orthopyroxene mixtures from reflectance spectra (United States)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Jackowski, Timothy L.; Reed, Kevin L.


    An analytical method for quantifying the characteristics (phase abundances, phase composition, and grain size) of an olivine-orthopyroxene mixture from reflectance spectra is described. The spectral parameters related to reflectance, wavelength position, and albedo are investigated; the absorption bands for the olivine-orthopyroxene mixture is also studied. Primary calibrations useful for the determination of the olivine-orthopyroxene mixture characteristics are examined.

  11. A microstructural investigation of natural lamellar ringwoodite in olivine of the shocked Sixiangkou chondrite (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Chen, Jing; Xie, Xiande; Xu, Jun


    Olivine adjacent to the shock-produced veins of Sixiangkou meteorite contains several sets of ringwoodite lamellae nucleated and grown along planar fractures in olivine. These lamellae consist of two generations of crystallite aggregates of ringwoodite, and show features of incoherent nucleation and growth of ringwoodite along fractures of olivine. The lamellae are of zonal Fe-Mg distribution characterized as Fe-rich rim and Mg-rich interior. It indicates that the intracrystalline transformation of olivine to ringwoodite proceeds through Fe-Mg interdiffusion during growth of ringwoodite. The formation of the lamellae favors a fracture-involved phase transformation mechanism. Firstly, a thin layer of crushed or distorted olivine along a gliding plane of a fracture was produced and then transformed into the first generation of crystallite layer of ringwoodite; subsequently, the second generation of relatively coarse-grained ringwoodite grew on both interfaces of the firstly formed thin layer of ringwoodite. This study brings forward a new observation of intracrystalline olivine-ringwoodite transformation, in addition to other mechanisms. Since mechanical deformations resulting in planar fractures are common in olivine of terrestrial mantle rocks, this proposed mechanism could play an important role in the subducting lithospheric slabs.

  12. Experimental evidence for melt partitioning between olivine and orthopyroxene in partially molten harzburgite (United States)

    Miller, Kevin J.; Zhu, Wen-lu; Montési, Laurent G. J.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Le Roux, Véronique; Xiao, Xianghui


    Observations of dunite channels in ophiolites and uranium series disequilibria in mid-ocean ridge basalt suggest that melt transport in the upper mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is strongly channelized. We present experimental evidence that spatial variations in mineralogy can also focus melt on the grain scale. This lithologic melt partitioning, which results from differences in the interfacial energies associated with olivine-melt and orthopyroxene-melt boundaries, may complement other melt focusing mechanisms in the upper mantle such as mechanical shear and pyroxene dissolution. We document here lithologic melt partitioning in olivine-/orthopyroxene-basaltic melt samples containing nominal olivine to orthopyroxene ratio of 3 to 2 and melt fractions of 0.02 to 0.20. Experimental samples were imaged using synchrotron-based X-ray microcomputed tomography at a resolution of 700 nm per voxel. By analyzing the local melt fraction distributions associated with olivine and orthopyroxene grains in each sample, we found that the melt partitioning coefficient, i.e., the ratio of melt fraction around olivine to that around orthopyroxene grains, varies between 1.1 and 1.6. The permeability and electrical conductivity of our digital samples were estimated using numerical models and compared to those of samples containing only olivine and basaltic melt. Our results suggest that lithologic melt partitioning and preferential localization of melt around olivine grains might play a role in melt focusing, potentially enhancing average melt ascent velocities.

  13. Transfer of olivine crystallographic orientation through a cycle of serpentinisation and dehydration (United States)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Austrheim, Håkon; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jamtveit, Bjørn


    Our ability to decipher the mechanisms behind metamorphic transformation processes depends in a major way on the extent to which crystallographic and microstructural information is transferred from one stage to another. Within the Leka Ophiolite Complex in the Central Norwegian Caledonides, prograde olivine veins that formed by dehydration of serpentinite veins in dunites exhibit a characteristic distribution of microstructures: The outer part of the veins comprises coarse-grained olivine that forms an unusual, brick-like microstructure. The inner part of the veins, surrounding a central fault, is composed of fine-grained olivine. Where the fault movement included a dilational component, optically clear, equant olivine occurs in the centre. Electron backscatter diffraction mapping reveals that the vein olivine has inherited its crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) from the olivine in the porphyroclastic host rock; however, misorientation is weaker and associated to different rotation axes. We propose that prograde olivine grew epitaxially on relics of mantle olivine and thereby acquired its CPO. Growth towards pre-existing microfractures along which serpentinisation had occurred led to straight grain boundaries and a brick-like microstructure in the veins. When dehydration embrittlement induced slip, a strong strain localisation on discrete fault planes prevented distortion of the CPO due to cataclastic deformation; grain size reduction did not significantly modify the olivine CPO. This illustrates how a CPO can be preserved though an entire metamorphic cycle, including hydration, dehydration, and deformation processes, and that the CPO and the microstructures (e.g. grain shape) of one phase do not necessarily record the same event.

  14. Trace Elements in Olivine in Italian Potassic Volcanic Rocks Distinguish Between Mantle Metasomatism by Carbonatitic and Silicate Melts (United States)

    Foley, S. F.; Ammannati, E.; Jacob, D. E.; Avanzinelli, R.; Conticelli, S.


    The Italian Peninsula is the site of intense subduction-related potassic magmatism with bimodal character in terms of silica activity: Ca-poor silica-saturated lamproitic rocks and Ca-enriched silica-undersaturated leucitites. Lamproitic magmas formed in the early phases of magmatic activity and were followed by leucititic magmas. The primary magmas are generated in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle at the destructive plate margin, and both series have olivine as the first crystallizing phenocrysts. Trace elements in olivine phenocrysts are important in recognizing metasomatic effects on the mineralogy of the mantle source. Since Ni is the most compatible trace element in olivine, particularly in alkaline melts, modal changes of olivine in the source strongly affect its bulk partition coefficient, and therefore its content in primary melts and in olivine that crystallizes from them.The concentration of other compatible trace elements (e.g. Mn, Co) in olivine phenocrysts also depends on the abundance of olivine in the magma source. Ni contents in olivine of the Italian rocks show a clear bimodal distribution. Olivine from lamproitic samples has systematically higher Fo and Ni contents, whereas olivine from leucititic rocks never exceeds Fo92 and has markedly lower Ni, reaching among the lowest levels ever observed in olivine phenocrysts in primitive melts. The Mn/Fe ratio of olivine is also sensitive to changes of the modal abundance of olivine in the source, 100*Mn/Fe of olivine from lamproitic rocks never exceeds 2, while it is always >1.8 in leucititic rocks, meaning that the leucitite source regions are much richer in olivine. Lithium is generally enriched in the crust and in sediments compared to the lithospheric mantle and to mantle-derived melts,so that Li in olivine above 10 ppm is suggested to indicate recycled sediments. Li contents are up to 35 ppm in leucititic olivines and up to >50 ppm in lamproitic olivines, confirming the recycling of crustal

  15. A Calcium-in-Olivine Geohygrometer and its Application to Subduction Zone Magmatism (United States)

    Gavrilenko, M.; Herzberg, C. T.; Vidito, C. A.; Carr, M. J.; Tenner, T.; Ozerov, A.


    Calcium contents of subduction zone olivines are lower than those for olivines from modern MORB, Archean komatiites, and Hawaii (Fig. 1). A role for magmatic H2O is likely for subduction zone olivines, and we have explored the suggestion by [1] that H2O has affected the partitioning of CaO between olivine and silicate melt. We provide a provisional calibration of DCaOOl/L as a function of magmatic MgO and H2O, based on nominally anhydrous experiments (Fig. 2) and minimally degassed H2O contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions (Fig. 3). The low diffusivity of Ca in olivine [2], when compared to that of H+ [3, 4, 5, 6], might help to retain the memory of magmatic water that is otherwise lost by diffusion and degassing. Application of our geohygrometer (Fig. 4) typically yields 3 to 4 wt. % magmatic H2O at the Kamchatka and Central American arcs for olivines having 1000 ppm Ca, which agrees with H2O maxima from melt inclusion studies [7]; Cerro Negro and Shiveluch volcanoes are exceptions, with about 6% H2O. Our geohygrometer is by no means a replacement for more accurate methods of H2O analysis, but it has the advantage of applicability in cases where olivine-hosted melt inclusions do not exist (or in case when melt inclusions are partly or completely degassed). Additionally, application of the geohygrometer to core-rim olivine Ca analyses has the potential to reveal changes in magmatic H2O, as revealed by Klyuchevskoy and Shiveluch volcanoes. High precision EMPA analyses with 10-20 µm spatial resolution on some olivine grains from Klyuchevskoy and Shiveluch show a decrease in Ca content from core centers to the rim contacts. Our geohygrometer indicates the olivine grains may record changing magmatic H2O. Furthermore, high Mg numbers and Ni contents indicate these are mantle olivines, and the inferred H2O may be recording entry from the slab to the mantle wedge, a prediction that will be tested by SIMS analyses. References: [1] Feig et al. (2006) CMP, 152

  16. Cellular Precipitates Of Iron Oxide in Olivine in a Stratospheric Interplanetary Dust Particle (United States)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.


    The petrology of a massive olivine-sulphide interplanetary dust particle shows melting of Fe,Ni-sulphide plus complete loss of sulphur and subsequent quenching to a mixture of iron-oxides and Fe,Ni-metal. Oxidation of the fayalite component in olivine produced maghemite discs and cellular intergrowths with olivine and rare andradite-rich garnet. Cellular reactions require no long-range solid-state diffusion and are kinetically favourable during pyrometamorphic oxidation. Local melting of the cellular intergrowths resulted in three dimensional symplectic textures. Dynamic pyrometamorphism of this asteroidal particle occurred at approx. 1100 C during atmospheric entry flash (5-15 s) heating.

  17. Domestic olivine vs magnesite as a thermal-energy-storage material: performance comparisons for electrically heated room-size units in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 94. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laster, W.R.; Schoenhals, R.J.; Gay, B.M.; Palmour, H. III


    Electrically heated thermal-energy-storage (TES) heaters employing high-heat-capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these heaters, low cost off-peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800/sup 0/C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored heat from the core by forced air circulation. Recently significant interest in the use of off-peak TES units in the US has occured, leading to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but under-utilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper, the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat-storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials. Using the method of ASHRAE Standard 94.2, the thermal performance of two small room-sized commercially available TES units was determined experimentally with two different storage materials, North Carolina olivine and German magnesite. Comparisons between the two materials are made and conclusions are drawn.

  18. From olivine to ringwoodite: a TEM study of a complex process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pittarello, Lidia; Ji, Gang; Yamaguchi, Akira; Schryvers, Dominique; Debaille, Vinciane; Claeys, Philippe


    .... In shock veins, olivine clasts with a complex structure, with a ringwoodite rim and a dense network of lamellae of unidentified nature in the core, have been reported in the literature. A highly shocked (S5‐6...

  19. Properties, Origins, and Preservation of Ancient Olivine-Bearing Bedrock: Implications for Noachian Processes on Mars (United States)

    Rogers, A. D.; Cowart, J. C.; Head, J. W.; Warner, N. H.; Palumbo, A.; Golombek, M. P.


    Olivine-bearing bedrock units are common and therefore significant surface units found in Noachian highlands, yet their origins are uncertain. We present new observations suggesting that some may have non-volcanic or non-effusive volcanic origins.

  20. Water in Pyroxene and Olivine from Martian Meteorites (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.


    Water in the interior of terrestrial planets can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) like olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Although these minerals contain only tens to hundreds of ppm H2O, this water can amount to at least one ocean in mass when added at planetary scales because of the modal dominance of NAM in the mantle and crust [4]. Moreover these trace amounts of water can have drastic effects on melting temperature, rheology, electrical and heat conductivity, and seismic wave attenuation [5]. There is presently a debate on how much water is present in the martian mantle. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of NAM [6], amphiboles and glass in melt inclusions [7-10], and apatites [11, 12] from Martian meteorites report finding as much water as in the same phases from Earth's igneous rocks. Most martian hydrous minerals, however, generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [13, 14], and experiments using Cl [15] in parent melts can reproduce Martian basalt compositions as well as those with water [16]. We are in the process of analyzing Martian meteorite minerals by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) in order to constrain the role of water in this planet s formation and magmatic evolution

  1. Olivine dissolution from Indian dunite in saline water. (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit Kumar; Mehra, Anurag


    The rate and mechanism of olivine dissolution was studied using naturally weathered dunite FO98.21(Mg1.884Fe0.391SiO4) from an Indian source, that also contains serpentine mineral lizardite. A series of batch dissolution experiments were carried out to check the influence of temperature (30-75 ∘C), initial dunite concentration (0.5 and 20 g/L), and salinity (0-35 g/L NaCl) under fixed head space CO2 pressure (P[Formula: see text] = 1 barg) on dunite dissolution. Dissolved Mg, Si, and Fe concentrations were determined by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. End-product solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Initially, rates of dissolution of Si and Mg were observed to be in stoichiometric proportion. After 8 h, the dissolution rate was observed to decline. At the end of the experiment (504 h), an amorphous silica-rich layer was observed over the dunite surface. This results in decay of the dissolution rate. The operating conditions (i.e., salinity, temperature, and mineral loading) affect the dissolution kinetics in a very complex manner because of which the observed experimental trends do not exhibit a direct trend.

  2. Mantle-derived trace element variability in olivines and their melt inclusions (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Shorttle, Oliver; Oeser, Martin; Weyer, Stefan; Kobayashi, Katsura


    Trace element variability in oceanic basalts is commonly used to constrain the physics of mantle melting and the chemistry of Earth's deep interior. However, the geochemical properties of mantle melts are often overprinted by mixing and crystallisation processes during ascent and storage. Studying primitive melt inclusions offers one solution to this problem, but the fidelity of the melt-inclusion archive to bulk magma chemistry has been repeatedly questioned. To provide a novel check of the melt inclusion record, we present new major and trace element analyses from olivine macrocrysts in the products of two geographically proximal, yet compositionally distinct, primitive eruptions from the Reykjanes Peninsula of Iceland. By combining these macrocryst analyses with new and published melt inclusion analyses we demonstrate that olivines have similar patterns of incompatible trace element (ITE) variability to the inclusions they host, capturing chemical systematics on intra- and inter-eruption scales. ITE variability (element concentrations, ratios, variances and variance ratios) in olivines from the ITE-enriched Stapafell eruption is best accounted for by olivine-dominated fractional crystallisation. In contrast, ITE variability in olivines and inclusions from the ITE-depleted Háleyjabunga eruption cannot be explained by crystallisation alone, and must have originated in the mantle. Compatible trace element (CTE) variability is best described by crystallisation processes in both eruptions. Modest correlations between host and inclusion ITE contents in samples from Háleyjabunga suggest that melt inclusions can be faithful archives of melting and magmatic processes. It also indicates that degrees of ITE enrichment can be estimated from olivines directly when melt inclusion and matrix glass records of geochemical variability are poor or absent. Inter-eruption differences in olivine ITE systematics between Stapafell and Háleyjabunga mirror differences in melt

  3. The aluminum-in-olivine thermometer for mantle peridotites - Experimental versus empirical calibration and potential applications (United States)

    Bussweiler, Y.; Brey, G. P.; Pearson, D. G.; Stachel, T.; Stern, R. A.; Hardman, M. F.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.; Jackson, S. E.


    This study provides an experimental calibration of the empirical Al-in-olivine thermometer for mantle peridotites proposed by De Hoog et al. (2010). We report Al concentrations measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in olivines produced in the original high-pressure, high-temperature, four-phase lherzolite experiments by Brey et al. (1990). These reversed experiments were used for the calibration of the two-pyroxene thermometer and Al-in-orthopyroxene barometer by Brey and Köhler (1990). The experimental conditions of the runs investigated here range from 28 to 60 kbar and 1000 to 1300 °C. Olivine compositions from this range of experiments have Al concentrations that are consistent, within analytical uncertainties, with those predicted by the empirical calibration of the Al-in-olivine thermometer for mantle peridotites. Fitting the experimental data to a thermometer equation, using the least squares method, results in the expression: This version of the Al-in-olivine thermometer appears to be applicable to garnet peridotites (lherzolites and harzburgites) well outside the range of experimental conditions investigated here. However, the thermometer is not applicable to spinel-bearing peridotites. We provide new trace element criteria to distinguish between olivine from garnet-, garnet-spinel-, and spinel-facies peridotites. The estimated accuracy of the thermometer is ± 20 °C. Thus, the thermometer could serve as a useful tool in settings where two-pyroxene thermometry cannot be applied, such as garnet harzburgites and single inclusions in diamond.

  4. Olivine Dissolution in Seawater: Implications for CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Weathering in Coastal Environments (United States)


    Enhanced weathering of (ultra)basic silicate rocks such as olivine-rich dunite has been proposed as a large-scale climate engineering approach. When implemented in coastal environments, olivine weathering is expected to increase seawater alkalinity, thus resulting in additional CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. However, the mechanisms of marine olivine weathering and its effect on seawater–carbonate chemistry remain poorly understood. Here, we present results from batch reaction experiments, in which forsteritic olivine was subjected to rotational agitation in different seawater media for periods of days to months. Olivine dissolution caused a significant increase in alkalinity of the seawater with a consequent DIC increase due to CO2 invasion, thus confirming viability of the basic concept of enhanced silicate weathering. However, our experiments also identified several important challenges with respect to the detailed quantification of the CO2 sequestration efficiency under field conditions, which include nonstoichiometric dissolution, potential pore water saturation in the seabed, and the potential occurrence of secondary reactions. Before enhanced weathering of olivine in coastal environments can be considered an option for realizing negative CO2 emissions for climate mitigation purposes, these aspects need further experimental assessment. PMID:28281750

  5. Characterization and Petrologic Interpretation of Olivine-Rich Basalts at Gusev Crater, Mars (United States)

    McSween, H. Y.; Wyatt, M. B.; Gellert, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Morris, R. V.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Milam, K. A.; Stockstill, K. R.; Tornabene, L. L.; hide


    Rocks on the floor of Gusev crater are basalts of uniform composition and mineralogy. Olivine, the only mineral to have been identified or inferred from data by all instruments on the Spirit rover, is especially abundant in these rocks. These picritic basalts are similar in many respects to certain Martian meteorites (olivine-phyric shergottites). The olivine megacrysts in both have intermediate compositions, with modal abundances ranging up to 20-30%. Associated minerals in both include low-calcium and high-calcium pyroxenes, plagioclase of intermediate composition, iron-titanium-chromium oxides, and phosphate. These rocks also share minor element trends, reflected in their nickel-magnesium and chromium-magnesium ratios. Gusev basalts and shergottites appear to have formed from primitive magmas produced by melting an undepleted mantle at depth and erupted without significant fractionation. However, apparent differences between Gusev rocks and shergottites in their ages, plagioclase abundances, and volatile contents preclude direct correlation. Orbital determinations of global olivine distribution and compositions by thermal emission spectroscopy suggest that olivine-rich rocks may be widespread. Because weathering under acidic conditions preferentially attacks olivine and disguises such rocks beneath alteration rinds, picritic basalts formed from primitive magmas may even be a common component of the Martian crust formed during ancient and recent times.

  6. Chemical profiles along olivine crystallographic axes: a record of the melt-rock interaction sequence forming Hole U1309D Olivine-rich troctolites (Atlantis Massif, MAR, 30°N) (United States)

    Ferrando, Carlotta; Godard, Marguerite; Ildefonse, Benoit; Rampone, Elisabetta


    The gabbroic section drilled at IODP Hole U1309D (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, IODP Expeditions 304, 305) comprises a whole range of modes from primitive olivine-rich troctolites to evolved gabbros. These series occur as discrete alternating intervals of variable composition and thickness at different depths. High MgO contents and a relatively large proportion of olivine-rich lithologies (up to 90% modal olivine) characterize this gabbroic section. Contacts between olivine-rich troctolites and neighboring coarse grained olivine gabbros are sharp, with the exception of the contacts between olivine-rich intervals and cross-cutting gabbroic veins, which are diffuse and characterized by progressive variations in plagioclase content. Olivine-rich troctolites are heterogeneously distributed along the borehole and show variable modal composition: centimeter to decimeter scale dunitic (90% olivine), troctolitic (enriched in plagioclase) and wehrlitic (enriched in clinopyroxene) domains were identified. Previous in-situ trace element geochemistry and crystallographic preferred orientation measurements of olivine-rich troctolites indicated that they record extensive melt impregnation of pre-existing olivine-rich material, either mantle rocks or dunitic cumulate. We performed a detailed multi-scale petro-structural and geochemical study on selected samples of well-preserved olivine-rich troctolites with the aim to unravel the sequence of re-equilibration processes and better constrain the local conditions driving the formation of these rocks. Processed EBSD maps show variable textures at single sample scale. All identified domains are characterized by coarse grained and deformed olivines, and small rounded undeformed olivines. Coarse grained and small rounded olivines have the same major and trace element compositions. Small olivines are interpreted as relicts after dissolution of coarse grained olivines. Clinopyroxene, plagioclase, and minor orthopyroxene are present as interstitial

  7. Abiotic Versus Biotic Weathering Of Olivine As Possible Biosignatures (United States)

    Longazo, Teresa G.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Clemett, Simon J.; Southam, Gordon; McKay, David S.


    We are investigating the weathering of silicate minerals by both purely inorganic, and biologically mediated processes using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). By resolving surface textures and chemical compositions of weathered surfaces at the sub-micron scale we hope to be able to distinguish abiotic from biotic weathering processes and so establish a new biosignature applicable to the study of astromaterials including but not limited to the Martian meteorites. Sterilized olivine grains (San Carlos, Arizona) no more than 1-2 mm in their longest dimension were optically assayed to be uniform in color and free of inclusions were selected as weathering subjects. Prior to all experiments surface morphologies and Fe/Mg ratios were determined for each grain using FE-SEM and EDS. Experiments were divided into two categories abiotic and biotic and were compared with "naturally" weathered samples. For the preliminary experiments, two trials (open and closed to the ambient laboratory environment) were performed under abiotic conditions, and three trials under biotic conditions (control, day 1 and day 2). The open system abiotic trials used sterile grains heated at 98 C and 200 C for both 24 and 48 hours in 1L double distilled de-ionized water. The closed system abiotic trials were conducted under the same conditions but in a sealed two layer steel/Teflon "bomb" apparatus. The biotic trials used sterile grains mounted in a flow-through device attached to a wellhead on the Columbia River aquifer. Several discolored, altered, grains were selected to document "natural" weathering surface textures for comparison with the experimental samples. Preliminary results indicate there are qualitative differences in weathered surface textures among all the designed experiments. The olivine grains in abiotic trials displayed etching, pitting, denticulate margins, dissolution and clay formation. The scale of the features

  8. Diffusive Fractionation of Lithium Isotopes in Olivine Grain Boundaries (United States)

    Homolova, V.; Watson, E. B.


    Diffusive fractionation of isotopes has been documented in silicate melts, aqueous fluids, and single crystals. In polycrystalline rocks, the meeting place of two grains, or grain boundaries, may also be a site of diffusive fractionation of isotopes. We have undertaken an experimental and modeling approach to investigate diffusive fractionation of lithium (Li) isotopes by grain boundary diffusion. The experimental procedure consists of packing a Ni metal capsule with predominantly ground San Carlos olivine and subjecting the capsule to 1100C and 1GPa for two days in a piston cylinder apparatus to create a nominally dry, 'dunite rock'. After this synthesis step, the capsule is sectioned and polished. One of the polished faces of the 'dunite rock' is then juxtaposed to a source material of spodumene and this diffusion couple is subject to the same experimental conditions as the synthesis step. Li abundances and isotopic profiles (ratios of count rates) were analyzed using LA-ICP-MS. Li concentrations linearly decrease away from the source from 550ppm to the average concentration of the starting olivine (2.5ppm). As a function of distance from the source, the 7Li/6Li ratio decreases to a minimum before increasing to the background ratio of the 'dunite rock'. The 7Li/6Li ratio minimum coincides with the lowest Li concentrations above average 'dunite rock' abundances. The initial decrease in the 7Li/6Li ratio is similar to that seen in other studies of diffusive fractionation of isotopes and is thought to be caused by the higher diffusivity (D) of the lighter isotope relative to the heavier isotope. The relationship between D and mass (m) is given by (D1/D2) =(m2/m1)^β, where β is an empirical fractionation factor; 1 and 2 denote the lighter and heavier isotope, respectively. A fit to the Li isotopic data reveals an effective DLi of ~1.2x10^-12 m/s^2 and a β of 0.1. Numerical modelling was utilized to elucidate the relationship between diffusive fractionation

  9. Synthesis and structural characterization of manganese olivine lithium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Robles, Joel O. [Basic Science Department, IIT, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 460 norte Cd. Juárez, Chih. C.P. 32310 (Mexico); Fuentes Cobas, Luis E. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, Complejo Industrial, M. Cervantes 120, Chihuahua C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Díaz de la Torre, Sebastián [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica CIITEC, Azcapotzalco, México, D.F. C.P. 02250 (Mexico); Camacho Montes, Héctor, E-mail: [Basic Science Department, IIT, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 460 norte Cd. Juárez, Chih. C.P. 32310 (Mexico); Elizalde Galindo, José T.; García Casillas, Perla E.; Rodríguez González, Claudia A. [Basic Science Department, IIT, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 460 norte Cd. Juárez, Chih. C.P. 32310 (Mexico); Álvarez Contreras, Lorena [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, Complejo Industrial, M. Cervantes 120, Chihuahua C.P. 31109 (Mexico)


    Highlights: • LiMnPO{sub 4} was obtained by sol gel method and crystallization in reducing atmosphere. • Magnetic and electric properties are reported for LiMnPO{sub 4}. • Electrochemical properties are also found and enhanced by adding carbon. • SEM and HRTEM show the submicron powder nature. • The multifunctional behavior of LiMnPO{sub 4} is experimentally demonstrated. - Abstract: The manganese olivine lithium phosphate is a multifunctional material. If carbon is added to form a composite LiMnPO{sub 4}–C, electrochemical properties can be enhanced, making this material a good candidate for battery cathode. High magnetic susceptibility is reported for this compound at room temperature. In this work, the magnetic response was measured through a Field Cooling/Zero Field Cooling technique at temperature below 100 K. Weak ferroelectric properties at room temperature were measured. Even though, the promising applications and the interesting properties of this system, the attention received in the literature is relatively low. The synthesis of this material is difficult because of the rapid manganese oxidation and the need of a reducing atmosphere. In fact, only few authors report the synthesis of the pure phase. In the present work, nanostructured LiMnPO{sub 4} is obtained by sol gel chemical method and according to X-ray diffraction patterns, pure LiMnPO{sub 4} is obtained after calcination in a reducing atmosphere (10% H{sub 2} – 90% Ar). Nanostructured LiMnPO{sub 4} is a material with very interesting properties that deserves attentions.

  10. Fractional crystallization of olivine melt inclusion in shock-induced chondritic melt vein (United States)

    Miyahara, M.; El Goresy, A.; Ohtani, E.; Kimura, M.; Ozawa, S.; Nagase, T.; Nishijima, M.


    The formation of ringwoodite, wadsleyite and majorite from their parental low-pressure polymorphs in melt veins in chondritic meteorites is usually interpreted to be the result of shock-induced solid-state phase transformation. Formation and survival of individual mineral melt enclaves in the chondritic high-pressure melt was not considered a viable possibility. We report evidence for melting of individual large olivine fragments entrained in melt veins, their survival as melt enclaves in the chondritic melts and their subsequent fractional crystallization at high-pressures and temperatures. The fractionally crystallized olivine melt enclaves appear to be ubiquitous in chondrites. In contrast, Ca-poor pyroxene fragments in the same veins and Ca-poor pyroxene in chondrules entrained do not show any sign of melting. Texture and compositions of olivine fragments are indicative of fractional crystallization from individual olivine melts alone. Fragments of original unzoned olivine (Fa 24-26) melted, and melts subsequently fractionally crystallized to Mg-rich wadsleyite (Fa 6-10) and Mg-poor ringwoodite (Fa 28-33) with a compositional gap of ≤26 mol% fayalite. In contrast, compositions of ringwoodite and wadsleyite that emerged from solid-sate phase transformations are identical to that of parental olivine thus erasing any source of enigma. The olivine monomineralic melts barely show any signs of mixing with the chondritic liquid prior to or during their individual fractional crystallization. Our findings demonstrate that the formation of high-pressure minerals during shock events in asteroids also results from melting and fractional crystallization from some individual mineral melts that barely mixed with the chondritic melt host, a mechanism previously not recognized or accepted.

  11. Partitioning Behavior of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn between an Octahedral Site in Olivine and Silicate Melt


    Hashizume, Hideo; Hariya, Yu


    Partition coefficients of Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ between olivine and silicate melt have been determined in the system Mg2SiO4-SiO2-H2O at high pressure and temperature. A partition coefficient is defined by the ratio of the concentration of an element in olivine to that of the element in silicate melt. Olivine has two octahedral sites (M1 and M2 sites). Elements are partitioned among an M1, an M2 sites and silicate melt. We distributed the bulk concentration of the element in olivine...

  12. Space Weathering in Olivine and the Mineralogy of (Some) M-Class Asteroids (United States)

    Britt, Daniel; Kohout, Tomas; Schelling, Patrick; Consolmagno, Guy J.


    One aspect of space weathering of airless bodies is the production of nanophase iron (npFe0) from Fe bearing silicate minerals. The combined effects of low oxygen fugacity and solar-wind implanted H tend to result in strongly-reduced surfaces that can be chemically activated by heating due to micrometeorite impacts. The mineral kinetics of olivine makes it particularly vulnerable to reduction, decomposition, and npFe0 production. Kohout et al. has recently developed a new method of controlled npFe0 production on olivine powder grains that mimics the essential features of this weathering process and was developed to quantitatively evaluate spectral changes related to space weathering and presence of npFe0. Compared to fresh olivine the treated samples exhibit spectral characteristics of space weathering including spectral darkening, shallowing and attenuation of 1 µm olivine absorption band, and reddening. The attenuation of the 1 µm band significantly shrinks the band FWHM and shifts the much reduced band center to shorter wavelengths around 0.95 µm. These spectral changes are related to increasing amounts of npFe0 and the disruption of the crystal structure of the parent olivine. Significantly, the darkened, reddened, and band attenuated olivine spectra are a close match to a number of M-class asteroids. What is particularly interesting is the match with the weak absorption band near 0.95 µm seen in many M-class asteroids (i.e. 16 Psyche, 22 Kalliope, 55 Pandora to name a few). One of the major issues in asteroid science is the relative scarcity of olivine asteroids (the ”Great Dunite Shortage” coined by Bell et al in Asteroids II). One possibility worth further study is that asteroidal olivine may be hidden by the relative ease with which it weathers. The surface chemical and micrometeorite environment in the asteroid belt may produce over time a spectrum for an olivine-rich surface that is remarkably similar to that of an M-class asteroid.

  13. Valence State Partitioning of Vanadium Between Olivine-Melt in Olivine-Phyric Martian Basalts. Defining the fO2 of the Martian Mantle. (United States)

    Shearer, C.; McKay, G.; Papike, J.; Karner, J.; Sutton, S.


    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the fO2 in martian basalts varies by 2 to 3 log units and is correlated with geochemical parameters such as LREE/HREE, initial 87Sr/86Sr, and initial d. These correlations have been interpreted to indicate the presence of reduced, incompatible element-depleted and oxidized, incompatible element-enriched reservoirs that were produced during early stages of martian differentiation. Olivine-phyric basalts represent the closest approximation of primary martian basalts in the meteorite collection. Therefore, gaining a better understanding of the fO2 and incompatible element characteristics of the earliest phase (olivine) in these basalts may provide a clearer view into the martian mantle. Using the bulk composition of Yamato 980459 (an olivine-phyric basaltic melt composition), we conducted a series of near-liquidus experiments to determine the partitioning of V between olivine-melt at fO2 conditions between QFM and IW-1. XANES analyses of the glass indicate that the V4+/V3+ varies systematically with redox conditions of the experiments. SIMS analyses of V in glass and olivine indicated a systematic increase in DVol/melt from approximately 0.055 at QFM to approximately 0.5 at IW-1. This is consistent with the observed variation in V4+/V3+ measured in the glass by XANES and the crystal chemical preference of the olivine octahedral site for V3+ rather than V4+. Applying this oxybarometer calibration to well-defined lunar (IW-1) and terrestrial basaltic systems (QFM+0.2, Makaopuhi lava lake, Hawaii) indicate that it is vary robust over a wide range of planetary fO2 conditions. The determination of DVol/melt and incompatible element abundance using SIMS from martian olivine-phyric basalts indicate that they crystallized over a rather broad range in fO2 (IW+0.2 to IW+2) and from basaltic magmas with a range of incompatible element enrichments. These data indicate that correlations among these geochemical parameters are

  14. Preliminary study of the application of natural olivine in Cenozoic dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Masashi [Department of Geography, Nara Women' s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Tani, Atsushi [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Shimada, Aiko [Department of Geography, Nara Women' s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)


    The study investigated the luminescence behaviour of natural olivine to discuss the potential for Cenozoic (quaternary) dating. The UV-blue thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of irradiated olivines have a resolved peak at 190 deg. C and other peaks at higher temperature at lower dose levels, and broad signals around 275-310 and 375-400 deg. C at higher dose levels. The UV-blue TL increases with additional laboratory dose to {approx}1.6kGy within a plateau temperature region, suggesting the possibility of dosimetry and Cenozoic dating. Both infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) and blue light stimulated luminescence (BLSL) were detected from laboratory-irradiated olivines although the BLSL was weaker than the IRSL. Furthermore, post-BL IRSL was detected but post-IR BLSL was not observed. Therefore, IR stimulation is recommended for optically stimulated luminescence measurements with natural olivine. The growth of the IRSL signal component with doses less than several tens of Gy are too weak to measure. The dose-response curves suggest that further investigations on various types of olivine are needed for practical IRSL dating in the late Pleistocene or more recent.

  15. Coherent and subsequent incoherent ringwoodite growth in olivine of shocked L6 chondrites (United States)

    Miyahara, Masaaki; Ohtani, Eiji; Kimura, Makoto; El Goresy, Ahmed; Ozawa, Shin; Nagase, Toshiro; Nishijima, Masahiko; Hiraga, Kenji


    Pervasive replacement of original olivine grains by ringwoodite adjacent to a shock-melt vein of Yamato 791384 L6 chondrite was observed with a FEG-SEM. In these olivines, we observed three distinct olivine-ringwoodite textures arranged in a spatially successive arrangement from the wall of the shock-melt vein into the olivine grains: (1) polycrystalline ringwoodite, (2) oriented several sets of ringwoodite lamellae and (3) oriented single lamellae. TEM images show that the polycrystalline and oriented several sets of lamellae parts consist of polycrystalline ringwoodite, indicating that phase transformation from olivine to ringwoodite is controlled by incoherent growth mechanism. On the other hand, the set of oriented single lamellae consists of thin ringwoodite platelets (chondrite. However, our TEM studies revealed evidence for formation of the coherent intracrystalline lamella growth mechanism then followed by incoherent growth in the shocked chondrite in nature, thus allowing to constrain a robust time scale of the shock and at the origin of the veins.

  16. Olivine, dolomite and ceramic filters in one vessel to produce clean gas from biomass. (United States)

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Foscolo, Pier Ugo


    Heavy organic compounds produced during almond shells gasification in a steam and/or air atmosphere, usually called tar, are drastically reduced in the product gas by using simultaneously in one vessel a ceramic filter placed in the freeboard and a mixture of olivine and dolomite particles in the fluidized bed of the gasifier. The content of tar in the product gas during a reference gasification test with air, in presence of fresh olivine particles only, was 8600mg/Nm3 of dry gas. By gasifying biomass with steam at the same temperature level of 820°C in a bed of olivine and dolomite (20% by weight), and in the presence of a catalytic ceramic filter inserted in the freeboard of the fluidized bed gasifier, the level of tar was brought down to 57mg/Nm3 of dry producct gas, with a decrease of more than two orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical zoning and diffusion of Ca, Al, Mn, and Cr in olivine of springwater pallasite (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Steele, Ian M.


    The pallasites, consisting mainly of Fe-Ni metal and olivine, are thought to represent the interior of a planetary body which slowly cooled from high temperature. Although the olivines are nearly homogeneous, ion microprobe studies revealed variations of Ca, Ti, Co, Cr, and Ni near grain edges. These variations were thought to represent diffusion in response to falling temperature of the parent body. Pallasite cooling rates have been estimated based on kamacite taenite textures but results differ by x100. In principle elemental profiles in olivine can allow estimates of cooling rate if diffusion coefficients are known; in addition, given a cooling rate, diffusion coefficients could be derived. Data are presented which show that apparent diffusion profiles can be measured for Al, Ca, Cr, and Mn which qualitatively agree with expected diffusion rates and have the potential of providing independent estimates of pallasite cooling rates.

  18. Geochemistry of Pallasite Olivines and the Origin of Main-Group Pallasites (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Rumble, D., III


    Main-group pallasites (PMG) are mixtures of iron-nickel metal and magnesian olivine thought to have been formed at the core-mantle boundary of an asteroid [1]. Some have anomalous metal compositions (PMG-am) and a few have atypically ferroan olivines (PMG-as) [2]. PMG metal is consistent with an origin as a late fractionate of the IIIAB iron core [2]. Most PMG olivines have very similar Fe/Mg ratios, likely due to subsolidus redox reaction with the metal [3]. In contrast, minor and trace elements show substantial variation, which may be explained by either: (i) PMG were formed at a range of depths in the parent asteroid; the element variations reflect variations in igneous evolution with depth, (ii) the pallasite parent asteroid was chemically heterogeneous; the heterogeneity partially survived igneous processing, or (iii) PMG represent the core-mantle boundaries of several distinct parent asteroids [4, 5]. We have continued doing major, minor and trace elements by EMPA and INAA on a wider suite of PMG olivines, and have begun doing precise oxygen isotope analyses to test these hypotheses. Manganese is homologous with Fe(2+), and can be used to distinguish between magmatic and redox processes as causes for Fe/Mg variations. PMG olivines have a range in molar 1000*Mn/Mg of 2.3-4.6 indicating substantial igneous fractionation in olivines with very similar Fe/Mg (0.138-0.148). The Mg-Mn-Fe distributions can be explained by a fractional crystallization-reduction model; higher Mn/Mg ratios reflect more evolved olivines while Fe/Mg is buffered by redox reactions with the metal. There is a positive association between Mn/Mg and Sc content that is consistent with igneous fractionation. However, most PMG olivines fall within a narrow Mn/Mg range (3.0-3.6), but these show a substantial range in Sc (1.00-2.29 micro-g/g). Assuming fractional crystallization, this Sc range could have resulted from approx.65% crystallization of an ultramafic magma. This is inconsistent with

  19. Deriving global Olivine distribution on Hayabusa's target (25143) Itokawa using Near-Infrared Spectrometer data (United States)

    Nardi, L.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Galiano, A.; Dirri, F.


    In 2005 Hayabusa spacecraft visited asteroid Itokawa, bringing back surface samples to Earth in 2010. Near-Infrared data taken by NIRS and samples analysis confirmed hypothesis made through ground-based observations, in particular the one that sees Itokawa as an LL-chondrite like asteroid processed by space weathering. In this work, we apply spectral indices for olivine detection. In particular, we define the BAR* and relate it to the olivine abundance, by means of calibration on laboratory data. We present the distribution of BAR* calculated for nearly 38.000 spectra taken from an altitude of 3.5-7 km, defined as Home Position, which was the longest mission observation phase. In addition, a plot of olivine normalized content versus BAR* for RELAB compounds is given.

  20. Thermal histories of CO3 chondrites - Application of olivine diffusion modelling to parent body metamorphism (United States)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Rubie, David C.


    The petrologic sequence observed in the CO3 chondrite group has been suggested to be the result of thermal metamorphism on a parent body. A model developed to examine the possibility that chondrule and matrix olivines equilibrated in situ, during parent body metamorphism is presented. The model considers Fe-Mg interdiffusion between chondrule and matrix olivines. Zoning profiles comparable to those observed in chondrule olivines from partially equilibrated members of the series are reproduced successfully. Metamorphism of CO3 chondrites on a parent body is therefore a viable model for the observed equilibration. Results indicate that peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the CO3 chondrites were around 500 C, and that the range of peak temperatures between unequilibrated and equilibrated subtypes was relatively narrow, around 100 C.

  1. Comet-like mineralogy of olivine crystals in an extrasolar proto-Kuiper belt. (United States)

    de Vries, B L; Acke, B; Blommaert, J A D L; Waelkens, C; Waters, L B F M; Vandenbussche, B; Min, M; Olofsson, G; Dominik, C; Decin, L; Barlow, M J; Brandeker, A; Di Francesco, J; Glauser, A M; Greaves, J; Harvey, P M; Holland, W S; Ivison, R J; Liseau, R; Pantin, E E; Pilbratt, G L; Royer, P; Sibthorpe, B


    Some planetary systems harbour debris disks containing planetesimals such as asteroids and comets. Collisions between such bodies produce small dust particles, the spectral features of which reveal their composition and, hence, that of their parent bodies. A measurement of the composition of olivine crystals (Mg(2-2x)Fe(2x)SiO(4)) has been done for the protoplanetary disk HD 100546 (refs 3, 4) and for olivine crystals in the warm inner parts of planetary systems. The latter compares well with the iron-rich olivine in asteroids (x ≈ 0.29). In the cold outskirts of the β Pictoris system, an analogue to the young Solar System, olivine crystals were detected but their composition remained undetermined, leaving unknown how the composition of the bulk of Solar System cometary olivine grains compares with that of extrasolar comets. Here we report the detection of the 69-micrometre-wavelength band of olivine crystals in the spectrum of β Pictoris. Because the disk is optically thin, we can associate the crystals with an extrasolar proto-Kuiper belt a distance of 15-45 astronomical units from the star (one astronomical unit is the Sun-Earth distance), determine their magnesium-rich composition (x = 0.01 ± 0.001) and show that they make up 3.6 ± 1.0 per cent of the total dust mass. These values are strikingly similar to those for the dust emitted by the most primitive comets in the Solar System, even though β Pictoris is more massive and more luminous and has a different planetary system architecture.

  2. Petrology of Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates in Antarctic CR Chondrites: Evidence for Aqueous Alteration and Shock Metamorphism (United States)

    Komatsu, M.; Fagan, T. J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.; Yasutake, M.; Zolensky, M. E.


    CR chondrites are the group of carbonaceous chondrites that preserve records of formation of their components in the solar nebula. Although they are affected by aqueous alteration, many chondrules and CAIs are well-preserved, suggesting they have experienced little thermal metamorphism. We have been investigating the petrologic variations among the CR chondrites in Japanese-NIPR Antarctic meteorite collection. Especially we focused on the petrology of amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) in order to understand secondary alteration on CR chondrite parent body. AOAs are composed of fine-grained forsteritic olivine and refractory minerals formed by condensation from solar nebula, and can be used as sensitive indicators of secondary alteration processes.

  3. Ringwoodite Lamellae in Olivine from the S6 Chondrite Tenham: The Transformation Mechanism (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.; Decarli, P. S.


    Ringwoodite lamellae in partially transformed olivine have been reported to occur in the shock-induced melt veins or near the melt veins in heavily shocked (S6) chondrites [1-4]. These features were interpreted to have formed by a coherent intracrystalline transformation mechanism like that observed in experimentally transformed samples by Kerschhofer et al. [5-7]. However, our SEM and TEM observations on the partially transformed olivine suggest that the transformation is incoherent and occurs along specific orientation [4], which is in agreement with the new interpretation of ringwoodite lamellae based on new SEM and SXRD observations [8]. Here we report more detailed TEM results, which are crucial to understand the transformation mechanism. Abundant ringwoodite lamellae were found in olivine grains, which occur as host-rock fragments entrained in melt veins and pockets. These partially transformed olivines are commonly intergrown with enstatite and plagioclase in multi-phase fragments. High-resolution SEM images reveal that the ringwoodite lamellae are not continuous, but rather polycrystalline ringwoodite with crystal size about 1 mm. Preliminary TEM results show that olivine are heavily deformed or occur as fine olivine grains, and ringwoodite lamellae consist of individual ringwoodite grains in the matrix of olivine fine grains. The discontinuous lamellar textures that we observe strongly suggest that the lamellae consist of many distinct ringwoodite crystallites rather than single-crystal lamella. It is possible that lamellae of polycrystalline ringwoodite in olivine could form by a mechanism analogous to the formation of planar deformation features (PDF), representing preferential transformation along specific crystallographic defect planes of the host phase. [1 Chen et al. (2004) Proceedings. of NAS 101(42), 15033-15037. [2] Ohtani et al. (2004) EPSL 227(3-4), 505- 515. [3] Beck, et al. (2005) Nature 435, 1071-1074. [4] Xie and Sharp (2006), LPSC XXXVII

  4. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data (United States)

    Lim, L. F.; Burt, B. J.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.


    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data (5-30 micrometers) have enabled us to resolve this ambiguity. The thermal-IR spectrum exhibits strong olivine reststrahlen features consistent with a composition of approximately equals Fo60-70. Laboratory spectra of R chondrites, brachinites, and chassignites are dominated by similar features.

  5. Multi-scale three-dimensional characterization of iron particles in dusty olivine: Implications for paleomagnetism of chondritic meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsle, Joshua F.; Harrison, Richard J.; Kasama, Takeshi


    Dusty olivine (olivine containing multiple sub-micrometer inclusions of metallic iron) in chondritic meteorites is considered an ideal carrier of paleomagnetic remanence, capable of maintaining a faithful record of pre-accretionary magnetization acquired during chondrule formation. Here we show how...

  6. Ringwoodite lamellae in olivine: Clues to olivine–ringwoodite phase transition mechanisms in shocked meteorites and subducting slabs (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Goresy, Ahmed El; Gillet, Philippe


    The first natural occurrence of ringwoodite lamellae was found in the olivine grains inside and in areas adjacent to the shock veins of a chondritic meteorite, and these lamellae show distinct growth mechanism. Inside the veins where pressure and temperature were higher than elsewhere, ringwoodite lamellae formed parallel to the {101} planes of olivine, whereas outside they lie parallel to the (100) plane of olivine. The lamellae replaced the host olivine from a few percent to complete. Formation of these lamellae relates to a diffusion-controlled growth of ringwoodite along shear-induced planar defects in olivine. The planar defects and ringwoodite lamellae parallel to the {101} planes of olivine should have been produced in higher shear stress and temperature region than that parallel to the (100) plane of olivine. This study suggests that the time duration of high pressure and temperature for the growth of ringwoodite lamellae might have lasted at least for several seconds, and that an intracrystalline transformation mechanism of ringwoodite in olivine could favorably operate in the subducting lithospheric slabs in the deep Earth. PMID:15479764

  7. B-type olivine fabric induced by low temperature dissolution creep during serpentinization and deformation in mantle wedge (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Zhang, Junfeng; Barou, Fabrice


    The B-type olivine fabric (i.e., the [010] axes subnormal to foliation and the [001] axes subparallel to the lineation) has been regarded as an important olivine fabric for interpreting global trench-parallel S-wave polarization in fore-arc regions. However, strong serpentinization and cold temperature environment in the mantle wedge should inhibit development of the B-type olivine fabric that requires high temperature to activate solid-state plastic deformation. Here we report fabrics of olivine and antigorite generated at low temperatures (300-370 °C) during serpentinization in a fossil mantle wedge of the Val Malenco area, Central Alps. Olivine in the serpentine matrix develops a pronounced B-type fabric, while antigorite in the same matrix displays a strong crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) with the (001) planes and the [010] axes subparallel to foliation and lineation, respectively. The following evidence leads to the conclusion that the B-type olivine fabric results from dissolution creep assisted by grain boundary sliding (GBS) and grain rotation, rather than solid-state plastic deformation: (1) serpentinization took place at low temperatures and a fluid-enriched environment, ideal for dissolution-precipitation creep; (2) the voids and zigzag boundaries along the interface between antigorite and olivine suggest a fluid dissolution reaction; (3) the primary coarse olivine develops a nearly random fabric, indicating the B-type fabrics in the fine-grained olivine may not be inherited fabrics. These results document for the first time the B-type olivine CPO formed by dissolution creep at low temperatures during serpentinization and provide a mechanism to reconcile petrofabric observations with geophysical observations of trench parallel fast S-wave seismic anisotropy in fore-arc mantle wedge regions.

  8. Macro-scale complexity of nano-to micro-scale architecture of olivine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Macro-scale complexity of nano- to micro-scale architecture of olivine crystals through an iodine vapour transport mechanism ... Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Group, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton, BN2 4GJ, United Kingdom; Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, ...

  9. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-Cretaceous are recorded in the study area. Early-Cretaceous olivine basalts are highly carbonated. Late-Cretaceous eruptions took place throughout several volcanic cones aligned in NW direction. Based on FieldSpec measurements and petrographic data, two ...

  10. The fate of fluid inclusions during high-temperature experimental deformation of olivine aggregates (United States)

    Carter, Matthew J.; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Teyssier, Christian


    Torsion experiments on initially wet and dry olivine aggregates at equivalent deformation conditions investigated the fate of fluid inclusions (FIs) during high-temperature deformation. Wet samples were produced by adding water to San Carlos olivine powders before hot pressing; those hot pressed without water are considered dry. After hot pressing, wet and dry aggregates have comparable grain sizes, but wet aggregates have more abundant primary FIs. Talc jackets were fitted around some wet and dry samples prior to deformation to hydrate samples during deformation via talc dehydration at elevated temperature, whereas other samples were deformed without talc. At similar strain rates (~1.0 × 10-4 s-1), the peak shear stress for the dry sample (no talc) was 190-220 MPa, whereas all other samples reached 180 MPa; the strengths of wet (± talc) and dry (+ talc) specimens appear similar. Deformed samples reveal abundant FIs, reduced grain size, shape preferred orientation of olivine, and a pervasive low-angle fabric (C') to the shear plane defined by aligned FIs. Samples deformed with talc have FI-rich and FI-depleted domains; where FIs are abundant, the C' fabric is better developed and grain size is smaller. Electron backscatter diffraction pole figures suggest that olivine deformed in the dislocation creep regime via the (010)[100] slip system. Results of these experiments suggest that FIs are redistributed during dislocation creep, leading to the development of grain-scale, high-diffusivity pathways.

  11. Petrofabrics, microtextures and dislocation substructures of olivine in a peridotite mylonite (Alpe Arami, Switzerland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiskool Toxopeus, J.M.A.


    The development of preferred crystallographic orientation and dimensional fabric of olivine in relation to deformation were investigated in a thin, continuous chlorite peridotite mylonite rim around the garnet peridotite body of Alpe Arami, Ticino, Switzerland. The mylonite is a foliated rock

  12. Shock-Induced Transformation Exsolution Lamellae in Olivine in Black Veins of the Mbale Meteorite (United States)

    Chen, M.; Wopenka, B.; El Goresy, A.


    Mbale is a shocked L6 chondrite [1]. Some shock-induced veins of 0.1 to 2 mm width intersect the meteorite. The veins consist of diaplectic plagioclase glass, unmelted silicate fragments including olivines and pyroxenes, and the shock-induced melt materials consisting of metal-troilite intergrowths, microcrystalline pyroxene and olivine, and silicate glass. Here we report the first finding of shock-induced exsolutions in olivine that appear as compositionally different lamellae which presumably formed at high pressure by inversion of olivine (alpha) to the beta+gamma polymorphs. Olivine compositions in the chondritic part of Mbale range from Fa(sub)22.5 to Fa(sub)26 (average Fa(sub)24). In contrast, the exsolved olivines in the shock-induced veins (30 to 100 mm in diameter) consist of alternating Fe-rich (Fa(sub)22-32) and Fe-poor (Fa(sub)9.9-18.5) lamellae that range in width from less than 0.5 micrometers to up to 10 micrometers. Each individual lamella actually consists of microcrystals of less than 0.5 micrometers in diameter with rather diffuse borders within the lamella. The lamellae occur in ~30 micrometer segments which were formed by faulting and displacement. Micro-Raman spectroscopy confirms that both types of exsolution lamellae currently have the olivine (alpha) structure. The partially melted veins of Mbale may have reached a post-shock peak temperature of 1473 K >= T ringwoodite(gamma) transformations in the system Mg(sub)2SiO(sub)4-Fe(sub)2SiO(sub)4 at 1473 K [2], olivine of composition ~Fa(sub)24 should exsolve at equilibrium conditionsins to beta- + gamma-phases at P >12.7 GPa, and transform to a single gamma-phase at >15 GPa. Figure 1 shows that the determined compositions of the Fe-rich and Fe-poor lamellae in Mbale match perfectly the compositions at the beta + gamma/gamma and the beta + gamma/beta phase boundaries, respectively. Since these grains depict well ordered lamellar structure displaced by several faults, the exsolution lamellae of

  13. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L. F.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.; Burt, B. J.


    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy [1]. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum [2] led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data

  14. Crystallographic preferred orientations and melt-rock interactions : olivine-rich troctolites from IODP Hole U1309D (United States)

    Drouin, M.; Ildefonse, B.; Hirth, G.; Waters, C. L.; Godard, M.


    IODP Expeditions 304-305 sampled the Atlantis Massif, an oceanic core complex located at 30°N in the inside corner of the intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Atlantis Fracture Zone. The most primitive end-members of the recovered gabbroic sequence, olivine-rich troctolites (ol > ~70%), have textures and geochemical compositions intermediate between those of mantle peridotites and primitive cumulates, indicative of melt impregnation processes (Drouin et al., 2009). Olivine-rich troctolites from Hole U1309D (about 5% of recovered rocks) display poikilitic textures, with olivine ranging from coarse-grained subhedral crystals, commonly containing well-developed subgrains, to medium-grained rounded crystals with fewer or no substructures. Olivine substructures reveal dislocation creep that is consistent with activation of the main high-temperature slip systems, dominantly (010)[100]. Olivine crystallographic preferred orientation is very weak, but generally shows a relatively stronger, uncommon [001] concentration (Drouin et al., 2010). These unusual olivine fabrics are interpreted as resulting from dunitisation and melt impregnation of a previously deformed olivine matrix; the solid olivine framework is eventually disrupted by olivine corrosion along grain and subgrain boundaries, and the high-temperature plastic fabric is modified in a liquid-dominated regime. Similar fabrics are described in impregnated peridotites from the mantle/crust transition zone in the Oman ophiolite. A reduction of fabric strength in the presence of melt is also documented in deformation experiments performed in a gas-medium high-pressure high-temperature vessel. Experiments were conducted with olivine + melt (10 to 30 wt%) isostatically hot-pressed initial material. The olivine crystallographic preferred orientation is weaker in deformed sampled than in the undeformed hot pressed material. We propose that very weak fabrics such as those measured in the Atlantis Massif olivine

  15. Electrical Investigation of Metal-Olivine Systems and Application to the Deep Interior of Mercury (United States)

    Zhang, Zhou; Pommier, Anne


    We report electrical conductivity measurements on metal-olivine systems at about 5 and 6 GPa and up to 1,675°C in order to investigate the electrical properties of core-mantle boundary (CMB) systems. Electrical experiments were conducted in the multianvil apparatus using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The samples are composed of one metal layer (Fe, FeS, FeSi2, or Fe-Ni-S-Si) and one polycrystalline olivine layer, with the metal:olivine ratio ranging from 1:0.7 to 1:9.2. For all samples, we observe that the bulk electrical conductivity increases with temperature from 10-2.5 to 101.8 S/m, which is higher than the conductivity of polycrystalline olivine but lower than the conductivity of the pure metal phase at similar conditions. In some experiments, a conductivity jump is observed at the temperature corresponding to the melting temperature of the metallic phase. Both the metal:olivine ratio and the metal phase geometry control the electrical conductivity of the two-layer samples. By combining electrical results, textural analyses of the samples, and previous studies of the structure and composition of Mercury's interior, we propose an electrical profile of the deep interior of the planet that accounts for a layered CMB-outer core structure. The electrical model agrees with existing conductivity estimates of Mercury's lower mantle and CMB using magnetic observations and thermodynamic calculations, and thus, supports the hypothesis of a layered CMB-outermost core structure in the present-day interior of Mercury. We propose that the layered CMB-outer core structure is possibly electrically insulating, which may influence the planet's structure and cooling history.

  16. Experiments and geochemical modelling of CO{sub 2} sequestration by olivine: Potential, quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B., E-mail: [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); Beaumont, V.; Perfetti, E.; Rouchon, V.; Blanchet, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); Oger, P.; Dromart, G. [Universite de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5570, ENS de Lyon, Site Monod, 15 Parvis Rene Descartes BP 7000, Lyon F-69342 (France); Huc, A.-Y.; Haeseler, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France)


    Aqueous solutions equilibrated with supercritical CO{sub 2} (150 deg. C and total pressure of 150 bar) were investigated in order to characterize their respective conditions of carbonation. Dissolution of olivine and subsequent precipitation of magnesite with a net consumption of CO{sub 2} were expected. A quantified pure mineral phase (powders with different olivine grain diameter [20-80 {mu}m], [80-125 {mu}m], [125-200 {mu}m] and [>200 {mu}m]), and CO{sub 2} (as dried ice) were placed in closed-batch reactors (soft Au tubes) in the presence of solutions. Different salinities (from 0 to 3400 mM) and different ratios of solution/solid (mineral phase) (from 0.1 to 10) were investigated. Experiments were performed over periods from 2 to 8 weeks. Final solid products were quantified by the Rock-Eval 6 technique, and identified using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy. Gaseous compounds were quantified by a vacuum line equipped with a Toepler pump and identified and measured by gas chromatography (GC). Carbon mass balances were calculated. Olivine reacted completely with CO{sub 2}, trapping up to 57 {+-} 2% (eqC of initial CO{sub 2}) as magnesite; some amorphous silica also formed. Olivine grain diameter and solution/mineral ratios appeared to be the primary controls on the reaction, salinity acting as a second order parameter. During the experiments, fluid analyses may not be performed with approach adopted but, geochemical modelling was attempted to give information about the solution composition. This showed an interesting mineral matrix evolution. Under the experimental conditions, olivine appeared to be a good candidate for CO{sub 2} trapping into a geologically stable carbonate, magnesite. The possible use of mafic and ultramafic rocks for CO{sub 2} sequestration is discussed.

  17. Olivine in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001: Evidence for a High-Temperature Origin and Implications for Signs of Life (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Leshin, L. A.; Adcock, C. T.


    Olivine from Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 occurs as clusters within orthopyroxene adjacent to fractures containing disrupted carbonate globules and feldspathic shock glass. The inclusions are irregular in shape and range in size from approx. 40 microns to submicrometer. Some of the inclusions are elongate and boudinage-like. The olivine grains are in sharp contact with the enclosing orthopyroxene and often contain small inclusions of chromite The olivine exhibits a very limited range of composition from Fo(sub 65) to Fo(sub 66) (n = 25). The delta(sup 18)O values of the olivine and orthopyroxene analyzed by ion microprobe range from +4.3 to +5.3% and are indistinguishable from each other within analytical uncertainty. The mineral chemistries, O-isotopic data, and textural relationships indicate that the olivine inclusions were produced at a temperature greater than 800 C. It is unlikely that the olivines formed during the same event that gave rise to the carbonates in ALH 84001, which have more elevated and variable delta(sup 18)O values, and were probably formed from fluids that were not in isotopic equilibrium with the orthopyroxene or olivine The reactions most likely instrumental in the formation of olivine could be either the dehydration of hydrous silicates that formed during carbonate precipitation or the reduction of orthopyroxene and spinel If the olivine was formed by either reaction during a postcarbonate beating event, the implications are profound with regards to the interpretations of McKay et al. Due to the low diffusion rates in carbonates, this rapid, high-temperature event would have resulted in the preservation of the fine-scale carbonate zoning' while partially devolatilizing select carbonate compositions on a submicrometer scale. This may have resulted in the formation of the minute magnetite grains that McKay et al attributed to biogenic activity.

  18. Rapid growth of phosphorus-rich olivine in mantle xenolith from Middle Atlas Mountains (Morocco, Africa) (United States)

    Baziotis, Ioannis; Mavrogonatos, Konstantinos; Flemetakis, Stamatios; Papoutsa, Angeliki; Klemme, Stephan; Berndt, Jasper; Asimow, Paul


    Phosphorus(P)-rich zones in olivine may reflect incorporation of P in excess of equilibrium partitioning during rapid growth (e.g. Milman-Barris et al. 2008). We investigated a mantle xenolith from Middle Atlas Mountains (Morocco) by optical microscopy and electron microprobe. It contains spinel-bearing lherzolite and orthopyroxenite layers, cross-cut by veins dominated by glass and secondary phases including P-rich olivines. The host lava, presumed to be alkali basalt (El Messbahi et al. 2015), is present on the margins of the hand sample but not included in our thin section. The studied melt veins (MV) generally contain Ol+Gl+Cpx+Pl+Spl±Ap. Olivines in the MV have (Fo72.1-83.4) with 0.02-0.3 wt.% P2O5; olivines with P2O5 >0.1 wt.% are Fo75.3 -82.8. Some olivine grains are inclusion-free; others contain rounded glass inclusions or subhedral spinel or ilmenite inclusions. Olivines is generally found in contact with plagioclase and glass. Glass (5-15 vol%) has variable composition with P2O5 up to 1.52 wt.%, K2O 1.65-2.37 wt%, CaO 6.39-9.55 wt%, Na2O 0.78-6.70 wt% and SiO2 45.2-49.6 wt%. Where glass is in contact with matrix olivine, Fe-rich outer rims on olivine indicate mineral-melt reaction. In MgO variation diagrams, glass compositions display a coherent single trend for all oxides, with the exception of a discrete low-Na group. Clinopyroxene is present both as isolated subhedral to euhedral crystals within the MV and as replacive rims on matrix minerals. Very fine-grained dendritic clinopyroxene quench crystals up to 10 μm long are also present. Plagioclase occurs as prismatic, flow-oriented crystals parallel or sub-parallel to the layering. Spinel shows anhedral and euhedral shapes and occurs both as inclusions in olivine and as discrete grains associated with plagioclase and glass. Spinel in contact with glass shows a spongy outer rim and normal zonation towards Fe-rich rim compositions. Apatite is found mostly as very small crystals embedded in glass. High

  19. XANES Measurements of Cr Valence in Olivine and their Applications to Planetary Basalts (Invited) (United States)

    Bell, A. S.; Burger, P.; Le, L.; Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J.; Sutton, S. R.; Newville, M.; Jones, J. H.


    The oxidation state and partitioning behavior of trace Cr in terrestrial and planetary basaltic magmas has long been a subject of petrologic inquiry. We have performed a series of experiments designed to examine the relationship between oxygen fugacity and the ratio of divalent to trivalent Cr present in olivine crystals grown from a basaltic liquid. The experimental olivine crystals were grown at fO2 values ranging from IW-1 to IW+3.4. The melt composition used in this work was modeled after the bulk composition of the primitive, basaltic martian meteorite Yamato 980459 (Y-98). Chromium valence in the olivine crystals was measured with X-ray-Absorption-Near-Edge-Spectroscopy (XANES) at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Chromium K-edge XANES data were acquired with the x-ray microprobe of GSECARS beamline 13-ID-E. Beam focusing was accomplished with dynamically-figured Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing mirrors; this configuration yielded a beam focused to a final spot size of ~ 4 μm2. Results from the XANES measurements indicate that the ratio of divalent to trivalent Cr in the olivine is systematically correlated with fO2 in a manner that is consistent with the expected redox systematics for Cr2+- Cr3+ in the melt. In this way, measurements of the Cr2+/Cr3+ in olivine phenocrysts can indirectly reveal information about the Cr valence ratio and fO2 the liquid from which it grew even in the absence of a quenched melt phase. Although the results from the experiments presented in this work specifically apply to the Yamato 98 parental liquid, the concepts and XANES analytical techniques used in this study present a novel, generalized methodology that may be applicable to any olivine-bearing basalt. Furthermore, the XANES based measurements are made on a micron-scale, thus potential changes of the Cr2+/Cr3+ in the melt occurring during crystallization may be recorded in detail.

  20. Grafted NiO on natural olivine for dry reforming of methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafted NiO on natural olivine for dry reforming of methane C Courson, L Udron, C Petit and A Kiennemann Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 3 No 3 (June 2002 271-282 Abstract | References Full text: Acrobat PDF (1.10 MB


    Full Text Available Natural olivine is used for gasification of biomass in a fluidised bed. Characterisations by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopies (SEM and TEM have proved the presence of a (Mg,Fe2SiO4 structure (Mg/Fe ratio: 9/1 with a rather broad distribution in elemental composition. Temperature programmed reduction has revealed equally the presence of iron oxides outside of this structure. The nature of free iron oxides can be both modified by increasing the temperature of calcination and confirmed by measurements of magnetism.The introduction of nickel oxide upon natural olivine is obtained by impregnation with a nitrate salt. The type of interaction of nickel oxide with olivine is different depending upon the preparation method and the calcination temperature. For calcination at 1100 °C, the effects of the amount of NiO and the number of impregnation have been studied. At a high temperature of calcination (1400 °C, NiO is integrated into the olivine structure and the amount of free iron increases. Integrated NiO on olivine is non-reducible, resulting in an inactive catalyst. At lower calcination temperatures grafted NiO is formed, a species which is reduced under catalytic test conditions without aggregation of particles. A single impregnation of nickel (5.5 wt% of NiO gives a stable catalyst activated directly under reaction conditions (CH4+CO2 yielding 96% CO and 76% H2. Catalysts with lower amounts of NiO or a double impregnation of nickel salt lead to a less stable system.Analysis reveals that no change in olivine structure nor size of nickel deposit occurs under test conditions. Equally there are no carbon deposits formed on these catalysts. A model of the evolution of each catalytic system arising from the different preparation methods is proposed. The observed deactivation of such catalysts is attributed to the increase in the amount of free iron, which favours the oxidative properties of the catalytic system.

  1. Investigating H (hydrogen) self-diffusion in olivine and upper mantle electrical conductivity (United States)

    Novella, D.; Du Frane, W. L.; Jacobsen, B.; Weber, P. K.; Ryerson, F. J.; Tyburczy, J. A.


    Considerable amounts of H2O could be present deep within Earth's interior, where H (hydrogen) atoms can enter natural minerals as defect in their nominally anhydrous structures. Up to several wt.% H2O have been observed in natural minerals that were originally formed in the deep mantle and brought to the surface through volcanic eruptions. The range of observed H2O contents in mantle minerals collected at Earth's surfaces would drastically influence the physical and chemical properties of mantle material. As a consequence, hydrogen has likely played a critical role in the evolution of the Earth, its atmosphere and the oceans. H2O contained in upwelling plumes and downwelling slabs complete a potentially deep water cycle between Earth's mantle and oceans. Such a cycle would traverse through the upper mantle, where H diffusion through the predominant mineral olivine would control its transport and distribution. Chemical diffusion (diffusion due to a chemical gradient) in olivine has been widely investigated over the past few decades, but only limited data have been reported on self-diffusion (the intrinsic transport of H in the mineral structure). This gap in information needs to be investigated more extensively to fully understand how H2O transports throughout the mantle. We will discuss results of H self-diffusion in San Carlos olivine single crystal that were obtained in experiments performed at high-pressure and high-temperature using a piston cylinder apparatus, reproducing conditions encountered in the deep upper mantle. H self-diffusion coefficients were investigated by tracking deuterium diffusion profiles in oriented, single crystals of olivine that were saturated by hydrogen. Diffusion coefficients along the 3 principal orientation of olivine are highly anisotropic, with an over 1 order of magnitude difference between the `fast' [100], and the `slower' [010] and [001] orientations. Diffusion coefficients are used to calculate a substantial contribution of

  2. CO2 Geological Storage in Olivine Rich Basaltic Aquifers: New Insights From Flow-Through Experiments (United States)

    Peuble, S.; Godard, M.; Luquot, L.; Gouze, P.


    Injection of CO2-rich fluids into basaltic aquifers is one of the methods envisaged for mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO2. Basalts are rich in Mg, Fe and Ca and have a high potential to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals. However, the role of reaction-transport processes has yet to be investigated in order to predict the capacity and sustainability for CO2 storage of these highly reactive systems. We present the results of three flow-through experiments performed at 180°C and total pressure 12 MPa. NaHCO3 rich water (0.5 mol/L) mixed with CO2 (PCO2 = 10 MPa) was injected through sintered analogues of olivine-accumulation zones in basaltic flows (~ 95% olivine Fo87, MORB glass, minor chromite). The injection rate was 1 mL/h for exp. 1 and 2, and 0.1 mL/h for exp. 3. The initial porosity and permeability of samples ranges from 3 to 7% and 250.10-18 to 2500.10-18 m2 respectively. All experiments show a strong permeability decrease (down to 10-18 m2) after 90 hours for exp. 1 and 2, earlier for exp 3. Yet dissolution occurs: high concentrations of Zr and Al and of Co in the outlet fluids indicate dissolution of basaltic glass and olivine respectively. Si concentration changes reveal a more complex system with olivine dissolution and the precipitation of Si rich phases: we observed the growth of relatively large (up to 5 microns) Mg-Fe rich phyllosilicates mostly perpendicular to olivine surface. This reaction is typically associated to hydration of (ultra-)mafic rocks and may explain the decrease in permeability during experiments. Finally, the low Ca and Mg fluid concentrations suggest trapping by Ca-Mg rich phases. Ankerite and dolomite were identified by Raman spectrometry in the reacted samples after exp. 1 and 2, while exp. 3 was characterized by precipitation of well-developed and abundant magnesite (Mg0.88 Fe0.11 Ca0.01 CO3) replacing dissolved olivine. Carbonation appears to be an efficient process: ~ 0.015g of CO2 per gram of sample is stored as carbonates

  3. Olivine to Ringwoodite and Wadsleyte Phase Transformation Mechanisms in Naturally Shocked Chondritic Meteorites: Clues to Incoherent, Coherent Growths and Retrograde Transitions (United States)

    El Goresy, A.


    Olivine crystals entrained in shock-melt veins in chondrites display partial to complete transformation to ringwoodite and wadsleyite [1-4]. A crucial issue is if the olivine-ringwoodite inversion was exclusively incoherent by grain boundary nucleation and growth, or if coherent intracrystalline mechanisms were also active. The incoherent mechanism is at least three orders of magnitude faster than the coherent [5,6]. We report two ringwoodite growth textures in chondritic olivines entrained in shock-melt veins in Sixiangkou chondrite (1) polycrystalline grain-boundary growth in small olivines [1], and (2) intracrystalline ringwoodite lamellae in large olivines. The first type is reminiscent of the incoherent mechanism [5,6]. (2) TEM investigations reveal that ringwoodite lamellae in olivine entrained in veins are polycrystalline. Some ringwoodite crystallites at the two-phase boundary depict coherent olivine/ringwoodite intergrowth: (3-11) ringwoodite (130) olivine. This is the first report of coherent intergrowth in meteoritic olivine. Olivine grains entrained in melt veins of Peace River meteorite (Fa22-25) depict phase transition to ringwoodite and wadsleyite with spectacular textures and stark contrasting compositions: (1) Ringwoodite (Fa32-36) occurs as grain boundary crystallites in the outer regions of olivine, whereas wadsleyite (Fa12-14), occupies the olivine cores. (2) Two well-oriented sets of zoned ringwoodite lamellae (ringwoodite to both secondary wadsleyite and olivine, respectively. Synchrotron XRF mapping shows depletion of both ringwoodite and wadsleyite in Mn and Zn due to back diffusion to olivine. References: [1] Chen M. et al. (1996) Science, 271, 1570. [2] Chen M. et al. (2004) PNAS, 101, 15033. [3] Ohtani E. et al. (2004) EPSL, 227, 505. [4] Beck P. et al. (2005) Nature, 435, 1071. [5] Kerschhofer L. (2000), Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, 121, 59. [6] Mosenfelder J. L. et al. (2001) Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, 127, 165.

  4. The olivine-dominated composition of the Eureka family of Mars Trojan asteroids (United States)

    Borisov, G.; Christou, A.; Bagnulo, S.; Cellino, A.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Dell'Oro, A.


    We have used the XSHOOTER echelle spectrograph on the European Southern Obseratory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) to obtain UVB-VIS-NIR (ultraviolet-blue (UVB), visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR)) reflectance spectra of two members of the Eureka family of L5 Mars Trojans, in order to test a genetic relationship to Eureka. In addition to obtaining spectra, we also carried out VRI photometry of one of the VLT targets using the 2-m telescope at the Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory - Rozhen and the two-channel focal reducer. We found that these asteroids belong to the olivine-dominated A, or Sa, taxonomic class. As Eureka itself is also an olivine-dominated asteroid, it is likely that all family asteroids share a common origin and composition. We discuss the significance of these results in terms of the origin of the martian Trojan population.

  5. SAXS study of ion tracks in San Carlos olivine and Durango apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afra, B., E-mail: [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Rodriguez, M.D. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Lang, M.; Ewing, R.C. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Kirby, N. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt D-64291 (Germany); Kluth, P. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)


    Ion tracks were generated in crystalline San Carlos olivine (Mg,Fe){sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Durango apatite Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2} using different heavy ions ({sup 58}Ni, {sup 101}Ru, {sup 129}Xe, {sup 197}Au, and {sup 238}U) with energies ranging between 185 MeV and 2.6 GeV. The tracks and their annealing behavior were studied by means of synchrotron based small angle X-ray scattering in combination with in situ annealing. Track radii vary as a function of electronic energy loss but are very similar in both minerals. Furthermore, the annealing behavior of the track radii has been investigated and preliminary results reveal a lower recovery rate of the damaged area in olivine compared with apatite.

  6. The nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary from laboratory investigations of olivine anisotropy (United States)

    Hansen, Lars; Qi, Chao; Warren, Jessica; Kohlstedt, David; Holtzman, Benjamin; Wallis, David


    The nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) determines the mechanical coupling between rigid plates and the underlying convecting mantle. Seismological studies reveal distinct reflectors (G discontinuity) in the uppermost oceanic mantle that are sometimes interpreted as the LAB. The discontinuity in seismic velocity is suggested to arise from abrupt changes in composition, including the melt fraction. Interestingly, these reflectors roughly correlate with the location of discontinuities in radial seismic anisotropy, but do not correlate with the location of discontinuities in azimuthal anisotropy. To investigate the correlation between these datasets, we draw on recent laboratory measurements of crystallographic texture development in olivine-rich rocks. The textural evolution of dry olivine aggregates has been well described in recent experiments, while micromechanical models are available for incorporating these observations into larger-scale models of upper-mantle flow. Unfortunately, the systematics of textural evolution in melt-bearing olivine aggregates have not been similarly described. Here we present a new experimental data set detailing the evolution of anisotropy during deformation of partially molten peridotite. Torsion experiments were conducted on samples composed of San Carlos olivine and basaltic melt at a temperature of 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa. Seismically fast axes of olivine tend to lie at a high angle to the flow direction in a manner similar to previous experiments. The anisotropy in these samples is weak compared to that in dry, melt-free olivine deformed to similar strains. The anisotropy also exhibits relatively little change in strength and orientation with progressive deformation. Detailed microstructural analyses allow us to distinguish between competing models for the grain-scale deformation processes, favoring one in which crystallographically controlled grain shapes govern grain rotations. We

  7. Desk study on the feasibility of CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation of olivine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veld, H.; Roskam, G.D.; Van Enk, R.


    Since fossil fuels are and will be the main source of energy production for at least several more decades, it is imperative to reduce CO2 emissions in order to stabilise atmospheric CO2 levels. Several technological applications of mineral carbonation are under investigation or in use already, but limited information is available on the possibility to enhance mineral carbonation under natural conditions. This study contains an analysis of factors that influence the weathering rate of olivine, a magnesium iron silicate that can sequester CO2 by conversion to bicarbonate and eventually magnesium and calcium carbonate. Olivine is one of the most common minerals in the world and occurrences are present on all continents.

  8. Elasticity of iron-bearing olivine polymorphs investigated by first principles (United States)

    Núñez Valdez, Maribel; Yu, Yonggang; Wentzcovitch, Renata


    We calculate by first principles the effect of iron on the high pressure-temperature elasticity of olivine polymorphs: α -phase (olivine), β -phase (wadsleyite) and γ -phase (ringwoodite), the major constituents of the Earth's upper mantle and transition zone (TZ). We combine the LDA, the quasiharmonic approximation, and a model vibrational density of states for the solid solution to calculate the full elastic tensor Cij , bulk (K) and shear (G) moduli of (Mg 0.875 Fe 0.125)2 Si O4 . Comparison with experimental data at ambient conditions validates our results. In the pressure and temperature range of the upper mantle and TZ we study single crystal wave propagation anisotropy and polarization anisotropy in aggregates with preferred orientation. Research supported by NSF EAR-1019853 and EAR-0810272. Computations were performed at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  9. Olivine flotation and settling experiments on the join Mg2SiO4-Fe2SiO4 (United States)

    Herzberg, C. T.; Baker, M. B.; Wendlandt, R. F.


    Results are presented of a study of some unusual density relations between olivine and coexisting liquid in the system fosterite-fayalite. At 1 atmosphere pressure it is found that olivine floats on its coexisting liquid for intermediate compositions on this binary because of extreme partitioning of Fe into the melt phase. At 20 kilobars, the usual behavior of olivine settling is found to occur because the partitioning of Fe in the melt is reduced, aided possibly by the dissolution of CO2 in the melt from the use of a graphite container. It is determined that olivine flotation and settling are rapid in a time period of only a few hours because viscosities are slightly greater than that of paraffin oil at room temperature. Some adcumulate textures with good triple junction grain boundaries are found to be developed. Observations of differentiated magmatic systems suggest that the mechanisms by which magmas can differentiate vary considerably in the ultramafic to tholeiitic compositional range.

  10. Evidence for Fractional Crystallization of Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite from Olivine Melts in Chondrules Entrained in Shock-Melt Veins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masaaki Miyahara; Ahmed El Goresy; Eiji Ohtani; Toshiro Nagase; Masahiko Nishijima; Zahra Vashaei; Tristan Ferroir; Philippe Gillet; Leonid Dubrovinsky; Alexandre Simionovici


    Peace River is one of the few shocked members of the L-chondrites clan that contains both high-pressure polymorphs of olivine, ringwoodite and wadsleyite, in diverse textures and settings in fragments...

  11. Tectonic discrimination of chromian spinels, olivines and pyroxenes in the Northeastern Jiangxi Province ophiolite, South China (United States)

    Guo, Guolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Yang, Jingsui; Pan, Jiayong; Fan, Xiujun; Zhou, Wenting; Duan, Gehong


    The peridotites of the Northeastern Jiangxi Province Ophiolite (NJO), including dunite, harzburgite and clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgite, are strongly altered under serpentinization, except for minor aggregations of partially-altered olivines, chromian spinels and pyroxenes. The forsterite content of olivines in dunites (Fo 93.6) is slightly higher than in harzburgites (Fo 91.4). Chromian spinels in harzburgites and dunites are very refractory, with restricted chemical compositions of high-Cr varieties. The unaltered cores of chromian spinels have low Al2O3 and TiO2 content, and display a large range of Mg# (100× [Mg/(Mg + Fe)], 41-64) and Cr# (100× [Cr/(Cr + Al)], 53-83) values, suggesting that the peridotites originated from a highly-depleted mantle. The spinels plotted in "olivine-spinel mantle array" (OSMA) diagram and Cr# versus. Mg# diagram both indicate the peridotite of NJO experienced a >25 % partial melting. The positive correlation between the Cr# and the TiO2 content probably resulted from the reaction between boninitic melt and mantle peridotite, as a consequence of melt-mantle interaction within the arc setting. The oxygen fugacity (ƒO2), calculated using chromian spinel-olivine pairs, indicates that the peridotites in the NJO were formed under relatively low oxidizing conditions quite different from those commonly found in supra-subductions zones (SSZ). This might be explained by the reaction between fore-arc magmas and residual mantle in a back-arc oceanic basin during a rapid subduction process. The Neoproterozoic subduction between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks was therefore probably rapid, and the addition of water and other volatiles to the mantle wedge beneath the island arc would have enhanced melting, leading to the production of highly depleted boninitic melts.

  12. Hydration-reduced lattice thermal conductivity of olivine in Earth's upper mantle. (United States)

    Chang, Yun-Yuan; Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Tan, Eh; Chen, Jiuhua


    Earth's water cycle enables the incorporation of water (hydration) in mantle minerals that can influence the physical properties of the mantle. Lattice thermal conductivity of mantle minerals is critical for controlling the temperature profile and dynamics of the mantle and subducting slabs. However, the effect of hydration on lattice thermal conductivity remains poorly understood and has often been assumed to be negligible. Here we have precisely measured the lattice thermal conductivity of hydrous San Carlos olivine (Mg0.9Fe0.1)2SiO4 (Fo90) up to 15 gigapascals using an ultrafast optical pump-probe technique. The thermal conductivity of hydrous Fo90 with ∼7,000 wt ppm water is significantly suppressed at pressures above ∼5 gigapascals, and is approximately 2 times smaller than the nominally anhydrous Fo90 at mantle transition zone pressures, demonstrating the critical influence of hydration on the lattice thermal conductivity of olivine in this region. Modeling the thermal structure of a subducting slab with our results shows that the hydration-reduced thermal conductivity in hydrated oceanic crust further decreases the temperature at the cold, dry center of the subducting slab. Therefore, the olivine-wadsleyite transformation rate in the slab with hydrated oceanic crust is much slower than that with dry oceanic crust after the slab sinks into the transition zone, extending the metastable olivine to a greater depth. The hydration-reduced thermal conductivity could enable hydrous minerals to survive in deeper mantle and enhance water transportation to the transition zone.

  13. Diffusion-driven magnesium and iron isotope fractionation in Hawaiian olivine (United States)

    Teng, F.-Z.; Dauphas, N.; Helz, R.T.; Gao, S.; Huang, S.


    Diffusion plays an important role in Earth sciences to estimate the timescales of geological processes such as erosion, sediment burial, and magma cooling. In igneous systems, these diffusive processes are recorded in the form of crystal zoning. However, meaningful interpretation of these signatures is often hampered by the fact that they cannot be unambiguously ascribed to a single process (e.g., magmatic fractionation, diffusion limited transport in the crystal or in the liquid). Here we show that Mg and Fe isotope fractionations in olivine crystals can be used to trace diffusive processes in magmatic systems. Over sixty olivine fragments from Hawaiian basalts show isotopically fractionated Mg and Fe relative to basalts worldwide, with up to 0.4??? variation in 26Mg/24Mg ratios and 1.6??? variation in 56Fe/54Fe ratios. The linearly and negatively correlated Mg and Fe isotopic compositions [i.e., ??56Fe=(??3.3??0.3)????26Mg], co-variations of Mg and Fe isotopic compositions with Fe/Mg ratios of olivine fragments, and modeling results based on Mg and Fe elemental profiles demonstrate the coupled Mg and Fe isotope fractionation to be a manifestation of Mg-Fe inter-diffusion in zoned olivines during magmatic differentiation. This characteristic can be used to constrain the nature of mineral zoning in igneous and metamorphic rocks, and hence determine the residence times of crystals in magmas, the composition of primary melts, and the duration of metamorphic events. With improvements in methodology, in situ isotope mapping will become an essential tool of petrology to identify diffusion in crystals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Discriminating between pyroxenite and peridotite sources for continental flood basalts (CFB) in southern Africa using olivine chemistry (United States)

    Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Harris, Chris


    Continental Flood Basalts (CFB) result from voluminous outpourings of magma that often precede continental break-up. Notwithstanding the petrogenetic importance of CFBs, the nature of the mantle source for such magmas is contentious, particularly with regard to picrites with Ni-rich olivine phenocrysts. Previous studies have suggested that Ni-rich olivines associated with plume volcanism in regions of thickened (>90 km) lithosphere are related to either source mineralogy differences (peridotite versus pyroxenite) or change in olivine-melt partitioning due to pressure increase. In order to evaluate these two hypotheses, we present trace element data for olivines from the Karoo CFB Tuli and Mwenezi picrites and the Etendeka CFB Horingbaai/LTZ-L type picrites, all of which erupted in regions of thickened (>90 km) lithosphere in southern Africa. Karoo picrite olivines are Ni-rich, Ca- and Mn-poor, and have low (1.4) 100*Mn/Fe, which is more consistent with high temperature melting of a dominantly peridotitic source. We also show that the Karoo and Etendeka olivines are characterized by distinct Mn/Zn ratios of 15, respectively. In addition, bulk rock geochemical data compilations and previously reported olivine δ18O for Karoo and Etendeka CFBs are discussed in order to further constrain source components based on previously described pyroxenite melt geochemical indices such as MgO-CaO systematics, FeO/MnO, Zn/Fe, and FC3MS (FeO/CaO-3*MgO/SiO2). These geochemical indices suggest a pyroxenite-dominated source for Karoo CFBs as well as for Etendeka ferropicrites whereas a peridotite-dominated source is indicated for Etendeka Horingbaai/LTZ-L type picrites analyzed in this study. Based on our data, Ni-enrichment of olivine in plume-related magmas in regions of thickened lithosphere in southern Africa is not ubiquitous. We therefore suggest that mineralogical variation of the source is a more likely major control of olivine chemistry and parent melt variations for Karoo

  15. Shock-induced ringwoodite rims around olivine fragments in melt vein of Antarctic chondrite GRV022321 : Transforma-tion Mechanism (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Liu, X.; Sharp, T. G.; De Carli, P. S.


    Here we report electron microprobe (EMAP), Raman spectroscopy, and FIB-transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results of the ringwoodite rims around olivine cores in shock-induced melt veins of the Antarctic chondrites GRV022321. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanisms of transformation and Mg-Fe diffusion of the olivine to ringwoodite, and estimate the shock duration using kinetics. GRV022321 chondrite has a network of black veins which enclose abundant host-rock fragments of olivine, partially trans-formed to ringwoodite. Most of the enclosed fragments have sizes ranging from 5 μm to 30 μm, with a brighter rim up to several μm wide and a dark core in reflected light and BSE images. The Raman data reveal that the rim mineral is ringwoodite, and the core minerals are dominated by olivine with minor ringwoodite. EMAP data confirm that the ringwoodite in rim is richer in fay-lite (Fa50) than the olivine core (Fa10). The olivine-rich cores are heterogeneous with variable BSE contrast, and some points have the same Fa value as the host olivine Fa 23. The occurrence of the rounded and smooth grains of partially transformed olivine embedded in the fine matrix in shock-induced melt veins indicates that they were host-rock fragments entrained into the shock melt. The rims of these entrained oli-vines transformed to ringwoodite by solid-state transformation. The variable extent of transformation is likely a result of local temperature variations within the entrained olivines, with the hotter rim regions transforming to ringwoodite. Iron partitioned into the ringwoodite from the cooler olivine core by Mg-Fe interdiffusion. This Fe interdiffusion implies that either the diffusion was very rapid or that the shock duration was very long. We are using ringwoodite growth rates and Fe-Mg diffusion to explore transformation temperatures and times for the growth of fayalite-rich ringwoodite rims. This will be discussed in the context of impact processes.

  16. Syndeformation Chrome Spinels Inclusions in the Plastically Deformed Olivine Aggregates (Kraka Ophiolites, the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of structural, petrographic, mineralogical and chemical studies of dunite veinlets in spinel peridotite from the Kraka ophiolites. It is demonstrated that plastic deformation of polycrystalline olivine, which form dunite, was accompanied by precipitation of impurities (aluminum and chrome as newly formed chrome spinels. The thinnest acicular inclusions of 0.3-0.5 micron thick are aligned in olivine grains along [010] axis. Bigger elongated irregular chrome spinel grains usually occur along grain and sub-grain olivine boundaries, and, occasionally, inside the grains along [100] axis. Alteration from the fine xenomorphic grains of chrome spinels to the bigger idiomorphic crystals was observed. Analogically to dynamic ageing (dispersion hardening in metals, the structural and chemical alterations in dunites are interpreted as deformation induced segregation of impurities. It is suggested that the euhedral chrome spinel grains typical for ophiolitic dunites were formed by coalescence and spheroidization. This process may be a key factor in the formation of ophiolitic chrome ore deposits.

  17. Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Olivine from Comet Wild 2 (United States)


    We have analyzed a collection of the Comet Wild 2 coma grains returned by the NASA Stardust Mission, using micro-area Laue diffraction equipment. The purpose of the diffraction experiment is to permit the structure refinement of olivine including site occupancies. In addition to the intrinsic importance of the olivine structures for revealing the thermal history of Wild 2 materials, we wish to test reports that olivine recovered after hypervelocity capture in silica aerogel has undergone a basic structural change due to capture heating [1]. The diffraction equipment placed at beam line BL- 4B1 of PF, KEK was developed with a micropinhole and an imaging plate (Fuji Co. Ltd.) using the Laue method combined with polychromatic X-ray of synchrotron radiation operated at energy of 2.5 GeV. The incident beam is limited to 1.6 m in diameter by a micropinhole set just upstream of the sample [2, 3]. It is essential to apply a microbeam to obtain diffracted intensities with high signal to noise ratios. This equipment has been successfully applied to various extraterrestrial materials, including meteorites and interplanetary dust particles [4]. The Laue pattern of the sample C2067,1,111,4 (Fig. 1) was successfully taken on an imaging plate after a 120 minute exposure (Fig. 2).

  18. Calculation Of Clinopyroxene And Olivine Growth Rates Using Plagioclase Residence Time (United States)

    Kilinc, A. I.; Borell, A.; Leu, A.


    According to the Crystal Size Distribution theory (CSD) in a plot of logarithm of number of crystals of a given size range per unit volume [ln(n)], against crystal size [L] shows a straight line. Slope of that line is given by where is the crystal residence time and G is the crystal growth rate. Therefore if is known then G can be calculated. We used thin sections of the Kilauea basalt from Hawaii where olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized within a small temperature range, and the crystal growth rate of plagioclase is known. Assuming that crystal residence times of these three minerals are the same, we plotted ln(n) against L and using the slope and the known crystal growth rate of plagioclase we calculated the crystal growth rates of clinopyroxene and olivine. For the clinopyroxene growth rate we report 10-10.9cm/sec, which is in good agreement with Congdon's data of 10-10 cm/sec. We also calculated the growth rate of olivine is a basaltic melt as 10-8.5 cm/sec which is comparable to Jambon.

  19. Morphological changes of olivine grains reacted with amino acid solutions by impact process (United States)

    Umeda, Yuhei; Takase, Atsushi; Fukunaga, Nao; Sekine, Toshimori; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi


    Early oceans on Earth might have contained certain amounts of biomolecules such as amino acids, and they were subjected to meteorite impacts, especially during the late heavy bombardment. We performed shock recovery experiments by using a propellant gun in order to simulate shock reactions among olivine as a representative meteorite component, water and biomolecules in oceans in the process of marine meteorite impacts. In the present study, recovered solid samples were analyzed by using X-ray powder diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The analytical results on shocked products in the recovered sample showed (1) morphological changes of olivine to fiber- and bamboo shoot-like crystals, and to pulverized grains; and features of lumpy surfaces affected by hot water, (2) the formation of carbon-rich substances derived from amino acids, and (3) the incorporation of metals from container into samples. According to the present results, fine-grained olivine in meteorites might have morphologically changed and shock-induced chemical reactions might have been enhanced so that amino acids related to the origin of life may have transformed to carbon-rich substances by impacts.

  20. Mechanisms for Olivine Carbonation at the Nili Fossae/Isidis Basin Boundary, Mars: Evidence of Intense Surface Aqueous Activity (United States)

    Mustard, J. F.


    One of the most extensive surface deposits of carbonate on Mars is on the slopes of the Isidis Basin rising up to the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008; Niles et al., 2012; Edwards and Ehlmann 2015). A key factor for the formation of carbonate in this region is the association of carbonate with olivine: this ubiquitous relationship shows the reactants and products are in direct association. There are four clear hypotheses for the geologic environment of formation. 1) Water-rock interaction in the shallow subsurface at slightly elevated temperatures altered olivine to Mg-carbonate perhaps through extended periods of heat and water with burial leading to olivine-serpentine-talc-chlorite alteration pathway (Brown et al., 2010; Viviano et al., 2013). 2) Olivine-rich material, heated by impact or volcanic processes, emplaced on top of a water-bearing phyllosilicate rich unit initiated hydrothermal alteration along the contact. 3) Olivine-rich rocks were weathered to carbonate at surface (cold) temperatures in a manner similar to olivine weathering of meteorites in Antarctica. 4) Carbonate precipitated from shallow ephemeral lakes. These hypotheses are quite different in their predictions of mineral assemblage, water requirements, and habitability. I will show new data and analyses that are providing insights to the question of the mineralogy and assemblages of carbonate-bearing units in the region, diagostic of processes. It is becoming more evident that surface aqueous activity, perhaps involving an extensive cryosphere in the form of Hesperian ice sheets.

  1. A database of crystal preferred orientation of olivine in upper mantle rocks (United States)

    Mainprice, D.


    Olivine is the most volumetrically abundant mineral in the Earth's upper mantle, as such it dominates the mechanical and physical properties and has a controlling influence of the geodynamics of plate tectonics. Since the pioneering work of Hess and others we know that seismic anisotropy of the shallow mantle is related to olivine and it's crystal preferred orientation (CPO). With advent of plate tectonics the understanding of the key role of peridotite rocks became a major scientific objective and the measurement CPO of olivine in upper mantle samples became an important tool for studying the kinematics of these rocks. Our group originally lead by Adolphe Nicolas introduced the systematic use of CPO measured by U-stage for field studies all over the world for over 30 years, this tradition was extended in last 15 years by the use of electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) to study of CPO and the associated digital microstructure. It is an appropriate time to analysis this significant database of olivine CPO, which represents the work of our group, both present and former members, as well as collaborating colleagues. It is also interesting to compare the natural record as illustrated by our database in the light of recent experimental results stimulated by the extended ranges in temperature, pressure and finite strain, as well as intrinsic olivine variables such as hydrogen content. To analysis the database, which is heterogeneous because it is constructed from the individual work of many people over a 45 year period containing U-stage data and EBSD measurements (manual indexing point per grain, automatic indexing one point per grain, automatic indexing gridded mapping data) of various formats, we need a flexible software tool that can handle large volumes of data in consistent way. We have used the state-of-art open source MTEX toolbox for quantitative texture analysis. MTEX is a scriptable MATLAB toolbox, which permits all aspects of quantitative texture

  2. Investigation of olivine and orthopyroxene grain boundaries by atom probe tomography (United States)

    Krawczynski, M.; Skemer, P. A.; Bachhav, M.; Dong, Y.; Marquis, E. A.


    Accurate chemical analysis at grain boundaries is challenging by traditional microscopic techniques, especially for poor conducting geological samples. Atom probe tomography (APT) is a unique technique that can elucidate chemistry and 3-D distribution of elements within a sample volume at the sub-nanometer length scale. With advances in laser and sample preparation techniques in the last decade, APT is now successfully applied to a wide range of poor conducting materials like metal oxides, ceramics, and biological minerals. In this study, we apply the APT technique to investigate the grain boundary chemistry of orthopyroxene (opx) and olivine. These minerals are the most abundant in the upper mantle and their grain boundaries may be important geochemical reservoirs in Earth. Moreover, physical properties such as grain boundary diffusivity, conductivity, and mobility, are likely influenced by the presence or absence of impurities. Single crystals of opx and olivine grains, separated from a San Carlos xenolith, were deformed at 1 GPa and 1500 K. Plastic deformation promoted dynamic recrystallization, creating new grain boundaries within a chemically homogeneous medium. Needle shaped specimens of opx-opx and olivine-olivine grain boundaries were prepared using standard lift out techniques and a dual beam focused ion beam (FIB). APT analyses were performed in laser mode with laser energy of 50 pJ/pulse, repetition rate of 200 kHz, and detection rate of 1%. A 3-D distribution of elements was reconstructed and 1-D profiles across the grain boundary have been calculated. Fe, Al, and Ca show enrichments at the grain boundaries for both phases, consistent with previous studies that used STEM/EDX or EPMA techniques. Although qualitatively similar, the spatial resolution of the APT method is significantly better than other methods, and our data show that the grain-boundary enrichment of minor elements in both olivine and pyroxene compositions is limited to a region no greater

  3. Crystallization history of enriched shergottites from Fe and Mg isotope fractionation in olivine megacrysts (United States)

    Collinet, Max; Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Oeser, Martin; Médard, Etienne; Weyer, Stefan


    Martian meteorites are the only samples available from the surface of Mars. Among them, olivine-phyric shergottites are basalts containing large zoned olivine crystals with highly magnesian cores (Fo 70-85) and rims richer in Fe (Fo 45-60). The Northwest Africa 1068 meteorite is one of the most primitive ;enriched; shergottites (high initial 87Sr/86Sr and low initial ε143Nd). It contains olivine crystals as magnesian as Fo 77 and is a major source of information to constrain the composition of the parental melt, the composition and depth of the mantle source, and the cooling and crystallization history of one of the younger magmatic events on Mars (∼180 Ma). In this study, Fe-Mg isotope profiles analyzed in situ by femtosecond-laser ablation MC-ICP-MS are combined with compositional profiles of major and trace elements in olivine megacrysts. The cores of olivine megacrysts are enriched in light Fe isotopes (δ56FeIRMM-14 = -0.6 to -0.9‰) and heavy Mg isotopes (δ26MgDSM-3 = 0-0.2‰) relative to megacryst rims and to the bulk martian isotopic composition (δ56Fe = 0 ± 0.05‰, δ26Mg = -0.27 ± 0.04‰). The flat forsterite profiles of megacryst cores associated with anti-correlated fractionation of Fe-Mg isotopes indicate that these elements have been rehomogenized by diffusion at high temperature. We present a 1-D model of simultaneous diffusion and crystal growth that reproduces the observed element and isotope profiles. The simulation results suggest that the cooling rate during megacryst core crystallization was slow (43 ± 21 °C/year), and consistent with pooling in a deep crustal magma chamber. The megacryst rims then crystallized 1-2 orders of magnitude faster during magma transport toward the shallower site of final emplacement. Megacryst cores had a forsterite content 3.2 ± 1.5 mol% higher than their current composition and some were in equilibrium with the whole-rock composition of NWA 1068 (Fo 80 ± 1.5). NWA 1068 composition is thus close to a

  4. The Thermal Evolution of the Galapagos Mantle Plume: Insights from Al-in-Olivine Thermometry (United States)

    Trela, J.; Gazel, E.; Sobolev, A. V.; Class, C.; Bizimis, M.; Jicha, B. R.; Batanova, V. G.; Denyer, P.


    The mantle plume hypothesis is widely accepted for the formation of large igneous provinces (LIP) and many ocean island basalts (OIB). Petrologic models support a mantle plume origin by indicating high mantle temperatures (>1500 °C) for some plume-melts relative to melts generated at ambient mid ocean ridge conditions (1350 °C). Mantle plumes forming LIPs and OIBs provide our primary source of information on the geochemical and lithological heterogeneity of the lower mantle. The Galapagos hotspot represents one of the most thermally and geochemically heterogeneous plumes on the planet, sustaining long-lived isotopic and lithological heterogeneity over its 90 Ma evolution. Previous petrologic studies showed that the Galapagos plume secularly cooled over time and that the decrease in the plume's temperature correlates with an increase in a recycled (pyroxenite) component. We used Al-in-olivine thermometry to show that maximum olivine crystallization temperatures confirm secular cooling of the Galapagos plume. Olivines from the early melting stages of the plume at 90 Ma (Caribbean LIP) record the highest crystallization temperatures (1600 °C). Olivines from the current archipelago record the lowest temperatures of only 1300 °C. The largest decrease in temperature occurred between 90 and 70 Ma ( 200 °C decrease) and coincides with the plume head-tail transition. Olivines from the 60-90 Ma-old accreted Galapagos-tracks in Costa Rica and Panama record higher Ni, Fe/Mn, and lower Ca contents than those from the present-day archipelago, indicating a higher abundance of pyroxenite (recycled oceanic crust) entrained in parts of the plume head that melted to form the Caribbean LIP. However, the Galapagos plume was pyroxenite-rich for 40 Ma thus pyroxenite-entrainment goes beyond the plume-tail transition. Our results suggest that hotter regions of the Galapagos plume entrained larger amounts of dense, recycled components due to their greater buoyancy; however, this

  5. Incompatible Trace Elements in Olivine: Using Sc, Y and V as Temperature and Redox Monitors in Basaltic Magmas (United States)

    Mallmann, G.; O'Neill, H. S.


    Olivine is the dominant constituent phase of the Earth's upper mantle and the first silicate mineral to crystallize from primitive basaltic melts on cooling following decompression. The physical and chemical properties of olivine have, therefore, been of great interest to geochemists and geophysicists. Yet, olivine is so poor in incompatible trace elements (phosphorus being the exception) that it features in much geochemical modeling merely as an inert dilutant. Consequently, our understanding of incompatible trace-element partitioning between olivine and silicate melt has lagged behind that of phases such as pyroxenes or garnet, which control bulk crystal/melt partitioning behavior during mantle melting. Advances in trace-element microanalysis, particularly LA-ICP-MS, have now placed the determination of incompatible elements in natural olivines within reach, and recent studies have shown that mantle and magmatic olivines can preserve complex intracrystalline distributions of these elements. The combined major and trace element compositions of phenocrystal olivines could, therefore, provide unique and detailed insights into magmatic evolution. The course of evolution of basaltic magmas depends substantially on their redox state, hence oxygen fugacity, but there is increasing evidence that this intensive thermodynamic variable may be less well understood in basalts than commonly supposed. The redox state of terrestrial basalts has to a large extent been inferred from the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios of their quenched glasses. However, this quantity appears to be significantly affected during late and post-eruptive processes in magmatic systems (e.g. by degassing, charge-transfer reactions of redox-variable species, and alteration), so that the degree to which the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios preserved in basaltic glasses reflect the oxidation state of the magma at high temperature is unclear. The equilibrium partitioning relations preserved in olivine phenocrysts in basalts are, in

  6. Phenocrysts and megacrysts of olivines from ultramafic lamprophyres of the Chadobets and Il'bokich uplifts, Southwestern Siberia (United States)

    Smirnova, Maria; Sazonova, Lyudmila; Nosova, Anna; Kargin, Alexey; Shcherbakov, Vasiliy


    The study of composition and zoning of olivines from ultramafic lamprophyres of the SW Siberian craton allowed us to distinguish their main types (phenocrysts and megacrysts) and to estimate the possible P-T conditions of phenocryst crystallization. The studied rocks occur as sills and dikes in the Chadobets and Il'bokich uplifts of the Irkeneeva-Chadobets trough. The ultramafic lamprophyres of these uplifts are spaced around 80 km apart and differ in age by more than 150 Ma. The rocks of the Il'bokich Uplift are dated at Devonian, while the age of the Chadobets Complex is restricted to the Triassic. The episodes of these complexes formation were separated by the large flood basalt event. According to classification (Tappe et al., 2005), the studied rocks are aillikite and damtjernite. Olivine phenocrysts from the rocks of the Il'bokich and Chadobets complexes are represented by sub- and euhedral grains. They are composed of core, transitional zone, and rim. Olivine cores in the aillikites of the Il'bokich Complex are characterized by Mg# 89; CaO - 0.13-0.14 wt %; TiO2 around 0.03 wt %, Al - 200-380 ppm, and Cr - 130-340 ppm. The cores of phenocrysts from the Chadobets lamprophyres have Mg# 85-87, CaO varying within 0.1-0.2 wt %, and TiO2 - 0.02-0.05 wt %. The megacrysts differ from the phenocrysts of these rocks in the lower Mg# 83-84 and CaO - 0.08-0.14 wt % at higher TiO2 - 0.04-0.05 wt %. Al - 100-700 ppm, Cr - 20-65 ppm. The most striking difference between olivines of the two complexes is observed between their Mg#-Ni relations. The cores of olivine phenocrysts from the Il'bokich lamprophyres are characterized by the high Mg number (Mg# = 89) and Ni content (2800-3000 ppm), whereas olivine cores of the Chadobets aillikites have higher contents of Ni (3000-3500 ppm) at lowered (Mg# = 86-88). These characteristics reflect the compositions of their protolith. The temperature was estimated using monomineral olivine thermometer based on the contents of Cr and Al

  7. High pressure and temperature deformation experiments on San Carlos olivine and implications for upper mantle anisotropy (United States)

    Shekhar, Sushant; Frost, Daniel J.; Walte, Nicolas; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Heidelbach, Florian


    Crystallographic preferred orientation developed in olivine due to shearing in the mantle is thought to be the prominent reason behind seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Seismic anisotropy in upper mantle can be observed up to a depth of 350 km with a marked drop in the strength of anisotropy seen around 250 km. Studies on natural rock samples from the mantle and deformation experiments performed on olivine have revealed that olivine deforms mainly through dislocation creep with Burgers vectors parallel to the [100] crystallographic axis under low pressure conditions (up to 3 GPa). Under similar pressures, evidence of [001] slip has been reported due to the presence of water. In order to understand the deformation mechanism in olivine at pressures greater than 3 GPa, we have performed experiments using the deformation DIA multi-anvil apparatus. The DIA consist of 6 square faceted anvils that compress a cubic high-pressure assembly. The deformation DIA possesses two vertically acting opposing inner rams, which can be operated independently of the main compressive force to deform the sample assembly. The experimental setup consists of a hot-pressed sample of polycrystalline dry San Carlos olivine 0.2 mm cut from a 1.2 mm diameter core at 45° . This slice is sandwiched between alumina pistons also cut at 45° in simple shear geometry. Experiments have been performed at 3, 5 and 8 GPa at a deformation anvil strain rate of 1.0x10-4 s-1and temperatures between 1200-1400° C. Deformed samples were cut normal to the shear plane and parallel to the shear direction. Then the sample was polished and analyzed using electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) to identify the crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). The fabric that developed in olivine deformed at 3 GPa mainly resulted from the [100] slip on the (010) plane. Samples deformed at 5 GPa showed both [100] and [001] slip. On the other hand, samples deformed at 8 GPa and 1200° C, show deformation mainly

  8. CO2 Geological Storage in Olivine Rich Basaltic Aquifers: New Insights From Flow-Through Experiments (United States)

    Peuble, S.; Godard, M.; Luquot, L.; Gibert, B.; Mainprice, D.; Martinez, I.; Gouze, P.


    Injection of CO2-rich fluids into (ultra-)mafic aquifers is one of the methods envisaged for mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. These rocks, rich in Mg, Fe and Ca, have a high potential to trap CO2 as carbonates minerals. However, the role of reaction-transport processes has not been investigated to predict the capacity and sustainability for CO2 storage in these highly reactive systems. We performed three percolation-reaction experiments on the ICARE-2 bench (Luquot et al., 2012) at 180°C and total pressure of 12 MPa. NaHCO3 rich water (0.5 mol/L) mixed with CO2 (Pco2 = 10 MPa) were injected at an initial injection rate of 1 mL/h for exp. 1 and 2, and 0.1 mL/h for exp. 3 into sintered olivine analogues of accumulation zones in basaltic flows. The sintered samples comprise mainly olivine Fo87 (Mg1.75Fe0.24Ni0.01SiO4) with minor basalt and spinel (Mg0.57Cr1.19Ti0.03Mn0.01Fe0.66Al0.54O4). The initial porosity and permeability of samples ranges from 4 to 7 % and 30x10-18 to 400x10-18 m2 respectively. All experiments resulted in a strong permeability decrease (down to 10-18 m2) after 90 hours for exp. 1 and 2 and 55 hours for exp 3. The enrichment in several major and trace elements observed in outlet fluids indicates that dissolution of olivine (Si, Co), basalt (Al, Zr) and spinel (Cr, V) occurred, while the depleted Ca and Mg composition of outlet fluids indicates precipitation of Ca-Mg rich phases. Analyses of reacted samples indicate that all basalt grains were dissolved and the spatial distribution of etch pits on forsterite surfaces suggest the anisotropic dissolution of olivine. Ankerite and calcite is observed in pores of samples after exp. 1 and 2, and well-developed magnesite (Mg0.88Fe0.11Ca0.01CO3) and dolomite replacing dissolved olivine is found in exp.3 sample. The (001) planes of magnesite and dolomite are parallel to the (100) plane of forsterite. Downstream, no carbonates were found but the growth of relatively large (up to 5 µm

  9. Experimental investigation of As, Sb and Cs behavior during olivine serpentinization in hydrothermal alkaline systems (United States)

    Lafay, Romain; Montes-Hernandez, German; Janots, Emilie; Munoz, Manuel; Auzende, Anne Line; Gehin, Antoine; Chiriac, Rodica; Proux, Olivier


    While Fluid-Mobile Elements (FMEs) such as B, Sb, Li, As or Cs are particularly concentrated in serpentinites, data on FME fluid-serpentine partitioning, distribution, and sequestration mechanisms are missing. In the present experimental study, the behavior of Sb, As and Cs during San Carlos olivine serpentinization was investigated using accurate mineralogical, geochemical, and spectroscopic characterization. Static-batch experiments were conducted at 200 °C, under saturated vapor pressure (≈1.6 MPa), for initial olivine grain sizes of product content was determined as a function of reaction advancement for the different initial olivine grain sizes investigated. The results confirm that serpentinization products have a high FME uptake capacity with the partitioning coefficient increasing such as CsDp/fl = 1.5-1.6 products, especially brucite. In contrast, mineralogical characterization combined with XAS spectroscopy reveal redox sensitivity for Sb sequestration within serpentine products, depending on the progress of the reaction. When serpentinization is products is observed and is attributed to a reduction of Sb(V) into Sb(III). This stage is characterized by the precipitation of Sb-Ni-rich phases and a lower bulk partitioning coefficient compared to that of the serpentine and brucite assemblage. Antimony reduction appears linked to water reduction accompanying the bulk iron oxidation, as half the initial Fe(II) is oxidized into Fe(III) and incorporated into the serpentine products once the reaction is over. The reduction of Sb implies a decrease of its solubility, but the type of secondary Sb-rich phases identified here might not be representative of natural systems where Sb concentrations are lower. These results bring new insights into the uptake of FME by sorption on serpentine products that may form in hydrothermal environments at low temperatures. FME sequestration here appears to be sensitive to various physicochemical parameters and more particularly

  10. Natural fumarolic alteration of fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass, and implications for habitable environments on Mars. (United States)

    Hausrath, Elisabeth M; Tschauner, Oliver


    Fumaroles represent a very important potential habitat on Mars because they contain water and nutrients. Global deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols may also have been an important soil-forming process affecting large areas of Mars. Here we identify alteration from the Senator fumarole, northwest Nevada, USA, and in low-temperature environments near the fumarole to help interpret fumarolic and acid vapor alteration of rocks and soils on Mars. We analyzed soil samples and fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass placed at and near the fumarole in in situ mineral alteration experiments designed to measure weathering under natural field conditions. Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we clearly observe hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing fluorapatite as a fumarolic alteration product of the original material, fluorapatite. The composition of apatites as well as secondary phosphates has been previously used to infer magmatic conditions as well as fumarolic conditions on Mars. To our knowledge, the observations reported here represent the first documented instance of formation of hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing apatite from fluorapatite in a field experiment. Retreat of olivine surfaces, as well as abundant NH4-containing minerals, was also characteristic of fumarolic alteration. In contrast, alteration in the nearby low-temperature environment resulted in formation of large pits on olivine surfaces, which were clearly distinguishable from the fumarolic alteration. Raman signatures of some fumarolically impacted surfaces are consistent with detection of the biological molecules chlorophyll and scytenomin, potentially useful biosignatures. Observations of altered minerals on Mars may therefore help identify the environment of formation and understand the aqueous history and potential habitability of that planet.

  11. Hydrogen self-diffusion in single crystal olivine and electrical conductivity of the Earth's mantle. (United States)

    Novella, Davide; Jacobsen, Benjamin; Weber, Peter K; Tyburczy, James A; Ryerson, Frederick J; Du Frane, Wyatt L


    Nominally anhydrous minerals formed deep in the mantle and transported to the Earth's surface contain tens to hundreds of ppm wt H 2 O, providing evidence for the presence of dissolved water in the Earth's interior. Even at these low concentrations, H 2 O greatly affects the physico-chemical properties of mantle materials, governing planetary dynamics and evolution. The diffusion of hydrogen (H) controls the transport of H 2 O in the Earth's upper mantle, but is not fully understood for olivine ((Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 ) the most abundant mineral in this region. Here we present new hydrogen self-diffusion coefficients in natural olivine single crystals that were determined at upper mantle conditions (2 GPa and 750-900 °C). Hydrogen self-diffusion is highly anisotropic, with values at 900 °C of 10 -10.9 , 10 -12.8 and 10 -11.9 m 2 /s along [100], [010] and [001] directions, respectively. Combined with the Nernst-Einstein relation, these diffusion results constrain the contribution of H to the electrical conductivity of olivine to be σ H  = 10 2.12 S/m·C H2O ·exp -187kJ/mol/(RT) . Comparisons between the model presented in this study and magnetotelluric measurements suggest that plausible H 2 O concentrations in the upper mantle (≤250 ppm wt) can account for high electrical conductivity values (10 -2 -10 -1  S/m) observed in the asthenosphere.

  12. Upper mantle seismic anisotropy and the evolution of olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (United States)

    Boneh, Y.; Skemer, P. A.


    Seismic anisotropy is often used to infer the kinematics of upper mantle flow. In order to interpret seismic anisotropy in terms of mantle flow we must understand how deformation in the mantle yields an anisotropic medium. The anisotropy beneath the lithosphere results mainly from the development of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of olivine. The relationships among the imposed strain and deformation geometry, and the consequent symmetry, strength and orientation of olivine CPO, are the foundations for the interpretation of seismic anisotropy. Here we present results from experiments and numerical models that show how olivine CPO evolves from a pre-existing texture and the importance of considering previous deformation stages when interpreting seismic anisotropy. First, we show results from high P - T experiments performed on Åheim dunite, which has a strong initial texture that we orient at 0°, 45°, and 90° to the axis of compression. The experiments show that up to strains of 0.7 the three configurations evolve differently from one another and do not reach steady-state. The experimental results are then compared to numerical simulations using a Viscoplastic Self Consistent (VPSC) approach, and D-Rex, a kinematic model which incorporates dynamic recrystallization. It is shown that the long transient stage of textural re-alignment observed in the experiments is also predicted by the models. In order to characterize the impact of this transitional stage on seismological observations, D-Rex is used to simulate CPO development for a range of plausible flow models. The MSAT software package is then used to simulate a synthetic wavelet and its predicted splitting parameters. Combining these two numerical tools allows us to characterize the seismic anisotropy signature of various mantle flow kinematics and to later compare these results to seismic observations and geodynamic models.

  13. Atomistic and infrared study of CO-water amorphous ice onto olivine dust grain (United States)

    Escamilla-Roa, Elizabeth; Moreno, Fernando; López-Moreno, J. Juan; Sainz-Díaz, C. Ignacio


    This work is a study of CO and H2O molecules as adsorbates that interact on the surface of olivine dust grains. Olivine (forsterite) is present on the Earth, planetary dust, in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in particular in comets. The composition of amorphous ice is very important for the interpretation of processes that occur in the solar system and the ISM. Dust particles in ISM are composed of a heterogeneous mixture of amorphous or crystalline silicates (e.g. olivine) organic material, carbon, and other minor constituents. These dust grains are embedded in a matrix of ices, such as H2O, CO, CO2, NH3, and CH4. We consider that any amorphous ice will interact and grow faster on dust grain surfaces. In this work we explore the adsorption of CO-H2O amorphous ice onto several (100) forsterite surfaces (dipolar and non-dipolar), by using first principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). These models are applied to two possible situations: i) adsorption of CO molecules mixed into an amorphous ice matrix (gas mixture) and adsorbed directly onto the forsterite surface. This interaction has lower adsorption energy than polar molecules (H2O and NH3) adsorbed on this surface; ii) adsorption of CO when the surface has previously been covered by amorphous water ice (onion model). In this case the calculations show that adsorption energy is low, indicating that this interaction is weak and therefore the CO can be desorbed with a small increase of temperature. Vibration spectroscopy for the most stable complex was also studied and the frequencies were in good agreement with experimental frequency values.

  14. Olivine compositions from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project, Phase 2: Evidence for a peridotite mantle source region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putirka, K D; Ryerson, F J


    To the extent that mantle plumes reflect whole mantle convection, Hawaii may provide the clearest window into Earth's lower mantle. Samples from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) thus provide valuable tests for models of mantle mineralogy and composition. In this vein, it has been argued recently that Hawaiian olivines, especially those from the shield-building phase as sampled by HSDP, are so high in Ni (Sobolev et al., 2005, 2007), and that Hawaiian whole rocks are so low in CaO (Herzberg, 2006) and high in SiO{sub 2} (Hauri, 1996) that a peridotite mantle source cannot generate such compositions. The Hawaiian plume, so the argument goes, is thus supposedly rich in pyroxenite, and possibly olivine-free. However, comparisons of HSDP olivines to lherzolites, and HSDP whole rocks to lherzolites and partial melting experiments belie these premises. Testable predictions of the pyroxenite model also fail. New comparisons instead show that Hawaiian lavas can be produced from a peridotite source. First, it is unclear that the Hawaiian source is enriched in NiO. The NiO contents of olivines hosted by lherzolites (GEOROC) have the same range as olivines from the HSDP; indeed, the maximum NiO for olivines from lherzolites (0.6 wt.%) is as high as that reported for olivines from any oceanic volcano locality. There is a compositional separation between lherzolite- and HSDP-hosted olivines. But HSDP olivines are not NiO enriched so much as lherzolite olivines are higher in Fo at a given NiO. Lower Fo contents at Hawaii (at a given NiO) ensue because olivine compositions there follow a liquid line of descent, where both Ni and Mg decrease with differentiation. In contrast, subsolidus equilibria involving orthopyroxene enforce a higher and less variable Fo content for lherzolite-derived olivines. Moreover, the pyroxenite mantle model predicts that whole rocks with low CaO and high SiO{sub 2} should host olivines with high NiO. But in HSDP samples, neither

  15. Mechanically Activated Olivine as Feedstock for Ex-situ Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Preliminary Experiments (United States)

    Haug, A.; Munz, I. A.; Kihle, J.


    Fossil fuel power plants need sequestration to significantly lower CO2 emissions. In nature, Mg- and Ca- rich silicates react with CO2(aq) and perform a natural sequestration by dissolution of silicates and a later precipitation of carbonates. This type of sequestration is environmentally friendly and stable. One severe problem with adopting this method for industrial processes is the slow reaction rate. For mineral carbonation to be an alternative, reaction rates have to be increased. Pretreatment methods involving mechanical, chemical or physical treatment can increase the rate. Resources of suitable minerals are also acquired. One abundant Mg-rich silicate mineral is olivine. Forsterite is olivine containing only Mg. An experimental study of an aqueous flow-through process was done with olivine(Fo93) reacted at 128°C and 150 bars in fluid flow of 0.15 ml/min CO2 and 0.75 ml/min H2O. The total duration of the experiments varied between 19 and 71h. With a total of 2,22 mol % CO2 in the mixture, the fluid had two phases and 1,68 mol % CO2 dissolved in the H2O phase. The chosen pretreatment was mechanical activation (energy intensive milling). Influence of activation can not solely be explained by the decreased particle size. Mechanical activation also disturbs the crystal lattice, leading to amorphization. Distorted bonds in the crystal lattice due to deformation and micro fractures are also important features. The activation was done in a Fritsch mono planetary mill for 0-60 minutes, 20 grams of olivine, and 2ml DI H2O added to some samples. An observed effect was non-stochiometric dissolution in the first 20-60 minutes, with max Mg:Si = 10.5 (material molar ratio=1.86). After the initial reactions, Mg:Si stabilized near stochiometric values (1.73-1.94). Geochemical modeling of the reference material indicates subsaturation of forsterite (log Q/K ≤ -11), serpentine (log Q/K ≤ -177), and magnesite (log Q/K ≤ -1.4).

  16. Deuterium-Hydrogen Interdiffusion in Olivine: Implications for Point Defects and Electrical Conductivity (United States)

    Tyburczy, J. A.; Du Frane, W. L.


    Knowledge about hydrogen diffusivity in mantle minerals is critical for determining mantle hydrogen distribution, and additionally for understanding point defects. Chemical diffusion of hydrogen in olivine depends on self diffusion and concentration of hydrogen and other point defects, such as small polarons and metal vacancies. In this study we measured hydrogen self diffusion in olivine, and we compare these values to those previously reported for chemical 1-H redox exchange DExch. Deuterium 2-H was interdiffused into hydrogen 1-H saturated single crystals of San Carlos olivine between 750-900 °C at 2 GPa. We measured and fit the resulting 2-H and 1-H profiles to obtain the interdiffusion coefficient DH,[100] = 10^(-5.04+/-1.43)*e(-137+/-31kJ/mol)/(RT) m^2/s. This is ~1 log unit lower than DExch,[100], with similar activation energy Ea,[100]. DH is anisotropic with DH,[001] = 10^(-12.0+/-0.2) m^2/s at 900 °C and 2 GPa; only upper bound estimates for DH,[010] could be determined from our experiments. We use DH,[100] and DExch,[100] to calculate the small polaron diffusion coefficient associated with redox exchange Dh,[100] = 10^-3.90*e(-142kJ/mol)/(RT) m^2/s. Dh,[100] is combined with reported values for DExch,[010] and DExch,[010] to calculate values for DH,[010] and DH,[001] that are consistent with our upper bound estimates. These DH values, both measured and derived, are used with the Nernst-Einstein relation to calculate the electrical conductivity σ by hydrogen in olivine σH. We calculate σH = 10^1.63*e(-126kJ/mol)/(RT) S/m, which is similar in magnitude to the lower range of reported σ measurements. This similarly suggests that hydrogen alone cannot account for high σ anomalies observed at asthenospheric depths (~10^-2 to ~10^-1 S/m). The Ea for hydrogen mobility/diffusion we calculate are higher (~40% for 100 ppmw H2O) than those derived from previous σ measurements. This work supported by NSF EAR 0739050 to J. A. Tyburczy and R. Hervig. The SIMS

  17. Viscosity measurements of subliquidus magmas: Alkali olivine basalt from the Higashi-Matsuura district, Southwest Japan (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hidemi; Sato, Hiroaki


    We carried out viscosity measurements and sampling of a crystal suspension derived from alkali olivine basalt from the Matsuura district, SW Japan, at subliquidus temperatures from 1230 °C to 1140 °C under 1 atm with NNO oxygen buffered conditions. Viscosity increased from 31 to 1235 Pa s with a decrease in temperature from 1230 to 1140 °C. On cooling, olivine first appeared at 1210 °C, followed by plagioclase at 1170 °C. The crystal content of the sample attained 31 vol.% at 1140 °C (plagioclase 22%, olivine 9%). Non-Newtonian behaviors, including thixotropy and shear thinning, were pronounced in the presence of tabular plagioclase crystals. The cause of such behavior is discussed in relation to shear-induced changes in melt-crystal textures. Relative viscosities, ηr (= ηs / ηm, where ηs and ηm are the viscosities of the suspension and the melt, respectively), were obtained by calculating melt viscosities from the melt composition and temperature at 1 atm using the equation proposed by Giordano and Dingwell [Giordano, D., Dingwell, D.B., 2003. Non-Arrhenian multicomponent melt viscosity: a model. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 208, 337-349.]. The obtained relative viscosities are generally consistent with the Einstein-Roscoe relation, which represents ηr for suspensions that contain equant and equigranular crystals, even though the crystal suspension analyzed in the present experiments contained tabular plagioclase and granular olivine of various grain sizes. This consistency is attributed to the fact that the effect of crystal shape was counterbalanced by the effect of the dispersion of crystal size. The applicability of the Einstein-Roscoe equation with respect to crystal shape is discussed on the basis of the present experimental results. Our experiments and those of Sato [Sato, H., 2005. Viscosity measurement of subliquidus magmas: 1707 basalt of Fuji volcano. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 100, 133-142.] show that the

  18. Olivine anisotropy suggests Gutenberg discontinuity is not the base of the lithosphere (United States)

    Hansen, Lars N.; Qi, Chao; Warren, Jessica M.


    Tectonic plates are a key feature of Earth’s structure, and their behavior and dynamics are fundamental drivers in a wide range of large-scale processes. The operation of plate tectonics, in general, depends intimately on the manner in which lithospheric plates couple to the convecting interior. Current debate centers on whether the transition from rigid lithosphere to flowing asthenosphere relates to increases in temperature or to changes in composition such as the presence of a small amount of melt or an increase in water content below a specified depth. Thus, the manner in which the rigid lithosphere couples to the flowing asthenosphere is currently unclear. Here we present results from laboratory-based torsion experiments on olivine aggregates with and without melt, yielding an improved database describing the crystallographic alignment of olivine grains. We combine this database with a flow model for oceanic upper mantle to predict the structure of the seismic anisotropy beneath ocean basins. Agreement between our model and seismological observations supports the view that the base of the lithosphere is thermally controlled. This model additionally supports the idea that discontinuities in velocity and anisotropy, often assumed to be the base of the lithosphere, are, instead, intralithospheric features reflecting a compositional boundary established at midocean ridges, not a rheological boundary.

  19. Catalytic reforming of toluene as tar model compound: effect of Ce and Ce-Mg promoter using Ni/olivine catalyst. (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqin; Wang, Huajian; Hou, Xiaoxue


    Tar produced by biomass gasification as a route of renewable energy must be removed before the gas can be used. This study was undertaken using toluene as a model tar compound for evaluating its steam reforming conversion with three Ni-based catalysts, Ni/olivine, Ni-Ce/olivine and Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine. Effects of Ce and Mg promoters on the reaction activity and coke deposition were studied. Overall the performance of Ce and Mg promoted Ni/olivine catalysts is better than that of only Ce promoter and Ni/olivine alone. The experimental results indicate that Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine catalysts could improve the resistance to carbon deposition, enhance energy gases yield and resist 10ppm H2S poison at 100mLmin(-1) for up to 400min. Furthermore, the activity of catalysts was related to the steam/carbon (S/C) ratios; at S/C ratio=5, T=790°C, space velocity=782h(-1) and t=2h, the Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine system yielded 89% toluene conversion, 5.6Lh(-1) product gas rate, 62.6mol% H2 content and 10% (mol useful gas mol(-1) toluene) energy yield. Moreover, at low S/C ratio, it had higher reaction activity and better ability to prevent coking. There is a small amount of carbon deposition in the form of amorphous carbon after 7h. Various characterization techniques such as XRD, FTIR and thermogravimetric were performed to investigate the coke deposition of Ni/olivine, Ni-Ce/olivine and Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine. It is suggested that 3% Ni-1% Ce-1% Mg/olivine was the most promising catalyst due to its minimum coke amount and the lower activation energy of coke burning. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effect of Fe Content on Olivine Viscosity at the P-T Conditions of Terrestrial-Planet Interiors (United States)

    Raterron, P.; Holyoke, C. W., III; Tokle, L.; Hilairet, N.; Merkel, S.; Hirth, G.; Weidner, D. J.


    The top parts of the mantle of terrestrial planets are olivine-rich, with Fe/(Mg+Fe) ratio lower than 2% for Mercury, up to 25-30% for Mars, and intermediate compositions for the Earth, the Moon and Venus. Results of experiments at low pressure (Zhao et al., 2009, EPSL, 287, 229-240) indicate that increasing Fe content dramatically decreases olivine viscosity. Thus, the Martian upper mantle may be 10 times less viscous than the Earth's at the same conditions. However, there is no data available on the effect of iron on olivine plasticity at pressures relevant to planetary interiors. We deformed polycrystalline olivine specimens with various Fe contents ranging from 0% (pure forsterite) to 100% (pure fayalite), at temperatures (T) in excess of 1000°C and pressures (P) in the range of 2 - 6 GPa, in the Deformation-DIA apparatus (D-DIA) coupled with X-ray synchrotron radiation. Pressure, differential stress and strain rate were measured in situ by X-ray diffraction and radiography. Stacked cylindrical specimens with different iron contents were deformed in series to compare their viscosities at identical T, P and differential stress. We observed that increasing pressure dramatically decreases the viscosity contrast between Fe-poor olivine and Fe-rich olivine, while increasing differential stress has the opposite effect. Hence, the range of viscosities expected in planetary mantles - in the low-P and high-stress regime of the uppermost mantle and in the high-P and low-stress regime of the deep mantle - may be radically different, depending on their iron contents. We will present these new data which may have significant implications for the convection mode and thermal history of terrestrial-planet mantles.

  1. Evidence for fractional crystallization of wadsleyite and ringwoodite from olivine melts in chondrules entrained in shock-melt veins (United States)

    Miyahara, Masaaki; El Goresy, Ahmed; Ohtani, Eiji; Nagase, Toshiro; Nishijima, Masahiko; Vashaei, Zahra; Ferroir, Tristan; Gillet, Philippe; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Simionovici, Alexandre


    Peace River is one of the few shocked members of the L-chondrites clan that contains both high-pressure polymorphs of olivine, ringwoodite and wadsleyite, in diverse textures and settings in fragments entrained in shock-melt veins. Among these settings are complete olivine porphyritic chondrules. We encountered few squeezed and flattened olivine porphyritic chondrules entrained in shock-melt veins of this meteorite with novel textures and composition. The former chemically unzoned (Fa24–26) olivine porphyritic crystals are heavily flattened and display a concentric intergrowth with Mg-rich wadsleyite of a very narrow compositional range (Fa6–Fa10) in the core. Wadsleyite core is surrounded by a Mg-poor and chemically stark zoned ringwoodite (Fa28–Fa38) belt. The wadsleyite–ringwoodite interface denotes a compositional gap of up to 32 mol % fayalite. A transmission electron microscopy study of focused ion beam slices in both regions indicates that the wadsleyite core and ringwoodite belt consist of granoblastic-like intergrowth of polygonal crystallites of both ringwoodite and wadsleyite, with wadsleyite crystallites dominating in the core and ringwoodite crystallites dominating in the belt. Texture and compositions of both high-pressure polymorphs are strongly suggestive of formation by a fractional crystallization of the olivine melt of a narrow composition (Fa24–26), starting with Mg-rich wadsleyite followed by the Mg-poor ringwoodite from a shock-induced melt of olivine composition (Fa24–26). Our findings could erase the possibility of the resulting unrealistic time scales of the high-pressure regime reported recently from other shocked L-6 chondrites. PMID:18562280

  2. Deducing Wild 2 Components with a Statistical Dataset of Olivine in Chondrite Matrix (United States)

    Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, M. E.; Le, L.


    Introduction: A preliminary exam of the Wild 2 olivine yielded a major element distribution that is strikingly similar to those for aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM, and CR) [1], in which FeO-rich olivine is preferentially altered. With evidence lacking for large-scale alteration in Wild 2, the mechanism for this apparent selectivity is poorly understood. We use a statistical approach to explain this distribution in terms of relative contributions from different chondrite forming regions. Samples and Analyses: We have made a particular effort to obtain the best possible analyses of both major and minor elements in Wild 2 olivine and the 5-30 micrometer population in chondrite matrix. Previous studies of chondrite matrix either include larger isolated grains (not found in the Wild 2 collection) or lack minor element abundances. To overcome this gap in the existing data, we have now compiled greater than 10(exp 3) EPMA analyses of matrix olivine in CI, CM, CR, CH, Kakangari, C2-ungrouped, and the least equilibrated CO, CV, LL, and EH chondrites. Also, we are acquiring TEM/EDXS analyses of the Wild 2 olivine with 500s count times, to reduce relative errors of minor elements with respect to those otherwise available. Results: Using our Wild 2 analyses and those from [2], the revised major element distribution is more similar to anhydrous IDPs than previous results, which were based on more limited statistics (see figure below). However, a large frequency peak at Fa(sub 0-1) still persists. All but one of these grains has no detectable Cr, which is dissimilar to the Fa(sub 0-1) found in the CI and CM matrices. In fact, Fa(sub 0-1) with strongly depleted Cr content is a composition that appears to be unique to Kakangari and enstatite (highly reduced) chondrites. We also note the paucity of Fa(sub greater than 58), which would typically indicate crystallization in a more oxidizing environment [3]. We conclude that, relative to the bulk of anhydrous IDPs

  3. Melting mode and source lithology inferred from trace element systematic in historical olivine from Lanzarote, Canary Islands (United States)

    Gómez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Guðfinnsson, Guðmundur H.


    Trace element concentrations and ratios in olivine phenocrysts, such as fractionation-corrected Ni x (FeO/MgO) and Fe/Mn, have been shown useful as probes of pyroxenite derived component in mixtures of primary mantle melts (e.g. Sobolev et al., 2007). For instance, higher Ni and lower Mn and Ca contents are expected in partial melts of pyroxenite compared to those of lherzolite. We have measured trace element concentrations in olivine from 1730-1736 AD (Timanfaya) and 1824 AD eruptions in Lanzarote (Canary Islands), which erupted mafic and mantle nodule bearing magmas, ranging in composition from highly silica-undersaturated basanite through alkali basalt to tholeiite. The early basanite exhibit the largest olivine trace element variation covering the range of those from MORB and OIB worldwide, whereas later erupted tholeiite have values typical from pyroxenite derived melts. The Fo value decreased systematically with time during the 1730-36 eruption and the proportion of silica-saturated primary melt increased in the parental magma mixture with time. At the end of the eruption, tholeiite magmas crystallized olivine with, increasing concentrations of Mn and Ca and higher Ca/Al at relatively uniform Ni x (FeO/MgO) and Fe/Mn, all of which is readily explained by increased decompression melting at lower temperature. The basanite from the eruption that took place in 1824 AD has olivine with even higher Fo value and trace element variability similar those of the Timanfaya basanite. The fact that the Lanzarote basanite contain olivine with trace element systematic spanning that of MORB and pyroxenite melt can be explained by CO2-flux melting of a lithologically heterogeneous source, generating the diverse compositions. Initial reactive porous flow through depleted oceanic lithosphere and equilibration with dunitic restite of percolating pyroxenite melt may have amplified the observed Ni depletion in olivine of the earliest basanite. The fact that olivine compositions and

  4. Bacterial Oxidation of Iron in Olivine: Implications for the Subsurface Biosphere, Global Chemical Cycles, and Life on Mars (United States)

    Fisk, M. R.; Popa, R.; Smith, A. R.; Popa, R.; Boone, J.


    We isolated 21 species of bacteria from subseafloor and terrestrial basalt environments and which thrive on olivine at neutral pH. Cell numbers increase four to five orders of magnitude over three weeks in media where the only metabolic energy comes from the oxidation of Fe(II) in olivine. The subseafloor bacteria were isolated from a borehole on the flank of Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeast Pacific basin where the temperature ranged from 4 up to 64 °C over four years. Terrestrial isolates originated from the basalt-ice boundary in a lava tube on the flank of Newberry Caldera in the Cascades of Oregon. The borehole water was either seawater or seawater plus subseafloor formation water and the lava tube ice was frozen meteoric or ground water. Although microorganisms capable of oxidizing iron for growth are known, microbes that oxidize iron from silicate minerals at neutral pH have not previously been cultured. The 21 species in this study are the first neutrophilic, iron-oxidizing bacteria (nFeOB) to be isolated and cultured that grow on olivine. These nFeOB are primary producers and we believe that they are a widespread component of the subsurface biosphere. In addition to their ability use iron from olivine, these microbes assimilate carbon from bicarbonate in solution and can grow when oxygen pressures are low. They also use nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor to oxygen in anaerobiosis. Since basalt is the most common rock in the Earth's crust and iron is the fourth most abundant element in the crust, we believe nFeOB are likely to be a significant portion of the subsurface biosphere. They are likely to affect, and perhaps in some environments control, the weathering rate of olivine and possibly of pyroxene and basalt glass. Olivine is a component of Mars's surface and it is present on other rocky bodies in the solar system. The ability of these bacteria to use Fe(II) from olivine, to assimilate carbon, to grow at low temperature, and to use low

  5. Solubility of Cr, Ti, and Al in co-existing olivine, spinel, and liquid at 1 atm (United States)

    Akella, J.; Williams, R. J.; Mullins, O.


    The partitioning of chromium between olivines, spinels and silicate liquids was studied as a function of temperature, oxygen fugacity, and cooling rate between 1175 and 1300 C and redox states near the Fe-FeO buffer. It is found that the weight ratio of Cr2O3 in olivine to that in the liquid increases slightly as oxygen fugacity decreases, but the effect is very small. The cooling experiments showed that the Cr2O3 content does not re-equilibrate with cooling.

  6. Rolling stones; fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.; Boer, P.L. de


    Human CO2 emissions may drive the Earth into a next greenhouse state. They can be mitigated by accelerating weathering of natural rock under the uptake of CO2. We disprove the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature would be a slow process, and show that it is not needed to mill olivine to very

  7. Kinetic processes for plastic deformation of olivine in the Poyi ultramafic intrusion, NW China: Insights from the textural analysis of a 1700 m fully cored succession (United States)

    Yao, Zhuo-sen; Qin, Ke-zhang; Xue, Sheng-chao


    The ubiquitous presence of undulose extinction and subgrain boundaries in olivine crystals is commonly perceived as originating in the mantle, however these plastic deformation features are also well developed in the Poyi ultramafic intrusion, NW China. In this case, olivine was deformed through kinetic processes in a crustal magma chamber, rather than by deformation processes in the upper mantle. Moreover, accumulation and textural coarsening were critical to the characteristics of crystal size distributions (CSDs) of olivines in the Poyi intrusion. The axial deformational compaction of crystal mush was revealed by virtue of other quantitative textural analyses (e.g., spatial distribution patter, alignment factor and aspect ratio). Additionally, based on the contrast of density between crystal matrix and interstitial melt, adequate stress was generated by the km-scale crystal framework in Poyi body ( 2-11 MPa) which triggered the distortion of grain-lattice in olivine. The deformation mechanisms of olivine primarily are dislocation creep and dislocation-accommodated grain boundary sliding (DisGBS), while diffusion creep is subsidiary. This study has revealed various kinetic processes in a magmatic system by first demonstrating the genetic relationship between mineral deformation and axial compaction of crystal mush while highlighting the uncertainty of employing the deformation features of olivine in peridotite xenoliths as an indicator for a mantle origin. In contrast to the olivine populations of xenocrysts that underwent fragmentation during ascent, the deformed primitive olivines in compaction exhibit a distinct shortage of small grains, which is conducive to delimiting these two types of deformed grains.

  8. Genetic relationship between deformation and low-Ca content in olivine from magmatic systems: evidence from the Poyi ultramafic intrusion, NW China (United States)

    Yao, Zhuo-sen; Qin, Ke-zhang; Xue, Sheng-chao


    The deformation features (e.g., undulose extinction and subgrain boundaries) and low Ca content (past. However, grains with these characteristics are also found in some crustal intrusions, e.g., Duke Island and Bushveld complexes. Here, we study this type of olivine in the Poyi ultramafic intrusion, NW China, to trace the formation of these unusual features in magmatic systems. As a result of the possible Ca-depleted parental melt and low Ca olivine/melt partition coefficient, olivine from the Poyi intrusion is extremely depleted in Ca. On the other hand, it has been confirmed that trace elements with large ionic radii (e.g., Ca2+ and Al3+) are chemically segregated at the grain boundary of olivine, exerting a dragging influence on grain boundary processes (named as solute drag effect). In this regard, the low Ca content in olivine weakens the solute drag effect, and in doing so it enhances the rate and strength of grain deformation, which occurs to accommodate the stress derived by fast compaction of the crystal mush in Poyi intrusion. Therefore, there is a genetic relationship between the plastic deformation and low Ca content in olivines from magmatic cumulates, and this link is one of the reasons causing the widespread deformation observed in Ca-depleted olivine from Poyi and other intrusions. What is more important, this work fills the gaps in the interpretation of this type of olivine in volcanic rocks.

  9. Structure and transport at grain boundaries in polycrystalline olivine: An atomic-scale perspective (United States)

    Mantisi, Boris; Sator, Nicolas; Guillot, Bertrand


    Structure and transport properties at grain boundaries in polycrystalline olivine have been investigated at the atomic scale by molecular dynamics simulation (MD) using an empirical ionocovalent interaction potential. On the time scale of the simulation (a few tens of nanoseconds for a system size of ∼650,000 atoms) grain boundaries and grain interior were identified by mapping the atomic displacements along the simulation run. In the investigated temperature range (1300-1700 K) the mean thickness of the grain boundary phase is evaluated between 0.5 and 2 nm, a value which depends on temperature and grain size. The structure of the grain boundary phase is found to be disordered (amorphous-like) and is different from the one exhibited by the supercooled liquid. The self-diffusion coefficients of major elements in the intergranular region range from ∼10-13 to 10-10 m2/s between 1300 and 1700 K (with DSigb < DOgb < DFegb < DMggb) and are only one order of magnitude smaller than those evaluated in the supercooled melt. In using a newly derived expression for the bulk self-diffusion coefficient it is concluded that the latter one is driven by the grain boundary contribution as long as the grain size is smaller than a centimeter. In assuming that the electrical conduction at grain boundaries is purely ionic, the macroscopic grain boundary conductivity is found to be two orders of magnitude lower than in molten olivine, and one order of magnitude higher than the lattice conductivity. A consequence is that the conductivity of the olivine polycrystal is dominated by the grain interior contribution as soon as the grain size is larger than a micrometer or so. The grain boundary viscosity has been evaluated from the Green-Kubo relation expressing the viscosity as function of the stress tensor time correlation function. In spite of a slow convergence of the calculation by MD, the grain boundary viscosity was estimated about ∼105 Pa s at 1500 K, a value in agreement with

  10. Deformation of Olivine at Subduction Zone Conditions Determined from In situ Measurements with Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H Long; D Weidner; L Li; J Chen; L Wang


    We report measurements of the deformation stress for San Carlos olivine at pressures of 3-5 GPa, temperatures of 25-1150 C, and strain rates of 10{sup -7}-10{sup -5} s{sup -1}. We determine a deformation stress of approximately 2.5 GPa that is relatively temperature and strain rate independent in the temperature range of 400-900 C. The deformation experiments have been carried out on a deformation DIA (D-DIA) apparatus, Sam85, at X17B2, NSLS. Powder samples are used in these experiments. Enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) (3-5% total quality of sample) is used as the buffer to control the activity of silica. Ni foil is used in some experiments to buffer the oxygen fugacity. Water content is confirmed by IR spectra of the recovered samples. Samples are compressed at room temperature and are then annealed at 1200 C for at least 2 h before deformation. The total (plastic and elastic) strains (macroscopic) are derived from the direct measurements of the images taken by X-ray radiograph technique. The differential stresses are derived from the diffraction determined elastic strains. In the regime of 25-400 C, there is a small decrease of stress at steady state as temperature increases; in the regime of 400 C to the 'transition temperature', the differential stress at steady state ({approx}2.5 GPa) is relatively insensitive to the changes of temperature and strain rate; however, it drastically decreases to about 1 GPa and becomes temperature-dependent above the transition temperature and thereafter. The transition temperature is near 900 C. Above the transition temperature, the flow agrees with power law creep measurements of previous investigations. The anisotropy of differential stress in individual planes indicates that the deformation of olivine at low temperature is dominated by [0 0 1](1 0 0). Accounting to a slower strain rate in the natural system, the transition temperature for the olivine in the slab is most likely in the range of 570-660 C.

  11. Determination of Magma Ascent Rates From D/H Fractionation in Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions (United States)

    Gaetani, G. A.; Bucholz, C. E.; Le Roux, V.; Klein, F.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Wallace, P. J.; Sims, K. W. W.


    The depths at which magmas are stored and the rates at which they ascend to Earth's surface are important controls on the dynamics of volcanic eruptions. Eruptive style is influenced by the rate at which magma ascends from the reservoir to the surface through its effect on vapor bubble nucleation, growth, and coalescence. However, ascent rates are difficult to quantify because few accurate geospeedometers are appropriate for a process occurring on such short timescales. We developed a new approach to determining ascent rates on the basis of D/H fraction associated with diffusive H2O loss from olivine-hosted melt inclusions. The utility of this approach was demonstrated on olivine-hosted melt inclusions in a hyaloclastite recovered from within Dry Valley Drilling Project core 3 from Hut Point Peninsula, Antarctica. All of the melt inclusions are glassy and contain vapor bubbles. The volumes of melt inclusions and vapor bubbles were determined by X-ray microtomography, and the density of CO2 within each bubble was determined using Raman spectroscopy. Olivines were then polished to expose individual inclusions and analyzed for volatiles and dDVSMOW by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Total CO2 was reconstructed by summing CO2 in the included glass and vapor bubble. Entrapment pressures calculated on the basis of reconstructed CO2 and maximum H2O concentrations using the MagmaSat solubility model [1] indicate a depth of origin of 24 km - in good agreement with the seismically determined depth to the Moho beneath Ross Island [2]. Magma ascent rates were determined using a finite difference model for melt inclusion dehydration during magma ascent. The positive correlation between H2O and CO2 is consistent with diffusive loss during ascent, but does not provide direct information on magma ascent rate. In contrast, the slope of the negative correlation between H2O and dDVSMOW is a reflection of transport time and, therefore, ascent rate. If it is assumed that magmas did

  12. Geochemistry and oxygen isotope composition of main-group pallasites and olivine-rich clasts in mesosiderites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenwood, Richard C.; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Scott, Edward R. D.


    Evidence from iron meteorites indicates that a large number of differentiated planetesimals formed early in Solar System history. These bodies should have had well-developed olivine-rich mantles andconsequentially such materials ought to be abundant both as asteroids and meteorites, which...

  13. Nano-Second Time-Resolved Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction Study of Olivine Under Laser-induced Shock Compression (United States)

    Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Adachi, S.; Nozawa, S.; Koshihara, S.; Zolensky, M.


    We performed in-situ nano-second time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis of olivine by synchronization of X-ray and laser pulses. We could successfully obtain 0-30 ns Laue diffraction images at the shock pressure of 1.2-6.5 GPa.

  14. Experimental simulation of oxygen isotopic exchange in olivine and implication for the formation of metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites (United States)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Lorenz, Cyril A.; Franchi, Ian A.; Bychkov, Andrei Y.; Post, Jeffrey E.


    We have conducted hydration-dehydration experiments on terrestrial olivine to investigate the behavior of oxygen isotopic fractionation to test the hypothesis that multiple cycles of aqueous and thermal processing on a parent asteroid comprise a genetic relationship between CM2s and metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites (MCCs). Two experiments were undertaken. In the first experiment, serpentine was obtained by hydrating terrestrial olivine (Fo90.9) in the laboratory. During this experiment, olivine was reacted with isotopically heavy water (δ18O 21.5‰) at T = 300 °C, PH2O = 300 bar, for 100 days. The oxygen isotopic composition of the experimental serpentine was enriched in 18O (by 10 ‰ in δ18O) due to exchange of oxygen isotopes between olivine and the 18O-rich water. Dehydrated serpentine was then produced during laboratory heating experiment in vacuum, at T = 930 °C, for 1 h. The oxygen isotopic composition of the dehydrated serpentine was enriched in 18O by a further 7 ‰. The net result of the hydration-dehydration process was an enrichment of 18O in the final material by approximately 17‰. The new experimental results suggest that the oxygen isotopic compositions of MCCs of the Belgica-like group, including Dhofar 225 and Dhofar 725, could be derived from those of typical CM2 chondrites via several cycles of hydration-dehydration caused by aqueous alteration and subsequent thermal metamorphism within their parent asteroids.

  15. Olivine Weathering in Soil, and Its Effects on Growth and Nutrient Uptake in Ryegrass (lolium perenne L.): A Pot Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berge, ten H.F.M.; Meer, van der H.G.; Steenhuizen, J.W.; Goedhart, P.W.; Knops, P.; Verhagen, J.


    Mineral carbonation of basic silicate minerals regulates atmospheric CO2 on geological time scales by locking up carbon. Mining and spreading onto the earth's surface of fast-weathering silicates, such as olivine, has been proposed to speed up this natura

  16. Study of olivine-rich dark halo crater - Beaumont L in Mare Nectaris using high resolution remote sensing data (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Chauhan, Prakash; Rajawat, A. S.; Kumar, A. S. Kiran


    Study of dark-haloed craters (DHCs) can provide important information about the geology, mineralogy and evolution of certain hidden mare deposits known as cryptomare. Some DHCs have been identified in the Mare Nectaris region of the near side of the Moon. Beaumont L represents one such DHC situated on the western flank of the Nectaris basin. Moon Mineralogical Mapper (M3) images were used to investigate the composition of DHCs. Morphological investigations have been carried out using Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera images. The morphological details captured by TMC and LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images provide evidence that Beaumont-L is of impact origin and do not show evidence of a volcanic origin. The compositional analysis using M3 data indicates the presence of an olivine rich cryptomare unit excavated due to the Beaumont L impact. Our study also confirms that the band I feature in the reflectance spectra of Beaumont L is completely attributable to olivine deposits without contribution from any type of glass/melt deposits. The presence of olivine in Beaumont L suggests either excavation of olivine-rich cryptomare or a subsurface mafic pluton.

  17. Experimental partitioning of rare earth elements and scandium among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and mare basalt liquid (United States)

    Irving, A. J.; Merrill, R. B.; Singleton, D. E.


    An experimental study was carried out to measure partition coefficients for two rare-earth elements (Sm and Tm) and Sc among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and liquid coexisting in a system modeled on high-Ti mare basalt 74275. This 'primitive' sample was chosen for study because its major and trace element chemistry as well as its equilibrium phase relations at atmospheric pressure are known from previous studies. Beta-track analytical techniques were used so that partition coefficients could be measured in an environment whose bulk trace element composition is similar to that of the natural basalt. Partition coefficients for Cr and Mn were determined in the same experiments by microprobe analysis. The only equilibrium partial melting model appears to be one in which ilmenite is initially present in the source region but is consumed by melting before segregation of the high-Ti mare basalt liquid from the residue.

  18. Experimental Studies on Dehydration Embrittlement of Serpentinized Peridotite and Effect of Pressure on Creep of Olivine (United States)

    Xia, Gang

    The origin of intermediate depth earthquakes has been debated for 90 years yet is still under active discussion. These earthquakes are localized in double seismic zones in descending lithosphere; both zones originate very close to oceanic trenches. A leading proposed initiation mechanism for these earthquakes since 1968 has been dehydration embrittlement of serpentine under stress. Despite the considerable evidence favoring this mechanism, a major argument against it has been that the lower seismic zone initiates at ˜40 km depth almost immediately below trenches and there does not appear to be a vehicle to carry water sufficiently deep to hydrate otherwise dry lithosphere. To directly address this problem, an experimental study has been carried out to investigate the minimum amount of serpentine that is required to trigger the dehydration embrittlement instability in serpentinized peridotite at high pressure (1-3 GPa) and temperature (720-750˚C). The results show that embrittlement occurs during dehydration of antigorite (the phase of serpentine stable at elevated pressure) in a wide range of compositions but both nearly dry peridotite and extensively altered peridotite are ductile. Fresh, unaltered, synthetic harzburgite and harzburgite with 4 vol% distributed antigorite are ductile, as are specimens with greater than 65% antigorite. Only compositions between 8 vol% and 65 vol% antigorite develop the instability. We suggest that very small degrees of serpentinization do not release sufficient H 2O to trigger the instability and that extensive serpentinization avoids the instability because soft, ductile, antigorite becomes the interconnected matrix with olivine and pyroxene existing only as isolated crystals. In that case, dehydration simply facilitates flow. These systematics suggest that small amounts of H2O transported down deep normal (bending) faults at trenches are sufficient to enable the instability in the lower seismic zones, thus providing additional

  19. Deep mixing of mantle melts beneath continental flood basalt provinces: Constraints from olivine-hosted melt inclusions in primitive magmas (United States)

    Jennings, Eleanor S.; Gibson, Sally A.; Maclennan, John; Heinonen, Jussi S.


    We present major and trace element compositions of 154 re-homogenised olivine-hosted melt inclusions found in primitive rocks (picrites and ferropicrites) from the Mesozoic Paraná-Etendeka and Karoo Continental Flood Basalt (CFB) provinces. The major element compositions of the melt inclusions, especially their Fe/Mg ratios, are variable and erratic, and attributed to the re-homogenisation process during sample preparation. In contrast, the trace element compositions of both the picrite and ferropicrite olivine-hosted melt inclusions are remarkably uniform and closely reflect those of the host whole-rocks, except in a small subset affected by hydrothermal alteration. The Paraná-Etendeka picrites and ferropicrites are petrogenetically related to the more evolved and voluminous flood basalts, and so we propose that compositional homogeneity at the melt inclusion scale implies that the CFB parental mantle melts were well mixed prior to extensive crystallisation. The incompatible trace element homogeneity of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in Paraná-Etendeka and Karoo primitive magmatic rocks has also been identified in other CFB provinces and contrasts with findings from studies of basalts from mid-ocean ridges (e.g. Iceland and FAMOUS on the Mid Atlantic Ridge), where heterogeneity of incompatible trace elements in olivine-hosted melt inclusions is more pronounced. We suggest that the low variability in incompatible trace element contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in near-primitive CFB rocks, and also ocean island basalts associated with moderately thick lithosphere (e.g. Hawaii, Galápagos, Samoa), may reflect mixing along their longer transport pathways during ascent and/or a temperature contrast between the liquidus and the liquid when it arrives in the crust. These thermal paths promote mixing of mantle melts prior to their entrapment by growing olivine crystals in crustal magma chambers. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions of ferropicrites from the Paran

  20. Coherent and incoherent phase transformation from olivine to ringwoodite and the time scale for shock events on asteroids (United States)

    Miyahara, M.; Ohtani, E.; Kimura, M.; El Goresy, A.; Ozawa, S.; Nagase, T.; Nishijima, M.; Hiraga, K.


    Phase transformation mechanism from olivine to its high-pressure polymorph, ringwoodite has been studied in the past with high-pressure apparatus and TEM in order to explore the phase transformation mechanisms and their affect on the dynamics of the Earth’s interior transition zone. These studies propose that the phase transformation takes place in solid-state as follows; (1) incoherent grain-boundary nucleation and growth and (2) coherent intra-crystalline ({111}Rgt//(100)Ol) growth. The phase transformation from olivine to ringwoodite was also observed in shock-melt veins of ordinary chondrites. Such investigation is a very important clue to evaluate a time scale for shock events on asteroids. Previous TEM investigations indicate that only incoherent growth mechanism was active during the transformation in the shocked chondrite. However, our FIB-TEM studies brought the first evidence for coherent intra-crystalline growth from the shock-melt veins of Yamato 791384 L6 chondrite. Most original olivines (Fa24-26) entrained in the shock-melt veins are completely transformed to polycrystalline ringwoodite. In comparison, olivines adjacent to the shock-melt veins revealed heterogeneous olivine to ringwoodite transformation textures. We observed in these olivines three distinct textures: (1) polycrystalline, (2) oriented several sets of lamellae, and (3) a single oriented set of lamellae. The polycrystalline parts are near the shock-melt veins (ringwoodite lamellae are more dominant with increasing distance from the veins. The oriented several sets of lamellae occur along or parallel to fractures. The single oriented set of lamellae (width ringwoodite (grain-size ringwoodite, suggesting that incoherent mechanism takes place along fractures. The single oriented set of lamellae consist of ringwoodite platelets unambiguously depicting coherent crystallographic orientation: (100)Ol//{111}Rgt, indicating a coherent intergrowth. We estimated a time scale for the shock events

  1. A- to B-Type Olivine Fabric Transitions Associated with Hydration, Dehydration and Shear Above the Farallon Flat Slab (United States)

    Behr, W. M.; Smith, D.


    We investigate mantle rocks associated with hydration, dehydration and shear above the Farallon flat-slab at its contact with the base of North America. The rocks we focus on are ultramafic inclusions hosted within serpentinized ultramafic microbreccia diatremes of the Navajo Volcanic Field (New Mexico) that erupted to the surface at the waning stages of the Laramide orogeny. A large number of petrological and geochronological studies have pinpointed the origin of these rocks to the hydrated mantle wedge above the Farallon slab as well as tectonically eroded and entrained fragments of the plate interface. We combine petrological observations and EBSD measurements of olivine grainsize and LPO to examine the effects of hydration on olivine fabric development in different parts of the supra-subduction zone mantle. The rocks examined include weakly deformed to strongly foliated tectonites we interpret to represent partially hydrated fragments of the upper plate mantle; and mylonites and ultramylonites we interpret to represent deformed fragments of the plate interface. The rocks deformed at temperatures ranging from 500-900°C based on thermometry, and olivine compositions in some record heating just before incorporation in the diatreme mix. We observe the following: Tectonites exhibit A-type bulk olivine LPOs, but show transitions to B-type LPO in local, fine-grained, dynamically recrystallized regions associated with hydrous minerals. Mylonites and ultramylonites with stable chlorite and/or antigorite and recrystallized grainsizes of less than 10μm show strong B-type olivine LPOs. A single mylonite with recrystallized grainsizes of ~35μm shows evidence for prograde metamorphism and dehydration through the chlorite breakdown reaction at temperatures above ~770°C. It contains no hydrous minerals and shows a strong A-type olivine LPO. Together these rocks demonstrate a strong correlation between hydration under high stress conditions, and B-type olivine LPO

  2. On the hydration of olivine in ultramafic rocks: Implications from Fe isotopes in serpentinites (United States)

    Scott, Sean R.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Frost, Bryce R.; Kelemen, Peter B.; Evans, Katy A.; Swapp, Susan M.


    The behavior of Fe during serpentinization largely controls the potential for oxidation-reduction reactions and energy budget for serpentinite-hosted microbial communities. We present Fe isotope data for mineral separates from a partially serpentinized dunite from New Caledonia to understand the behavior of Fe during serpentinization processes. Our new Fe isotope data in mineral separates is compared to existing data from whole rock studies of serpentinites, which have generally concluded that Fe mobility during serpentinization is restricted to the highest temperatures of serpentinization in subduction zones. Measurements of mineral separates from New Caledonia show significant Fe isotope fractionations, with serpentine-brucite mixtures having the lowest δ56Fe ∼ -0.35‰ and magnetite having the highest δ56Fe ∼ +0.75‰. Olivine, orthopyroxene, and the whole rock composition are all within error of δ56Fe = 0.00‰. Fe isotope thermometry between mineral phases reveals two distinct temperatures of equilibration, one for the mantle olivine and pyroxene (∼1325 °C), and a second, much lower temperature (∼335 °C) for the serpentinite assemblage. The combined isotopic, mineralogical and geochemical data indicate that during the magnetite-forming stage of serpentinization, a pore fluid in equilibrium with the mineralogical assemblage evolves to higher Fe concentrations as serpentinization proceeds. When this pore fluid is removed from the serpentinizing environment, the total abundance of Fe removed from the rock in the pore fluid is much less than the bulk rock Fe and has a minimal effect on the overall rock composition.

  3. Bubble formation and decrepitation control the CO2 content of olivine-hosted melt inclusions (United States)

    Maclennan, J.


    The CO2 contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions have previously been used to constrain the depth of magma chambers in basaltic systems. However, the vast majority of inclusions have CO2 contents which imply entrapment pressures that are significantly lower than those obtained from independent petrological barometers. Furthermore, a global database of melt inclusion compositions from low H2O settings, indicates that the distribution of saturation pressures varies surprisingly little between mid-ocean ridges, ocean islands, and continental rift zones. 95% of the inclusions in the database have saturation pressures of 200 MPa or less, indicating that melt inclusion CO2 does not generally provide an accurate estimate of magma chamber depths. A model of the P-V-T-X evolution of olivine-hosted melt inclusions was developed so that the properties of the inclusion system could be tracked as the hosts follow a model P-T path. The models indicate that the principal control on the saturation of CO2 in the inclusion and the formation of vapor bubbles is the effect of postentrapment crystallization on the major element composition of the inclusions and how this translates into variation in CO2 solubility. The pressure difference between external melt and the inclusion is likely to be sufficiently high to cause decrepitation of inclusions in most settings. Decrepitation can account for the apparent mismatch between CO2-based barometry and other petrological barometers, and can also account for the observed global distribution of saturation pressures. Only when substantial postentrapment crystallization occurs can reconstructed inclusion compositions provide an accurate estimate of magma chamber depth.

  4. Chemically fractionated olivine-wadsleyite-ringwoodite assemblages in Grove Mountains meteorites: Constraints on formation mechanism of ringwoodite (United States)

    Feng, L.; Miyahara, M.; Nagase, T.; Ohtani, E.; Hu, S.; Lin, Y.


    A crucial issue in the olivine (Ol)-ringwoodite (Rgt) transformation mechanisms is whether they formed via incoherent crystallization along grain boundaries or coherent intracrystalline nucleation and growth. Discovery of ringwoodite lamellae in olivine [1,2] was interpreted as evidence for coherent crystallization [1]. However, recent FIB-TEM studies revealed that they are polycrystalline assemblages (incoherent mechanism) [3]. In addition, some ringwoodite show a large compositional gap with coexisting wadsleyite (Wd), suggestive of a new mechanism of fractional crystallization from olivine melts [4,5]. Abundant Ol-Wd-Rgt assemblages were found in heavily shocked L5-6 Grove Mountains (GRV) chondrites. Ringwoodite and coexisting olivine show different compositions and textures, shedding light on Ol-Wd-Rgt transformation mechanism. Here we report textures and compositions of these assemblages from the shock-induced melt vein mainly in GRV 050249 (L5). Ringwoodite in the entrained Ol-Wd-Rgt assemblages occur as: (1) Polycrystalline ringwoodite rims (up to 10μm wide), and polycrystalline ringwoodite rounded or band-like objects inside the fragments. The ringwoodite crystallites (most ~1μm) are Fa36-82 and show 120°triple junctions; the cores of the fragments are Mg-rich (Fa8-14) submicron-sized Ol-Wd coexistence intermingling with the ringwoodite rims. The compositional gap is up to 74 mol% of Fa (the largest value reported), indicative of extreme fractionation (the host rock olivine is homogeneous, Fa24-25); (2) Submicron-sized irregular grains of ringwoodite in the Ol-Wd cores, consisting of Mg-rich lathes (probably wadsleyite) and Fe-rich matrix (probably olivine) with various proportions. The ringwoodite grains are exclusively embedded in the matrix. Repetitions of concentric zoning (Fa13-17 and Fa26-28) were observed on several entrained olivine fragments depicting polycrystalline ringwoodite rims and inclusions. Each zone exhibits different proportions of

  5. Olivine-bearing lithologies on the Moon: Constraints on origins and transport mechanisms from M3 spectroscopy, radiative transfer modeling, and GRAIL crustal thickness (United States)

    Corley, Laura M.; McGovern, Patrick J.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Lemelin, Myriam; Trang, David; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Powell, Kathryn E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Wieczorek, Mark; Zuber, Maria T.


    High-resolution hyperspectral data from Chandrayaan-1's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) allow detection of olivine on the lunar surface. Olivine exposed at the surface may originate as mantle material or igneous products (intrusive or extrusive). Potential transport mechanisms include excavation of the mantle or lower crustal material by impacts that form basins and complex craters, differentiation of impact melt sheets, or magmatic emplacement of lavas, cumulates, or xenoliths. A sample of the lunar mantle, which has not been conclusively identified in the lunar sample collection, would yield fundamental new insights into the composition, structure, and evolution of the lunar interior. Olivine identified in remote spectral data is generally accepted to originate from the primary mantle, because abundant olivine is expected to exist in the mantle and lower crust, yet have sparse occurrences in the upper crust. In this study, we identified 111 M3 single-pixel spectra with characteristic absorption features consistent with olivine at Crisium, Nectaris, and Humorum basins and near the craters Roche and Tsiolkovsky. In an effort to determine the origins and transport mechanisms that led to these individual exposures, we estimated mineral abundances using radiative transfer modeling and examined crustal thickness estimates, topography and slope maps, and images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). At Crisium basin, where crustal thickness is near 0 km (Wieczorek et al., 2013), mantle olivine may have been exposed by basin-forming impact and deposited on the rim. Picard crater, which is superposed on the floor of Crisium, also exhibits potential mantle olivine in its ejecta. Within Nectaris basin, olivine exposures are confined to the rims of small craters on the mare, which are inferred to excavate a layer of olivine-rich mare basalt. Olivine occurrences on the rim of Humorum basin, including those located on a graben, are likely to be cumulates of shallow

  6. Formation of H2 and CH4 by weathering of olivine at temperatures between 30 and 70°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crill Patrick


    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbons such as CH4 are known to be formed through the Fischer-Tropsch or Sabatier type reactions in hydrothermal systems usually at temperatures above 100°C. Weathering of olivine is sometimes suggested to account for abiotic formation of CH4 through its redox lowering and water splitting properties. Knowledge about the CH4 and H2 formation processes at low temperatures is important for the research about the origin and cause of early Earth and Martian CH4 and for CO2 sequestration. We have conducted a series of low temperature, long-term weathering experiments in which we have tested the CH4 and H2 formation potential of forsteritic olivine. The results show low temperature CH4 production that is probably influenced by chromite and magnetite as catalysts. Extensive analyses of a potential CH4 source trapped in the crystal structure of the olivine showed no signs of incorporated CH4. Also, the available sources of organic carbon were not enough to support the total amount of CH4 detected in our experiments. There was also a linear relationship between silica release into solution and the net CH4 accumulation into the incubation bottle headspaces suggesting that CH4 formation under these conditions could be a qualitative indicator of olivine dissolution. It is likely that minerals such as magnetite, chromite and other metal-rich minerals found on the olivine surface catalyze the formation of CH4, because of the low temperature of the system. This may expand the range of environments plausible for abiotic CH4 formation both on Earth and on other terrestrial bodies.

  7. Deformation of olivine-orthopyroxene aggregates at high pressure and temperature: Implications for the seismic properties of the asthenosphere (United States)

    Soustelle, Vincent; Manthilake, Geeth


    The effect of pressure, temperature and composition on the development of crystal preferred orientations (CPO) and seismic properties of olivine-orthopyroxene aggregates were investigated using samples containing olivine and 12.5, 25 and 50 vol.% of orthopyroxene. The samples were deformed in simple-shear at a constant strain-rate of 10- 4 s- 1 with total shear strains between 0.5 and 1.3, at pressures of 3, 5 and 8 GPa and temperatures of 1300, 1400 and 1500 °C, respectively. Olivine's CPO vary as a function of the orthopyroxene content. All samples have their olivine [010] axes normal to the foliation. Samples with 12.5 and 25% orthopyroxene have their [001] axes parallel to the lineation (B-type), whereas the samples with 50% orthopyroxene have their [100] axes oriented parallel to the lineation (A-type). At 3 GPa, we propose that olivine CPO may result from a variation between two types of diffusion accommodated grain boundary sliding (difGBS) mechanisms. At higher pressure, the relative contribution of difGBS and dislocation related mechanisms depends on the volume of secondary phases. For low orthopyroxene contents, dislocation related mechanisms prevail and induce the development of B-type CPO, whereas for higher amount of orthopyroxene difGBS controls the deformation and leads to A-type CPO. Orthopyroxene's CPO strength increases with increasing pressure and temperature and is characterized by the concentration of [100] and [010] axes normal to the foliation and [001] close to the lineation. The seismic properties show that deformation in pyroxene-poor and rich peridotites are consistent with the seismic anisotropy observed in intraplate regions where the mantle flow is horizontal. Conversely, only pyroxene-rich peridotites deformed through difGBS could explain the Vsh/Vsv < 1 observed below mid-oceanic ridges.

  8. The geochemical effects of olivine slurry replenishment and dolostone assimilation in the plumbing system of the Franklin Large Igneous Province, Victoria Island, Arctic Canada (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Lissenberg, C. Johan; Bédard, Jean H.; Beard, Charlie


    The Neoproterozoic (~723-716 Ma) Franklin Large Igneous Province exposed on Victoria Island in the Canadian Arctic is comprised of a sill-dominated magma plumbing system overlain by the coeval Natkusiak flood basalts. We have investigated three sections, separated by a total of >50 km of distance, of a sill (the Fort Collinson Sill Complex) emplaced just above a prominent sedimentary marker unit. The sill is characterized by a basal olivine-enriched layer (OZ: up to 55 % olivine) and an upper gabbroic unit. The observed diversity of olivine compositions in the OZ implies that bulk-rock MgO versus FeO arrays reflect accumulation of a heterogeneous olivine crystal cargo. We suggest that the OZ was formed as a late olivine slurry replenishment in a partially crystallized gabbroic sill, propagating for over 50 km along strike. This interpretation is consistent with Pb-isotope data, which show that at least three geochemically distinct magmas were emplaced into the Fort Collinson Sill Complex. The OZs exhibit a gradual westward evolution toward more Fe-rich bulk compositions. This is best explained by progressive mixing of the replenishing olivine slurry with a resident gabbroic mush during westward flow. Pb-isotopic signatures suggest that magmas near the inferred conduit feeder assimilated small amounts (rock, which may have locally buffered olivine compositions to high-Fo contents.

  9. Water sensitivity of the seismic properties of upper-mantle olivine (United States)

    Cline, Christopher; David, Emmanuel; Faul, Ulrich; Berry, Andrew; Jackson, Ian


    The wave speeds and attenuation of seismic waves in the upper mantle are expected to be strongly influenced by the defect chemistry of olivine grain interiors and the associated chemical complexity of grain-boundary regions. Changes in chemical environment (oxygen fugacity and/or water fugacity) can impose different defect chemistries, including the creation and retention of hydrous defects, and therefore can directly influence anelastic relaxation involving stress-induced migration of lattice defects and/or grain-boundary sliding. Here we report the first low-frequency experimental study of the seismic properties of olivine under water-undersaturated conditions. Three synthetic sol-gel derived olivine (Fo90) specimens were fabricated by hot-pressing in welded Pt capsules with various concentrations of hydroxyl, chemically bound as doubly protonated Si vacancies, charge balanced by substitution of Ti on a neighboring M-site (i.e., the Ti-clinohumite-like defect). Hydroxyl contents, determined following the subsequent mechanical testing within Pt sleeves, increased systematically with the amount of added Ti-dopant. Added Ti concentrations ranged between 176 and 802 atom ppm Ti/Si, resulting in concentrations of bound hydrogen in the three samples ranging between 330 and 1150 atom ppm H/Si. Each hot-pressed specimen was precision ground and then sleeved in Pt for mechanical testing in forced torsional oscillation under water-undersaturated conditions. Forced-oscillation tests were conducted at seismic periods of 1 - 1000 s and 200 MPa confining pressure during slow staged cooling from 1200 to 25°C. Each Ti-doped specimen showed mechanical behavior of the high-temperature background type involving monotonically increasing dissipation and decreasing shear modulus with increasing oscillation period and increasing temperature. Comparison of the mechanical data acquired in these water-undersaturated conditions with a similarly tested, but dry, Ti-bearing specimen

  10. Mantle temperatures, and tests of experimentally calibrated olivine-melt equilibria (United States)

    Putirka, K. D.


    Because the ratio Mgol/Mgliq (Kd(Mg)) is sensitive to T, olivine-liquid Kd's have long been used as geothermometers, and more recently, maximum Fo contents from volcanic rocks have been used to estimate mantle potential temperatures. Such estimates by Putirka (2005, G3) indicate higher mantle equilibration temperatures at Hawaii, compared to temperatures derived from earlier calibrations. Several published models were thus tested for their ability to reproduce T for 862 experimental data. The Putirka (2005) models did not include P corrections, which are added here: lnKd(Mg)=-1.88 + 30.85P(GPa)/T(C) - 0.04[H2O]liq + 0.068[Na2O+K2O]liq + 3629.7/T(C) + 0.0087[SiO2]liq - 0.015[CaO]liq lnKd(Fe)= -2.92 - 0.05[H2O]liq + 0.0264[Na2O+K2O]liq + 2976.13/T(C) + 0.01847[SiO2]liq + 0.0171[Al2O3]liq - 0.039[CaO]liq + 33.17P(GPa)/T(C) In these expressions, Kd(Mg) and Kd(Fe) are the partition coefficients for Mg and Fe between olivine and liquid, expressed as cation fractions; compositional corrections are in weight percent. The models are calibrated from 785 experimental data (P = 0.0001-15.5 GPa; 1213-2353 K). In the tests, the expressions of Beattie (1993) performed exceptionally well for dry systems with MgOliq 17 wt. %; new models are therefore needed. Over the greater compositional range, model 1 above can be inverted to yield T with a SEE of 56 K, and an average mean (systematic) error of +3 K for 856 experimental data; this compares to a systematic error of -26 K for Beattie (1993) and -36 K for Ford et al. (1983). For use in equation (1) of Putirka (2005), the models above are also more precise at both low and high MgO, and hydrous and non-hydrous systems compared to Beattie (1993) and Ford et al. (1983). Herzberg (pers. comm.) has modeled olivine-melt pairs for Hawaii and MOR's, which are in accord with Putirka (2005); these pairs are used to test for the effects of systematic model error on estimates of mantle temperatures. The Beattie (1993) and Ford (1983) models

  11. Femtosecond laser irradiation of olivine single crystals: Experimental simulation of space weathering (United States)

    Fazio, A.; Harries, D.; Matthäus, G.; Mutschke, H.; Nolte, S.; Langenhorst, F.


    Space weathering is one of the most common surface process occurring on atmosphere-free bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. It is caused mainly by solar wind irradiation and the impact of micrometeoroids. In order to simulate space weathering effects, in particular those produced by hypervelocity impacts, we produced microcraters via ultra-short (∼100 fs) laser irradiation of crystallographically oriented slices of forsterite-rich (Fo94.7) olivine. The main advantages of the application of a femtosecond laser radiation to reproduce the space weathering effects are (1) the high peak irradiance (1015 W cm-2), which generates the propagation of the shock wave at the nanosecond timescale (i.e., timescale of the micrometeoroid impacts); (2) the rapid transfer of energy to the target material, which avoids the interaction of laser light with the developing vapor plume; (3) a small laser beam, which allows the effects of a single impact to be simulated. The results of our spectroscopic and electron microscopic investigation validate this approach: the samples show strong darkening and reddening of the reflectance spectra and structural damages similar to the natural microcraters found on regolith grains of the Moon and asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Detailed investigations of several microcrater cross-sections by transmission electron microscopy allowed the detection of shock-induced defect microstructures. From the top to the bottom of the grain, the shock wave causes evaporation, melting, solid-state recrystallization, misorientation, fracturing, and the propagation of dislocations with Burgers vectors parallel to [001]. The formation of a short-lived vapor plume causes the kinetic fractionation of the gas and the preferential loss of lighter elements, mostly magnesium and oxygen. The high temperatures within the melt layer and the kinetic loss of oxygen promote the thermal reduction of iron and nickel, which leads to the formation of metallic nanoparticles (npFe0). The

  12. Herschel/PACS observations of the 69 μm band of crystalline olivine around evolved stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, J.A.D.L.; de Vries, B.L.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Waelkens, C.; Min, M.; Van Winckel, H.; Molster, F.; Decin, L.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Barlow, M.; García-Lario, P.; Kerschbaum, F.; Posch, T.; Royer, P.; Ueta, T.; Vandenbussche, B.; Van de Steene, G.; van Hoof, P.


    Context. We present 48 Herschel/PACS spectra of evolved stars in the wavelength range of 67−72 μm. This wavelength range covers the 69 μm band of crystalline olivine (Mg2−2xFe(2x)SiO4). The width and wavelength position of this band are sensitive to the temperature and composition of the crystalline

  13. Olivine-antigorite orientation relationships: Microstructures, phase boundary misorientations and the effect of cracks in the seismic properties of serpentinites (United States)

    Morales, Luiz F. G.; Mainprice, David; Kern, Hartmut


    Antigorite-bearing rocks are thought to contribute significantly to the seismic properties in the mantle wedge of subduction zones. Here we present a detailed study of the microstructures and seismic properties in a sample of antigorite-olivine schist previously studied by Kern et al. (1997, 2015). We have measured crystallographic orientations and calculated the seismic properties in three orthogonal thin sections. Microstructures indicate that deformation is localized in the bands with high antigorite fractions, resulting in strong crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) with point maxima of poles to (100) parallel to lineation and poles to (001) to the foliation normal. Olivine CPO suggests deformation under high temperature and low stress, with a [100] fiber texture. The CPO strength varies with grain size, but is strong even in fine-grained antigorite, and larger grains tend to display higher internal misorientation. Orientation relationships between olivine and antigorite are evident in phase boundary misorientation analysis, (100)ol||(001)atg being more frequent than [001]ol||[010]atg. Two new orientation relationships between olivine and antigorite have been documented. Seismic velocities decrease while anisotropy increases with increasing antigorite modal content. Antigorite grain shape has a weak effect on seismic velocities, but it is important on anisotropy. Comparison between CPO-derived seismic velocities using Voigt, Reuss, Hill averages and geometric mean only showed good agreement in 1/3 of experimental velocities. If the crack porosity of 1.63% measured experimentally at 600 MPa was used in the self-consistent model with two crack orientations with planes normal to Z and Y, good match with all experimental velocities was achieved. The self-consistent model implies important crack porosity in the foliation plane at 600 MPa that reduces Vp normal to the foliation by 0.3 km/s.

  14. Deep mixing of mantle melts beneath continental flood basalt provinces: Constraints from olivine-hosted melt inclusions in primitive magmas


    Jennings, ES; Gibson, Sally Anne; Maclennan, John Campbell; Heinonen, JS


    We present major and trace element compositions of 154 re-homogenised olivine-hosted melt inclusions found in primitive rocks (picrites and ferropicrites) from the Mesozoic Paraná–Etendeka and Karoo Continental Flood Basalt (CFB) provinces. The major element compositions of the melt inclusions, especially their Fe/Mg ratios, are variable and erratic, and attributed to the re-homogenisation process during sample preparation. In contrast, the trace element compositions of both the picrite and f...

  15. Dynamic solubility limits in nanosized olivine LiFePO4. (United States)

    Wagemaker, Marnix; Singh, Deepak P; Borghols, Wouter J H; Lafont, Ugo; Haverkate, Lucas; Peterson, Vanessa K; Mulder, Fokko M


    Because of its stability, nanosized olivine LiFePO(4) opens the door toward high-power Li-ion battery technology for large-scale applications as required for plug-in hybrid vehicles. Here, we reveal that the thermodynamics of first-order phase transitions in nanoinsertion materials is distinctly different from bulk materials as demonstrated by the decreasing miscibility gap that appears to be strongly dependent on the overall composition in LiFePO(4). In contrast to our common thermodynamic knowledge, that dictates solubility limits to be independent of the overall composition, combined neutron and X-ray diffraction reveals strongly varying solubility limits below particle sizes of 35 nm. A rationale is found based on modeling of the diffuse interface. Size confinement of the lithium concentration gradient, which exists at the phase boundary, competes with the in bulk energetically favorable compositions. Consequently, temperature and size diagrams of nanomaterials require complete reconsideration, being strongly dependent on the overall composition. This is vital knowledge for the future nanoarchitecturing of superior energy storage devices as the performance will heavily depend on the disclosed nanoionic properties.

  16. Mineralogy of Stardust Track 112 Particle: Relation to Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates (United States)

    Komatsu, M.; Fagan, T.; Mikouchi, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Zolensky, M.; Ohsumi, K.


    The successful analysis of comet 81P/Wild 2 particles returned by the Stardust mission has revealed that the Wild 2 dust contains abundant silicate grains that are much larger than interstellar grains and appear to have formed in the inner regions of the solar nebula [1]. Wild 2 particles include minerals which are isotopically and mineralogically similar to CAIs [e.g., 2, 3] and chondrules [e.g., 4] in chondrites. In addition, particles similar to amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) also have been discovered [5, 6,7]. C2067,2,112,1 is a terminal particle recovered from track #112 (T112). Nakamura-Messenger et al. [7] showed that the forsterite grain in T112 has O-16 enrichment of approximately 40 0/00 (vs. SMOW) and possibly formed together with AOAs. In this study, we have examined the mineralogy of the T112 particle and compared the possible relationships between T112 and AOAs in primitive meteorites.

  17. Strong catalytic activity of iron nanoparticles on the surfaces of reduced olivine (United States)

    Tucker, William C.; Quadery, Abrar H.; Schulte, Alfons; Blair, Richard G.; Kaden, William E.; Schelling, Patrick K.; Britt, Daniel T.


    It is demonstrated that olivine powders heated to subsolidus temperatures in reducing conditions can develop significant concentrations of 10-50 nm diameter Fe nanoparticles on grain surfaces and that these display strong catalytic activity not observed in powders without Fe nanoparticles. Reduced surfaces were exposed to NH3, CO, and H2, volatiles that may be present on the surfaces of comet and volatile-rich asteroids. In the case of NH3 exposure, rapid decomposition was observed. When exposed to a mixture of CO and H2, significant coking of the mineral surfaces occurred. Analysis of the mineral grains after reaction indicated primarily the presence of graphene or graphitic carbon. The results demonstrate that strong chemical activity can be expected at powders that contain nanophase Fe particles. This suggests space-weathered mineral surfaces may play an important role in the synthesis and processing of organic species. This processing may be part of the weathering processes of volatile-rich but atmosphereless solar-system bodies.

  18. The impact of water on dislocation content and slip system activity in olivine constrained by HR-EBSD and visco-plastic self-consistent simulations (United States)

    Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Tasaka, M.; Kumamoto, K. M.; Lloyd, G. E.; Parsons, A. J.; Kohlstedt, D. L.; Wilkinson, A. J.


    Changes in concentration of H+ ions in olivine have impacts on its rheological behaviour and therefore on tectonic processes involving mantle deformation. Deformation experiments on aggregates of wet olivine exhibit different evolution of crystal preferred orientations (CPO) and substructure from experiments on dry olivine, suggesting that elevated H+ concentrations impact activity of dislocation slip-systems. We use high angular-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD) to map densities of different types of geometrically necessary dislocations (GND) in polycrystalline olivine deformed experimentally under wet and dry conditions and also in nature. HR-EBSD provides unprecedented angular resolution, resolving misorientations lherzolite xenolith from Lesotho reveals the same unusual CPO and similar proportions of dislocation types to `wet' experimental samples, supporting the applicability of these findings to natural deformation conditions. These results support suggestions that H+ impacts the flow properties of olivine by altering dislocation activity and climb, while also providing full quantification of GND content. In particular, the relative proportions of dislocation types may provide a basis for identifying olivine deformed under wet and dry conditions.

  19. Rolling stones; fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification (United States)

    Schuiling, R. D.; de Boer, P. L.


    Human CO2 emissions may drive the Earth into a next greenhouse state. They can be mitigated by accelerating weathering of natural rock under the uptake of CO2. We disprove the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature would be a slow process, and show that it is not needed to mill olivine to very fine, 10 μm-size grains in order to arrive at a complete dissolution within 1-2 year. In high-energy shallow marine environments olivine grains and reaction products on the grain surfaces, that otherwise would greatly retard the reaction, are abraded so that the chemical reaction is much accelerated. When kept in motion even large olivine grains rubbing and bumping against each other quickly produce fine clay- and silt-sized olivine particles that show a fast chemical reaction. Spreading of olivine in the world's 2% most energetic shelf seas can compensate a year's global CO2 emissions and counteract ocean acidification against a price well below that of carbon credits.

  20. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions (United States)

    Tuohy, Robin M; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W; Swanson, Don; Kent, Adam J R


    Concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions can be used to estimate crystallization depths for the olivine host. However, the original dissolved CO2concentration of melt inclusions at the time of trapping can be difficult to measure directly because in many cases substantial CO2 is transferred to shrinkage bubbles that form during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization. To investigate this problem, we heated olivine from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki and 1960 Kapoho (Hawai‘i) eruptions in a 1-atm furnace to temperatures above the melt inclusion trapping temperature to redissolve the CO2 in shrinkage bubbles. The measured CO2 concentrations of the experimentally rehomogenized inclusions (⩽590 ppm for Kīlauea Iki [n=10]; ⩽880 ppm for Kapoho, with one inclusion at 1863 ppm [n=38]) overlap with values for naturally quenched inclusions from the same samples, but experimentally rehomogenized inclusions have higher within-sample median CO2 values than naturally quenched inclusions, indicating at least partial dissolution of CO2 from the vapor bubble during heating. Comparison of our data with predictions from modeling of vapor bubble formation and published Raman data on the density of CO2 in the vapor bubbles suggests that 55-85% of the dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to post-entrapment shrinkage bubbles. Our results combined with the Raman data demonstrate that olivine from the early part of the Kīlauea Iki eruption crystallized at crystallized over a much wider range of depths (∼1-16 km). The wider depth range requires magma transport during the Kapoho eruption from deep beneath the summit region and/or from deep beneath Kīlauea’s east rift zone. The deeply derived olivine crystals and their host magma mixed with stored, more evolved magma in the rift zone, and the mixture was later erupted at Kapoho.

  1. Reaction-driven cracking during hydration and carbonation of olivine: Implications for in situ CO2 capture and storage (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.


    Reactions forming serpentine and/or Mg-carbonates via reaction of fluid with olivine may increase the solid volume, due to increasing solid mass and decreasing solid density, provided that fluid is supplied in an open system, and that dissolution does not remove significant solid mass. Increasing solid volume can create deviatoric stress within a rock, potentially causing fracture. In turn, this can provide a positive feedback to the alteration process, maintaining or increasing permeability and reactive surface area. This could be important - or even essential - for proposed in situ mineral carbonation for CO2 storage, and potentially for geological CO2 capture from surface waters. We use several methods to estimate the 'force of crystallization' during hydration and carbonation of olivine. The free energy changes driving these processes can potentially generate overpressures of 100's to 1000's of MPa. These potential stresses are larger for a given temperature for carbonation compared to serpentinization. Thermodynamic upper bounds can be compared to estimates based on microstructure in natural samples. Evans (Int Geol Rev 2004) and Jamtveit et al. (EPSL 2008) provide microphotographs of igneous troctolites, with interstitial plagioclase surrounding rounded olivine grains. The olivine grains are partially serpentinized, and the plagioclase has closely spaced fractures interpreted as a result of expansion during serpentinization. Strain energy due to expansion should be greater than surface energy on new fractures. Spacing and length of fractures in plagioclase yields a minimum of about 260 MPa for the differential stress. Alternatively, if fractures did not form, elastic stress in the plagioclase resulting from expansion during serpentinization should be proportional to the strain. Because some strain could be accommodated by irreversible mechanisms, such as friction and dilation on cracks and/or viscous flow, this yields a maximum stress of 270 MPa. The close

  2. First-Principles Investigation of Li Intercalation Kinetics in Phospho-Olivines (United States)

    Malik, Rahul

    This thesis focuses broadly on characterizing and understanding the Li intercalation mechanism in phospho-olivines, namely LiFePO 4 and Li(Fe,Mn)PO4, using first-principles calculations. Currently Li-ion battery technology is critically relied upon for the operation of electrified vehicles, but further improvements mainly in cathode performance are required to ensure widespread adoption, which in itself requires learning from existing commercial cathode chemistries. LiFePO4 is presently used in commercial Li-ion batteries, known for its rapid charge and discharge capability but with underwhelming energy density. This motivates the three central research efforts presented herein. First, we investigate the modified phase diagram and electrochemical properties of mixed olivines, such as Li(Fe,Mn)PO4, which offer improved theoretical energy density over LiFePO4 (due to the higher redox voltage associated with Mn2+/Mn3+). The Lix(Fe1-yMny)PO4 phase diagram is constructed by Monte Carlo simulation on a cluster expansion Hamiltonian parametrized by first-principles determined energies. Deviations from the equilibrium phase behavior and voltages of pure LiFePO4 and LiMnPO 4 are analyzed and discussed to good agreement with experimental observations. Second, we address why LiFePO4 exhibits superior rate performance strictly when the active particle size is brought down to the nano-scale. By considering the presence of immobile point defects residing in the 1D Li diffusion path, specifically by calculating from first principles both defect formation energies and Li migration barriers in the vicinity of likely defects, the Li diffusivity is recalculated and is found to strongly vary with particle size. At small particle sizes, the contribution from defects is small, and fast 1D Li diffusion is accessible. However, at larger particle sizes (microm scale and above) the contribution from defects is much larger. Not only is Li transport impeded, but it is also less anisotropic in

  3. High-pressure mineral phases of olivine (Mg2SiO4) formed by pre-compression followed by laser-driven hypervelocity shock impact (United States)

    Turner, A. A.; Tschauner, O. D.; Zaug, J. M.; Stavrou, E.; Armstrong, M.


    Understanding high-pressure phase transitions of olivine is a growing sphere of interest for Geoscientists, as olivine is an abundant mineral in the upper mantle of the Earth as well as pre-shocked meteorites. Knowledge of extreme condition olivine chemistry will provide insight into the process of shock metamorphism, which alters the composition and texture of materials during bolide impact and under extreme terrestrial conditions. The intention of investigating olivine under high pressures is to determine under what conditions the silicate spinel Ringwoodite (γ-Mg2SiO4), a high-pressure phase of olivine, is synthesized in shock-metamorphosed meteorites and to explore the nature of olivine beyond the phase boundary of Ringwoodite. Queries posed for these experiments focus primarily on what possible phases form as the result of compressing olivine to pressures above the 40 GPa, the likelihood of those phases to be conserved upon shock release, and what retrograde transformation products could possibly be generated from olivine under such pressures. Two independent endmember specimens (forsterite) of single crystal olivine (Mg2SiO4) were coated with 2.5 µm of aluminum and pre-compressed to 25 and 35 GPa, respectively in a diamond anvil cell. Lithium fluoride served as the pressure-transmitting medium. The specimens were then exposed to a laser-driven hypervelocity shock impact (400 picosecond duration) in order to investigate what phases if any form under more extreme pressures and dynamic stress states. The addition of laser-driven hypervelocity shock added 18 GPa of pressure to the pre-compressed samples, for a total of 43 and 53 GPa, respectively. From the analysis of the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, it was determined that the olivine underwent a reduction of silicon and oxidation of the aluminum coating. These are fascinating observations revealed from a combined static and shock compression experiment. This work was performed under the auspices of

  4. Preliminary Report on U-Th-Pb Isotope Systematics of the Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.


    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions, and trace element abundances.. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible-element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible-element-rich reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there has been a long debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former clearly requires the ancient martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and U-Th-Pb concentration analyses of the olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint because U-Th-Pb isotope systematics have been intensively used as a powerful radiogenic tracer to characterize old crust/sediment components in mantle- derived, terrestrial oceanic island basalts. The U-Th-Pb analyses are applied to sequential acid leaching fractions obtained from Tissint whole-rock powder in order to search for Pb isotopic source components in Tissint magma. Here we report preliminary results of the U-Th-Pb analyses of acid leachates and a residue, and propose the possibility that Tissint would have experienced minor assimilation of old martian crust.

  5. Comparative in situ X-ray Diffraction Study of San Carlos Olivine: Influence of Water on the 410 km Seismic Velocity Jump in Earth’s Mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Chen; H Liu; J Girard


    A comparative study of the equation of states of hydrous (0.4 wt% H{sub 2}O) and anhydrous San Carlos olivine (<30 ppm H2O) was conducted using synchrotron X-rays up to 11 GPa in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) at ambient temperature. Both samples were loaded in the same high-pressure chamber of the DAC to eliminate the possible pressure difference in different experiments. The obtained compression data were fitted to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, yielding a bulk modulus K{sub 0} = 123(3) GPa for hydrous olivine and K{sub 0} = 130(4) GPa for anhydrous olivine as K{sub 0}' is fixed at 4.6. Therefore, 0.4 wt% H{sub 2}2O in olivine results in a 5% reduction in bulk modulus. Previous studies reported bulk modulus reduction by water in olivine's high-pressure polymorph (wadsleyite), to which the transformation from olivine gives rise to the seismic discontinuity at 410 km depth. The new data results in a reduction in the magnitude of the discontinuity by 50% in v{sub P} and 30% in v{sub S} (for 1:5 water partitioning between olivine and wadsleyite) with respect to anhydrous mantle. Previous knowledge of the influence of water on this phase transition has been in opposition to a large amount of water [e.g., 200 ppm by Wood (1995)] existing at 410 km depth. Calculation of the seismic velocities based on newly available elasticity data of the hydrous phases indicates that the presence of water is favorable for the mineral composition model (pyrolite) and seismic observations in terms of the magnitude of the 410 km discontinuity.

  6. Shock-induced transformation of olivine to a new metastable (Mg,Fe) 2SiO 4 polymorph in Martian meteorites (United States)

    Van de Moortèle, Bertrand; Reynard, Bruno; McMillan, Paul F.; Wilson, Mark; Beck, Pierre; Gillet, Philippe; Jahn, Sandro


    Transient high pressures and temperatures generated during meteor or asteroid impacts induce mineral phase transformations that can mimic those occurring at depth within the silicate mantle of terrestrial planets. Olivine (α-(Mg,Fe) 2SiO 4), the primary constituent of the Earth's upper mantle and of chondritic meteorites, transforms to the high-pressure polymorphs wadsleyite and ringwoodite (β-, γ-(Mg,Fe) 2SiO 4) that are observed in shocked chondrites. The observed phase transitions place constraints on the shock P- T conditions attained and they lead to models that describe the impact event. We studied the olivines present within two newly catalogued Martian meteorites NWA 2737 and NWA 1950 using micro-Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The shock conditions were not sufficient to cause melting or transformation of the olivines into wadsleyite or ringwoodite (Mg,Fe) 2SiO 4. The shocked olivines are dark-coloured in hand specimen and thin section due to the presence of Fe xNi y metallic nanoparticles formed during the shock. Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD) are consistent with the observation that the shocked olivines give rise to a new orthosilicate polymorph (ζ-(Mg,Fe) 2SiO 4) that is formed metastably during the shock process and that is subsequently recovered to ambient conditions. The presence of the new ζ-(Mg,Fe) 2SiO 4 polymorph in shocked ultrabasic rocks including meteorites may have remained undetected due to its structural and spectroscopic similarities with olivine. The existence of the metastable α-ζ phase transition also allows rationalising previously unexplained results of shock compression experiments on olivines. ζ-(Mg,Fe) 2SiO 4 is also formed at ambient pressure as a metastable intermediate during back-transformation from wadsleyite.

  7. Tracking the Martian Mantle Signature in Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions of Basaltic Shergottites Yamato 980459 and Tissint (United States)

    Peters, T. J.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.; Usui, T.; Moriwaki, R.; Economos, R.; Schmitt, A.; McKeegan, K.


    The Martian shergottite meteorites are basaltic to lherzolitic igneous rocks that represent a period of relatively young mantle melting and volcanism, approximately 600-150 Ma (e.g. [1,2]). Their isotopic and elemental composition has provided important constraints on the accretion, evolution, structure and bulk composition of Mars. Measurements of the radiogenic isotope and trace element concentrations of the shergottite meteorite suite have identified two end-members; (1) incompatible trace element enriched, with radiogenic Sr and negative epsilon Nd-143, and (2) incompatible traceelement depleted, with non-radiogenic Sr and positive epsilon 143-Nd(e.g. [3-5]). The depleted component represents the shergottite martian mantle. The identity of the enriched component is subject to debate, and has been proposed to be either assimilated ancient martian crust [3] or from enriched domains in the martian mantle that may represent a late-stage magma ocean crystallization residue [4,5]. Olivine-phyric shergottites typically have the highest Mg# of the shergottite group and represent near-primitive melts having experienced minimal fractional crystallization or crystal accumulation [6]. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) in these shergottites represent the most chemically primitive components available to understand the nature of their source(s), melting processes in the martian mantle, and origin of enriched components. We present trace element compositions of olivine hosted melt inclusions in two depleted olivinephyric shergottites, Yamato 980459 (Y98) and Tissint (Fig. 1), and the mesostasis glass of Y98, using Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). We discuss our data in the context of understanding the nature and origin of the depleted martian mantle and the emergence of the enriched component.

  8. Tracking timescales of short-term precursors to large basaltic fissure eruptions through Fe-Mg diffusion in olivine (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret E.; Morgan, Daniel J.; Maclennan, John; Edmonds, Marie; Thordarson, Thor


    Petrological constraints on the timescales of pre-eruptive crystal storage and magma degassing provide an important framework for the interpretation of seismic, geodetic and gas monitoring data in volcanically active regions. We have used Fe-Mg diffusion chronometry in 86 olivine macrocrysts from the AD 1783-1784 Laki eruption on Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone to characterise timescales of crystal storage and transport in the lead-up to this eruption. The majority of these olivines have core compositions of Fo 81 olivines record Fe-Mg diffusion timescales of ∼124 days; these crystals are likely to have formed in mid-crustal magma chambers, been transferred to storage at shallower levels and then entrained into the Laki melt prior to eruption. Typical Fe-Mg diffusion timescales of 6-10 days are shorter than the average time interval between discrete episodes of the Laki eruption, indicating variable or pulsed disaggregation of stored crystals into the carrier liquid prior to the onset of each episode. The diffusion timescales coincide with historical accounts of strong and frequent earthquakes in southeast Iceland, which we interpret as being associated with mush disaggregation related to melt withdrawal and the initiation of dyke propagation from a crustal magma reservoir at ∼6 ± 3 km depth to the surface. We calculate pre-eruptive CO2 fluxes of 2-6 Mt d-1, assuming a pre-eruptive CO2 outgassing budget of 189.6 Mt for the Laki eruption and a constant rate of CO2 release in the 6-10 days preceding each eruptive episode. Our dataset indicates that petrological constraints on the timescales of magmatic processes occurring in the days leading up to historic eruptions may enhance our ability to forecast the onset of future large eruptions, both in Iceland and further afield.

  9. An Ultra-Depleted Mantle Component in the Ontong Java Plateau Revealed by Major, Trace and Volatile Element Abundances in Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions (United States)

    Jackson, M. G.; Cabral, R. A.; Rose-Koga, E. F.; Koga, K. T.; Price, A. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Michael, P. J.


    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) represents the most voluminous large igneous province (LIP) preserved in the geologic record. The most voluminous volcanic stages of the OJP—the Kroenke and Kwaimbaita stages, which dominate the accessible portions of the plateau—have relatively flat primitive mantle normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns, or spidergrams. With the exception of relatively small volumes of late-stage melts—referred to as the Singgalo stage—that are characterized by slightly enriched REE spidergrams, the volcanic stages that dominated the eruptive history of the OJP exhibit remarkably homogeneous, flat REE patterns. Here we isolate, for the first time, olivine-hosted melt inclusions from OJP. We show that the melt inclusions have two clear populations defined by having distinct trace element characteristics. The first population has relatively flat trace element patterns that are similar to that observed in whole rock lavas from the most voluminous volcanic stages (Kroenke and Kwaimbaita stages) recorded in the OJP. In contrast, a second group of melt inclusions, referred to as UDM (ultra-depleted melt) inclusions, exhibit strikingly depleted REE spidergrams; these trace element patterns are far more depleted than any previously reported lava from OJP. The UDM have unique trace element signatures that preclude an origin by assimilation of hydrothermally-altered oceanic crust or re-melting the depleted mantle source left over after melt extraction during construction of the OJP. We interpret the new UDM compositions to be the result of melting of a previously unrecognized ultra-depleted component hosted in the OJP mantle source.





    LiFePO4 nanocrystals were synthesized in various polyol media without any further post-heat treatment. The LiFePO4 samples synthesized using three different polyol media namely, diethylene glycol (DEG), triethylene glycol (TEG), and tetraethylene glycol (TTEG), exhibited plate and rod-shaped structures with average sizes of 50–500 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were indexed on the basis of an olivine structure (space group: Pnma). The samples prepared in DEG, TEG, and TTEG polyol me...

  11. In-situ X-ray observations of creep behavior during the olivine-spinel transformation in fayalite (United States)

    Kubo, T.; Doi, N.; Imamura, M.; Kato, T.; Higo, Y.; Tange, Y.


    Most of constituent minerals in subducting slab cause high-pressure transformations in mantle transition zone, which largely affects rheology of the deep slab. Previous studies have suggested that the grain-size reduction due to non-equilibrium olivine-spinel transformation leads to weakening and shear instability in the slab, which may be responsible for the slab stagnation and deep earthquakes. However, there have been few experimental studies to examine the coupling process between transformation and deformation at high pressure quantitatively. Here we report preliminary results on in-situ X-ray observations of creep behaviors during the olivine-spinel transformation in fayalite (Fe2SiO4). High-pressure deformation experiments were conducted using Deformation-DIA apparatus in the beamline of BL04B1 at the synchrotron facility of SPring-8. Monochromatic X-ray (energy 50-60 keV) was used as the incident beam. We measured time-resolved two-dimensional X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray radiography images to obtain stress-strain and transformation-time (strain) curves, simultaneously. After annealing polycrystalline fayalite at 3.5 GP and 1173 K for 2 hours, we observed the olivine-spinel transformation at 5-9 GPa and 873-1173 K with and without deformation (in uniaxial compression with constant strain rate of 4-5 x 10-5 s-1). Overpressures needed for the transformation increased with decreasing temperature from 1.5 GPa and 1173 K to 3.8 GPa at 973 K in the case of no deformation. When the sample was deformed, the overpressures decreased by 0.5-1 GPa compared to the case of no deformation, suggesting the enhancement of spinel nucleation. Transformation was not observed at 873 K even when the overpressure reached to 4 GPa with deformation. Stress in olivine, spinel, and the bulk sample (from stress marker arranged in tandem) were similar at the initial stage, and then spinel becomes dominant deformation phase at around 50% transformation. During the

  12. Exceptional effect of glassy lithium fluorophosphate on Mn-rich olivine cathode material for high-performance Li ion batteries (United States)

    Kim, Jongsoon; Kim, Hyungsub; Myung, Seung-Taek; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Lee, Seongsu


    Mn-rich olivine LiFe0.3Mn0.7PO4 is homogenously encapsulated by an ∼3-nm-thick conductive nanolayer composed of the glassy lithium fluorophosphate through simple non-stoichiometric synthesis using additives of small amounts of LiF and a phosphorus source. The coating of the glassy lithium fluorophosphate nanolayer is clearly verified using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It enables significant decrease in charge transfer resistance of LiFe0.3Mn0.7PO4 and improvement of its sluggish Li diffusion. At a rate of 10C, the LiFe0.3Mn0.7PO4 encapsulated by conductive glassy lithium fluorophosphate (LiFe0.3Mn0.7PO4-GLFP) electrode delivers a capacity of ∼130 mAh g-1, which is ∼77% of its theoretical capacity (∼170 mAh g-1) and ∼1.5 times higher than that of the pristine counterpart at 10C. Furthermore, LiFe0.3Mn0.7PO4-GLFP achieves outstanding cycle stability (∼75% retention of its initial capacity over 500 cycles at 1C). The proposed olivine LiFe0.3Mn0.7PO4-GLFP battery is thus expected to be a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage applications.

  13. Pressure Dependence of Creep in Forsterite Olivine: Comparison of Measurements From the D-DIA and Griggs Apparatus (United States)

    Kaboli, S.; Burnley, P. C.; Xia, G.; Green, H. W.


    We present measurements of the creep strength of forsterite olivine at 1200°C from 1 to 7.5 GPa made using a Griggs apparatus at low pressures and a D-DIA apparatus at high pressures. The same starting material is used for all experiments allowing us to compare measurements made with the two instruments. We find that results from the two apparatus are comparable if the stress measurements made from the alumina piston in the D-DIA experiments are used as a proxy for the load that the olivine sample supports. The reproducibility of the D-DIA experiments are improved if microstructural observations of the post experimental integrity of the sample and piston are used to judge experimental validity. Interpretation of the joint dataset indicate that the pressure dependence of creep (ΔV*) for our sample material cannot be described by a constant value over this pressure range, but changes from 15 cm3/mol at low pressure to closer to 4 cm3/mol at high pressure. These results are consistent with changes in the mix of deformation mechanisms operating in forsterite as pressure increases.

  14. Whole-rock 26Al-26Mg systematics of amoeboid olivine aggregates from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg; Krot, A.N.; Larsen, Kirsten Kolbjørn


     We report on mineralogy, petrography, and whole-rock 26Al-26Mg systematics of eight amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) from the oxidized CV chondrite Allende. The AOAs consist of forsteritic olivine, opaque nodules, and variable amounts of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) of different types, and show......, and Si were introduced, whereas Ca was removed from AOAs and used to form the Ca,Fe-rich silicate rims around AOAs. The whole-rock 26Al-26Mg systematics of the Allende AOAs plot above the isochron of the whole-rock Allende CAIs with a slope of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10−5 reported by Jacobsen et al. (2008......). In contrast, whole-rock 26Al-26Mg isotope systematics of CAIs and AOAs from the reduced CV chondrite Efremovka define a single isochron with a slope of (5.25± 0.01) × 10−5 (Larsen et al. 2011). We infer that the excesses in 26Mg* present in Allende AOAs are due to their late-stage open-system metasomatic...

  15. Deformation of olivine + antigorite aggregates : effect of phase proportions and in-situ evaluation of stress partitionning. (United States)

    Hilairet, Nadege; Ferrand, Thomas; Raterron, Paul; Merkel, Sébastien; Jérémy, Guignard; Schubnel, Alexandre; Crichton, Wilson; Langrand, Christopher


    Serpentinization is expected to occur when fluids are released from the dehydrating subducting slabs and migrate into shear zones and the mantle wedge formed of peridotite. At shallow depths (15-30km) a few percent volume serpentine can lower the viscosity of peridotites by almost an order of magnitude [1], which can have major implications for strain localization in peridotite bodies. However, the deformation mechanisms observed at shallow depths are not easily extrapolable to deeper contexts and monomineralic rocks do not necessarily deform with the same mechanisms as multiphase rocks. The behavior of rocks with two phases of contrasted mechanical properties is highly non-linear with composition and cannot be easily modeled from its end-members. Here we investigate the rheology of antigorite + olivine « synthetic » peridotites with varying serpentine content (5 to 50%) at high pressure (2- 3 GPa, ca. 60-90 km depth), using the D-DIA large volume press and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and imaging. The results provide insights on the conditions under which serpentinized peridotites evolve in a regime dominated by the rheology of the strongest phase (olivine) or the weakest phase (antigorite). [1] Escartin et al, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1997

  16. Olivine-melt relationships and syneruptive redox variations in the 1959 eruption of K$\\bar{i}$lauea Volcano as revealed by XANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helz, R. T.; Cottrell, E.; Brounce, M. N.; Kelley, K. A.


    The 1959 summit eruption of K$\\bar{i}$lauea Volcano exhibited high lava fountains of gas-rich, primitive magma, containing olivine + chromian spinel in highly vesicular brown glass. Microprobe analysis of these samples shows that euhedral rims on olivine phenocrysts, in direct contact with glass, vary significantly in forsterite (Fo) content, at constant major-element melt composition, as do unzoned groundmass olivine crystals. Ferric/total iron (Fe+ 3/FeT)ratios for matrix and interstitial glasses, plus olivine-hosted glass inclusions in eight 1959 scoria samples have been determined by micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (μ-XANES). These data show that much of the variation in Fo content reflects variation in oxidation state of iron in the melt, which varies with sulfur concentration in the glass and (locally) with proximity to scoria edges in contact with air. Data for 24 olivine-melt pairs in the better-equilibrated samples from later in the eruption show KD averaging 0.280 ± 0.03 for the exchange of Fe and Mg between olivine and melt, somewhat displaced from the value of 0.30 ± 0.03 given by Roeder and Emslie (1970). This may reflect the low SiO2 content of the 1959 magmas, which is lower than that in most K$\\bar{i}$lauea tholeiites. More broadly, we show the potential of μ-XANES and electron microprobe to revisit and refine the value of KD in natural systems.

  17. Variations on a Theme by Longhi: I, an Analysis of the Thermodynamic Underpinning of Fe, Mn, and Ni Partitioning into Olivine (United States)

    Jones, John H.


    Longhi et al. [1] have used the D(Ni) vs. D(Mg) parameterizations of Jones [2, 3] in attempting to explain the Ni systematics of lunar differentiation. A key element of the Jones parameterization and the Longhi et al. models is that, at very high temperatures, Ni may become incompatible in olivine. Unfortunately, there is no actual experimental evidence that this is ever the case [1]. To date, all experiments designed to demonstrate such incompatibility have failed. Here I will investigate the thermodynamic foundations of the D vs. D(Mg) trends for olivine/liquid discovered by [2].

  18. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions as an archive of redox heterogeneity in magmatic systems (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret E.; Shorttle, Oliver; Maclennan, John; Moussallam, Yves; Edmonds, Marie


    The redox state of volcanic products determines their leverage on the oxidation of Earth's oceans and atmosphere, providing a long-term feedback on oxygen accumulation at the planet's surface. An archive of redox conditions in volcanic plumbing systems from a magma's mantle source, through crustal storage, to eruption, is carried in pockets of melt trapped within crystals. While melt inclusions have long been exploited for their capacity to retain information on a magma's history, their permeability to fast-diffusing elements such as hydrogen is now well documented and their retention of initial oxygen fugacities (fO2) could be similarly diffusion-limited. To test this, we have measured Fe3+/ΣFe by micro-XANES spectroscopy in a suite of 65 olivine-hosted melt inclusions and 9 matrix glasses from the AD 1783 Laki eruption, Iceland. This eruption experienced pre-eruptive mixing of chemically diverse magmas, syn-eruptive degassing at the vent, and post-eruptive degassing during lava flow up to 60 km over land, providing an ideal test of whether changes in the fO2 of a magma may be communicated through to its cargo of crystal-hosted melt inclusions. Melt inclusions from rapidly quenched tephra samples have Fe3+/ΣFe of 0.206 ± 0.008 (ΔQFM of +0.7 ± 0.1), with no correlation between their fO2 and degree of trace element enrichment or differentiation. These inclusions preserve the redox conditions of the mixed pre-eruptive Laki magma. When corrected for fractional crystallisation to 10 wt.% MgO, these inclusions record a parental magma [Fe3+/ΣFe](10) of 0.18 (ΔQFM of +0.4), significantly more oxidised than the Fe3+/ΣFe of 0.10 that is often assumed for Icelandic basalt magmas. Melt inclusions from quenched lava selvages are more reduced than those from the tephra, having Fe3+/ΣFe between 0.133 and 0.177 (ΔQFM from -0.4 to +0.4). These inclusions have approached equilibrium with their carrier lava, which has been reduced by sulfur degassing. The progressive re

  19. Melt, fluid and crystal inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from Kerguelen plume-derived picritic basalts: evidence for interaction with the Kerguelen Plateau lithosphere.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisova, A.U.; Nikogosian, I.; Shimizu, N.; Weis, D.; Scoates, J.S.; Touret, J.L.R.; Damasceno, D.


    Melt, fluid and crystal inclusions have been studied in olivine phenocrysts from a suite of picritic basalts dredged during the "Marion Dufresne" MD 109 cruise (Dredge 6) from a seamount located between the Kerguelen Archipelago and Heard Island (Southern Indian Ocean). A two-stage polybaric

  20. Thermodynamic assessment of the magmatic history of Blue Rock shield volcano, Jackson Co., Oregon: application of a new DNi (olivine-melt) geothermometer and other models (United States)

    Crabtree, Stephen M.; Huber, Abigail; Beck, Karl


    Blue Rock is a basaltic shield volcano in the southern Oregon Cascades, north of Mt. McLoughlin, showing bulk phenocryst abundances ranging from 5 to 28 vol%, and a variety of groundmass textures. Compositional analyses of olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts and glomerocrysts allowed for the sequential application of a new {D}_{Ni}^{olivine-melt} thermometer, a plagioclase-melt hygrometer, and a viscosity model to define olivine-in conditions for a suite of lavas erupted from this edifice. Calculated olivine-in temperatures were compared to results from the anhydrous MELTS model, and the D (Mg) model of Beattie (1993). Model results were consistent with experimental data for hydrous arc basalts with respect to temperature (1053-1146 °C), dissolved-H2O contents (0.9-2.4 wt% H2O), and viscosity (1.9-2.2 log10 Pa s), confirming the utility of these models in assessing the thermodynamic properties of mafic, hydrous arc lavas over a broad range in crystallinity, requiring only the completion of bulk geochemical and microprobe analyses. These studies also reinforced the significant and predictable role of water, affecting the compositions of crystals grown during magmatic ascent, and allowed the definition of a reasonable multi-stage eruptive sequence consistent with the degassing of magmas on ascent in the formation of this small-scale basaltic edifice.

  1. Mineral Specific IR Molar Absorption Coefficients for Routine Water Determination in Olivine, SiO2 polymorphs and Garnet (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Reichart, P.; Rhede, D.; Thomas, R.


    Conventionally applied Infrared (IR) calibrations [1, 2] for quantitative water analyses in solids are established on hydrous minerals and glasses with several wt% water. These calibrations are based on a negative correlation between the IR molar absorption coefficient (ɛ) for water and the mean wavenumber of the corresponding OH pattern. The correlation reflects the dependence of the OH band position on the appropriate O- H...O distances and thereby the magnitude of the dipole momentum which is proportional to the band intensity. However, it has been observed that these calibrations can not be adopted to nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) [3].To study the potential dependence of ɛ on structure and chemistry in NAMs we synthesized olivine and SiO2 polymorphs with specific isolated hydroxyl point defects, e.g. quartz, coesite and stishovite with B3++H+=Si4+ and/or Al3++H+=Si4+ substitutions. Experiments were performed with water in excess in piston cylinder and multi-anvil presses. Single crystal IR spectra demonstrate that we successfully managed to seperate generally complex OH patterns as e.g. observed in natural quartz and synthetic coesite. We quantified sample water contents of both natural samples and our run products by applying proton-proton-scattering [4], confocal microRaman spectroscopy [5] and Secondary Ion mass spectrometry. Resulting water concentrations were used to calculate new mineral specific ɛs. For olivine with the mean wavenumber of 3517 cm-1 we determined an ɛ value of 41,000±5,000 lmol-1H2Ocm-2. Quantification of olivine with the mean wavenumber of 3550 cm-1 in contrast resulted in an ɛ value of 47,000±1,000 lmol-1H2Ocm-2. Taking into account previous studies [6, 7] there is evidence to suggest a linear wavenumber dependent correlation for olivine, where ɛ increases with decreasing wavenumber. In case of the SiO2 system it turns out that the magnitude of ɛ within one structure type is independent of the liable OH point defect and

  2. Formation of High Pressure Polymorphs of Olivine and Pyroxene in Shocked Meteorites and Collision in Their Parent Bodies (Invited) (United States)

    Ohtani, E.; Miyahara, M.; Ozawa, S.; Kimura, M.; El Goresy, A.


    Shocked meteorites contain various high pressure polymorphs, such as wadsleyite[1], ringwoodite [2], majorite [3], akimotoite [4]. These minerals possess textures showing mechanisms of their formation. Here we summarize recent works on textures of high pressure polymorphs of olivine and pyroxene observed in shocked meteorites. We observed clear textures of wadsleyite and ringwoodite showing evidence for both the solid state transformation and crystallization from melt at high pressure. Olivine grains in a shocked L6 chondrite Yamato 791384 have ringwoodite lamellae with a thickness of c.a. 2mm. We can estimate the magnitude of collision in the parent body by applying the phase transition kinetics data determined by the static high pressure experiments ([5]). Ohtani et al. [6] estimated the pressure of 18-23 GPa, temperature of 2300 K, and duration of 4 seconds for the shock event recorded in this meteorite by assuming the incoherent growth mechanism of the ringwoodite lamellae. Such long duration of the pressure pulse indicates that the size of the parent body was greater than 10 km. We made TEM analyses of olivine crystals with ringwoodite lamellae and identified both coherent and incoherent growths in the same meteorite at the first time in nature, and evidence for a change from coherent and incoherent reported experimentally. This observation confirmed the validity of the earlier assumption of incoherent growth [6]. Some chondrites such as ALH78003 and Peace River L6-chondirtes have evidence for growth of wadsleyite and ringwoodite from silicate melts. Remarkable compositional differences close to equilibrium are observed in wadsleyite and ringwoodite[7, 8]. These observations also indicate relatively longer duration of high pressure during the shock events due to a large scale collisions suggesting applicability of the phase relations determined under the static experiments. Evidence for solid state transformation from pyroxene to majorite or akimotoite is

  3. D'une olivine naturelle à un catalyseur industriel au nickel pour la production d'hydrogène à partir de biomasse (United States)

    Świerczyński, D.; Courson, C.; Guille, J.; Kiennemann, A.


    L'olivine naturelle ((Mg,Fe){2}SiO{4}) présente un double intérêt comme catalyseur de gazéification de la biomasse en lit fluidisé circulant : son activité catalytique supérieure à la silice et sa grande dureté lui conférant une résistance à l'attrition. L'addition de nickel à l'olivine naturelle permet d'obtenir un catalyseur de reformage du méthane et des goudrons répondant aux exigences liées au procédé, à savoir une utilisation en lit fluidisé circulant alternativement en phase réductrice et oxydante et une association forte nickel-olivine. Le rôle des différentes phases présentes dans l'olivine est mis en évidence par DRX, TPR, MEB et spectroscopie Mössbauer. Cette étude permet d'identifier les interactions nickel-support du catalyseur créées à différentes températures de calcination et d'expliquer les mécanismes de formation du catalyseur actif. Un rejet de fer sous forme d'oxyde est observé. Il peut être expliqué soit par à un échange avec le nickel, sans modification de la structure olivine initiale, conduisant à la formulation ((Mg,Ni){2}SiO{4}), soit par la précipitation d'une phase MgO avec formation d'une solution solide NiO-MgO. La deuxième hypothèse est privilégiée car la présence de cette phase est cohérente avec l'existence d'interactions fortes nickel-olivine et avec les rapports Ni/Mg {=} 1 à la surface des grains sur l'échantillon Ni/olivine calciné à 1100circC. Elle explique la grande activité catalytique de cet échantillon en reformage du méthane.

  4. Lead isotope signatures of Kerguelen plume-derived olivine-hosted melt inclusions: Constraints on the ocean island basalt petrogenesis (United States)

    Borisova, Anastassia Y.; Faure, François; Deloule, Etienne; Grégoire, Michel; Béjina, Frédéric; de Parseval, Philippe; Devidal, Jean-Luc


    The nature of magmatic sources reflected by isotopic composition of the ocean island basalt (OIB) remains an on-going question in igneous geochemistry. To constrain the magmatic sources for OIB related to the Kerguelen plume activity, we performed detailed microanalytical investigation of the 21.4 Ma picritic basalt (MD109-D6-87) dredged during the “Marion Dufresne” cruise on a seamount between Kerguelen Archipelago and Heard Island. Lead isotope compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions and matrix glasses were measured by Laser Ablation Multiple Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). We also performed major and trace element microanalyses and mapping of the inclusions and the host olivine phenocrysts by electron microprobe (wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, WDS). The observed significant major element (K2O/P2O5, Al2O3/TiO2) and Pb isotope (207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) heterogeneities of parental melts (MgO = 7-10 wt.%) during early high pressure crystallisation stage (200-300 MPa, Fo82-86 mol%), and relative homogeneity at later lower-pressure crystallisation stage (Assimilant” melts during magma residence and transport. Lead isotope composition of the parental basaltic melts was inherited from both heterogeneous mantle and the Kerguelen Plateau crust. High K2O/P2O5 (> 4), Al2O3/TiO2 (> 4) ratios are attributed to assimilation of the plateau basaltic crust (≥ 50 wt.%) by the melts in the magma chamber at palaeodepths from 6 to 9 km. The crustal assimilation may have happened through plagioclase dissolution. The large chemical and isotopic heterogeneity of the parental OIB melts found by in situ microanalyses in this study suggests that the bulk rock chemistry alone cannot provide enough information to constrain the nature of the magmatic sources.

  5. Variation of olivine composition in the volcanic rocks in the Songliao basin, NE China: lithosphere control on the origin of the K-rich intraplate mafic lavas (United States)

    Zhang, L.-Y.; Prelević, D.; Li, N.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Buhre, S.


    Lithospheric thickness and the heterogeneity of the mantle lithosphere are two major parameters that play a role in determining the final composition of the mafic melts and their minerals. The Songliao basin in northeast China represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the effect of these two parameters on early Pliocene to Holocene K-rich mafic lavas (K2O > 4 wt.%; K2O/Na2O > 1). A series of Cenozoic volcanic edifices (Erkeshan, Wudalianchi, Keluo and Xiaogulihe) are tentatively divided into three groups (Group 1 - thin, Group 2 - middle, and Group 3 - thick) according to the lithosphere thickness. They are located in the northern region of the Songliao basin extending in a near north-south direction along a broad zone where the lithosphere thickness increases gradually. We present a detailed petrographical and geochemical study on olivine macrocrysts in combination with new geochemical data on their host lavas, including major and trace element abundances as well as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic signatures. Our ultimate aim is to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the role of lithospheric mantle thickness (named as ;lid effect;) and composition in the variation of mafic lavas and olivine composition. When corrected to Mg# = 0.72, a number of major elements in the lavas correlate with increasing lithospheric thickness (L): Si72 and Al72 decrease, whereas Mg72, Fe72, Ti72 and P72 increase. Sm/Yb ratios in the lavas increase, implying that lithospheric thickness exerts an important control. Group 3 mafic lavas are ultrapotassic (showing lamproite affinity) with K2O/Na2O > 4: their La/Sm and Pb isotope ratios deviate from the above correlations, indicating that the lavas from the thickest part of the basin exhibit the highest extent of metasomatic enrichment of the mantle source. Several parameters (e.g. [Ni], Ni/Mg, Ni/(Mg/Fe), Mn/Fe and Ca/Fe) in melt-related olivine from Group 1 and Group 2 lavas are controlled by variable lithosphere thickness. Olivine

  6. Origin of Na in glass inclusions hosted in olivine from Allende CV3 and Jbilet Winselwan CM2: Implications for chondrule formation (United States)

    Florentin, L.; Faure, F.; Deloule, E.; Tissandier, L.; Gurenko, A.; Lequin, D.


    Glass inclusions trapped in Mg-rich olivines within type I chondrules from the Allende (CV3) and Jbilet Winselwan (CM2) chondrites were analyzed by EPMA (Electron Probe Microanalysis) for major elements and by SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) for Cl and S (analyzed here for the first time in chondrule-hosted glass inclusions). The inclusions from Jbilet Winselwan are poor in Na2O, whereas those from Allende are Na-rich, displaying up to 8 wt.% Na2O. The source of Na is a central issue in terms of chondrule origins because of the volatility of Na at high temperature. The wide scatter in Na2O contents of olivine-hosted glass inclusions from chondrules has led the community to propose that Na2O came from late interactions of chondrules with a Si/Na-rich gas. To gain new insights into the origins of the Na2O recorded in glass inclusions, heating experiments (up to 1810 °C) were performed on Allende inclusions in an effort to constrain the initial composition of the trapped melts. Our results demonstrate that sodium (although volatile) does not escape from inclusions during heating, thus confirming that glass inclusions behave as closed systems. Furthermore, heated olivines still bear inclusions containing up to 7.2 wt.% of Na2O. Olivines are thought to form at temperatures at which Na is volatile. This implies that (1) Na from glass inclusions cannot come from condensation but rather results from trapping in a Na-rich environment, which implies a high pressure, as in a melting planetasimal (2) there may be two distinct origins for the sodium: an indigenous origin for the sodium trapped inside glass inclusions and a gaseous origin for the sodium recorded in mesostasis from chondrules. Consequently, these results are in favor of a planetesimal origin for olivine from chondrules.

  7. Olivine fabrics and tectonic evolution of fore-arc mantles: A natural perspective from the Songshugou dunite and harzburgite in the Qinling orogenic belt, central China (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Jung, Haemyeong; Song, Shuguang


    To advance our understanding of the deformation characteristics, rheological behaviors, and tectonic evolution of the fore-arc lithospheric mantle, we analyzed mineral fabrics for a large spinel-bearing ultramafic massif in the Songshugou area in the Qinling orogenic belt, central China. In the spinel-poor coarse-grained dunite, stronger A/D-type and weaker C-type-like fabrics were found, whereas the spinel-rich coarse-grained dunite displayed a comparatively stronger B-type-like fabric. These olivine fabrics are high-T fabrics influenced by the presence of melt, in which B and C-type-like fabrics are inferred to be produced by melt-assisted grain boundary sliding during synkinematic high-T melt-rock reactions. In contrast, the spinel-poor porphyroclastic and fine-grained dunites present weak AG and B-type-like fabrics, respectively. Their olivine fabrics (low-T fabrics) are inferred to transform from A/D-type fabric in their coarse-grained counterparts possibly through mylonitization process assisted by low-T fluid-rock reactions, during which strain was accommodated by the fluid-enhanced dislocation slip and/or fluid-assisted grain boundary sliding processes. Combined with the tectonic results of our previous work, the high-T olivine fabrics are probably related to a young and warm fore-arc mantle where intense partial melting and high-T boninitic melt-rock reactions prevalently occurred, whereas the low-T olivine fabrics likely reflect the evolving tectonic settings through the cooling fore-arc mantle to a continental lower crust in a collisional orogeny where low-T fluid-rock reactions were pervasively activated. These low-T olivine fabrics imply that though cold, the fore-arc lithospheric mantle may be locally weak (˜20-30 MPa), allowing ductile deformation to occur at a geologically significant strain rate.

  8. Seismic properties of the Earth's upper mantle in various geodynamic settings derived from experiments on olivine-orthopyroxene aggregates deformed up to 8 GPa and 1500 °C (United States)

    Soustelle, V.; Manthilake, G.


    We present here HP and HT deformation experiments on olivine-orthopyroxene aggregates and discuss the effect of pressure, temperature and composition on the development of olivine CPO and the resulting seismic properties. The experiments were prepared, synthesized, deformed and analysed at the Bayerisches Geoinstitut (University of Bayreuth,Germany). The sample consisted of hot-pressed powders composed of an olivine-orthopyroxene mix (87.5-12.5, 75-25 and 50-50 %) that were then placed in a simple-shear geometry assembly and deformed in a multi-anvil press employing 6 independently acting hydraulic rams at a constant strain-rate of 10-4 s-1 and 3 GPa-1300°C, 5 GPa-1400°C and 8 GPa-1500°C. The achieved shear strain ranged between 1 and 2. The sample were then analysed under SEM-EBSD. At 3 GPa, the observed CPO are similar to those predicted in previous studies, while the one developed at 5 and 8 GPa varies according to the orthopyroxene content: 1) Experiments with 12.5% orthopyroxene display annealing textures and random CPO; 2) the ones with 25% orthopyroxene display B-type olivine CPO consistent with high pressure dislocation creep deformation experiments; and 3) the experiments with 50% orthopyroxenes display A-type olivine CPO consistent with olivine-pyroxene aggregates deformed at high temperature in diffusion creep regime. The resulting seismic properties could therefore explain the seismic anisotropy observations in the mid and lower part of the Earth's upper mantle in different geodynamic contexts. For example, the mantle wedge above subduction which has pyroxene content corresponding to our 25% orthopyroxene experiments and often display the olivine fast-axis normal to the expected mantle flow. On the other hand, a more pristine intraplate mantle most often predict olivine fast-axis parallel to the mantle flow and would have an olivine-pyroxene ratio close to our experiment with 50% orthopyroxene.

  9. An olivine-free mantle lithology as a source for mantle-derived magmas: the role of metasomes in the Ethiopian-Arabian large igneous province. (United States)

    Rooney, T. O.; Nelson, W. R.; Ayalew, D.; Yirgu, G.; Herzberg, C. T.; Hanan, B. B.


    Peridotite constitutes most of the Earth's upper mantle, and it is therefore unsurprising that most mantle-derived magmas exhibit evidence of past equilibrium with olivine-dominated source. There is mounting evidence, however, for the role of pyroxenite in magma generation within upwelling mantle plumes; a less documented non-peridotite source of melts are metasomatic veins (metasomes) within the lithospheric mantle. Melts derived from metasomes may exhibit extreme enrichment or depletion in major and trace elements. We hypothesize that phenocrysts such as olivine, which are commonly used to probe basalt source lithology, will reflect these unusual geochemical signals. Here we present preliminary major and trace element analyses of 60 lavas erupted from a small Miocene shield volcano located within the Ethiopian flood basalt province. Erupted lavas are intercalated with lahars and pyroclastic horizons that are overlain by a later stage of activity manifested in small cinder cones and flows. The lavas form two distinctive petrographic and geochemical groups: (A) an olivine-phyric, low Ti group (1.7-2.7 wt. % TiO2; 4.0-13.6 wt. % MgO), which geochemically resembles most of the basalts in the region. These low Ti lavas are the only geochemical unit identified in the later cinder cones and associated lava flows. (B) a clinopyroxene-phyric high Ti group (1-6.7 wt. % TiO2; 1.0-9.5 wt. % MgO), which resembles the Oligocene HT-2 flood basalts. This unit is found intercalated with low Ti lavas within the Miocene shield. In comparison to the low Ti group, the high Ti lavas exhibit a profound depletion in Ni, Cr, Al, and Si, and significant enrichment in Ca, Fe, V, and the most incompatible trace elements. When combined with a diagnostic negative K anomaly in primitive-mantle normalized diagrams and Na2O>K2O, the geochemical data point towards a source which is rich in amphibole, devoid of olivine, and perhaps containing some carbonate. Our preliminary results have identified

  10. An Empirical Approach to Simulating the Development of Various Olivine Fabric and Associated Seismic Anisotropy in Complex Geodynamic Flow Models (United States)

    Miller, K. J.; Montesi, L. G.


    Kevin J. Miller; Laurent G.J. Montési ; Department of Physics, Department of Geology University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, United States The detection of seismic anisotropy has become one of the most useful tools for characterizing flow in the Earth’s upper mantle. Thus, it is crucial for geodynamic models to include predictions of anisotropy so that their relevance for the Earth can be easily evaluated. Rigorous fabric development models, which utilize the deformation and rotation of a large number of grains, have already been created for the purpose of analyzing flow models. Such models include D-REX. However, it is important to have simpler tools that provide rapidly first order prediction of mantle fabric and anisotropy. The simplest proxy for anisotropy is provided by the instantaneous flow field, with the fast axis of olivine oriented along the direction for shear. More rigorously, it is possible to integrate finite strain and associate the fast axis of olivine with the direction of maximum elongation. However, the recognition that different fabric types can dominate in different regions of the mantle motivates a more general, albeit empirical model of fabric development. Our empirical approach is motivated as follows: 1) The intensity of the fabric should grow proportionally with the strain rate; 2) The fast, intermediate, and low axes of the crystals should rotate and align towards target directions related to the principal axes of strain rate. To achieve these goals, we developed a 4-step algorithm: 1) The flow field is decomposed into strain rate and rotation rate tensors; 2) We determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the instantaneous strain rate tensor; 3) We switch the order of these eigenvalues, recombining them to produce a fabric development tensor; 4) We return the fabric development tensor to the global reference frame and add the rotation rate tensor. After integration along flow lines, this

  11. Olivine-melt relationships and syneruptive redox variations in the 1959 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano as revealed by XANES (United States)

    Helz, Rosalind L.; Cottrell, Elizabeth; Brounce, Maryjo N.; Kelley, Katherine A.


    The 1959 summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano exhibited high lava fountains of gas-rich, primitive magma, containing olivine + chromian spinel in highly vesicular brown glass. Microprobe analysis of these samples shows that euhedral rims on olivine phenocrysts, in direct contact with glass, vary significantly in forsterite (Fo) content, at constant major-element melt composition, as do unzoned groundmass olivine crystals. Ferric/total iron (Fe+ 3/FeT)ratios for matrix and interstitial glasses, plus olivine-hosted glass inclusions in eight 1959 scoria samples have been determined by micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (μ-XANES). These data show that much of the variation in Fo content reflects variation in oxidation state of iron in the melt, which varies with sulfur concentration in the glass and (locally) with proximity to scoria edges in contact with air. Data for 24 olivine-melt pairs in the better-equilibrated samples from later in the eruption show KD averaging 0.280 ± 0.03 for the exchange of Fe and Mg between olivine and melt, somewhat displaced from the value of 0.30 ± 0.03 given by Roeder and Emslie (1970). This may reflect the low SiO2 content of the 1959 magmas, which is lower than that in most Kīlauea tholeiites. More broadly, we show the potential of μ-XANES and electron microprobe to revisit and refine the value of KD in natural systems.The observed variations of Fe+ 3/FeT ratios in the glasses reflect two distinct processes. The main process, sulfur degassing, produces steady decrease of the Fe+ 3/FeT ratio. Melt inclusions in olivine are high in sulfur (1060–1500 ppm S), with Fe+ 3/FeT = 0.160–0.175. Matrix glasses are degassed (mostly S < 200 ppm) with generally lower Fe+ 3/FeT(0.114–0.135). Interstitial glasses within clumps of olivine crystals locally show intermediate levels of sulfur and Fe+ 3/FeT ratio. The correlation suggests that (1) the 1959 magma was significantly reduced by sulfur

  12. Olivine-melt relationships and syneruptive redox variations in the 1959 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano as revealed by XANES (United States)

    Helz, R. T.; Cottrell, E.; Brounce, M. N.; Kelley, K. A.


    The 1959 summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano exhibited high lava fountains of gas-rich, primitive magma, containing olivine + chromian spinel in highly vesicular brown glass. Microprobe analysis of these samples shows that euhedral rims on olivine phenocrysts, in direct contact with glass, vary significantly in forsterite (Fo) content, at constant major-element melt composition, as do unzoned groundmass olivine crystals. Ferric/total iron (Fe+ 3/FeT)ratios for matrix and interstitial glasses, plus olivine-hosted glass inclusions in eight 1959 scoria samples have been determined by micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (μ-XANES). These data show that much of the variation in Fo content reflects variation in oxidation state of iron in the melt, which varies with sulfur concentration in the glass and (locally) with proximity to scoria edges in contact with air. Data for 24 olivine-melt pairs in the better-equilibrated samples from later in the eruption show KD averaging 0.280 ± 0.03 for the exchange of Fe and Mg between olivine and melt, somewhat displaced from the value of 0.30 ± 0.03 given by Roeder and Emslie (1970). This may reflect the low SiO2 content of the 1959 magmas, which is lower than that in most Kīlauea tholeiites. More broadly, we show the potential of μ-XANES and electron microprobe to revisit and refine the value of KD in natural systems. The observed variations of Fe+ 3/FeT ratios in the glasses reflect two distinct processes. The main process, sulfur degassing, produces steady decrease of the Fe+ 3/FeT ratio. Melt inclusions in olivine are high in sulfur (1060-1500 ppm S), with Fe+ 3/FeT = 0.160-0.175. Matrix glasses are degassed (mostly S glasses within clumps of olivine crystals locally show intermediate levels of sulfur and Fe+ 3/FeT ratio. The correlation suggests that (1) the 1959 magma was significantly reduced by sulfur degassing during the eruption and (2) the melts originally had Fe+ 3/FeT ≥ 0.175, consistent with

  13. Ringwoodite rim around olivine core in shock-induced melt veins of Antarctic chondrite : Mechanisms of transformation and Fe-Mg diffusion (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Li, X.; Sharp, T. G.; de Carli, P. S.


    Introduction: High-pressure minerals, produced by shock metamorphism, are common in and around melt veins in highly shocked chondrites. The shock duration can be constrained by using transformation kinetics, such as the crystallization rate of the melt-vein matrix[1-2], or growth rate of the high-pressure minerals [3-4], or using elements diffusion rate between two minerals [5]. Using transformation kinetics to constrain shock duration de-pend on the details of the transformation mechanism. For example, growth of topotaxial ringwoodite in olivine with coherent interfaces is slower than growth of inclusions with incoherent interfaces [4-5]. Similarly, diffusion-controlled growth, where rates are determined by long-range diffusion, is generally much slower than interface-controlled growth, which is only dependent on diffusion across the interface [6-8]. The occurrences of the high-pressure mineral rims were recently reported in shock-induced melt veins in several heavily shocked (S6) chondrites, ALH78003, Peace River and GRV052049 [9-11]. Here we report EMAP and Raman results of the ringwoodite rims around olivine cores in shock veins of the Antarctic chondrites GRV 022321, and to elucidate the mechanisms of transformation and Mg-Fe diffusion of the olivine to ringwoodite. Results: GRV022321 has a network of black veins which enclose abundant host-rock fragments. The enclosed fragments have sizes ranging from 5 µm to 30 µm, with a brighter rim up to several µm wide and a dark core in reflected light and BSE image. The Raman data reveal that the rim mineral is ringwoodite signature, and the core minerals are dominated by olivine and mixed minor ringwoodite. EMAP data confirm that the ringwoodite in rim is richer in faylite (Fa) than the olivine core. The Fa values range from 50 to 10 with the outer rim having highest Fa value, and the inside darker area with a lower value. Discussion: The occurrence of the rounded shape grains with smooth edges embedded in the fine

  14. Modeling Crystallographic Preferred Orientation of Olivine Polycrystals Deformed in Diffusion Creep Regime, and Implications for Seismic Anistropy in the Upper Mantle. (United States)

    Hedjazian, N.; Kaminski, E. C.


    Seismic anisotropy in Earth's upper mantle is thought to mainly arise from the crystal preferred orientation (CPO) of olivine developed in the dislocation creep regime. But recent laboratory experiments show that a significant CPO can also develop in fined-grained olivine aggregates deformed in diffusion creep, under conditions relevant to the upper mantle and when the temperature is close to the solidus (Ts > T > 0.92Ts , Miyazaki et al., 2013). Experimental results further show that in this regime CPO development is due to grain boundary sliding (GBS) on crystallography-controlled planes. To account for this observation, we propose a model stemming from the kinematic approach of Ribe and Yu (1991) while considering that crystal boundaries play for GBS the same role as slip planes for instracrytalline deformation. Our model predicts CPO development due to GBS as a function of the resolved shear stress on the crystals boundaries with a Newtonian constitutive equation and includes grain boundary migration. Results of laboratory experiments are used to constrain the model parameters. We obtain a good agreement between model predictions and observations, which confirm that CPO can be produced in diffusion creep provided GBS occurs in some preferred directions. We illustrate the implications of the model by a study of the CPO and corresponding seismic anisotropy produced in a simple mid-ocean ridge flow model. Assuming a half-space cooling thermal model and dry olivine, we predict that the deformation of olivine polycrystals could occur in this diffusion-accommodated GBS regime in the asthenosphere. The resulting CPO and seismic anisotropy mimic AG-type fabric, with a vertical slow symmetry axis. This corresponds to strong radial anisotropy and weak azimuthal anisotropy, a pattern consistent with observations in regional studies of the Pacific asthenosphere, such as the recent NoMelt seismic campaign.

  15. Mineralogy and defect microstructure of an olivine-dominated Itokawa dust particle: evidence for shock metamorphism, collisional fragmentation, and LL chondrite origin (United States)

    Langenhorst, Falko; Harries, Dennis; Pollok, Kilian; van Aken, Peter A.


    We report here detailed analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopic investigations on an olivine-dominated dust particle (RB-QD04-0042) from the surface of asteroid 25143 Itokawa. The dust particle was returned to Earth by the Hayabusa spacecraft and was made available in the context of the first announcement of opportunity for Hayabusa sample investigation. Multiple thin slices were prepared from the precious particle by means of focused ion beam thinning, providing a unique three-dimensional access to its interior. The 40 × 50 μm sized olivine particle contains a spherical diopside inclusion and an intimate intergrowth of troilite and tetrataenite. The compositions of olivine (Fo69Fa31) and diopside (En48Wo42Fs10), as well as the high Ni content of the sulfide-metal alloy, indicate a LL ordinary chondrite origin in accord with previous classifications. Although no impact crater exists at the surface of RB-QD04-0042, transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of various shock defects in constituent minerals. These defects are planar fractures and [001] screw dislocations in olivine, multiple {101} deformation twins in tetrataenite and basal (0001) stacking faults in troilite. These diagnostic shock indicators occur only in a small zone on one concave side of the dust particle characterized by a high fracture density. These observations can be explained by a collisional event that spalled off material from the particle's surface. Alternatively, the dust particle itself could be a spallation fragment of an impact into a larger regolith target. This suggests that Itokawa dust particles lacking visible microcraters on their surfaces might have still experienced shock metamorphism and were involved in collisional fragmentation that resulted in the formation of regolith.

  16. Lead Isotope Compositions of Acid Residues from Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for Heterogeneous Shergottite Source Reservoirs (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.


    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions and trace element abundances. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible- element-enriched reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there is ongoing debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former requires the ancient Martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires isolation of a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and trace element concentration analyses of sequential acid-leaching fractions (leachates and the final residues) from the geochemically depleted olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint. The results suggest that the Tissint magma is not isotopically uniform and sampled at least two geochemical source reservoirs, implying that either crustal assimilation or magma mixing would have played a role in the Tissint petrogenesis.

  17. An integrated chemical and oxygen isotopic study of primitive olivine grains in picrites from the Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China: Evidence for oxygen isotope heterogeneity in mantle sources (United States)

    Yu, Song-Yue; Shen, Neng-Ping; Song, Xie-Yan; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Chen, Lie-Meng


    Recognition of the nature of potential mantle sources of continental flood basalts is complicated by possible overprinting related to crustal contamination as magmas migrate to the surface (Arndt and Christensen, 1992). However, in picritic lava flows primitive olivine phenocrysts that formed early in the crystallization sequence can potentially provide unperturbed information of their mantle source. We have carried out an integrated chemical and oxygen isotopic (in situ SIMS) study of primitive olivine grains (Fo ranging from 88 to 92.6 mol%) in the Emeishan picrites at different locations (Wulongba, Wuguijing, Tanglanghe and Maoniuping). We use these data to evaluate the geochemical nature of mantle sources for magmas from which the primitive olivine crystallized. The primitive olivine grains in the samples from Maoniuping, Wuguijing and Tanglanghe are characterized by mantle-like δ18O values (mean values are 5.1 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 53), 5.2 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 122) and 5.3 ± 0.3‰ (n = 25), respectively) coupled with generally low Fo contents (mean values are 88.7 ± 1.4 mol% (2σ, n = 53), 89.8 ± 1.8 mol% (2σ, n = 122) and 89.4 ± 1.8 mol% (2σ, n = 25), respectively). In contrast, the olivine grains in the samples from Wulongba are characterized by elevated δ18O values (mean = 5.6 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 58)) coupled with generally higher Fo contents (mean = 91 ± 2.8 mol% (2σ, n = 58)) than primitive olivine in the samples from the other locations. Based on olivine compositions, primitive olivine in picrites from Maoniuping, Tanglanghe and Wuguijing are consistent with derivation from hybrid mantle sources containing similar proportions of peridotite and pyroxenite/eclogite components. The δ18O values of these primitive olivine grains are consistent with melting of plume source materials. The chemical composition of the primitive olivine from Wulongba are also consistent with derivation from a hybrid peridotite/pyroxenite source, but the high δ18O values

  18. Olivine-respiring bacteria isolated from the rock-ice interface in a lava-tube cave, a Mars analog environment. (United States)

    Popa, Radu; Smith, Amy R; Popa, Rodica; Boone, Jane; Fisk, Martin


    The boundary between ice and basalt on Earth is an analogue for some near-surface environments of Mars. We investigated neutrophilic iron-oxidizing microorganisms from the basalt-ice interface in a lava tube from the Oregon Cascades with perennial ice. One of the isolates (Pseudomonas sp. HerB) can use ferrous iron Fe(II) from the igneous mineral olivine as an electron donor and O(2) as an electron acceptor. The optimum growth temperature is ∼12-14°C, but growth also occurs at 5°C. Bicarbonate is a facultative source of carbon. Growth of Pseudomonas sp. HerB as a chemolithotrophic iron oxidizer with olivine as the source of energy is favored in low O(2) conditions (e.g., 1.6% O(2)). Most likely, microbial oxidation of olivine near pH 7 requires low O(2) to offset the abiotic oxidation of iron. The metabolic capabilities of this bacterium would allow it to live in near-surface, icy, volcanic environments of Mars in the present or recent geological past and make this type of physiology a prime candidate in the search for life on Mars.

  19. Biomass gasification and in-bed contaminants removal: performance of iron enriched olivine and bauxite in a process of steam/O2 gasification. (United States)

    Barisano, D; Freda, C; Nanna, F; Fanelli, E; Villone, A


    A modified Olivine, enriched in iron content (10% Fe/Olivine), and a natural bauxite, were tested in the in-bed reduction of tar and alkali halides (NaCl and KCl) released in a process of biomass steam/O(2) gasification. The tests were carried out at an ICBFB bench scale reactor under the operating conditions of: 855-890 °C, atmospheric pressure, 0.5 steam/biomass and 0.33 ER ratios. From the use of the two materials, a reduction in the contaminant contents of the fuel gas produced was found. For the alkali halides, a decrease up to 70%(wt) was observed for the potassium concentration, while for sodium, the reduction was found to be quite poor. For the organic content, compared to unmodified Olivine, the chromatographically determined total tar quantity showed a removal efficiency of 38%(wt). Moreover, regarding the particulate content a rough doubling in the fuel gas revealed a certain brittleness of the new bed material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid


    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  1. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne


    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  2. Reconstruction of the 3-D Shape and Crystal Preferred Orientation of Olivine: A Combined X-ray µ-CT and EBSD-SEM approach (United States)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Hidas, Károly; Dilissen, Nicole; Garrido, Carlos J.; López-Sánchez Vizcaíno, Vicente; Jesús Román-Alpiste, Manuel


    The complete reconstruction of the microstructure of rocks requires, among others, a full description of the shape preferred orientation (SPO) and crystal preferred orientation (CPO) of the constituent mineral phases. New advances in instrumental analyses, particularly electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) coupled to focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), allows a complete characterization of SPO and CPO in rocks at the micron scale [1-2]. Unfortunately, the large grain size of many crystalline rocks, such as peridotite, prevents a representative characterization of the CPO and SPO of their constituent minerals by this technique. Here, we present a new approach combining X-ray micro computed tomography (µ-CT) and EBSD to reconstruct the geographically oriented, 3-D SPO and CPO of cm- to mm-sized olivine crystals in two contrasting fabric types of chlorite harzburgites (Almírez ultramafic massif, SE Spain). The semi-destructive sample treatment involves drilling of geographically oriented micro drills in the field and preparation of oriented thin sections from µ-CT scanned cores. This allows for establishing the link among geological structures, macrostructure, fabric, and 3-D SPO-CPO at the thin section scale. Based on EBSD analyses, different CPO groups of olivine crystals can be discriminated in the thin sections and allocated to 3-D SPO in the µ-CT volume data. This approach overcomes the limitations of both methods (i.e., no crystal orientation data in µ-CT and no spatial information in EBSD), hence 3-D orientation of the crystallographic axes of olivines from different orientation groups could be correlated with the crystal shapes of olivine grains. This combined µ-CT and EBSD technique enables the correlation of both SPO and CPO and representative grain size, and is capable to characterize the 3-D microstructure of olivine-bearing rocks at the hand specimen scale. REFERENCES 1. Zaefferer, S., Wright, S.I., Raabe, D., 2008. Three

  3. Crustal origin for coupled 'ultra-depleted' and 'plagioclase' signatures in MORB olivine-hosted melt inclusions: evidence from the Siqueiros Transform Fault, East Pacific Rise (United States)

    Danyushevsky, Leonid; Perfit, Michael; Eggins, Stephen; Falloon, Trevor


    Geochemical data from melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in a picritic basalt from the Siqueiros Transform Fault on the northern East Pacific Rise provide insights into the petrogenesis of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). The fresh lava contains 10% of olivine phenocrysts (Fo89.3-91.2) and rare, small (<1 mm) plagioclase phenocrysts with subhedral to irregular shapes with a range of compositions (An80-90, An57-63). Melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts are glassy, generally rounded in shape and vary in size from a few to 200 µm. Although most of the inclusions have compositions that are generally consistent with being representative of parental melts for the pillow-rim glasses, several inclusions are clearly different. One inclusion, which contains a euhedral grain of high-Al, low-Ti spinel, has a composition unlike any melt inclusions previously described from primitive phenocrysts in MORB. It has a very high Al2O3 ( 20 wt%), very low TiO2 ( 0.04 wt%) and Na2O ( 1 wt%) contents, and a very high CaO/Na2O value ( 14). The glass inclusion is strongly depleted in all incompatible elements (La =0.052 ppm Yb =0.34; La/Sm(n) 0.27), but it has large positive Sr and Eu anomalies (Sr/Sr* 30; Eu/Eu* 3) and a negative Zr anomaly. It also has low S (0.015 wt%) and relatively high Cl (180 ppm). We suggest that this unusual composition is a consequence of olivine trapping plagioclase in a hot, strongly plagioclase-undersaturated magma and subsequent reaction between plagioclase and the host olivine producing melt and residual spinel. Two other melt inclusions in a different olivine phenocryst have compositions that are generally intermediate between 'normal' inclusions and the aluminous inclusion, but have even higher CaO and Sr contents. They are also depleted in incompatible elements, but to a lesser degree than the aluminous inclusion, and have smaller Sr and Eu anomalies. Similar inclusions have also been described in high-Fo olivine phenocrysts from Iceland and

  4. Experimental Hypervelocity Dust Impact in Olivine: FIB/TEM Characterization of Micron-Scale Craters with Comparison to Natural and Laser-Simulated Small-Scale Impact Effects (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Loeffler, M. J.; Rahman, Z.; Dukes, C.; IMPACT Team


    The space weathering of regoliths on airless bodies and the formation of their exospheres is driven to a large extent by hypervelocity impacts from the high relative flux of micron to sub-micron meteoroids that comprise approximately 90 percent of the solar system meteoroid population. Laboratory hypervelocity impact experiments are crucial for quantifying how these small impact events drive space weathering through target shock, melting and vaporization. Simulating these small scale impacts experimentally is challenging because the natural impactors are both very small and many have velocities above the approximately 8 kilometers-per-second limit attainable by conventional chemical/light gas accelerator technology. Electrostatic "dust" accelerators, such as the one recently developed at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS), allow the experimental velocity regime to be extended up to tens of kilometers-per-second. Even at these velocities the region of latent target damage created by each impact, in the form of microcraters or pits, is still only about 0.1 to 10 micrometers in size. Both field-emission analytical scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and advanced field-emission scanning transmission electron microscopy (FE-STEM) are uniquely suited for characterizing the individual dust impact sites in these experiments. In this study, we have used both techniques, along with focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation, to characterize the micrometer to nanometer scale effects created by accelerated dust impacts into olivine single crystals. To our knowledge this work presents the first TEM-scale characterization of dust impacts into a key solar system silicate mineral using the CCLDAS facility. Our overarching goal for this work is to establish a basis to compare with our previous results on natural dust-impacted lunar olivine and laser-irradiated olivine.

  5. Olivine-Respiring Bacteria Isolated from the Rock-Ice Interface in a Lava-Tube Cave, a Mars Analog Environment


    Popa, Radu; Smith, Amy R.; Popa, Rodica; Boone, Jane; Fisk, Martin


    The boundary between ice and basalt on Earth is an analogue for some near-surface environments of Mars. We investigated neutrophilic iron-oxidizing microorganisms from the basalt-ice interface in a lava tube from the Oregon Cascades with perennial ice. One of the isolates (Pseudomonas sp. HerB) can use ferrous iron Fe(II) from the igneous mineral olivine as an electron donor and O2 as an electron acceptor. The optimum growth temperature is ∼12–14°C, but growth also occurs at 5°C. Bicarbonate ...

  6. Lead isotopic compositions in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from HIMU basalts and possible link to sulfide components (United States)

    Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Kogiso, Tetsu; Abe, Kanshi; Barsczus, Hans G.; Utsunomiya, Atsushi; Maruyama, Shigenori


    Pb isotopic compositions of melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts of lava samples from Mangaia and Rarotonga, Cook-Austral islands, have been determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The Pb isotopic compositions of melt inclusions from Rarotonga are consistent with those of bulk rock. On the other hand, Pb isotopic compositions of sulfide-free melt inclusions from Mangaia Island are widely distributed along the join between HIMU (i.e. highly radiogenic Pb) and less radiogenic components. The variation is much wider than that in bulk-rock samples that are invariably end-member HIMU values. In contrast, Pb isotopic compositions of sulfide and carbonate inclusions are restricted to HIMU end-member values. The variations in Pb isotopic ratios can be explained by mixing between the HIMU component and another component with less radiogenic Pb, and suggests that the HIMU component is enriched in sulfide and carbonate phases as well as Pb compared with the less radiogenic component. It seems paradoxical that a sulfide-rich component is associated with highly radiogenic Pb, because sulfides generally have extremely low U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios, which result in quite unradiogenic Pb. Subducted oceanic crust is not a likely source for such a sulfide-rich component because sulfides in subducted crust may not survive dehydration processes in subduction zones, although it can produce highly radiogenic Pb. The association of highly radiogenic Pb and sulfides implies that sulfides and radiogenic Pb in the HIMU source originate from distinct reservoirs. A possible origin of the sulfides is the Earth's core, because the core is the largest sulfur budget in the Earth. The highly radiogenic Pb may originate from subducted oceanic crust which resides at the core-mantle boundary. Alternative source for radiogenic Pb is Ca-perovskite in the lower mantle, which is the main host of incompatible elements in the lower mantle and has high U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios. The core-derived sulfides

  7. Olivine and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.


    The greenhouse effect, thanks mainly to the water vapor in our atmosphere, has created a livable climate on Earth. Climate change, however, may potentially have dire consequences. It is generally assumed that the rise in CO2 levels in the atmosphere is the main culprit, although several other


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.


    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  9. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited to high oleic acid oil and water purification property (Katayon et al., 2006; Foid et al., 2001 and. Folkard et al., 1993), whereas it contains up to. 332.5 g of crude protein per kg of sample (Jose et al., 1999). Studies to characterize the interaction effects of pH and salts on the extraction of. PROTEIN EXTRACTABILITY ...

  10. F, Cl, and S contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in mafic dikes and the environmental impact of flood volcanism in the Paraná-Etendeka LIP (United States)

    Marks, Linda; Trumbull, Robert; Keiding, Jakob; Veksler, Ilya; Wenzel, Thomas; Markl, Gregor; Wiedenbeck, Michael


    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) have been proposed to trigger mass-extinction events by the release of large quantities of volcanic gases which results in major climatic perturbations causing worldwide ecological stress and collapse. A prerequisite for understanding the proposed link between LIP volcanism and biological crisis is reliable information about the total gas emissions during these events. We present the first estimations of total F, Cl and S emissions from the Paraná-Etendeka LIP in the South Atlantic. Data from this province are of special interest because it is among the world's largest LIPs but is not associated to a mass extinction event. We have determined pre-eruption concentrations of F, Cl and S by in-situ analysis of melt inclusions preserved in olivine phenocrysts from basaltic dikes in the Etendeka province of NW Namibia. The melt inclusions have Mg-rich basaltic bulk compositions with about 8 to 18 wt.% MgO, overlapping the compositional range of the host rocks. A major feature of the melt inclusions is their wide variation in major and minor element concentrations, including F, Cl and S. This is attributed to trapping of variably-mixed melt fractions during crystallization of olivine in the roots of the dike system. Fluorine concentrations vary from about 190 to 450 ppm, Cl from destruction of the ozone layer.

  11. The variability of ruthenium in chromite from chassignite and olivine-phyric shergottite meteorites: New insights into the behavior of PGE and sulfur in Martian magmatic systems (United States)

    Baumgartner, Raphael J.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Baratoux, David; Ferrière, Ludovic; Locmelis, Marek; Tomkins, Andrew; Sener, Kerim A.


    The Martian meteorites comprise mantle-derived mafic to ultramafic rocks that formed in shallow intrusions and/or lava flows. This study reports the first in situ platinum-group element data on chromite and ulvöspinel from a series of dunitic chassignites and olivine-phyric shergottites, determined using laser-ablation ICP-MS. As recent studies have shown that Ru has strongly contrasting affinities for coexisting sulfide and spinel phases, the precise in situ analysis of this element in spinel can provide important insights into the sulfide saturation history of Martian mantle-derived melts. The new data reveal distinctive differences between the two meteorite groups. Chromite from the chassignites Northwest Africa 2737 (NWA 2737) and Chassigny contained detectable concentrations of Ru (up to 160 ppb Ru) in solid solution, whereas chromite and ulvöspinel from the olivine-phyric shergottites Yamato-980459 (Y-980459), Tissint, and Dhofar 019 displayed Ru concentrations consistently below detection limit (systems.

  12. Determining Magma Mixing Duration Prior to the 1915 Eruption of Lassen Peak, California by Comparing Experimental Growth of Reaction Rims and Natural Olivine Crystals in Black Dacite (United States)

    Graham, N. A.; Schwab, B. E.; Castro, J. M.; Clynne, M. A.


    Lassen Peak, located in northern California, last erupted in 1915 producing hybrid black dacite containing xenocrystic olivine grains with morphologically complex reaction rims of orthopyroxene. These rims are interpreted to have grown during magma mixing/mingling of admixed basaltic andesite and dacite reservoir magma prior to eruption. Reaction rim growth rates were determined from a series of hydrothermal experiments performed on starting materials consisting of powdered natural dacite pumice from the 1915 eruption and ~5 wt. % of Fo85 olivine separated from a spinel lherzolite xenolith (UM-5) from Kilbourne Hole, NM to constrain the length of time between magma recharge and eruption. Time series experiments were performed with run durations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 hours at 50 and 100 MPa, 825oC and 875oC. The experiments produced a range in reaction rim growth rates where rim thickness generally increased with time. Average rim growth rate for each series is as follows: 0.031 μm²h-1 for 50 MPa at 825oC, 0.010 μm²h-1 for 50 MPa at 875oC, 0.158 μm²h-1 for 100 MPa at 825oC, and 0.088 μm²h-1 for 100 MPa at 875oC. Overall, the 100 MPa experiments resulted in faster growth rates and thicker reaction rims than the 50 MPa experiments. At a given pressure, the higher temperature (875 oC) experiments show slower average growth rates, but thicker reaction rims than the 825oC equivalents. This suggests that growth rate is not constant over time, but likely is more rapid at the early stages of the experiments/heating event, and then slows over time. Reaction rim widths on 100 olivine grains from samples of black dacite were determined by analysis of SEM BSE images and average 26.1 ± 21.7 μm. This average rim width corresponds to a range of mixing durations of 5.8 months (100 MPa, 825oC) to 93 months (50 MPa, 875oC). Average reaction duration of 10.6 months (at 100 MPa, 875oC) is most consistent with our previous experimental work on the 1915 dacite. Reaction

  13. 40 years of mineral elasticity: a critical review and a new parameterisation of equations of state for mantle olivines and diamond inclusions (United States)

    Angel, Ross J.; Alvaro, Matteo; Nestola, Fabrizio


    Elasticity is a key property of materials, not only for predicting volumes and densities of minerals at the pressures and temperatures in the interior of the Earth, but also because it is a major factor in the energetics of structural phase transitions, surface energies, and defects within minerals. Over the 40 years of publication of Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, great progress has been made in the accuracy and precision of the measurements of both volumes and elastic tensors of minerals and in the pressures and temperatures at which the measurements are made. As an illustration of the state of the art, all available single-crystal data that constrain the elastic properties and pressure-volume-temperature equation of state (EoS) of mantle-composition olivine are reviewed. Single-crystal elasticity measurements clearly distinguish the Reuss and Voigt bulk moduli of olivine at all conditions. The consistency of volume and bulk modulus data is tested by fitting them simultaneously. Data collected at ambient pressure and data collected at ambient temperature up to 15 GPa are consistent with a Mie-Grünesien-Debye thermal-pressure EoS in combination with a third-order Birch-Murnaghan (BM) compressional EoS, the parameter V 0 = 43.89 cm3 mol-1, isothermal Reuss bulk modulus K_{TR,0} = 126.3(2){GPa}} , K^'_{TR,0} = 4.54(6) , a Debye temperature θ_{D} = 644(9){K} , and a Grüneisen parameter γ 0 = 1.044(4), whose volume dependence is described by q = 1.9(2). High-pressure softening of the bulk modulus at room temperature, relative to this EoS, can be fit with a fourth-order BM EoS. However, recent high-P, T Brillouin measurements are incompatible with these EoS and the intrinsic physics implied by it, especially that ( {{partial K^'_{TR} }/partial T} )P > 0 . We introduce a new parameterisation for isothermal-type EoS that scales both the Reuss isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative at temperature by the volume, K_{TR} (T,P = 0) = K_{TR,0} [ {{V0 }/V

  14. Volatiles in Olivine Hosted Melt Inclusions from Small Eruptive Centers of the Central Southern Volcanic Zone (CSVZ), Chile (United States)

    Wacaster, S.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Wallace, P.


    This study is a geochemical analysis of basaltic scoria cones of the CSVZ, where bulk rock analyses have revealed two predominant lava types. We consider the relationship of cones to nearby stratovolcanos and the proximity of both to the Liquine-Ofqui Fault Zone to understand how primitive melts with wide ranging compositions are generated. We characterize melt inclusions to see if they show similar trends as bulk rocks and to evaluate degassing of melts during ascent and crystallization. We report new CO2, H2O, F, S, and Cl data collected by SIMS and FTIR. Type 1 and Type 2 lavas have been identified in prior studies. Type 1 rocks have significant 238U/232Th excesses and higher abundances of fluid mobile elements. Type 2 lavas and scorias have higher LREE/HREE ratios, lower abundances of fluid mobile elements, lower 87Sr/86Sr and U- series isotopes near secular equilibrium. Type 1, usually associated with composite volcanic centers, erupt at one cone in our field area, while Type 2 is found only at other individual cones aligned with the LOFZ. We characterize olivine-hosted melt inclusions with emphasis on volatile element analyses to test the hypotheses of flux melting beneath Type 1 centers versus a lesser extent of decompression melting beneath Type 2 centers. Melt inclusions show the following overall ranges of volatiles: CO2: below detection-1208 ppm; H2O(Total): 0.11-3.9 wt percent: F: 52-1442 ppm; S: 34-2884 ppm, and Cl: 177-1606 ppm. Inclusions from lavas are generally more degassed when compared to those from scoria for CO2 and H2O. Some Cl and F values are lower in inclusions from lavas, but not all. Sulfur is variably degassed in melt inclusions from both lavas and scoria. Melt inclusions from Type 2 Caburgua scoria show evidence for variable degassing and crystallization pressures. One subset of the inclusions were trapped at low pressures (P CO2 CO2 (1.5-4.0 wt % and 300-800 ppm and all under 1100 bars). Type I San Jorge melt inclusions also show

  15. Electron Channeling Contrast Imaging (ECCI) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) Study of Forsterite Olivine Deformed in the D-DIA Apparatus (United States)

    Kaboli, S.; Burnley, P. C.


    Understanding the rheology of Earth's interior requires a detailed study of microstructure and crystallographic texture on a micro- and nanoscale. Quantitative microstructure characterization of geological materials is commonly performed on thin foils using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The main drawbacks of TEM include time consuming and destructive thin foil preparation, limited field of view and statistically unreliable results in the case of heterogeneous microstructures which are common in geological materials. Electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) is a complementary technique to electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) for quantitative microstructure characterization of bulk samples in a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The main application of ECCI is in characterization of deformed materials since it allows the warping of the lattice to be imaged based on the electron channeling contrast. In comparison to TEM, the main advantages of using ECCI in SEM include non-destructive bulk sample preparation and statistically reliable results from a large field of view. In this study, in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction deformation experiments were conducted on forsterite olivine at a variety of pressures (2-7 GPa) in the D-DIA apparatus. A suitable sample preparation procedure was established using vibratory polishing in conjunction with chemical etching prior to performing ECCI in SEM. ECCI was performed at 5 keV electron beam energy and 8 mm working distance in a JEOL JSM-6700 FE-SEM. The work hardening of forsterite olivine original grains, recrystallization and grain growth were classified based on electron channeling contrast observations in each sample. EBSD crystal orientation mapping was performed on regions of interest to quantify crystallographic texture and identify various microstructure substructures for each experiment. In addition, ECCI and EBSD were performed on the alumina piston in order to examine spatial

  16. Petrogenesis of arc lavas from the Rucu Pichincha and Pan de Azucar volcanoes (Ecuadorian arc): Major, trace element, and boron isotope evidences from olivine-hosted melt inclusions (United States)

    Le Voyer, Marion; Rose-Koga, Estelle F.; Laubier, Muriel; Schiano, Pierre


    Primary melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts (Fo74-89) of basic lavas from Pichincha and Pan de Azucar volcanoes (in the front and rear arcs of the Ecuadorian Andes, respectively) were analyzed by electron microprobe for major elements and by ion microprobe for trace element and boron isotope compositions. Although melt inclusions in the most magnesium-rich olivines contain relatively primitive magmas, their compositions are not directly linked to those of the whole rocks through a differentiation scheme. They are characterized by nepheline-normative compositions with low SiO2 contents (39.8-47.9 wt%) and unusually high CaO contents (up to 15.4 wt%), which cannot be derived from melting of a simple peridotitic mantle. We explain their formation by the presence of amphibole-bearing olivine-clinopyroxenites in the source of these melts. The trace elements patterns of the melt inclusions show the typical trace element features of arc magmas, such as enrichment in LILE and LREE, and negative anomalies in Nb and Ti. Across-arc variations of mobile versus less mobile incompatible element ratios indicate a decreasing input of a mobile phase from the slab to the mantle wedge with the distance to the trench, along with a decrease in the degree of melting. Boron isotope compositions are highly variable within each volcano (δ11B from -9.5 ± 1.3‰ to +3.5 ± 1.4‰ for the Pichincha melt inclusions and from -17.9 ± 0.8‰ to -1.9 ± 1.4‰ for the Pan de Azucar melt inclusions) and suggest trapping of isotopically heterogeneous melts. Modeling of both dehydration and fusion of the slab indicates that the Pichincha melt inclusions were formed by melting a source enriched by the addition of 1% of a heterogeneous aqueous fluid derived from the dehydration of both the sediments and the altered oceanic crust (after 74 and 76% of B loss, respectively). The phase that metasomatizes the source of the Pan de Azucar melt inclusions can be either an input of 0.1% of a heterogeneous

  17. Adsorptive removal of arsenic by novel iron/olivine composite: Insights into preparation and adsorption process by response surface methodology and artificial neural network. (United States)

    Ghosal, Partha S; Kattil, Krishna V; Yadav, Manoj K; Gupta, Ashok K


    Olivine, a low-cost natural material, impregnated with iron is introduced in the adsorptive removal of arsenic. A wet impregnation method and subsequent calcination were employed for the preparation of iron/olivine composite. The major preparation process parameter, viz., iron loading and calcination temperature were optimized through the response surface methodology coupled with a factorial design. A significant variation of adsorption capacity of arsenic (measured as total arsenic), i.e., 63.15 to 310.85 mg/kg for arsenite [As(III)T] and 76.46 to 329.72 mg/kg for arsenate [As(V)T] was observed, which exhibited the significant effect of the preparation process parameters on the adsorption potential. The iron loading delineated the optima at central points, whereas a monotonous decreasing trend of adsorption capacity for both the As(III)T and As(V)T was observed with the increasing calcination temperature. The variation of adsorption capacity with the increased iron loading is more at lower calcination temperature showing the interactive effect between the factors. The adsorbent prepared at the optimized condition of iron loading and calcination temperature, i.e., 10% and 200 °C, effectively removed the As(III)T and As(V)T by more than 96 and 99%, respectively. The material characterization of the adsorbent showed the formation of the iron compound in the olivine and increase in specific surface area to the tune of 10 multifold compared to the base material, which is conducive to the enhancement of the adsorption capacity. An artificial neural network was applied for the multivariate optimization of the adsorption process from the experimental data of the univariate optimization study and the optimized model showed low values of error functions and high R2 values of more than 0.99 for As(III)T and As(V)T. The adsorption isotherm and kinetics followed Langmuir model and pseudo second order model, respectively demonstrating the chemisorption in this study

  18. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass: Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, S.S.; Schmitt, R.A.; (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA)); Delano, J.W. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA))


    Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass is one of twenty-five, high Mg, primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. Forty spherules of this glass were individually analyzed by electron microprobe and INAA for major- and trace-elements. The abundances demonstrate that this primary magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models are developed to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas as being products of hybridization involving three ancient differentiated components of a primordial lunar magma ocean: (a) early olivine {plus minus} orthopyroxene cumulates; (b) late-stage clinopyroxene + pigeonite + ilmenite + plagioclase cumulates; and (c) late-stage inter-cumulus liquid.

  19. Valence State Partitioning of Cr and V Between Olivine-Melt and Pyroxene-Melt in Experimental Basalts of a Eucritic Composition (United States)

    Karner, J. M.; Jones, J. H.; Le, L.


    The partitioning of multivalent elements in basaltic systems can elucidate the oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions under which basalts formed on planetary bodies (Earth, Moon, Mars, asteroids). Chromium and V are minor and trace elements in basaltic melts, partition into several minerals that crystallize from basaltic melts, exist in multiple valence states at differing fO2 conditions, and can therefore be used as oxybarometers for basaltic melts. Chromium is mostly 3+ in terrestrial basaltic melts at relatively high fO2 values (= IW+3.5), and mostly 2+ in melts at low fO2 values (= IW-1), such as those on the Moon and some asteroids. At intermediate fO2s, (i.e., IW-1 to IW+3.5), basaltic melts contain both Cr3+ and Cr2+. Vanadium in basaltic melts is mostly 4+ at high fO2, mostly 3+ at low fO2, and a mix of V3+ and V4+ at intermediate fO2 con-ditions. Understanding the partitioning of Cr and V into silicate phases with changing fO2 is therefore critical to the employment of Cr and V oxybarometers. In this abstract we examine the equilibrium partitioning of Cr and V between olivine/melt and pyroxene/melt in experimental charges of a eucritic composition produced at differing fO2 conditions. This study will add to the experimental data on DCr and DV (i.e., olivine/melt, pyroxene/melt) at differing fO2, and in turn these D values will be used to assess the fO2 of eucrite basalts and perhaps other compositionally similar planetary basalts.

  20. Phosphorus and other trace elements from secondary olivine in composite mantle xenoliths (CMX) from Cima Volcanic Field (CVF; California, USA): implications for crystal growth kinetics (United States)

    Baziotis, Ioannis; Asimow, Paul; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Boyce, Jeremy; Koroneos, Antonios; Perugini, Diego; Liu, Yongsheng; Klemme, Stephan; Berndt, Jasper


    Phosphorus(P)-rich zones in olivine may reflect excess incorporation of P during rapid growth; zoning patterns may then record growth rate variations (Milman-Barris et al., 2008; Stolper et al., 2009). We report data on interior cuts of two CMX from alkali basalt flows (Mukasa & Wilshire, 1997) in the CVF with second-generation P-rich olivines. In Ci-1-196, a dark layer (~200 μm wide) between lherzolite and websterite is interpreted as a rapidly crystallized melt layer (ML), consisting of Ol+Gl+Pl+Spl+Cpx+Ap+Ilm. Glass (~15 vol%) is variable in composition (P2O5 ≤1.2 wt%, Li 8.22-20.0 ppm). Olivines in the layer have 0.03-0.62 wt% P2O5; P-rich Ol (P2O5 >0.1 wt%) are Fo85-89.3. The lowest P concentrations are consistent with equilibrium with liquid parental to Gl, but the higher concentrations are not. Li concentrations, zoned from 3.84 to 4.90 ppm (core-rim), indicate equilibrium incorporation during crystal growth from a small, evolving melt pool and preservation of this rapidly relaxing gradient. REEs are mostly consistent with equilibrium growth from liquids evolving towards the observed LREE-enriched glass. Most of the clinopyroxenes are diopsides with some augites. Apatite inclusions occur in the rim of P-rich Fo85 and in An54. In Ki-5-301, a dark-coloured area of irregular shape (~200 μm wide) is present along the contact between lherzolite and orthopyroxenite, consisting of Ol+Pl+Gl+Cpx+Spl+Ilm+Ap. It resembles a tabular dyke but is connected to melt-patches infiltrating the host rock. Widespread Glass in the layer has variable composition with two populations not related by fractional crystallization: 1) P2O5 1.02-1.09 wt% and 2) P2O51.62-2.35 wt% (a Gl inclusion in Ol has P2O5 3.57 wt% may have captured melt from the P-rich boundary layer at the interface with the rapidly growing olivine). REEs cluster in the same two groups. Li is as low as 3.66 ppm group 1 and 3-4× higher (9.64-13.3 ppm) in group 2. Olivine occurs as small idiomorphic crystals

  1. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.


    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  2. Geochemistry and oxygen isotope composition of main-group pallasites and olivine-rich clasts in mesosiderites:implications for the "Great Dunite Shortage" and HED-mesosiderite connection


    Greenwood, Richard C.; Barrat, Jean-Alix,; Scott, Edward R. D.; Haack, Henning; Buchanan, Paul C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Yamaguchi, Akira; Johnson, Diane; Bevan, Alex W.R.; Burbine, Thomas H.


    Evidence from iron meteorites indicates that a large number of differentiated planetesimals formed early in Solar System history. These bodies should have had well-developed olivine-rich mantles and consequentially such materials ought to be abundant both as asteroids and meteorites, which they are not. To investigate this "Great Dunite Shortage" we have undertaken a geochemical and oxygen isotope study of main-group pallasites and dunitic rocks from mesosiderites.Oxygen isotope analysis of 2...

  3. Boron Isotopes and Trace Elements Analyses on Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions from Rucu Pichincha and Pan de Azucar Volcanoes, Ecuadorian arc (United States)

    Le Voyer, M.; Rose-Koga, E. F.; Eissen, J.; Schiano, P.


    Geochemical investigations of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Rucu Pichincha and Pan de Azucar, which are part of a frontal and a rear volcanic arc in Ecuador, respectively, suggest that these liquids are produced by melting of either a pyroxenite or a peridotitic mantle metasomatised by a melt from a dehydrated slab. Our initial findings show: 1) nepheline normative compositions (SiO2 from 40.5% to 47.5%; Al2O3 from 15.5% to 20 %; and CaO from 7% to 13.5%); 2) B concentrations ranging from 1 to 12 ±2 ppm, and δ^{11}B ranging from 28 ± 4‰ to 1 ±5‰; 3) higher volatile (F, Cl, and S) and incompatible elements (K2O, LREE, Ba) concentrations in Pan de Azucar melt inclusions than in those from Rucu Pichincha. We suggest that 1) two sources are possible: a pyroxenite or a phlogopite-rich metasomatised peridotitic mantle; 2) the variable and negative B isotopic values indicate a contribution of a melt from dehydrated slab (AOC and sediments), which metasomatises the sub-arc mantle before the generation of arc magma; 3) due to the systematic chemical variations, we conclude that the melts from Pan de Azucar represents smaller degree of partial melting of a source very similar to that of the Rucu Pichincha source, but enriched in phlogopite.

  4. The interaction of hydrogen with the {010} surfaces of Mg and Fe olivine as models for interstellar dust grains: a density functional theory study (United States)

    Downing, C. A.; Ahmady, B.; Catlow, C. R. A.; de Leeuw, N. H.


    There is no consensus as yet to account for the significant presence of water on the terrestrial planets, but suggested sources include direct hydrogen adsorption from the parent molecular cloud after the planets’ formation, and delivery of hydrous material via comets or asteroids external to the zone of the terrestrial planets. Alternatively, a more recent idea is that water may have directly adsorbed onto the interstellar dust grains involved in planetary formation. In this work, we use electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory to investigate and compare the bulk and {010} surface structures of the magnesium and iron end-members of the silicate mineral olivine, namely forsterite and fayalite, respectively. We also report our results on the adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the mineral surfaces, where our calculations show that there is no activation barrier to the adsorption of atomic hydrogen at these surfaces. Furthermore, different surface sites activate the atom to form either adsorbed hydride or proton species in the form of hydroxy groups on the same surface, which indicates that these mineral surfaces may have acted as catalytic sites in the immobilization and reaction of hydrogen atoms to form dihydrogen gas or water molecules. PMID:23734054

  5. Substitution and diffusion of Cr2+ and Cr3+ in synthetic forsterite and natural olivine at 1200-1500 °C and 1 bar (United States)

    Jollands, M. C.; O'Neill, H. St. C.; Van Orman, J.; Berry, A. J.; Hermann, J.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.


    The diffusion and substitution mechanisms of Cr in forsterite were studied as a function of crystallographic orientation and the chemical potentials of all four components in the system MgO-SiO2-Cr-O. Oxygen fugacity (fO2) was varied over 15.4 log units at 1400 °C and was fixed at the iron-wüstite equilibrium for a temperature series (1200-1500 °C). The valence state changes of Cr along some diffusion profiles was also investigated using X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Cr diffusion was found to be anisotropic (fastest along the c axis), and considerably faster in the presence of protoenstatite (high silica activity, aSiO2) than in the presence of periclase (low aSiO2). Cr diffusion profiles were longer at lower fO2 with more extreme diffusive anisotropy at higher fO2 . Determined Cr diffusion coefficients were similar to those of Fe-Mg inter-diffusion in olivine at equivalent conditions.

  6. Simulating a Range of Regolith Porosities in the Lab: An Investigation into the Effects of Porosity on Spectral Measurements of Olivine (United States)

    Evans, R.; Bowles, N. E.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.


    Our current understanding of the composition of planetary bodies primarily comes from remote sensing spectroscopic observations. The interpretation of spectroscopic data requires analogue mineral spectra measured in the lab under appropriate environmental conditions.This is particularly true in the thermal infrared. At these wavelengths porosity, particle size, and near-surface environmental conditions have significant effects on the wavelength position and spectral contrast of diagnostic features. To isolate the effects due to porosity, diffuse reflectance measurements were made from 2.5 to 25 µm of a fine particulate San Carlos olivine sample (University of Oxford's Simulated Lunar Environment Chamber. When measured in diffuse reflectance, we find that as the porosity increases the Christiansen feature (CF, a reflection minimum or emissivity maximum near 8 µm) shifts to longer wavelengths. In the thermal emissivity spectral measurements, we see no discernible shift in the CF position as the porosity changes. In both reflectance and emission the strength and position of the transparency feature (the spectral region from 11 to 13 µm where volume scattering dominates) behaves as expected, as the strength of the feature increases with porosity. In reflectance the relative strength of the reststrahlen bands (RB) were not observed to change systematically with porosity. In this presentation we provide details of our experimental set-up, the range of porosities simulated in the lab, and our spectroscopic results. These new measurements place important constraints for interpreting remote sensing measurements of planetary bodies.

  7. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig


    This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (... 15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 μL was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3.......5 was found to be optimal. The EME efficiency was also dependent on the acceptor solution composition, and the extraction time was found to be an important element for exhaustive extraction. When EME was carried out for 25 min with an extraction voltage of 15 V, the system-current across the SLM was less than...

  8. Experimental determination of electrical conductivity during deformation of melt-bearing olivine aggregates: Implications for electrical anisotropy in the oceanic low velocity zone (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca; Gaillard, Fabrice; Mecklenburgh, Julian; Le Trong, Emmanuel


    A novel experimental setup was used to measure in-situ variations of electrical conductivity (EC) during deformation in torsion (simple shear) at 300 MPa confining pressure and temperatures between 873 and 1473 K. This setup is designed to test if deformation of partially molten systems can produce electrical anisotropy. The motivation for this study comes from the observation that the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) at mid-ocean ridges and in particular at the East Pacific Rise is strongly electrically anisotropic. In an initial set of calibration experiments, the variation of EC with temperature (873-1473 K) was determined for Carrara marble, Åheim dunite and basalt-bearing olivine aggregates. EC was then monitored during deformation experiments at 1473 K and measured in the frequency range between 6 MHz and 1 Hz. The electrical response of the different materials tested as a function of frequency, changes significantly depending on the presence, absence, proportion and distribution of melt contained in the specimen. Melt-free samples show a single conduction mechanism whereas melt-bearing samples display two conduction mechanisms linked in series, reflecting the contribution of isolated and connected melt. Impedance was measured along the sample radius, in a direction parallel to the shear gradient inherent in torsion experiments. During the tests, increasing values of the impedance measured suggest that the long range melt connectivity decreases radially, and melt drains from low to high shear stress regions. The conductivity, calculated from impedance measurements, is low and comparable to values measured along mid-ocean ridges. We suggest that electrical anisotropy of the LAB reflects an alternation of melt-enriched and melt-depleted channels elongated in the spreading direction possibly induced by spreading velocity gradients along the ridge. This implies that the observed electrical anisotropy reveals larger scale processes than strain


    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.


    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  10. Information extraction system (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James


    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  11. Frequency of orthodontic extraction (United States)

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas


    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  12. Bulk rock composition and geochemistry of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Grey Porri Tuff and selected lavas of the Monte dei Porri volcano, Salina, Aeolian Islands, southern Italy (United States)

    Doherty, Angela; Bodnar, Robert; Vivo, Benedetto; Bohrson, Wendy; Belkin, Harvey; Messina, Antonia; Tracy, Robert


    The Aeolian Islands are an arcuate chain of submarine seamounts and volcanic islands, lying just north of Sicily in southern Italy. The second largest of the islands, Salina, exhibits a wide range of compositional variation in its erupted products, from basaltic lavas to rhyolitic pumice. The Monte dei Porri eruptions occurred between 60 ka and 30 ka, following a period of approximately 60,000 years of repose. The bulk rock composition of the Monte dei Porri products range from basaltic-andesite scoria to andesitic pumice in the Grey Porri Tuff (GPT), with the Monte dei Porri lavas having basaltic-andesite compositions. The typical mineral assemblage of the GPT is calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene (augite), olivine (Fo72-84) and orthopyroxene (enstatite) ± amphibole and Ti-Fe oxides. The lava units show a similar mineral assemblage, but contain lower Fo olivines (Fo57-78). The lava units also contain numerous glomerocrysts, including an unusual variety that contains quartz, K-feldspar and mica. Melt inclusions (MI) are ubiquitous in all mineral phases from all units of the Monte dei Porri eruptions; however, only data from olivine-hosted MI in the GPT are reported here. Compositions of MI in the GPT are typically basaltic (average SiO2 of 49.8 wt %) in the pumices and basaltic-andesite (average SiO2 of 55.6 wt %) in the scoriae and show a bimodal distribution in most compositional discrimination plots. The compositions of most of the MI in the scoriae overlap with bulk rock compositions of the lavas. Petrological and geochemical evidence suggest that mixing of one or more magmas and/or crustal assimilation played a role in the evolution of the Monte dei Porri magmatic system, especially the GPT. Analyses of the more evolved mineral phases are required to better constrain the evolution of the magma.

  13. From olivine nephelinite, basanite and basalt to peralkaline trachyphonolite and comendite in the Ankaratra volcanic complex, Madagascar: 40Ar/39Ar ages, phase compositions and bulk-rock geochemical and isotopic evolution (United States)

    Cucciniello, Ciro; Melluso, Leone; le Roex, Anton P.; Jourdan, Fred; Morra, Vincenzo; de'Gennaro, Roberto; Grifa, Celestino


    The Ankaratra volcanic field covers an area of 3800 km2 in central Madagascar and comprises of lava flows, lava domes, scoria cones, tuff rings and maars emplaced at different ages (Miocene to Recent). The volcanic products include ultramafic-mafic (olivine-leucite nephelinite, basanite, alkali basalt, hawaiite and tholeiitic basalt), intermediate (mugearite and benmoreite) and felsic rocks (trachyphonolite, quartz trachyte and rhyolite), the latter often peralkaline. The 40Ar/39Ar determinations for mafic lavas yield ages of 17.45 ± 0.12 Ma, 16.63 ± 0.08 Ma and 8.62 ± 0.09 Ma, indicating a prolonged magmatic activity. The mineralogical and geochemical variations suggest that the magmatic evolution of the alkali basalt-hawaiite-mugearite-benmoreite-trachyte series can be accounted for by removal of olivine, feldspars, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides and accessory phases, producing residual trachytic and trachyphonolitic compositions mineralogically very similar to those of other volcanic areas and tectonic settings. The Ankaratra olivine leucite nephelinites, basanites and tholeiitic basalts do not seem to be associated with significant amounts of evolved comagmatic rocks. The 87Sr/86Sr (0.70504-0.71012), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51259-0.51244) and 206Pb/204Pb (17.705-18.563) isotopic ratios of trachytes and comendite are consistent with open-system processes. However, other trachyphonolites have 143Nd/144Nd (0.51280), 206Pb/204Pb (18.648), 207Pb/204Pb (15.582) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.795) similar to those of mafic rocks, suggesting differentiation processes without appreciable interaction with crustal materials. The Ankaratra volcanism is to be directly linked to a broadly E-W-trending intracontinental extension. A large-scale thermal anomaly, associated with an anomalously hot source region, is not required to explain the Cenozoic magmatism of Madagascar.

  14. Bulk rock composition and geochemistry of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Grey Porri Tuff and selected lavas of the Monte dei Porri volcano, Salina, Aeolian Islands, southern Italy (United States)

    Doherty, Angela L.; Bodnar, Robert J.; De Vivo, Benedetto; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Messina, Antonia; Tracy, Robert J.


    The Aeolian Islands are an arcuate chain of submarine seamounts and volcanic islands, lying just north of Sicily in southern Italy. The second largest of the islands, Salina, exhibits a wide range of compositional variation in its erupted products, from basaltic lavas to rhyolitic pumice. The Monte dei Porri eruptions occurred between 60 ka and 30 ka, following a period of approximately 60,000 years of repose. The bulk rock composition of the Monte dei Porri products range from basaltic-andesite scoria to andesitic pumice in the Grey Porri Tuff (GPT), with the Monte dei Porri lavas having basaltic-andesite compositions. The typical mineral assemblage of the GPT is calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene (augite), olivine (Fo72−84) and orthopyroxene (enstatite) ± amphibole and Ti-Fe oxides. The lava units show a similar mineral assemblage, but contain lower Fo olivines (Fo57−78). The lava units also contain numerous glomerocrysts, including an unusual variety that contains quartz, K-feldspar and mica. Melt inclusions (MI) are ubiquitous in all mineral phases from all units of the Monte dei Porri eruptions; however, only data from olivine-hosted MI in the GPT are reported here. Compositions of MI in the GPT are typically basaltic (average SiO2 of 49.8 wt %) in the pumices and basaltic-andesite (average SiO2 of 55.6 wt %) in the scoriae and show a bimodal distribution in most compositional discrimination plots. The compositions of most of the MI in the scoriae overlap with bulk rock compositions of the lavas. Petrological and geochemical evidence suggest that mixing of one or more magmas and/or crustal assimilation played a role in the evolution of the Monte dei Porri magmatic system, especially the GPT. Analyses of the more evolved mineral phases are required to better constrain the evolution of the magma.

  15. Reactions between olivine and CO2-rich seawater at 300 °C: Implications for H2 generation and CO2 sequestration on the early Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisahiro Ueda


    Full Text Available To understand the influence of fluid CO2 on ultramafic rock-hosted seafloor hydrothermal systems on the early Earth, we monitored the reaction between San Carlos olivine and a CO2-rich NaCl fluid at 300 °C and 500 bars. During the experiments, the total carbonic acid concentration (ΣCO2 in the fluid decreased from approximately 65 to 9 mmol/kg. Carbonate minerals, magnesite, and subordinate amount of dolomite were formed via the water-rock interaction. The H2 concentration in the fluid reached approximately 39 mmol/kg within 2736 h, which is relatively lower than the concentration generated by the reaction between olivine and a CO2-free NaCl solution at the same temperature. As seen in previous hydrothermal experiments using komatiite, ferrous iron incorporation into Mg-bearing carbonate minerals likely limited iron oxidation in the fluids and the resulting H2 generation during the olivine alteration. Considering carbonate mineralogy over the temperature range of natural hydrothermal fields, H2 generation is likely suppressed at temperatures below approximately 300 °C due to the formation of the Mg-bearing carbonates. Nevertheless, H2 concentration in fluid at 300 °C could be still high due to the temperature dependency of magnetite stability in ultramafic systems. Moreover, the Mg-bearing carbonates may play a key role in the ocean-atmosphere system on the early Earth. Recent studies suggest that the subduction of carbonated ultramafic rocks may transport surface CO2 species into the deep mantle. This process may have reduced the huge initial amount of CO2 on the surface of the early Earth. Our approximate calculations demonstrate that the subduction of the Mg-bearing carbonates formed in komatiite likely played a crucial role as one of the CO2 carriers from the surface to the deep mantle, even in hot subduction zones.

  16. Exceptionally high Water, Other Volatile and LILE Concentrations in Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions from the Yellowstone Hotspot and Columbia River Flood Basalts (United States)

    Mukasa, S. B.; Stefano, C.; Leeman, W. P.; Shimizu, N.


    The Yellowstone hotspot track, comprising the Snake River Plain (SRP) and Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field, is widely attributed to mantle melting in response to impingement of a deep seated mantle plume on the southwesterly migrating North American Plate. Origin of the mid-Miocene Columbia River Basalts (CRB) and coeval basalts in Oregon and northern Nevada is also attributed by many to effects of the Yellowstone plume, although the lithosphere in that region consists of accreted Permian to Cretaceous oceanic terranes. Propagation of Basin & Range extension into this region raises the possibility that some of these basalts may be melts of lithospheric rather than plume mantle. Other complicating factors such as lateral variation in lithosphere age, composition, and thickness may also contribute. Water and other volatiles (S, F, Cl), as well as major and trace elements have been analyzed in over 150 olivine-hosted melt inclusions from 15 basalt samples taken throughout the CRB-SRP region and covering both lavas contemporaneous with formation of the local caldera - during passage of the North American Plate over the hypothesized plume - and post-caldera lavas erupted well after that event. H2O concentrations as high as 3.3 wt% have been observed in melt inclusions in a syn-caldera Gerritt Basalt at Mesa Falls, Idaho. Some melt inclusions from the Malheur Gorge area of east central Oregon preserve H2O concentrations as high as 4.2 wt%. The highest H2O concentrations are in all cases found in the most primitive melt inclusions, and thus are interpreted as magmatic minima. These values significantly exceed the maximum H2O concentrations observed in Hawaiian melt inclusions of 0.9 wt%. Maximum observed concentrations of other volatiles are 2854 ppm S in the Malheur Gorge, 2606 ppm F in Picture Gorge Basalt (within the CRB), and 1100 ppm F in a Gerritt Basalt flow. High large-ion lithophile-element (LILE) concentrations in these melt inclusions - particularly Ba - and

  17. Extractant Design by Covalency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Angela Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozimor, Stosh Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cross, Justin Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, Enrique Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Macor, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  18. Extraction of polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loucif Seiad L.


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of certain parameters on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols from an Algerian tree (Pinus Halepensis Mill. Extraction was conducted in a stirred closed extractor. Our study was conducted to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic contents (TPC using Folin Ciocalteu method. A response surface methodology (RSM was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on extraction followed by a composite design (CD approach. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were for a temperature of 45°C and for the smallest particles.

  19. F, Cl, and S concentrations in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from mafic dikes in NW Namibia and implications for the environmental impact of the Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province (United States)

    Marks, Linda; Keiding, Jakob; Wenzel, Thomas; Trumbull, Robert B.; Veksler, Ilya; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Markl, Gregor


    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) have been proposed to trigger mass-extinction events by the release of large quantities of volcanic gases which results in major climatic perturbations causing worldwide ecological stress and collapse. A prerequisite for understanding the proposed link between LIP volcanism and biological crisis is reliable information about the total gas emissions during these events. In this paper we present the first estimations of total F, Cl and S emissions from the Paraná-Etendeka LIP in the South Atlantic. Data from this province are of special interest because it is among the world's largest LIPs but is not associated with a mass extinction event. We have determined pre-eruption concentrations of F, Cl and S by in situ analysis of melt inclusions preserved in olivine phenocrysts from basaltic dikes in the Etendeka province of NW Namibia. The melt inclusions have Mg-rich basaltic bulk compositions with about 8 to 18 wt.% MgO, overlapping the compositional range of the host rocks. A major feature of the melt inclusions is their wide variation in major and minor element concentrations, including F, Cl and S. This is attributed to trapping of variably-mixed melt fractions during crystallization of olivine in the roots of the dike system. Fluorine concentrations vary from about 190 to 450 μg/g, Cl from destruction of the ozone layer.

  20. EXTRACT OF Vitex simplicifolia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 1, 2016 ... HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HYPOLIPID. EXTRACT OF Vitex simplicifolia. Department of Human Physiology, Fa. *Corresponding author: zafa. ABSTRACT. The effects of oral administration and lipid profile levels of alloxan induced conducted with 30 Wister rats, assigned of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex sim.

  1. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....


    Butler, J.P.


    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  3. Geochemistry of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Baekdusan (Changbaishan) basalts: Implications for recycling of oceanic crustal materials into the mantle source (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Ok; Choi, Sung Hi; Schiano, Pierre; Cho, Moonsup; Cluzel, Nicolas; Devidal, Jean-Luc; Ha, Kyoochul


    We determined the major and trace element concentrations of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in basalts from the active Baekdusan volcano situated on the border between China and North Korea in order to understand better the nature of the mantle source and the geodynamic processes that gave rise to volcanism at this site. Rehomogenized melt inclusions (after 'Fe-loss' correction) can be divided into three groups: a low-Si alkaline group, a high-Si alkaline group, and a high-Si sub-alkaline group. The low-Si group is composed of picrobasalt to basanite, and the high-Si group consists of (trachy)basalt to basaltic (trachy)andesite. The low-Si group has generally higher TiO2, CaO, and P2O5, but lower Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O contents at a given MgO concentration compared with those in the high-Si group. The CaO and P2O5 contents are positively correlated, indicating the presence of a calcium phosphate, probably tuite [γ-Ca3(PO4)2], in the source. The melt inclusions are enriched in light rare earth elements [(La/Yb)N = 7.8-30.4]. On a primitive-mantle-normalized incompatible element plot, the low-Si group has positive anomalies in Ba and P compared with typical oceanic island basalt (OIB). On the other hand, the high-Si group exhibits remarkable positive anomalies in Eu, Ba, Rb, K, Pb, P, and Ti, implying that K-hollandite and tuite are essential phases in the source. The high-Si subalkaline group has lower abundances of incompatible elements than the high-Si alkaline group, reflecting different degrees of partial melting from the same source. In contrast to OIB, Baekdusan magmatism is characterized by positively fractionated (Zr/Hf)N ratios, and is best approximated by admixture of partial melts derived from both clinopyroxene-rich eclogite and garnet peridotite. Intraplate volcanism in northeastern Asia is closely associated with deep subduction of the Pacific plate. The subducting Pacific slab flattens and stagnates in the mantle transition zone under northeastern Asia

  4. Nano-electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.


    The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 μL acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE......), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary...... as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction...


    Jonke, A.A.


    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  6. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T


    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  7. Using in-situ diffraction, elastic plastic self-consistent models and microstructural analysis to interpret the low strain behavior of olivine polycrystals in the D-DIA apparatus (United States)

    Burnley, P. C.; Kaboli, S.


    The textbook stress strain curve has an elastic response followed by a yield point and then plastic flow. Typically in rock deformation experiments the observed `elastic' behavior deviates from the Young's modulus because the mechanical response of the loading frame and friction in the sample assembly and between moving parts of the loading frame cannot be easily corrected for. Stress strain curves generated in a D-DIA apparatus used in conjunction with synchrotron x-rays should not have these problems because the sample length is measured directly by radiography and the stress in the sample is measured from the sample itself by x-ray diffraction. However, the sample's `elastic behavior', in many instances, still deviates from what is expected. For example, in constant strain rate experiments on both polycrystalline San Carlos olivine and fayalite olivine conducted at a variety of temperatures (25 - 1200 C) and pressures (4 and 7 GPa) although we are able to use elastic plastic self-consistent (EPSC) models to describe the plastic behavior of the olivine we are not able to fit the initial elastic behavior for all but the lowest temperature experiments. To a first approximation it appears that samples are generally more compliant than their elastic properties would predict and that the degree of softening is temperature dependent. For D-DIA experiments which have been conducted at strain rates of 10-5 /sec, there are not enough data points to really clarify what is happening in the elastic portion of the experiment. Therefore, we conducted a suite of low strain experiments at 5 x 10-6/sec at temperatures ranging from 400 C to 1200 C. For each experiment we fit the diffraction data using EPSC models. We will present the results from our diffraction analysis as well as detailed microstructural analysis of the experimental samples using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI). The relative degree of relaxation observed

  8. Grape Seed Extract (United States)

    ... seeds, which are by-products of the wine industry. Grape seed extract is available in capsules and ... take anticoagulants (blood thinners), such as warfarin or aspirin. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care ...

  9. Extraction of cyanobacterial endotoxin. (United States)

    Papageorgiou, John; Linke, Thomas A; Kapralos, Con; Nicholson, Brenton C; Steffensen, Dennis A


    To simplify our efforts in acquiring toxicological information on endotoxins produced by cyanobacteria, a method development study was undertaken to identify relatively hazard-free and efficient procedures for their extraction. One article sourced and two novel methods were evaluated for their ability to extract lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) or endotoxins from cyanobacteria. The Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay was employed to compare the performance of a novel method utilizing a 1-butanol-water (HBW) solvent system to that of Westphal's (1965) phenol-water system (HPW) for the extraction of endotoxin from various cyanobacteria. The traditional HPW method extracted from 3- to 12-fold more endotoxin from six different cyanobacterial blooms and culture materials than did the novel HBW method. In direct contrast, the novel HBW method extracted ninefold more endotoxin from a non-microcystin producing Microcystis aeruginosa culture as compared to the HPW method. A solvent system utilizing N,N'-dimethylformamide-water (HDW) was compared to both the HPW and HBW methods for the extraction of endotoxin from natural samples of Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and a 1:1 mixture of Microcystis aeruginosa/Microcystisflos-aquae. The LAL activities of these extracts showed that the novel HDW method extracted two- and threefold more endotoxin from the Anabaena sample that did the HBW and HPW methods, respectively. The HDW method also extracted approximately 1.5-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae sample as compared to both the HBW and HPW methods. On the other hand, the HBW method extracted 2- and 14-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae/Microcystis aeruginosa mixture than did the HPW and HDW methods, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that significant disparities exist between the physicochemical properties of the cell wall constituents not only of different cyanobacterial species but also of different strains of


    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.


    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  11. NLC Extraction Line Studies


    Nosochkov, Y. M.; Raubenheimer, T. O.


    In this note, we briefly review the current lattice of the NLC extraction line which was designed for the nominal NLC beam parameters. Then we describe the beam parameters for the high luminosity option with larger beam disruption parameter and discuss its effect on beam loss in the extraction line. Finally, we present a summary of the optics study aimed at minimizing the beam loss with high disruption beams.

  12. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  13. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of extraction conditions assisted by ultrasound on the quality of extracts obtained from Mesembryanthemum edule shoots. Methods: The extraction procedure was carried out in an ultrasonic bath. The effect of two solvents (methanol and ethanol) and two extraction times (5 and 10 min) ...

  14. Determination of Lipophilic Extractives in Ionic Liquid Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Lipophilic Extractives in Ionic Liquid Extracts of Eucalyptus Pulp by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. ... The effect of temperature of the added precipitating solvent during cellulose regeneration on the recovery of extractives was also studied. Recovery of extractives increased with increasing ...

  15. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos


    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  16. Extraction with supercritical gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.


    Extraction with compressed fluids in the critical region is discussed in terms of the marked effect on solvent properties that can be brought about by small changes in pressure or temperature. The theoretical background and experimental data are described, including the classification of the phase behaviour of binary systems. A number of application studies are quoted, and comparison is made with liquid solvent extraction and distillation. Apart from such topics as the breaking of azeotropes, the main area of study is in performing separations on the basis of volatility where the general level of volatility is low. In the field of natural products these include the removal of undesirable substances such as caffeine and nicotine and the isolation of valuable constituents such as food essences and drugs. For fossil fuels, applications are described in enhanced oil recovery, fractionation of heavy petroleum liquids and extraction of liquids from coal.

  17. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas


    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  18. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.


    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition

  19. Extract of Acanthospermum hispidum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Extract of Acanthospermum hispidum. *Chika A, Onyebueke D.C and Bello S.O. aDepartment of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences,. Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Sokoto, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. The current study is aimed at investigating the antidiabetic activity of the leaves of Acanthospermum ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Powdered leaves of Carica papaya (L.) were extracted with ethanol and ... isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas species ... fractions were inactive against P. aeruginosa at all concentrations used in ..... Food. Chem. 51:5579-5597. Sofowora, A. (1993): Medicinal plants and ...

  1. SPS extraction systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    One of the 3-m long electrostatics septa. The septum itself consists of 0.15 mm thick molybdenum wires with a 1.5 mm pitch. Each of the two SPS extraction systems will contain four of these electrostatic septa.

  2. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Document Server

    Photographic Service


    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in leprosy patients. Sight restoration to blind leprosy patients prevents them from injuring their anaesthetic limbs. The visual outcome and complications of extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implant in 42 leprosy and 91 non-leprosy patients were compared.


    Harrington, C.D.


    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  5. SPS slow extraction septa

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    SPS long straight section (LSS) with a series of 5 septum tanks for slow extraction (view in the direction of the proton beam). There are 2 of these: in LSS2, towards the N-Area; in LSS6 towards the W-Area. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 2, 2013 ... concentrations (100mg/ml, 75mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml) of both extracts were determined ... of the powdered plant sample was soaked in 100ml of methanol for the same 24hours at room temperature with occasional stirring. The content was .... To the above solution 2 drops of olive oil was added.

  7. Extraction of plant secondary metabolites. (United States)

    Jones, William P; Kinghorn, A Douglas


    This chapter presents an overview of the preparation of extracts from plants using organic solvents, with emphasis on common problems encountered and methods for their reduction or elimination. In addition to generally applicable extraction protocols, methods are suggested for selectively extracting specific classes of plant-derived compounds, and phytochemical procedures are presented for the detection of classes of compounds encountered commonly during extraction, including selected groups of secondary metabolites and interfering compounds. Successful extraction begins with careful selection and preparation of plant samples and thorough review of the appropriate literature for suitable protocols for a particular class of compounds or plant species. During the extraction of plant material, it is important to minimize interference from compounds that may co-extract with the target compounds, and to avoid contamination of the extract, as well as to prevent decomposition of important metabolites or artifact formation as a result of extraction conditions or solvent impurities.

  8. Extractable Work from Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Perarnau-Llobet


    Full Text Available Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work, we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyze this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems that are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  9. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus


    . We tested the accuracy and robustness of the new method using Landsat 5 TM images of several water bodies in Denmark, Switzerland, Ethiopia, South Africa and New Zealand. Kappa coefficient, omission and commission errors were calculated to evaluate accuracies. The performance of the classifier...... of various sorts of environmental noise and at the same time offers a stable threshold value. Thus we introduced a new Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI) improving classification accuracy in areas that include shadow and dark surfaces that other classification methods often fail to classify correctly...... and omission errors by 50% compared to those resulting from MNDWI and about 25% compared to ML classifiers. Besides, the new method was shown to have a fairly stable optimal threshold value. Therefore, AWEI can be used for extracting water with high accuracy, especially in mountainous areas where deep shadow...

  10. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    activity by methanol and ethanol extracts of. Mesembryanthemum edule shoots after 5 and 10 min of sonication (n = 3, p< 0.05). DISCUSSION. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of plant extracts largely depend on extraction conditions and compositions [12]. Antioxidant molecules and capacities are influenced by.

  11. Ancient DNA extraction from plants. (United States)

    Kistler, Logan


    A variety of protocols for DNA extraction from archaeological and paleobotanical plant specimens have been proposed. This is not surprising given the range of taxa and tissue types that may be preserved and the variety of conditions in which that preservation may take place. Commercially available DNA extraction kits can be used to recover ancient plant DNA, but modifications to standard approaches are often necessary to improve yield. In this chapter, I describe two protocols for extracting DNA from small amounts of ancient plant tissue. The CTAB protocol, which I recommend for use with single seeds, utilizes an incubation period in extraction buffer and subsequent chloroform extraction followed by DNA purification and suspension. The PTB protocol, which I recommend for use with gourd rind and similar tissues, utilizes an overnight incubation of pulverized tissue in extraction buffer, removal of the tissue by centrifugation, and DNA extraction from the buffer using commercial plant DNA extraction kits.

  12. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.


    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  13. Contact dermatitis to botanical extracts. (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Cohen, David E


    A review of the literature of reported cases of contact dermatitis to a variety of natural herbal extracts is Presented. Natural extracts are commonly used ingredients in many cosmetic preparations and homeopathic remedies. Although the term natural botanical extracts inherently purports to have beneficial and benign properties, these extracts can cause adverse reactions in individuals. As such, dermatologists should be cognizant of these agents as possible sources of allergenicity in patients presenting with contact dermatitis. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.



    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.


    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu


    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.



    Monica Popescu


    Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.


    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.


    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  18. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction (United States)

    Shen, Warren H.


    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  19. Olivine-modified spinel-spinel transitions in the system Mg2SiO4-Fe2SiO4: Calorimetric measurements, thermochemical calculation, and geophysical application (United States)

    Akaogi, Masaki; Ito, Eiji; Navrotsky, Alexandra


    The olivine(α)-modified spinel(β)-spinel (γ) transitions in the system Mg2SiO4-Fe2SiO4 were studied by high-temperature solution calorimetry. Enthalpies of the β-γ and a α-γ transitions in Mg2SiO4 at 975 K and of the α-γ transition in Fe2SiO4 at 298 K were measured. The γ solid solution showed a positive enthalpy of mixing. Phase relations at high pressures and high temperatures were calculated from these thermochemical data including correction for the effect of nonideality of α, β, and γ solid solutions. The calculated phase diagrams agree well with those determined experimentally by Katsura and Ito very recently. The α - (Mg0.89, Fe0.11)2SiO4 transforms to β through a region of α+β without passing through the α+γ phase field at around 400 km depth in the mantle with an interval of about 18(±5) km. Temperatures at 390 and 650 km depths are estimated to be about 1673 and 1873 K, respectively, assuming an adiabatic geotherm.

  20. Dissolution of Olivine, Siderite, and Basalt at 80 Deg C in 0.1 M H2SO4 in a Flow Through Process: Insights into Acidic Weathering on Mars (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Hausrath, E. M.; Morris, R. V.; Niles, P. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Ross, D. K.; Cooper, B. L.; Gonzalex, C. P.; Mertzman, S. A.


    The occurrence of jarosite, other sulfates (e.g., Mg-and Ca-sulfates), and hematite along with silicic-lastic materials in outcrops of sedimentary materials at Meridiani Planum (MP) and detection of silica rich deposits in Gusev crater, Mars, are strong indicators of local acidic aqueous processes [1,2,3,4,5]. The formation of sediments at Meridiani Planum may have involved the evaporation of fluids derived from acid weathering of Martian basalts and subsequent diagenesis [6,7]. Also, our previous work on acid weathering of basaltic materials in a closed hydro-thermal system was focused on the mineralogy of the acid weathering products including the formation of jarosite and gray hematite spherules [8,9,10]. The object of this re-search is to extend our earlier qualitative work on acidic weathering of rocks to determine acidic dissolution rates of Mars analog basaltic materials at 80 C using a flow-thru reactor. We also characterized residual phases, including poorly crystalline or amorphous phases and precipitates, that remained after the treatments of olivine, siderite, and basalt which represent likely MP source rocks. This study is a stepping stone for a future simulation of the formation of MP rocks under a range of T and P.

  1. Fission product solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others


    Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

  2. Microwave extraction of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Blekić


    Full Text Available Microwave extraction presents novel extraction and treatment method for food processing. In paper, several examples of microwave extraction of bioactive compounds are presented. Also, novel innovative equipment for microwave extraction and hydrodiffusion with gravitation is presented. Advantage of using novel equipment for microwave extraction is shown, and it include, shorter treatment time, less usage or without any solvent use. Novel method is compared to standard extraction methods. Some positive and negative aspects of microwave heating can be observed, and also its influence on development of oxidation in sunflower oil subjected to microwave heating. Also, use of microwaves for the extraction of essential oils is shown. One can also see the advantages of solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs in comparison with the standard extraction, and determination of antioxidant components in rice bran oil extracted by microwave-assisted method. Comparison of microwave and ultrasound extraction, as well as positive and negative aspects of the combination of microwaves and ultrasound is described.

  3. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract. (United States)

    Kanne, Haritha; Burte, Narayan Pandurang; Prasanna, V; Gujjula, Ravi


    Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO3) and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S3 O9). Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements.

  4. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony


    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  5. Producing ashless coal extracts by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgur Sonmez; Elife Sultan Giray [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Chemistry


    To produce ashless coal extracts, three Turkish coals were extracted with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), NMP/ethylenediamine (EDA) (17/1, vol/vol) mixture and NMP/tetralin (9/1, vol/vol) mixture through thermal extraction and microwave extraction. Solvent extraction by microwave irradiation (MI) was found to be more effective than that by thermal extraction. Extraction yield of coals in NMP enhanced by addition of a little EDA, but tetralin addition showed variances according to extraction method used. While tetralin addition caused a decrease in the thermal extraction yield, it increased the yield of the extraction by MI. Following the extraction, the solid extracts were produced with ash content ranging from 0.11% to 1.1%. Ash content of solid extract obtained from microwave extraction are less than ash contents of solid extracts obtained from thermal extraction. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Metadata Extraction and Search Interfaces - Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demidova, Elena; Zenz, Gideon; Olmedilla, Daniel


    The Metadata Extraction and Search Interfaces offer a framework which allows for crawling specific knowledge resources and extraction their metadata. Furthermore, extracted metadata can be made persistently available for search using Metadata Extraction Listener and Search Interfaces of the

  7. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.


    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin


    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  9. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth


    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique....

  10. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb


    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  11. determination of lipophilic extractives in ionic liquid extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    EXTRACTS OF EUCALYPTUS PULP BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY - ... Key words: Dissolving pulp, Extractives, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Green .... regeneration of the cellulose the samples were filtered while hot using glass fibre filters. Then, the retained cellulose on the filter paper was washed using 5 ...

  12. Accuracy of nimodipine gel extraction. (United States)

    Oyler, Douglas R; Stump, Sarah E; Cook, Aaron M


    Until recently, use of nimodipine in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients unable to swallow required extraction of gel from inside the commercially available capsule. Despite the Black-Box warning against inadvertent intravenous administration, bedside extraction of the gel from the capsule continues to be a common practice in some institutions. The accuracy of bedside extraction has not been formally evaluated. Twenty-eight nurses from the neurology and neurosurgical ICUs at a single center attempted to extract nimodipine gel from 2 capsules, each using the method currently approved by the US FDA. The primary outcome was mean weight of extracted gel per capsule, which was compared to both gel weight from batch compounded pharmacy syringes and a pre-calculated appropriate weight for 30 mg nimodipine gel. Simulated bedside extraction provided lower yield than pharmacy-compounded syringes (22.6 ± 4.6 mg vs 30.4 ± 0.59 mg, p = 0.001). Bedside extraction provided inconsistent and low yield (75.4 ± 15.32 % of possible dose extracted, p = 0.0001 for comparison of means between bedside extraction syringes and predicted gel weight). Pharmacy-compounded syringes provided consistent high yield (101.3 ± 2.0 % of possible dose extracted, p = 0.14 for comparison of means between pharmacy syringes and predicted gel weight). Combined with reports of significant patient harm and death with inadvertent intravenous administration, this study suggests that there is no role for bedside extraction of nimodipine in clinical practice.

  13. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction (United States)

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat


    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  14. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sharon Suhono


    Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Recophin was used against Escherischia coli,. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Shigella dysenteriae. Ethanol and chloroform/water extracts of. Acacia nilotica stem bark appear to have the highest antibacterial activities on the bacterial isolates tested, followed by methanol and ethyl acetate extracts ...


    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.


    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  17. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth. (United States)

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.


    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  18. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine


    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....


    A research project was initiated to address a recurring problem of elevated detection limits above required risk-based concentrations for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds in high moisture content solid samples. This project was initiated, in cooperation with the EPA Region 1 Laboratory, under the Regional Methods Program administered through the ORD Office of Science Policy. The aim of the project was to develop an approach for the rapid removal of water in high moisture content solids (e.g., wetland sediments) in preparation for analysis via Method 8270. Alternative methods for water removal have been investigated to enhance compound solid concentrations and improve extraction efficiency, with the use of pressure filtration providing a high-throughput alternative for removal of the majority of free water in sediments and sludges. In order to eliminate problems with phase separation during extraction of solids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction, a variation of a water-isopropanol extraction method developed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, CO is being employed. The concentrations of target compounds in water-isopropanol extraction fluids are subsequently analyzed using an automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE)-GC/MS method developed in our laboratory. The coupled approaches for dewatering, extraction, and target compound identification-quantitation provide a useful alternative to enhance sample throughput for Me

  20. Microaesthetics of The Smile: Extraction vs. Non-extraction. (United States)

    Tauheed, Sanam; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar


    To compare microaesthetics in pre- and post-orthodontic cases, treated with non-extraction and extraction treatment and assessed whether the achieved microaesthetic parameters are comparable to the proposed norms. Quasi-experimental study. Orthodontic Clinic, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2005 to December 2009. Orthodontic records of 31 cases treated with non-extraction therapy and 26 cases treated with extraction of upper first premolars were selected. Patients were of Pakistani origin, aged between 12 to 30 years. Microaesthetics was assessed by measuring maxillary central incisor crown width-height ratio, connectors between the maxillary anterior sextant, gingival zenith level of the maxillary lateral incisor and golden percentage of the anterior teeth using the patients' plaster models and intraoral frontal photographs. Measurements of the golden percentage were made using the software Adobe Photoshop, whereas all other parameters were measured on the plaster casts using a digital vernier caliper. Paired t-test, independent t-test and one sample t-test were used to make comparisons within the groups, between the groups, and to compare the posttreatment values with the proposed norms, respectively. Statistical significance level was set at p ² 0.05. A statistically significant improvement in the microaesthetic parameters was observed for both extraction and non-extraction subjects (p < 0.05) after orthodontic treatment. Values closer to the proposed norms were achieved more readily in the non-extraction group. Microaesthetics of the smile is improved with orthodontic treatment. It is recommended that greater consideration be given to the microaesthetic parameters of the smile during the finishing stages particularly when utilizing extraction mechanics during orthodontic treatment.

  1. Influence of Extraction Parameters on Hydroalcohol Extracts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A 33 factorial design was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol concentration (50, 70 and 90 % v/v), extraction time (2, 6 and 10 h), and particle size of the herbal drug (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mm) on the pH, dry residue and myrsinoic acid B (MAB) content of hydroalcoholic extracts by high performance liquid ...

  2. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants' extracts. (United States)

    Sasidharan, S; Chen, Y; Saravanan, D; Sundram, K M; Yoga Latha, L


    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed.

  3. Extraction and characterization of mucilage from Crotalaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucilages from the leaves, stem and root of Crotalaria senegalensis Linn. (Fam. Fabaceae) has been extracted using both the cold and hot extraction methods. The results obtained showed that the hot extraction method (HEM) is a better extraction method than the cold extraction method (CEM) as the yields were:- 10.2%; ...

  4. Novel Fluorinated Tensioactive Extractant Combined with Flotation for Decontamination of Extractant Residual during Solvent Extraction (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Chang, Zhidong; Liu, Yao; Choe, Chol Ryong


    Solvent-extraction is widely used in chemical industry. Due to the amphiphilic character, a large amount of extractant remains in water phase, which causes not only loss of reagent, but also secondary contamination in water phase. Novel fluorinated extractants with ultra-low solubility in water were regarded as effective choice to reduce extractant loss in aqueous phase. However, trace amount of extractant still remained in water. Based on the high tensioactive aptitude of fluorinated solvent, flotation was applied to separate fluorinated extractant remaining in raffinate. According to the data of surface tension measurement, the surface tension of solution was obviously decreased with the addition of fluorinated extractant tris(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoropentyl) phosphate (FTAP). After flotation, the FTAP dissolved in water can be removed as much as 70%, which proved the feasibility of this key idea. The effects of operation time, gas velocity, pH and salinity of bulk solution on flotation performance were discussed. The optimum operating parameters were determined as gas velocity of 12ml/min, operating time of 15min, pH of 8.7, and NaCl volume concentration of 1.5%, respectively. Moreover, adsorption process of FTAP on bubble surface was simulated by ANSYS VOF model using SIMPLE algorithm. The dynamic mechanism of flotation was also theoretically investigated, which can be considered as supplement to the experimental results.

  5. Coil for LEAR extraction septum

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.

  6. TSCA Inventory Data Extraction Tool (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...

  7. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  8. Dental extractions during anticoagulant therapy. (United States)

    Anavi, Y; Sharon, A; Gutman, D; Laufer, D


    1. 15 patients, whose therapy with the anticoagulant Coumarin was not discontinued, were observed for bleeding following dental extractions. 2. There was no significant bleeding in these patients as compared to 15 others whose Coumarin therapy was temporarily interrupted. 3. Patients with prosthetic heart valves should preferably be hospitalized for dental extractions. but Coumarin/anticoagulant therapy need not be discontinued. The procedures can safely be done within a therapeutic range of 20-30% P.T.

  9. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas


    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  10. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  11. extracts as potential dietary supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Strugała


    Full Text Available Introduction: In times of worsening civilization diseases the interest in natural healing substances is on the increase. To reduce unwanted side effects of many synthetic drugs, it is reasonable to introduce to the daily diet foods rich in natural compounds of plant origin that are beneficial for health. The purpose of the study was to determine the biological activity and stability of selected ethanol extracts of the fruit of chokeberry, blackcurrant, hawthorn, rosehip, quince and Japanese quince as potential nutraceuticals.Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined in relation to model phospholipid membranes (IC50 PC. Antiradical activity was determined in a test with the DPPH• radical (IC50 DPPH. Also the inhibition of enzymatic (1-LOX oxidation of linoleic acid was determined at the beginning of the period of storage of the extracts at room temperature and after 12 months. Results: After 12 months of storage the highest antioxidant stability was shown by blackcurrant extract (1.5% increase in IC50 PC, the highest antiradical stability by quince extract (1.0% reduction in IC50 DPPH, and the highest stability of 1-LOX enzyme inhibition by chokeberry extract (6.3% reduction in inhibition at a concentration of 8 μg∙ml-1. Japanese quince extract showed the strongest regenerating properties with respect to oxidized phospholipid membranes and the highest ability to eliminate the free radical DPPH•. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ethanol extracts of the fruits (in particular blackcurrant, chokeberry and Japanese quince are a potential source of dietary supplements of expected effectiveness in preventive treatment.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The C. Procera root extract was found to significantly (p<0.05) reduce the serum levels of AST, ... urea. These indicates the possible hepatocurative effects of aqueous root extract of C. ... extracts is an excellent source of therapeutic agents.



    Prasad R. Mahajan; Pratika D. Wankhede2; Omkumar S. Gulhane3


    The orange peel which is considered as a waste can be used for the extraction of limonene (D-Limonene ) which has many applications ranging from food flavouring agent to cosmetics. Limonene can be extracted by various conventional methods like steam distillation cold press, solvent extraction, novel methods like super critical CO2 extraction, it means varied typical ways like steam distillation cold press, solvent extraction, novel ways like super essential greenhouse emission extraction. The...

  14. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.


    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  15. Caesium extraction by calixarene molecules: Some aspects of extraction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Tournois, B.; Volle, G


    In the framework of the environment Code (2000 studies were developed to recover long-lived fission products (F.P.) from acidic highly radioactive effluents issuing the reprocessing of spent fuels, to destroy them by transmutation or to encapsulate them into specific matrices. Efforts had been directed towards caesium, particularly {sup 135}Cs, which is one of the most harmful fission products because of its long half life (more than 2.10{sup 6} years) and its mobility in repository. The flow-sheet will be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was decided to define a process based on liquid-liquid extraction. Crown-calixarenes molecules were chosen for process development. To refine the flowsheet diagram, it is necessary to know the rate constants of the implied chemical reactions involved in the extraction. This paper describes the first determination of rate constant in the Cs extraction with crown calixarenes. (authors)

  16. Propolis extract application in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Spaziani Pereira


    Full Text Available Propolis has been ground in various areas of science, but its application in agriculture, is a recent and almost unknown subject. In agronomy work mainly seek to explore the antibiotic and antifungal properties of propolis, but other uses have been proposed, such as plant nutrition, pest control (such as mites and even reducing water stress in plants. Despite numerous utilities proven and proposals, there are many questions, particularly for the preparation of the extract, most appropriate chemical composition for a particular use, application forms, crude propolis extract in percentages, dose minimum efficiency, efficiency, etc. Given the above, the purpose of this literature review is to present the origin and chemical composition of propolis, making methodology of propolis extract, more effective dose in the control of fungi, plant pathogenic bacteria and reduce water stress. During the study, it can be seen that the difference in propolis composition occurs mainly due to the variability of vegetable composition in the vicinity of the hive, the bees forage and chemical composition is quite complex and variable in terms of both concentration and chemicals gifts. In the extraction, there are still many gaps to be studied, including the best way to obtain the extract, with questions about the best puller, with lack of consensus in the literature. On the efficiency of this technology, there are numerous studies with promising results, which allow implementation of technology in the field and these jobs concentrated in coffee crops, beans, cucumber and tomato.

  17. Optimal Extraction of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Kamal; Scherer, Charles, R.


    This study is concerned with the optimal extraction of energy from a hot water geothermal field. In view of the relative "commercial" availability of the many energy sources alternative to geothermal, it is possible that a socially "best" extraction policy may not include producing geothermal energy as fast as the current technology will permit. Rather, a truly "optimal" policy will depend on, among other things, the costs and value of geothermal energy in the future and the analogous values of other energy sources. Hence, a general approach to this problem would make the policy contingent on pertinent information on alternative sources. A good example of this approach is given in Manne's (1976) Energy Technology Assessment Model, where he points out that "Each energy source has its own cost parameters and introduction date, but is interdependent with other components of the energy sector." (Manne (1976), p. 379). But by their large dimensions, such relativity macro-analyses tend to preclude a close look at the specific technology of a process is important in developing meaningful resource management models, we substitute for a macro model the increasing value over time of the energy extracted. In this contact we seek an extraction rate (and an economic life) that maximizes the net discounted value of the energy extracted. [DJE-2005

  18. Effect of extraction methods on the chemical components and taste quality of green tea extract. (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Ji, Wei-Bin; Yu, Peigen; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Yin, Jun-Feng


    The physicochemical properties of tea extracts are significantly affected by the extraction method. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic extractions on the concentrations of chemical components and taste quality of green tea extracts. Our results show that extraction of chemical components using static extraction follows a pseudo-second-order reaction, while that of dynamic extraction follows a first-order reaction. The concentrations of the solids, polyphenols, and free amino acids in green tea extract prepared by dynamic extraction were much higher, although the overall yields were not significantly different between the two extraction methods. Green tea extracts obtained via dynamic extraction were of lower bitterness and astringency, as well and higher intensities of umami and overall acceptability. These results suggest that dynamic extraction is more suitable for the processing of green tea concentrate because of the higher concentration of green tea extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatoxicity of aqueous extract and fractionated methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 22, 2010 ... Phytolacca americana is a perennial plant native to North America and other parts of the world. It is well known for several medicinal properties despite being considered to have digestive toxicity (especially hepatotoxicity). Our objective is to examine whether extract of aerial parts of P. americana could.

  20. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy. (United States)

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B


    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  1. Injection and extraction magnets: septa

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Goddard, B; Hourican, M


    An accelerator has limited dynamic range: a chain of accelerators is required to reach high energy. A combination of septa and kicker magnets is frequently used to inject and extract beam from each stage. The kicker magnets typically produce rectangular field pulses with fast rise- and/or fall-times, however the field strength is relatively low. To compensate for their relatively low field strength, the kicker magnets are generally combined with electromagnetic septa. The septa provide relatively strong field strength but are either DC or slow pulsed. This paper discusses injection and extraction systems with particular emphasis on the hardware required for the septa.

  2. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah


    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... model outperformed other existing content extraction models. We present a browser based implementation of the proposed model as proof of concept and compare the implementation strategy with various state of art implementations. We also discuss various applications of the proposed model with special...

  3. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)


    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  4. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Logwood extract. 73.1410 Section 73.1410 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1410 Logwood extract. (a) Identity. The color additive logwood extract is a reddish brown-to-black solid material extracted from the heartwood of the leguminous...

  5. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared from annatto seed, Bixa orellana L., using any one or an...

  6. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY..., Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25 percent...

  7. 21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemicellulose extract. 573.520 Section 573.520... Additive Listing § 573.520 Hemicellulose extract. Hemicellulose extract may be safely used in animal feed... from the aqueous extract obtained by the treatment of wood with water at elevated temperatures (325...

  8. Pressurized liquid extraction of mate tea leaves. (United States)

    Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Caramão, Elina Bastos


    The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of process parameters on the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of Ilex paraguariensis leaves. A factorial 2(6-2) experimental design was employed using responses as the extraction yield and the chromatographic profile of the extracts. The extraction time, polarity of solvent, amount of sample, numbers of PLE cycles, flushing volume and extraction temperature were selected as independent variables (factors). Results obtained indicated that the solvent polarity was the most significant variable in the study, while the amount of sample and extraction temperature also showed significant effect. The other variables did not present significant influence in the yield of extraction. GC/MS analysis of the extract enabled the identification of saturated hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, phytosterols and theobromine in the extracts. Quantitative analysis of four compounds presented in the extracts (caffeine, phytol, vitamin E and squalene) was performed by the GC/MS in the SIM mode.

  9. Antibacterial activity of Quercus ilex bark's extracts. (United States)

    Berahou, A; Auhmani, A; Fdil, N; Benharref, A; Jana, M; Gadhi, C A


    The antibacterial activity of different extracts of Quercus ilex bark (Fagaceae) was studied in vitro against seven reference strains of bacteria by using a disc-diffusion method and agar-dilution method. The ethyl acetate extract (QE), n-butanol extract (QB) and final aqueous layer (QA) were effective against all bacterial strains tested at MICs ranging from 128 to 512 microg/ml. The n-hexane extract (QH) and dichloromethane extract (QD) showed no activity.

  10. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus


    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  11. Feature extraction using fractal codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.M. Ben Schouten; Paul M. de Zeeuw


    Fast and successful searching for an object in a multimedia database is a highly desirable functionality. Several approaches to content based retrieval for multimedia databases can be found in the literature [9,10,12,14,17]. The approach we consider is feature extraction. A feature can be seen as a

  12. extracts of Buchholzia Coriacea Engler

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ojinnala C.M Prof

    and methanol respectively, and the crude extracts were analyzed using GC-MS. The result indicated presence of cyclooctasulphur ... Buchholzia coriacea using GC-MS and to determine the bioactivity of the constituents. To the best of ... Dextrose Agar plates containing cyclohexamide. 4mg/ml, penicillin 20µ/ml, streptomycin ...

  13. aqueous root extract on spermatogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HPLC-MS spectra were collected for the extracts and compared to the data found in literature. As such, assignment of the chemical composition was possible only .... (coumarins). Body and organ weight of male rats. A significant decrease in body weight of the. HDR-receiving rats was observed when compared to the ...

  14. Extractive Summarisation of Medical Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeed Sarker


    Full Text Available Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM practice requires practitioners to extract evidence from published medical research when answering clinical queries. Due to the time-consuming nature of this practice, there is a strong motivation for systems that can automatically summarise medical documents and help practitioners find relevant information. Aim The aim of this work is to propose an automatic query-focused, extractive summarisation approach that selects informative sentences from medical documents. MethodWe use a corpus that is specifically designed for summarisation in the EBM domain. We use approximately half the corpus for deriving important statistics associated with the best possible extractive summaries. We take into account factors such as sentence position, length, sentence content, and the type of the query posed. Using the statistics from the first set, we evaluate our approach on a separate set. Evaluation of the qualities of the generated summaries is performed automatically using ROUGE, which is a popular tool for evaluating automatic summaries. Results Our summarisation approach outperforms all baselines (best baseline score: 0.1594; our score 0.1653. Further improvements are achieved when query types are taken into account. Conclusion The quality of extractive summarisation in the medical domain can be significantly improved by incorporating domain knowledge and statistics derived from a specialised corpus. Such techniques can therefore be applied for content selection in end-to-end summarisation systems.

  15. Statistical Model for Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah


    We present a statistical model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features to predict significance of the node towards overall content...

  16. DNA Extraction and Primer Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads

    Talk regarding pitfalls in DNA extraction and 16S amplicon primer choice when performing community analysis of complex microbial communities. The talk was a part of Workshop 2 "Principles, Potential, and Limitations of Novel Molecular Methods in Water Engineering; from Amplicon Sequencing to -omics...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    the most suitable universal extractant for determination of available Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in soil of the studied areas. KEY WORDS: .... potato and teff. On the other hand, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were commonly .... The amounts of basic oxides such as calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO), potassium ...

  18. Extraction of Proteins with ABS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desai, R.K.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.


    Over the past years, there has been an increasing trend in research on the extraction and purification of proteins using aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) formed by polymers, e.g., polyethylene glycol (PEG). In general, when dealing with protein purification processes, it is essential to maintain their

  19. Extracting Gamers' Opinions from Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirbu, Dorinela; Secui, Ana; Dascalu, Mihai; Crossley, Scott; Ruseti, Stefan; Trausan-Matu, Stefan


    Opinion mining and sentiment analysis are a trending research domain in Natural Language Processing focused on automatically extracting subjective information, feelings, opinions, ideas or emotions from texts. Our study is centered on identifying sentiments and opinions, as well as other latent

  20. Extracting useful information from images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey


    The paper presents an overview of methods for extracting useful information from digital images. It covers various approaches that utilized different properties of images, like intensity distribution, spatial frequencies content and several others. A few case studies including isotropic...... and heterogeneous, congruent and non-congruent images are used to illustrate how the described methods work and to compare some of them...


    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.


    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  2. Butterfly extracts show antibacterial activity (United States)

    Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    DTPA for determination of micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn) in Ethiopian soil is scarce. The purpose of this work was, therefore, to assess the effectiveness of these universal extractants for soils of selected pH and to identify the most suitable ...

  4. Selective extraction of triazine herbicides based on a combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. (United States)

    Chimuka, Luke; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Jönsson, Jan Åke


    A selective extraction technique based on the combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for triazine herbicides in food samples was developed. Simazine, atrazine, prometon, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and prometryn were extracted from aqueous food samples into a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane bag containing 1000μL of toluene as the acceptor phase along with 100mg of MIP particles. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time and addition of salt. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazine binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and cyclohexane. Extraction time of 120min and 100mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Addition of salt increased the extraction efficiency for more polar triazines. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked cow pea and corn extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to only membrane assisted solvent extraction or only molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The study revealed that this combination may be a simple way of selectively extracting compounds in complex samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction (United States)

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  6. Kinetic behavior of lanthanide extraction with acidic phosphorus extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, E.; Muralidharan, S.; Freiser, H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others


    The kinetics of the formation of the complexes of tervalent lanthanides with several organophosphorus extractants in the octane-H{sub 2}O phase pair have been characterized by competition kinetics. The kinetic studies were conducted by the extraction of the EDTA complexes of Y{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+} and Lu{sup 3+} by bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272) in octane. The observed rate constants bore an inverse relationship to the stability constants of the metal-EDTA complexes. For a given metal the rate constants as a function of ligand followed the order HDEHP > HEH[EHP] > Cyanex 272. The mechanistic details of the competition kinetics and the implications of the kinetic results will be discussed.

  7. Recent trends in metals extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regel-Rosocka, M.


    Full Text Available After near 70 years of practical usage, solvent extraction is a perfectly mastered technique of separation, widely used on an industrial scale for the separation of metals mainly from raw materials. However, currently, in the era of depleting natural resources and increasingly less accessible deposits, environmental restrictions, etc., an increasing interest, both from social and economical constrains, is being directed at the extraction of metals from the secondary sources (such as batteries, electronic scrap. In many cases, solvent extraction, due to its operational characteristics, can be considered as the Best Available Technology for the purpose of separating multielemental metal solutions. This paper provides a brief overview of past achievements and present scenario of solvent extraction investigations and developments, describing some recently commissioned solvent extraction plants, whereas the Skorpion Zinc plant (Namibia for zinc extraction from raw materials and caesium removal from radioactive High Level Wastes (HLWs are told over in detail as case studies. The paper also presents some proposals for the use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate metal ions from secondary sources (e.g. cobalt from industrial waste streams. The review highlights the emerging use of ionic liquids as new extractants for metals, providing an insight into this exciting research field. Despite its detractors, solvent extraction has entered in force into XXI century as a leading separation technology for metals.Después de casi 70 años de uso práctico, la extracción líquido-líquido o extracción con disolventes es una técnica de separación muy evolucionada, utilizándose a escala industrial en el beneficio de metales obtenidos de diversas materias primas. Sin embargo, con el agotamiento de los recursos naturales y el aumento de depósitos minerales de más difícil acceso, restricciones medio ambientales, etc., ha aumentado el interés, tanto desde

  8. Air-assisted solvent extraction: towards a novel extraction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.M. Tarkan; J.A. Finch [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada). Department of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering


    The air-assisted solvent extraction (AASX) concept uses a solvent-coated bubble to contact the organic and aqueous phases. Compared to conventional solvent extraction, a high contact area can be created using less solvent and the natural buoyancy provided by the air core promotes phase separation. A method of producing coated bubbles exploiting foaming properties of kerosene-based solvent is introduced. Coating thickness is estimated at about 3 {mu}m on a 0.44 cm diameter bubble giving a solvent specific surface area of about 3000 cm{sup 2}/cm{sup 3}, equivalent to a solvent droplet of about 20 {mu}m. Such a droplet would have very poor phase separation properties. In extraction tests (500 mg/l Cu solution), high aqueous/organic ratios could be used (e.g., 75:1) while phase separation remained excellent. This shows the potential for AASX to treat large volume, low concentration streams such as acid mine drainage.

  9. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.


    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  10. Pressurized Hot Water Extraction of anthocyanins from red onion: A study on extraction and degradation rates. (United States)

    Petersson, Erik V; Liu, Jiayin; Sjöberg, Per J R; Danielsson, Rolf; Turner, Charlotta


    Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) is a quick, efficient and environmentally friendly technique for extractions. However, when using PHWE to extract thermally unstable analytes, extraction and degradation effects occur at the same time, and thereby compete. At first, the extraction effect dominates, but degradation effects soon take over. In this paper, extraction and degradation rates of anthocyanins from red onion were studied with experiments in a static batch reactor at 110 degrees C. A total extraction curve was calculated with data from the actual extraction and degradation curves, showing that more anthocyanins, 21-36% depending on the species, could be extracted if no degradation occurred, but then longer extraction times would be required than those needed to reach the peak level in the apparent extraction curves. The results give information about the different kinetic processes competing during an extraction procedure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Metallurgists and solution geochemists are joining forces to develop processes for extraction of metals from low-grade ores. The processes, which come under the name hydrometallurgy, include several new applications of solvent extraction techniques. Aqueous solutions are employed, leaching metals from ores, mine waste dumps, and even from deposits still in the ground. It was notable, for example, that Chemical and Engineering News (Feb. 8, 1982) recently featured the subject of hydrometallurgy in a special report. They noted that ‘recovering metals by use of aqueous solutions at relatively low temperatures increasingly is competing with dry, high-temperature pyrometallurgical methods.’ The relatively new techniques have caused a revolution, of sorts, in engineering programs of university metallurgy departments. The challenge of developing selective metal dissolution processes is drawing upon the best national talent in the fields of solution geochemistry and metallurgy.

  12. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)


    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Extracting aluminum from dross tailings (United States)

    Amer, A. M.


    Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

  14. Electrostatic septa for SPS extraction

    CERN Multimedia


    The extraction system for the N-Area is located in LSS2 (another one for the W-Area, now abandoned, was in LSS6). The electrostatic septum consists of 4 parts, each 3 m long. It is made of W-wires, 0.12 mm thick. The nominal electric field is 100 kV/cm. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  15. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.


    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  16. Extractive distillation of hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.M.; Brown, R.E.; Johnson, M.M.


    This patent describes a process for separating at least one aromatic hydrocarbon containing 6-12 carbon atoms per molecule from at least one close-boiling alkane by extractive distillation of a feed consisting essentially of the at least one aromatic hydrocarbon and the at least one alkane in the presence of a solvent consisting essentially of N-methyl-2-thiopyrrolidone, optionally in combination with at least one cosolvent selected from the group consisting of glycol compounds, sulfolane compounds and N-({beta}-mercaptoalkyl)-2-pyrrolidone compounds; wherein the extractive distillation process produces an overhead distillate product which contains a smaller volume percentage of the at least one alkane than the feed, and a bottoms product which contains the solvent and a larger volume percentage of the at least one aromatic hydrocarbon and a smaller volume percentage of the at least one alkane than the feed; and wherein the at least one aromatic hydrocarbon is separated from the solvent and recovered from the bottoms product. This patent also describes a process for separating at least one cycloalkane containing 5-10 carbon atoms per molecule from at least one close-boiling alkane by extracting distillation of a feed consisting essentially of the at least one cycloalkane and the at least one alkane in the presence of a solvent consisting essentially of N-methyl-2-thiopyrrolidone, optionally in combination with at least one cosolvent selected from the group consisting of glycol compounds, sulfone compounds and N-({beta}-mercaptoalkyl)-2-pyrrolidone compounds.

  17. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al


    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other. PMID:27853180

  18. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens. (United States)

    Drábková, Lenka Záveská


    With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP).

  19. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Wada


    Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.

  20. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of capsaicinoids from peppers


    Fernández Barbero, Gerardo; Liazid, Ali; Palma Lovillo, Miguel; García Barroso, Carmelo


    The development of a rapid, reproducible and simple method of extraction of the majority capsaicinoids (nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin) present in hot peppers by the employment of ultrasound-assisted extraction is reported.

  1. Aphrodisiac properties of Allium tuberosum seeds extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guohua, Hu; Yanhua, Lu; Rengang, Mao; Dongzhi, Wei; Zhengzhi, Ma; Hua, Zhang


    In the present study, we examined the effect of Allium tuberosum seeds extract upon the expression of male rat sexual behavior, in order to know whether Allium tuberosum seeds extract possess aphrodisiac property...

  2. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.


    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  3. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey. (United States)

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich


    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo


    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.



    K. Nethra; Anitha, J.; G. Thilagavathi


    The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is do...

  6. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract. (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S


    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  7. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells (United States)

    Krasnov, I. V.


    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  8. Supercritical carbondioxide extraction of cypermethrin in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a promising method of extraction for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. A rapid and high percetage of recoveries extraction of cypermethrin insecticides from fresh yardlong bean, carrot and eggplant vegetables matrixs using drying agent and SC-CO2 was developed in this study ...


    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  10. Extraction of phenolic compounds from Temnocalyx obovatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds yield in plant extracts depend on the method employed in the extraction process. In this study, we investigated systematically, a method of determination of extraction yield of antioxidant compounds from Temnocalyx obovatus. A sample treatment and preparation protocol that employs strict statistical ...

  11. Different enzyme extraction methods for human dentin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernando Nato; Alberto Bavelloni; Alessandra Ruggeri; Pietro Gobbi; Lorenzo Breschi


    ... The purpose of this study was to analyze different enzymes extraction methods in relation to the assay to be performed, i.e. zymography and western blotting (WB) for MMP-2 and -9. Methods Proteins were extracted from human dentin powder and demineralized with 1% phosphoric acid for 10min. Two different extraction buffers with different extrac...

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction of Beauvericin from maize. (United States)

    Ambrosino, P; Galvano, F; Fogliano, V; Logrieco, A; Fresa, R; Ritieni, A


    Beauvericin (BEA), a supercritical fluid extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide from maize was investigated. Extraction efficiencies under several different extraction conditions were examined. Pressure, temperature, extraction time, organic modifier and water matrix content (10%) were investigated. The best extraction conditions were at a temperature of 60 degrees C, 3200psi, for 30min static extraction time and methanol as modifier solvent. Extraction recovery of 36% without modifier by adding water to the matrix in the extraction vessel (reproducibility relative standard deviations (R.S.D.)=3-5%) were recorded. Extraction recovery of 76.9% with methanol as co-solvent (reproducibility R.S.D.=3-5%) was obtained. Data shows that SFE gives a lower BEA recovery compared to conventional extraction protocol with organic solvents while SFE with modifier and conventional extraction yields are comparable. BEA extract contents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) at 205nm and BEA peak confirmed by LC-MS. Acetonitrile-water as mobile phase and column C-18 were both tested. Instrumental and analytical parameters were optimized in the range linear interval from 1 to 500mgkg(-1) and reached a detection limit of 2ng.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and a germacranolidetype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaf of Tithonia diversifolia, and one sesquiterpene lactone 1 isolated from the ethyl acetate extract was studied. Of the fourteen strains of bacteria used, the ethyl acetate extract was the most active, showing inhibitory activity against ...

  14. 21 CFR 182.7255 - Chondrus extract. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chondrus extract. 182.7255 Section 182.7255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... extract. (a) Product. Chondrus extract (carrageenin). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  16. 21 CFR 582.7255 - Chondrus extract. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chondrus extract. 582.7255 Section 582.7255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Chondrus extract. (a) Product. Chondrus extract (carrageenin). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. Determining efficient extraction procedure of phytochemicals from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the most effective method of extracting metabolites from the two herbs Ziziphus abyssinica and Tamaridus. Indicus. Methodology and results: The methods used included cold and soxhlet extraction using methanol as the solvent and hot extraction using distilled water. To determine the efficiency in ...

  18. (Mill Druce) using Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effects of temperature, pressure and extraction time on oil yield obtained from Polygonatum odoratum as well as the optimum processing conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction. Methods: Supercritical CO2 extraction technology was adopted in this experiment to study the ...

  19. Automated extraction system design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, H.L.; Eklund, J.D.; Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.


    The Automated Extraction System (AES) is an advanced fullface continuous mining system designed and built by National Mine Service Co. Since initial testing in a coal mine revealed operational problems, a design review was conducted. Two potential conceptual problems were identified: the roof control concept and the hydraulic sumping concept. It is felt that the combination of uneven and cyclic roof loading may promote roof failure even in bolted roof areas. Critical design problem areas include weight and balance, friction-induced excessive sumping forces, and design complexity.

  20. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction (United States)

    Noah, Etam


    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  1. Pulmonary extraction of circulating noradrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Ring-Larsen, H


    was not significantly different from that of age-matched control subjects. The lungs extracted both endogenous NA and 3H-NA significantly, but no significant pulmonary extraction of endogenous adrenaline was found. The pulmonary arterial-systemic arterial extraction ratio of NA was mean 0.08 (n = 9) as compared......% of this value. The small, but significant, pulmonary extraction of circulating noradrenaline implies that whole-body clearance, as estimated from infusion rate and systemic arterial sampling, will be overestimated by approximately 7%. As pulmonary extraction of NA and 3H-NA was almost identical, the results...

  2. Automatic extraction of planetary image features (United States)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)


    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  3. Antibacterial activity of some Artemisia species extract. (United States)

    Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Ivănescu, Bianca; Ionescu, A; Lazăr, M I


    The antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua and Artemisia vulgaris were studied. Plant extracts were tested against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. The results indicated that Artemisia annua alcoholic extracts are more effective against tested microorganisms. However, all plants extracts have moderate or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results confirm the justification of extracts of Artemisia species use in traditional medicine as treatment for microbial infections.

  4. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  5. Integration of galacturonic acid extraction with alkaline protein extraction from green tea leaf residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Bozileva, Elvira; Klis, van der Frits; Dong, Yiyuan; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.


    Leaf pectin can be used as a feedstock for galacturonic acid (GA) production, but high extraction costs limit economic feasibility. To improve the extraction efficiency, leaf pectin extraction was integrated with an already cost-effective alkaline protein extraction, focusing on high yield of GA



    Zhang, Lu; Qi, Shi-Chao; Norinaga, Koyo


    Coking coal from Xinyu of Shanxi Province is extracted under elevated temperature and pressure via Accelerated Solvent and Soxhlet Extraction. Analyzing their GC/MS results, we explore the two extraction methods’ impact on the dissolution behavior of small molecules in coal and investigate the mechanism of the extraction.

  7. Handling uncertainty in relation extraction: a case study on tennis tournament results extraction from tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, Jochem; Habib, Mena Badieh; van Keulen, Maurice


    Relation extraction involves different types of uncertainty due to the imperfection of the extraction tools and the inherent ambiguity of unstructured text. In this paper, we discuss several ways of handling uncertainties in relation extraction from social media. Our study case is to extract tennis

  8. Schistosoma mansoni antigenic extracts obtained by different extraction procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Tendler


    Full Text Available Solubilization of Schistosoma mansoni antigens was obtained by agitation of adult worms in a 3M KCl solution. The protein contents of the KCl extrats varied from 0.35 to 0.96 mg/ml. Sera from 97 patients with hepatointestinal shistosomiasis and viable eggs in stools from a Brazilian endemic area were studied by immunoelectroomophoresis and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion methods with the KCl extract and with another antigen, obtained by homogenization of adult schistosomes in saline. The rate of positiveness of immunoprecipitation deterctions by immunoelectroomophoresis with the KCl extract was 53.5%. A correlation was verified between methods of detection and extration procedures, resulting in a better association of the extract obtained by agitation in 3M KCl and immunoelectroomophoresis.Foi obtida a solubilização de antígenos do Schistosoma mansoni por agitação de vermes adultos em solução de KCl 3M. O teor protéico dos extratos de KCl variou de 0,35 a 0,96mg/ ml. Foram testados pelos métodos de imunoeletroosmoforese (IEOP e dupla imunodifusão (Ouchterlony, 97 soros de doentes de area endêmica brasileira de esquistossomose, forma clínica hepatointestinal e com exames coprológicos positivos para S. mansoni, com o extrato de KCl e outro antígeno obtido pela homogenização de vermes adultos em salina. A taxa de positividade das reações de imunoprecipitação por IEOP com o antígeno extraído pela ação do KCl 3M foi 53,5%. Foi verificada a correlação entre os métodos de detecção e de extração resultando numa melhor associação entre o extrato obtido por agitação no KCl 3M e a IEOP.

  9. [Study on condition for extraction of arctiin from fruits of Arctium lappa using supercritical fluid extraction]. (United States)

    Dong, Wen-hong; Liu, Ben


    To study the feasibility of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for arctiin from the fruits of Arctium lappa. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC, optimum extraction conditions were studied by orthogonal tests. The optimal extraction conditions were: pressure 40 MPa, temperature 70 degrees C, using methanol as modifier carrier at the rate of 0.55 mL x min(-1), static extraction time 5 min, dynamic extraction 30 min, flow rate of CO2 2 L x min(-1). SFE has the superiority of adjustable polarity, and has the ability of extracting arctiin.

  10. Extraction and bioactivity of polygonatum polysaccharides. (United States)

    Jiang, Qunguang; Lv, Yunxia; Dai, Weidong; Miao, Xiongying; Zhong, Dewu


    The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters and liver protective effect of the polygonatum polysaccharides in vivo. The order of factor effects on polysaccharides production was found to be extraction time (min, A)>ratio of solvent to solid (C)>extraction temperature (°C, B)>extraction number (D). The results show that the effects of extraction time (min, A) and ratio of solvent to solid (C) were more significant than those of the other factors. Optimal extraction parameters were as followings: extraction time 120 min, extraction temperature 100 °C, ratio of solvent to solid 5, and extraction number 4. Polygonatum polysaccharides was administered orally at doses of 150, 300 and 450 mg/(kg day) to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-treated rats. Results showed that administration of polygonatum polysaccharides could increase rats' final body weight, liver antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR)), decrease serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The liver sections obtained from animals supplemented with polygonatum polysaccharides extract demonstrated reduced pathological damages, supporting that polygonatum polysaccharides extract could effectively decrease the toxicity of CCl(4). It can be concluded that polygonatum polysaccharides treatment may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative injury in experimental rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts. (United States)

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou


    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  12. Percutaneous extraction of stented device leads. (United States)

    Baranowski, Bryan; Wazni, Oussama; Chung, Roy; Martin, David O; Rickard, John; Tanaka-Esposito, Christine; Bassiouny, Mohammed; Wilkoff, Bruce L


    There are limited published data regarding the percutaneous extraction of device leads jailed by a venous stent. In this study we assessed the feasibility and safety of percutaneous extraction of stented device leads. We reviewed our experience percutaneously extracting 7 chronically implanted device leads jailed to the wall of the left innominate and/or subclavian veins by a previously placed stent. All leads were successfully extracted by using a percutaneous approach. Both pacing leads and defibrillator leads were extracted. The oldest pacing lead extracted was 14 years old. The oldest defibrillator lead extracted was 6 years old. Three of the leads were extracted with simple manual traction alone. The 4 remaining leads required a more complex, femoral extraction approach for successful removal. In our experience extracting 7 stented device leads, complete percutaneous removal was feasible 100% of the time using a combination of simple manual traction and a femoral approach. No major complications were associated with the extraction procedures. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen Bleakley; Maria Hayes


    .... Protein extraction methods applied to algae to date, including enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes, and chemical extraction and novel methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botond BENEDEK


    Full Text Available In the Internet world, the amount of information available reaches very high quotas. In order to find specific information, some tools were created that automatically scroll through the existing web pages and update their databases with the latest information on the Internet. In order to systematize the search and achieve a result in a concrete form, another step is needed for processing the information returned by the search engine and generating the response in a more organized form. Centralizing events of a certain type is useful first of all for creating a news service. Through this system we are pursuing a knowledge - events from the Internet documents - extraction system. The system will recognize events of a certain type (weather, sports, politics, text data mining, etc. depending on how it will be trained (the concept it has in the dictionary. These events can be provided to the user, or it can also extract the context in which the event occurred, to indicate the initial form in which the event was embedded.

  15. Wind Extraction for Natural Ventilation (United States)

    Fagundes, Tadeu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Kumar, Rajan; Ordonez, Juan


    Due to the depletion of energy resources and the environmental impact of pollution and unsustainable energy resources, energy consumption has become one of the main concerns in our rapidly growing world. Natural ventilation, a traditional method to remove anthropogenic and solar heat gains, proved to be a cost-effective, alternative method to mechanical ventilation. However, while natural ventilation is simple in theory, its detailed design can be a challenge, particularly for wind-driven ventilation, which its performance highly involves the buildings' form, surrounding topography, turbulent flow characteristics, and climate. One of the main challenges with wind-driven natural ventilation schemes is due to the turbulent and unpredictable nature of the wind around the building that impose complex pressure loads on the structure. In practice, these challenges have resulted in founding the natural ventilation mainly on buoyancy (rather than the wind), as the primary force. This study is the initial step for investigating the physical principals of wind extraction over building walls and investigating strategies to reduce the dependence of the wind extraction on the incoming flow characteristics and the target building form.

  16. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd


    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  17. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction. (United States)

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah


    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  18. Study on the microalgal pigments extraction process: Performance of microwave assisted extraction


    Pasquet, Virginie; Cherouvrier, Jean-rene; Farhat, Firas; Thiery, Valerie; Piot, Jean-Marie; Berard, Jean-baptiste; Kaas, Raymond; Serive, Benoit; Patrice, Thierry; Cadoret, Jean-paul; Picot, Laurent


    The performance of microwaves irradiation (MAE and VMAE) to extract pigments from two marine microalgae was compared to conventional processes (cold and hot soaking and ultrasound-assisted extraction). Pigments were quantified by RP-HPLC and extraction performance was assessed regarding rapidity, reproducibility and extraction yields. Scanning electron microscopy was used at all extraction steps to assess the impact of the process on microalgal cell integrity. Freeze-drying and pigments extra...

  19. Kinetics study of oil extraction from Citrus auranticum L. by solvent-free microwave extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Septya Kusuma


    Full Text Available Citrus and its oil are of high economic and medicinal value because of their multiple uses, such as in the food industry, cosmetics and folk medicine. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of solvent-free microwave extraction for the extraction of essential oils from Citrus auranticum L. peels. Specifically, this study verifies the kinetics based on second-order model and mechanism of solvent-free microwave extraction of Citrus auranticum L. peels. Solvent-free microwave extraction is used to extract essential oils from Citrus auranticum L. peels. The initial extraction rate, the extraction capacity and the second-order extraction rate constant were calculated using the model. Using a three-step experimental design of the kinetics of oil extraction from Citrus auranticum L. peels by solvent-free microwave extraction, this study showed that the extraction process was based on the second-order extraction model. The initial extraction rate (h, the extraction capacity (CS, the second-order extraction rate constant (k, and coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.7483 g L-1 min-1, 0.7291 g L-1, 1.4075 L g-1 min-1 and 0.9992, respectively.

  20. Changing perspectives on resource extraction. (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison


    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are

  1. Extraction matrine from Radix Sopheorae Tonkinensis by non-supported liquid membrane extraction technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Guo


    Full Text Available Non-Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (NSLME is a new development extraction technology based on Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (SLME. Sample extraction assembly is composed of three phases: an acceptor phase: phosphate–sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution at the bottom; an organic phase: chloroform applied as the non-supported liquid membrane in the middle layer; and a donor phase: aqueous solution samples containing alkaloids in the upper layer. The whole system is maintained stable by density difference among the three layers that avoided the mutual interferences. The alkaloid in the donor phase can spread to the underlying acidic acceptor phase, where it is able to form water soluble salt in the acid environment, and thus cannot return to the middle organic phase. Therefore, the transmission of alkaloid is a one-way path, and the extraction of alkaloids can be achieved and enriched. In this study, the extraction of alkaloid was carried out by using matrine aqueous solution as the donor phase, and the extraction quantity and efficiency were investigated by GC/MS. This study evaluated the relationship between extracted quantity and extraction time. The effects of extraction temperature, membrane thickness, pH value of acceptor phase on extraction quantity and efficiency were also studied, and the optimal extraction condition was found. The extracted quantity achieved the largest amount at 45 °C when pure phosphoric acid was applied as the acceptor phase; the organic solvent volume was 0.2 mL. The extraction of alkaloid from Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis was performed under the optimized condition. The extraction rate of matrine was up to 54% after a four-hour extraction. A huge advantage of NSLME technology is that the extracted alkaloid enjoyed high purity compared with that extracted by the traditional Liquid–Liquid Extraction (LLE.

  2. Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels. (United States)

    Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S


    Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ∼28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries.

  3. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.


    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  4. Adaptive web data extraction policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provetti, Alessandro


    Full Text Available Web data extraction is concerned, among other things, with routine data accessing and downloading from continuously-updated dynamic Web pages. There is a relevant trade-off between the rate at which the external Web sites are accessed and the computational burden on the accessing client. We address the problem by proposing a predictive model, typical of the Operating Systems literature, of the rate-of-update of each Web source. The presented model has been implemented into a new version of the Dynamo project: a middleware that assists in generating informative RSS feeds out of traditional HTML Web sites. To be effective, i.e., make RSS feeds be timely and informative and to be scalable, Dynamo needs a careful tuning and customization of its polling policies, which are described in detail.

  5. Extracting information from multiplex networks. (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra


    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ̃(S) for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  6. Metadata extraction using text mining. (United States)

    Seth, Shivani; Rüping, Stefan; Wrobel, Stefan


    Grid technologies have proven to be very successful in the area of eScience, and healthcare in particular, because they allow to easily combine proven solutions for data querying, integration, and analysis into a secure, scalable framework. In order to integrate the services that implement these solutions into a given Grid architecture, some metadata is required, for example information about the low-level access to these services, security information, and some documentation for the user. In this paper, we investigate how relevant metadata can be extracted from a semi-structured textual documentation of the algorithm that is underlying the service, by the use of text mining methods. In particular, we investigate the semi-automatic conversion of functions of the statistical environment R into Grid services as implemented by the GridR tool by the generation of appropriate metadata.

  7. Corneal astigmatism following cataract extraction. (United States)

    Wishart, M S; Wishart, P K; Gregor, Z J


    The changes in corneal curvature in the first six months after cataract extraction were studied by performing sequential keratometry on a group of 57 patients. 8/0 Virgin silk interrupted sutures were used for the closure of corneoscleral incisions, and 10/0 monofilament tied in double running (bootlace) or single running (continuous) fashion was used for corneal wound closure. A high degree of with-the-rule astigmatism was evident in all patients two weeks postoperatively, but thereafter the character of the astigmatism produced by 8/0 virgin silk and 10/0 monofilament closure was quite different: in the 8/0 virgin silk group there was an early and pronounced shift in the axis of astigmatism to against-the-rule, whereas in the 10/0 monofilament group there was little further change in the astigmatism unless the sutures were removed. Wound compression and wound gape as factors responsible for these changes are discussed. PMID:3539177

  8. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter


    or a Panorama, where an observer is data space this approach is far from optimal. A more scalable approach is to make the observer-aware database system and to restrict the communication between the database and visualization systems to the relevant data. In this paper VR-tree, an extension of the R......The visual exploration of large databases calls for a tight coupling of database and visualization systems. Current visualization systems typically fetch all the data and organize it in a scene tree that is then used to render the visible data. For immersive data explorations in a Cave......-tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  9. Advances in information extraction techniques (United States)

    Nagy, G.


    Sundry recent developments are presented which show some potential for affecting the automatic extraction of information from remotely sensed data. Pattern representations more abstract than Euclidean vector spaces offer some hope of unifying structural and decision theoretical approaches. The estimation of expected classification error rates is becoming more sophisticated and rigorous, but useful finite-sample results for nonparametric distributions appear unobtainable. Focus on computational complexity allows comparison of algorithms, while software engineering techniques reduce the effort necessary to develop and maintain complex image processing systems. Advances in computer systems architecture, commercial database technology, and man-machine communications should be closely monitored by the remote sensing community. A NASA-sponsored recommendation for research directions in mathematical pattern recognition are offered.

  10. Topic extraction from adverbial clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio Alcalá


    Full Text Available This paper offers new data to support findings about Topic extraction from adverbial clauses. Since such clauses are strong islands, they should not allow extraction of any kind, but we show here that if the appropriate conditions are met, Topics of the CLLD kind in Romance can move out of them. We propose that two conditions must be met for such movement to be possible: the first is that the adverbial clause must have undergone topicalisation in the first place; the second is that the adverbial clause is inherently topical from a semantic viewpoint. Contrast with other language families (Germanic, Quechua and Japanese is provided and the semantic implications of the proposal are briefly discussed. Keywords: topicalisation; Clitic Left Dislocation; syntactic islands; adverbial clauses Este artículo ofrece nuevos datos sobre la extracción de Tópicos desde oraciones subordinadas adverbiales. Dado que dichas oraciones son islas fuertes, no deberían permitir extracción de ningún tipo, pero mostramos que si se dan las condiciones apropiadas, los Tópicos del tipo CLLD en lenguas románicas pueden desplazarse fuera de ellas. Proponemos que se deben cumplir dos condiciones para que ese movimiento sea posible: la primera es que la propia subordinada adverbial se haya topicalizado en primer lugar; la segunda es que la subordinada adverbial sea inherentemente un Tópico desde el punto de vista semántico. Proporcionamos también algunos contrastes con otras familias lingüísticas (germánica, quechua y japonés y se discuten brevemente las implicaciones semánticas de la propuesta. Palabras clave: topicalización; dislocación a la izquierda con clítico; islas sintácticas; oraciones adverbiales

  11. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction. (United States)

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo


    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts. (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto


    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  13. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael


    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...... and agreement in-between tools. Processing a primary data set with 9 different tandem MS extraction tools resulted in a low overlap of identified peptides. The tools differ by assigned charge states of precursors, precursor and fragment ion masses, and we show that peptides identified very confidently using one...... extraction tool might not be matched when using another tool. We also found a bias towards peptides of lower charge state when extracting fragment ion data from higher resolution raw data without deconvolution. Collecting and comparing the extracted data from the same raw data allow adjusting parameters...

  14. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes. (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I


    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively.

  15. Antibacterial activity of Aristolochia bracteata root extracts. (United States)

    Negi, P S; Anandharamakrishnan, C; Jayaprakasha, G K


    Aristolochia bracteata (Aristolochiaceae) is used in traditional medicines as a gastric stimulant and in the treatment of cancer, lung inflammation, and dysentery and snake bites. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Aristolochia bracteata root extracts. Roots of A. bracteata were powdered and successively extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and water for 8 hours each using a Soxhlet extractor. Antibacterial activity of dried extracts was evaluated by the pour-plate method against a few Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. All the crude extracts showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The ethyl acetate extract was found to be the most effective. This study shows the potential for replacement of synthetic preservatives by the use of natural extracts.

  16. Antioxidant potential of Tanacetum vulgare L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković, M.


    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of Tanacetum vulgare L. extracts was determined. Areal plant parts (leaves and flowers were dried, grinded and extracted with five different solvents: methanol, ethanol, acetone, water and isopropanol. Total phenols and total flavonoids were determined and four in vitro antioxidant assays were applied. The best extraction medium (considering only phenols and flavonoids was methanol and 62.7 mg galic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight were found (for leaves extract. Comparing amounts of phenolic compounds found in the extracts and its antioxidant potential with other herbal teas and extracts, it may be concluded that T. vulgare is a plant species destitute with phenolic compounds. Obtained results suggest that phenolic compounds, present in the plant tissues, are carriers of antioxidant properties.

  17. Mentha aquatica L. extract affects mitochondrial bioenergetics


    Ferreira, Fernanda M.; Pereira, Olívia R.; Cardoso, Susana M.; Oliveira, Paulo J; Moreno, António J. M.


    Mentha aquatica extracts are commonly used in food flavoring and pharmacology. In the present work, we evaluated the possible effects of Mentha aquatica L. (water mint) ethanolic extract on rat liver mitochondria bioenergetics. Rat liver mitochondria were isolated using conventional protocols. M. aquatica extracts were evaluated on mitochondrial membrane electric potential by using a tetraphenylphosphonium cation (TPP+)-selective electrode, while mitochondrial respiratory activity was eval...

  18. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan


    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  19. Extraction in Dutch with Lexical Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rentier, G


    Unbounded dependencies are often modelled by ``traces'' (and ``gap threading'') in unification-based grammars. Pollard and Sag, however, suggest an analysis of extraction based on lexical rules, which excludes the notion of traces (P&S 1994, Chapter 9). In parsing, it suggests a trade of indeterminism for lexical ambiguity. This paper provides a short introduction to this approach to extraction with lexical rules, and illustrates the linguistic power of the approach by applying it to particularly idiosyncratic Dutch extraction data.

  20. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.


    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  1. Method of Tibetan Person Knowledge Extraction


    Sun, Yuan; Zhu, Zhen


    Person knowledge extraction is the foundation of the Tibetan knowledge graph construction, which provides support for Tibetan question answering system, information retrieval, information extraction and other researches, and promotes national unity and social stability. This paper proposes a SVM and template based approach to Tibetan person knowledge extraction. Through constructing the training corpus, we build the templates based the shallow parsing analysis of Tibetan syntactic, semantic f...

  2. Development of an efficient glucosinolate extraction method. (United States)

    Doheny-Adams, T; Redeker, K; Kittipol, V; Bancroft, I; Hartley, S E


    Glucosinolates, anionic sulfur rich secondary metabolites, have been extensively studied because of their occurrence in the agriculturally important brassicaceae and their impact on human and animal health. There is also increasing interest in the biofumigant properties of toxic glucosinolate hydrolysis products as a method to control agricultural pests. Evaluating biofumigation potential requires rapid and accurate quantification of glucosinolates, but current commonly used methods of extraction prior to analysis involve a number of time consuming and hazardous steps; this study aimed to develop an improved method for glucosinolate extraction. Three methods previously used to extract glucosinolates from brassicaceae tissues, namely extraction in cold methanol, extraction in boiling methanol, and extraction in boiling water were compared across tissue type (root, stem leaf) and four brassicaceae species (B. juncea, S. alba, R. sativus, and E. sativa). Cold methanol extraction was shown to perform as well or better than all other tested methods for extraction of glucosinolates with the exception of glucoraphasatin in R. sativus shoots. It was also demonstrated that lyophilisation methods, routinely used during extraction to allow tissue disruption, can reduce final glucosinolate concentrations and that extracting from frozen wet tissue samples in cold 80% methanol is more effective. We present a simplified method for extracting glucosinolates from plant tissues which does not require the use of a freeze drier or boiling methanol, and is therefore less hazardous, and more time and cost effective. The presented method has been shown to have comparable or improved glucosinolate extraction efficiency relative to the commonly used ISO method for major glucosinolates in the Brassicaceae species studied: sinigrin and gluconasturtiin in B. juncea; sinalbin, glucotropaeolin, and gluconasturtiin in S. alba; glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin in R. sativus; and glucosatavin

  3. Visualization and Analysis of Geology Word Vectors for Efficient Information Extraction (United States)

    Floyd, J. S.


    When a scientist begins studying a new geographic region of the Earth, they frequently begin by gathering relevant scientific literature in order to understand what is known, for example, about the region's geologic setting, structure, stratigraphy, and tectonic and environmental history. Experienced scientists typically know what keywords to seek and understand that if a document contains one important keyword, then other words in the document may be important as well. Word relationships in a document give rise to what is known in linguistics as the context-dependent nature of meaning. For example, the meaning of the word `strike' in geology, as in the strike of a fault, is quite different from its popular meaning in baseball. In addition, word order, such as in the phrase `Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary,' often corresponds to the order of sequences in time or space. The context of words and the relevance of words to each other can be derived quantitatively by machine learning vector representations of words. Here we show the results of training a neural network to create word vectors from scientific research papers from selected rift basins and mid-ocean ridges: the Woodlark Basin of Papua New Guinea, the Hess Deep rift, and the Gulf of Mexico basin. The word vectors are statistically defined by surrounding words within a given window, limited by the length of each sentence. The word vectors are analyzed by their cosine distance to related words (e.g., `axial' and `magma'), classified by high dimensional clustering, and visualized by reducing the vector dimensions and plotting the vectors on a two- or three-dimensional graph. Similarity analysis of `Triassic' and `Cretaceous' returns `Jurassic' as the nearest word vector, suggesting that the model is capable of learning the geologic time scale. Similarity analysis of `basalt' and `minerals' automatically returns mineral names such as `chlorite', `plagioclase,' and `olivine.' Word vector analysis and visualization

  4. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chunhua Li; Pengpeng Zhao; Victor S. Sheng; Xuefeng Xian; Jian Wu; Zhiming Cui


    .... Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases...

  5. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation. (United States)

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro


    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  6. Fungal metabolite extracts active against phytopathogens. (United States)

    Okeke, B; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Buarque De Gusmão, N


    The effectiveness of some genetically engineered microorganisms in the control of plant disease pathogens is widely acknowledged. These biopesticides, so far, pose less danger to the environment. However, little attention has been paid to the potential benefit of the use of exometabolites of some microorganisms in spite of their known activity and high biodegradability. A total of 1108 fungal metabolite extracts obtained from different strains of micromycetes cultured in two different liquid media (malt extract and yeast saccharose) were tested for antifungal activity. The target organisms were Collectotrichum musae, Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Pyricularia oryzae, Drechslera oryzae and Gerlachia oryzae. Percentage mycelial growth inhibition activities varied widely with the different taxonomic groups. Extracts from Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. consistently showed the highest activity. A greater number of micromycetes produced active extracts in a liquid yeast extract saccharose medium than in a liquid malt extract medium. Mycelial growth inhibition diameters were also greater in assays with extracts from the yeast extract saccharose medium. The results generally demonstrated fungal metabolite extracts as potential sources of agricultural chemical input.

  7. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; van Ginneken, Bram; de Bruijne, Marleen


    This paper proposes a method to extract vessel trees by continually extending detected branches with locally optimal paths. Our approach uses a cost function from a multi scale vessel enhancement filter. Optimal paths are selected based on rules that take into account the geometric characteristics...... of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  8. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.


    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  9. Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates Matrixmetalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of Metalloproteinases expressions in Dengue virus-infected cells: implications for prevention of vascular permeability.

  10. Antioxidant properties of Rubus discolor leaf extracts


    Veličković Ivona Z.; Grujić Slavica M.; Marin Petar D.


    In this work were examined aqueous, methanol, ethanol and acetone leaf extracts of Rubus discolor, wild growing blackberry, for their antioxidant properties and total phenol and flavonoid content. The total phenol content (TPC) varried from 250.05 to 446.61 mg GAE/g of dry extract, while total flavonoid content (TFC) was in range between 22.44 and 61.15 mg QE/g of dry extract. Aqueous extracts were the richest in phenols, as well as in flavonoids. In vitro ...

  11. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange in Radiochemistry (United States)

    Skarnemark, G.

    In 1805, Bucholz extracted uranium from a nitric acid solution into ether and back-extracted it into pure water. This is probably the first reported solvent-extraction investigation. During the following decades, the distribution of neutral compounds between aqueous phases and pure solvents was studied, e.g., by Peligot, Berthelot and Jungfleisch, and Nernst. Selective extractants for analytical purposes became available during the first decades of the twentieth century. From about 1940, extractants such as organophosphorous esters and amines were developed for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. This connection between radiochemistry and solvent-extraction chemistry made radiochemists heavily involved in the development of new solvent extraction processes, and eventually solvent extraction became a major separation technique in radiochemistry. About 160 years ago, Thompson and Way observed that soil can remove potassium and ammonium ions from an aqueous solution and release calcium ions. This is probably the first scientific report on an ion-exchange separation. The first synthesis of the type of organic ion exchangers that are used today was performed by Adams and Holmes in 1935. Since then, ion-exchange techniques have been used extensively for separations of various radionuclides in trace as well as macro amounts. During the last 4 decades, inorganic ion exchangers have also found a variety of applications. Today, solvent extraction as well as ion exchange are used extensively in the nuclear industry and for nuclear, chemical, and medical research. Some of these applications are discussed in the chapter.


    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.


    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  13. Troubleshooting with cell blanks in PLE extraction. (United States)

    Fernández-González, V; Grueiro-Noche, G; Concha-Graña, E; Turnes-Carou, M I; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D


    The blank extracts obtained from the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of a 11 mL empty cell of ASE 200 were analysed by GC-FID and GC-ECD and many interfering peaks were detected, which could difficult the trace analysis of persistent organic pollutants (i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides). These interfering compounds were identified as phthalates, silicones and organic acids and their sources were established. A solution to this analytical trouble is a previous extraction step of the empty cell under the same conditions optimised for the sample extraction.

  14. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding. (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone


    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  15. Partial melting of garnet lherzolite with water and carbon dioxide at 3 GPa using a new melt extraction technique: implications for intraplate magmatism (United States)

    Baasner, Amrei; Médard, Etienne; Laporte, Didier; Hoffer, Géraldine


    The origin and source rocks of alkali-rich and SiO2-undersatured magmas in the Earth's upper mantle are still under debate. The garnet signature in rare earth element patterns of such magmas suggests a garnet-bearing source rock, which could be garnet lherzolite or garnet pyroxenite. Partial melting experiments were performed at 2.8 GPa and 1345-1445 °C in a piston-cylinder using mixtures of natural lherzolite with either 0.4 wt% H2O and 0.4 wt% CO2 or 0.7 wt% H2O and 0.7 wt% CO2. Different designs of AuPd capsules were used for melt extraction. The most successful design included a pentagonally shaped disc placed in the top part of the capsule for sufficient melt extraction. The degrees of partial melting range from 0.2 to 0.04 and decrease with decreasing temperature and volatile content. All samples contain olivine and orthopyroxene. The amounts of garnet and clinopyroxene decrease with increasing degree of partial melting until both minerals disappear from the residue. Depending on the capsule design, the melts quenched to a mixture of quench crystals and residual glass or to glass, allowing measurement of the volatile concentrations by Raman spectroscopy. The compositions of the partial melts range from basalts through picrobasalts to foidites. Compared to literature data for melting of dry lherzolites, the presence of H2O and CO2 reduces the SiO2 concentration and increases the MgO concentration of partial melts, but it has no observable effect on the enrichment of Na2O in the partial melts. The partial melts have compositions similar to natural melilitites from intraplate settings, which shows that SiO2-undersaturated intraplate magmas can be generated by melting of garnet lherzolite in the Earth's upper mantle in the presence of H2O and CO2.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to obtain an extract from red wine by using membrane-based supercritical fluid extraction. This technique involves the use of porous membranes as contactors during the dense gas extraction process from liquid matrices. In this work, a Cabernet Sauvignon wine extract was obtained from supercritical fluid extraction using pressurized carbon dioxide as solvent and a hollow fiber contactor as extraction setup. The process was continuously conducted at pressures between 12 and 18 MPa and temperatures ranged from 30 to 50ºC. Meanwhile, flow rates of feed wine and supercritical CO2 varied from 0.1 to 0.5 mL min-1 and from 60 to 80 mL min-1 (NCPT, respectively. From extraction assays, the highest extraction percentage value obtained from the total amount of phenolic compounds was 14% in only one extraction step at 18MPa and 35ºC. A summarized chemical characterization of the obtained extract is reported in this work; one of the main compounds in this extract could be a low molecular weight organic acid with aromatic structure and methyl and carboxyl groups. Finally, this preliminary characterization of this extract shows a remarkable ORAC value equal to 101737 ± 5324 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE per 100 g of extract.

  17. Extraction of PCBs and water from river sediment using liquefied dimethyl ether as an extractant. (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Takaoka, Masaki; Kitade, Sin-ichiro; Takeda, Nobuo; Kanda, Hideki; Makino, Hisao; Matsumoto, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke


    We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and water could be simultaneously removed from river sediment by solvent extraction using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME) as the extractant. DME exists in a gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure and can dissolve organic substances and some amount of water; therefore, liquefied DME under moderate pressure (0.6-0.8 MPa) at room temperature can be effectively used to extract PCBs and water from contaminated sediment, and it can be recovered from the extract and reused easily. First, we evaluated the PCB and water extraction characteristics of DME from contaminated sediment. We found that 99% of PCBs and 97% of water were simultaneously extracted from the sediment using liquefied DME at an extraction time of 4320 s and a liquefied DME/sediment ratio of 60 mL g(-1). The extraction rate of PCBs and water was expressed in terms of a pseudo-first-order reaction rate. Second, we estimated the amount of DME that was recovered after extraction. We found that 91-92% of DME could be recovered. In other words, approximately 5-10% of DME was lost during extraction and recovery. It is necessary to optimize this process in order to recover DME efficiently. The extraction efficiency of the recovered DME is similar to that of the pure DME. From the results, we conclude that solvent extraction using liquefied DME is suitable for extracting PCBs and water from contaminated sediment. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: the pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports. (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles


    We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)--a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Biliary Ascariasis: A difficult extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Thakur


    Full Text Available Hepatobiliary ascariasis (HBA is a common complication of Ascaris infestation. It is reported mostly from developing countries. It is a common cause of biliary colic and cholangitis in some parts of India. It is also proposed as an etiology of a subset of patients with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC. Conservative management, endoscopic removal of the worm wherever needed and deworming is the accepted treatment approach. We herewith present a unique challenge that we encountered during worm removal. The patient was a 35-year-old female with 3 days history of epigastric pain, fever with rigors and vomiting. Her biochemical evaluation showed mild neutrophilic leukocytosis, mild elevation of aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase. Ultrasound abdomen showed a tubular filling defect in the common bile duct extending in to the left hepatic duct. On endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, the extraction was difficult because of left ductal stricture and a knot at the end of the worm. Such a worm conformation is rarely reported in the literature. In addition to presenting a challenge during removal it may act as a nidus for further infections and damage to the biliary tree particularly if the worm is dead or decaying. RPC is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. HBA is argued as an inciting event in significant number of cases. Recognition of such worm conformations emphasizes the need of meticulous ductal clearance at the time of ERCP, subsequent deworming and improved sanitation to protect such case from subsequent dreaded complications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer


    Full Text Available Background. Ectopia lentis continues to be a therapeutic challenge for ophthalmologists. It can occur as an isolated condition, after ocular trauma, in association with other ocular disorders, as part of a systemic mesodermal disease or a complication of general metabolic disorders. Minimal subluxation of the lens may cause no visual symptoms, but in more advanced cases serious optical disturbances arise. The most important is amblyopia. Surgical treatment options include iris manipulation, lens discission, aspiration, intracapsular or extracapsular extraction, and pars plana lensectomy. The choice of surgical technique remains controversial, in part because of the historically poor visual results and high rate of perioperative complications, including vitreous loss and retinal detachment.Methods. We describe a surgical technique based on the use of the Cionni endocapsular tension ring, dry irrigation aspiration of lens material, centration of the capsular bag and foldable intraocular lens implantation into the bag. With mentioned surgical technique 8 patients were operated; 4 boys and 4 girls, together 11 eyes.Results. The final BCVA after follow up period improved in 9 eyes and it remained the same as before operation in one eye. Statistical comparison of preoperative and postoperative visual acuities showed significant improvement. On the other hand there was no correlation between preoperative and postoperative visual acuity.Conclusions. This surgical procedure is an alternative approach in solving this challenging cases of ectopia lentis with good postoperative visual rehabilitation.

  1. Combined extraction processes of lipid from Chlorella vulgaris microalgae: microwave prior to supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid


    ...) allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO(2) extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic...

  2. Extraction of glabridin with heat reflux extraction by response surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ying DING


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the extraction process of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra. Methods: The solid-liquid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature are the three main factors in the experiment, and the extract solvent is ethyl acetate. Establish the response surface quadratic regression equation of glabridin extraction rate and purity. Results:The results indicate that the optimum conditions for glabridin are as follows: solvent is ethyl acetate, extraction time is 90 min, the ratio of solvent to solid is 35 ∶1 (ml/g, and extraction temperature is 44.7 ℃, purity and the maximum yield of Extraction of glabridin are 6.96% and 0.241%, The validation test shows that the experimental values of the model are 0.235% and 6.05% . Conclusion: The model equation can predict the experimental results, it can be used as reference in industrial production. 

  3. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau


    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  4. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils (United States)

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.


    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  5. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)


    Lee, Siah Lee; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John P.; Binner, Eleanor


    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25–90 °C), time (0.25–5...

  6. Statistical feature extraction based iris recognition system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iris recognition systems have been proposed by numerous researchers using different feature extraction techniques for accurate and reliable biometric authentication. In this paper, a statistical feature extraction technique based on correlation between adjacent pixels has been proposed and implemented. Hamming ...

  7. Supercritical carbondioxide extraction of cypermethrin in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 12, 2010 ... extracted from vegetables when using anhydrous Na2SO4 as the drying agent. Filter paper, Whatman # 3 (Maidstone, Kent, UK) was cut into disks which were placed at both ends to keep particles from affecting sealing of the vessels. The vessels were kept cold before extraction in order to reduce losses of ...

  8. Antimicrobial Activities of Clove and Thyme Extracts (United States)

    Nzeako, B C; Al-Kharousi, Zahra S N; Al-Mahrooqui, Zahra


    Objective: It has been postulated that geographical locations of the herbs affect the constituents of their essential oils and thus the degree of their antimicrobial action. This study examine two samples of clove obtained from Sri Lanka and Zanzibar and two samples of thyme from Iran and Oman to determine the antimicrobial potential of their extracted oils. Method: The active agents in each plant were extracted by steam distillation and by boiling. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined at neat and by two-fold dilutions in well agar diffusion technique using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium species, Salmonella species, Bacteroides fragilis and Candida albicans. Results: All oil extracts possessed antimicrobial activity against all bacteria and yeast tested. Their water extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, though thyme aqueous extract was active only against S. aureus. The lowest concentration of antimicrobial activity (0.1% i.e., 1:1024) was obtained with thyme oil extract using Candida albicans. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial activity between clove obtained from Sri Lanka or Zanzibar or thyme obtained from Iran or Oman. Conclusion: Our experiment showed that the country of origin of the herbs has no effect on their antimicrobial activity. However, further work is necessary to ascertain why Candida albicans displayed remarkable degree of sensitivity with the extracts than all the other organisms test. PMID:21748125

  9. [Extraction of thermolabile compounds with supercritical gases.]. (United States)

    Stahl, E; Keller, K


    The thermolabile acoragermacrone and other sesquiterpenes could be extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide from beta-asarone free calamus rhizomes ( Acorus calamus L. var. americanus Wulff. A usual steam distillation lets this substance partly decompose into shyobunone. By using high pressure extraction with fractionated separation a higher yield of the bitter principles of calamus, acorone and isoacorone, is obtained.

  10. Mastering aesthetics in post-extraction sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goené, R.J.; van Daelen, A.C.L.


    Patients increasingly seek implant-supported restorations that can be delivered as quickly and non-invasively as possible. Many also prefer to avoid wearing a removable prothesis after tooth extraction. Implants that are placed immediately in fresh extraction sockets and provisionalized immediately


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to highlight the fertilizing capacity of the extract of ovine compost (prepared to the simple infusion) in gardening nursery, while specifying the appropriate ratios of extraction and dilution ,for soilless plant fertigation intended for two strategic summer crops in Tunisia: seasonal tomato and ...

  12. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.


    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent)

  13. Intracapsular cataract extraction with anterior chamber intraocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the visual outcome of cataract extraction with ACIOL implantation in a Nigerian hospital. Methods: The visual outcome of 50 eyes of 42 patients aged 40 years and above, out of 212 eyes that underwent intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) and anterior chamber intraocular lens (ACIOL) implantation, were ...

  14. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the optimum extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Pinellia Rhizoma (PRP) and their antioxidant activities. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the water extraction conditions of PRP by Box-Benhnken design (BBD). A high performance liquid ...

  15. Ranking XPaths for extracting search result records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd


    Extracting search result records (SRRs) from webpages is useful for building an aggregated search engine which combines search results from a variety of search engines. Most automatic approaches to search result extraction are not portable: the complete process has to be rerun on a new search result

  16. comparative antitrypanosomal screening of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The in vitro and in vivo activities of methanolic extracts of defatted leaves and stems of Khaya senegalensis and. Moringa oleifera on Trypanosoma brucei brucei were investigated and compared. The in vitro assessment involved incubating the parasite (in triplicate) in the presence of various extract ...

  17. Extraction and characterization of Retama monosperma fibers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The aims of this study were to determine the good conditions for fibers extraction from Retama monosperma leaves and their mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics. The fibers were extracted using a range of NaOH concentration from 1 to 16% in a period of treatment of 1 to 24 h, coupled with a physical ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT. Inhibitive effect of Gossipium hirsutum L. leaves extract on the acid corrosion of aluminum in 1. M HCl solution was studied by weight loss technique. The extract at optimum concentration inhibited the corrosion of aluminum, with about 92% inhibition efficiency and the inhibition efficiency increased with.

  19. Comparative Neuropharmacological Activities Methanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Neuropharmacological Activities Methanolic Extracts of Leaves and Roots of Cissus Cornifolia in Mice. ... leaf and root extract respectively at the same dose of 300 mg k-1 bd. wt. in mice. This work further confirms our earlier report on sedative effects of this plant as used traditionally against mental problems.

  20. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...