WorldWideScience

Sample records for extracted human fat

  1. Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Michelle C; Hulston, Carl J; Cox, Hannah R; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2008-03-01

    Green tea consumption is reportedly associated with various health-promoting properties. For example, it has been shown to promote fat oxidation in humans at rest and to prevent obesity and improve insulin sensitivity in mice. We investigated the effects of acute ingestion of green tea extract (GTE) on glucose tolerance and fat oxidation during moderate-intensity exercise in humans. Two studies were performed, both with a counter-balanced crossover design. In study A, 12 healthy men performed a 30-min cycling exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) before and after supplementation. In study B, 11 healthy men took an oral-glucose-tolerance test before and after supplementation. In the 24-h period before the experimental trials, participants ingested 3 capsules containing either GTE (total: 890 +/- 13 mg polyphenols and 366 +/- 5 mg EGCG) or a corn-flour placebo (total: 1729 +/- 22 mg). Average fat oxidation rates were 17% higher after ingestion of GTE than after ingestion of placebo (0.41 +/- 0.03 and 0.35 +/- 0.03 g/min, respectively; P fat oxidation to total energy expenditure was also significantly higher, by a similar percentage, after GTE supplementation. The insulin area under the curve decreased in both the GTE and placebo trials (3612 +/- 301 and 4280 +/- 309 microIU/dL . 120 min, respectively; P fat oxidation during moderate-intensity exercise and can improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in healthy young men.

  2. Effects of Spinach Powder Fat-Soluble Extract on Proliferation of Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE TAo; HUANG CHENG-YU; CHEN HAl; HOU YUN-HUA

    1999-01-01

    Four kinds of assays were used to study the effect of a fat-soluble extract of spinach powder(SPFE) on the proliferation of human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (SGC-7901) in vitro.These studies included: ( i ) cell growth assay, ( ii ) colony forming assay, ( iii ) MTT colorimetric assay, and ( iv ) 3H-TdR incorporation assay. The concentrations of SPFE expressed as the level of β-carotene in the medium were 2 × 10-s, 2 × 10-7 and 2 × 10-6 mol/L β-carotene in assays ( i ) ~ ( iii ), but 4 × 10-8, 4 × 10-7 and 4 × 10-6 mol/L β-carotene in assay ( iV ) respectively. The results indicated that SPFE inhibited the proliferation and colony forming ability of SGC-7901 cells. And in MTT assay, SPFE inhibited the viability of SGC-7901 cells, but no inhibitory effect of SPFE was observed on the viability of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of healthy people. Finally, in the 3H-TdR incorporation test, both SPFE and β-carotene showed significant inhibitory effects on DNA synthesis in SGC-7901 cells, but SPFE was more effective than 3-carotene.

  3. Purple Tea and Its Extract Suppress Diet-induced Fat Accumulation in Mice and Human Subjects by Inhibiting Fat Absorption and Enhancing Hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-06-01

    A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to certain tea constituents found in green tea, also contains anthocyanins. The major constituents in the leaves of purple tea are caffeine, theobromine, epigallocatechin (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucose (GHG). We investigated the efficacy of purple tea extract (PTE) on diet-induced fat accumulation in mice. PTE administration (200 mg/kg) significantly suppressed body weight gain, liver weight, abdominal fat and triglycerides in serum and liver. Protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1A was also enhanced. In olive oil loaded mice, PTE (100 mg/kg) and caffeine (25 mg/kg) suppressed fat absorption. PTE (10 μg/mL) and GHG (10 μg/mL) also enhanced protein expression of CPT1A in HepG2 hepatoma. Moreover, 4-week daily consumption of purple tea drink in humans improved obesity parameters compared to baseline, including body weight (79.9 ± 3.1 kg vs 80.8 ± 3.2, pweight gain by suppression of fat absorption and enhancement of hepatic fat metabolism.

  4. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ≧ 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum α-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

  5. Clinical study on the combined effect of capsaicin, green tea extract and essence of chicken on body fat content in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsi, Daniel; Nah, Agatha Khow Hui; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Moritani, Toshio; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2003-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the body fat content of free-living healthy human subjects taking a health supplement containing 0.4 mg capsaicin, 625 mg green tea extract (125 mg catechins and 50 mg caffeine) and 800 mg essence of chicken (CGTE). Subjects were advised to maintain their regular dietary habits and routine physical activity throughout study duration. Their body fat content was measured before and throughout the trial duration using a hand-grip body fat monitor. After 2 wk of supplementation with CGTE, the mean body fat percentage of males and female subjects was significantly less than the initial value (p essence of chicken could translate to a positive clinical effect by reducing approximately 460 g of body fat, following 2 wk of supplementation and the application of this natural health supplement for excess fat regulation, should be considered.

  6. Daily ingestion of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract increases whole-body energy expenditure and decreases visceral fat in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Jun; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Sugishima, Yuuki; Ikemoto, Takeshi; Uchiwa, Hideyo; Suzuki, Isao; Saito, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    We reported previously that a single ingestion of an alcohol extract of grains of paradise (GP, Aframomum melegueta), a species of the ginger family, increases energy expenditure (EE) through the activation of brown adipose tissue, a site of sympathetically mediated metabolic theromogenesis. The present study aimed to examine a daily ingestion of GP extract on whole-body EE and body fat in humans. Whole-body EE and body fat content were measured before and after daily oral ingestion of GP extract (30 mg/d) for 4 wk in 19 non-obese female volunteers aged 20-22 y in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Four-week daily ingestion of GP and a placebo decreased and increased slightly the visceral fat area at the umbilicus level, respectively. The GP-induced change was significantly different from that induced by the placebo (pwhole-body EE (p<0.05). These results suggest that GP extract may be an effective and safe tool for reducing body fat, mainly by preventing visceral fat accumulation.

  7. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  8. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort...... dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk...... to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  9. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the......, the classification of adipocyte subtypes defined in mice may need reconsideration when applying to humans.......There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1...

  10. Angiogenic properties of adult human thymus fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Julián; Montiel, Mercedes; Jiménez, Eugenio; Valenzuela, Miguel; Valderrama, José Francisco; Castillo, Rafael; González, Sergio; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2009-11-01

    The endogenous proangiogenic properties of adipose tissue are well recognized. Although the adult human thymus has long been known to degenerate into fat tissue, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. We have investigated the expression of diverse angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A and B, angiopoietin 1, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor-2 (an angiopoietin receptor), and then analyzed their physiological role on endothelial cell migration and proliferation, two relevant events in angiogenesis. The detection of the gene and protein expression of the various proteins has been performed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We show, for the first time, that adult thymus fat produces a variety of angiogenic factors and induces the proliferation and migration of human umbilical cord endothelial cells. Based on these findings, we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function that might affect thymic function and ongoing adipogenesis within the thymus.

  11. Microwave-integrated extraction of total fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Matthieu; Tomao, Valérie; Ginies, Christian; Visinoni, Franco; Chemat, Farid

    2008-07-04

    An improved process of Soxhlet extraction assisted by microwave, called microwave-integrated Soxhlet (MIS) is proposed for the extraction of oils and fats from different food matrixes such as oleaginous seeds, meat and bakery products. Optimal conditions for extraction were obtained using a response surface methodology and reached from a central composite design allowing us to conclude in a previous paper that the proposed process ensures complete, efficient and accurate extraction for lipids determination from olives. In this paper, the peak areas of the main fatty acids extracted with MIS from olive seeds were considered as response variables and submitted to an analysis of variance in order to determine if there was a significant link between the extraction of fatty acids and the variables required in extraction procedures. Results have shown that MIS parameters do not affect the composition of the extracts. For the generalization of the study with several food matrixes, MIS extraction results obtained were then compared to conventional Soxhlet extraction in terms of crude extract and fatty acid composition and shown that the oils extracted by MIS were quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction. MIS labstation can be considered as a new and general alternative for the extraction of lipids by using microwave energy.

  12. Weighing Posthumanism: Fatness and Contested Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Apostolidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed to be an “entrepreneur of himself, being for himself his own capital, being for himself his own producer, being for himself the source of [his] earnings” (Foucault, 2008, p. 226. From this perspective, we analyse instances of collective hatred towards fat subjects as direct results of the biopolitical triplet of responsibility, rationality, and morality. Morality is our bridge into the field of posthumanism, in which, as we demonstrate, these biopolitical imperatives also apply, reinforced by the field’s fascination with prosthetics and enhancement. Where, by biopolitical standards, fat subjects have failed to manage themselves, posthuman subjects find themselves guilty of not responsibly, rationally, and morally manipulating themselves to optimal productivity. Using criticism that disability studies scholars like Sarah S. Jain and Vivian Sobchack have voiced about posthumanism, we demonstrate the ways in which, within posthumanism, all subjects can be found as lacking when compared to their potential, enhanced post­human version.

  13. Weighing Posthumanism: Fatness and Contested Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Apostolidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed to be an “entrepreneur of himself, being for himself his own capital, being for himself his own producer, being for himself the source of [his] earnings” (Foucault, 2008, p. 226. From this perspective, we analyse instances of collective hatred towards fat subjects as direct results of the biopolitical triplet of responsibility, rationality, and morality. Morality is our bridge into the field of posthumanism, in which, as we demonstrate, these biopolitical imperatives also apply, reinforced by the field’s fascination with prosthetics and enhancement. Where, by biopolitical standards, fat subjects have failed to manage themselves, posthuman subjects find themselves guilty of not responsibly, rationally, and morally manipulating themselves to optimal productivity. Using criticism that disability studies scholars like Sarah S. Jain and Vivian Sobchack have voiced about posthumanism, we demonstrate the ways in which, within posthumanism, all subjects can be found as lacking when compared to their potential, enhanced post­human version.

  14. Trans fat bans and human freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective.

  15. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked fish using pressurized liquid extraction with integrated fat removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mette; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish products often requires multiple clean-up steps to remove fat and other compounds that may interfere with the chemical analysis. We present a novel pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method that integrates exhaustive...

  16. Weighing Posthumanism : Fatness and Contested Humanity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidou, S.; Sturm, J.

    2016-01-01

    Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed

  17. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  18. Detecting fat content of food from a distance: olfactory-based fat discrimination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesveldt, Sanne; Lundström, Johan N

    2014-01-01

    The desire to consume high volumes of fat is thought to originate from an evolutionary pressure to hoard calories, and fat is among the few energy sources that we can store over a longer time period. From an ecological perspective, however, it would be beneficial to detect fat from a distance, before ingesting it. Previous results indicate that humans detect high concentrations of fatty acids by their odor. More important though, would be the ability to detect fat content in real food products. In a series of three sequential experiments, using study populations from different cultures, we demonstrated that individuals are able to reliably detect fat content of food via odors alone. Over all three experiments, results clearly demonstrated that humans were able to detect minute differences between milk samples with varying grades of fat, even when embedded within a milk odor. Moreover, we found no relation between this performance and either BMI or dairy consumption, thereby suggesting that this is not a learned ability or dependent on nutritional traits. We argue that our findings that humans can detect the fat content of food via odors may open up new and innovative future paths towards a general reduction in our fat intake, and future studies should focus on determining the components in milk responsible for this effect.

  19. Peripheral fat loss and decline in adipogenesis in older humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Giuseppe; McNurlan, Margaret A; Mileva, Izolda; Zemlyak, Alla; Mynarcik, Dennis C; Gelato, Marie C

    2013-03-01

    Aging is associated with a redistribution of body fat including a relative loss of subcutaneous peripheral fat. These changes in body fat can have important clinical consequences since they are linked to increased risk of metabolic complications. The causes and mechanisms of loss of peripheral fat associated with aging are not clear. The aim of this study was to assess whether defects in adipogenesis contribute to fat loss in aging humans, as suggested from animal studies, and to evaluate the role of inflammation on pathogenesis of fat loss. Preadipocytes isolated from subcutaneous peripheral fat of healthy young and elderly subjects were compared in their ability to replicate and differentiate. The results show that both the rate of replication and differentiation of preadipocytes are reduced in older subjects. The reduction in adipogenesis is accompanied by a higher plasma level of the inflammatory marker, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, and greater release of tumor necrosis factor α from fat tissue. Thus, the gradual relative loss of peripheral fat in aging humans may in part result from a defect in adipogenesis, which may be linked to inflammation and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines from fat tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lecithin decreases human milk fat loss during enteral pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Melissa M; Nohara, Masaru; Chan, Benjamin R; Curtis, Julie; Chan, Gary M

    2003-05-01

    The fat content of human milk provides the majority of calories for infants. However, large fat losses in human milk have been observed using enteral pump systems, causing poor growth in infants. The fat may adhere in the pump system. Lecithin, a phospholipid, has been used in the food industry as a lipophilic emulsifier of fats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lecithin on the delivery of human milk fat from an enteral pump. It is hypothesized that the addition of lecithin would decrease the fat loss during human milk delivery. Six mothers at a mature stage of lactation (>4 weeks of lactation) donated human milk. The human milk samples were stored separately at -20 degrees C before analysis and evaluated individually. The fat content of the milk samples was estimated by the creamatocrit method, in which the samples were centrifuged in a standard hematocrit tube and the fat layer read with vernier calipers and expressed as a percentage of the length of the milk column to the nearest 0.5%. The accuracy of this method is 92%. The Kangaroo 324 Feeding Pump (Sherwood Medical, St. Louis, MO) was used as the continuous pump system. The human milk samples were divided into either control samples without lecithin or with lecithin (1 or 0.5 g soy lecithin dissolved in 50 mL milk). All samples were pumped at 10 to 50 mL/h for at least 4 hours. The pumped milk was collected in an iced container, and creamatocrits were determined in duplicate. There was significant fat loss in the control milk samples compared with the milk samples with added lecithin. The average fat loss was 58% +/- 13% for control samples and 55% +/- 26% for the milk with 0.5 g soy lecithin. Milk with 1 g soy lecithin averaged 2% +/- 2% fat loss. The pumping rate had no effect on fat loss. The greatest fat loss (70% +/- 6%)occurred during the first 4 hours of pumping. The addition of 1 g soy lecithin per 50 mL milk decreased the human milk fat loss during intermittent pumping and may

  1. Brown Fat Expresses Adiponectin in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Iacobellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT in humans is unclear. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO are rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin which occur in 0.1-0.2% of patients with hypertension. We sought to evaluate the presence and activity of BAT surrounding adrenal PHEO in a well-studied sample of 11 patients who were diagnosed with PHEO and then underwent adrenalectomy. Areas of white fat (WAT and BAT surrounding PHEO were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection for analysis of uncoupling protein (UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA expression. Adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BAT than in WAT (0.62 versus 0.15 and 362.4 versus 22.1, resp., for both. Adiponectin mRNA levels significantly correlated with urinary metanephrines (, , vanilly mandelic acid (VMA (, , and serum adiponectin levels (, . Serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased ( μg/mL versus  μg/mL, after adrenalectomy in PHEO subjects. This study provides the following findings: (1 BAT surrounding PHEO expresses adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA, (2 expression of adiponectin mRNA is significantly higher in BAT than in WAT surrounding PHEO, and (3 catecholamines and serum adiponectin levels significantly correlate with BAT UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA.

  2. Modest Visceral Fat Gain Causes Endothelial Dysfunction In Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Orban, Marek; Gami, Apoor; Davison, Diane; Singh, Prachi; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Huyber, Christine; Votruba, Susanne; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Jensen, Michael D.; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine the impact of fat gain and its distribution on endothelial function in lean healthy humans. Background Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Whether fat gain impairs endothelial function is unknown. Methods A randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on endothelial function. We recruited 43 normal weight healthy volunteers (mean age 29 years; 18 women). Subjects were assigned to gain weight (approximately 4 kg) (n=35) or to maintain weight (n=8). Endothelial function (brachial artery flow mediated dilation -FMD) was measured at baseline, after fat gain (8 weeks) and after weight loss (16 weeks) for fat-gainers and at baseline and follow-up (8 weeks) for weight-maintainers. Body composition was measured by DXA and abdominal CT scans. Results After an average weight gain of 4.1 kg, fat-gainers significantly increased their total, visceral and subcutaneous fat. Blood pressure and overnight polysomnography did not change after fat gain or loss. FMD remained unchanged in weight-maintainers. FMD decreased in fat-gainers (9.1 ± 3% vs. 7.8 ± 3.2%, p =0.003), but recovered to baseline when subjects shed the gained weight. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in FMD and the increase in visceral fat gain (rho = −0.42, p=0.004), but not with subcutaneous fat gain (rho = −0.22, p=0.15). Conclusions In normal weight healthy young subjects, modest fat gain results in impaired endothelial function, even in the absence of changes in blood pressure. Endothelial function recovers after weight loss. Increased visceral rather than subcutaneous fat predicts endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20705223

  3. Lipolytic effect of a polyphenolic citrus dry extract of red orange, grapefruit, orange (SINETROL) in human body fat adipocytes. Mechanism of action by inhibition of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Tenca, Guillaume; Juchaux, Franck; Bernard, François-Xavier

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigated the lipolytic (break of fat stored) effect of a citrus-based polyphenolic dietary supplement (SINETROL) at human adipocytes (ex vivo), body fat (clinical) and biochemical levels (inhibition of phosphodiesterase). Free fatty acids (FFA) release was used as indicator of human adipocyte lipolysis and SINETROL activity has been compared with known lipolytic products (isoproterenol, theopylline and caffeine). SINETROL stimulated significantly the lipolytic activity in a range of 6 fold greater than the control. Moreover, SINETROL has 2.1 greater activity than guarana 12% caffeine while its content in caffeine is 3 times lower. Clinically, two groups of 10 volunteers with BMI relevant of overweight were compared during 4 and 12 weeks with 1.4 g/day SINETROL and placebo supplementation. In the SINETROL Group the body fat (%) decreased with a significant difference of 5.53% and 15.6% after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively, while the body weight (kg) decreased with a significant difference of 2.2 and 5.2 kg after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. These observed effects are linked to SINETROL polyphenolic composition and its resulting synergistic activity. SINETROL is a potent inhibitor of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) (97%) compared to other purified compounds (cyanidin-3 glycoside, narangin, caffeine). These results suggest that SINETROL has a strong lipolytic effect mediated by cAMP-PDE inhibition. SINETROL may serve to prevent obesity by decreasing BMI.

  4. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  5. New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matthew David; Myers, Stephen David; Blacker, Sam David; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus

    2015-11-01

    Blackcurrant intake increases peripheral blood flow in humans, potentially by anthocyanin-induced vasodilation which may affect substrate delivery and exercise performance. We examined the effects of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on substrate oxidation, cycling time-trial performance and plasma lactate responses following the time-trial in trained cyclists. Using a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 14 healthy men (age: 38 ± 13 years, height: 178 ± 4 cm, body mass: 77 ± 9 kg, VO2max: 53 ± 6 mL kg(-1) min(-1), mean ± SD) ingested NZBC extract (300 mg day(-1) CurraNZ™ containing 105 mg anthocyanin) or placebo (PL, 300 mg microcrystalline cellulose M102) for 7 days (washout 14 days). On day 7, participants performed 30 min of cycling (3 × 10 min at 45, 55 and 65 % VO2max), followed by a 16.1 km time-trial with lactate sampling during a 20-min passive recovery. NZBC extract increased fat oxidation at 65 % VO2max by 27 % (P < 0.05) and improved 16.1 km time-trial performance by 2.4 % (NZBC: 1678 ± 108 s, PL: 1722 ± 131 s, P < 0.05). Plasma lactate was higher with NZBC extract immediately following the time-trial (NZBC: 7.06 ± 1.73 mmol L(-1), PL: 5.92 ± 1.58 mmol L(-1), P < 0.01). Seven-day intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves 16.1 km cycling time-trial performance and increases fat oxidation during moderate intensity cycling.

  6. In vivo effects of Cannabis sativa L. extract on blood coagulation, fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo effects of Cannabis sativa L. extract on blood coagulation, fat and ... only), decreased left rectus femorus muscle mass (normal only), increased total ... The results indicate that Cannabis sativa increased energy utilization due to a ...

  7. Process Optimization for Solid Extraction, Flavor Improvement and Fat Removal in the Production of Soymilk From Full Fat Soy Flakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley Prawiradjaja

    2003-05-31

    Traditionally soymilk has been made with whole soybeans; however, there are other alternative raw ingredients for making soymilk, such as soy flour or full-fat soy flakes. US markets prefer soymilk with little or no beany flavor. modifying the process or using lipoxygenase-free soybeans can be used to achieve this. Unlike the dairy industry, fat reduction in soymilk has been done through formula modification instead of by conventional fat removal (skimming). This project reports the process optimization for solids and protein extraction, flavor improvement and fat removal in the production of 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk from full fat soy flakes and whole soybeans using the Takai soymilk machine. Proximate analyses, and color measurement were conducted in 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk. Descriptive analyses with trained panelists (n = 9) were conducted using 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix lipoxygenase-free and high protein blend soy flake soymilks. Rehydration of soy flakes is necessary to prevent agglomeration during processing and increase extractability. As the rehydration temperature increases from 15 to 50 to 85 C, the hexanal concentration was reduced. Enzyme inactivation in soy flakes milk production (measured by hexanal levels) is similar to previous reports with whole soybeans milk production; however, shorter rehydration times can be achieved with soy flakes (5 to 10 minutes) compared to whole beans (8 to 12 hours). Optimum rehydration conditions for a 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk are 50 C for 5 minutes, 85 C for 5 minutes and 85 C for 10 minutes, respectively. In the flavor improvement study of soymilk, the hexanal date showed differences between undeodorized HPSF in contrast to triple null soymilk and no differences between deodorized HPSF in contrast to deodorized triple null. The panelists could not differentiate between the beany, cereal, and painty flavors. However, the panelists responded that the overall aroma of deodorized 8 {sup o}Brix triple null

  8. Process Optimization for Solid Extraction, Flavor Improvement and Fat Removal in the Production of Soymilk From Full Fat Soy Flakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prawiradjaja, Stanley [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally soymilk has been made with whole soybeans; however, there are other alternative raw ingredients for making soymilk, such as soy flour or full-fat soy flakes. US markets prefer soymilk with little or no beany flavor. modifying the process or using lipoxygenase-free soybeans can be used to achieve this. Unlike the dairy industry, fat reduction in soymilk has been done through formula modification instead of by conventional fat removal (skimming). This project reports the process optimization for solids and protein extraction, flavor improvement and fat removal in the production of 5, 8 and 12 °Brix soymilk from full fat soy flakes and whole soybeans using the Takai soymilk machine. Proximate analyses, and color measurement were conducted in 5, 8 and 12 °Brix soymilk. Descriptive analyses with trained panelists (n = 9) were conducted using 8 and 12 °Brix lipoxygenase-free and high protein blend soy flake soymilks. Rehydration of soy flakes is necessary to prevent agglomeration during processing and increase extractability. As the rehydration temperature increases from 15 to 50 to 85 C, the hexanal concentration was reduced. Enzyme inactivation in soy flakes milk production (measured by hexanal levels) is similar to previous reports with whole soybeans milk production; however, shorter rehydration times can be achieved with soy flakes (5 to 10 minutes) compared to whole beans (8 to 12 hours). Optimum rehydration conditions for a 5, 8 and 12 °Brix soymilk are 50 C for 5 minutes, 85 C for 5 minutes and 85 C for 10 minutes, respectively. In the flavor improvement study of soymilk, the hexanal date showed differences between undeodorized HPSF in contrast to triple null soymilk and no differences between deodorized HPSF in contrast to deodorized triple null. The panelists could not differentiate between the beany, cereal, and painty flavors. However, the panelists responded that the overall aroma of deodorized 8 °Brix triple null and HPSF soymilk are

  9. Screening for bioactive metabolites in plant extracts modulating glucose uptake and fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Kotowska, Dorota Ewa; C. B. Olsen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes...... but were not able to activate PPARγ, indicating a PPARγ-independent effect on glucose uptake....

  10. Skeletal muscle fat metabolism after exercise in humans: influence of fat availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Nicholas E; Cameron-Smith, David; McGee, Sean L; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms facilitating increased skeletal muscle fat oxidation following prolonged, strenuous exercise remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) availability on intramuscular malonyl-CoA concentration and the regulation of whole-body fat metabolism during a 6-h postexercise recovery period. Eight endurance-trained men performed three trials, consisting of 1.5 h high-intensity and exhaustive exercise, followed by infusion of saline, saline + nicotinic acid (NA; low FFA), or Intralipid and heparin [high FFA (HFA)]. Muscle biopsies were obtained at the end of exercise (0 h) and at 3 and 6 h in recovery. Ingestion of NA suppressed the postexercise plasma FFA concentration throughout recovery (P increase in whole-body fat oxidation during the 6-h period for HFA (52.2 ± 4.8 g) relative to NA (38.4 ± 3.1 g; P muscle malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)β phosphorylation, suggesting mechanisms other than phosphorylation-mediated changes in ACC activity may have a role in regulating fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during postexercise recovery. Despite marked changes in plasma FFA availability, no significant changes in intramuscular triglyceride concentrations were detected. These data suggest that the regulation of postexercise skeletal muscle fat oxidation in humans involves factors other than the 5'AMP-activated protein kinase-ACCβ-malonyl-CoA signaling pathway, although malonyl-CoA-mediated regulation cannot be excluded completely in the acute recovery period.

  11. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  12. Counter-current carbon dioxide extraction of fat from soy skim

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research aims to investigate the use of counter-current carbon dioxide extraction method as a means to reduce residual fat in soy skim after the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans. Extractions with liquid CO2 at 25°C and 10.34 MPa and supercritical CO2 at 50°C and 25.16 MPa are comp...

  13. Interleukin-6 stimulates lipolysis and fat oxidation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit; Steensberg, Adam; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    Although IL-6 is a key modulator of immune function, it also plays a role in regulating substrate metabolism. To determine whether IL-6 affects lipid metabolism, 18 healthy men were infused for 3 h with saline (Con; n = 6) or a high dose (High-rhIL6; n = 6) or a low dose (Low-rhIL6; n = 6) of rec...... in adrenaline, insulin, or glucagon, and no adverse side effects were observed. In conclusion, the data identify IL-6 as a potent modulator of fat metabolism in humans, increasing fat oxidation and FA reesterification without causing hypertriacylglyceridemia. Comment in...

  14. Total milk fat extraction and quantification of polar and neutral lipids of cow, goat, and ewe milk by using a pressurized liquid system and chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Gómez, M P; Rodriguez-Alcalá, L M; Calvo, M V; Romero, J; Mendiola, J A; Ibañez, E; Fontecha, J

    2014-11-01

    Although milk polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids located in the milk fat globule membrane constitute 0.1 to 1% of the total milk fat, those lipid fractions are gaining increasing interest because of their potential beneficial effects on human health and technological properties. In this context, the accurate quantification of the milk polar lipids is crucial for comparison of different milk species, products, or dairy treatments. Although the official International Organization for Standardization-International Dairy Federation method for milk lipid extraction gives satisfactory results for neutral lipids, it has important disadvantages in terms of polar lipid losses. Other methods using mixtures of solvents such as chloroform:methanol are highly efficient for extracting polar lipids but are also associated with low sample throughput, long time, and large solvent consumption. As an alternative, we have optimized the milk fat extraction yield by using a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method at different temperatures and times in comparison with those traditional lipid extraction procedures using 2:1 chloroform:methanol as a mixture of solvents. Comparison of classical extraction methods with the developed PLE procedure were carried out using raw whole milk from different species (cows, ewes, and goats) and considering fat yield, fatty acid methyl ester composition, triacylglyceride species, cholesterol content, and lipid class compositions, with special attention to polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids. The developed PLE procedure was validated for milk fat extraction and the results show that this method performs a complete or close to complete extraction of all lipid classes and in less time than the official and Folch methods. In conclusion, the PLE method optimized in this study could be an alternative to carry out milk fat extraction as a routine method.

  15. Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Long; Pande, Garima; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant. However, human milk is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore significant research has been done and is still ongoing to fully understand and mimic human breast milk, particularly its fat composition. Lipids play a critical role in infant nutrition. A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk.

  16. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...

  17. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  18. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  19. [Natriuretic peptides: a new lipolytic pathway in human fat cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengenes, Coralie; Moro, Cédric; Galitzky, Jean; Berlan, Michel; Lafontan, Max

    2005-12-01

    Human fat cell lipolysis was considered until recently to be an exclusive cAMP/protein-kinase A (PKA)-regulated metabolic pathway under the control of catecholamines and insulin. Moreover, exercise-induced lipid mobilization in humans was considered to mainly depend on catecholamine action and interplay between fat cell beta- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors controlling adenylyl cyclase activity and cAMP production. We have recently demonstrated that natriuretic peptides stimulate lipolysis and contribute to the regulation of lipid mobilization in humans. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) stimulate lipolysis in human isolated fat cells. Activation of the adipocyte plasma membrane type A guanylyl cyclase receptor (NPR-A), increase in intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) levels and activation of hormone-sensitive lipase mediate the action of ANP. ANP does not modulate cAMP production and PKA activity. Increment of cGMP induces the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin A via the activation of a cGMP dependent protein kinase-I (cGK-I). Plasma concentrations of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids are increased by i.v. infusion of ANP in humans. Physiological relevance of the ANP-dependent pathway was demonstrated in young subjects performing physical exercise. ANP plays a role in conjunction with catecholamines in the control of exercise-induced lipid mobilization. This pathway becomes of major importance when subjects are submitted to chronic treatment with a beta-blocker. Oral beta-adrenoceptor blockade suppresses the beta-adrenergic component of catecholamine action in fat cells and potentiates exercise-induced ANP release by the heart. These findings may have several implications whenever natriuretic peptide secretion is altered such as in subjects with left ventricular dysfunction, congestive heart failure and obesity.

  20. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  1. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is chronically elevated in type 2 diabetes but also during exercise. However, the exact metabolic role, and hence the physiological significance, has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human (rh) IL-6 on human fat...... and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ~40 and ~1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed...... in systemic lipolysis. Adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid kinetics were unchanged with rhIL-6 compared with saline infusion. Conversely, rhIL-6 infusion caused an increase in skeletal muscle unidirectional fatty acid and glycerol release, indicative of an increase in lipolysis. The increased lipolysis...

  2. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual.

  3. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Methods Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacy...

  4. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  5. Human milk fat substitute from butterfat: production by enzymatic interesterification and evaluation of oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Xu, Xuebing; Zhang, Long;

    2010-01-01

    Recent data have suggested that the fatty acid composition and molecular structure of fats in infant formulas should be as similar to human milk fat as possible to obtain optimal fat and calcium absorption from the infant formula. This work investigated the possibilities of using enzyme technology...... and butterfat as a material to produce a fat similar to human milk fat with respect to the above parameters. Moreover, the oxidative stability of the enzyme modified human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was compared to the fat blend used for the production of HMFS. Using a combination of enzyme technology......, fractionation and batch deodorization and with butterfat in combination with soybean oil and rapeseed oil as raw materials it was possible to produce HMFS with a molecular structure and fatty acid composition that was very similar to that of human milk fat. The oxidative stability of the HMFS oil was lower than...

  6. HCI Treatment Followed by Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    HCl Treatment Followed By Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples., S.K. Jensen, C. Lauridsen, Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele, Denmark. The official EU method for fatty acid analysis in feed is based...... on boiling of the feed sample in 3 M HCl followed by a filtration, drying, Soxhelet extraction of the fat with petrol ether, conversion of the fatty acids to their corresponding methyl esters and followed by GC separation. Besides being very time consuming, this method has several disadvantages, e.......g. the filtration step may allow some shorter chain free fatty acids and some phospholipids to be washed through the filter and escape the analysis. Further, during the drying step of filter paper, oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is a risk. Because of the mentioned disadvantages, a new method ("HCl...

  7. Detecting Fat Content of Food from a Distance: Olfactory-Based Fat Discrimination in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Lundstrom, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    The desire to consume high volumes of fat is thought to originate from an evolutionary pressure to hoard calories, and fat is among the few energy sources that we can store over a longer time period. From an ecological perspective, however, it would be beneficial to detect fat from a distance, befor

  8. Pandanus amaryllifolius leaf extract increases insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suphaket Saenthaweesuk; Jarinyaporn Naowaboot; Nuntiya Somparn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of Pandanus amaryllifolius (P. amaryllifolius) leaf extract on the insulin resistance state in obese ICR mice. Methods: Obesity was induced in mice fed with high-fat diet (45%fat) for 12 weeks. After the first six weeks on the diet, the obese mice were administered with the water extract of P. amaryllifolius leaf at 125 and 250 mg/kg/day, respectively for another six weeks. At the 5th week of treatment, oral glucose tolerance test was conducted. After six weeks of treat-ment, the levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, leptin, adiponectin, and lipid profiles were determined. The liver, muscle and epididymal fat tissues were removed for measuring the biochemical parameters and protein expression, as well as histological examination. Results: Six weeks of treatment with P. amaryllifolius led to a significant reduction in the blood glucose level as well as improvement in the insulin resistance. P. amaryllifolius also increased the liver glycogen storage and serum adiponectin and decreased the serum leptin levels. A reduction in the serum and hepatic triglyceride, and non-esterified fatty acid levels was also observed. The histological examination showed that the obese mice treated with P. amaryllifolius reduced the lipid droplet in liver tissue and adipocyte size in epididymal fat tissue. The treatment also increased the protein expression of glucose transporter 4 in the muscle and fat tissues. Conclusions: The treatment with P. amaryllifolius could decrease several parameters of impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of P. amaryllifolius leaf extract in alleviating the insulin dysfunction in obesity state.

  9. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Deplanque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL, glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results: Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001. Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions: Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals.

  10. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplanque, Xavier; Muscente-Paque, Delphine; Chappuis, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE) standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL), glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG) responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001). Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals. PMID:27707453

  11. Increasing Dietary Fat Elicits Similar Changes in Fat Oxidation and Markers of Muscle Oxidative Capacity in Lean and Obese Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Barry, Daniel W.; Leitner, Wayne; MacLean, Paul S.; Hill, James O.; Draznin, Boris; Melanson, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    In lean humans, increasing dietary fat intake causes an increase in whole-body fat oxidation and changes in genes that regulate fat oxidation in skeletal muscle, but whether this occurs in obese humans is not known. We compared changes in whole-body fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity differ in lean (LN) and obese (OB) adults exposed to a 2-day high-fat (HF) diet. Ten LN (BMI = 22.5±2.5 kg/m2, age = 30±8 yrs) and nine OB (BMI = 35.9±4.93 kg/m2, 38±5 yrs, Mean±SD) were studied in a room calorimeter for 24hr while consuming isocaloric low-fat (LF, 20% of energy) and HF (50% of energy) diets. A muscle biopsy was obtained the next morning following an overnight fast. 24h respiratory quotient (RQ) did not significantly differ between groups (LN: 0.91±0.01; OB: 0.92±0.01) during LF, and similarly decreased during HF in LN (0.86±0.01) and OB (0.85±0.01). The expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and the fatty acid transporter CD36 increased in both LN and OB during HF. No other changes in mRNA or protein were observed. However, in both LN and OB, the amounts of acetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1-α (PGC1-α) significantly decreased and phosphorylated 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) significantly increased. In response to an isoenergetic increase in dietary fat, whole-body fat oxidation similarly increases in LN and OB, in association with a shift towards oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle, suggesting that the ability to adapt to an acute increase in dietary fat is not impaired in obesity. PMID:22253914

  12. Increasing dietary fat elicits similar changes in fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity in lean and obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Barry, Daniel W; Leitner, Wayne; MacLean, Paul S; Hill, James O; Draznin, Boris; Melanson, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    In lean humans, increasing dietary fat intake causes an increase in whole-body fat oxidation and changes in genes that regulate fat oxidation in skeletal muscle, but whether this occurs in obese humans is not known. We compared changes in whole-body fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity differ in lean (LN) and obese (OB) adults exposed to a 2-day high-fat (HF) diet. Ten LN (BMI = 22.5±2.5 kg/m², age = 30±8 yrs) and nine OB (BMI = 35.9±4.93 kg/m², 38±5 yrs, Mean±SD) were studied in a room calorimeter for 24hr while consuming isocaloric low-fat (LF, 20% of energy) and HF (50% of energy) diets. A muscle biopsy was obtained the next morning following an overnight fast. 24h respiratory quotient (RQ) did not significantly differ between groups (LN: 0.91±0.01; OB: 0.92±0.01) during LF, and similarly decreased during HF in LN (0.86±0.01) and OB (0.85±0.01). The expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and the fatty acid transporter CD36 increased in both LN and OB during HF. No other changes in mRNA or protein were observed. However, in both LN and OB, the amounts of acetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1-α (PGC1-α) significantly decreased and phosphorylated 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) significantly increased. In response to an isoenergetic increase in dietary fat, whole-body fat oxidation similarly increases in LN and OB, in association with a shift towards oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle, suggesting that the ability to adapt to an acute increase in dietary fat is not impaired in obesity.

  13. Increasing dietary fat elicits similar changes in fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity in lean and obese humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bergouignan

    Full Text Available In lean humans, increasing dietary fat intake causes an increase in whole-body fat oxidation and changes in genes that regulate fat oxidation in skeletal muscle, but whether this occurs in obese humans is not known. We compared changes in whole-body fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity differ in lean (LN and obese (OB adults exposed to a 2-day high-fat (HF diet. Ten LN (BMI = 22.5±2.5 kg/m², age = 30±8 yrs and nine OB (BMI = 35.9±4.93 kg/m², 38±5 yrs, Mean±SD were studied in a room calorimeter for 24hr while consuming isocaloric low-fat (LF, 20% of energy and HF (50% of energy diets. A muscle biopsy was obtained the next morning following an overnight fast. 24h respiratory quotient (RQ did not significantly differ between groups (LN: 0.91±0.01; OB: 0.92±0.01 during LF, and similarly decreased during HF in LN (0.86±0.01 and OB (0.85±0.01. The expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4 and the fatty acid transporter CD36 increased in both LN and OB during HF. No other changes in mRNA or protein were observed. However, in both LN and OB, the amounts of acetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1-α (PGC1-α significantly decreased and phosphorylated 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK significantly increased. In response to an isoenergetic increase in dietary fat, whole-body fat oxidation similarly increases in LN and OB, in association with a shift towards oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle, suggesting that the ability to adapt to an acute increase in dietary fat is not impaired in obesity.

  14. Salt Promotes Passive Overconsumption of Dietary Fat in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Costanzo, Andrew; Newman, Lisa P; Keast, Russell Sj

    2016-04-01

    Excess fat consumption has been linked to the development of obesity. Fat and salt are a common and appetitive combination in food; however, the effect of either on food intake is unclear. Fat taste sensitivity has been negatively associated with dietary fat intake, but how fat taste sensitivity influences the intake of fat within a meal has, to our knowledge, not yet been investigated. Our objectives were, first, to investigate the effects of both fat and salt on ad libitum food intake and, second, to investigate the effects of fat taste sensitivity on satiation responses to fat and whether this was affected by salt. Forty-eight healthy adults [16 men and 32 women, aged 18-54 y, body mass index (kg/m(2)): 17.8-34.4] were recruited and their fat taste sensitivity was measured by determination of the detection threshold of oleic acid (18:1n-6). In a randomized 2 × 2 crossover design, participants attended 4 lunchtime sessions after a standardized breakfast. Meals consisted of elbow macaroni (56%) with sauce (44%); sauces were manipulated to be1) low-fat (0.02% fat, wt:wt)/low-salt (0.06% NaCl, wt:wt),2) low-fat/high-salt (0.5% NaCl, wt:wt),3) high-fat (34% fat, wt:/wt)/low-salt, or4) high-fat/high-salt. Ad libitum intake (primary outcome) and eating rate, pleasantness, and subjective ratings of hunger and fullness (secondary outcomes) were measured. Salt increased food and energy intakes by 11%, independent of fat concentration (P= 0.022). There was no effect of fat on food intake (P= 0.6), but high-fat meals increased energy intake by 60% (Pintake of high-fat meals but only in the presence of low salt (fat taste × salt interaction on delta intake of high-fat - low-fat meals;P= 0.012). The results suggest that salt promotes passive overconsumption of energy in adults and that salt may override fat-mediated satiation in individuals who are sensitive to the taste of fat. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www

  15. Loss of the tumour suppressor gene AIP mediates the browning of human brown fat tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Linda; Hansen, Nils; Saba, Karim H; Nilsson, Jenny; Fioretos, Thoas; Rissler, Pehr; Nord, Karolin H

    2017-10-01

    Human brown fat tumours (hibernomas) show concomitant loss of the tumour suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. We hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributable to these mutations. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumours, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one of 51 lipomas) and in brown fat tumours. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology. We conclude that this white-to-brown phenotype switch in brown fat tumours is mediated by the loss of AIP. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  17. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Mei-Yin; Ku, Yu-Hua; Chang, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chih-Min; Chen, Chao-Hsiang

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. The prescriptions-Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi-were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract ameliorate fat amassment and serum TNF-αin high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayyed Nadeem; Pradeep Dhore; Mohsin Quazi; Sunil Pawar; Navin Raj

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanolic extract ofLagenaria siceraria fruit(ELSF) on fat amassment and serumTNF-α in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.Methods:The high fat diet induced obese rats were orally treated with orlistat(50 mg/kg) andELSF(100,200,300 mg/kg/day) to the respective treatment groups.The body weight, fasting blood glucose level, lipid profile, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in rats were measured after30 days of treatment and compared to the obese control animals.Results:ELSF significantly(P <0.001) reduced the body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein andTNF-α.Conclusions:These encouraging findings suggest thatLagenaria siceraria has excellent pharmacological potential to prevent fat amassment.

  19. Extract from Dioscorea batatas ameliorates insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Jwa, Hyejeong; Yanagawa, Yasuko; Park, Taesun

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Dioscorea batatas (DB) extract attenuates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in the visceral adipose tissues of mice, and by what mechanism(s). Mice were fed a HFD for 4 weeks to induce the early development of insulin resistance. The DB extract was administered to mice fed a HFD by oral gavage at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 weeks. Biochemical parameters in blood were measured using enzymatic kits, and the expression levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), phosphorylated (p-)S6K1, phosphorylated v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (p-AKT), and phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinase (p-ERK) in epididymal fat tissue were determined by western blot analyses. The DB extract effectively reversed the HFD-induced elevations in plasma glucose and insulin levels, and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance and oral glucose tolerance test values. The level of p-AKT protein was up-regulated, whereas the levels of p-ERK and p-S6K1 proteins were down-regulated in the adipose tissues of DB mice compared with HFD mice. Furthermore, the DB extract significantly reversed the HFD-induced decrease in the plasma membrane GLUT4 level in the adipose tissue of mice. The DB extract improved glucose metabolism in HFD-fed mice through the up-regulation of plasma membrane GLUT4 content in the visceral adipose tissue. Activation of the insulin signaling cascade leading to GLUT4 translocation was the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of the DB extract on early-stage obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  20. Proteome profile and biological activity of caprine, bovine and human milk fat globules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertino, Stefano; Cipriani, Valentina; De Angelis, Chiara; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Marsano, Francesco; Cavaletto, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Upon combining bidimensional electrophoresis with monodimensional separation, a more comprehensive analysis of the milk fat globule membrane has been obtained. The proteomic profile of caprine milk fat globules revealed the presence of butyrophilin, lactadherin and perilipin as the major proteins, they were also associated to bovine and human milk fat globule membranes. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase has been detected only in monodimensional gels. Biological activity of milk fat globules has been evaluated in Caco2-cells, as a representative model of the intestinal barrier. The increase of cell viability was indicative of a potential nutraceutical role for the whole milk fat globule, suggesting a possible employment in milk formula preparation.

  1. Hawthorn extract inhibits human isolated neutrophil functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, Ernesto; Milara, Javier; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Cosín-Sales, Juan; Sotillo, José Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hawthorn extract is a popular herbal medicine given as adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. In contrast to the cardiac properties of hawthorn extract, its anti-inflammatory effect has been scarcely investigated. This study examines the effects of a dry extract of leaves and flowers of Crataegus laevigata on various functional outputs of human neutrophils in vitro. Incubation of human neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood of healthy donors with C. laevigata extract (0.75-250 microg/ml) inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion generation, elastase release and chemotactic migration with potency values of 43.6, 21.9, and 31.6 microg/ml, respectively. By contrast, serum-opsonized zymosan-induced phagocytosis was unaltered by plant extract. C. laevigata extract (125 microg/ml) reduced FMLP-induced leukotriene B(4) production and lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8. Extract inhibited FMLP-induced intracellular calcium signal with potency of 17.4 microg/ml. Extract also markedly inhibited the extracellular calcium entry into calcium-depleted neutrophils, and the thapsigargin-induced intracellular calcium response. In conclusion, C. laevigata extract inhibited various functional outputs of activated human neutrophils which may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiac failure.

  2. Comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (cAEDA) of Fat from Tainted Boars, Castrated Male Pigs, and Female Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christoph; Leppert, Jan; Santiuste, Alicia Chamarro; Pfeiffer, Anne; Boeker, Peter; Wüst, Matthias

    2017-01-12

    The aroma profile of porcine fat from tainted boars, female pigs, and castrated male pigs was investigated by application of comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) on a SAFE distillate of volatiles prepared from porcine back fat samples. The AEDA resulted in a total of 16 aroma active compounds for boar fat with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 2 to 2048, whereas 12 aroma active compounds were found in fat of female pigs and 14 in fat of castrated male pigs, both with FD factors ranging from 2 to 32. Odor activity values (OAVs) of key components for each fat were identified: In boar fat androstenone, skatole, indole, and 2-aminoacetophenone showed highest OAVs, whereas 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,4-decadienal, and δ-decalactone showed highest OAVs in fat of female pigs. Fat of castrated male pigs showed highest OAVs for skatole, indole, 1-octen-3-ol and methional. Finally, the off-flavor attributes of boar fat were successfully simulated by a recombinant of all odorants at their natural concentration level in deodorized sunflower oil.

  3. Metabolic regulation and the anti-obesity perspectives of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    , white fat tissue transformation into beige has been observed in patients with pheochromocytoma, a norepinephrine-producing tumor. Interestingly, human beige fat is predominantly induced in regions that were BAT during early childhood, possibly reflecting that a presence of human beige progenitors...

  4. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagatomo A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Akifumi Nagatomo,1 Norihisa Nishida,1 Ikuo Fukuhara,2 Akira Noro,3 Yoshimichi Kozai,3 Hisao Sato,3 Yoichi Matsuura1 1Research and Development Division, Morishita Jintan Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 2Fukuhara Clinic, Hokkaido, Japan; 3New Drug Research Center, Inc., Hokkaido, Japan Background: Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent antiobesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods: We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results: Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01 after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05. In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion: These results

  5. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M; Van Baalen, Ton

    2015-12-01

    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed fat globules: large fat droplets enveloped by a phospholipid membrane. Currently, infant milk formula (Control IMF) contains small fat droplets primarily coated by proteins. Recently, a novel IMF concept (Concept IMF) was developed with a different lipid architecture, Nuturis(®), comprising large fat droplets with a phospholipid coating. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), with appropriate fluorescent probes, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine and compare the interfacial composition and structure of HM fat globules, Concept IMF fat droplets and Control IMF fat droplets. The presence of a trilayer-structured HM fat globule membrane, composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol, was confirmed; in addition exosome-like vesicles are observed within cytoplasmic crescents. The Control IMF fat droplets had a thick protein-only interface. The Concept IMF fat droplets showed a very thin interface composed of a mixture of phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. Furthermore, the Concept IMF contained fragments of milk fat globule membrane, which has been suggested to have potential biological functions in infants. By mimicking more closely the structure and composition of HM fat globules, this novel IMF concept with Nuturis(®) may have metabolic and digestive properties that are more similar to HM compared to Control IMF.

  6. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-02

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  7. Milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits growth of human mammary MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, M; Devery, R; Lawless, F; Murphy, J; Stanton, C

    The relationship between growth and the antioxidant enzyme defence system in human MCF-7 (breast) cancer cells treated with bovine milk fat enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was studied. Milk enriched in CLA was obtained from cows on pasture supplemented with full fat rapeseeds and full fat soyabeans (1). Cell number decreased up to 90% (p milk fat yielding CLA concentrations between 16.9 and 22.6 ppm. Growth suppression and prooxidant effects of milk fat CLA were independent of the variable composition of the milk fat samples, suggesting that CLA was the active ingredient in milk fat responsible for the cytotoxic effect. Mixtures containing isomers of CLA (c9, t11-, t10, c12-, c11, t13- and minor amounts of other isomers) and linoleic acid (LA) at similar concentrations to the milk fat samples were as effective at inhibiting growth and stimulating peroxidation of MCF-7 cells as the milk fatty acids. Incubation of the cells with the c9, t11 CLA isomer (20 ppm) or the mixture of CLA isomers (20 ppm) for 8 days resulted in a 60% decrease (p milk fat than the c9, t11 synthetic CLA isomer. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were induced in MCF-7 cells exposed to milk fat (containing 16.9-22.6 ppm CLA) over 8 days. The data indicate that milk fat triglyceride-bound CLA, consisting primarily of the c9, t11 isomer, was cytotoxic towards MCF-7 cells.

  8. Ultrasonic homogenization of expressed human milk to prevent fat loss during tube feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F E; Desai, I D; Davidson, A G; Nakai, S; Radcliffe, A

    1987-01-01

    Effective use of expressed human milk in infant feeding requires proper handling, processing, storage, and administration in order to maintain its unique nutritional properties. One of the problems with expressed human milk is the separation of fat during processing, storage, and administration to the infant. Administration by continuous nasogastric infusion, either by intermittent gravity flow or by continuous mechanical pump, resulted in significant loss of fat and variation in the constitution of the milk delivered. Homogenization by ultrasonic treatment prevented changes in fat concentration during infusion and essentially eliminated loss of this nutrient during administration. The conditions necessary to achieve fat dispersion and stabilization of fat particles in human milk by ultrasonic treatment are described.

  9. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Mu, Huiling; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2010-01-01

    , or (3) the reference oil without LCPUFA. The apparent fat absorption after intake of butterfat-based HMFS (95.9% +/- 1.8%) was significantly higher than the other two groups, indicating that much less calcium soap was formed after feeding butterfat-based HMFS. Calcium contents in urines and faeces from...

  10. Comparison of gravimetry and hydrolysis/derivatization/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of fat from standard reference infant formula powder using supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Ude, M; Doane-Weideman, T; Tomczak, J; Taylor, L T

    2002-03-27

    This paper describes a comparative study of the gravimetric versus hydrolysis/derivatization/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of fat in infant formula. Fat was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with a small amount of ethanol, the extract was weighed, and the total fat was determined gravimetrically. Subsequently, another sample of the supercritical fluid fat extract was hydrolyzed to yield free fatty acids, which were converted to their methyl ester derivatives (FAMEs). Quantification was performed by GC-MS. NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM-1846) was used to validate both fat determination methods. Results showed that the gravimetric average percent fat was 26.86%, whereas the GC-MS method yielded 24.64%. Some peaks were detected in the ion chromatogram from the GC-MS that were identified as nonfatty acids such as aldehydes, which may account for the higher percentage fat measured as weight of extract rather than measured as FAMEs expressed as triglycerides.

  11. Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Attenuates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, along with obesity, is increasing world-wide and is one of the major causes of chronic hepatic disease. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS on high fat diet-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6 mice after daily administration at 300 or 500 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Treatment with PCS extract significantly reduced body weight and blood glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition, PCS extract treatment significantly attenuated lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissue and reduced serum lipid and hepatic triglyceride levels. Furthermore, the expression of lipogenic genes and inflammatory genes were reduced, and the expression of fat oxidation-related genes was increased in the liver of PCS extract-treated mice compared with control mice. Our study suggests the therapeutic potential of PCS extract for NAFLD by inhibiting lipid accumulation and inflammation in liver.

  12. Effects of pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extracts in high-fat diet-fed obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hak-Yong; Park, Kwang-Hyun; PARK, Young-mi; Moon, Dae-In; Oh, Hong-Geun; Kwon, Dae-Young; Yang, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Okjin; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yoo, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Se-Chul; Lee, Kun-Hee; Seol, Su-Yeon; Park, Yong-Sik; Park, Jong-Dae

    2014-01-01

    Red ginseng and its extracts have been used as traditional medicines and functional foods in countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the bioavailability of pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extracts (GS-E3D), and the effects of GS-E3D on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as on metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver in high-fat diet fed obese C57BL/6 mice. Mice were divided into 5 groups: normal diet group, high fat diet-vehicle grou...

  13. The representation of oral fat texture in the human somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Rolls, Edmund T

    2014-06-01

    How fat is sensed in the mouth and represented in the brain is important in relation to the pleasantness of food, appetite control, and the design of foods that reproduce the mouthfeel of fat yet have low energy content. We show that the human somatosensory cortex (SSC) is involved in oral fat processing via functional coupling to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), where the pleasantness of fat texture is represented. Using functional MRI, we found that activity in SSC was more strongly correlated with the OFC during the consumption of a high fat food with a pleasant (vanilla) flavor compared to a low fat food with the same flavor. This effect was not found in control analyses using high fat foods with a less pleasant flavor or pleasant-flavored low fat foods. SSC activity correlated with subjective ratings of fattiness, but not of texture pleasantness or flavor pleasantness, indicating a representation that is not involved in hedonic processing per se. Across subjects, the magnitude of OFC-SSC coupling explained inter-individual variation in texture pleasantness evaluations. These findings extend known SSC functions to a specific role in the processing of pleasant-flavored oral fat, and identify a neural mechanism potentially important in appetite, overeating, and obesity.

  14. Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-10-08

    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

  15. Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. © 2013.

  16. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone affects energy homeostasis and intestinal fat absorption in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Even, Patrick; Lafont, René; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2014-04-10

    In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a supplementation of a high-fat diet with a quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone (QE) or pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) could prevent the development of obesity. In line with the anti-obesity effect of QE, we used indirect calorimetry to examine the effect of dietary QE and 20E in high-fat fed mice on different components of energy metabolism. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by QE or pure 20E for 3 weeks. As compared to mice maintained on a low-fat diet, HF feeding resulted in a marked physiological shift in energy homeostasis, associating a decrease in global energy expenditure (EE) and an increase in lipid utilization as assessed by the lower respiratory quotient (RQ). Supplementation with 20E increased energy expenditure while food intake and activity were not affected. Furthermore QE and 20E promoted a higher rate of glucose oxidation leading to an increased RQ value. In QE and 20E-treated HFD fed mice, there was an increase in fecal lipid excretion without any change in stool amount. Our study indicates that anti-obesity effect of QE can be explained by a global increase in energy expenditure, a shift in glucose metabolism towards oxidation to the detriment of lipogenesis and a decrease in dietary lipid absorption leading to reduced dietary lipid storage in adipose tissue.

  17. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia Induced by High Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Elancheran, Ramakrishnan; Deori, Meetali; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF) and seed extract (GS) were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 4.01 μg/ml), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 0.82 μg/ml), NBT (IC50 = 0.07 μg/ml) and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.26 μg/ml). Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%), serum total cholesterol (33%), triglycerides (32%), low-density lipoprotein (38%) and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat. PMID:27642282

  18. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia induced by High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast (NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract (ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF and seed extract (GS were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=4.01 µg/ml, ABTS•+ (IC50=0.82 µg/ml, NBT (IC50=0.07 µg/ml and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=19.26 µg/ml. Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%, serum total cholesterol (33%, triglycerides (32%, low-density lipoprotein (38% and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

  19. Preventive effect of a melon extract rich in superoxide scavenging activity on abdominal and liver fat and adipokine imbalance in high-fat-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décordé, Kelly; Agne, Anta; Lacan, Dominique; Ramos, Jeanne; Fouret, Gilles; Ventura, Emilie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2009-07-22

    Studies showed that dietary antioxidants could be a therapy against obesity that is associated with a state of oxidative stress. Thus, this paper investigates whether a dietary ingredient, a melon juice extract rich in superoxide dismutase, would prevent the development of such obesity in hamsters. Five groups received a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HF) plus a daily gavage with water (control) or extract at 0.7, 2.8, or 5.6 mg/day. After 84 days, the higher dose lowered triglyceridemia (68%), production of liver superoxide anion (12%), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity (40%), lipid and protein oxidation products (35 and 35%, respectively), and leptinemia (99%) and increased adiponectinemia (29%), leading to a concomitant reduction in insulinemia (39%), insulin resistance (41%), and abdominal lipids (25%). The extract triggered a remarkable decrease of liver lipids (73%) and fully prevented the steatohepatitis induced by the HF diet. Chronic consumption of this melon extract may represent a new alternative to reduce obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

  20. Effect of extraction condition on properties of pectin from banana peels and its function as fat replacer in salad cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneerat, Nitjaree; Tangsuphoom, Nattapol; Nitithamyong, Anadi

    2017-02-01

    Banana peels are wasted from banana processing industry. Pectin is a soluble dietary fibre usually prepared from fruit and vegetable processing wastes. Pectin extraction from banana peels thus should be an effective way of waste utilization. This study aimed to determine the effect of extraction condition on the properties of pectin from peels of Nam Wa banana (Musa (ABB group) 'Kluai Nam Wa') and its role as fat replacer in salad cream. Banana peel pectin (BPP) was extracted with HCl (pH 1.5) and water (pH 6.0) for 30-120 min at 90 ± 5 °C. Acid extraction yielded 7-11% pectin on a dry basis with galacturonic acid content (GalA), degree of methylation (DM), and viscosity-average molecular weight (Mv) of 42-47, 57-61%, and 17-40 kDa, respectively; while water-extracted BPP contained lower DM but higher GalA and Mv. Prolonged extraction raised the pectin yield but lowered the Mv of BPP and the viscosity of their solutions. Incorporation of BPP obtained from 60 min acid- and water-extraction into salad cream at 30% oil substitution level resulted in the decreases in viscosity and lightness. All reduced-fat samples were stable to cream separation during 3-weeks storage although the formula containing water-extracted BPP had larger oil droplet size and greater extent of droplet flocculation. There was no difference in sensory scores rated by 50 panelists on thickness, smoothness, and overall acceptability of the full- and reduced-fat salad creams. Therefore, Nam Wa banana peels can be an alternative source of pectin with potential application as fat replacer in food products.

  1. Lipase-catalyzed modification of lard to produce human milk fat substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tiankui; Xu, Xuebing; He, C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to modify lard into human milk fat substitutes (HMFS) by Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis. Lard and soybean fatty acids were esterified in a solvent-free system. The reaction substrates for HMFS production were specially chosen to mimic human milk fats...... were carried out to confirm the feasibility of enzymatic modification for the production of HMFS. The characteristics of the product, produced in the scale-up acidolysis under selected conditions (temperature 61 degreesC, water content 3.5%, lard:fatty acids 1/2.4 (mol/mol), Lipozyme RM IM load 13.......7%, and time 1.0 h), were similar to the fat in Chinese mothers' milk. The results showed that it was possible to produce human milk fat substitutes from lard through enzymatic acidolysis with soybean fatty acids....

  2. Stearic acid-rich interesterified fat and trans-rich fat raise the LDL/HDL ratio and plasma glucose relative to palm olein in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karupaiah Tilakavati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary trans-rich and interesterified fats were compared to an unmodified saturated fat for their relative impact on blood lipids and plasma glucose. Each fat had melting characteristics, plasticity and solids fat content suitable for use as hardstock in margarine and other solid fat formulations. Methods Thirty human volunteers were fed complete, whole food diets during 4 wk periods, where total fat (~31% daily energy, >70% from the test fats and fatty acid composition were tightly controlled. A crossover design was used with 3 randomly-assigned diet rotations and repeated-measures analysis. One test fat rotation was based on palm olein (POL and provided 12.0 percent of energy (%en as palmitic acid (16:0; a second contained trans-rich partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO and provided 3.2 %en as trans fatty acids plus 6.5 %en as 16:0, while the third used an interesterified fat (IE and provided 12.5 %en as stearic acid (18:0. After 4 wk the plasma lipoproteins, fatty acid profile, as well as fasting glucose and insulin were assessed. In addition, after 2 wk into each period an 8 h postprandial challenge was initiated in a subset of 19 subjects who consumed a meal containing 53 g of test fat. Results After 4 wk, both PHSO and IE fats significantly elevated both the LDL/HDL ratio and fasting blood glucose, the latter almost 20% in the IE group relative to POL. Fasting 4 wk insulin was 10% lower after PHSO (p > 0.05 and 22% lower after IE (p Conclusion Both PHSO and IE fats altered the metabolism of lipoproteins and glucose relative to an unmodified saturated fat when fed to humans under identical circumstances.

  3. Brown adipose tissue quantification in human neonates using water-fat separated MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerod M Rasmussen

    Full Text Available There is a major resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology, particularly regarding its determinants and consequences in newborns and infants. Reliable methods for non-invasive BAT measurement in human infants have yet to be demonstrated. The current study first validates methods for quantitative BAT imaging of rodents post mortem followed by BAT excision and re-imaging of excised tissues. Identical methods are then employed in a cohort of in vivo infants to establish the reliability of these measures and provide normative statistics for BAT depot volume and fat fraction. Using multi-echo water-fat MRI, fat- and water-based images of rodents and neonates were acquired and ratios of fat to the combined signal from fat and water (fat signal fraction were calculated. Neonatal scans (n = 22 were acquired during natural sleep to quantify BAT and WAT deposits for depot volume and fat fraction. Acquisition repeatability was assessed based on multiple scans from the same neonate. Intra- and inter-rater measures of reliability in regional BAT depot volume and fat fraction quantification were determined based on multiple segmentations by two raters. Rodent BAT was characterized as having significantly higher water content than WAT in both in situ as well as ex vivo imaging assessments. Human neonate deposits indicative of bilateral BAT in spinal, supraclavicular and axillary regions were observed. Pairwise, WAT fat fraction was significantly greater than BAT fat fraction throughout the sample (ΔWAT-BAT = 38 %, p<10(-4. Repeated scans demonstrated a high voxelwise correlation for fat fraction (Rall = 0.99. BAT depot volume and fat fraction measurements showed high intra-rater (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.93, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93 and inter-rater reliability (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.86, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93. This study demonstrates the reliability of using multi-echo water-fat MRI in human neonates for quantification throughout the torso of BAT depot volume and fat

  4. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2......)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P...... = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44...

  5. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga, Patrick B; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-01-01

    Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  6. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M Neyrinck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®, at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were fed either a control diet (CT, a high fat (HF diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet associated with white pepper (0.01 % for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  7. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate and high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets decrease primary bile acid synthesis in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Bandsma, RHJ; Stellaard, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dietary fat content influences bile salt metabolism, but quantitative data from controlled studies in humans are scarce. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the effect of dietary fat content on the metabolism of primary bile salts. Design: The effects of eucaloric extr

  8. Changes in fat concentration of human milk during delivery by intermittent bolus and continuous mechanical pump infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, F R; McCormick, A; Loker, J

    1984-11-01

    The changes in fat concentration and cumulative fat losses that occur during the delivery of human milk using two different continuous infusion systems were compared with the changes in fat concentration during simulated intermittent gavage or bolus feedings. With both mechanical pumps the largest cumulative fat losses and the greatest decreases in fat concentrations occurred at the slowest infusion rates. State of homogenization of the milk generally made little difference in the changes in fat concentration using the syringe pump, whereas homogenizing the milk increased the fat concentration significantly with the roller pump. With the syringe pump the positioning of the syringe tip (horizontal or vertical) made no difference in fat concentration at an infusion rate of 1 ml/hr, whereas at 4 and 7 ml/hr the fat concentration was increased significantly by keeping the syringe tip vertical. With either mechanical pump a large fat bolus was delivered during the eighth and final hour of infusion if the milk remaining in the tubing was recovered by using air infusion at the same infusion rate. Intermittent bolus delivery of human milk resulted in no significant loss of human milk fat, no changes in fat concentration, and no terminal delivery of a large fat load. Thus intermittent bolus feedings are preferred over continuous mechanical pump infusion systems for the delivery of human milk to low-birth-weight infants.

  9. Effects of xanthohumol-rich extract from the hop on fatty acid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Kazuki; Kiyofuji, Ayane; Osada, Kyoichi

    2014-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the major prenylated flavonoid of female inflorescences of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) and is a hydrophobic flavonoid. We examined the effects of dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract in obese rats that was induced by feeding a high-fat diet. Dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract significantly lowered the body weight gain of these rats compared to rats fed a high-fat diet without the extract. The increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol levels in the plasma and liver of the rats fed a high-fat diet was ameliorated by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract tended to reduce hepatic fatty acid synthesis through the reduction of hepatic SREBP1c mRNA expression in the rats fed a high-fat diet. The excreted of triacylglycerol into feces also was promoted by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Plasma adiponectin levels in the rats fed a high-fat diet also tended to be elevated by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Thus, xanthohumol-rich hop extract may inhibit the increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol in the plasma and liver induced by feeding high-fat diet through the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism and inhibition of intestinal fat absorption. Therefore, xanthohumol-rich hop extract may exert preventive function on the increase of body weight and tissue triacylglycerol levels by overnutrition.

  10. Protective effect of gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on high fat diet-induced obese diabetic wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate, serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose, cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na + /K + ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o. for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na + /K + ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ′s weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorates visceral adiposity in C57BL/6J mice fed on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keun-Young; Lee, Hye Nam; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Taesun

    2008-07-01

    The aim of present study is to evaluate the effects of Garcinia cambogia on the mRNA levels of the various genes involved in adipogenesis, as well as on body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and other biochemical markers of obesity in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. Consumption of the Garcinia cambogia extract effectively lowered the body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, blood and hepatic lipid concentrations, and plasma insulin and leptin levels in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model. The Garcinia cambogia extract reversed the HFD-induced changes in the expression pattern of such epididymal adipose tissue genes as adipocyte protein aP2 (aP2), sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1c (SREBP1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2), and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha). These findings suggest that the Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorated HFD-induced obesity, probably by modulating multiple genes associated with adipogenesis, such as aP2, SREBP1c, PPARgamma2, and C/EBPalpha in the visceral fat tissue of mice.

  12. Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, Geetika

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Abdulkarimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c, proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT, 0.2 (LT, 0.4 (MT or 0.6% (HT thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the birds receiving the Thyme extract had lower plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c concentrations and proportional liver weights compared with the control birds (P<0.05. Liver absolute weight of MT birds and proportional fat weight of HT birds were lower than those of ZT birds (P<0.05. Liver color index of HT and MT birds was higher than that of ZT birds. In orthogonal comparisons, thyme extract supplementation diminished (P<0.05 the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-c and VLDL-c, decreased the proportional and absolute liver weight and proportional abdominal fat weight and increased the (P<0.05 liver colour index as compared to control. Significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was found between the thyme extract supplementation and plasma cholesterol, proportional abdominal fat weight and liver proportional weight, and a positive correlation (P<0.01 between the thyme extract supplementation and liver colour index. In conclusion, Thyme consumption in broiler chickens could improve the carcass quality to the consumers and net returns of the producers.

  14. Modeling and remodeling of human extraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombelli, Leonardo; Farina, Roberto; Marzola, Andrea; Bozzi, Leopoldo; Liljenberg, Birgitta; Lindhe, Jan

    2008-07-01

    The available studies on extraction wound repair in humans are affected by significant limitations and have failed to evaluate tissue alterations occurring in all compartments of the hard tissue defect. To monitor during a 6-month period the healing of human extraction sockets and include a semi-quantitative analysis of tissues and cell populations involved in various stages of the processes of modeling/remodeling. Twenty-seven biopsies, representative of the early (2-4 weeks, n=10), intermediate (6-8 weeks, n=6), and late phase (12-24 weeks, n=11) of healing, were collected and analysed. Granulation tissue that was present in comparatively large amounts in the early healing phase of socket healing, was in the interval between the early and intermediate observation phase replaced with provisional matrix and woven bone. The density of vascular structures and macrophages slowly decreased from 2 to 4 weeks over time. The presence of osteoblasts peaked at 6-8 weeks and remained almost stable thereafter; a small number of osteoclasts were present in a few specimens at each observation interval. The present findings demonstrated that great variability exists in man with respect to hard tissue formation within extraction sockets. Thus, whereas a provisional connective tissue consistently forms within the first weeks of healing, the interval during which mineralized bone is laid down is much less predictable.

  15. Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Cassia tora seeds on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. After being fed a HFD for two weeks, rats were orally dosed with Cassia seed ethanol extract (CSEE) (100, 200, or 300mg/kg) once daily for 8weeks. CSEE induced dose-dependent reductions in plasma lipid levels, as well as decreased the over hepatic lipid accumulation. Furthermore, CSEE treatment improved HFD-induced hepatic histological lesions. CSEE enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in the livers of HFD-fed rats. AMPK inhibition by compound C retarded CSEE-induced reduction in triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells stimulated by insulin. Our findings suggest that CSEE may regulate hepatic lipid homeostasis related with an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation with CSEE may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  16. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.. Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia.

  17. Effects of Silybum marianum Extract on High-Fat Diet Induced Metabolic Disorders in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayin Fatma Kubra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silybum marianum extract (SME has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for diseases of liver and biliary tract. Lately, it has been promoted as a nutritional supplement for beneficial effects on some risk factors of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of SME on high-fat diet (HFD induced metabolic disorders. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed HFD for 11 weeks to induce obesity. SME was given to animals for two different durations, for 11 weeks or for 7 weeks. The results showed significant increase in plasma transaminases, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, leptin, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, glucose and insulin along with significant increase in body mass index (BMI and liver weights in rats fed the HFD diet compared to rats fed with standard rat diet. SME supplementation for different durations raised improvement in the HFD-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hepatopathy at different degrees. Our study concludes that SME can be well considered as an effective supplement to improve insulin and leptin sensitivity and hyperlipidemia and to suppress body weight gain.

  18. NMR identification of endogenous metabolites interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-metabolite interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J.; Girard, Frederic C.; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2013-03-01

    Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (∼60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous metabolites, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous metabolites), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) metabolites. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous metabolite/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these metabolite-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty metabolites routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative concentrations with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the metabolites. In contrast, a significant number of the metabolites display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free concentrations in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free metabolite concentration, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these metabolites bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most metabolites their concentration is smaller than the HSA concentration. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the metabolite-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting metabolites. We further find

  19. The effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on the viability of human fat injected into nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, O; Shupak, A; Ullmann, Y; Ramon, Y; Gilhar, A; Kehat, I; Peled, I J

    2000-11-01

    Autologous free-fat injection for the correction of soft-tissue defects has become a common procedure in plastic surgery. The main shortcoming of this method for achieving permanent soft-tissue augmentation is the partial absorption of the injected fat, an occurrence that leads to the need for both overcorrection and repeated fat reinjection. Improving the oxygenation of the injected fat has been suggested as a means of helping to overcome the initial critical phase that occurs postinjection (when the fat cells are nourished by osmosis), increasing phagocyte activity, accelerating fibroblast activity and collagen formation, and enhancing angiogenesis. In addition, the hyperbaric oxygen-mediated decrement in endothelial leukocyte adhesion will decrease cytokine release, thereby reducing edema and inflammatory responses. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on improving the viability of injected fat. Adipose tissue obtained from human breasts by suction-assisted lipectomy was injected into the subcuticular nuchal region in nude mice. The mice were then exposed to daily hyperbaric oxygen treatments, breathing 100% oxygen at 2 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 90 minutes. The duration of the administered hyperbaric oxygen therapy was 5, 10, or 15 days, according to the study group. Mice exposed to normobaric air alone served as the control group, and each group included 10 animals. The rats were killed 15 weeks after fat injection. The grafts were dissected out, weight and volume were measured, and histologic evaluation was performed. In all of the study groups, at least part of the injected fat survived, giving the desired clinical outcome. No significant differences could be found between the groups regarding fat weight and volume. Histopathologic examination of the dissected grafts demonstrated a significantly better integrity of the fat tissue in the group that received hyperbaric oxygen for 5 days (p = 0.047). This

  20. Changing oxidation in whey fat concentrate upon addition of green tea extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Marianne; Nielsen, J; Sørensen, J

    2011-01-01

    Whey products with a high fat content are recognised to be more prone to oxidation compared to other dairy products, since whey fat is high in unsaturated phospholipids. Thus, strategies for inhibition of oxidation during processing and storage of high-fat whey products need to be developed....... The purpose of the present study was to find an antioxidant which effectively inhibits oxidation in whey fat concentrate (WFC) during accelerated storage (60 C) and to investigate the effect of the antioxidant on primary and secondary oxidation. The development of secondary lipid oxidation products...

  1. Cholesterol-lowering potential in human subjects of fat from pigs fed rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, B; Bügel, S; Lauridsen, C; Nielsen, F; Jensen, C; Skibsted, L H

    2000-08-01

    The possibility of achieving blood-lipid-lowering characteristics of pig fat by increasing the content of unsaturated fat in pig feed was evaluated. Three pig feeding regimens were applied: basal feed (no added fat or vitamin E), basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg feed), and basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg) + vitamin E (200 mg/kg). Meat and meat products from the three pig groups were incorporated into diets providing 86 g pig fat/10 MJ. The diets were served to twelve healthy human male subjects for 3 weeks each in a randomised crossover design. The diets prepared from pigs fed rapeseed oil had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (approximately 9 v. 11% of energy) and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (approximately 6 v. 4% of energy) than the diet prepared from pigs fed the basal feed. Diets based on fat from pigs fed the rapeseed oil resulted in significantly lower (approximately 4%, P = 0.019) total serum cholesterol concentration compared with the diet from pigs fed the basal feed. No differences were observed in LDL-, HDL- or VLDL-cholesterol, or in triacylglycerol or VLDL-triacylglycerol concentrations. Addition of vitamin E to the pig feed resulted in only a minor increase in vitamin E content in the human subjects' diet and the vitamin E content was low in all three pig diets. Plasma vitamin E concentration in the human subjects at the end of the period with diets from pigs fed rapeseed oil without vitamin E was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than in the other two diet periods. In conclusion, an increased content of rapeseed oil in pig feed changes the fatty acid composition of the pig fat in a way that has a potential to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in human subjects. However, intake of pig fat with a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids needs to be matched by a higher dietary intake of vitamin E.

  2. Survival of the fattest: fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Crawford, Michael A

    2003-09-01

    In the past 2 million years, the hominid lineage leading to modern humans evolved significantly larger and more sophisticated brains than other primates. We propose that the modern human brain was a product of having first evolved fat babies. Hence, the fattest (infants) became, mentally, the fittest adults. Human babies have brains and body fat each contributing to 11-14% of body weight, a situation which appears to be unique amongst terrestrial animals. Body fat in human babies provides three forms of insurance for brain development that are not available to other land-based species: (1) a large fuel store in the form of fatty acids in triglycerides; (2) the fatty acid precursors to ketone bodies which are key substrates for brain lipid synthesis; and (3) a store of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, needed for normal brain development. The triple combination of high fuel demands, inability to import cholesterol or saturated fatty acids, and dependence on docosahexaenoic acid puts the mammalian brain in a uniquely difficult situation compared with other organs and makes its expansion in early humans all the more remarkable. We believe that fresh- and salt-water shorelines provided a uniquely rich, abundant and accessible food supply, and the only viable environment for evolving both body fat and larger brains in human infants.

  3. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ∼40 and ∼1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed...... in systemic lipolysis. Adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid kinetics were unchanged with rhIL-6 compared with saline infusion. Conversely, rhIL-6 infusion caused an increase in skeletal muscle unidirectional fatty acid and glycerol release, indicative of an increase in lipolysis. The increased lipolysis...... in muscle could account for the systemic changes. Skeletal muscle signaling increased after 1 h of rhIL-6 infusion, indicated by a fourfold increase in the phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3-to-STAT3 ratio, whereas no changes in phosphorylated AMP-activated protein...

  4. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ~40 and ~1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed...... in systemic lipolysis. Adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid kinetics were unchanged with rhIL-6 compared with saline infusion. Conversely, rhIL-6 infusion caused an increase in skeletal muscle unidirectional fatty acid and glycerol release, indicative of an increase in lipolysis. The increased lipolysis...... in muscle could account for the systemic changes. Skeletal muscle signaling increased after 1 h of rhIL-6 infusion, indicated by a fourfold increase in the phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3-to-STAT3 ratio, whereas no changes in phosphorylated AMP-activated protein...

  5. Thermogenic activity of UCP1 in human white fat-derived beige adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartesaghi, Stefano; Hallen, Stefan; Huang, Li; Svensson, Per-Arne; Momo, Remi A; Wallin, Simonetta; Carlsson, Eva K; Forslöw, Anna; Seale, Patrick; Peng, Xiao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Heat-producing beige/brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes in white adipose tissue have the potential to suppress metabolic disease in mice and hold great promise for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Here, we demonstrate that human adipose-derived stromal/progenitor cells (hASCs) from subcutaneous white adipose tissue can be efficiently converted into beige adipocytes. Upon pharmacological activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, hASC-derived adipocytes activated beige fat-selective genes and a brown/beige fat-selective electron transport chain gene program. Importantly, hASC-derived beige fat cells displayed the bioenergetic characteristics of genuine brown fat cells, including a capacity for increased respiratory uncoupling in response to β-adrenergic agonists. Furthermore, knock-down experiments reveal that the thermogenic capacity of human beige fat cells was entirely dependent on the presence of Uncoupling protein 1. In summary, this study reveals that hASCs can be readily differentiated into beige adipocytes that, upon activation, undergo uncoupling protein 1-dependent thermogenesis.

  6. Diet-induced thermogenesis and satiety in humans after full-fat and reduced-fat meals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Wijckmans-Duijsens, N.E.; Verboeket-van de Venne, W.P.; Graaf, de K.; Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, van het K.H.

    1997-01-01

    Diet-induced thermogenesis was measured during and after a full-fat lunch, an identical but reduced-fat, reduced-energy lunch, and an iso-energetic reduced-fat lunch in 32 normal-weight men and women, age 35-55. Hunger and satiety were scored during and after the lunches, and their relationship to d

  7. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Abdulkarimi; Alimirza Aghazadeh; Mohsen Daneshyar

    2011-01-01

    A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c), proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT), 0.2 (LT), 0.4 (MT) or 0.6% (HT) thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the b...

  8. The crude extract from puerariae flower exerts antiobesity and antifatty liver effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Nagamine, Rika; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Shimada, Tsutomu; Aburada, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu, a leguminous plant, has long been used in folk medicine. In particular, its flowers are used in Japanese and Chinese folk medicine for treating hangovers. We focused on the flower of Kudzu (Puerariae thomsonii), and we previously reported the antiobesity effect of Puerariae thomsonii flower extract (PFE) in humans. In this study, we conducted an animal study to investigate the effect of PFE on visceral fat and hepatic lipid levels in mice with diet-induced obesity. In addition, we focused on gene expression profiles to investigate the antiobesity mechanism of PFE. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or an HFD supplemented with 5% PFE for 14 days. PFE supplementation significantly reduced body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight. Moreover, in the histological analysis, PFE supplementation improved fatty liver. Hepatic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that PFE supplementation downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression. For adipose tissue, the expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase in WAT and uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) were significantly upregulated. These results suggest that PFE exerts antiobesity and antifatty liver effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through suppressing lipogenesis in the liver, stimulating lipolysis in WAT, and promoting thermogenesis in BAT.

  9. The Crude Extract from Puerariae Flower Exerts Antiobesity and Antifatty Liver Effects in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyasu Kamiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kudzu, a leguminous plant, has long been used in folk medicine. In particular, its flowers are used in Japanese and Chinese folk medicine for treating hangovers. We focused on the flower of Kudzu (Puerariae thomsonii, and we previously reported the antiobesity effect of Puerariae thomsonii flower extract (PFE in humans. In this study, we conducted an animal study to investigate the effect of PFE on visceral fat and hepatic lipid levels in mice with diet-induced obesity. In addition, we focused on gene expression profiles to investigate the antiobesity mechanism of PFE. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD or an HFD supplemented with 5% PFE for 14 days. PFE supplementation significantly reduced body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT weight. Moreover, in the histological analysis, PFE supplementation improved fatty liver. Hepatic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that PFE supplementation downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression. For adipose tissue, the expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase in WAT and uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT were significantly upregulated. These results suggest that PFE exerts antiobesity and antifatty liver effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through suppressing lipogenesis in the liver, stimulating lipolysis in WAT, and promoting thermogenesis in BAT.

  10. Continuous feedings of fortified human milk lead to nutrient losses of fat, calcium and phosphorous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stefanie P; Hicks, Penni D; Hamzo, Maria; Veit, Lauren E; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-03-01

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre- and post-feeding (end-point) nutrient content of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), protein, and fat. Comparisons were made between continuous, gravity bolus, and 30-minute infusion pump feeding systems, as well as human milk fortified with donor human milk-based and bovine milk-based human milk fortifier using an in vitro model. Feeding method was significantly associated with fat and Ca losses, with increased losses in continuous feeds. Fat losses in continuous feeds were substantial, with 40 ± 3 % of initial fat lost during the feeding process. After correction for feeding method, human milk fortified with donor milk-based fortifier was associated with significantly less loss of Ca (8 ± 4% vs. 28 ± 4%, pmilk fortified with a bovine milk-based fortifier (Mean ± SEM).

  11. Effects of Sallropus androgynus (katuk leaf extract on growth, fat accumulation and fecal microorganisms in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Santoso

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of Sauropus androgynus leaf extract on growth, carcass quality and the number of fecal microorganisms in broiler chickens. Forty-eight male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (21-d-old obtained from a commercial hatchery were used in the present study. Experiment consisted of four treatment groups with four pen replicates of three broilers allotted randomly to each dietary treatment from day 21-42 old. One group was the control with no additional Sauropus androgynus leaf extract (SAE (P0, and other three groups were given drinking water supplemented with 1.5 g (PI, 3.0 g (P2 or 4.5 g SAE/l water (P3. The diet used was a commercial mix (Crude protein: 19% and Metabolizable Energy 3200 kcal/kg. Feed intake significantly reduced in P2 or P3 as compared with the control (P<0.05. A decrease in feed conversion ratio was observed in treatment groups as compared with Po (P<0.05. Abdominal fat, neck fat and liver fat content were significantly reduced by SAE (P<0.05, while carcass fat content was not significantly different. Number of fecal Escherichia coli in P1 or P3 (P<0,01 and fecal Streptococcus sp and Salmonella sp. were significantly (P<0,01 reduced by SAE supplementation as compared with the control, while fecal Bacillus subtilis in P2 and Lactobacillus sp. in P1 (P<0,01 were significantly higher as compared with other groups. SAE (P2 or P3 also significantly improved meat taste, shank color but lowered meat color (P<0.05 as compared with the control group. It was found that the number of fecal Streptococcus sp was suitable to predict abdominal fat. In conclusion, the inclusion of SAE at 4.5 g/l drinking water resulted in the best performance and carcass quality.

  12. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Serum and Several Different Fat Compartments in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chemicals that store in lipid-rich compartments have the potential for long-term disruption of metabolic and endocrine processes. Given the evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs also alter systemic metabolic, endocrine, and immune system functions, it follows that elevated chemical concentrations in intra-abdominal fat may alter function, through local chemical signaling, of visceral organs. Despite this potential, there has been little study defining POP concentrations in live human intra-abdominal fat. It is at present uncertain whether POPs distribute equally to all fat compartments, including fat in serum. Methods. Seven human subjects scheduled for elective surgery for benign lesions or cancer provided consent for removal of samples of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat and/or cancerous tissue. These samples were analyzed for 22 chlorinated pesticides and 10 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners by GC/ECD plus GC/MS. Results. In only two subjects were the patterns and relative concentrations of PCBs and pesticides about the same in all fat compartments. In the other subjects, there were major differences in levels in subcutaneous as compared to other compartments, but with some higher and some lower. While the pattern of PCBs in the various compartments matched that of the pesticides in some, it was opposite in others. Interpretation. These results demonstrate a complicated distribution of PCB congeners and pesticides in various lipid compartments. The difference may reflect various Kows, different rates of metabolism, and/or different lengths of exposure. But the results suggest that contaminant levels in serum or even subcutaneous fat do not necessarily indicate concentrations and patterns in other kinds of adipose tissue.

  13. FAT AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN HUMANS-A Study of Nutritional and Hormonal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J

    1960-09-01

    As an index to the rate of fat utilization in human subjects, the recovery of all radioactive carbon dioxide in the expired air was measured for one hour following intravenous injection of palmitate-1-C(14). In the normal fasted subject, about 10 per cent of the injected dose was recovered, and the proportion was lowered to about 5 per cent by administration of glucose. With prolonged fasting, the recovery of radioactive carbon dioxide did not change, despite a rising concentration of fatty acids in the serum. This was interpreted as due to the development of a balance between increasing mobilization and oxidation and was thought to indicate increasing fatty acid oxidation. In chronic undernutrition and diabetes mellitus there was increased fatty acid oxidation due presumably to adaptation to a chronic increase in fat utilization for energy. Administration of human growth hormone did not increase fat oxidation but prevented the usual inhibition produced by glucose. This was interpreted to mean that growth hormone increases fat utilization only indirectly by inhibiting the usual preferential utilization of glucose over fat.

  14. Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lee, Chang Gun; Kim, Sung Woo; Gim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Jung, Bae Dong

    2015-01-01

    .... In this study, we assessed whether Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) 761 could provide beneficial effects in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM and high-fat diet-induced type 2 DM murine model system...

  15. Protective Effects of Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea Extract against High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Atiqah Aizan Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Cyphomandra betacea in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet. Rats were fed on either normal chow or high fat diet for 10 weeks for obesity induction phase and subsequently received C. betacea extract at low dose (150 mg kg−1, medium dose (200 mg kg−1, or high dose (300 mg kg−1 or placebo via oral gavages for another 7 weeks for treatment phase. Treatment of obese rats with C. betacea extracts led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in HDL-C (p<0.05. Also there was a trend of positive reduction in blood glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-C with positive reduction of body weight detected in medium and high dosage of C. betacea extract. Interestingly, C. betacea treated rats showed positive improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity along with a significant increase of total antioxidant status (TAS (p<0.05. Further, rats treated with C. betacea show significantly lower in TNF-α and IL-6 activities (p<0.05. This study demonstrates the potential use of Cyphomandra betacea extract for weight maintenance and complimentary therapy to suppress some obesity complication signs.

  16. Functional and pharmacological characterization of the natriuretic peptide-dependent lipolytic pathway in human fat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cedric; Galitzky, Jean; Sengenes, Coralie; Crampes, François; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel

    2004-03-01

    A lipolytic pathway involving natriuretic peptides has recently been discovered in human fat cells. Its functional characteristics and the interactions of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-induced effects with adrenergic and insulin pathways were studied. Characterization of the action of ANP antagonists, i.e., A71915, anantin, S-28-Y (Ser-28-Tyr, a synthesized peptide), and HS-142-1 (a microbial polysaccharide), was performed. Lipolytic assays and intracellular cGMP and cAMP determinations were performed on isolated fat cells. Cell membranes were used for binding studies. At low concentrations ANP and isoproterenol [beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) agonist] exerted additive lipolytic effects. The alpha(2)-AR pathway did not interfere with that of ANP. Lipolytic effects of ANP were unaltered by a 2-h pretreatment of fat cells with insulin, whereas beta-AR-induced lipolysis was reduced. Homologous desensitization occurred for ANP-dependent lipolytic pathways. Dendroapsis natriuretic peptide exhibited a similar maximal effect but a 10-fold higher lipolytic potency than ANP and mini-ANP (the shortest form of ANP). The antagonist A71915 exhibited competitive antagonistic properties with a pA(2) value of 7.51. Anantin displayed noncompetitive antagonism and exerted an inhibitory action on basal and beta-adrenergic receptor-induced lipolytic response. S-28-Y exhibited antagonist potencies toward ANP-induced lipolysis and behaved as a partial lipolytic agonist with a lower pD(2) value (7.4 +/- 0.2) than ANP (9.4 +/- 0.3). HS-142-1 exerted the weakest antagonistic effects. The results demonstrate that ANP-dependent effects do not interfere with beta- and alpha(2)-adrenergic pathways in human fat cells. They are unaffected by insulin pretreatments of fat cells but undergo desensitization. In the search of potent and specific natriuretic peptide receptor-A antagonist, in the human fat cell, A71915 was the only reliable one found.

  17. Grape pomace and grape pomace extract improve insulin signaling in high-fat-fructose fed rat-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Perdicaro, Diahann Jeanette; Antoniolli, Andrea; Fontana, Ariel Ramón; Miatello, Roberto Miguel; Bottini, Rubén; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In this study the effect of diet supplementation with grape pomace (GP) and grape pomace extract (GPE) on insulin sensitive tissues (adipose, liver and muscle) was evaluated in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS was developed by giving a high-fat-fructose (HFF) diet to Wistar rats. Six weeks of HFF diet induced weight gain, which was partially attenuated by GP (1 g per kg per day) and GPE (300 mg per kg per day) supplementation. HFF diet increased systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin resistance (HOMA:IR) and inflammation (c-reactive protein (CRP)). Supplementation with GP prevented SBP, triglycerides and CRP increased and partially attenuated insulin resistance. On the other hand, GPE partially reduced SBP and triglycerides and significantly prevented insulin resistance and inflammation. Also, HFF diet induced higher triglycerides content and enhanced NADPH oxidase activity in the liver. Also, HFF diet increased the epididymal adipose tissue weight, enlarged adipocyte size, and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, probably contributing to a pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern (higher resistin) and lower adiponectin protein expression. These alterations may result in an impairment of insulin signaling cascade observed in adipose, liver and muscle tissue (IRS1, Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2)) from HFF rats. Supplementation with GP and to a greater extent GPE attenuated liver triglyceride content and adiposity and restored adipose, liver and muscle response to insulin. These findings show that supplementation with GP and GPE to a greater extent can counteract adiposity, inflammation, liver damage and impaired insulin signaling associated to MetS, supporting the utilization of winemaking residues in food industry/human health due to their high amount of bioactive compounds.

  18. Divergent effects of central melanocortin signalling on fat and sucrose preference in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Keogh, Julia M.; Henning, Elana; Stephenson, Cheryl; Kelway, Sarah; Trowse, Victoria M.; Subramanian, Naresh; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Fletcher, Paul C.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R)-expressing neurons modulate food intake and preference in rodents but their role in human food preference is unknown. Here we show that compared with lean and weight-matched controls, MC4R deficient individuals exhibited a markedly increased preference for high fat, but a significantly reduced preference for high sucrose food. These effects mirror those in Mc4r null rodents and provide evidence for a central molecular circuit influencing human macronutrient preference. PMID:27701398

  19. Double transgenesis of humanized fat1 and fat2 genes promotes omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesis in a zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shao-Chen; Wang, Hou-Peng; Li, Kuo-Yu; Zhu, Zuo-Yan; Kang, Jing X; Sun, Yong-Hua

    2014-10-01

    Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are essential nutrients for human health. However, vertebrates, including humans, have lost the abilities to synthesize EPA and DHA de novo, majorly due to the genetic absence of delta-12 desaturase and omega-3 desaturase genes. Fishes, especially those naturally growing marine fish, are major dietary source of EPA and DHA. Because of the severe decline of marine fishery and the decrease in n-3 LC-PUFA content of farmed fishes, it is highly necessary to develop alternative sources of n-3 LC-PUFA. In the present study, we utilized transgenic technology to generate n-3 LC-PUFA-rich fish by using zebrafish as an animal model. Firstly, fat1 was proved to function efficiently in fish culture cells, which showed an effective conversion of n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA with the n-6/n-3 ratio that decreased from 7.7 to 1.1. Secondly, expression of fat1 in transgenic zebrafish increased the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 contents to 1.8- and 2.4-fold, respectively. Third, co-expression of fat2, a fish codon-optimized delta-12 desaturase gene, and fat1 in fish culture cell significantly promoted n-3 PUFA synthesis with the decreased n-6/n-3 ratio from 7.7 to 0.7. Finally, co-expression of fat1 and fat2 in double transgenic zebrafish increased the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 contents to 1.7- and 2.8-fold, respectively. Overall, we generated two types of transgenic zebrafish rich in endogenous n-3 LC-PUFA, fat1 transgenic zebrafish and fat1/fat2 double transgenic zebrafish. Our results demonstrate that application of transgenic technology of humanized fat1 and fat2 in farmed fishes can largely improve the n-3 LC-PUFA production.

  20. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil and non-food (bio fuel applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  1. Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  2. Changes of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate Content Alter Central and Peripheral Clock in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Olga; Jürchott, Karsten; Rudovich, Natalia; Hornemann, Silke; Ye, Lu; Möckel, Simona; Murahovschi, Veronica; Kessler, Katharina; Seltmann, Anne-Cathrin; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Mazuch, Jeannine; Kruse, Michael; Busjahn, Andreas; Kramer, Achim; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2015-06-01

    The circadian clock coordinates numerous metabolic processes with light-dark and feeding regimens. However, in humans it is unknown whether dietary patterns influence circadian rhythms. We examined the effects of switching from a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet to a low-carbohydrate, high fat (LC/HFD) isocaloric diet on the central and peripheral circadian clocks in humans. Diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol and gene expression were analyzed in blood monocytes of 29 nonobese healthy subjects before and 1 and 6 weeks after the dietary switch. For this, we established a method of rhythm prediction by 3-time point data. The centrally driven cortisol rhythm showed a phase delay 1 and 6 weeks after the dietary switch to a LC/HFD as well as an amplitude increase. The dietary switch altered diurnal oscillations of core clock genes (PER1, PER2, PER3, and TEF) and inflammatory genes (CD14, CD180, NFKBIA, and IL1B). The LC/HFD also affected the expression of nonoscillating genes contributing to energy metabolism (SIRT1) and fat metabolism (ACOX3 and IDH3A). Expression of clock genes but not of salivary cortisol in monocytes tightly correlated with levels of blood lipids and with expression of metabolic and inflammatory genes. Our results suggest that the modulation of the dietary fat and carbohydrate content alters the function of the central and peripheral circadian clocks in humans.

  3. Type of homogenization and fat loss during continuous infusion of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Alonso Díaz, Clara; Vázquez Román, Sara; De la Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2014-11-01

    Substantial fat loss may occur during continuous feeding of human milk (HM). A decrease of fat loss has been described following homogenization. Well-established methods of homogenization of HM for routine use in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) would be desirable. We compared the loss of fat based on the use of 3 different methods for homogenizing thawed HM during continuous feeding. Sixteen frozen donor HM samples were thawed, homogenized with ultrasound and separated into 3 aliquots ("baseline agitation," "hourly agitation," and "ultrasound"), and then frozen for 48 hours. Aliquots were thawed again and a baseline agitation was applied. Subsequently, aliquots baseline agitation and hourly agitation were drawn into a syringe, while ultrasound was applied to aliquot ultrasound before it was drawn into a syringe. The syringes were loaded into a pump (2 mL/h; 4 hours). At hourly intervals the hourly agitation infusion was stopped, the syringe was disconnected and gently shaken. During infusion, samples from the 3 groups were collected hourly for analysis of fat and caloric content. The 3 groups of homogenization showed similar fat content at the beginning of the infusion. For fat, mean (SD) hourly changes of -0.03 (0.01), -0.09 (0.01), and -0.09 (0.01) g/dL were observed for the hourly agitation, baseline agitation, and ultrasound groups, respectively. The decrease was smaller for the hourly agitation group (P fat loss is observed when syringes are agitated hourly versus when ultrasound or a baseline homogenization is used. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  5. Developmental changes in the response of the fat body of Manduca sexta to injections of Corpora cardiaca extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, R

    1984-04-01

    The Corpora cardiaca of larval and adult Manduca sexta contain glycogen phosphorylase-activating and adipokinetic activity. Depending on the age of the injected animal, injection of Corpora cardiaca extracts induces different responses. In larvae of the 1st and 2nd day of the Vth instar, phosphorylase is activated strongly by injections of Corpora cardiaca extracts, whereas in older animals it is only slightly activated. Mobilization of lipids in response to Corpora cardiaca extract injections is found only in animals injected after the imaginal molt; in younger animals this response is absent. It is argued that this difference in responsiveness may be due to a change in the properties of the target organ fat body.

  6. Anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmin; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jaehun; Aprianita, Heny; Nam, Heesop; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in C57BL/6N mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). We determined the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) on the progression of HFD-induced obesity for 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: the normal diet (ND) group (n=10); the HFD group (n=10); the mice fed HFD and 100 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); those fed a HFD and 200 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); and those fed a HFD and 400 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10). Changes in body weight, fat content, serum lipid levels and lipogenic enzyme levels were measured. The consumption of boiled tuna extract lowered epididymal tissue weight and exerted anti-obesity effects, as reflected by the serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin and leptin levels. In addition, we demonstrated changes in liver adipogenic- and lipogenic-related protein expression by western blot analysis. Boiled tuna extract downregulated the levels of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, β and δ (C/EBPα, β, δ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Boiled tuna extract also attenuated adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, namely the levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α and β (AMPKα, β) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the consumption of boiled tuna extract restored the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) to those of the control group. These results

  7. Regular-Fat Dairy and Human Health: A Synopsis of Symposia Presented in Europe and North America (2014–2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Rice Bradley, Beth H.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Delplanque, Bernadette; Ferry, Monique; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014) in Canada, The American Society for Nutrition Annual Meeting held in conjunction with Experimental Biology (2015) in the United States, and The Federation of European Nutrition Societies (2015) in Germany. This synopsis of these symposia describes the complexity of dairy fat and the effects regular-fat dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted. PMID:27483308

  8. Regular-Fat Dairy and Human Health: A Synopsis of Symposia Presented in Europe and North America (2014-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Rice Bradley, Beth H; Brenna, J Thomas; Delplanque, Bernadette; Ferry, Monique; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises

    2016-07-29

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014) in Canada, The American Society for Nutrition Annual Meeting held in conjunction with Experimental Biology (2015) in the United States, and The Federation of European Nutrition Societies (2015) in Germany. This synopsis of these symposia describes the complexity of dairy fat and the effects regular-fat dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted.

  9. Antiobesity effect of Tamarindus indica L. pulp aqueous extract in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Shah, Zamree Md; Kadir, Khairul Kamilah Abdul

    2012-04-01

    Obesity and overweight are associated with atherosclerosis, fatty liver, hyperlipemia, diabetes mellitus, and various types of cancer. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Here, we investigated the effect of Tamarindus indica pulp aqueous extract (TIE) in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into five groups and labeled as follows: the normal control (NC) group received normal diet; the positive control (PC) group received high-fat diet; and the TIE 5, 25, and 50 groups, after the induction of obesity via a high-fat diet, received TIE at 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg orally for 10 weeks. It was observed that TIE decreased the levels of plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride, and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL), with the concomitant reduction of body weight. Moreover, TIE decreased plasma leptin and reduced fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity and enhanced the efficiency of the antioxidant defense system. TIE exhibits antiobesity effects, as indicated by a significant reduction in adipose tissue weights, as well as lowering the degree of hepatic steatosis in the obesity-induced rats. The extract possesses hepatoprotective activity, as it reversed the plasma liver enzymes level elevation prior to the high-fat diet. In conclusion, TIE improved obesity-related parameters in blood, liver, and adipose tissue in a rat model and suppressed obesity induced by a high-fat diet, possibly by regulating lipid metabolism and lowering plasma leptin and FAS levels. A dose-dependant effect of TIE is detected, where TIE at 50 mg/kg showed the most prominent effect, followed by TIE at 25 mg/kg and, subsequently, 5 mg/kg.

  10. A limit on the energy transfer rate from the human fat store in hypophagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Seymour S

    2005-03-07

    A limit on the maximum energy transfer rate from the human fat store in hypophagia is deduced from experimental data of underfed subjects maintaining moderate activity levels and is found to have a value of (290+/-25) kJ/kgd. A dietary restriction which exceeds the limited capability of the fat store to compensate for the energy deficiency results in an immediate decrease in the fat free mass (FFM). In cases of a less severe dietary deficiency, the FFM will not be depleted. The transition between these two dietary regions is developed and a criterion to distinguish the regions is defined. An exact mathematical solution for the decrease of the FFM is derived for the case where the fat mass (FM) is in its limited energy transfer mode. The solution shows a steady-state term which is in agreement with conventional ideas, a term indicating a slow decrease of much of the FFM moderated by the limited energy transferred from the fat store, and a final term showing an unprotected rapid decrease of the remaining part of the FFM. The average resting metabolic rate of subjects undergoing hypophagia is shown to decrease linearly as a function of the FFM with a slope of (249+/-25) kJ/kgd. This value disagrees with the results of other observers who have measured metabolic rates of diverse groups. The disagreement is explained in terms of individual metabolic properties as opposed to those of the larger population.

  11. Dietary fat induces sustained reward response in the human brain without primary taste cortex discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eTzieropoulos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To disentangle taste from reward responses in the human gustatory cortex, we combined high density electro-encephalography with a gustometer delivering tastant puffs to the tip of the tongue. Stimuli were pure tastants (salt solutions at two concentrations, caloric emulsions of identical taste (two milk preparations differing in fat content and a mixture of high fat milk with the lowest salt concentration. Early event-related potentials showed a dose-response effect for increased taste intensity, with higher amplitude and shorter latency for high compared to low salt concentration, but not for increased fat content. However, the amplitude and distribution of late potentials were modulated by fat content independently of reported intensity and discrimination. Neural source estimation revealed a sustained activation of reward areas to the two high-fat stimuli. The results suggest calorie detection through specific sensors on the tongue independent of perceived taste. Finally, amplitude variation of the first peak in the event-related potential to the different stimuli correlated with papilla density, suggesting a higher discrimination power for subjects with more fungiform papillae.

  12. Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Sun Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  13. Anti-obesity effect of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf in lean rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hafeedza Abdul; Sahib, Najla Gooda; Saari, Nazamid; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2017-02-22

    Obesity is a major health concern both in developed and developing countries. The use of herbal medicines became the subject of interest for the management of obesity due to its natural origin, cost effectiveness and minimal side effects. The present study aimed at investigating anti-obesity potential of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf (EECCL). In this study, the rats were randomly divided into six groups i.e., (1) Normal Diet (ND); (2) Normal Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 175 mg/kgBW); (3) Normal Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 350 mg/kgBW); (4) High Fat Diet (HFD); (5) High Fat Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 175 mg/kgBW); (6) High Fat Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 350 mg/kgBW). The anti-obesity potential was evaluated through analyses of changes in body weight, visceral fat weight, and blood biochemicals including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), leptin, insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin and fecal fat content. In addition, metabolite profiling of EECCL was carried out using NMR spectroscopy. Rats receiving EECCL together with HFD showed significant (p rats receiving HFD only. At the end of study, the body weight gain of EECCL treated rats was not significantly (p > 0.05) different with those of ND rats. Other related obesity biomarkers including plasma lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels also showed significant improvement (p < 0.05). Administration of EECCL caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in fecal fat excretion, which validates the hypothesis of lipase inhibition, an anti-obesity mechanism similar to standard drug of Orlistat. The (1)H-NMR spectra of EECCL ascertained the presence of catechin, quercetin, rutin, kaempherol and chlorogenic acid in the extract. Conclusively, EECCL showed anti-obesity properties by inhibition of intestinal lipid absorption and

  14. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Rivera-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  15. Anti-obesity effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract on high fat diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Bhandari, U; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, G

    2013-12-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. BR. (Asclepiadaceae) has been used frequently in traditional Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Study was performed in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in murine model. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of HFD for 28 days. The anti obesity effect of water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre extract (120 mg/kg, p.o. for 21 days) in HFD fed rats was evaluated by the measurement of body weight gain, food intake, hemodynamic changes (systolic, diastolic, mean blood pressure and heart rate), serum lipid profiles (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol), leptin, insulin, glucose, apolipoproteins A1 and B, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and antioxidant enzymes such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels in liver tissues. Organs and visceral fat pad weight were measured. Histopathological studies were also carried out. Water soluble fraction of G. sylvestre ethanolic extract and rimonabant significantly reduced serum lipids, leptin, insulin, glucose, apolipoprotein B and LDH levels while it significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and antioxidant enzymes levels in liver tissue as compared to the HFD fed rats. Histopathological studies of tissues showed no pathological changes. The results of this study show that water soluble fraction of G. sylvestre extract possess antiobesity effect.

  16. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ramírez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity. PMID:22174560

  17. Anti-lipogenic effect of Senna alata leaf extract in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jarinyaporn Naowaboot; Supaporn Wannasiri

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of Senna alata(S. alata) leaf extracts on the regulation of lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.Methods: The obesity condition was induced in the male ICR mice by feeding them with high-fat diet(45 kcal% fat) for 12 weeks. At the 7th week of diet feeding, the obese mice were treated with the water extract of S. alata leaf at 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, respectively, that continued for six weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the biochemical parameters were determined. The hepatic histology and the gene and protein expressions were also examined.Results: In comparison with the obese control mice, the mice treated with S. alata showed a significant reduction in the elevated blood glucose levels and a decrease in the serum insulin and leptin levels. A reduction in the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride,non-esterified fatty acid, and hepatic triglyceride levels were also observed. The histological examination of the obese mice treated with S. alata showed a reduced lipid accumulation in the liver tissue. Hepatic lipogenic gene expression showed that S. alata decreased the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase,and acetyl-Co A carboxylase. S. alata could suppress hepatic peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor gamma(PPARg) protein. Moreover, the protein expression of PPARa in liver tissue was clearly increased by S. alata treatment.Conclusion: The treatment with S. alata could decrease several parameters of impaired lipid metabolism in the obese mice by downregulating sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and PPARg and upregulating PPARa. This study is the first report on the role of S. alata leaf extract in alleviating the abnormal lipid metabolism in obese conditions.

  18. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  19. On the binding ratio of α-cyclodextrin to dietary fat in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen KLC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available KL Catherine Jen,1,2 George Grunberger,3 Joseph D Artiss2,4 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2ArtJen Complexus Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada; 3The Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD, a soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to bind and eliminate nine times of its own weight in dietary fat. Studies with different animal models have reported that α-CD preferentially binds saturated fatty acids, reducing saturated and trans fatty acid levels in blood. A clinical trial demonstrated that α-CD prevented weight gain in obese diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether α-CD also shows a preference in binding saturated fatty acids in humans and to confirm the 1:9 binding ratio in humans. Sixty-six obese diabetic patients were recruited at the beginning of this 3-month, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to the Active or Placebo group. Blood samples and 3-day dietary records were collected at baseline and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. A bottle of 180 tablets of active or placebo tablets was dispensed to each participant at the beginning of each month. Dietary records were analyzed using The Food Processor software. It was observed that α-CD has a higher affinity towards saturated fats than to unsaturated fats. Participants with higher intakes of total and saturated fat lost more weight than those with lower intakes (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively. These data support the earlier observation in both in vitro and animal studies that α-CD binds with dietary fat in a 1:9 ratio and further demonstrate the efficacy of α-CD in binding to and eliminating dietary fat, especially saturated fats. α-CD may play a significant role in reducing blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as stopping

  20. Water extract of the fungi from Fuzhuan brick tea improves the beneficial function on inhibiting fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuxuan; Xiong, Zhe; Li, Juan; Huang, Jian-An; Teng, Cuiqin; Gong, Yushun; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT) is traditionally consumed by the ethnic group in the border region of northwest China. The unique yellow fungal (Eurotium cristatum) growth phase is considered to be the key process point in the manufacture of the brick tea. The fungi from FBT are not only strongly correlated to the quality of brick tea, but also have the potential function of preventing obesity. The water extract of fungi (100 μg/mL) can significantly inhibit fat deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocyte and Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, the inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipocyte formation was not due to the suppression on cell viability.

  1. Bisphenol A is related to circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin, but not to fat mass or fat distribution in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönn, Monika; Lind, Lars; Örberg, Jan; Kullberg, Joel; Söderberg, Stefan; Larsson, Anders; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Lind, P Monica

    2014-10-01

    Since bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce obesity in experimental studies, we explored the associations between BPA and fat mass, fat distribution and circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin in humans. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), fat mass and fat distribution were determined in 70-year-old men and women (n=890) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n=287). Serum levels of BPA were analyzed using isotope liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometer (API4000LC-MS/MS). Hormone levels were analyzed with radioimmunoassays (RIA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Imaging was performed approximately two years following collection of other data. Serum concentrations of BPA were not related to adipose tissue measurements by DXA or MRI. BPA associated positively with adiponectin and leptin, but negatively with ghrelin, following adjustments for sex, height, fat mass, lean mass, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, energy intake, and educational levels (p<0.001, p=0.009, p<0.001, respectively). The relationship between BPA and ghrelin was stronger in women than in men. Although no relationships between BPA levels and measures of fat mass were seen, BPA associated strongly with the adipokines adiponectin and leptin and with the gut-hormone ghrelin suggesting that BPA may interfere with hormonal control of hunger and satiety. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Ubc9 Impairs Activation of the Brown Fat Energy Metabolism Program in Human White Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Sean M; Bader, David A; Abadie, Kathleen V; Motamed, Massoud; Hamilton, Mark P; Long, Weiwen; York, Brian; Mueller, Michaela; Wagner, Martin; Trauner, Michael; Chan, Lawrence; Bajaj, Mandeep; Moore, David D; Mancini, Michael A; McGuire, Sean E

    2015-09-01

    Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) result from an inability to efficiently store and catabolize surplus energy in adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipocytes protect against insulin resistance and T2DM by coupling differentiation with the induction of brown fat gene programs for efficient energy metabolism. Mechanisms that disrupt these programs in adipocytes are currently poorly defined, but represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of T2DM. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we performed a high-throughput microscopy screen that identified ubiquitin carrier protein 9 (Ubc9) as a negative regulator of energy storage in human sc adipocytes. Ubc9 depletion enhanced energy storage and induced the brown fat gene program in human sc adipocytes. Induction of adipocyte differentiation resulted in decreased Ubc9 expression commensurate with increased brown fat gene expression. Thiazolidinedione treatment reduced the interaction between Ubc9 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, suggesting a mechanism by which Ubc9 represses PPARγ activity. In support of this hypothesis, Ubc9 overexpression remodeled energy metabolism in human sc adipocytes by selectively inhibiting brown adipocyte-specific function. Further, Ubc9 overexpression decreased uncoupling protein 1 expression by disrupting PPARγ binding at a critical uncoupling protein 1 enhancer region. Last, Ubc9 is significantly elevated in sc adipose tissue isolated from mouse models of insulin resistance as well as diabetic and insulin-resistant humans. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a critical role for Ubc9 in the regulation of sc adipocyte energy homeostasis.

  3. Enhancement of Fat Oxidation by Licorice Flavonoid Oil in Healthy Humans during Light Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Noriyuki; Nakanishi, Saki; Shiomi, Seiko; Kiyokawa, Shoko; Kakimoto, Sachie; Nakagawa, Kaku; Hosoe, Kazunori; Minami, Kazuhiro; Nadamoto, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) is a new functional food ingredient consisting of hydrophobic licorice polyphenols in medium-chain triglycerides. Recent studies reported that LFO prevented and ameliorated diet-induced obesity via the regulation of lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the livers of mice and rats, while it reduced body weight in overweight human subjects by reducing total body fat. However, the direct effects of LFO on energy metabolism have not been studied in human subjects. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ingestion of LFO on energy metabolism, including fat oxidation, by measuring body surface temperature under resting conditions and respiratory gas analysis under exercise conditions in healthy humans. We showed that ingestion of a single 600 mg dose of LFO elevated body trunk skin temperature when measured in a slightly cooled air-conditioned room, and increased oxygen consumption and decreased the respiratory exchange ratio as measured by respiratory gas analysis during 40% Vo2max exercise with a cycle ergometer. Furthermore, repeated ingestion of 300 mg of LFO for 8 d decreased respiratory exchange during the recovery period following 40 min of 30% Vo2max exercise on a treadmill. These results suggest that LFO enhances fat oxidation in humans during light exercise.

  4. Grape seed and skin extract reduces pancreas lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in high fat diet fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Faten; Charradi, Kamel; Hichami, Aziz; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of diabetes and the mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the pancreas are poorly understood. We studied the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on pancreas steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced body weight gain, without affecting insulinemia, nor glycemia and dropped adiponectemia. HFD also provoked the ectopic deposition of cholesterol and triglyceride, and an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as CAT, GPx and SOD, depletion of zinc and a concomitant increase in calcium and H2O2. HFD induced pro-inflammatory chemokines mRNA as RANTES and MCP1 as well as cytokines expression as TNFα, IL6 and IL1β. Importantly GSSE counteracted all the deleterious effects of HFD on pancreas in vivo i-e lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation. In conclusion, GSSE could find potential applications in fat-induced pancreas lipotoxicity and dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. White Tea extract induces lipolytic activity and inhibits adipogenesis in human subcutaneous (pre-adipocytes

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    Wenck Horst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dramatic increase in obesity-related diseases emphasizes the need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fat metabolism. To investigate how natural substances influence lipolysis and adipogenesis, we determined the effects of White Tea extract on cultured human subcutaneous preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods For our in vitro studies we used a White Tea extract solution that contained polyphenols and methylxanthines. Utilizing cultured human preadipocytes we investigated White Tea extract solution-induced inhibition of triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis and possible effects on cell viability. In vitro studies on human adipocytes were performed aiming to elucidate the efficacy of White Tea extract solution to stimulate lipolytic activity. To characterize White Tea extract solution-mediated effects on a molecular level, we analyzed gene expression of essential adipogenesis-related transcription factors by qRT-PCR and determined the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c on the protein level utilizing immunofluorescence analysis. Results Our data show that incubation of preadipocytes with White Tea extract solution significantly decreased triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner (n = 10 without affecting cell viability (n = 10. These effects were, at least in part, mediated by EGCG (n = 10, 50 μM. In addition, White Tea extract solution also stimulated lipolytic activity in adipocytes (n = 7. Differentiating preadipocytes cultivated in the presence of 0.5% White Tea extract solution showed a decrease in PPARγ, ADD1/SREBP-1c, C/EBPα and C/EBPδ mRNA levels. Moreover, the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c was not only decreased on the mRNA but also on the protein level. Conclusion White Tea extract is a natural source that effectively inhibits adipogenesis and stimulates lipolysis-activity. Therefore, it can be utilized to

  6. Elicited soybean (Glycine max L.) extract improves regulatory T cell activity in high fat-fructose diet mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atho'illah, Mochammad Fitri; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder characterized by the central distribution of abdominal fat, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. A high-fat diet can lead to overnutrition and directly trigger inflammation in adipose tissue. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential negative regulators of inflammation. Soybean (Glycine max L.) has a variety of beneficial health. It contains isoflavones, particularly daidzein and genistein which can be transformed using microbial and physical stimuli to enhance bioactivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of elicited soybean extract (ESE) on Treg activity in high fat-fructose (HFFD) mice. Twenty-eight female Balb/C mice were divided into seven groups: normal diet (ND) only, ND + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, HFFD only, HFFD + Simvastatin 2.8 mg/kg, HFFD + ESE 78 mg/kg BW, HFFD + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, and HFFD + ESE 130 mg/kg BW. The high fat-fructose diet was given over a period of 20 weeks, and ESE was administered orally per day after 20 weeks for four weeks. At week 24, the animals were sacrificed and the spleen was collected. Tregs were labeled as CD4+CD25+CD62L+ and the relative Treg number was measured using flow cytometry. The HFFD treatment significantly decreased Treg number (p < 0.05) compared to a normal diet. The ESE treatment in HFFD mice could improve Treg numbers compared to HFFD mice. Our results suggest that ESE has potential to be used as a supplement to suppress chronic inflammation via increased Treg number.

  7. Anti-Obesity Effects of Aster spathulifolius Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa-Jic; Bang, Chae-Young; Guo, Yuan-Ri; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Rats were separately fed a normal diet or a HFD for 8 weeks, then they were treated with ASE (62.5, 125, or 250 mg/kg) for another 4.5 weeks. The ASE supplementation significantly lowered body weight gain, visceral fat pad weights, serum lipid levels, as well as hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese rats. Histological analysis showed that the ASE-treated group showed lowered numbers of lipid droplets and smaller size of adipocytes compared to the HFD group. To understand the mechanism of action of ASE, the expression of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in liver and skeletal muscle. The expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes (e.g., PPAR-α, ACO, CPT1, UCP2, and UCP3) of HFD-induced obese rats were increased by ASE treatment. On the other hand, ASE treatment resulted in decreased expression of fat intake-related gene ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS, SCD1, GPATR, AGPAT, and DGAT). Furthermore, ASE treatment increased the level of phosphorylated AMPKα in obese rats. Similarly, the level of phosphorylated ACC, a target protein of AMPKα in ASE groups, was increased by ASE treatment compared with the HFD group. These results suggest that ASE attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the regulation of AMPK activity and the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  8. Novel bitter melon extracts highly yielded from supercritical extraction reduce the adiposity through the enhanced lipid metabolism in mice fed a high fat diet

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    Li Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia is a species of edible plant known for its medicinal value towards diabetes and obesity. Due to the various compositions of bitter melon extracts (BME, the comprehensive knowledge concerning their anti-obesity effects was insufficient. Here we first introduced supercritical extraction to BME's preparation, (supercritical extraction is a relatively advanced extraction method with a better efficiency and selectivity and expected to be extensively used in future applications and the resultants were subjected to HPLC analysis, validating the presence of 42.60% of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA, cis9, trans11, trans13-18:3 and 13.17% of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis9, trans11-18:2. The BMSO (bitter melon seed oil was then administered to the HFD mice, an obesity model established by feeding C57BL/6J mice a high fat diet. Consequently, due to the BMSO's supplementation, the HFD mice showed a significantly decreased body-weight, Lee's index, fat index and adipose size, whereas the liver weight stayed unchanged. Meanwhile, the serum FFA (free fatty acids levels returned to normal at the dosage of 10 g/kg, and the elevated serum leptin levels were also recovered by BMSO's supplementation with moderate and high dose. These findings suggested that BMSO restored the balance between lipid intake and metabolism, which was probably mediated by leptin's variation. In summary, a detailed anti-obesity effect was described with regard to a potent CFA's (conjugated fatty acid combination offered by BME. A potential mechanism underlying BME's beneficial effects was proposed, paving the way for the better use of BME's pharmaceutical function to serve the obesity's treatment.

  9. The Rate of Success of the Accelerated Solvent Extraction (Ase of Fat and Organochlorine Pesticides from Dried Fish Meat Samples

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    Ana Andreea CIOCA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of conventional sample preparation techniques with newer techniques which are automated, faster and more eco-friendly, is nowadays desired in every analytical laboratory. One of the techniques with the attributes mentioned above is the Accelerated Solvent Extraction. In order to evaluate how successful this method is for the extraction of fat and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs from dried fish meat samples, we have tested two series of diverse fish using Dionex™ 350 ASE provided by Thermo Scientific™ (Germany. For a more interesting approach, we added to our investigation 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs, 3 thricholorobenzenes, 2 tetrachlorobenzenes, 1 pentachlorobenzenes and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. The study focused on comparing the recoveries of these analytes from different fish samples, after replacing the conventional reference method of the laboratory with ASE. The ASE parameters tested were previously used for the extraction of fat and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE from fish samples: temperature: 120 ° C; static time: 5 min; number of cycles: 3; flushing volume: 25%; rinse with nitrogen: 90 s; solvent: cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (ratio 1:1. The ASE method provided similar and in some cases better results when compared to the standard reference method, more rapidly, eco-friendly and safer. Any high or low recoveries of the analytes taken into study are attributed to random or systematic errors during the Clean-up step of the extracts and the quantification with Gas Chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass-Spectrometry (GC MS/MS.

  10. Fisetin-Rich Extracts of Rhus verniciflua Stokes Improve Blood Flow Rates in Mice Fed Both Normal and High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Won Kyun; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kwang Soo; Lee, Jung Hoon; Kim, Young Dong; Kim, Kyeong-Hee; Park, Sang-Jae; Hong, Seokmann; Jeon, Sung Ho

    2016-02-01

    Although it has been previously reported that Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) possesses in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, the precise in vivo mechanisms of RVS extracts and a main active component called fisetin have not been well elucidated. In this study, using newly developed protocols, we prepared urushiol-free but fisetin-enriched RVS extracts and investigated their effects on the vascular immune system. We found that the water-soluble fractions of detoxified RVS with the flavonoid fisetin can inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Furthermore, RVS can reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase and COX2 gene expression levels, which are responsible for NO and PGE2 production, respectively, in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Because inflammation is linked to the activation of the coagulation system, we hypothesized that RVS and its active component fisetin possess anticoagulatory activities. As expected, we found that both RVS and fisetin could inhibit the coagulation of human peripheral blood cells. Moreover, in vivo RVS treatment could return the retarded blood flow elicited by a high-fat diet (HFD) back to the normal level in mice. In addition, RVS treatment has significantly reduced body weight gained by HFD in mice. Taken together, the fisetin-rich RVS extracts have potential antiplatelet and antiobesity activities and could be used as a functional food ingredient to improve blood circulation.

  11. Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam in high-fat diet fed wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasi, S; Nwobodo, E; Ofili, J O

    2000-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypocholesterolemic agent in obese patients. The scientific basis for their use in hypercholesterolemia was therefore examined. It was found that administration of the crude leaf extract of Moringa oleifera along with high-fat diet decreased the high-fat diet-induced increases in serum, liver, and kidney cholesterol levels by 14.35% (115-103.2 mg/100 ml of serum), 6.40% (9.4-8.8 mg/g wet weight) and 11.09% (1.09-0.97 mg/g wet weight) respectively. The effect on the serum cholesterol was statistically significant. No significant effect on serum total protein was observed. However, the crude extract increased serum albumin by 15.22% (46-53 g/l). This value was also found to be statistically significant. It was concluded that the leaves of Moringa oleifera have definite hypocholesterolemic activity and that there is valid pharmacological basis for employing them for this purpose in India.

  12. Dohaekseunggi-tang extract inhibits obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Seon; Choi, Goya; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2014-10-04

    Dohaekseunggi-tang (DHSGT) is a traditional plant-based medicine prescribed to promote blood circulation and to treat obesity and hypertension. The present study aimed to identify potential anti-obesity activities of DHSGT extract. Anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, and anti-hypertensive effects of orally-administered DHSGT extract were evaluated in high-fat diet- (HFD)-induced obese mice. Serum biochemistry profiles and expression of diverse metabolic regulatory gene mRNAs in mouse visceral fat were assessed by RT-PCR. The effects of DHSGT on angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) and pancreatic lipase activities were determined using in vitro inhibition assays. Oral DHSGT treatment reduced obese HFD C57BL/6 J mouse body weight, liver and adipose tissue mass, adipocyte size, and blood pressure versus untreated HFD mice. DHSGT also decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and leptin concentrations, and increased HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin levels in HFD mice. Furthermore, DHSGT markedly increased mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma, uncoupling protein-2, and adiponectin in visceral adipose tissue of HFD mice. In vitro tests revealed that DHSGT effectively inhibited porcine pancreatic lipase and ACE activities, with IC50 values of 7.58 mg/ml and 0.56 mg/ml, respectively. These results validate traditional knowledge and suggest that DHSGT may be potentially useful for managing hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and obesity.

  13. Quality characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters with pork fat replaced by sunflower seed oils and dietary fiber extracted from makgeolli lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Park, Kwaon-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Min-Sung; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-03-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20% by partially substituting pork fat with a mix of sunflower seed oil (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) and makgeolli lees fiber (2%) were investigated based on physicochemical properties, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters. The moisture and ash content, and lightness were higher in reduced-fat frankfurter samples containing sunflower seed oil and makgeolli lees fiber than in the control. The results showed that reduced-fat frankfurter samples with higher sunflower seed oil levels had lower redness and yellowness values, as well as less cooking loss, emulsion stability, hardness, springiness, and apparent viscosity. The results of this study show that incorporating sunflower seed oil and makgeolli lees fiber into the formulation successfully reduced animal fat in frankfurters, while improving quality characteristics.

  14. Cinnamon Extract Improves Insulin Sensitivity in the Brain and Lowers Liver Fat in Mouse Models of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tina; Peter, Andreas; Schulz, Nadja; Drescher, Andrea; Bergheim, Ina; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Siegel-Axel, Dorothea; Schürmann, Annette; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Treatment of diabetic subjects with cinnamon demonstrated an improvement in blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This work intends to elucidate the impact of cinnamon effects on the brain by using isolated astrocytes, and an obese and diabetic mouse model. Methods Cinnamon components (eugenol, cinnamaldehyde) were added to astrocytes and liver cells to measure insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis. Ob/ob mice were supplemented with extract from cinnamomum zeylanicum for 6 weeks and cortical brain activity, locomotion and energy expenditure were evaluated. Insulin action was determined in brain and liver tissues. Results Treatment of primary astrocytes with eugenol promoted glycogen synthesis, whereas the effect of cinnamaldehyde was attenuated. In terms of brain function in vivo, cinnamon extract improved insulin sensitivity and brain activity in ob/ob mice, and the insulin-stimulated locomotor activity was improved. In addition, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were greatly improved in ob/ob mice due to cinnamon extracts, while insulin secretion was unaltered. This corresponded with lower triglyceride and increased liver glycogen content and improved insulin action in liver tissues. In vitro, Fao cells exposed to cinnamon exhibited no change in insulin action. Conclusions Together, cinnamon extract improved insulin action in the brain as well as brain activity and locomotion. This specific effect may represent an important central feature of cinnamon in improving insulin action in the brain, and mediates metabolic alterations in the periphery to decrease liver fat and improve glucose homeostasis. PMID:24643026

  15. CONSUMPTION OF SATURATED ANIMAL FATS IN THE DIET OF HUMANS MAY DECREASE THE RATE OF HEART DISEASE IN THE FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Soroush Niknamian; Mehrandokht Nekavand

    2017-01-01

    Fats, as part of the human dietary regime are a concentrated source of energy. Animals contain saturated and plants contain unsaturated type of fatty acids. In this prospective research, the role of animal saturated fatty acids is highlighted and is proven to be a rational dietary source for the human diet. Saturated fats consumption is a wise choice in order to reduce the coronary heart disease risk, although it is believed in an opposite way. Researching through the healthiest tribes and kn...

  16. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS IN HIGH FAT HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET FED RATS

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    Sunanda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is used widely in food and pharmaceutical preparations in India. The hypolipidemic , anti - atherosclerotic as well fibrinolytic properties of garlic sulphur compounds are known since long time. This principle sulphur compound present in garlic extract and garlic oil is Diallyldisulphide (DADS an unsaturated aliphatic disulphide , which is thought to be mainly responsible for garlic beneficial effects. The present work was under taken to assess usefulness and toxic effects of the garlic extracts in high lipid diet (HLD fed rats. It is evident from results that garlic aqueous extracts have hypolipidemic effects in plasma and fatty changes in liver in high lipid diet rats. These hypolipidemic effects of garlic aqueous extracts may be due to its principle sulfur compound DADS

  17. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on high fat diet–induced obesity and liver damage in hamsters

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    To-Wei Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increase in adipogenesis and often accompanied with fatty liver disease. Objective: In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract (HSE in vivo. Method: Eight-weeks-old male mice were divided into six groups (n=8 per group and were fed either normal feed, a high fat diet (HFD, HFD supplemented with different concentrations of HSE, or HFD supplemented with anthocyanin. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the blood and livers were collected for further analysis. Results: Mesocricetus auratus hamster fed with a high-fat diet developed symptoms of obesity, as determined from their body weight change and from their plasma lipid levels. Meanwhile, HSE treatment reduced fat accumulation in the livers of hamsters fed with HFD in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of HSE reduced the levels of liver cholesterol and triglycerides, which were elevated by HFD. Analysis of the effect of HSE on paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant liver enzyme, revealed that HSE potentially regulates lipid peroxides and protects organs from oxidation-associated damage. The markers of liver damage such as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels that were elevated by HFD were also reduced on HSE treatment. The effects of HSE were as effective as treatment with anthocyanin; therefore the anthocyanins present in the HSE may play a crucial role in the protection established against HFD-induced obesity. Conclusions: In conclusion HSE administration constitutes an effective and viable treatment strategy against the development and consequences of obesity.

  18. Human fat cell alpha-2 adrenoceptors. I. Functional exploration and pharmacological definition with selected alpha-2 agonists and antagonists

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    Galitzky, J.; Mauriege, P.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.

    1989-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate more fully the pharmacological characteristics of the human fat cell alpha-2 adrenoceptor. Biological assays were performed on intact isolated fat cells while radioligand binding studies were carried out with (/sup 3/H)yohimbine in membranes. These pharmacological studies brought: (1) a critical definition of the limits of the experimental conditions required for the exploration of alpha-2 adrenergic responsiveness on human fat cells and membranes; (2) an improvement in the pharmacological definition of the human fat cell postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptor. Among alpha-2 agonists, UK-14,304 was the most potent and the relative order of potency was: UK-14,304 greater than p-aminoclonidine greater than clonidine = B-HT 920 greater than rilmenidine. For alpha-2 antagonists, the potency order was: yohimbine greater than idazoxan greater than SK F-86,466 much greater than benextramine; (3) a description of the impact of benextramine (irreversible alpha-1/alpha-2 antagonist) on human fat cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and on human fat cell function; the drug inactivates the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors with a minor impact on beta adrenergic receptors and without noticeable alterations of fat cell function as assessed by preservation of beta adrenergic and Al-adenosine receptor-mediated lipolytic responses; and (4) a definition of the relationship existing between alpha-2 adrenergic receptor occupancy, inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and antilipolysis with full and partial agonists. The existence of a receptor reserve must be taken into account when evaluating alpha-2 adrenergic receptor distribution and regulation of human fat cells.

  19. Antibacterial activity of mangrove leaf extracts against human pathogens

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    Sahoo, G.; Mulla, N.S.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Mohandass, C.

    The antibacterial activity of leaf extract of mangroves, namely, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba and Exoecaria agallocha from Chorao island, Goa was investigated against human bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp...

  20. The Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

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    Yoon-Young Sung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of a P. aviculare ethanol extract (PAE in high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese mice were investigated. The mice were fed an HFD or an HFD supplemented with PAE (400 mg/kg/day for 6.5 weeks. The increased body weights, adipose tissue weight, and adipocyte area as well as serum total triglyceride, leptin, and malondialdehyde concentrations were decreased in PAE-treated HFD-induced obese mice relative to the same measurements in untreated obese mice. Furthermore, PAE significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. In addition, PAE treatment of 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PAE exerts antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice through the suppression of lipogenesis in adipose tissue and increased antioxidant activity.

  1. Magnolia Extract (BL153 Ameliorates Kidney Damage in a High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model

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    Wenpeng Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence demonstrated that obesity is a risk factor for renal structural and functional changes, leading to the end-stage renal disease which imposes a heavy economic burden on the community. However, no effective therapeutic method for obesity-associated kidney disease is available. In the present study, we explored the therapeutic potential of a magnolia extract (BL153 for treating obesity-associated kidney damage in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced mouse model. The results showed that inflammation markers (tumor necrosis factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and oxidative stress markers (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were all significantly increased in the kidney of HFD-fed mice compared to mice fed with a low fat diet (LFD. Additionally, proteinuria and renal structure changes in HFD-fed mice were much more severe than that in LFD-fed mice. However, all these alterations were attenuated by BL153 treatment, accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and hexokinase II (HK II expression in the kidney. The present study indicates that BL153 administration may be a novel approach for renoprotection in obese individuals by antiinflammation and anti-oxidative stress most likely via upregulation of PGC-1α and HK II signal in the kidney.

  2. Effects of a Citrus depressa Hayata (shiikuwasa) extract on obesity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sil; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Saito, Kiyoto; Choi, Sun-Sil; Wang, Xiao Xing; Choi, Bong-Keun; Yonezawa, Takayuki; Teruya, Toshiaki; Nagai, Kazuo; Woo, Je-Tae

    2011-06-15

    Citrus depressa Hayata (commonly known as shiikuwasa) is cultivated in the northern areas of Okinawa, Japan, and used as a juice. In this study, we examined the anti-obesity effects and mechanism of action of shiikuwasa peel extract (SE) using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD), HFD or HFD containing 1% or 1.5% (w/w) SE (HFD+1 SE and HFD+1.5 SE, respectively) for 5 weeks. The body weight gain and white adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased in the HFD+1.5 SE group compared with the HFD group. The plasma triglyceride and leptin levels were also significantly reduced in the HFD+1.5 SE group compared with the HFD group. Histological examinations showed that the sizes of the adipocytes were significantly smaller in the HFD+1.5 SE group than in the HFD group. The HFD+1.5 SE group also showed significantly lower mRNA levels of lipogenesis-related genes, such as activating protein 2, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, acetyl-CoA-carboxylase 1, fatty acid transport protein and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, than the HFD group. These results suggest that the anti-obesity effects of SE may be elicited by regulating the expressions of lipogenesis-related genes in white adipose tissue. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Radix Stellariae extract prevents high-fat-diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice by accelerating energy metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Liu, Xin; Fan, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Stellaria dichotoma L. is widely distributed in Ningxia and surrounding areas in northwestern China. Its root, Radix Stellariae (RS), has been used in herbal formulae for treating asthenic-fever, infection, malaria, dyspepsia in children and several other symptoms. This study investigated whether the RS extract (RSE) alleviates metabolic disorders. The results indicated that RSE significantly inhibited body weight gain in high-fat (HF)-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice, reduced fasting glucose levels, and improved insulin tolerance. Moreover, RSE increased the body temperature of the mice and the expression of uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the white adipose tissue. Thus, RSE alleviated metabolic disorders in HF-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice by potentially activating UCP and PPAR signaling. PMID:28507819

  4. Radix Stellariae extract prevents high-fat-diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice by accelerating energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stellaria dichotoma L. is widely distributed in Ningxia and surrounding areas in northwestern China. Its root, Radix Stellariae (RS, has been used in herbal formulae for treating asthenic-fever, infection, malaria, dyspepsia in children and several other symptoms. This study investigated whether the RS extract (RSE alleviates metabolic disorders. The results indicated that RSE significantly inhibited body weight gain in high-fat (HF-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice, reduced fasting glucose levels, and improved insulin tolerance. Moreover, RSE increased the body temperature of the mice and the expression of uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the white adipose tissue. Thus, RSE alleviated metabolic disorders in HF-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice by potentially activating UCP and PPAR signaling.

  5. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  6. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb extract alleviates pathophysiological changes in experimental in vivo and in vitro models of high fat diet/fatty acid induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Dandekar, Deven S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate protective role of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) extract against high fat diet/fatty acid induced pathophysiological alterations in experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Effect of SR extract on plasma levels of markers of hepatic damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress, status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological changes in liver tissue were evaluated in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Also, the effect of SR supplementation on lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated in oleic acid treated HepG2 cells. Supplementation of NASH mice with SR extract prevented high fat diet induced elevation in plasma marker enzymes of liver damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress and compromised enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. Further, addition of SR extract to in vitro HepG2 cells minimized oleic acid induced lipid accumulation, higher lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and reduced cell viability. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SR extract has the potential of preventing high fat/fatty acid induced NASH mainly due to its hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract prevents fat diet induced oxidative stress in mice and protects liver cell-nuclei from hydroxyl radical mediated damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Debdutta; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronic disorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedy against this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. In this study, we explored if (i) Moringa oleifera seed extract (MoSE) can neutralize ROS generated in HFD fed mice; (ii) protect cell-nuclei damage developed by Fenton reaction in vitro. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group). Other groups were control, seed extract alone treated, and MoSE simultaneously (HS) treated. Treatment period was of 15 days. Antioxidant enzymes with tissue nitrite content (TNC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated from liver homogenate. HS group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to only HFD fed group. Further, TNC and LPO decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in HS group compared to HFD fed group. MoSE also protected hepatocytes nuclei from the hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction. MoSE was found to be polyphenol rich with potent reducing power, free radicals and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity. Thus, MoSE exhibited robust antioxidant prospective to neutralize ROS developed in HFD fed mice and also protected the nuclei damage from hydroxyl radicals. Hence, it can be used as herbal medication against HFD induced ROS mediated disorders.

  8. Modulatory effects of Caralluma fimbriata extract against high-fat diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjala, Sudhakara; Putakala, Mallaiah; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Bangeppagari, Manjunatha; Rajendran, Ramaswamy; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2017-08-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced diabetic rats. In vitro glucose uptake studies were carried out in both psoas muscle and adipose tissue. The inhibitory effect of the extract on α-amylase was determined in in vitro studies. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180g were divided into five groups (n=8), two of these groups were fed with standard pellet diet and the other three groups were fed with HF- (60%) diet. CFE (200mg/kg body weight/day) was administered through oral route to each group of standard pellet diet rats and HF-fed rats and Metformin (Met) (20mg/kg body weight/day) was administered through oral route to HFD+Met group for 90 days. At the end of the experimental period, biochemical parameters related to glycogen content in liver and muscle, and intestinal disaccharidases like maltase, sucrase and lactase were assayed. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphorfructoki nase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), intestinal disaccharidases and glycogen content as observed in the high fat diet-fed rats were prevented with CFE/Met administration. From this study, we observed that CFE/Met could significantly restore the levels of glycogen in liver and muscle and key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism to near normal in groups-HFD+CFE and HFD+Met. The skeletal muscle of HF-diet fed rats showed degenerative changes of muscle myofibers with fat deposition. These changes were attenuated in the HFD group treated with CFE/Met and retained their normal structure appearance. It can be concluded from these results that CFE might be of value in reducing the alterations related to carbohydrate metabolism under high calorie

  9. Solid Phase Extraction: Applications to the Chromatographic Analysis of Vegetable Oils and Fats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulout, P. M.; Tsimidou, M.

    2002-07-01

    Applications of solid-phase extraction for the isolation of certain lipid classes prior to chromatographic analysis are given. More information was found for sterols and related compounds, polar phenols and contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Detailed analytical protocols are presented and discussed in many cases. (Author) 120 refs.

  10. Role of Receptor-Interacting Protein 140 in human fat cells

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    Stenson Britta M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice lacking Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140 have reduced body fat which at least partly is mediated through increased lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue. In humans, RIP140 is lower expressed in visceral white adipose tissue (WAT of obese versus lean subjects. We investigated the role of RIP140 in human subcutaneous WAT, which is the major fat depot of the body. Methods Messenger RNA levels of RIP140 were measured in samples of subcutaneous WAT from women with a wide variation in BMI and in different human WAT preparations. RIP140 mRNA was knocked down with siRNA in in vitro differentiated adipocytes and the impact on glucose transport and mRNA levels of target genes determined. Results RIP140 mRNA levels in subcutaneous WAT were decreased among obese compared to lean women and increased by weight-loss, but did not associate with mitochondrial DNA copy number. RIP140 expression increased during adipocyte differentiation in vitro and was higher in isolated adipocytes compared to corresponding pieces of WAT. Knock down of RIP140 increased basal glucose transport and mRNA levels of glucose transporter 4 and uncoupling protein-1. Conclusions Human RIP140 inhibits glucose uptake and the expression of genes promoting energy expenditure in the same fashion as the murine orthologue. Increased levels of human RIP140 in subcutaneous WAT of lean subjects may contribute to economize on energy stores. By contrast, the function and expression pattern does not support that RIP140 regulate human obesity.

  11. The influence of Alpinia calcarata extract on the serum lipid and leptin levels of rats with hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayyed Nadeem; Chanchal Raj; Navin Raj

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of ethanolic extract from Alpinia calcarata rhizomes on the serum lipid and leptin levels of rats with hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet. Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into six groups: normal, high-fat diet control (HFD) and ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes (ACRE) (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg; p.o.) was administered to the high fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats for 30 days to evaluate its antihyperlipidemic activity. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg; p.o.) was used as a standard drug. Results: The results demonstrated that in HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rat, ACRE reduced rat weight gain, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol levels (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total protein (TP) and leptin level (pg/mL). Conclusions: These encouraging findings suggest that ACRE has excellent pharmacological potential to prevent hyperlipidemia.

  12. Anti-obesity Effect of Dioscorea oppositifolia Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Its Chemical Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Jegal, Jonghwan; Ahn, Jongmin; Kim, Jinwoong; Yang, Min Hye

    2016-01-01

    Dioscorea oppositifolia is a well-known edible and traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. In our previous study, D. oppositifolia exhibited both pancreatic lipase inhibition and an anti-adipogenesis effect in vitro. This study was performed to investigate the anti-obesity effect of D. oppositifolia on high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Female ICR mice were fed a high-fat diet with the 100 mg/kg of D. oppositifolia n-BuOH extract for 8 weeks. The high-fat diet mice received the 15 mg/kg Orlistat orally as a positive control. The body weight, parametrial adipose tissue weight, and the levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in blood serum of female ICR mice were significantly decreased by feeding a high-fat diet with the n-BuOH extract of D. oppositifolia. An inhibitory effect of D. oppositifolia extract on dietary fat absorption was also clearly shown. The D. oppositifolia sample was found to contain 3,5-dimethoxy-2,7-phenanthrenediol and (3R,5R)-3,5-dihydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,5-heptanediol as main components based on its phytochemical analysis. The present study is the first report of the anti-obesity effect by D. oppositifolia n-BuOH extract using an established disease model. The increase in fecal fat excretion by treatment of D. oppositifolia may be an effective approach for treating obesity and related diseases.

  13. Citrus junos Tanaka Peel Extract Exerts Antidiabetic Effects via AMPK and PPAR-γ both In Vitro and In Vivo in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Sung Hee Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic effect of the Citrus junos Tanaka (also known as yuja or yuzu was examined. Ethanol extract of yuja peel (YPEE significantly stimulated 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG uptake in C2C12 myotubes. However, ethanol extract of yuja pulp (YpEE and water extract of yuja peel (YPWE or pulp (YpWE did not stimulate glucose uptake. In addition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activities were increased by YPEE in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of AMPK inhibitor decreased the glucose uptake stimulated by YPEE in C2C12 myotubes. We confirmed the anti-diabetic effect of YPEE in mice fed a high fat-diet (HFD. Compared with control mice on a normal diet (ND, these mice showed increased body weight, liver fat, insulin resistance, triacylglycerol (TG, and total cholesterol content. Addition of 5% YPEE significantly reduced the weight gain and rise in liver fat content, serum triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance found in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Moreover, YPEE reduced the secretion of HFD-induced adipocytokines such as leptin and resistin. YPEE also resulted in increased phosphorylation of AMPK in muscle tissues. These results suggest that ethanol extract of yuja peel exerts anti-diabetic effects via AMPK and PPAR-γ in both cell culture and mouse models.

  14. Citrus junos Tanaka Peel Extract Exerts Antidiabetic Effects via AMPK and PPAR-γ both In Vitro and In Vivo in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hee; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Jae Ho; Sung, Mi Jeong; Kim, Myung Sunny; Kwon, Dae Young; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic effect of the Citrus junos Tanaka (also known as yuja or yuzu) was examined. Ethanol extract of yuja peel (YPEE) significantly stimulated 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG) uptake in C2C12 myotubes. However, ethanol extract of yuja pulp (YpEE) and water extract of yuja peel (YPWE) or pulp (YpWE) did not stimulate glucose uptake. In addition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activities were increased by YPEE in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of AMPK inhibitor decreased the glucose uptake stimulated by YPEE in C2C12 myotubes. We confirmed the anti-diabetic effect of YPEE in mice fed a high fat-diet (HFD). Compared with control mice on a normal diet (ND), these mice showed increased body weight, liver fat, insulin resistance, triacylglycerol (TG), and total cholesterol content. Addition of 5% YPEE significantly reduced the weight gain and rise in liver fat content, serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol, and insulin resistance found in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Moreover, YPEE reduced the secretion of HFD-induced adipocytokines such as leptin and resistin. YPEE also resulted in increased phosphorylation of AMPK in muscle tissues. These results suggest that ethanol extract of yuja peel exerts anti-diabetic effects via AMPK and PPAR-γ in both cell culture and mouse models.

  15. Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz Extract Inhibits Lipid Accumulation on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat Mice

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    Jin-Kyu Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract reduced the body weight gain induced through feeding a high-fat diet to C57BL/6 mice. The treatment of Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly reduced the adipose tissue weight to 2.7/100 g of body weight in high-fat mice. When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice. In addition, in Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice, a significant reduction of serum triglyceride and T-cholesterol was observed at to 21% and 17%, respectively. The discovery of bioactive compounds from diet or dietary supplementation is one of possible ways to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of various obesity-related diseases. These results support that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract is expected to create the therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

  16. Heritable components of the human fecal microbiome are associated with visceral fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Michelle; Goodrich, Julia K; Jackson, Matthew A; Yet, Idil; Davenport, Emily R; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Debelius, Justine; Pallister, Tess; Mangino, Massimo; Raes, Jeroen; Knight, Rob; Clark, Andrew G; Ley, Ruth E; Spector, Tim D; Bell, Jordana T

    2016-09-26

    Variation in the human fecal microbiota has previously been associated with body mass index (BMI). Although obesity is a global health burden, the accumulation of abdominal visceral fat is the specific cardio-metabolic disease risk factor. Here, we explore links between the fecal microbiota and abdominal adiposity using body composition as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a large sample of twins from the TwinsUK cohort, comparing fecal 16S rRNA diversity profiles with six adiposity measures. We profile six adiposity measures in 3666 twins and estimate their heritability, finding novel evidence for strong genetic effects underlying visceral fat and android/gynoid ratio. We confirm the association of lower diversity of the fecal microbiome with obesity and adiposity measures, and then compare the association between fecal microbial composition and the adiposity phenotypes in a discovery subsample of twins. We identify associations between the relative abundances of fecal microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and abdominal adiposity measures. Most of these results involve visceral fat associations, with the strongest associations between visceral fat and Oscillospira members. Using BMI as a surrogate phenotype, we pursue replication in independent samples from three population-based cohorts including American Gut, Flemish Gut Flora Project and the extended TwinsUK cohort. Meta-analyses across the replication samples indicate that 8 OTUs replicate at a stringent threshold across all cohorts, while 49 OTUs achieve nominal significance in at least one replication sample. Heritability analysis of the adiposity-associated microbial OTUs prompted us to assess host genetic-microbe interactions at obesity-associated human candidate loci. We observe significant associations of adiposity-OTU abundances with host genetic variants in the FHIT, TDRG1 and ELAVL4 genes, suggesting a potential role for host genes to mediate the link between the fecal microbiome

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of mulberry leaf and fruit extract on high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Hwa; Lee, Sung Ok; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effect of combinational mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a control diet or a HF diet for nine weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered with single MLE at low dose (133 mg/kg/day, LMLE) and high dose (333 mg/kg/day, HMLE) or combinational MLE and MFE (MLFE) at low dose (133 mg MLE and 67 mg MFE/kg/day, LMLFE) and high dose (333 mg MLE and 167 mg MFE/kg/day, HMLFE) by stomach gavage for 12 weeks. The mulberry leaf and fruit extract treatment for 12 weeks did not show liver toxicity. The single MLE and combinational MLFE treatments significantly decreased plasma triglyceride, liver lipid peroxidation levels and adipocyte size and improved hepatic steatosis as compared with the HF group. The combinational MLFE treatment significantly decreased body weight gain, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. HMLFE treatment significantly improved glucose control during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with the HF group. Moreover, HMLFE treatment reduced protein levels of oxidative stress markers (manganese superoxide dismutase) and inflammatory markers (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1) in liver and adipose tissue. Taken together, combinational MLFE treatment has potential antiobesity and antidiabetic effects through modulation of obesity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HF diet-induced obesity.

  18. Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana Extracts and Purified Compounds Ameliorate Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyr-Yi; Huang, Guan-Cheng; Hsieh, Ying-Ying; Lin, Yin-Shiou; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Wen, Chi-Luan; Chang, Chi-I; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2015-10-28

    The increasing prevalence of obesity continues to gain more attention worldwide. In this study, diet-induced obese mice were used to evaluate the antiobesity effects of extracts, fractions, and purified compounds from Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT). The C57BL/6J mice were fed a 5-week high-fat diet (HF) concurrently with ethanol extracts (Et-ext, 80 mg/kg) from roots (R), stems (S), and leaves (L) by oral gavage daily. Only R-Et-ext interventions showed significant weight reduction in mice compared with those in the HF group; however, mouse plasma contents of total cholesterols (TC), total triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) of all three Et-ext intervened groups showed significant reductions compared with those in the HF group. Furthermore, intervention with the ethyl acetate-partitioned fraction (EA-fra, 60 mg/kg) from R-Et-ext but not the n-butanol-partitioned fraction or water fraction from R-Et-ext showed significant weight reduction in mice compared with those in the HF group. The same molecular weights of three resveratrol tetramers, (+)-hopeaphenol, (+)-vitisin A, and (-)-vitisin B, were isolated from the EA-fra of VTT-R. The (+)-vitisin A and fenofibrate (25 mg/kg) but not the (+)-hopeaphenol and (-)-vitisin B interventions showed significant weight reduction in mice compared with those in the HF group. The total feed intake among the HF groups with or without interventions showed no significant differences. The mouse plasma contents of TC, TG, LDL, free fatty acid, and plasma lipase activity of the three resveratrol tetramer-intervened groups showed reductions in the mice compared with those in the HF group. It was proposed that the lipase inhibitory activities of VTT extracts and purified resveratrol tetramers might contribute in part to the antiobesity effect, and these results suggested that VTT may be developed as functional food for achieving antiobesity objectives and requires further investigation.

  19. Potential impact of Paracentrotus lividus extract on diabetic rat models induced by high fat diet/streptozotocin

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    Amel M. Soliman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant therapy has been thought to be effectual for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including diabetes. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the potency of Paracentrotus lividus extract (PLE for alleviating the complications that resulted after induction of the diabetic rat models (T1DM and T2DM using high fat diet (HFD/streptozotocin (STZ. Thirty six male Wistar albino rats were assigned into normal control, T1DM and T2DM untreated, and PLE treated diabetic rat groups. Induction of T1DM was performed by streptozotocin injection (60 mg/kg of dissolved in sodium citrate buffer, 0.1 mol/L, i.p. T2DM induction through 4 weeks of high fat diet (HFD intervention was followed by a single low dosage of STZ (30 mg/kg dissolved in 0.1 mol/L citrate buffer at pH 4.5, i.p. Both diabetic rat models showed a significant increase in serum; levels of fasting glucose, total protein, bilirubin, activities of arginase, transaminases (AST and ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, γ glutamyl transferase (GGT, lipid profile parameters, and liver malondialdehyde (MDA. However, T1DM and T2DM rats have decreased levels of serum insulin, and liver glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, glutathione reduced (GSH, nitric oxide (NO, and antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, the present study showed the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant potency of the PLE as confirmed by its ability for ameliorating most of the alterations caused in the studied parameters of diabetic rats. In conclusion, PLE may be useful as therapy against oxidative stress and liver damage in both types of diabetes mellitus and is therefore recommended for further studies.

  20. Evaluation of weight reduction and anti-cholesterol activity of Punarnava root extract against high fat diets induced obesity in experimental rodent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Khalid; H H Siddiqui

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the weight reduction and hypercholesteremic potential of punarnava root extract induced with high fat diets in experimental rodents by administrating oral doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg). Methods: Thirty six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in six groups and each group had six animals. Group-I administered laboratory diet, control obese group-II induced with high fat diet (HFD), group-III standard drug plus HFD rats (5 mg/kg) and Boerhaavia diffusa root extract (BDRE) were administered (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) plus HFD rats (group-IV, V and VI). After the end of experimental period (60 days) the body weight, organ fat pad weight, lipid profile, liver and kidney marker enzyme were estimated along with histopathological examination in experimental groups of animals. Results: The obtained results showed that the significant reduction on administration of BDRE (200 and 400 mg/kg) in body weight, visceral fat pad (P<0.01- ), lipids level (P<0.01), AST and ALT (P<0.01), urea (P<0.01) and creatinine (P<0.01) when compared with HFD groups II. The biochemical estimation were supplemented by histopathological examinations. Conclusions: The results of this study scientifically supported its traditional uses of Boerhaaviadiffusa as antiobesity activity by normalizes the elevated body weight and organ fat pad weight as well as antilipidemic property by lowering the altered levels of lipid profile in female Sprague-Dawley.

  1. Silhouette extraction from human gait images sequence using cosegmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyan; Zhang, Yi

    2012-11-01

    Gait based human identification is very useful for automatic person recognize through visual surveillance and has attracted more and more researchers. A key step in gait based human identification is to extract human silhouette from images sequence. Current silhouette extraction methods are mainly based on simple color subtraction. These methods have a very poor performance when the color of some body parts is similar to the background. In this paper a cosegmentation based human silhouette extraction method is proposed. Cosegmentation is typically defined as the task of jointly segmenting "something similar" in a given set of images. We can divide the human gait images sequence into several step cycles and every step cycle consist of 10-15 frames. The frames in human gait images sequence have following similarity: every frame is similar to the next or previous frame; every frame is similar to the corresponding frame in the next or previous step cycle; every pixel can find similar pixel in other frames. The progress of cosegmentation based human silhouette extraction can be described as follows: Initially only points which have high contrast to background are used as foreground kernel points, the points in the background are used as background kernel points, then points similar to foreground points will be added to foreground points set and the points similar to background points will be added to background points set. The definition of the similarity consider the context of the point. Experimental result shows that our method has a better performance comparing to traditional human silhouette extraction methods. Keywords: Human gait

  2. Identification of animal fats via compound specific δ13C values of individual fatty acids: assessments of results for reference fats and lipid extracts of archaeological pottery vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Evershed

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining molecular information from lipid residues associated with archaeological pottery has dramatically increased the potential for deriving new information on the use of ancient vessels and the commodities processed therein. Motivated by the high proportion of the archaeological potsherds that have been shown to contain animal fats, a new approach invol- ving compound specific stable isotope analysis of remnant fats has been developed to retrieve infor- mation which will allow new insights into animal exploitation, dietary preferences and vessel use amongst prehistoric peoples. The new approach uses the δ13C values of the major saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–C–IRMS to characterise the origins of animal fat recovered from archaeological pottery.

  3. The effects of the aqueous extract and residue of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Ying, Le; Hong, Gaojie; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-01-01

    Matcha is a kind of powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill. In the present study, the preventive effects of the aqueous extract (water-soluble) and residue (water-insoluble) of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Mice were fed seven different experimental diets for 4 weeks: a normal diet control (NC), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.025% Matcha (MLD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha (MMD), a high-fat diet with 0.075% Matcha (MHD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha aqueous extracts (ME), and a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha residues (MR). It was found that serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels of the MHD group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. Furthermore, in the MHD group, the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was elevated, on the contrary the level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was suppressed. Moreover, Matcha could significantly lower the blood glucose levels, and improve the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MAD) contents both in serum and liver; besides, the serum GSH-Px activity indicated that the oxidative stress caused by HF could be reversed by administration of Matcha. These findings suggest that Matcha has beneficial effects through the suppression of the blood glucose (BG) accumulation and promotion of the lipid metabolism and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the water-insoluble part of Matcha is suggested to play an important role in the suppression of diet-induced high levels of lipid and glucose.

  4. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on human primary omental preadipocytes and adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanon, Bruno; Pomari, Elena; Colitti, Monica

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing all over the world. Although it has been shown that natural substances influence fat metabolism, little is known about the effect on cellular and molecular mechanisms in human. In this in vitro study, the activity of Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) standardized extract in modulating human primary visceral preadipocytes differentiation, lipolysis, and apoptosis was investigated. Moreover, gene expression of key adipogenesis modulators and microRNAs-seq were evaluated. Preadipocytes treated with RO extract significantly reduced triglyceride incorporation during maturation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. In addition, RO extract stimulated lipolytic activity in differentiating preadipocytes and mature adipocytes in treated cells compared to controls. Differentiating preadipocytes incubated in the presence of RO extract showed a decreased expression of cell cycle genes such as cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) and an increased expression of GATA binding protein 3, wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3A mRNA levels. Recent studies have demonstrated that some phytochemicals alter the expression of specific genes and microRNAs that play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of obesity and related diseases. Interestingly, genes modulated in RO-treated cells were found to be validated miRNAs targets, such as let-7f-1, miR-17, and miR-143. The results indicated that RO extract modulates human adipocyte differentiation and significantly interferes with adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, supporting its interest as dietary supplement.

  5. Comparison of gravimetric, creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid methods for determination of total fat content in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian; Gay, Melvin C L; Lai, Ching Tat; Trengove, Robert D; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-02-15

    The gravimetric method is considered the gold standard for measuring the fat content of human milk. However, it is labor intensive and requires large volumes of human milk. Other methods, such as creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid assay (EFA), have also been used widely in fat analysis. However, these methods have not been compared concurrently with the gravimetric method. Comparison of the three methods was conducted with human milk of varying fat content. Correlations between these methods were high (r(2)=0.99). Statistical differences (Pmilk) using the three methods. Overall, stronger correlation with lower mean (4.73g/L) and percentage differences (5.16%) was observed with the creamatocrit than the EFA method when compared to the gravimetric method. Furthermore, the ease of operation and real-time analysis make the creamatocrit method preferable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. High-fat Western diet-induced obesity contributes to increased tumor growth in mouse models of human colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ann Marie; Burrington, Christine M; Gillaspie, Erin A; Lynch, Darin T; Horsman, Melissa J; Greene, Michael W

    2016-12-01

    Strong epidemiologic evidence links colon cancer to obesity. The increasing worldwide incidence of colon cancer has been linked to the spread of the Western lifestyle, and in particular consumption of a high-fat Western diet. In this study, our objectives were to establish mouse models to examine the effects of high-fat Western diet-induced obesity on the growth of human colon cancer tumor xenografts, and to examine potential mechanisms driving obesity-linked human colon cancer tumor growth. We hypothesize that mice rendered insulin resistant due to consumption of a high-fat Western diet will show increased and accelerated tumor growth. Homozygous Rag1(tm1Mom) mice were fed either a low-fat Western diet or a high-fat Western diet (HFWD), then human colon cancer xenografts were implanted subcutaneously or orthotopically. Tumors were analyzed to detect changes in receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling and expression of inflammatory-associated genes in epididymal white adipose tissue. In both models, mice fed an HFWD weighed more and had increased intra-abdominal fat, and tumor weight was greater compared with in the low-fat Western diet-fed mice. They also displayed significantly higher levels of leptin; however, there was a negative correlation between leptin levels and tumor size. In the orthotopic model, tumors and adipose tissue from the HFWD group displayed significant increases in both c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression, respectively. In conclusion, this study suggests that human colon cancer growth is accelerated in animals that are obese and insulin resistant due to the consumption of an HFWD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Malonyl-CoA and carnitine in regulation of fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Halberg, Nils; Hillig, Thore

    2005-01-01

    that a decrease in the concentration of malonyl-CoA, secondary to a2-AMPK activation and ACC inhibition (by phosphorylation), contributes to the increase in fat oxidation observed at the onset of exercise regardless of muscle glycogen levels. They also suggest that, with high muscle glycogen, the availability......Intracellular mechanisms regulating fat oxidation were investigated in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Eight young, healthy, moderately trained men performed bicycle exercise (60 min, 65% peak O2 consumption) on two occasions, where they ingested either 1) a high-carbohydrate diet (H......-CHO) or 2) a low-carbohydrate diet (L-CHO) before exercise to alter muscle glycogen content as well as to induce, respectively, low and high rates of fat oxidation. Leg fat oxidation was 122% higher during exercise in L-CHO than in H-CHO (P

  8. Carnosic acid-rich rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaf extract limits weight gain and improves cholesterol levels and glycaemia in mice on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Alvin; Cases, Julien; Roller, Marc; Chiralt-Boix, Amparo; Coussaert, Aurélie; Ripoll, Christophe

    2011-10-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (RE) are natural antioxidants that are used in food, food supplements and cosmetic applications; exert anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycaemic effects; and promote weight loss, which can be exploited to develop new preventive strategies against metabolic disorders. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of rosemary leaf extract that was standardised to 20 % carnosic acid (RE) on weight gain, glucose levels and lipid homeostasis in mice that had begun a high-fat diet (HFD) as juveniles. The animals were given a low-fat diet, a HFD or a HFD that was supplemented with 500 mg RE/kg body weight per d (mpk). Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored for 16 weeks. Body and epididymal fat weight in animals on the HFD that was supplemented with RE increased 69 and 79 % less than those in the HFD group. Treatment with RE was associated with increased faecal fat excretion but not with decreased food intake. The extract also reduced fasting glycaemia and plasma cholesterol levels. In addition, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of RE in vitro on pancreatic lipase and PPAR-γ agonist activity; the in vitro findings correlated with our observations in the animal experiments. Thus, the present results suggest that RE that is rich in carnosic acid can be used as a preventive treatment against metabolic disorders, which merits further examination at physiological doses in randomised controlled trials.

  9. Evaluating the Effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae Larvae-Derived Haemolymph and Fat Body Extracts on Chronic Wounds in Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifher Góngora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies’ larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species’ fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds.

  10. Antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties of water and n-butanol soluble extracts from Saharian Anvillea radiata in high-fat-diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandouli, Chouaib; Cassien, Mathieu; Mercier, Anne; Delehedde, Caroline; Ricquebourg, Emilie; Stocker, Pierre; Mekaouche, Mourad; Leulmi, Zineb; Mechakra, Aicha; Thétiot-Laurent, Sophie; Culcasi, Marcel; Pietri, Sylvia

    2017-07-31

    According to Saharian traditional medicine, Anvillea radiata Coss. & Dur. (Asteraceae) has been valued for treating a variety of ailments such as gastro-intestinal, liver and pulmonary diseases, and has gained awareness for its beneficial effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. However, to best of our knowledge, no detailed study of the antidiabetic curative effects of this plant has been conducted yet. To determine the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of dietary supplementation with Anvillea radiata extracts on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice in relation with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pancreatic beta-cells and skeletal muscle protection, and digestive enzyme inhibiting properties. Six extracts (water soluble and organic) from aerial parts of the plant were analyzed phytochemically (total phenolic and flavonoid content) and screened for in vitro superoxide (by chemiluminescence) and hydroxyl radical (by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping) scavenging, antioxidant (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC assays), xanthine oxidase, metal chelating, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory property, and protective effects on copper-induced lipoprotein oxidation. Then selected hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts were assessed for toxicity in normal human lung fibroblasts and A549 cancer cells using FMCA and MTT assays. Two water-soluble extracts having the best overall properties were assessed for their (i) protective effect at 1-15µg/mL on metabolic activity of rat insulinoma-derived INS-1 cells exposed to hyperglycemic medium, and (ii) acute hypoglycemic effect on 16-weeks HFD-induced diabetic mice. Then diabetic mice were administered HFD supplemented by extracts (up to 150mg/kg/day) for 12 additional weeks using standard diet as control and the antidiabetic drug, metformin (150mg/kg), as positive control. Then the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of extracts were determined. Of the highly efficient

  11. Extraction by Dry Rendering Methode and Characterization Fish Oil of Catfish (Pangasius hypopthalmus Viscera Fat by Product of Smooked Fish Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Kamini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The catfish viscera fat, is cathfish processing by-products, has potential to be used as a source ofraw material for production of fish oil. This study aimed to analyze the value of proximate, heavy metalcontent and fatty acid profile of catfish viscera fat (Pangasius hypopthalmus and characterized fish oilextracted by dry rendering in various temperature and time than compared it to fish oil extracted by stoveheating to obtain the best treatment. Proximate, heavy metal residue, and the fatty acid profile analysiswere conducted for characterizing catfish viscera fat. Fish oil extraction was conducted by dry renderingin various temperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80 °C for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Fish oil quality was determined by thechemical characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, anisidin and TOTOX. The results of the study showed that fat contentof catfish fat viscera was 88.19 %, the heavy metals content was below SNI standart to be consumed, and fattyacid profile composition was SFA>MUFA>PUFA. The highest fatty acid content was oleic acid. The best fishoil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 50°C for 2 hours with yield value, PV, FFA, anisidin,and TOTOX were 45.17 %, 2.77 meq/kg, 0.83 %, 2.86 meq/kg, 8.39 meq/kg respectively. This result was notsignificantly different with fish oil extracted by the stove heating expect for yield and PV were 80.11% and6.52 meq/kg, respectively.

  12. Aloe vera extract activity on human corneal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Anna; Paduch, Roman

    2012-02-01

    Ocular diseases are currently an important problem in modern societies. Patients suffer from various ophthalmologic ailments namely, conjunctivitis, dry eye, dacryocystitis or degenerative diseases. Therefore, there is a need to introduce new treatment methods, including medicinal plants usage. Aloe vera [Aloe barbadensis Miller (Liliaceae)] possesses wound-healing properties and shows immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory or antioxidant activities. NR uptake, MTT, DPPH• reduction, Griess reaction, ELISA and rhodamine-phalloidin staining were used to test toxicity, antiproliferative activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine level, and distribution of F-actin in cells, respectively. The present study analyzes the effect of Aloe vera extracts obtained with different solvents on in vitro culture of human 10.014 pRSV-T corneal cells. We found no toxicity of ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane extracts of Aloe vera on human corneal cells. No ROS reducing activity by heptane extract and trace action by ethanol (only at high concentration 125 µg/ml) extract of Aloe vera was observed. Only ethyl acetate extract expressed distinct free radical scavenging effect. Plant extracts decreased NO production by human corneal cells as compared to untreated controls. The cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10) production decreased after the addition of Aloe vera extracts to the culture media. Aloe vera contains multiple pharmacologically active substances which are capable of modulating cellular phenotypes and functions. Aloe vera ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts may be used in eye drops to treat inflammations and other ailments of external parts of the eye such as the cornea.

  13. Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract prevents early liver injury and restores antioxidant status in mice fed with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilanjan; Sikder, Kunal; Ghosh, Santinath; Fromenty, Bernard; Dey, Sanjit

    2012-06-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may lead to multiple complications affecting human health. In the present study, effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) in alleviating HFD induced liver injury in mice has been reported. Liver histology and serum activity of hepatic marker enzymes i.e. aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been studied. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated using liver homogenate. Results of the study suggested that MoLE treatment protected HFD-induced liver damage as indicated by histopathology and liver enzyme activity compared to only-HFD fed group (P < 0.05). Interestingly, early signs of HFD-induced fatty liver were also alleviated by MoLE. Moreover, significant increase in endogenous antioxidant parameters and lower lipid peroxidation were found in liver of all MoLE treated groups. Results of the study indicated that MoLE has both preventive as also curative hepatoprotective activity.

  14. Ginger extract prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Koichi; Hashizume, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    The initiation of obesity entails an imbalance wherein energy intake exceeds expenditure. Obesity is increasing in prevalence and is now a worldwide health problem. Food-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) stimulators represent potential treatment options for obesity. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was previously shown to regulate the PPARγ signaling pathway in adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity effects of ginger in vivo and the mechanism of action in vitro. Energy expenditure was increased, and diet-induced obesity was attenuated in C57BL/6J mice treated with dietary ginger extract (GE). GE also increased the number of Type I muscle fibers, improved running endurance capacity and upregulated PPARδ-targeted gene expression in skeletal muscle and the liver. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol acted as specific PPARδ ligands and stimulated PPARδ-dependent gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle myotubes. An analysis of cellular respiration revealed that pretreating cultured skeletal muscle myotubes with GE increased palmitate-induced oxygen consumption rate, which suggested an increase in cellular fatty acid catabolism. These results demonstrated that sustained activation of the PPARδ pathway with GE attenuated diet-induced obesity and improved exercise endurance capacity by increasing skeletal muscle fat catabolism. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol may be responsible for the regulatory effects of dietary ginger on PPARδ signaling.

  15. THE USE OF FAT EMULSIONS FOR INTRAVENOUS ALIMENTATION AND THEIR PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECT IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIOCHEMISTRY, *COLLOIDS, *FATS, *PARENTERAL INFUSIONS, ANEMIAS, BLOOD PLASMA, BLOOD PLATELETS, CANCER , CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, ERYTHROCYTES, FATTY ACIDS, HEMORRHAGE, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, PHYSIOLOGY, VENOMS

  16. Effects of Synthetic and Natural Extraction Chemicals on Functional Properties, Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of Soy Protein Isolates Extracted from Full-Fat and Defatted Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Vernonxious Madalitso Chamba

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of consumers preferring natural and organic foods to those that involve synthetic chemicals has recently shown dramatic growth. As such, a native isoelectrically precipitated soy protein isolates (SPIs were prepared from full-fat and defatted flours using amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. lye (pH>12.5 and lemon extract (pH<2.5 as natural food-plant-based chemicals, replacing the conventional synthetic ones (NaOH and HCl, respectively. Functional properties, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of the natural SPIs were compared to those of synthetic ones. All the SPI samples qualified to be soy protein isolates with a minimum protein content of 91.21%. The natural SPI showed significant increase in emulsion stability (p≤0.05. While higher values with narrow margins were shown by the synthetic than the natural SPIs in oil absorption (0.66±0.02, 0.50±0.01%, respectively, emulsion capacity (56.53±0.57, 55.50±0.39%, foam stability (11.33±0.61, 10.40±0.40%. No significant difference was observed in water absorption capacity. The DPPH assay showed increased antioxidant activity in the natural SPI although its total polyphenol content was lower. Thus, SPI with functional properties similar to those of conventional ones can be naturally processed using amaranth ash and lemon extracts as alternative chemicals to addressing the fear of consuming synthetic chemical by health-conscious natural and organic food consumers.

  17. Pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 digests fats in human milk and formula in concert with gastric lipase and carboxyl ester lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karin; Ross, Leah; Miller, Rita; Xiao, Xunjun; Lowe, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dietary fats must be digested into fatty acids and monoacylglycerols prior to absorption. In adults, colipase-dependent pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL) contributes significantly to fat digestion. In newborn rodents and humans, the pancreas expresses low levels of PTL. In rodents, a homologue of PTL, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) compensate for the lack of PTL. In human newborns, the role for PLRP2 in dietary fat digestion is unclear. To clarify the potential of human PLRP2 to influence dietary fat digestion in newborns, we determined PLRP2 activity against human milk and infant formula. METHODS The activity of purified recombinant PLRP2, gastric lipase and CEL against fats in human milk and formula was measured with each lipase alone and in combination with a standard pH-stat assay. RESULTS Colipase added to human milk stimulated fat digestion. PLRP2 and CEL had activity against human milk and formula. Pre-digestion with gastric lipase increased PLRP2 activity against both substrates. Together, CEL and PLRP2 activity was additive with formula and synergistic with human milk. CONCLUSIONS PLRP2 can digest fats in human milk and formula. PLRP2 acts in concert with CEL and gastric lipase to digest fats in human milk in vitro. PMID:23732775

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Kristen L; Burris, Kellie P; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-02-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces are widely used in the preparation of beverages. The calyces contain compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity, yet little research has been conducted on their possible use in food systems as antimicrobials. Aqueous extracts prepared from the brand "Mi Costenita" were sterilized by membrane filtration (0.22-μm pore size) or autoclaving (121 °C, 30 min) and tested for antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains ATCC 43894 and Cider and Staphylococcus aureus strains SA113 and ATCC 27708 in a microbiological medium and ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk with various fat percentages. Extracts heated by autoclaving exhibited greater activity than did filtered extracts in a microbiological medium. Against E. coli, results of 20 mg/ml filtered extract were not different from those of the control, whereas autoclaved extracts reduced viable cells ca. 3 to 4 log CFU/ml. At 60 mg/ml, both extracts inactivated cells after 24 h. There were reduced populations of both strains of S. aureus (ca. 2.7 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in 40 mg/ml filtered extracts. When grown in autoclaved extracts at 40 mg/ml, both strains of S. aureus were inactivated after 9 h. Autoclaved extracts had decreased anthocyanin content (2.63 mg/liter) compared with filtered extracts (14.27 mg/liter), whereas the phenolic content (48.7 and 53.8 mg/g) remained similar for both treatments. Autoclaved extracts were then tested for activity in milk at various fat concentrations (skim [3.25%]) against a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of S. aureus. Extracts at 40 mg/ml inactivated S. aureus after 168 h in skim and whole milk, and E. coli was inactivated after 96 h in 60 mg/ml extract in all fat levels. These findings show the potential use of Hibiscus extracts to prevent the growth of pathogens in foods and beverages.

  19. Inhibitory effects of Rubi Fructus extracts on hepatic steatosis development in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Mi Kyung; Choi, Hye Ran; Cho, Jin Sook; Cho, Soo Min; Ha, Ki Chan; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Ryu, Hee-Young; Lee, Young-Ik

    2014-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the potential effects of the unripened dried fruit of Rubus coreanus Miq., Rubi Fructus (RF), on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) known to induce obesity and hyperlipidaemia. Rubi Fructus extract (RFex) fed mice demonstrated a reduced body weight and adipose tissue weight. RFex fed mice also demonstrated decreased aminotransferase levels, lipid contents [triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)], leptin content and increased high‑density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL‑C) contents in the plasma. These effects were accompanied by a decreased expression of lipogenic genes, including sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, liver X receptor, fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl‑CoA carboxylase, cluster of differentiation 36, lipoprotein lipase and decreased lipogenic enzyme FAS and 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutamyl coenzyme reductase enzyme activities, while elevating carnitine palmitoyltrasferase-1 activity. Based on these results, the present study hypothesized that the inhibitory effect on hepatic steatosis of RFex is the result of the suppression of lipid synthesis in mice fed with HFD, suggesting that RFex may be beneficial in preventing hepatic steatosis and liver lipotoxicity.

  20. Hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol Extract from Asparagus officinalis L. in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinglei; Zhang, Wen; Pang, Xiufeng; Wang, Jiesi; Zhao, Jingjing; Qu, Weijing

    2011-08-01

    During industrial processing of Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), around half of each spear is discarded. However, these discarded asparagus (by-products) might be used as food supplements for their potential therapeutic effects. This study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol extract (BEA) from asparagus by-products in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Continuous HFD feeding caused hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and liver damage in mice. Interestingly, while BEA significantly decreased the levels of body weight gain, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, it dramatically increased the high density lipoprotein level when administered at three different doses (40, 80 or 160 mg/kg body weight) for 8 weeks in hyperlipidemic mice. In addition, BEA decreased the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in serum. Finally, superoxide dismutase activity and the total antioxidation capacity were evidently increased, while the malondialdehyde level and the distribution of lipid droplets were reduced in liver cells of BEA-treated mice. Taken together, the findings of this study suggested that BEA had a strong hypolipidemic function and could be used as a supplement in healthcare foods and drugs or in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs.

  1. Rapid Extraction of Human DNA Containing Humic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Sutlović, Davorka; Definis Gojanović, Marija; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2007-01-01

    The identification process of dead bodies or human remains is nowadays conducted in numerous fields of forensic science, archeology and other judicial cases. A particular problem is the isolation and DNA typing of human remains found in mass graves, due to the degradation process, as well as post mortal DNA contamination with bacteria, fungi, humic acids, metals, etc. In this study, the influence of humic acid (HA) on the DNA extraction and typing is investigated. If present in...

  2. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of hydroxycitric acid or Garcinia cambogia extracts in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Fabiola; Babio, Nancy; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Although several studies have found that the administration of G. cambogia extracts is associated with body weight and fat loss in both experimental animals and humans, we should be cautious when interpreting the results as other randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have not reported the same outcomes. Furthermore, most studies in humans have been conducted on small samples and mainly in the short term. None of them have shown whether these effects persist beyond 12 weeks of intervention. Therefore, there is still little evidence to support the potential effectiveness and long-term benefits of G. cambogia extracts. With regard to toxicity and safety, it is important to note that except in rare cases, studies conducted in experimental animals have not reported increased mortality or significant toxicity. Furthermore, at the doses usually administered, no differences have been reported in terms of side effects or adverse events (those studied) in humans between individuals treated with G. cambogia and controls.

  3. Effects of black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis, Geomguseul extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is often considered to result from either excessive food intake or insufficient physical activity. Adzuki beans have been evaluated as potential remedies for various health conditions, and recent studies have reported their effects on the regulation of lipid metabolism, but it remains to be determined whether they may be effective in overcoming obesity by regulating appetite and satiety. Objective: This study investigated the effect of black adzuki bean (BAB extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus fed a high-fat diet. Design: The rats were fed for 8 weeks with a control diet containing 10 kcal% from fat (CD, a high-fat diet containing 60 kcal% from fat (HD, or a high-fat diet with 1% or 2% freeze-dried ethanolic extract powder of BAB (BAB-1 and BAB-2. Results: The body weights and epididymal fat weights were significantly reduced and the serum lipid profiles were improved in the group fed the diet containing BAB compared to the HD group. The expression of AGRP mRNA significantly decreased in the BAB groups, and treatment with BAB-2 resulted in a marked induction of the mRNA expression of POMC and CART, which are anorexigenic neuropeptides that suppress food intake. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of ObRb, a gene related to leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus, were significantly higher in the BAB groups than in the HD group. Conclusions: These results suggest that supplementation with BAB has a significant effect on body weight via regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides.

  4. Artemisia iwayomogi Extract Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Decreasing the Expression of Genes Associated with Adipogenesis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeji Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine whether Artemisia iwayomogi (AI extract reduces visceral fat accumulation and obesity-related biomarkers in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, and if so, whether these effects are exerted by modulation of the expression of genes associated with adipogenesis and inflammation. AI extract supplementation for 11 weeks significantly prevented HFD-induced increments in body weight, visceral adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy, and plasma levels of lipids and leptin. Additionally, AI extract supplementation resulted in downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors (PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and their target genes (CD36, aP2, and FAS in epididymal adipose tissue compared to the HFD alone. The AI extract effectively reversed the HFD-induced elevations in plasma glucose and insulin levels and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. Furthermore, the extract significantly decreased gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, MCP1, IL-6, IFNα, and INFβ in epididymal adipose tissue and reduced plasma levels of TNFα and MCP1 as compared to HFD alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that AI extract may prevent HFD-induced obesity and metabolic disorders, probably by downregulating the expression of genes related to adipogenesis and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue.

  5. Artemisia iwayomogi Extract Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Decreasing the Expression of Genes Associated with Adipogenesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeji; Yanagawa, Yasuko; Kim, Sungun; Whang, Wan Kyunn; Park, Taesun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether Artemisia iwayomogi (AI) extract reduces visceral fat accumulation and obesity-related biomarkers in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and if so, whether these effects are exerted by modulation of the expression of genes associated with adipogenesis and inflammation. AI extract supplementation for 11 weeks significantly prevented HFD-induced increments in body weight, visceral adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy, and plasma levels of lipids and leptin. Additionally, AI extract supplementation resulted in downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors (PPARγ2 and C/EBPα) and their target genes (CD36, aP2, and FAS) in epididymal adipose tissue compared to the HFD alone. The AI extract effectively reversed the HFD-induced elevations in plasma glucose and insulin levels and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. Furthermore, the extract significantly decreased gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, MCP1, IL-6, IFNα, and INFβ) in epididymal adipose tissue and reduced plasma levels of TNFα and MCP1 as compared to HFD alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that AI extract may prevent HFD-induced obesity and metabolic disorders, probably by downregulating the expression of genes related to adipogenesis and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue. PMID:23401719

  6. Elicited soybean (Glycine max) extract effect on improving levels of Ter-119+Cd59+ in a mouse model fed a high fat-fructose diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Yunita Diyah; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    People who have unbalanced lifestyles and habits such as consuming high fat and sugar foods, as well as the lack of physical activity, have an increased risk of obesity and related metabolic diseases. The condition of obesity occurs due to an excess of nutrients which leads to low-grade inflammation. Inflammation induced by obesity causes unstable bone marrow homeostasis which is associated with proliferation and differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs). This study aimed to observe the erythroid progenitor (TER-119) and complement regulator (CD59) on bone marrow cells in mouse models fed a high fat-fructose diet (HFFD). This research was conducted by modeling obese mice using high fat and fructose food for 20 weeks, and then treating them with elicited soybean extract (ESE) for four weeks with several doses: low dose (78 mg/kgBB), moderate dose (104 mg/kgBB) and high dose (130 mg/kgBB). Cell TER119+CD59+ expression decreased in the HFFD group compared to the normal group. In the low, moderate and high dose group, TER119+CD59+ expression significantly increased compared to the HFFD group. These results demonstrate that soybean elicited extract can improve the hematopoietic system by increasing TER119+CD59+ expression in a high fat and fructose diet mouse model.

  7. The Korean Mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum Extract Has an Antiobesity Effect and Protects against Hepatic Steatosis in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoe-Yune Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the inhibitory effects of Korean mistletoe extract (KME on adipogenic factors in 3T3-L1 cells and obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57Bl/6 mice fed a high-fat diet were treated with KME (3 g/kg/day for 15 weeks for the antiobesity and NAFLD experiments. Body weight and daily food intake were measured regularly during the experimental period. The epididymal pad was measured and liver histology was observed. The effects of KME on thermogenesis and endurance capacity were measured. The effects of KME on adipogenic factors were examined in 3T3-L1 cells. Body and epididymal fat pad weights were reduced in KME-treated mice, and histological examination showed an amelioration of fatty liver in KME-treated mice, without an effect on food consumption. KME potently induces mitochondrial activity by activating thermogenesis and improving endurance capacity. KME also inhibited adipogenic factors in vitro. These results demonstrate the inhibitory effects of KME on obesity and NAFLD in mice fed a high-fat diet. The effects appear to be mediated through an enhanced mitochondrial activity. Therefore, KME may be an effective therapeutic candidate for treating obesity and fatty liver caused by a high-fat diet.

  8. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue

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    Ye Jin Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE, which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat, high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat, and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1, that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

  9. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Jin; Choi, Ji-Young; Ryu, Ri; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Cho, Su-Jung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Rina, Yu; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-08-30

    The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

  10. Effect of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. Extract Supplementation in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet

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    Ângelo C. Salvador

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. lipophilic and polar extract dietary supplementation effects were evaluated according to diabetes management indices, using an in vivo model. A research pipeline was constructed, that ranged from extract preparation, partial chemical characterization and toxicity evaluation, to examining the elderberry extract dietary supplementation effects on biofluid and tissues. Extracts toxicity was screened using an Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence model. A concentration of up to 60 mg/L was selected, and rat doses for oral supplementation were computed applying the interspecies correlation between A. fischeri and rats. Wistar type 2 diabetic rats, induced by streptozotocin (STZ, were fed a high-fat diet and supplemented for 4 weeks at doses of 190 and 350 mg/kg body weight/day of lipophilic and polar extract, respectively. As far as we know, lipophilic elderberry extract supplementation was assessed for the first time, while polar extract was administrated at higher doses and for a shorter period compared to previous studies, aiming to evaluate subacute supplementation effects. The polar extract modulated glucose metabolism by correcting hyperglycemia, while the lipophilic extract lowered insulin secretion. Both extracts lowered insulin resistance, without remarkable alterations to hematological indices, sera lipids and sera and tissular trace element homeostasis. In conclusion, elderberries are a potential source of bioactive compounds for formulations to be used as co-adjuvants in diabetes management.

  11. Parametric recursive system identification and self-adaptive modeling of the human energy metabolism for adaptive control of fat weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Őri, Zsolt P

    2016-08-03

    A mathematical model has been developed to facilitate indirect measurements of difficult to measure variables of the human energy metabolism on a daily basis. The model performs recursive system identification of the parameters of the metabolic model of the human energy metabolism using the law of conservation of energy and principle of indirect calorimetry. Self-adaptive models of the utilized energy intake prediction, macronutrient oxidation rates, and daily body composition changes were created utilizing Kalman filter and the nominal trajectory methods. The accuracy of the models was tested in a simulation study utilizing data from the Minnesota starvation and overfeeding study. With biweekly macronutrient intake measurements, the average prediction error of the utilized carbohydrate intake was -23.2 ± 53.8 kcal/day, fat intake was 11.0 ± 72.3 kcal/day, and protein was 3.7 ± 16.3 kcal/day. The fat and fat-free mass changes were estimated with an error of 0.44 ± 1.16 g/day for fat and -2.6 ± 64.98 g/day for fat-free mass. The daily metabolized macronutrient energy intake and/or daily macronutrient oxidation rate and the daily body composition change from directly measured serial data are optimally predicted with a self-adaptive model with Kalman filter that uses recursive system identification.

  12. CB(1) blockade-induced weight loss over 48 weeks decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholm, R; Sevastianova, K; Santos, A; Kotronen, A; Urjansson, M; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, J; Tiikkainen, M; Rissanen, A; Lundbom, N; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2013-05-01

    Studies in mice have suggested that endocannabinoid blockade using the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) blocker rimonabant prevents obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. To determine effects of rimonabant on liver fat in humans, we measured liver fat content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 37 subjects who used either a CB1 blocker rimonabant or placebo in a double-blind, randomized manner. This was retrospectively compared with a historical hypocaloric diet weight loss group (n=23). Weight loss averaged 8.5±1.4 kg in the rimonabant, 1.7±1.0 kg in the placebo and 7.5±0.2 kg in the hypocaloric diet group (Pfat decreased more in the rimonabant (5.9% (2.5-14.6%) vs 1.8% (0.9-3.5%), before vs after) than in the placebo group (6.8% (2.2-15.7%) vs 4.9% (1.6-7.8%), before vs after, Ploss of liver fat (r=0.70, P>0.0001). The decreases in liver fat were comparable between the rimonabant and the young historical hypocaloric diet groups. We conclude that, unlike in mice, in humans rimonabant decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss.

  13. Fat-specific Protein 27/CIDEC Promotes Development of Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming-Jiang; Cai, Yan; Wang, Hua; Altamirano, José; Chang, Binxia; Bertola, Adeline; Odena, Gemma; Lu, Jim; Tanaka, Naoki; Matsusue, Kimihiko; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Kimura, Shioko; Pacher, Pal; Gonzalez, Frank J; Bataller, Ramon; Gao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is the progressive form of alcoholic liver disease and may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We studied mouse models and human tissues to identify molecules associated with ASH progression, and focused on mouse fat-specific protein 27 (FSP-27)/human cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector C (CIDEC) protein, which is expressed in white adipose tissues and promotes formation of fat droplets. Methods C57BL/6N mice or mice with hepatocyte-specific disruption of Fsp27 (Fsp27Hep−/− mice) were fed the Lieber-Decarli ethanol liquid diet (5% ethanol) for 10 days to 12 weeks, followed by 1 or multiple binges of ethanol (5 or 6 g/kg) during the chronic feeding. Some mice were given an inhibitor of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) (GW9662). Adenoviral vectors were used to express transgenes or small hairpin (sh) RNAs in cultured hepatocytes and in mice. Liver tissue samples were collected from ethanol-fed mice or from 31 patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) with biopsy-proved ASH and analyzed by histologic, immunohistochemical, transcriptome, immunoblot, and real-time PCR analyses. Results Chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding of mice, which mimics the drinking pattern of patients with AH, produced severe ASH and mild fibrosis. Microarray analyses revealed similar alterations in expression of many hepatic genes in ethanol-fed mice and humans with ASH, including upregulation of mouse Fsp27 (also called Cidec) and human CIDEC. Fsp27Hep−/− mice and mice given injections of adenovirus-Fsp27shRNA had markedly reduced ASH following chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding. Inhibition of PPARG and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein H (CREBH) prevented the increases in Fsp27α and FSP27β mRNAs, respectively, and reduced liver injury in this chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding model. Overexpression of FSP27 and ethanol exposure had synergistic effects in inducing production of

  14. High-fat diet-induced neuropathy of prediabetes and obesity: effect of PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcho, Pierre; Stavniichuk, Roman; Ribnicky, David M; Raskin, Ilya; Obrosova, Irina G

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia species are a rich source of herbal remedies with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., on neuropathy in high-fat diet-fed mice, a model of prediabetes and obesity developing oxidative stress and proinflammatory changes in peripheral nervous system. C57Bl6/J mice fed high-fat diet for 16 weeks developed obesity, moderate nonfasting hyperglycemia, nerve conduction deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. They displayed 12/15-lipoxygenase overexpression, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid accumulation, and nitrosative stress in peripheral nerve and spinal cord. PMI-5011 (500 mg kg(-1) d(-1), 7 weeks) normalized glycemia, alleviated nerve conduction slowing and sensory neuropathy, and reduced 12/15-lipoxygenase upregulation and nitrated protein expression in peripheral nervous system. PMI-5011, a safe and nontoxic botanical extract, may find use in treatment of neuropathic changes at the earliest stage of disease.

  15. The body fat-lowering effect of conjugated linoleic acid: a comparison between animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Fernández-Quintela, A; Churruca, I; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    Different reasons which justify differences between rodents and humans in body fat reduction produced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could be proposed. The doses used in humans are lower than those used in rodents. Human experiments have been performed with CLA isomer mixtures instead of isolated isomers. The variable dilution of t-10, c-12, the active isomer, among different preparations might explain the reduced responsiveness in humans. Diet composition may modulate CLA effects on body fat accumulation. As far as human studies are concerned, a specific dietary pattern has not been established. As a result differences among studies and also among subjects in the same study are likely. In rodents, the effects of CLA vary with genotype, suggesting that genetic predisposition to fat accumulation can play an important role in the effectiveness of CLA. Human volunteers with different body mass index have participated in the published studies and even in the same experiment. So, differences in lipid metabolism among subjects could help to explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. Age and maturity may also be crucial. Experiments using rodents have been conducted with growing animals and there is little evidence of CLA effectiveness in adult animals. By contrast, human studies have been performed with adults. Inhibition of lipogenesis in white adipose tissue is one of the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain the body-fat lowering effect of CLA, but lipogenesis in this tissue is very low in humans. Another mechanism suggested is increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver associated with peroxisome proliferation, but humans are relatively insensitive to this effect.

  16. Gut microbiota Modulated by Probiotics and Garcinia cambogia Extract Correlate with Weight Gain and Adipocyte Sizes in High Fat-Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeyoung Heo; Minseok Seo; Hwanhee Park; Woon Kyu Lee; Le Luo Guan; Joon Yoon; Kelsey Caetano-Anolles; Hyeonju Ahn; Se-Young Kim; Yoon-Mo Kang; Seoae Cho; Heebal Kim

    2016-01-01

    Results of recent studies on gut microbiota have suggested that obesogenic bacteria exacerbate obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the host when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In order to explore obesity-associated bacterial candidates and their response to diet, the composition of faecal bacterial communities was investigated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences in mice. Dietary intervention with probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract attenuated weight gain and adipocyte size in HFD-fed mice....

  17. Fetal liver blood flow distribution: role in human developmental strategy to prioritize fat deposition versus brain development.

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    Keith M Godfrey

    Full Text Available Among primates, human neonates have the largest brains but also the highest proportion of body fat. If placental nutrient supply is limited, the fetus faces a dilemma: should resources be allocated to brain growth, or to fat deposition for use as a potential postnatal energy reserve? We hypothesised that resolving this dilemma operates at the level of umbilical blood distribution entering the fetal liver. In 381 uncomplicated pregnancies in third trimester, we measured blood flow perfusing the fetal liver, or bypassing it via the ductus venosus to supply the brain and heart using ultrasound techniques. Across the range of fetal growth and independent of the mother's adiposity and parity, greater liver blood flow was associated with greater offspring fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both in the infant at birth (r = 0.43, P<0.001 and at age 4 years (r = 0.16, P = 0.02. In contrast, smaller placentas less able to meet fetal demand for essential nutrients were associated with a brain-sparing flow pattern (r = 0.17, p = 0.02. This flow pattern was also associated with a higher degree of shunting through ductus venosus (P = 0.04. We propose that humans evolved a developmental strategy to prioritize nutrient allocation for prenatal fat deposition when the supply of conditionally essential nutrients requiring hepatic inter-conversion is limited, switching resource allocation to favour the brain if the supply of essential nutrients is limited. Facilitated placental transfer mechanisms for glucose and other nutrients evolved in environments less affluent than those now prevalent in developed populations, and we propose that in circumstances of maternal adiposity and nutrient excess these mechanisms now also lead to prenatal fat deposition. Prenatal developmental influences play important roles in the human propensity to deposit fat.

  18. Sterilisation of extracted human teeth for educational use

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    Kumar M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty intact, non-carious and unrestored teeth extracted due to periodontal disease were used to determine the most effective method of sterilisation. The teeth were divided into six groups, each containing 10 teeth. Group 1 teeth were immersed in 10% formalin for seven days, group 2 teeth were immersed in 3% hydrogen peroxide for seven days, group 3 teeth were immersed in 2.6% sodium hypochlorite for seven days, group 4 teeth were boiled in water at 100°C for 20 minutes, group 5 teeth were autoclaved at 121°C at 15 lbs psi for 30 minutes, and group 6 teeth were immersed in normal saline for seven days. After the treatment, the teeth were individually inoculated into trypticase soy broth and incubated for 48 hours. A questionnaire survey was also conducted to determine the awareness of dental students regarding infection due to extracted human teeth and the common disinfection/sterilisation methods used. Autoclaving at 121°C, 15 lbs psi for 30 minutes and immersion in 10% formalin for seven days were effective in disinfecting/sterilising extracted human teeth. Chemicals such as 2.6% sodium hypochlorite, 3% hydrogen peroxide and boiling in water were not effective. The results indicate that autoclaving for 30 minutes or immersion in 10% formalin for seven days could be effectively used for disinfection/sterilisation of extracted human teeth.

  19. Pomegranate and green tea extracts protect against ER stress induced by a high-fat diet in skeletal muscle of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julie; Gilson, Hélène; Jamart, Cécile; Naslain, Damien; Pierre, Nicolas; Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that polyphenol-rich extracts can reduce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in skeletal muscle of mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups receiving during 20 weeks either a standard chow control (CTRL), or a HFD supplemented, or not, with pomegranate (HFD + P) or green tea (HFD + GT) extracts. After the nutritional intervention, mice were killed and gastrocnemius muscles were taken. Proteins and mRNA were measured by Western blot and RT-qPCR, respectively. Body weight gain and visceral fat were higher in HFD, HFD + P and HFD + GT than in CTRL. The markers of the unfolded protein response BiP, XBP1u, XBP1s and ATF4 were higher only in HFD. In HFD + P and HFD + GT, this increase was not observed except for CHOP, which was elevated in all HFD groups. HFD increased also markers of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, autophagy and oxidative stress, which were kept low in HFD + P and HFD + GT groups. Our data provide evidence for a protective effect of pomegranate and green tea extracts against ER stress, oxidative stress and protein degradation induced by HFD in skeletal muscle. They give arguments for a usefulness of these natural nutritional compounds to fight against cellular dysfunctions related to fat excess.

  20. Analysis of human muscle extracts by proton NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, P.N.; Barany, M.; Arus, C.

    1986-03-01

    Perchloric acid extracts were prepared from pooled human muscle biopsies from patients diagnosed with scoliosis (SCOL) and cerebral palsy (CP). After neutralization with KOH and removal of perchlorate, the extracts were concentrated by freeze drying and dissolved in /sup 2/H/sub 2/O to contain 120 O.D. units at 280 nm per 0.5 ml. /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy was performed with the 5 mm probe of a Varian XL300 instrument. Creatine, lactate, carnosine, and choline were the major resonances in the one-dimensional spectra of both extracts. With creatine as reference, 2.5-fold more lactate was found in SCOL than in CP, and a much smaller difference was also found in their carnosine content. Two-dimensional COSY comparison revealed several differences between the two extracts. Taurine, N-acetyl glutamate, glycerophosphoryl choline (or phosphoryl choline) and an unidentified spot were present only in the extract from SCOL but not in that from CP. On the other hand, aspartate, hydroxy-proline, carnitine and glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine were only present in CP but absent in SCOL. Alanine, cysteine, lysine and arginine appeared in both extracts without an apparent intensity difference.

  1. Heritable components of the human fecal microbiome are associated with visceral fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Caroline I; Beaumont, Michelle; Jackson, Matthew A; Steves, Claire J; Spector, Timothy D; Bell, Jordana T

    2017-08-02

    Obesity and its associated diseases are one of the major causes of death worldwide. The gut microbiota has been identified to have essential regulatory effects on human metabolism and obesity in particular. In a recent study we provided some insights into the link between the gut microbiota (GM) and adiposity, as well as host genetic modulation of these processes. Our results identify novel evidence of association between 6 adiposity phenotypes and faecal microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Accumulation of visceral fat, a key risk factor for cardio-metabolic disease, has the strongest and most pervasive signature on the gut microbiota of the factors we examined. Furthermore, we observe that the adiposity-associated OTUs were classified as heritable and in some cases were also associated with host genetic variation at obesity-associated human candidate genes FHIT, TDRG1 and ELAVL4. This addendum confirms our previously published results in the TwinsUK cohort using a different approach to OTU clustering and multivariate analysis, and discusses further the importance of considering the GM as a complex ecosystem.

  2. Comparation of Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit in High-Fat Emulsion-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Gu, Lifei; Chen, Huijuan; Liu, Ronghua; Huang, Huilian; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a Chinese medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Recently, studies indicated free radical scavenging was one of the major pathways to alleviate hyperlipidemia. Moreover, hawthorn fruit is a rich source of phenols, which quench free radical and attenuate hyperlipidemia. However, the phenols vary with processing methods, especially solvent type. Our aim was to compare hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of hawthorn fruit in hyperlipidemia rats. After a 4-week treatment of high-fat emulsion, lipid profile levels and antioxidant levels of two extracts were determined using commercial analysis. Total phenols content in the extract of hawthorn fruit was determined colorimetrically by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn fruit possessed hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Simultaneously, stronger activities were observed in ethanol extract. Besides, total phenols content in ethanol extract from the same quality of hawthorn fruit was 3.9 times more than that in aqueous extract. The obvious difference of hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects between ethanol extract and aqueous extract of hawthorn fruit was probably due to the presence of total phenols content, under the influence of extraction solvent. Ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit exhibited more favorable hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects than aqueous extract. The higher effects could be due to the higher content of total phenols that varies with extraction solvent. Abbreviations used: TC: Total cholesterol, TG: Triglyceride, LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, CAT: Catalase, NO: Nitric oxide, NOS: Nitric oxide synthase, SR-BI: Scavenger receptor Class B Type I.

  3. Extracts of pomelo peels prevent high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in c57bl/6 mice through activating the PPARα and GLUT4 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Ding

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome is a serious health problem in both developed and developing countries. The present study investigated the anti-metabolic disorder effects of different pomelo varieties on obese C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat (HF diet. DESIGN: The peels of four pomelo varieties were extracted with ethanol and the total phenols and flavonoids content of these extracts were measured. For the animal experiment, the female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a Chow diet or a HF diet alone or supplemented with 1% (w/w different pomelo peel extracts for 8 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured every other day. At the end of the treatment, the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin (INS tolerance test, serum lipid profile and insulin levels, and liver lipid contents were analyzed. The gene expression analysis was performed with a quantitative real-time PCR assay. RESULT: The present study showed that the Citrus grandis liangpinyou (LP and beibeiyou (BB extracts were more potent in anti-metabolic disorder effects than the duanshiyou (DS and wubuyou (WB extracts. Both LP and BB extracts blocked the body weight gain, lowered fasting blood glucose, serum TC, liver lipid levels, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and lowered serum insulin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Compared with the HF group, LP and BB peel extracts increased the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes, such as FAS, PGC-1α and PGC-1β, and GLUT4 in the liver and white adipocyte tissue (WAT. CONCLUSION: We found that that pomelo peel extracts could prevent high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice through the activation of the PPARα and GLUT4 signaling. Our results indicate that pomelo peels could be used as a dietary therapy and the potential source of drug for metabolic disorders.

  4. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w.)/day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis. PMID:26822962

  5. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective: The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design: Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w./day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50 with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results: We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG, and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions: These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis.

  6. Changes in human bone marrow fat content associated with changes in hematopoietic stem cell numbers and cytokine levels with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuljapurkar, Sonal R; McGuire, Timothy R; Brusnahan, Susan K; Jackson, John D; Garvin, Kevin L; Kessinger, Margaret A; Lane, Judy T; O' Kane, Barbara J; Sharp, John G

    2011-11-01

    Hematological deficiencies increase with aging, including anemias, reduced responses to hematopoietic stress and myelodysplasias. This investigation tested the hypothesis that increased bone marrow (BM) fat content in humans with age was associated with decreased numbers of side population (SP) hematopoietic stem cells, and this decrease correlated with changes in cytokine levels. BM was obtained from the femoral head and trochanteric region of the femur removed at surgery for total hip replacement (N = 100 subjects). In addition, BM from cadavers (N = 36), with no evidence of hip disease, was evaluated for fat content. Whole trabecular marrow samples were ground in a sterile mortar and pestle, and cellularity and lipid content determined. Marrow cells were stained with Hoechst dye and SP profiles were acquired. Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured using ELISA. Fat content in the BM of human subjects and cadavers increased with age. The numbers of SP stem cells in BM as well as plasma IGF-1 and SDF-1 levels decreased in correlation with increased BM fat. IL-6 had no relationship to changes in marrow fat. These data suggest that increased BM fat may be associated with a decreased number of SP stem cells and IGF-1 and SDF-1 levels with aging. These data further raise a more general question as to the role of adipose cells in the regulation of tissue stem cells. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Rapid extraction and preservation of genomic DNA from human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundaram, D; Kim, J-H; Yeo, W-H; Oh, K; Lee, K-H; Kim, M-H; Ryew, S-M; Ahn, S-G; Gao, D; Cangelosi, G A; Chung, J-H

    2013-02-01

    Simple and rapid extraction of human genomic DNA remains a bottleneck for genome analysis and disease diagnosis. Current methods using microfilters require cumbersome, multiple handling steps in part because salt conditions must be controlled for attraction and elution of DNA in porous silica. We report a novel extraction method of human genomic DNA from buccal swab and saliva samples. DNA is attracted onto a gold-coated microchip by an electric field and capillary action while the captured DNA is eluted by thermal heating at 70 °C. A prototype device was designed to handle four microchips, and a compatible protocol was developed. The extracted DNA using microchips was characterized by qPCR for different sample volumes, using different lengths of PCR amplicon, and nuclear and mitochondrial genes. In comparison with a commercial kit, an equivalent yield of DNA extraction was achieved with fewer steps. Room-temperature preservation for 1 month was demonstrated for captured DNA, facilitating straightforward collection, delivery, and handling of genomic DNA in an environment-friendly protocol.

  8. Water extraction on Mars for an expanding human colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphs, M; Franz, B; Baker, T; Howe, S

    2015-11-01

    In-situ water extraction is necessary for an extended human presence on Mars. This study looks at the water requirements of an expanding human colony on Mars and the general systems needed to supply that water from the martian atmosphere and regolith. The proposed combination of systems in order to supply the necessary water includes a system similar to Honeybee Robotics' Mobile In-Situ Water Extractor (MISWE) that uses convection, a system similar to MISWE but that directs microwave energy down a borehole, a greenhouse or hothouse type system, and a system similar to the Mars Atmospheric Resource Recovery System (MARRS). It is demonstrated that a large water extraction system that can take advantage of large deposits of water ice at site specific locations is necessary to keep up with the demands of a growing colony.

  9. Freezing and thawing effects on fat, protein, and lactose levels of human natural milk administered by gavage and continuous infusion

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    Andrea D. Abranches

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the changes in human milk macronutrients: fat, protein, and lactose in natural human milk (raw, frozen and thawed, after administration simulation by gavage and continuous infusion. METHOD: an experimental study was performed with 34 human milk samples. The infrared spectrophotometry using the infrared analysis equipment MilkoScan Minor(r (Foss, Denmark equipment was used to analyze the macronutrients in human milk during the study phases. The analyses were performed in natural (raw samples and after freezing and fast thawing following two steps: gavage and continuous infusion. The non-parametric Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: the fat content was significantly reduced after administration by continuous infusion (p < 0.001 during administration of both raw and thawed samples. No changes in protein and lactose content were observed between the two forms of infusion. However, the thawing process significantly increased the levels of lactose and milk protein. CONCLUSION: the route of administration by continuous infusion showed the greatest influence on fat loss among all the processes required for human milk administration.

  10. Freezing and thawing effects on fat, protein, and lactose levels of human natural milk administered by gavage and continuous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abranches, Andrea D; Soares, Fernanda V M; Junior, Saint-Clair G; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth L

    2014-01-01

    to analyze the changes in human milk macronutrients: fat, protein, and lactose in natural human milk (raw), frozen and thawed, after administration simulation by gavage and continuous infusion. an experimental study was performed with 34 human milk samples. The infrared spectrophotometry using the infrared analysis equipment MilkoScan Minor® (Foss, Denmark) equipment was used to analyze the macronutrients in human milk during the study phases. The analyses were performed in natural (raw) samples and after freezing and fast thawing following two steps: gavage and continuous infusion. The non-parametric Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used for the statistical analysis. the fat content was significantly reduced after administration by continuous infusion (p<0.001) during administration of both raw and thawed samples. No changes in protein and lactose content were observed between the two forms of infusion. However, the thawing process significantly increased the levels of lactose and milk protein. the route of administration by continuous infusion showed the greatest influence on fat loss among all the processes required for human milk administration. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Black rice (Oryza sativa L. extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in C57BL/6 J mice fed a high-fat diet via fatty acid oxidation

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    Jang Hwan-Hee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two major risk factors for the onset of fatty liver disease are excessive alcohol intake and obesity, the latter being associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of black rice extract (BRE on hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice, providing a model of NAFLD. Methods Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 in each group: normal fat diet (ND, high fat diet (HF, and high fat diet supplemented with 1% (w/w BRE (HF +1% BRE. The experimental diets were fed for seven weeks. Results A HF induced hepatic steatosis with significant increases in the serum levels of free fatty acids (FFAs, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and insulin. By contrast, supplementary BRE (10 g/kg of diet included in the HF alleviated hepatic steatosis and significantly decreased serum TG and TC levels (p Conclusions Dietary BRE supplementation improved serum lipid profiles and significantly enhanced mRNA expression levels of fatty acid metabolism-related genes, primarily via β-oxidation and ω-oxidation in the liver. Taken together, these findings suggest that a BRE-supplemented diet could be useful in reducing the risks of hepatic steatosis and related disorders, including hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.

  12. Basic investigation on acoustic velocity change imaging method for quantitative assessment of fat content in human liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Kazune; Tanigawa, Shohei; Hori, Makoto; Yokota, Daiki; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2016-07-01

    Fatty liver is a disease caused by the excess accumulation of fat in the human liver. The early diagnosis of fatty liver is very important, because fatty liver is the major marker linked to metabolic syndrome. We already proposed the ultrasonic velocity change imaging method to diagnose fatty liver by using the fact that the temperature dependence of ultrasonic velocity is different in water and in fat. For the diagonosis of a fatty liver stage, we attempted a feasibility study of the quantitative assessment of the fat content in the human liver using our ultrasonic velocity change imaging method. Experimental results showed that the fat content in the tissue mimic phantom containing lard was determined by its ultrasonic velocity change in the flat temperature region formed by a circular warming ultrasonic transducer with an acoustic lens having an appropriate focal length. By considering the results of our simulation using a thermal diffusion equation, we determined whether this method could be applied to fatty liver assessment under the condition that the tissue had the thermal relaxation effect caused by blood flow.

  13. Human Milk Fat Substitute Produced by Enzymatic Interesterification of Vegetable Oil Blend

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    Semra Turan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil, palm kernel oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, and marine oil blend, formulated in the mass ratio of 4.0:3.5:1.0:1.5:0.2, was subjected to interesterification catalyzed by lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa (Lipozyme® TL IM for obtaining a product that contains similar triacylglycerol (TAG structure to that of human milk fat (HMF. Reactions were carried out in a double jacketed glass vessel equipped with magnetic stirrer at 60 °C for 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h. The blend was analyzed for fatty acid composition of both total fatty acids and those at the sn-2 position after pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. After interesterification, TAGs were purified by thin layer chromatography and TAG species were determined according to the carbon number (CN by high-temperature gas chromatography. Enzymatic interesterification generated significant differences for all TAG species from CN30 to CN54. Concentrations of some TAG species (CN30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 50, 52 and 54 decreased, while some (CN40 to 48 increased after 24 h. TAG species with higher CN reached maximum levels at the end of 6 h of reaction time. The predominant TAGs of the reaction product after 24 h were CN46, 48, 50, 52 and 54 with ratios of 13.8, 18.2, 13.9, 17.8, and 12.1 %, respectively. These TAG species contain mainly 1,3-diunsaturated-2-saturated structure, like HMF.

  14. Supplementation of strontium to a chondrogenic medium promotes chondrogenic differentiation of human dedifferentiated fat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Naoya; Honda, Yoshitomo; Kishimoto, Naotaka; Liao, Wen; Azumi, Eiko; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2015-05-01

    Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) isolated from adipose tissue have been demonstrated to differentiate into chondrogenic cells in vitro. Nevertheless, an efficient method to facilitate its chondrogenic differentiation is still unexplored, hampering the extensive application of these cells in cartilage regeneration therapies. Here we provide the evidence that supplementation of strontium ions (Sr) in a chondrogenic medium (CM) significantly promotes early chondrogenic differentiation of DFAT cells. Human DFAT cells and the mesenchymal stem cell line (RCB2153) were subjected to the CM supplemented with/without Sr. After 14 days, alcian blue staining intensity significantly increased in DFAT cells, but not in RCB2153, subjected to CM with Sr. mRNA expression analysis revealed that the CM with 1.5 mM Sr increased the expression of chondrogenic marker, collagen type 2 alpha 1, whereas there was no significant change in osteogenic markers, collagen type 1 alpha 1, runt-related transcription factor 2, and osteocalcin, and hypertrophic chondrogenic marker, collagen type 10 alpha 1. Inhibitors for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) pathways significantly diminished the alcian blue staining intensity, providing the first evidence that these signal pathways are associated with chondrogenic differentiation of DFAT cells. CaSR and ERK1/2 pathways independently induced Sr-mediated early chondrogenic differentiation. These results suggest that Sr supplementation into the CM may provide a powerful platform for preparing chondrogenically differentiated DFAT cells for cartilage regeneration.

  15. Kinetic properties of mouse pancreatic lipase-related protein-2 suggest the mouse may not model human fat digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xunjun; Ross, Leah E; Miller, Rita A; Lowe, Mark E

    2011-05-01

    Genetically engineered mice have been employed to understand the role of lipases in dietary fat digestion with the expectation that the results can be extrapolated to humans. However, little is known about the properties of mouse pancreatic triglyceride lipase (mPTL) and pancreatic lipase-related protein-2 (mPLRP2). In this study, both lipases were expressed in Pichia Pastoris GS115, purified to near homogeneity, and their properties were characterized. Mouse PTL displayed the kinetics typical of PTL from other species. Like mPTL, mPLRP2 exhibited strong activity against various triglycerides. In contrast to mPTL, mPLRP2 was not inhibited by increasing bile salt concentration. Colipase stimulated mPLRP2 activity 2- to 4-fold. Additionally, mPTL absolutely required colipase for absorption to a lipid interface, whereas mPLRP2 absorbed fully without colipase. mPLRP2 had full activity in the presence of BSA, whereas BSA completely inhibited mPTL unless colipase was present. All of these properties of mPLRP2 differ from the properties of human PLRP2 (hPLRP2). Furthermore, mPLRP2 appears capable of compensating for mPTL deficiency. These findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms of dietary fat digestion may be different in humans and mice. Thus, extrapolation of dietary fat digestion in mice to humans should be done with care.

  16. Trinucleotide repeat expansions catalyzed by human cell-free extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer R Stevens; Elaine E Lahue; Guo-Min Li; Robert S Lahue

    2013-01-01

    Trinucleotide repeat expansions cause 17 heritable human neurological disorders.In some diseases,somatic expansions occur in non-proliferating tissues such as brain where DNA replication is limited.This finding stimulated significant interest in replication-independent expansion mechanisms.Aberrant DNA repair is a likely source,based in part on mouse studies showing that somatic expansions are provoked by the DNA repair protein MutSβ (Msh2-Msh3complex).Biochemical studies to date used cell-free extracts or purified DNA repair proteins to yield partial reactions at triplet repeats.The findings included expansions on one strand but not the other,or processing of DNA hairpin structures thought to be important intermediates in the expansion process.However,it has been difficult to recapitulate complete expansions in vitro,and the biochemical role of MutSβ remains controversial.Here,we use a novel in vitro assay to show that human cell-free extracts catalyze expansions and contractions of trinucleotide repeats without the requirement for DNA replication.The extract promotes a size range of expansions that is similar to certain diseases,and triplet repeat length and sequence govern expansions in vitro as in vivo.MutSβ stimulates expansions in the extract,consistent with aberrant repair of endogenous DNA damage as a source of expansions.Overall,this biochemical system retains the key characteristics of somatic expansions in humans and mice,suggesting that this important mutagenic process can be restored in the test tube.

  17. Fine Mapping of the Body Fat QTL on Human Chromosome 1q43.

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    Brahim Aissani

    Full Text Available Evidence for linkage and association of obesity-related quantitative traits to chromosome 1q43 has been reported in the Quebec Family Study (QFS and in populations of Caribbean Hispanic ancestries yet no specific candidate locus has been replicated to date.Using a set of 1,902 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped in 525 African American (AA and 391 European American (EA women enrolled in the NIEHS uterine fibroid study (NIEHS-UFS, we generated a fine association map for the body mass index (BMI across a 2.3 megabase-long interval delimited by RGS7 (regulator of G-protein signaling 7 and PLD5 (Phospholipase D, member 5. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to the data to evaluate the association in race-stratified analyses and meta-analysis.The strongest associations were observed in a recessive genetic model and peaked in the 3' end of RGS7 at intronic rs261802 variant in the AA group (p = 1.0 x 10-4 and in meta-analysis of AA and EA samples (p = 9.0 x 10-5. In the EA group, moderate associations peaked at rs6429264 (p = 2.0 x 10-3 in the 2 Kb upstream sequence of RGS7. In the reference populations for the European ancestry in the 1,000 genomes project, rs6429264 occurs in strong linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.94 with rs1341467, the strongest candidate SNP for total body fat in QFS that failed genotyping in the present study. Additionally we report moderate associations at the 3' end of PLD5 in meta-analysis (3.2 x 10-4 ≤ p ≤ 5.8 x 10-4.We report replication data suggesting that RGS7, a gene abundantly expressed in the brain, might be a putative body fat QTL on human chromosome 1q43. Future genetic and functional studies are required to substantiate our observations and to potentially link them to the neurobehavioral phenotypes associated with the RGS7 region.

  18. Decreased expression of humanized Fat-1 in porcine fetal fibroblasts following deletion of PGK-neomycin resistance.

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    Han, X J; Liang, H; Yun, T; Zhao, Y H; Zhang, M L; Zhao, L H; Li, R F; Li, X L

    2015-09-28

    The neomycin-resistance (neo(r)) gene is widely used as a selectable marker in eukaryotic expression vectors; however, its expression often affects that of target genes. Cre recombinase recognizes LoxP sites, leading to site-specific recombination and deletion of DNA and RNA between two LoxP sites. In the present study, a humanized Fat-1 gene (hFat-1) was generated by DNA Works and used to construct a pC-PGK-neo(r)-hfat-1 expression vector, in which PGK-neo(r) was flanked by two LoxP sites. The pC-PGK-neo(r)-hfat-1 plasmids were transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts using liposomes, and three transgenic cell lines were obtained by culturing with 400 μg/mL G418 for 7 days. Next, these cell lines were transfected with a Cre recombinase expression plasmid, which contains a puromycin resistance gene, in order to delete neo(r), which was integrated into the genome. hFat-1-neo(r) negative cells were obtained following puromycin selection. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction data indicated that neomycin-resistant cells had higher hFat-1 expression than neomycin-sensitive cells. High performance gas chromatography data suggested that the n-6/n-3 ratio was significantly lower in transfected cells than in wild-type cells. The n-6/n-3 ratio in Cre-treated hFat-1-transfected cells was higher than that in untreated cells, suggesting that deletion of PGK-neo(r) decreased hFat-1 expression.

  19. Improvement in autologous human fat transplant survival with SVF plus VEGF-PLA nano-sustained release microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqun; Pan, Shengsheng; Ni, Binting; Lin, Yuanshao

    2014-08-01

    Early neovascularization is important for autologous fat transplant survival. SVF cells are ideal seed cells. Both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and SVF cells can promote neovascularization. However, the half-life (about 50 min) of VEGF is too short to sustain an adequate local concentration. We have investigated whether VEGF-polylactic acid (PLA) nano-sustained release microspheres plus SVF cells can improve neovascularization and survival of transplanted fat tissues. SVF cells were harvested and constructed VEGF-PLA nano-sustained release microspheres in vitro. Human fat tissues was mixed with SVF cells plus VEGF-PLA, SVF cells alone or Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium as the control. These three mixtures were injected into random sites in 18 nude mice. Two months later, the transplants were weighed and examined histologically; and capillaries were counted to quantify neovascularization. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and anti-VEGF stains were applied to reveal cell infiltration. The mean wet weight of fat in the SVF plus VEGF-PLA, SVF alone, and control transplants were 0.18 ± 0.013 g, 0.16 ± 0.015 g, and 0.071 ± 0.12 g, respectively; the differences between groups were statistically significant. More vessels were present in the SVF plus VEGF-PLA transplants than in the other two types. Transplants mixed with SVF cells also had an acceptable density of capillaries. Histological analysis revealed that both the SVF plus VEGF-PLA and SVF alone transplants, but not the control transplants, were composed of adipose tissue, and had less fat necrosis and less fibrosis than control specimens. SVF plus VEGF-PLA transplants had significantly greater capillary density and VEGF expression than the other two transplant groups. Thus transplanted fat tissue survival and quality can be enhanced by the addition of VEGF-PLA nano-sustained release microspheres plus SVF cells.

  20. The role of SOCS2 in recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) regulating lipid metabolism in high-fat-diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai Li; Feng, Min; Tan, Xiao; Yan, Guo Yong; Sun, Chao

    2013-03-01

    In addition to regulate body growth and development process, growth hormone (GH) also involved in lipid metabolism, decreasing fat mass and improving lipolysis. To normal mice, GH could reduce their fat content, but events turned uncertain coming to the pattern of feeding high-fat-diet. In order to investigate the role of GH in adipogenesis of mice with high-fat-diet, the high-fat-diet feeding mice were randomly assigned into three groups and treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and the somatostatin analogue octreotide respectively. Results demonstrated that both rhGH and octreotide could reduce the body weight but the trends diminished in the end. HDL-C level was increased in octreotide treated groups but the activity of lipase was increased significantly in both two groups. RhGH remarkable increased the expression of SOCS2, FAS (P < 0.01) and SREBP-1c (P < 0.05), decreased the expression of SOCS1, SOCS3 (P < 0.05) and HSL (P < 0.01) in subcutaneous fat mass. In visceral fat tissue, all genes were increased except SOCS2 (P < 0.01), at the same time the visceral fat mass was decreased. The protein phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT5 which were treated with octreotide were increased in subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and liver (P < 0.01) and were increased significant in visceral fat by rhGH treated (P < 0.01). In liver, only JAK2 protein phosphorylation was raised (P < 0.01). In conclusion, rhGH and octreotide could decrease the whole body mass before 6 days; the trend was weaken in later period with high-fat-diet. RhGH could increase the subcutaneous fat mass and reduce the visceral fat mass, and SOCS2 might be involved in regulation of the mechanism through JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway.

  1. EGb761, an extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, reduces insulin resistance in a high-fat-fed mouse model

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    Wei-na Cong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available EGb761, a standardized and well-defined product extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, has beneficial effects on the treatment of multiple diseases, including diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, it is still unclear whether EGb761 can increase insulin sensitivity. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate the effects of EGb761 on insulin sensitivity in an obese and insulin-resistant mouse model, established through chronic feeding of C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat diet (HFD, and to explore potential mechanisms. Mice fed with HFD for 18 weeks (starting from 4 weeks of age developed obesity, dyslipidemia (as indicated by biochemical measurements of blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and free fatty acids (FFA, and insulin resistance (as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, compared to control mice fed with a standard laboratory chow. Oral treatment of the HFD-fed mice with EGb761, at low (100 mg/kg, medium (200 mg/kg, or high (400 mg/kg doses, via oral gavage (once daily for 8 weeks (starting from 26 weeks of age dose-dependently enhanced glucose tolerance in OGTT, and decreased both the insulin levels (by 29%, 55%, and 70%, respectively, and the HOMA-IR index values (by 50%, 69%, and 80%, respectively. EGb761 treatment also ameliorated HFD-induced obesity, dyslipidemia, and liver injury, as indicated by decreases in body weight (by 4%, 11%, and 16%, respectively, blood TC levels (by 23%, 32%, and 37%, respectively, blood TG levels (by 17%, 23%, and 33%, respectively, blood FAA levels (by 35%, 38%, and 46%, respectively, and liver index (liver weight/body weight values (by 12.8%, 25%, and 28%, respectively in the low, medium, and high EGb761 dose groups, respectively. In further mechanism studies, EGb761 was found to protect hepatic insulin receptor β and insulin receptor substrate 1 from HFD-induced degradation, and to keep the AMP

  2. Are fat acids of human milk impacted by pasteurization and freezing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgo, Luiz Antônio; Coelho Araújo, Wilma Maria; Conceição, Maria Hosana; Sabioni Resck, Inês; Mendonça, Márcio Antonio

    2014-10-03

    The Human Milk Bank undergo human milk to pasteurization, followed by storage in a freezer at -18° C for up to six months to thus keep available the stocks of this product in maternal and infant hospitals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing on the lipid fraction of human milk. A sample of human milk was obtained from a donor and was subdivided into ten sub-samples that was subjected to the following treatments: LC = raw milk; T0 = milk after pasteurization; T30 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 30 days; T60 = milk after pasteurization and freeze for 60 days, and so on every 30 days until T240 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 240 days, with 3 repetitions for each treatment. Lipids were extracted, methylated and fatty acid profiles determined by gas chromatography. The fatty acids were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and functional groups were identified by infrared spectroscopy. There were variations in the concentration of fatty acids. For unsaturated fatty acids there was increasing trend in their concentrations. The IR and NMR analyze characterized and identified functional groups presents in fatty acids.

  3. The effect of aqueous extract of gross and commercial yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on intra-abdominal and epididymal fat and glucose levels in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel D'Agostini; Bueno, Audrin Loss Scopel; Gallon, Carin Weirich; Gomes, Luana Ferreira; Kaiser, Samuel; Pavei, Cabral; Ortega, George González; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Jahn, Matheus Parmegiani

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed the plasma lipid profile, glucose levels and fat deposits in male rats treated with aqueous extract of gross yerba mate, commercial yerba mate or water. Yerba mate treatment did not change body weight gain and lipid profile. The consumption of gross yerba mate significantly increased blood glucose (6.6 mmol/L) as compared to the water (4.8 mmol/L) and commercial group (5.2 mmol/L) and decreased epididymal and intra-abdominal deposits (10.1mg/g and 23.7 mg/g of weight) as compared to the water (15.4 mg/g and 36.9 mg/g of weight) and commercial group (12.5mg/g and 28 mg/g of weight). The results suggest that gross yerba mate reduces fat more efficiently but produces a greater increase in blood glucose when compared to commercial yerba mate and water groups.

  4. Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe; Vigelsø, Andreas; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2017-07-01

    Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m(2)] were recruited from a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1-10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P fat (in %, respectively: 33 [29-38]; 42 [38-46]; 52 [49-55]; P fat oxidation, whereas abundance of lipids at whole-body level and in plasma was higher in WR.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. Noteworthy, maximal fat oxidation was equally high after clinical weight loss maintenance and weight regain compared with moderate weight loss. A high maximal fat oxidation after clinical weight loss maintenance was related to higher maximal oxygen updake, content of key proteins involved in transport of lipids across the plasma membrane and β-oxidation. In contrast, a high maximal fat oxidation after weight regain was related to higher availability of lipids, i.e., general adiposity and plasma concentration of triglycerides. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Carnosic acid as a major bioactive component in rosemary extract ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice.

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    Zhao, Yantao; Sedighi, Rashin; Wang, Pei; Chen, Huadong; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin

    2015-05-20

    In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of carnosic acid (CA) as a major bioactive component in rosemary extract (RE) on high-fat-diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice. The mice were given a low-fat diet, a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with either 0.14% or 0.28% (w/w) CA-enriched RE (containing 80% CA, RE#1L and RE#1H), or 0.5% (w/w) RE (containing 45% CA, RE#2), for a period of 16 weeks. There was the same CA content in the RE#1H and RE#2 diets and half of this amount in the RE#1L diet. The dietary RE supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, percent of fat, plasma ALT, AST, glucose, insulin levels, liver weight, liver triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels in comparison with the mice fed with a HF diet without RE treatment. RE administration also decreased the levels of plasma and liver malondialdehyde, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the liver expression of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in comparison with those for mice of the HF group. Histological analyses of liver samples showed decreased lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in mice administrated with RE in comparison with that of HF-diet-fed mice. Meanwhile, RE administration enhanced fecal lipid excretion to inhibit lipid absorption and increased the liver GSH/GSSG ratio to perform antioxidant activity compared with HF group. Our results demonstrate that rosemary is a promising dietary agent to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  6. VEGF Gene Expression in Adult Human Thymus Fat: A Correlative Study with Hypoxic Induced Factor and Cyclooxigenase-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinahones, Francisco; Salas, Julian; Mayas, María Dolores; Ruiz-Villalba, Adrian; Macias-Gonzalez, Manuel; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; DeMora, Manuel; Moreno-Santos, Inmaculada; Bernal, Rosa; Cardona, Fernando; Bekay, Rajaa El

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the adult human thymus degenerates into fat tissue; however, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. Recently, we have described that this fat (TAT) produces angiogenic factors and induces human endothelial cell proliferation and migration, indicating its potential angiogenic properties. Design Adult thymus fat and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were obtained from 28 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, making this tissue readily available as a prime source of adipose tissue. We focused our investigation on determining VEGF gene expression and characterizing the different genes, mediators of inflammation and adipogenesis, and which are known to play a relevant role in angiogenesis regulation. Results We found that VEGF-A was the isoform most expressed in TAT. This expression was accompanied by an upregulation of HIF-1α, COX-2 and HO-1 proteins, and by increased HIF-1 DNA binding activity, compared to SAT. Furthermore, we observed that TAT contains a high percentage of mature adipocytes, 0.25% of macrophage cells, 15% of endothelial cells and a very low percentage of thymocyte cells, suggesting the cellular variability of TAT, which could explain the differences in gene expression observed in TAT. Subsequently, we showed that the expression of genes known as adipogenic mediators, including PPARγ1/γ2, FABP-4 and adiponectin was similar in both TAT and SAT. Moreover the expression of these latter genes presented a significantly positive correlation with VEGF, suggesting the potential association between VEGF and the generation of adipose tissue in adult thymus. Conclusion Here we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function related to ongoing adipogenesis, which substitutes immune functions within the adult thymus. The expression of VEGF seems to be associated with COX-2, HO-1 and adipogenesis related genes, suggesting the importance that this new fat has acquired in research in relation to

  7. VEGF gene expression in adult human thymus fat: a correlative study with hypoxic induced factor and cyclooxygenase-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tinahones

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: It is well known that the adult human thymus degenerates into fat tissue; however, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. Recently, we have described that this fat (TAT produces angiogenic factors and induces human endothelial cell proliferation and migration, indicating its potential angiogenic properties. DESIGN: Adult thymus fat and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were obtained from 28 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, making this tissue readily available as a prime source of adipose tissue. We focused our investigation on determining VEGF gene expression and characterizing the different genes, mediators of inflammation and adipogenesis, and which are known to play a relevant role in angiogenesis regulation. RESULTS: We found that VEGF-A was the isoform most expressed in TAT. This expression was accompanied by an upregulation of HIF-1alpha, COX-2 and HO-1 proteins, and by increased HIF-1 DNA binding activity, compared to SAT. Furthermore, we observed that TAT contains a high percentage of mature adipocytes, 0.25% of macrophage cells, 15% of endothelial cells and a very low percentage of thymocyte cells, suggesting the cellular variability of TAT, which could explain the differences in gene expression observed in TAT. Subsequently, we showed that the expression of genes known as adipogenic mediators, including PPARgamma1/gamma2, FABP-4 and adiponectin was similar in both TAT and SAT. Moreover the expression of these latter genes presented a significantly positive correlation with VEGF, suggesting the potential association between VEGF and the generation of adipose tissue in adult thymus. CONCLUSION: Here we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function related to ongoing adipogenesis, which substitutes immune functions within the adult thymus. The expression of VEGF seems to be associated with COX-2, HO-1 and adipogenesis related genes, suggesting the importance that this new

  8. Hydrolysis of human milk fat globules by pancreatic lipase: role of colipase, phospholipase A2, and bile salts.

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, L; Hernell, O; Olivecrona, T

    1981-01-01

    Human milk fat globules were used to explore how dietary triglycerides are hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase. These triglycerides were hydrolyzed very slowly by lipase alone as if the surface layer of proteins and phospholipids impeded the action of the enzyme. The inhibition of lipase activity could be overcome by addition either of colipase or of pancreatic phospholipase A2. Colipase enhanced triglyceride hydrolysis in a dose-dependent manner whether bile salts were present or not. Bile salts...

  9. Influence of a fat layer on the near infrared spectra of human muscle: quantitative analysis based on two-layered Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Soyemi, Olusola O.; Landry, Michelle R.; Soller, Babs R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of fat thickness on the diffuse reflectance spectra of muscle in the near infrared (NIR) region is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-layer structure and with phantom experiments. A polynomial relationship was established between the fat thickness and the detected diffuse reflectance. The influence of a range of optical coefficients (absorption and reduced scattering) for fat and muscle over the known range of human physiological values was also investigated. Subject-to-subject variation in the fat optical coefficients and thickness can be ignored if the fat thickness is less than 5 mm. A method was proposed to correct the fat thickness influence. c2005 Optical Society of America.

  10. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    was that fat oxidation during exercise might be differentially preserved in leg and arm muscles after weight loss.Methods:Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from musculus...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling......, and plasma leptin was higher in O than in PO and C.Conclusions:In O subjects, maximal fat oxidation during exercise and the eliciting relative exercise intensity are increased. This is associated with higher intramuscular triglyceride levels and higher resting non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations...

  11. Identification of compounds from high-fat and extra virgin olive oil-supplemented diets in whole mouse liver extracts and isolated mitochondria using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Gustavo Aparecido; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; de Oliveira, Vanessa; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Cintra, Dennys Esper Corrêa; Castilho, Roger Frigério; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a fatty liver disorder that could be improved with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) supplementation in diet. We propose the monitoring, in whole mouse liver extracts and in isolated mitochondria, of the absorption of compounds from three different diets: standard (CT), high-fat (HFD) and high-fat supplemented with EVOO (HFSO). Male mice were submitted to one of the following three diets: CT or HFD for 16 weeks or HFD for 8 weeks followed by additional 8 weeks with HFSO. Following this period, liver was extracted for histological evaluation, mitochondria isolation and mass spectrometry analyses. Diets, liver extracts and Percoll-purified mitochondria were analyzed using ESI-MS and the lipidomics approach. Morphological, histological and spectrometric results indicated a decrease in NASH severity with EVOO supplementation in comparison with animals maintained with HFD. Spectrometric data also demonstrated that some compounds presented on the diets are absorbed by the mitochondria. EVOO was shown to be a potential therapeutic alternative in food for NASH. Our results are in accordance with the proposition that the major factor that influences different responses to diets is their composition - and not only calories - especially when it comes to studies on obesity.

  12. Short-term high-fat diet increases postprandial trimethylamine-N-oxide in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutagy, Nabil E; Neilson, Andrew P; Osterberg, Kristin L; Smithson, Andrew T; Englund, Tessa R; Davy, Brenda M; Hulver, Matthew W; Davy, Kevin P

    2015-10-01

    The gut microbiota plays an obligatory role in the metabolism of nutrients containing trimethylamine moieties, such as L-carnitine and choline, leading to the production of the proatherogenic trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We hypothesized that a short-term, high-fat diet would increase fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of TMAO in response to a high-fat meal challenge. Following a 2-week eucaloric control diet, 10 nonobese men (18-30 years) consumed a eucaloric, high-fat diet (55% fat) for 5 days. Plasma TMAO was measured after a 12-hour fast and each hour after for 4 hours following a high-fat meal (63% fat) at baseline and after the high-fat diet using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. Fasting plasma TMAO did not increase significantly following the high-fat diet (1.83 ± 0.21 vs 1.6 ± 0.24 μmol/L). However, plasma TMAO was higher at hour 1 (2.15 ± 0.28 vs 1.7 ± 0.30 μmol/L), hour 2 (2.3 ± 0.29 vs 1.8 ± 0.32 μmol/L), hour 3 (2.4 ± 0.34 vs 1.58 ± 0.19 μmol/L), and hour 4 (2.51 ± 0.33 vs 1.5 ± 0.12 μmol/L) (all P fasting plasma TMAO concentrations but appears to increase postprandial TMAO concentrations in healthy, nonobese, young men. Future studies are needed to determine the mechanisms responsible for these observations.

  13. Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom ethyl acetate extract protects against high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating kinase phosphorylation in mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji-Su; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is an herb used as a traditional medicine; however, it causes side effects such as nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Nevertheless, AMK can be applied in specific ways medicinally, including via ingestion of low doses for short periods of time. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced the hepatocyte injury and inflammation. The protective effects of AMK against NASH are unclear; therefore, in this study, the protective effects of AMK ethyl acetate extract were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH model. We found decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as well as increased levels of lipoproteins during AMK extract treatment. We also observed decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation and triglycerides, as well as suppressed hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in extract-treated livers. Treatment with extract decreased the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). These results demonstrate that the protective effect of the extract against HFD-induced NASH occurred via reductions in reactive oxygen species production, inflammation suppression, and apoptosis related to the suppression of JNK1/2 activation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that that ethyl acetate extract of AMK has potential therapeutic effects in the HFD-induced NASH mouse model. PMID:26726030

  14. Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2011-06-01

    In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer.

  15. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract treatment improves triglyceridemia, liver cholesterol, liver steatosis, oxidative damage and corticosteronemia in rats rendered obese by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Thamara C; Moura, Egberto G; de Oliveira, Elaine; Soares, Patrícia N; Guarda, Deysla S; Bernardino, Dayse N; Ai, Xu Xue; Rodrigues, Vanessa da S T; de Souza, Gabriela Rodrigues; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Figueiredo, Mariana S; Manhães, Alex C; Lisboa, Patrícia C

    2017-05-13

    Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. We hypothesize that cranberry extract (CE) can improve this dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in rats since it has an important antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of CE in food intake, adiposity, biochemical and hormonal parameters, lipogenic and adipogenic factors, hepatic morphology and oxidative balance in a HFD model. At postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44.5% (35.2% from lard) energy from fat. At PN150, 12 animals from SD and HFD groups were killed while the others were subdivided into four groups (n = 12/group): animals that received 200 mg/kg cranberry extract (SD CE, HFD CE) gavage/daily/30 days or water (SD, HFD). At PN180, animals were killed. HFD group showed higher body mass and visceral fat, hypercorticosteronemia, higher liver glucocorticoid sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride contents and microsteatosis. Also, HFD group had higher lipid peroxidation (plasma and tissues) and higher protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) compared to SD group. HFD CE group showed lower body mass gain, hypotrygliceridemia, hypocorticosteronemia, and lower hepatic cholesterol and fatty acid synthase contents. HFD CE group displayed lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) and accumulation of liver fat compared to HFD group. Although adiposity was not completely reversed, cranberry extract improved the metabolic profile and reduced oxidative damage and steatosis in HFD-fed rats, which suggests that it can help manage obesity-related disorders.

  16. Chondrogenesis of human infrapatellar fat pad stem cells on acellular dermal matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eYe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acellular dermal matrix (ADM has been in clinical use for decades in numerous surgical applications. The ability for ADM to promote cellular repopulation and revascularisation, and tissue regeneration is well documented. Adipose stem cells have the ability to differentiate into mesenchymal tissue types, including bone and cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential interaction between ADM and adipose stem cells in vitro using TGFβ3 and BMP6.Human infrapatellar fat pad derived adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASC were cultured with ADM derived from rat dermis under chondrogenic (TGFβ3 and BMP6 in vitro for 2 and 4 weeks. Histology, qPCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess for markers of chondrogenesis (collagen Type II, SOX9 and proteoglycans. At 4 weeks, cell-scaffold constructs displayed cellular changes consistent with chondrogenesis, with evidence of stratification of cell layers and development of a hyaline-like cartilage layer superficially which stained positively for collagen Type II and proteoglycans. Significant cell-matrix interaction was seen between the cartilage layer and the ADM itself with seamless integration between each layer. Real time qPCR showed significantly increases of COL2A1, SOX9, and ACAN gene expression over 4 weeks when compared to control. COL1A2 gene expression remained unchanged over 4 weeks.We believe the principles which make ADM versatile and successful for tissue regeneration are application to cartilage regeneration. This study demonstrates in vitro the ability for IPFP-ASCs to undergo chondrogenesis, infiltrate and interact with ADM. These outcomes serve as a platform for in vivo modelling of ADM for cartilage repair.

  17. Effect of variations in peptide sequence on anti-human milk fat globule membrane antibody reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, P X; Reynolds, K; Pietersz, G A; McKenzie, I F

    1991-02-01

    Monoclonal anti-mucine antibodies BC1, BC2 and BC3 produced using human milk fat globule membrane react with a synthetic peptide p1-24 (PDTRPAPGSTAPPAHGVTSAPDTR) representing the repeating amino acid sequence of the mucin core protein. The minimum epitope recognized by these three monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in p1-24 was contained in the five amino acids APDTR. To analyse the variation of position of the epitope, various modifications of the APDTR sequence were made by synthesizing peptides and testing by direct binding and inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Firstly, peptides p13-32 and C-p13-32, in which the epitope APDTR was placed in the middle instead of the C-terminal as in p1-24, were examined. These peptides had a greater reaction with mAb BC1, BC2 and BC3 compared with the reaction with p1-24. Secondly, A-p1-24 and TSA-p1-24 were made wherein two APDTR epitopes were present--these peptides were shown to bind two IgG antibody molecules. Finally, the contribution of each amino acid in the APDTR epitope was studied using the pepscan polyethylene rods, making all 20 of the amino acid substitutions in each position for SAPDTR (the minimum epitope APDTR with an adjacent amino acid S). In the 120 peptides examined there were some 'permissible' substitutions in A, D and T but not in P or R for BC1 and BC2; there were more 'permissible' substitutions for BC3; different substitution patterns were found with each antibody and some substitutions gave an increased reaction compared with the native peptide SAPDTR. The studies are of value in analysing the reaction of antibodies with epitopes expressed in breast cancer and in determining the antigenicity of synthetic peptides.

  18. Preparation of human milk fat analogue by enzymatic interesterification reaction using palm stearin and fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Moumita; Sengupta, Avery; Bhattacharyya, D K; Ghosh, Mahua

    2016-04-01

    Palm stearin fractionate (PSF), obtained from palm stearin by further fractionation with solvents and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) rich fish oil (FO) were subjected to interesterification at 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 substrate molar ratio and catalyzed by lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa for obtaining a product with triacylglycerol (TAG) structure similar to that of human milk fat (HMF). The parameters (molar ratio and time) of the interesterification reaction were standardized. The temperature of 60 °C and enzyme concentration of 10 % (w/w) were kept fixed as these parameters were previously optimized. The reactions were carried out in a stirred tank reactor equipped with a magnetic stirrer for 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. The blends were analyzed for fatty acid (FA) composition of both total FAs and those at the sn-2 position after pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. All the blended products were subjected to melting point determination and free fatty acid content. Finally, blend of PSF and FO at 2:1 molar ratio with 69.70 % palmitic acid (PA) content and 12 h of reaction produced the desired product with 75.98 % of PA at sn-2 position, 0.27 % arachidonic acid (AA), 3.43 % eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 4.25 % docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and with melting point of 42 °C. This study portrayed a successful preparation of TAG containing unique FA composition i.e. ≥ 70 % of the PA, by weight, were esterified at the sn-2 position which could be used in infant formulation with health benefits of n-3 PUFAs.

  19. Metabolic fate of extracted glucose in normal human myocardium.

    OpenAIRE

    Wisneski, J A; Gertz, E W; Neese, R A; Gruenke, L D; D. L. Morris; Craig, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Glucose is an important substrate for myocardial metabolism. This study was designed to determine the effect of circulating metabolic substrates on myocardial glucose extraction and to determine the metabolic fate of glucose in normal human myocardium. Coronary sinus and arterial catheters were placed in 23 healthy male volunteers. [6-14C]Glucose was infused as a tracer in 10 subjects. [6-14C]Glucose and [U-13C]lactate were simultaneously infused in the other 13 subjects. Simultaneous blood s...

  20. The nutritional composition and anti-obesity effects of an herbal mixed extract containing Allium fistulosum and Viola mandshurica in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Yoo, Byoung Wan; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2015-10-16

    In traditional oriental medicine, A. fistulosum and V. mandshurica are considered to be effective in promoting blood circulation. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether a solution containing both A. fistulosum and V. mandshurica (AFE + VME) extracts has synergistic effects on the treatment of hyperlipidemia and obesity. Anti-obesity effects of an herbal extract containing Allium fistulosum and Viola mandshurica (AFE + VME) were investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. AFE + VME was orally administrated to mice with the HFD at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. We observed the effects of mixed extract on body weight, fat mass, serum lipid levels, and mRNA expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes in the adipose tissue of mice. The nutritional analysis revealed that this mixed extract is high in carbohydrate (72.2 g/100 g) and protein (11.5 g/100 g); low in fat (1.7 g/100 g); rich in vitamins E (4.8 mg/100 g), B1 (14.8 mg/100 g), B2 (1.0 mg/100 g), niacin (7.9 mg/100 g), and folic acid (1.57 mg/100 g); and rich in minerals such as calcium (600 mg/100 g), iron (106.1 mg/100 g), and zinc (5.8 mg/100 g). The oral administration of AFE + VME in obese mice reduced body weight, tissue weight, adipocyte size, and lipid accumulation in the liver compared with HFD control mice. AFE + VME also decreased serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and leptin concentrations. Furthermore, AFE + VME markedly increased the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2), and adiponectin and decreased leptin expression in the epididymal white adipose tissue. Our results suggest that the extract containing A. fistulosum and V. mandshurica improved lipid metabolism via the up-regulation of PPAR-γ, UCP-2, and adiponectin expression and the down-regulation of leptin in HFD-induced obese mice. Therefore, the extract containing Allium fistulosum and Viola mandshurica may be a

  1. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martemucci Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

  2. The Difference Analysis of Fat and Oil Content Extracted by Various Extraction Agents%不同萃取试剂检测羽绒残脂率的差异性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝芬; 李国华; 张慧; 乔铁军; 夏晓慧; 张昆

    2015-01-01

    选用乙醚、二氯甲烷和石油醚作为羽绒残脂率的萃取试剂,对3种试剂检测结果进行了比对分析。结果显示:二氯甲烷检测结果高于乙醚的检测结果,而石油醚的检测结果低于乙醚的检测结果。从统计学角度分析得出这两种试剂的检测结果与乙醚的检测结果都存在显著性差异,二氯甲烷和石油醚无法直接作为乙醚萃取的替代性试剂。%T hree solutions were used as extraction agents to extract the fat an down in this paper. The mathematical statistics was used to study test datA for the possibility of substituting for ethyl ether. The analysis shows that the test result of dichloromethane is above the test result of ethyl ether, and that the test result of petroleumether is less than that of ethyl ether. Theresults do reveal distinct differences among fat and oil contents extracted by various extraction agents. Dichloromethane and petroleumether are both not acceptable substitutes for ethyl ether in statistics.

  3. Bulgarian Marine and Freshwater Fishes as a Source of Fat-Soluble Vitamins for a Healthy Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Stancheva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study evaluates the fat-soluble vitamins all-trans retinol (vitamin A, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 and α-tocopherol (vitamin E content in the fresh edible tissue of Bulgarian fish species: marine—grey mullet (Mugil cephalus and bonito (Sarda sarda, and freshwater—rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp (Cyprinus carpio. The sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. All-trans retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol were analyzed simultaneously using RP-HPLCUVFL system with analytical column C18 ODS2 Hypersil™. The fat soluble vitamins content (μg per 100 g wet weight in the fresh edible fish tissue of analyzed fishes are in the ranges: vitamin A from 2.7 ± 0.4 to 37.5 ± 3.4 μg/100 g ww; vitamin D3 from 1.1 ± 0.1 to 11.4 ± 0.6 μg/100 g ww; vitamin E from 121.4 ± 9.6 to 1274.2 ± 44.1 μg/100 g ww. Three fat-soluble vitamins occur in higher amounts in rainbow trout and grey mullet species. According to recommended daily intake (RDI, they are a good source of cholecalciferol.

  4. Major losses of fat, carbohydrates and energy content of preterm human milk frozen at -80°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, H M; Ovental, A; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Marom, R; Lubetzky, R

    2014-05-01

    Long-term storage of human milk (HM) requires freezing at low temperatures, the consequences of which upon macronutrients are unclear. To test the null hypothesis that HM freezing and storage for a range of 1 to 10 weeks at -80 °C does not affect HM fat, protein, lactose and energy contents. Samples of HM were obtained from 20 mothers (60 samples) of preterm infants (25 to 35 weeks gestation), who routinely expressed their milk, every 3 h, using an electric pump, from the second to the seventh week after delivery. All samples were frozen at -80 °C for 8 to 83 days (43.8 days average). After thawing and homogenization, energy and macronutrient contents were measured using an HM analyzer. Fat, carbohydrates and energy contents were significantly lower in thawed HM than in fresh HM (fat, fresh vs thawed: 3.72±1.17 vs 3.36±1.19 g/100 ml, Pcarbohydrates, fresh vs thawed: 5.86±0.71 vs 4.09±0.96 g/100 ml, Pcarbohydrates content but not in fat and energy correlated significantly with freezing duration. Freezing at -80 °C significantly decreases the energy content of HM, both from fat and carbohydrates. Since quantitatively the decrease in macronutrients was much higher than that published for HM storage at -20 °C, our results do not support freezing HM at -80 °C as the gold standard for long-term storage. We suggest that caloric intake calculations in preterm infants cannot be established based upon fresh HM data.

  5. Insulin sensitivity is independent of lipid binding protein trafficking at the plasma membrane in human skeletal muscle: effect of a 3-day, high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordy, Andreas B; Serup, Annette K; Karstoft, Kristian; Pilegaard, Henriette; Kiens, Bente; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate lipid-induced regulation of lipid binding proteins in human skeletal muscle and the impact hereof on insulin sensitivity. Eleven healthy male subjects underwent a 3-day hypercaloric and high-fat diet regime. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the diet intervention, and giant sarcolemmal vesicles were prepared. The high-fat diet induced decreased insulin sensitivity, but this was not associated with a relocation of FAT/CD36 or FABPpm protein to the sarcolemma. However, FAT/CD36 and FABPpm mRNA, but not the proteins, were upregulated by increased fatty acid availability. This suggests a time dependency in the upregulation of FAT/CD36 and FABPpm protein during high availability of plasma fatty acids. Furthermore, we did not detect FATP1 and FATP4 protein in giant sarcolemmal vesicles obtained from human skeletal muscle. In conclusion, this study shows that a short-term lipid-load increases mRNA content of key lipid handling proteins in human muscle. However, decreased insulin sensitivity after a high-fat diet is not accompanied with relocation of FAT/CD36 or FABPpm protein to the sarcolemma. Finally, FATP1 and FATP4 protein was located intracellularly but not at the sarcolemma in humans. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Variability of human saliva composition: possible relationships with fat perception and liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyraud, Eric; Palicki, Olivier; Schwartz, Camille; Nicklaus, Sophie; Feron, Gilles

    2012-05-01

    Saliva is the medium that bathes the taste receptors in the oral cavity and in which aroma and taste compounds are released when food is eaten. Moreover saliva contains enzymes and molecules that can interact with food. To date, little research has been devoted to the intra- and inter-individual variabilities of these components and their inter-relationships. The first aim of this work was to study intra- and inter-individual variabilities over time in the composition of molecules likely to interact with food in the mouth, with particular focus on molecules that might interact with fat. The second aim was to try to relate this composition to a liking for fat and its perception. Stimulated and unstimulated saliva from 13 subjects was collected in the morning and afternoon on three occasions at 4-month intervals. Saliva characteristics such as flow, protein concentration, lipolysis, proteolysis, amylolysis, lipocalin concentration, lysozyme activity, total antioxidant status and uric acid concentrations were measured, as well as the liking for and perceived fattiness of a fat solution. The results showed that for most of the measured characteristics, intra-subject variability in saliva composition was smaller than inter-subject variability, with remarkable stability over time (8 months) in terms of flow, lypolysis, proteolysis and total antioxidant status. Relationships were found between some of these characteristics (lipolysis, lipocalin and flow) and fat-liking or perception, showing that the composition of saliva may play an important role in fat perception and liking.

  7. Anti-Obesity and Hypoglycemic Effects of Poncirus trifoliata L. Extracts in High-Fat Diet C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Jia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the possible anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects of Poncirus trifoliata L. extracts. Mature fruit were divided into flavedo (PF and juice sacs (PJ, and extracts from them were tested on C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD for thirteen weeks. Both fruit extracts (40 mg/kg body weight, respectively showed anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects. Consumption of PF and PJ extracts reduced body weight by 9.21% and 20.27%, respectively. Liver and adipose weights, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride (TG, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c levels decreased significantly, while serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and oral glucose tolerance levels increased significantly in response to two fruit extracts. These effects were due in part to the modulation of serum insulin, leptin, and adiponectin. Furthermore, transcript levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 were reduced while those of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT1α and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2 were increased in the liver of C57BL/6 mice, which might be an important mechanism affecting lipid and glucose metabolism. Taken together, P. trifoliata fruit can be potentially used to prevent or treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  8. Extract of Kuding tea prevents high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice via liver X receptor (LXR β antagonism.

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    Shengjie Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of ilex kudingcha C. J. Tseng (kuding tea, a traditional beverage in China, on the metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diets. DESIGN: For the preventive experiment, the female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standard diet (Chow, high-fat diet (HF, and high-fat diet mixed with 0.05% ethanol extract of kuding tea (EK for 5 weeks. For the therapeutic experiment, the C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet for 3 months, and then mice were split and EK was given with oral gavages for 2 weeks at 50 mg/day/kg. Body weight and daily food intake amounts were measured. At the end of treatment, the adipocyte images were assayed with a scanning electron microscope, and the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, serum lipid profile and lipids in the livers were analyzed. A reporter gene assay system was used to test the whether EK could act on nuclear receptor transcription factors, and the gene expression analysis was performed with a quantitative PCR assay. RESULTS: In the preventive treatment, EK blocked the body weight gain, reduced the size of the adipocytes, lowered serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, EK reduced the size of the white adipocytes, serum TG and fasting blood glucose levels in obese mice. With the reporter assay, EK inhibited LXRβ transactivity and mRNA expression of LXRβ target genes. CONCLUSION: We observed that EK has both preventive and therapeutic roles in metabolic disorders in mice induced with high-fat diets. The effects appear to be mediated through the antagonism of LXRβ transactivity. Our data indicate that kuding tea is a useful dietary therapy and a potential source for the development of novel anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs.

  9. Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lee, Chang Gun; Kim, Sung Woo; Gim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Jung, Bae Dong

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by either destruction of pancreatic β-cells (type 1 DM) or unresponsiveness to insulin (type 2 DM). Conventional therapies for diabetes mellitus have been developed but still needs improvement. Many diabetic patients have complemented conventional therapy with alternative methods including oral supplementation of natural products. In this study, we assessed whether Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) 761 could provide beneficial effects in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM and high-fat diet-induced type 2 DM murine model system. For the type 1 DM model, streptozotocin-induced mice were orally administered EGb 761 for 10 days prior to streptozotocin injection and then again administered EGb 761 for an additional 10 days. Streptozotocin-treated mice administered EGb 761 exhibited lower blood triglyceride levels, lower blood glucose levels and higher blood insulin levels compared to streptozotocin-treated mice. Furthermore, liver LPL and liver PPAR-α were increased whereas IL-1β and TNF-α were decreased in streptozotocin-injected mice treated with EGb 761 compared to mice injected with streptozotocin alone. For the type 2 DM model, mice were given high-fat diet for 60 days and then orally administered EGb 761 every other day for 80 days. We found that mice given a high-fat diet and EGb 761 showed decreased blood triglyceride levels, increased liver LPL, increased liver PPAR-α and decreased body weight compared to mice given high-fat diet alone. These results suggest that EGb 761 can exert protective effects in both type 1 and type 2 DM murine models.

  10. Platycodon grandiflorum extract represses up-regulated adipocyte fatty acid binding protein triggered by a high fat feeding in obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoon Shin Park; Yoosik Yoon; Hong Seok Ahn

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Platycodon grandiflorum extract (PGE) on lipid metabolism and FABP mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue of high fat diet-induced obese rats.METHODS: PGE was treated to investigate the inhibitory effect on the pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 differentiation and pancreatic lipase activity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with an average weight of 439.03 ± 7.61 g were divided into four groups: the control groups that fed an experimental diet alone (C and H group) and PGE treatment groups that administered PGE along with a control diet or HFD at a concentration of 150 mg/kg body weight (C + PGE and H + PGE group, respectively) for 7 wk. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerol (TG) concentrations were measured from the tail vein of rats. Adipocyte cell area was measured from subcutaneous adipose tissue and the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) mRNA expression was analyzed by northern blot analysis.RESULTS: PGE treatment inhibited 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation, and also decreased pancreatic lipase activity. In this experiment, PGE significantly reduced plasma TC and TG concentrations as well as body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue weight. PGE also significantly decreased the size of subcutaneous adipocytes. Furthermore, it significantly repressed the up-regulation of FABP mRNA expression induced by a high-fat feeding in subcutaneous adipose tissue.CONCLUSION: PGE has a plasma lipid lowering-effect and anti-obesity effect in obese rats fed a high fat diet.From these results, we can suggest the possibility that PGE can be used as a food ingredient or drug component to therapeutically control obesity.

  11. Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m2] were recruited from...... composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P ... a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1–10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body...

  12. Regional variations in HDL metabolism in human fat cells: effect of cell size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despres, J.; Fong, B.S.; Julien, P.; Jimenez, J.; Angel, A.

    1987-05-01

    Abdominal obesity is related to reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and both are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. The authors have observed that plasma membranes from abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes have a greater HDL binding capacity than omental fat cell plasma membranes. The present study examined whether these binding characteristics could be due to differences in fat cell size or cholesterol concentration between the two adipose depots. Abdominal subcutaneous and deep omental fat were obtained from massively obese patients at surgery. Subcutaneous abdominal fat cells were significantly larger and their cellular cholesterol content greater than omental adipocytes. The uptake of HDL by collagenase-isolated fat cells was studied by incubating the cells for 2 h at 37/sup 0/C with 10 ..mu..g/ml /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 2/ or /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 3/. In both depots, the cellular uptake of /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 2/ and /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 3/ was specifically inhibited by addition of 25-fold excess unlabeled HDL and a close correlation was observed between the cellular uptake of /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 2/ and /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 3/. In obese patients, the uptake of /sup 125/I-HDL was higher in subcutaneous cells than in omental cells. The cellular /sup 125/I-HDL uptake was significantly correlated with adipocyte size and fat cell cholesterol content but not with adipocyte cholesterol concentration. These results suggest that the higher HDL uptake observed in subcutaneous cells compared with omental cells in obesity is the result of differences in adipocyte size rather than differences in the cholesterol concentration (cholesterol-to-triglyceride ratio). The increased interaction of HDL with hypertrophied abdominal adipocytes may play an important role in determining the lipid composition of HDL in obesity.

  13. MRI-determined fat content of human liver,pancreas and kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; E; Sijens; Mireille; A; Edens; Stephan; JL; Bakker; Ronald; P; Stolk

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To assess and correlate the lipid content of various organs in obese subjects and in persons with a normal body weight.METHODS:Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a previously validated gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging method with Dixon's two point technique were used in this study to quantify fat in liver,pancreas as well as kidney.RESULTS:In 36 volunteers with body mass index(BMI) ranging from 20.0 to 42.9 kg/m2,the median fat content of liver,pancreas and kidney was 2.3%(interquartile range:0...

  14. Anti-obesity effects of germinated brown rice extract through down-regulation of lipogenic genes in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2012-01-01

    Lipid accumulation using Oil Red O dye was measured in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes to examine the anti-obesity effect of four types of germinated rice, including germinated brown rice (GBR), germinated waxy brown rice (GWBR), germinated black rice (GB-R), and germinated waxy black rice (GWB-R). GBR methanol extract exhibited the highest suppression of lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cell line and also the anti-obesity effect of GBR on high fat induced-obese mice. The mice were divided into three groups and were administered: ND, a normal diet; HFD control, a high fat diet; and GBR, a high fat diet plus 0.15% GBR methanol extract for 7 weeks. GBR administration significantly decreased body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue as compared to the HFD control group. In addition, serum triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly decreased by following GBR administration compared with those in the HFD control group, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level increased. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of adipogenic transcriptional factors, such as CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR)-γ, and related genes (aP2, FAS), decreased significantly. Taken together, GBR administration suppressed body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipocytes, and improved serum lipid profiles, in part, by controlling adipogenesis through a reduction in transcriptional factors. These results suggest that GBR is a potential agent against obesity.

  15. Evaluation of anti-obesity activities of ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata bark on high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mopuri, Ramgopal; Ganjayi, Muniswamy; Banavathy, Kruthika S; Parim, Brahma Naidu; Meriga, Balaji

    2015-03-24

    The prevalence and severity of obesity and associated co-morbidities are rapidly increasing across the world. Natural products-based drug intervention has been proposed as one of the crucial strategies for management of obesity ailments. This study was designed to investigate the anti-obesity activities of ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (TPEE) on high fat diet-induced obese rats. LC-MS/MS analysis was done for ethanolic extract of T. paniculata bark. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six groups of six each, normal diet fed (NC), high fat diet-fed (HFD), HFD+ orlistat (standard drug control) administered, and remaining three groups were fed with HFD + TPEE in different doses (100,150 and 200 mg/kg b. wt). For induction of obesity rats were initially fed with HFD for 9 weeks, then, (TPEE) was supplemented along with HFD for 42 days. Changes in body weight, body composition, blood glucose, insulin, tissue and serum lipid profiles, atherogenic index, liver markers, and expression of adipogenesis-related genes such as leptin, adiponectin, FAS, PPARgamma, AMPK-1alpha and SREBP-1c, were studied in experimental rats. Also, histopathological examination of adipose tissue was carried out. Supplementation of TPEE reduced significantly (P obesity activities of TPEE promoting it as a formidable candidate to develop anti obesity drug.

  16. Antioxidant and cardio protective effect of palm oil leaves extract (standardized ethanolic fraction) in rats' model of saturated fats induced metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Zaid O; Satar, Munnavar; Abdullah, Nor A; Rathore, Hassaan; Tan, Young Chia; Uldin, Faiz; Basri, Rusliza; Abdullah, Mohammad H; John, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is suggested to use POLE (palm oil leaf extract) as a nutraceutical health product in food industry due to its newly discovered content of polyphenols and antioxidant vitamins. In the experiment, the antioxidant and anti-lipid-peroxidation activities of the extract were confirmed using; DPPH (1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radical scavenging activity, ferric ion induced lipid peroxidation inhibition, reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity assays. The cardio-protective activity was studied in vivo using a model of metabolic syndrome induced by high fat diet. Lipid profile, obesity indices, renal tubular handling of water and electrolytes, blood pressure and arterial stiffness were measured at the end of the treatment period. Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into six groups, viz; group C; was treated as a negative control and fed with standard rodents chow, group H; was treated as a positive control and fed with an experimental diet enriched with saturated free fatty acids for 8 weeks, groups HP0.5, HP1 and HP2 which were fed with 0.5,1 and 2 g/kg (body weight) /day of POLE orally during the last 24 days of the high fat diet feeding period and group P; fed with highest dose of POLE. Results revealed that POLE possesses a cardio-protective effect which is ascribed to its content of polyphenols.

  17. Anti-hyperlipidemic effects and potential mechanisms of action of the caffeoylquinic acid-rich Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopo Zhang

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is considered to be one of the greatest risk factors contributing to the prevalence and severity of cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect and potential mechanism of action of the Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet (HFD. The n-butanol fraction of the P. tectorius fruit ethanol extract (PTF-b was rich in caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs. Administration of PTF-b for 4 weeks effectively decreased retroperitoneal fat and the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c and hepatic TC and TG. The lipid signals (fatty acids, and cholesterol in the liver as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were correspondingly reduced. Realtime quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of PPARα and PPARα-regulated genes such as ACO, CPT1, LPL and HSL were largely enhanced by PTF-b. The transcription of LDLR, CYP7A1, and PPARγ was also upregulated. Treatment with PTF-b significantly stimulated the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK as well as the activity of serum and hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL. Together, these results suggest that administration of the PTF-b enriched in CQAs moderates hyperlipidemia and improves the liver lipid profile. These effects may be caused, at least in part, by increasing the expression of PPARα and its downstream genes and by upregulation of LPL and AMPK activities.

  18. Influences of Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from Grease Trap as Binder on Rheological and Solvent Extraction Behavior in SS316L Metal Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with rheological and solvent extraction behavior of stainless steel 316L feedstocks using Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from grease traps as binder components along with Polypropylene (PP copolymer as a backbone binder. Optimal binder formulation and effect of solvent extraction variables on green compacts are being analyzed. Four binder formulations based on volumetric ratio/weight fraction between PP and RWFO being mixed with 60% volumetric powder loading of SS316L powder each as feedstock. The rheological analysis are based on viscosity, shear rate, temperature, activation energy, flow behavior index, and moldability index. The optimal feedstock formulation will be injected to form green compact to undergo the solvent extraction process. Solvent extraction variables are based on solvent temperature which are 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C with different organic solvents of n-hexane and n-heptane. Analysis of the weight loss percentage and diffusion coefficient is done on the green compact during the solvent extraction process. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC is used to confirm the extraction of the RWFO in green compacts. It is found that all binder fractions exhibit pseudoplastic behavior or shear thinning where the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. After considering the factors that affect the rheological characteristic of the binder formulation, feedstock with binder formulation of 20/20 volumetric ratio between PP and RWFO rise as the optimal binder. It is found that the n-hexane solvent requires less time for extracting the RWFO at the temperature of 60 °C as proved by its diffusion coefficient.

  19. Antioxidant activity of alcohol extracts of chamomile flowers, anise seeds and dill seeds in two vegetable oils and two animal fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ismail, Khalid

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of alcohol extracts of chamomile flowers (CFE, anise seeds (ASE and dill seeds (DSE in corn oil, soybean oil, beef tallow and anhydrous butter fat (ABF was investigated during storage at 65ºC. The extent of oxidation was followed by peroxide value (PV. In addition, reducing power of these extracts was determined. Alcohol extracts of these plants at 3 g kg-1 were more effective as antioxidant than BHA (0.2 g kg-1 in corn and soybean oils, while they were less effective in beef tallow and ABF. CFE was more effective in retarding fat oxidation in corn and soybean oil than ASE and DSE, which both showed similar activity. However, in beef tallow and ABF all extracts showed similar activities. On the other hand, the reducing power of these extracts showed different behavior. CFE, which was the most active as antioxidant among the extracts showed the lowest reducing power. Furthermore, ASE and DSE, which exhibited similar antioxidant activity, the former has lower reducing activity than the latter, indicating that the antioxidant activity didn’t correlate linearly with the reducing power of these extracts.Se investigó la actividad antioxidante de extractos alcohólicos de flores de camomila (CFE, semillas de anís (ASD y eneldo (DSE en aceites de maíz y soja, sebo y grasa de mantequilla anhidra (ABF, almacenados a 65ºC. El seguimiento de la oxidación se realizó mediante el índice de peróxidos. Además, se determinó el poder reductor de los mismos. La actividad antioxidante de los extractos alcohólicos de estas plantas (3 g k -1 resultó más eficaz que la del BHA (0.2 g kg-1, en cambio, resultaron menos eficaces en el sebo y ABF. El extracto de manzanilla resultó ser mejor antioxidante para los aceites de maíz y soja que los extractos ASE y DSE, ambos mostraron una actividad similar. Sin embargo, en el sebo y la ABF todos los extractos revelaron una actividad antioxidante parecida. El poder reductor de

  20. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-10-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  1. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has...

  2. Ameliorating effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on altered glucose metabolism in high fat diet STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2012-12-01

    To explore the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium (S. anacardium)on altered glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by feeding rats with high fat diet followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg b.w.). Seven days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received nut milk extract of S. anacardium Linn. nut milk extract orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The effect of nut milk extract of S. anacardium on blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucose metabolising enzymes and GSK were studied. Treatment with SA extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and increase in plasma insulin levels and also increase in HOMA - β and decrease in HOMA -IR. The drug significantly increased the activity of glycolytic enzymes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and increased the glycogen content in liver of diabetic rats while reducing the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes. The drug also effectively ameliorated the alterations in GSK-3 mRNA expression. Overall, the present study demonstrates the possible mechanism of glucose regulation of S. anacardium suggestive of its therapeutic potential for the management of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ameliorating effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on altered glucose metabolism in high fat diet STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaladevi Siddhi Vinayagam; Shanthi Palanivelu; Sachdanandam Panchanadham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium (S. anacardium) on altered glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Methods: Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by feeding rats with high fat diet followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg b.w.). Seven days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received nut milk extract ofS. anacardium Linn. nut milk extract orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The effect of nut milk extract of S. anacardium on blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucose metabolising enzymes and GSK were studied. Results: Treatment with SA extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and increase in plasma insulin levels and also increase in HOMA - β and decrease in HOMA -IR. The drug significantly increased the activity of glycolytic enzymes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and increased the glycogen content in liver of diabetic rats while reducing the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes. The drug also effectively ameliorated the alterations in GSK-3 mRNA expression. Conclusions: Overall, the present study demonstrates the possible mechanism of glucose regulation of S. anacardium suggestive of its therapeutic potential for the management of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Akmal Ishak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P<0.05 increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL, insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats.

  5. Body Image and Anti-Fat Attitudes: An Experimental Study Using a Haptic Virtual Reality Environment to Replicate Human Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Line; Roy-Vaillancourt, Mélina; Chebbi, Brahim; Bouchard, Stéphane; Daoust, Michael; Dénommée, Jessica; Thorpe, Moriah

    2016-02-01

    It is well documented that anti-fat attitudes influence the interactions individuals have with overweight people. However, testing attitudes through self-report measures is challenging. In the present study, we explore the use of a haptic virtual reality environment to physically interact with overweight virtual human (VH). We verify the hypothesis that duration and strength of virtual touch vary according to the characteristics of VH in ways similar to those encountered from interaction with real people in anti-fat attitude studies. A group of 61 participants were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions involving giving a virtual hug to a female or a male VH of either normal or overweight. We found significant associations between body image satisfaction and anti-fat attitudes and sex differences on these measures. We also found a significant interaction effect of the sex of the participants, sex of the VH, and the body size of the VH. Female participants hugged longer the overweight female VH than overweight male VH. Male participants hugged longer the normal-weight VH than the overweight VH. We conclude that virtual touch is a promising method of measuring attitudes, emotion and social interactions.

  6. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant.

  7. Effects of green tea and its epigallocatechin (EGCG) content on body weight and fat mass in humans: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Cisneros, Lucía Cristina; López-Uriarte, Patricia; López-Espinoza, Antonio; Navarro Meza, Mónica; Espinoza-Gallardo, Ana Cristina; Guzmán Aburto, Martha Beatriz

    2017-06-05

    The prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity worldwide continues to increase, as well as diseases related to these conditions. This is attributed to an increase in energy intake and a decrease in energy expenditure. Consumption of green tea has been linked to a reduction in body fat and body weight. However, research on green tea has been very diverse. This review assesses the investigations that have been made with green tea and its epigallocatechin gallato (EGCG) content, evaluating its effect on body fat and body weight in humans. A search was made in the PubMed and Web of the Science databases that gave a first total result of 424 potential articles; 409 were excluded and 15 articles were used for this systematic review. Research has been very varied, however, daily consumption of green tea with doses of EGCG between 100 and 460 mg/day has shown greater effectiveness on body fat and body weight reduction in intervention periods of 12 weeks or more. In addition, the use of caffeine doses between 80 and 300 mg/day has been shown to be an important factor for this effects, when the participants did not have a high caffeine intake (> 300 mg/day) prior to the intervention.

  8. Effects of Solanum torvum fruit water extract on hyperlipidemia and sex hormones in high-fat fed male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Wannasiri

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: S. torvum extract can reverse the level of sex hormones to their normal level and reduce serum cholesterol in HFD-induced obese male rats. Furthermore, the long term oral administration of S. torvum extract is harmless.

  9. Cortisol extraction through human skin by reverse iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Stephanie A; Heikenfeld, Jason; Brooks, Tiffany; Esfandiari, Leyla; Boyce, Steven; Park, Yoonjee; Kasting, Gerald B

    2017-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of cortisol at the surface of the skin would advance the diagnosis and treatment of cortisol-related diseases, or of elevated cortisol levels related to stress in otherwise healthy populations. Reliable and accurate detection of cortisol at the skin surface remains a limiting factor in real-time monitoring of cortisol. To address this limitation, cortisol extraction through excised human skin by reverse iontophoresis was studied in vitro in side-by-side diffusion cells using a radiolabeled probe. The skin was subjected to four direct current regimens (0, 28, 56, 113μAcm(-2)) with the anode in the donor chamber and the cumulative cortisol concentrations recorded in the receiver chamber. The 56 and 113μAcm(-2) regimens significantly increased transport of (3)H-cortisol through the skin, and current density correlated directly with transcutaneous transport of (3)H-cortisol. The threshold of detection of electroosmotic versus passive diffusion of cortisol through the skin was between 28 and 56μAcm(-2). The results of this study are significant in examining how lipophilic analytes found in the bloodstream respond to reverse iontophoresis across the skin. In addition, a device integration technique is presented which illustrates how continuous cortisol extraction and sensing could potentially be achieved in a conventional wearable format.

  10. An Improved AAM Method for Extracting Human Facial Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Active appearance model is a statistically parametrical model, which is widely used to extract human facial features and recognition. However, intensity values used in original AAM cannot provide enough information for image texture, which will lead to a larger error or a failure fitting of AAM. In order to overcome these defects and improve the fitting performance of AAM model, an improved texture representation is proposed in this paper. Firstly, translation invariant wavelet transform is performed on face images and then image structure is represented using the measure which is obtained by fusing the low-frequency coefficients with edge intensity. Experimental results show that the improved algorithm can increase the accuracy of the AAM fitting and express more information for structures of edge and texture.

  11. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Soy Isoflavone Extracts in Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Farré, Magí; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Papaseit, Esther; Martínez-Riera, Roser; de la Torre, Rafael; Pizarro, Nieves

    2015-08-12

    The soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein produce several biological activities related to health benefits. A number of isoflavone extracts are commercially available, but there is little information concerning the specific isoflavone content of these products or differences in their bioavailability and pharmacokinetics. This study describes the development and validation of an analytical method to detect and quantify daidzein, genistein, and equol in human plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was applied in a crossover, randomized, bioavailability study. Twelve healthy volunteers were administered the same total isoflavones dose from two isoflavone supplement preparations (Super-Absorbable Soy Isoflavones (Life Extension, USA) and Fitoladius (Merck, Spain)). The pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0-24/dose and Cmax/dose) of the isoflavones from the two preparations differed significantly. Such differences in bioavailability and kinetics may have relevant effects on the health benefits derived from their intake.

  12. Substitution of carcinogenic solvent dichloromethane for the extraction of volatile compounds in a fat-free model food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayot, Nathalie; Lafarge, Céline; Bou-Maroun, Elias; Cayot, Philippe

    2016-07-22

    Dichloromethane is known as a very efficient solvent, but, as other halogenated solvents, is recognized as a hazardous product (CMR substance). The objective of the present work is to propose substitution solvent for the extraction of volatile compounds. The most important physico-chemical parameters in the choice of an appropriate extraction solvent of volatile compounds are reviewed. Various solvents are selected on this basis and on their hazard characteristics. The selected solvents, safer than dichloromethane, are compared using the extraction efficiency of volatile compounds from a model food product able to interact with volatile compounds. Volatile compounds with different hydrophobicity are used. High extraction yields were positively correlated with high boiling points and high Log Kow values of volatile compounds. Mixtures of solvents such as azeotrope propan-2-one/cyclopentane, azeotrope ethyl acetate/ethanol, and mixture ethyl acetate/ethanol (3:1, v/v) gave higher extraction yields than those obtained with dichloromethane.

  13. Insulin stimulates translocation of human GLUT4 to the membrane in fat bodies of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Crivat

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studies of genes controlling development and disease. However, its applicability to physiological systems is less clear because of metabolic differences between insects and mammals. Insulin signaling has been studied in mammals because of relevance to diabetes and other diseases but there are many parallels between mammalian and insect pathways. For example, deletion of Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptides resulted in 'diabetic' flies with elevated circulating sugar levels. Whether this situation reflects failure of sugar uptake into peripheral tissues as seen in mammals is unclear and depends upon whether flies harbor the machinery to mount mammalian-like insulin-dependent sugar uptake responses. Here we asked whether Drosophila fat cells are competent to respond to insulin with mammalian-like regulated trafficking of sugar transporters. Transgenic Drosophila expressing human glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4, the sugar transporter expressed primarily in insulin-responsive tissues, were generated. After expression in fat bodies, GLUT4 intracellular trafficking and localization were monitored by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM. We found that fat body cells responded to insulin with increased GLUT4 trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. While the amplitude of these responses was relatively weak in animals reared on a standard diet, it was greatly enhanced in animals reared on sugar-restricted diets, suggesting that flies fed standard diets are insulin resistant. Our findings demonstrate that flies are competent to mobilize translocation of sugar transporters to the cell surface in response to insulin. They suggest that Drosophila fat cells are primed for a response to insulin and that these pathways are down-regulated when animals are exposed to constant, high levels of sugar. Finally, these studies are the first to use TIRFM to

  14. Insulin Stimulates Translocation of Human GLUT4 to the Membrane in Fat Bodies of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivat, Georgeta; Lizunov, Vladimir A.; Li, Caroline R.; Stenkula, Karin G.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Cushman, Samuel W.; Pick, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studies of genes controlling development and disease. However, its applicability to physiological systems is less clear because of metabolic differences between insects and mammals. Insulin signaling has been studied in mammals because of relevance to diabetes and other diseases but there are many parallels between mammalian and insect pathways. For example, deletion of Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptides resulted in ‘diabetic’ flies with elevated circulating sugar levels. Whether this situation reflects failure of sugar uptake into peripheral tissues as seen in mammals is unclear and depends upon whether flies harbor the machinery to mount mammalian-like insulin-dependent sugar uptake responses. Here we asked whether Drosophila fat cells are competent to respond to insulin with mammalian-like regulated trafficking of sugar transporters. Transgenic Drosophila expressing human glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), the sugar transporter expressed primarily in insulin-responsive tissues, were generated. After expression in fat bodies, GLUT4 intracellular trafficking and localization were monitored by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). We found that fat body cells responded to insulin with increased GLUT4 trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. While the amplitude of these responses was relatively weak in animals reared on a standard diet, it was greatly enhanced in animals reared on sugar-restricted diets, suggesting that flies fed standard diets are insulin resistant. Our findings demonstrate that flies are competent to mobilize translocation of sugar transporters to the cell surface in response to insulin. They suggest that Drosophila fat cells are primed for a response to insulin and that these pathways are down-regulated when animals are exposed to constant, high levels of sugar. Finally, these studies are the first to use TIRFM to monitor insulin

  15. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in HIV-infected patients with fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Mulligan, Kathleen; Lee, Jeongae; Lo, Joan C; Wen, Michael; Noor, Mustafa A; Grunfeld, Carl; Schambelan, Morris

    2002-02-01

    We recently reported that treatment with a pharmacologic dose of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) resulted in a significant loss of body fat and gain in lean tissue in HIV-infected patients with syndromes of fat accumulation. However, insulin-mediated glucose disposal decreased transiently after one month of GH therapy. The present paper focuses on the changes of hepatic carbohydrate and fat metabolism associated with GH treatment in the same subjects. We assessed hepatic insulin sensitivity under both fasting and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions prior to and after one and six months of GH treatment (3 mg/day) in five patients using stable isotope tracer techniques. Indirect calorimetry, and measurements of lipid concentrations. Fasting endogenous glucose production (EGP) increased significantly at one month (12.0 +/- 0.7 to 14.9 +/- 0.9 micromol/kg/min, P glucogenesis (GNG) (3.5 +/- 0.9 to 5.2 +/- 0.9 and 5.8 +/-1.2 micromol/kg/min, n = 4, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 at one and six months, respectively); small changes in hepatic glycogenolysis also contributed. Sustained increases in lipolysis and progressive decreases in hepatic fractional de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and triglyceride concentrations occurred with GH treatment. These changes were accompanied by an improved lipid profile with a significant increase in HDL cholesterol and significant decreases in total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, the latter consistent with the decrease in hepatic DNL. During a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp, EGP and GNG were markedly suppressed compared to the corresponding time points under fasting conditions, albeit less so when measured after one month of GH treatment. Thus, in HIV-infected patients with abnormal fat distribution, pharmacologic doses of GH improved the overall lipid profile, but worsened glucose homeostasis under both fasting and hyperinsulinemic conditions. The combined implications of these positive and negative metabolic

  16. Comparative researches on two direct transmethylation without prior extraction methods for fatty acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanescu Monica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our work was to compare two methods, both based on direct transmethylation with different reagents, BF3/MeOH (boron trifluoride in methanol or HCl/MeOH (hydrochloride acid in methanol, in acid catalysis, without prior extraction, to find the fast, non-expensive but enough precise method for 9 principal fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arahidic and behenic acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content (forage from grassland, for nutrition and agrochemical studies. Results Comparatively, between the average values obtained for all analysed fatty acids by the two methods based on direct transmethylation without prior extraction no significantly difference was identified (p > 0.05. The results of fatty acids for the same forage sample were more closely to their average value, being more homogenous for BF3/MeOH than HCl/MeOH, because of the better accuracy and repeatability of this method. Method that uses BF3/MeOH reagent produces small amounts of interfering compounds than the method using HCl/MeOH reagent, results reflected by the better statistical parameters. Conclusion The fast and non-expensive BF3/methanol method was applied with good accuracy and sensitivity for the determination of free or combined fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated in forage matrix with low fat content from grassland. Also, the final extract obtained by this method, poorer in interfering compounds, is safer to protect the injector and column from contamination with heavy or non-volatile compounds formed by transmethylation reactions.

  17. Dynamic proteome profiling of individual proteins in human skeletal muscle after a high-fat diet and resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Donny M; Burniston, Jatin G; Pogson, Mark A; Smiles, William J; Hawley, John A

    2017-08-30

    It is generally accepted that muscle adaptation to resistance exercise (REX) training is underpinned by contraction-induced, increased rates of protein synthesis and dietary protein availability. By using dynamic proteome profiling (DPP), we investigated the contribution of both synthesis and breakdown to changes in abundance on a protein-by-protein basis in human skeletal muscle. Age-matched, overweight males consumed 9 d of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet during which time they either undertook 3 sessions of REX or performed no exercise. Precursor enrichment and the rate of incorporation of deuterium oxide into newly synthesized muscle proteins were determined by mass spectrometry. Ninety proteins were included in the DPP, with 28 proteins exhibiting significant responses to REX. The most common pattern of response was an increase in turnover, followed by an increase in abundance with no detectable increase in protein synthesis. Here, we provide novel evidence that demonstrates that the contribution of synthesis and breakdown to changes in protein abundance induced by REX differ on a protein-by-protein basis. We also highlight the importance of the degradation of individual muscle proteins after exercise in human skeletal muscle.-Camera, D. M., Burniston, J. G., Pogson, M. A., Smiles, W. J., Hawley, J. A. Dynamic proteome profiling of individual proteins in human skeletal muscle after a high-fat diet and resistance exercise. © FASEB.

  18. Flavor profiles of full-fat and reduced-fat cheese and cheese fat made from aged Cheddar with the fat removed using a novel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Drake, M A; Nelson, B K; Barbano, D M

    2006-02-01

    Many consumers are concerned with fat intake. However, many reduced-fat foods, including reduced-fat cheese, lack robust flavors. The objectives of this study were to characterize the flavors found in full-fat cheese, cheese fat, and reduced-fat cheese made from aged Cheddar using a novel process to remove the fat (Nelson and Barbano, 2004). Two full-fat, aged cheeses (9 and 39 mo) were selected, and the fat was removed using the novel fat removal process. Full-fat cheeses, shredded and reformed full-fat cheeses, corresponding reduced-fat cheeses, and cheese fats were then analyzed using descriptive sensory and instrumental analysis followed by consumer acceptance testing. Cheeses were extracted with diethyl ether followed by isolation of volatile material by high vacuum distillation. Volatile extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/ olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Selected compounds were quantified. The 39-mo cheese was characterized by fruity and sulfur notes, and the 9-mo-old cheese was characterized by a spicy/brothy flavor. Reduced-fat cheeses had similar flavor profiles with no difference in most sensory attributes to corresponding full-fat cheeses. Sensory profiles of the cheese fats were characterized by low intensities of the prominent flavors found in the full-fat cheeses. Instrumental analysis revealed similar trends. Consistent with sensory analysis, there were lower concentrations and log(3) flavor dilution factors for most compounds in the cheese fats compared with both the reduced- and full-fat cheeses, regardless of compound polarity. Consumers found the intensity of flavor in the reduced-fat cheese to be equal to the full-fat cheeses. This study demonstrated that when fat was removed from aged full-fat Cheddar cheese, most of the flavor and flavor compounds remained in the cheese and were not removed with the fat.

  19. Neuropeptide Y and peptide YY inhibit lipolysis in human and dog fat cells through a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Valet, P; Berlan, M.; BEAUVILLE, M.; Crampes, F.; Montastruc, J L; Lafontan, M.

    1990-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) are regulatory peptides that have considerable sequence homology with pancreatic polypeptide. Because (a) NPY has been shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in peripheral as well as central catecholaminergic neurons, and (b) alpha 2-adrenergic receptors of adipocytes play a major role in the regulation of lipolysis, we investigated the effect of NPY and PYY on isolated fat cells. In human fat cells NPY and PYY promoted a dose-dependent inhibition...

  20. Antihyperglycemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Extract and Its Active Compound Xanthorrhizol in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Bo Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthorrhizol, a natural compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Java turmeric, has been reported to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties; however, its effects on metabolic disorders remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of xanthorrhizol (XAN and C. xanthorrhiza extract (CXE with standardized XAN on hyperglycemia and inflammatory markers in high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese mice. Treatment with XAN (10 or 25 mg/kg/day or CXE (50 or 100 mg/kg/day significantly decreased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in HFD-induced obese mice. XAN and CXE treatments also lowered insulin, glucose, free fatty acid (FFA, and triglyceride (TG levels in serum. Epididymal fat pad and adipocyte size were decreased by high doses of XAN (26.6% and 20.1% and CXE (25.8% and 22.5%, respectively. XAN and CXE treatment also suppressed the development of fatty liver by decreasing liver fat accumulation. Moreover, XAN and CXE significantly inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and C-reactive protein (CRP in adipose tissue (27.8–82.7%, liver (43.9–84.7%, and muscle (65.2–92.5%. Overall, these results suggest that XAN and CXE, with their antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities, might be used as potent antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Molecular factors involved in the hypolipidemic- and insulin-sensitizing effects of a ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Heras, Natalia; Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; López-Farré, Antonio; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Lahera, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of ginger in animal models have been reported. However, information related to the mechanisms and factors involved in the metabolic effects of ginger at a hepatic level are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a hydroethanolic ginger extract (GE) in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The study was conducted in male Wistar rats divided into the following 3 groups: (i) Rats fed a standard diet (3.5% fat), the control group; (ii) rats fed an HFD (33.5% fat); and (iii) rats fed an HFD treated with GE (250 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 5 weeks (HFD+GE). Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Liver expression of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), PPARα and PPARγ, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and collagen I was measured. Data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA, followed by a Newman-Keuls test if differences were noted. The study showed that GE improved lipid profile and attenuated the increase of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin in HFD rats. This effect was associated with a higher liver expression of PPARα, PPARγ, and GLUT-2 and an enhancement of plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, GE reduced liver expression of GPAT, SREBP1c, CTGF, and collagen I. The results suggest that GE might be considered as an alternative therapeutic strategy in the management of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations.

  2. The Isoflavone-Rich Fraction of the Crude Extract of the Puerariae Flower Increases Oxygen Consumption and BAT UCP1 Expression in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya

    2012-01-01

    Puerariae flower extract (PFE) is a crude extract of the Kudzu flower. Previous studies have shown that PFE supplementation exerts anti-obesity and anti-fatty liver effects in high-fat diet-fed mice. In this study, we aimed to identify the PFE components responsible for these effects and to determine their influence on energy expenditure and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Experiments were conducted on C57BL/6J male mice classified into 3 groups: (1) high-fat diet-fed (HFD), (2) high-...

  3. Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Lindawati, Novena Yety; Herlyanti, Kyky; Widyastuti, Lina; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. A. paniculata and C. asiatica are two traditional medicines form South Asian and Southeast Asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. Hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body weight for 70 days. The rats were orally administered with the combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) leaves and asiaticoside-enriched extract of C. asiatica (AEECA) herbs from day 70 for 7 days. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by estimating mainly the blood glucose levels and other parameters such as HDL, LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results showed that combination at the ratio of 70:30 exhibited a promosing antidiabetic effect in high-fat-fructose-fed rat, and exhibited sinergistic effects on blood cholesterol and HDL levels. It can be concluded that its antidiabetic effect was better than that of single treatment of AEEAP or AEECA. That combination was also potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients.

  4. Green Tea Extract Rich in Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Prevents Fatty Liver by AMPK Activation via LKB1 in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, Aline B; Oliveira, Juliana L; Silva, Fernanda P; Carnier, June; Mennitti, Laís V; Santana, Aline A; de Souza, Gabriel H I; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Lira, Fábio S; Oyama, Lila M

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been determined to aid in the prevention of obesity. Decaffeinated green tea extract appears to restore a normal hepatic metabolic profile and attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced effects, thereby preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Mice were maintained on either a control diet (CD) or HFD for 16 weeks and supplemented with either water or green tea extract (50 mg/kg/day). The body mass increase, serum adiponectin level, and lipid profile were measured over the course of the treatment. Furthermore, the AMPK pathway protein expression in the liver was measured. From the fourth week, the weight gain in the CD + green tea extract (CE) group was lower than that in the CD + water (CW) group. From the eighth week, the weight gain in the HFD + water (HFW) group was found to be higher than that in the CW group. Moreover, the weight gain in the HFD + green tea extract (HFE) group was found to be lower than that in the HFW group. Carcass lipid content was found to be higher in the HFW group than that in the CW and HFE groups. Serum analysis showed reduced non-esterified fatty acid level in the CE and HFE groups as compared with their corresponding placebo groups. Increased adiponectin level was observed in the same groups. Increased VLDL-TG secretion was observed in the HFW group as compared with the CW and HFE groups. Increased protein expression of AdipoR2, SIRT1, pLKB1, and pAMPK was observed in the HFE group, which explained the reduced expression of ACC, FAS, SREBP-1, and ChREBP in this group. These results indicate that the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract may be related to the activation of AMPK via LKB1 in the liver of HFD-fed mice.

  5. Gut microbiota Modulated by Probiotics and Garcinia cambogia Extract Correlate with Weight Gain and Adipocyte Sizes in High Fat-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jaeyoung; Seo, Minseok; Park, Hwanhee; Lee, Woon Kyu; Guan, Le Luo; Yoon, Joon; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Ahn, Hyeonju; Kim, Se-Young; Kang, Yoon-Mo; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-09-23

    Results of recent studies on gut microbiota have suggested that obesogenic bacteria exacerbate obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the host when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In order to explore obesity-associated bacterial candidates and their response to diet, the composition of faecal bacterial communities was investigated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences in mice. Dietary intervention with probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract attenuated weight gain and adipocyte size in HFD-fed mice. To identify obesity-causative microbiota, two statistical analyses were performed. Forty-eight bacterial species were found to overlap between the two analyses, indicating the commonly identified species as diet-driven and obesity-associated, which would make them strong candidates for host-microbiome interaction on obesity. Finally, correlation based network analysis between diet, microbe, and host revealed that Clostridium aminophilum, a hyper-ammonia-producing bacterium, was highly correlated with obesity phenotypes and other associated bacteria, and shown to be suppressed by the combination of probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract. Results of the present study suggest that probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract alleviate weight gain and adiposity, in part via differentially modulating the composition of gut microbiota in HFD fed mice.

  6. Gut microbiota Modulated by Probiotics and Garcinia cambogia Extract Correlate with Weight Gain and Adipocyte Sizes in High Fat-Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jaeyoung; Seo, Minseok; Park, Hwanhee; Lee, Woon Kyu; Guan, Le Luo; Yoon, Joon; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Ahn, Hyeonju; Kim, Se-Young; Kang, Yoon-Mo; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Results of recent studies on gut microbiota have suggested that obesogenic bacteria exacerbate obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the host when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In order to explore obesity-associated bacterial candidates and their response to diet, the composition of faecal bacterial communities was investigated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences in mice. Dietary intervention with probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract attenuated weight gain and adipocyte size in HFD-fed mice. To identify obesity-causative microbiota, two statistical analyses were performed. Forty-eight bacterial species were found to overlap between the two analyses, indicating the commonly identified species as diet-driven and obesity-associated, which would make them strong candidates for host-microbiome interaction on obesity. Finally, correlation based network analysis between diet, microbe, and host revealed that Clostridium aminophilum, a hyper-ammonia-producing bacterium, was highly correlated with obesity phenotypes and other associated bacteria, and shown to be suppressed by the combination of probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract. Results of the present study suggest that probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract alleviate weight gain and adiposity, in part via differentially modulating the composition of gut microbiota in HFD fed mice. PMID:27658722

  7. High fat diet induced insulin resistance and elevated retinol binding protein 4 in female rats; treatment and protection with Berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mohamed Mohammed; Ghareeb, Doaa Ahmad; Talat, Heba Allah; Sarhan, Eman Mohammed

    2013-11-01

    This research was conducted to investigate two main aims; the first aim was to find if there is a relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4). The second aim was to use berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A as protective and/or curative agents against insulin resistance. IR was developed by feeding the female rats a high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks then treating or protecting them with b. vulgaris extract (0.2 g/Kg body weight) or vitamin A (12.8μg/Kg/day) for two weeks. HFD intake elevated insulin level and RBP4 expression that associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Co-administration of vitamin A and B. vulgaris extracts reduced blood glucose level, insulin, body weight and RBP4 expression before, during and after HFD. Furthermore, vitamin A reduced the blood glucose, triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol levels. IR syndrome associated with the RBP 4 alteration that gives high indication about the role of RBP4 expression in the IR progression and development. Furthermore, the treatment with vitamin A and/or b. vulgaris alleviated the IR syndrome through the action on RBP4 and Insulin secretion. On the other hand, vitamin A must be avoided for the predisposed IR and prediabetic patients.

  8. A water-soluble extract from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-obesity effects by controlling lipid metabolism in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyounjeong; Eo, Haekwan; Park, Kyoungcheol; Jin, Mirim; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Park, Jeong Euy; Kim, Sunyoung

    2007-08-01

    During the screening of a variety of plant sources for their anti-obesity activity, it was found that a water-soluble extract, named PG105, prepared from stem parts of Cucurbita moschata, contains potent anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. In this animal model, increases in body weight and fat storage were suppressed by 8-week oral administration of PG105 at 500 mg/kg, while the overall amount of food intake was not affected. Furthermore, PG105 protected the development of fatty liver and increased the hepatic beta-oxidation activity. Results from blood analysis showed that the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly lowered by PG105 administration, and also that the level of leptin was reduced, while that of adiponectin was increased. To understand the underlying mechanism at the molecular level, the effects of PG105 were examined on the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism by Northern blot analysis. In the liver of PG105-treated mice, the mRNA level of lipogenic genes such as SREBP-1c and SCD-1 was decreased, while that of lipolytic genes such as PPARalpha, ACO-1, CPT-1, and UCP-2 was modestly increased. Our data suggest that PG105 may have great potential as a novel anti-obesity agent in that both inhibition of lipid synthesis and acceleration of fatty acid breakdown are induced by this reagent.

  9. Anti-obesity effect of Crinum asiaticum var. japonicum Baker extract in high-fat diet-induced and monogenic obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong Joon; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Jung, Yong-Hwan; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Cho, Young Mi; Kim, Inhye; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-08-01

    This study determined the anti-obesity effect of Crinum asiaticum var. japonicum Baker extract (CAE) on adipocytes and obese mice. The inhibitory effects of CAE on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis were determined using differentiation induction medium in 3T3-L1 cells. To get an insight into underlying molecular actions of CAE, we investigated the changes in the expression levels of genes involved in lipogenesis by CAE treatment using qRT-PCR. CAE strongly suppressed adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ, C/EBPα, C/EBP β, and aP2. CAE treatment could also suppress the expression levels of ACC, FAS, LPL and HMGCR gene in 3T3-L1 cells. Male C57BL/6 strain and C57BL/6J-ob/ob strain mice were fed with HFD containing 60% fat and normal diet in the presence or absence of 25, 50, and 100mg/kg CAE for 7 weeks. CAE supplementation could highly suppress the body weight gain and epididymal fat accumulation without changes in food uptake in both obese models. Increases in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride were highly suppressed in the presence of CAE. In summary, CAE has an anti-obesity effect and this anti-obesity potential might be associated with downregulation of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis.

  10. An Investigation into the Antiobesity Effects of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf Extract in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats Using a 1H NMR Metabolomics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Gooda Sahib Jambocus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60. After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a 1H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate, amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate, choline metabolism (betaine, creatinine metabolism (creatinine, and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline. Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment.

  11. An Investigation into the Antiobesity Effects of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf Extract in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats Using a (1)H NMR Metabolomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooda Sahib Jambocus, Najla; Saari, Nazamid; Ismail, Amin; Khatib, Alfi; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD) as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60). After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate), amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate), choline metabolism (betaine), creatinine metabolism (creatinine), and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline). Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment.

  12. An Investigation into the Antiobesity Effects of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf Extract in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats Using a 1H NMR Metabolomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooda Sahib Jambocus, Najla; Saari, Nazamid; Ismail, Amin; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD) as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60). After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a 1H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate), amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate), choline metabolism (betaine), creatinine metabolism (creatinine), and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline). Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment. PMID:26798649

  13. Transgenesis of humanized fat1 promotes n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in goat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yixuan; Ren, Caifang; Wang, Zhibo; Jia, Ruoxin; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guomin; Wan, Yongjie; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme, which can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are essential components required for normal cellular function and have preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. Goat is an important domestic animal for human consumption of meat and milk. To elevate the concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and examine the regulatory mechanism of fat1 in PUFA metabolism in goat cells, we successfully constructed a humanized fat1 expression vector and confirmed the efficient expression of fat1 in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that fat1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of total n-3 PUFAs and decreased the levels of total n-6 PUFAs in GEFCs. In addition, qRT-PCR results indicate that the FADS1 and FADS2 desaturase genes, ELOV2 and ELOV5 elongase genes, ACO and CPT1 oxidation genes, and PPARa and PPARγ transcription factors are up-regulated, and transcription factors of SREBP-1c gene are down-regulated in the fat1 transgenic goat cells. Overall, fat1-overexpression resulted in an increase in the n-3 fatty acids and altered expression of PUFA synthesis related genes in GEFCs. This work lays a foundation for both the production of fat1 transgenic goats and further study of the mechanism of fat1 function in the PUFAs metabolism.

  14. Can fat explain the human brain's big bang evolution?-Horrobin's leads for comparative and functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, T C; Erren, M

    2004-04-01

    When David Horrobin suggested that phospholipid and fatty acid metabolism played a major role in human evolution, his 'fat utilization hypothesis' unified intriguing work from paleoanthropology, evolutionary biology, genetic and nervous system research in a novel and coherent lipid-related context. Interestingly, unlike most other evolutionary concepts, the hypothesis allows specific predictions which can be empirically tested in the near future. This paper summarizes some of Horrobin's intriguing propositions and suggests as to how approaches of comparative genomics published in Cell, Nature, Science and elsewhere since 1997 may be used to examine his evolutionary hypothesis. Indeed, systematic investigations of the genomic clock in the species' mitochondrial DNA, the Y and autosomal chromosomes as evidence of evolutionary relationships and distinctions can help to scrutinize associated predictions for their validity, namely that key mutations which differentiate us from Neanderthals and from great apes are in the genes coding for proteins which regulate fat metabolism, and particularly the phospholipid metabolism of the synapses of the brain. It is concluded that beyond clues to humans' relationships with living primates and to the Neanderthals' cognitive performance and their disappearance, the suggested molecular clock analyses may provide crucial insights into the biochemical evolution-and means of possible manipulation-of our brain.

  15. The saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract reduces cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rama Manohar I; Latha, Pushpa B; Vijaya, Tartte; Rao, Dattatreya S

    2012-01-01

    We examined the antiobesity effect of a saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract (SGE) using cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obese rats for a period of eight weeks. SGE was orally administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight once a day to the treatment group. It significantly decreased the body weight, food consumption, visceral organs weight, and the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, very low-density lipoproteins, atherogenic index, glucose, and increased the levels of high-density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference with respect to all parameters of the study in case of normal (N) diet and N diet + SGE rats. In vitro, SGE inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity. The present study gave clear evidence that the SGE has a significant antiobese action, supporting its use in traditional medicine, and can be used as a substitute for synthetic drugs.

  16. Supplementation of a Fermented Soybean Extract Reduces Body Mass and Prevents Obesity in High Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6J Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Aravinthan, Adithan; Park, Young Shik; Hwang, Kyo Yeol; Seong, Su-Il; Hwang, Kwontack

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem that many countries face, mostly due to the consumption of a Westernized diet. In this present study we observed the effects of a soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1) containing 1-deoxynojirimycin against high fat diet-induced obesity. The results obtained from this study indicated that BTD-1 reduced body weight, regulated hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue, and also affected liver antioxidant enzymes and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that administration of BTD-1 affects obesity by inhibiting hyperglycemia and free radical-mediated stress; it also reduces lipid accumulation. Therefore, BTD-1 may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity and its related secondary complications. PMID:27752494

  17. Hot-Water Extracts from Roots of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana and Identified ε-Viniferin Improve Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yeh-Lin; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Fang, Sheng-Uei; Hsieh, Ying-Ying; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Wen, Chi-Luan; Chang, Chi-I; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2017-03-29

    In this study, hot-water extracts (HW) from roots of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT-R) were shown to lower levels of lipid accumulation significantly (P VTT-R-HW (40 mg/kg) interventions concurrent with a high-fat (HF) diet in C57BL/6 mice over a 5 eek period were shown to reduce body weights significantly (P VTT-R-HW was shown to reduce the size of lipid deposits significantly compared to the control (P VTT-R-HW interventions. It might be possible to use VTT-R-HW or (+)-ε-viniferin as an ingredient in the development of functional foods for weight management, and this will need to be investigated further.

  18. Combined treatment of mulberry leaf and fruit extract ameliorates obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Hwa; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Myoungsook; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined treatment of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) was effective for improving obesity and obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by HF diet for 9 weeks, the mice were divided into eight groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF diet-induced obese control, (3) 1:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L1:1), (4) 500 (M1:1), and (5) 1000 (H1:1) mg/kg per day, and (6) 2:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L2:1), (7) 500 (M2:1), and (8) 1000 (H2:1) mg/kg per day. All six combined treatments significantly lowered body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation levels after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, all combined treatments suppressed hepatic fat accumulation and reduced epididymal adipocyte size. These improvements were accompanied by decreases in protein levels of proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor alpha) and oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase). M2:1 was the most effective ratio and dose for the improvements in obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that a combined MLE and MFE treatment ameliorated obesity and obesity-related metabolic stressors and suggest that it can be used as a means to prevent and/or treat obesity.

  19. Gold Nanoparticles-based Extraction-Free Colorimetric Assay in Organic Media: An Optical Index for Determination of Total Polyphenols in Fat-Rich Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Pelle, Flavio; González, María Cristina; Sergi, Manuel; Del Carlo, Michele; Compagnone, Dario; Escarpa, Alberto

    2015-07-07

    In this work, a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle (AuNPs)-based colorimetric assay meets a new type of synthesis of AuNPs in organic medium requiring no sample extraction. The AuNPs synthesis extraction-free approach strategically involves the use of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) acting as an organic solvent for simultaneous sample analyte solubilization and AuNPs stabilization. Moreover, DMSO works as a cryogenic protector avoiding solidification at the temperatures used to block the synthesis. In addition, the chemical function as AuNPs stabilizers of the sample endogenous fatty acids is also exploited, avoiding the use of common surfactant AuNPs stabilizers, which, in an organic/aqueous medium, rise to the formation of undesirable emulsions. This is controlled by adding a fat analyte free sample (sample blank). The method was exhaustively applied for the determination of total polyphenols in two selected kinds of fat-rich liquid and solid samples with high antioxidant activity and economic impact: olive oil (n = 28) and chocolate (n = 16) samples. Fatty sample absorbance is easily followed by the absorption band of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at 540 nm and quantitation is refereed to gallic acid equivalents. A rigorous evaluation of the method was performed by comparison with the well and traditionally established Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method, obtaining an excellent correlation for olive oil samples (R = 0.990, n = 28) and for chocolate samples (R = 0.905, n = 16). Additionally, it was also found that the proposed approach was selective (vs other endogenous sample tocopherols and pigments), fast (15-20 min), cheap and simple (does not require expensive/complex equipment), with a very limited amount of sample (30 μL) needed and a significant lower solvent consumption (250 μL in 500 μL total reaction volume) compared to classical methods.

  20. Ameliorative Effect of Hexane Extract of Phalaris canariensis on High Fat Diet-Induced Obese and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the major factors to increase various disorders like diabetes. The present paper emphasizes study related to the antiobesity effect of Phalaris canariensis seeds hexane extract (Al-H in high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese CD1 mice and in streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic (MD and severely diabetic (SD mice.AL-H was orally administered to MD and SD mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg once a day for 30 days, and a set of biochemical parameters were studied: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, liver and muscle glycogen, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucokinase, hexokinase, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPX activities, and the effect on insulin level. HS-H significantly reduced the intake of food and water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein, oxidative stress, showed a protective hepatic effect, and increased HDL-cholesterol, serum insulin in diabetic mice. The mice fed on the high-fat diet and treated with AL-H showed inhibitory activity on the lipid metabolism decreasing body weight and weight of the liver and visceral adipose tissues and cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver. We conclude that AL-H can efficiently reduce serum glucose and inhibit insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities, and oxidative stress in MD and SD mice. Our results demonstrate an antiobesity effect reducing lipid droplet accumulation in the liver, indicating that its therapeutic properties may be due to the interaction plant components soluble in the hexane extract, with any of the multiple targets involved in obesity and diabetes pathogenesis.

  1. Ameliorative Effect of Hexane Extract of Phalaris canariensis on High Fat Diet-Induced Obese and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Madrigales Ahuatzi, Diana; Horcacitas, Maria del Carmen; Garcia Baez, Efren; Cruz Victoria, Teresa; Mota-Flores, Jose Maria

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the major factors to increase various disorders like diabetes. The present paper emphasizes study related to the antiobesity effect of Phalaris canariensis seeds hexane extract (Al-H) in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese CD1 mice and in streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) mice.AL-H was orally administered to MD and SD mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg once a day for 30 days, and a set of biochemical parameters were studied: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, liver and muscle glycogen, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucokinase, hexokinase, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPX activities, and the effect on insulin level. HS-H significantly reduced the intake of food and water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein, oxidative stress, showed a protective hepatic effect, and increased HDL-cholesterol, serum insulin in diabetic mice. The mice fed on the high-fat diet and treated with AL-H showed inhibitory activity on the lipid metabolism decreasing body weight and weight of the liver and visceral adipose tissues and cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver. We conclude that AL-H can efficiently reduce serum glucose and inhibit insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities, and oxidative stress in MD and SD mice. Our results demonstrate an antiobesity effect reducing lipid droplet accumulation in the liver, indicating that its therapeutic properties may be due to the interaction plant components soluble in the hexane extract, with any of the multiple targets involved in obesity and diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:24523819

  2. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  3. Fat utilization during exercise: adaptation to a fat-rich diet increases utilization of plasma fatty acids and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Boolsen, Merete Watt; Richter, E A

    2001-01-01

    % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected...... the fat-rich diet. Whole-body plasma FA oxidation (determined by comparison of (13)CO(2) production and blood palmitate labelling) was 55-65 % of total lipid oxidation, and was higher after the fat-rich diet than after the carbohydrate-rich diet (13.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 8.9 +/- 1.1 micromol min(-1) kg(-1); P

  4. RNA sequencing of the human milk fat layer transcriptome reveals distinct gene expression profiles at three stages of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Danielle G; Ballard, Olivia A; Hughes, Maria A; Morrow, Ardythe L; Horseman, Nelson D; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A

    2013-01-01

    Aware of the important benefits of human milk, most U.S. women initiate breastfeeding but difficulties with milk supply lead some to quit earlier than intended. Yet, the contribution of maternal physiology to lactation difficulties remains poorly understood. Human milk fat globules, by enveloping cell contents during their secretion into milk, are a rich source of mammary cell RNA. Here, we pair this non-invasive mRNA source with RNA-sequencing to probe the milk fat layer transcriptome during three stages of lactation: colostral, transitional, and mature milk production. The resulting transcriptomes paint an exquisite portrait of human lactation. The resulting transcriptional profiles cluster not by postpartum day, but by milk Na:K ratio, indicating that women sampled during similar postpartum time frames could be at markedly different stages of gene expression. Each stage of lactation is characterized by a dynamic range (10(5)-fold) in transcript abundances not previously observed with microarray technology. We discovered that transcripts for isoferritins and cathepsins are strikingly abundant during colostrum production, highlighting the potential importance of these proteins for neonatal health. Two transcripts, encoding β-casein (CSN2) and α-lactalbumin (LALBA), make up 45% of the total pool of mRNA in mature lactation. Genes significantly expressed across all stages of lactation are associated with making, modifying, transporting, and packaging milk proteins. Stage-specific transcripts are associated with immune defense during the colostral stage, up-regulation of the machinery needed for milk protein synthesis during the transitional stage, and the production of lipids during mature lactation. We observed strong modulation of key genes involved in lactose synthesis and insulin signaling. In particular, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F (PTPRF) may serve as a biomarker linking insulin resistance with insufficient milk supply. This study provides

  5. RNA sequencing of the human milk fat layer transcriptome reveals distinct gene expression profiles at three stages of lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle G Lemay

    Full Text Available Aware of the important benefits of human milk, most U.S. women initiate breastfeeding but difficulties with milk supply lead some to quit earlier than intended. Yet, the contribution of maternal physiology to lactation difficulties remains poorly understood. Human milk fat globules, by enveloping cell contents during their secretion into milk, are a rich source of mammary cell RNA. Here, we pair this non-invasive mRNA source with RNA-sequencing to probe the milk fat layer transcriptome during three stages of lactation: colostral, transitional, and mature milk production. The resulting transcriptomes paint an exquisite portrait of human lactation. The resulting transcriptional profiles cluster not by postpartum day, but by milk Na:K ratio, indicating that women sampled during similar postpartum time frames could be at markedly different stages of gene expression. Each stage of lactation is characterized by a dynamic range (10(5-fold in transcript abundances not previously observed with microarray technology. We discovered that transcripts for isoferritins and cathepsins are strikingly abundant during colostrum production, highlighting the potential importance of these proteins for neonatal health. Two transcripts, encoding β-casein (CSN2 and α-lactalbumin (LALBA, make up 45% of the total pool of mRNA in mature lactation. Genes significantly expressed across all stages of lactation are associated with making, modifying, transporting, and packaging milk proteins. Stage-specific transcripts are associated with immune defense during the colostral stage, up-regulation of the machinery needed for milk protein synthesis during the transitional stage, and the production of lipids during mature lactation. We observed strong modulation of key genes involved in lactose synthesis and insulin signaling. In particular, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F (PTPRF may serve as a biomarker linking insulin resistance with insufficient milk supply. This

  6. Association between FAT1 mutation and overall survival in patients with human papillomavirus–negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Bo‐Sung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to characterize the mutation profile of FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1) and determine the prognostic significance of FAT1 mutation for overall survival in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)‐negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods Data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) data portals and used as discovery and validation sets. FAT1 mutational status was determined in 234 and 37 patients with HPV‐negative HNSCC, respectively, and overall survival analysis was performed. For comparison, HPV‐positive patients were also analyzed for overall survival. Results Most of the identified nonsynonymous somatic FAT1 mutations were loss‐of‐function mutations. FAT1 mutation was significantly associated with better overall survival in HPV‐negative patients from both the TCGA cohort (p = .026) and the ICGC cohort (p = .047), but not in HPV‐positive patients. Conclusion FAT1 mutational status is a strong independent prognostic factor in patients with HPV‐negative HNSCC. © 2016 The Authors Head & Neck Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2021–E2029, 2016 PMID:26876381

  7. Effects of expanded human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on the viability of cryopreserved fat grafts in the nude mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Myung-Soon; Jung, Ji-Youl; Shin, Il-Seob; Choi, Eun-Wha; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Sung Keun; Ra, Jeong Chan

    2011-03-14

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) augment the ability to contribute to microvascular remodeling in vivo and to modulate vascular stability in fresh fat grafts. Although cryopreserved adipose tissue is frequently used for soft tissue augmentation, the viability of the fat graft is poor. The effects of culture-expanded human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) on the survival and quality of the cryopreserved fat graft were determined. hAdMSCs from the same donor were mixed with fat tissues cryopreserved at -70 °C for 8 weeks and injected subcutaneously into 6-week-old BALB/c-nu nude mice. Graft volume and weight were measured, and histology was evaluated 4 and 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSC-treated group showed significantly enhanced graft volume and weight. The histological evaluation demonstrated significantly better fat cell integrity compared with the vehicle-treated control 4 weeks post-transplantation. No significant difference in graft weight, volume, or histological parameters was found among the groups 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSCs enhanced the survival and quality of transplanted cryopreserved fat tissues. Cultured and expanded hAdMSCs have reconstructive capacity in cryopreserved fat grafting by increasing the number of stem cells.

  8. Anti-lipogenic effect of Senna alata leaf extract in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarinyaporn Naowaboot

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The treatment with S. alata could decrease several parameters of impaired lipid metabolism in the obese mice by downregulating sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and PPARγ and upregulating PPARα. This study is the first report on the role of S. alata leaf extract in alleviating the abnormal lipid metabolism in obese conditions.

  9. Calendula extract: effects on mechanical parameters of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Zaman, Shahiq Uz; Khan, Barkat Ali; Amir, Muhammad Naeem; Ebrahimzadeh, Muhammad Ali

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of newly formulated topical cream of Calendula officinalis extract on the mechanical parameters of the skin by using the cutometer. The Cutometer 580 MPA is a device that is designed to measure the mechanical properties of the skin in response to the application of negative pressure. This non-invasive method can be useful for objective and quantitative investigation of age related changes in skin, skin elasticity, skin fatigue, skin hydration, and evaluation of the effects of cosmetic and antiaging topical products. Two creams (base and formulation) were prepared for the study. Both the creams were applied to the cheeks of 21 healthy human volunteers for a period of eight weeks. Every individual was asked to come on week 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 and measurements were taken by using Cutometer MPA 580 every week. Different mechanical parameters of the skin measured by the cutometer were; R0, R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, and R8. These were then evaluated statistically to measure the effects produced by these creams. Using ANOVA, and t-test it was found that R0, and R6 were significant (p 0.05). The instrumental measurements produced by formulation reflected significant improvements in hydration and firmness of skin.

  10. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. PMID:27706082

  11. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549, breast (MCF-7, liver (HepG2 and colon (HT-29 cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  12. [Comparing and evaluating six methods of extracting human genomic DNA from whole blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Su-Hua; Li, Li

    2009-04-01

    Comparing the differences in purity and yield among six methods of extracting human genomic DNA from whole blood, which included Classic Phenol-chloroform extraction, modified combined technique composed of improved Phenol-chloroform extraction and Chelex-100 extraction, Chelex-100 extraction, IQ, Qiagen and SP. Ten samples of intravenous whole blood (5 mL/sample) were collected and human genomic DNA was extracted with these six methods. The purity and concentration of the DNA products were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and fluorescent quantitation technique, the yield was calculated and tested with statistical software. The Chelex-100 extraction was inferior in DNA purity to other methods while the other five methods showed no statistical difference. Modified combined technique was the poorest and IQ was the best in yield among the six methods of extraction. Statistical result showed that the extraction with high quality kits was better than that with classic Phenol-chloroform extraction, Chelex-100 extraction and modified combined technique composed of improved Phenol-chloroform. There was statistical difference between them. Comparing to Phenol-chloroform extraction and Chelex-100 extraction, high quality kits are more useful in DNA extraction from forensic materials.

  13. Regulation of lipid synthesis genes and milk fat production in human mammary epithelial cells during secretory activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mahmoud A; Haymond, Morey W

    2013-09-15

    Expression of genes for lipid biosynthetic enzymes during initiation of lactation in humans is unknown. Our goal was to study mRNA expression of lipid metabolic enzymes in human mammary epithelial cell (MEC) in conjunction with the measurement of milk fatty acid (FA) composition during secretory activation. Gene expression from mRNA isolated from milk fat globule (MFG) and milk FA composition were measured from 6 h to 42 days postpartum in seven normal women. Over the first 96 h postpartum, daily milk fat output increased severalfold and mirrored expression of genes for all aspects of lipid metabolism and milk FA production, including lipolysis at the MEC membrane, FA uptake from blood, intracellular FA transport, de novo FA synthesis, FA and glycerol activation, FA elongation, FA desaturation, triglyceride synthesis, cholesterol synthesis, and lipid droplet formation. Expression of the gene for a key lipid synthesis regulator, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), increased 2.0-fold by 36 h and remained elevated over the study duration. Expression of genes for estrogen receptor 1, thyroid hormone-responsive protein, and insulin-induced 2 increased progressively to plateau by 96 h. In contrast, mRNA of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ decreased severalfold. With onset of lactation, increased de novo synthesis of FA was the most prominent change in milk FA composition and mirrored the expression of FA synthesis genes. In conclusion, milk lipid synthesis and secretion in humans is a complex process requiring the orchestration of a wide variety of pathways of which SREBF1 may play a primary role.

  14. 1-O-alkyl-2-(omega-oxo)acyl-sn-glycerols from shark oil and human milk fat are potential precursors of PAF mimics and GHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Karsten; Ravandi, A.; Harkewicz, R.;

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility that peroxidation and lipolysis of 1-O-alkyl-2,3-diacyl-sn-glycerols (DAGE) found in shark liver oil and human milk fat constitutes a potential source of dietary precursors of platelet activating factor (PAF) mimics and of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Purified...... by chromatographic retention time and diagnostic ions by online electrospray mass spectrometry. Core aldehydes of oxidized shark liver oil yielded 23 molecular species of 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerols with short-chain sn-2 oxoacyl groups, ranging from 4 to 13 carbons, some unsaturated. Autooxidation of human milk fat...

  15. Effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana Mill. on high fat diet induced obesity: A dose response study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monika, Padmanabhan; Geetha, Arumugam

    2016-06-01

    The fruits of Persea Americana Mill., commonly known as Avocado, are traditionally consumed for various health benefits including weight reduction. Here, we studied the effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana (HAEPA) on high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in rats. Obesity was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding HFD for 14 wk. The hypolipidemic effect was evaluated by co-administering 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. of HAEPA. There was a significant increase in weight gain, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, low density lipoproteins (LDL), lipid peroxides (LPO) and serum transaminases in HFD fed rats. HFD+HAEPA fed rats showed a significant decrease in blood lipids, LPO, liver lipids and increase in antioxidant status when compared to HFD control rats. The activity of lipid metabolic key enzymes such as fatty acid synthase and HMG CoA reductase in liver were also found to be decreased significantly in HAEPA co-administered rats. Lipoprotein lipase activity was found increased in HFD+HAEPA rats. Among the 4 doses studied, 100 mg of HAEPA/kg body wt. exhibited optimum hypolipidemic activity. Histopathological observations in liver and visceral adipose tissue added more evidence for the lipid lowering effect of HAEPA. It can be concluded that avocado fruit extract can act as hypolipidemic agent probably by modulating the activities of HMG CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase in liver.

  16. The Development of an Automated Clean-up for Fat Extracts in the Routine Analysis of Organochlorine Compounds in Fish Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andreea CIOCA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a new, automatic High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC Clean-up step, in the methodology of sample preparation and multi-residue determination of organochlorine compounds (OCs in fish meat. 24 OCs were taken into study. In addition 7 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs, 7 chlorobenzene compounds and one 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD were investigated. The HPLC conditions were established in accordance with the validated traditional Clean-up step of the laboratory. The technique was applied on a dilution of analytes of interest in order to establish the period of time in which the compounds are eluted. Another set of experiments involved fish oil, in order to identify and separate the fat fraction from the analytes. To confirm the findings of the experiments mentioned above, extracts of fish samples obtained after Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE were examined. The samples were spiked with the analytes of interest before HPLC clean-up step and quantified through Gas Chromatography coupled with tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. A HPLC clean-up technique lasting 38 minutes/sample was developed. The method is not suitable for OCs such as Endosulfansulfat and Endrine Ketone due to the very low recovery results.Â

  17. High-Fat Diet-Induced Neuropathy of Prediabetes and Obesity: Effect of PMI-5011, an Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia dracunculus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Watcho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species are a rich source of herbal remedies with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., on neuropathy in high-sfat diet-fed mice, a model of prediabetes and obesity developing oxidative stress and proinflammatory changes in peripheral nervous system. C57Bl6/J mice fed high-fat diet for 16 weeks developed obesity, moderate nonfasting hyperglycemia, nerve conduction deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. They displayed 12/15-lipoxygenase overexpression, 12(S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid accumulation, and nitrosative stress in peripheral nerve and spinal cord. PMI-5011 (500 mgkg-1d-1, 7 weeks normalized glycemia, alleviated nerve conduction slowing and sensory neuropathy, and reduced 12/15-lipoxygenase upregulation and nitrated protein expression in peripheral nervous system. PMI-5011, a safe and nontoxic botanical extract, may find use in treatment of neuropathic changes at the earliest stage of disease.

  18. Metformin induces glucose uptake in human preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from various fat depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M; Timper, K; Radimerski, T; Dembinski, K; Frey, D M; Zulewski, H; Keller, U; Müller, B; Christ-Crain, M; Grisouard, J

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of metformin on basal and insulin-induced glucose uptake in subcutaneous and visceral preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from obese and non-obese patients, preadipocytes were obtained from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots during abdominal surgery. Differentiation efficiency was evaluated by measurement of intracellular triglyceride accumulation. Preadipocyte-derived adipocytes were treated with metformin (1 mM) for 24 h with or without the addition of insulin (100 nM) for 20 min and glucose uptake was measured. In cells from each donor, intracellular triglyceride accumulation was more abundant in subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes than in visceral preadipocyte-derived adipocytes (p < 0.001). Insulin stimulated glucose uptake in subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from both non-obese and obese patients (p < 0.001 vs. basal). In visceral preadipocyte-derived adipocytes, insulin did not increase basal glucose uptake. In subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from non-obese and obese patients, metformin alone increased glucose uptake to 2.7 +/- 0.2 (p < 0.001) and 2.1 +/- 0.1 fold (p < 0.001) respectively. Metformin increased glucose uptake in visceral preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from non-obese (1.7 +/- 0.1 fold vs. basal, p < 0.001) and obese (2.0 +/- 0.2 fold vs. basal, p < 0.001) patients. Combined treatment with metformin and insulin increased glucose uptake in subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from both non-obese and obese patients (p < 0.001 vs. insulin alone). In preadipocyte-derived adipocytes glucose uptake is induced by metformin independent of the fat depot origin of the preadipocytes (subcutaneous or visceral) and the obesity state of the patients (non-obese or obese). In adipocytes, metformin seems to induce glucose uptake independent of insulin suggesting an alternative mechanism of action of this drug.

  19. Suppression of FAT/CD36 mRNA by human growth hormone in pancreatic β-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp; Thams, Peter Grevsen; Gaarn, Louise Winkel;

    2011-01-01

    of this study was to examine the effect of human growth hormone (hGH) on mRNAs of fatty acid transport and binding proteins expressed in pancreatic β-cells, and to examine this in relation to β-cell survival after exposure to fatty acids. hGH decreased mRNA levels of FAT/CD36, whereas mRNAs of GPR40, FASN, FABP......Fatty acid-induced damage in pancreatic β-cells is assumed to play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Lactogens (prolactin, placental lactogen and growth hormone) improve β-cell survival via STAT5 activation but the molecular targets are incompletely characterized. The aim...

  20. Suppression of FAT/CD36 mRNA by human growth hormone in pancreatic ß-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp; Thams, Peter Grevsen; Gaarn, Louise Winkel;

    2011-01-01

    of this study was to examine the effect of human growth hormone (hGH) on mRNAs of fatty acid transport and binding proteins expressed in pancreatic ß-cells, and to examine this in relation to ß-cell survival after exposure to fatty acids. hGH decreased mRNA levels of FAT/CD36, whereas mRNAs of GPR40, FASN, FABP......Fatty acid-induced damage in pancreatic ß-cells is assumed to play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Lactogens (prolactin, placental lactogen and growth hormone) improve ß-cell survival via STAT5 activation but the molecular targets are incompletely characterized. The aim...

  1. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2009-01-01

    , and . Only did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to . The opposite occurred in group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The responses were similar to , with the exception of food consumption. In both and groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents.

  2. In Vitro Effect of Ananas Comosus Extract on Human Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélany Uribe-Clavijo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Spermicides has been used for birth control, but its chemical components are harmful for the vaginal epithelium, thus other studies have been done, given the possibility to use different extracts from plants as spermicidal agents that avoid vaginal tissue damages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Ananas comosus extract as spermicidal. Semen samples were incubated with pineapple extract, and motility and viability was evaluated after contact. In addition the cytotoxic effect was evaluated using MTS assay on HeLa cells. Motility (p<0.001 and viability (p<0.001 decreased after treatment with 50% dilution. However, extract had a cytotoxic effect on epithelial cell line. In conclusion, despite the cytotoxic effect in the same concentrations that spermicidal activity was observed, further studies determining the fractions of the extract have spermicidal properties are necessary.

  3. Soshiho-Tang Aqueous Extract Exerts Antiobesity Effects in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice and Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Rom Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soshiho-tang (SST; sho-saiko-to in Japanese; xiaochaihu-tang in Chinese has generally been used to improve liver fibrosis- and cirrhosis-related symptoms in traditional Korean medicine. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological properties of SST, its antiobesity effect has not been elucidated. Thus, our present study was carried out to evaluate the antiobesity effect of SST using a high fat diet- (HFD induced obese mouse model and 3T3-L1 adipose cells. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups (n=6/group, normal diet (ND, HFD-fed group, and HFD- and SST-fed groups (S200: 200 mg/kg of SST; S600: 600 mg/kg of SST and given HFD with or without SST extract for 8 weeks. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes for 8 days with or without SST. In the HFD-fed obese mice, body weight and fat accumulation in adipose tissue were significantly reduced by SST administration. Compared with control-differentiated adipocytes, SST significantly inhibited lipid accumulation by decreasing the triglyceride (TG content and leptin concentration in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. SST also decreased the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including lipoprotein lipase (LPL, fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-α, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ. Our findings suggest that SST has potential as a nontoxic antiobesity medication.

  4. Dietary supplementation of grape skin extract improves glycemia and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice fed a Western high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-04-13

    Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.

  5. The isoflavone-rich fraction of the crude extract of the Puerariae flower increases oxygen consumption and BAT UCP1 expression in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya

    2012-08-12

    Puerariae flower extract (PFE) is a crude extract of the Kudzu flower. Previous studies have shown that PFE supplementation exerts anti-obesity and anti-fatty liver effects in high-fat diet-fed mice. In this study, we aimed to identify the PFE components responsible for these effects and to determine their influence on energy expenditure and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Experiments were conducted on C57BL/6J male mice classified into 3 groups: (1) high-fat diet-fed (HFD), (2) high-fat diet-fed given PFE (HFD + PFE), and (3) high-fat diet-fed given the PFE isoflavone-rich fraction (HFD + ISOF). All groups were fed for 42 days. The HFD + PFE and HFD + ISOF groups showed significant resistance to increases in body weight, hepatic triglyceride level, and visceral fat compared to the HFD group. These groups also exhibited significant increases in oxygen consumption and UCP1-positive brown adipose tissue (BAT) area. Our results demonstrate that the active ingredients in PFE are present in the ISOF and that these compounds may increase energy expenditure by upregulation of BAT UCP1 expression. These findings provide valuable information regarding the anti-obesity effects of isoflavones.

  6. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro by ginger extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, K D Prasanna P; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger because of its antioxidants and cardioprotective properties. The effects of ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane solvent extracts of ginger and pure major ginger constituents on Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human LDL in vitro were examined. The LDL oxidation inhibition by ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of ginger was 71%, 76%, 67%, and 67%, respectively, at their optimum extraction conditions. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by water extracts of ginger, which was prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions of 52°C for 15 min, was about 43%. Phenolic bioactives of ginger-6-gingerols, 8-gingerols, 10-gingerols, and 6-shogaol-seem to be strong inhibitors of Cu(+2)-induced LDL oxidation. Overall, ginger extracts, including the water extract possess the antioxidant activities to inhibit human LDL oxidation in vitro.

  7. Analysis of PAHs in human serum using cloud point extraction and LC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirimanne, S.R.; Ma, Li; McClure, C. [National Center for Health, Environmental Health and Lab. Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In these laboratories, the authors assess human exposure to environmental toxicants by quantifying the levels of target toxicants in serum of exposed individuals. The levels of target analytes are often in trace levels and hence preconcentration and cleanup are prerequisites to the analysis of these trace toxicants. The authors have identified cloud point extraction as an impressive alternative to conventional solvent extraction due its beneficial properties and the greater extraction efficiencies. The authors report for the first time, extraction of PAHs from human serum using cloud point technology and analysis by HPLC.

  8. Lipid-lowering and antioxidant functions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) extract in human dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katare, Charu; Saxena, Sonali; Agrawal, Supriya; Joseph, Anish Zacharia; Subramani, Senthil Kumar; Yadav, Dhananjay; Singh, Nita; Bisen, Prakash Singh; Prasad, G B K S

    2014-04-01

    The study validated the antidyslipidemic, antioxidant, and antihyperglycemic effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract in human subjects with dyslipidemia along with subjects of normal health. A total of 200 mL of freshly prepared Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract was administered daily on empty stomach for 90 days. Significant reductions (P Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity in dyslipidemic subjects as evident from elevations in SOD (P Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract serves as dietary adjunct in treatment of human dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease.

  9. Blueberry peel extracts inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and reduce high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuno Song

    Full Text Available This study examined the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of blueberry peel extracts (BPE in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese rats. The levels of lipid accumulation were measured, along with the changes in the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Evidenced by Oil-red O staining and triglyceride assay, BPE dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation at concentrations of 0, 50, and 200 µg/ml. BPE decreased the expression of the key adipocyte differentiation regulator C/EBPβ, as well as the C/EBPα and PPARγ genes, during the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Moreover, BPE down-regulated adipocyte-specific genes such as aP2 and FAS compared with control adipocytes. The specific mechanism mediating the effects of BP revealed that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was strongly decreased, and its downstream substrate, phospho-GSK3β, was downregulated by BPE treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. Together, these data indicated that BP exerted anti-adipogenic activity by inhibiting the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPβ and the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Next, we investigated whether BP extracts attenuated HFD-induced obesity in rats. Oral administration of BPE reduced HFD-induced body weight gain significantly without affecting food intake. The epididymal or perirenal adipose tissue weights were lower in rats on an HFD plus BPE compared with the tissue weights of HFD-induced obese rats. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the rats fed BPE were modestly reduced, and the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFD plus BP-fed rats compared with those of HFD-fed rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of BP on adipogenesis through the down-regulation of C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ and the reduction of the phospho-Akt adipogenic factor in 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, BPE reduced body weight gain

  10. Coconut fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  11. No genetic footprints of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene in human plasma 1H CPMG NMR metabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldahl, Karin; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2014-01-01

    In this paper it was investigated if any genotypic footprints from the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) SNP could be found in 600 MHz 1H CPMG NMR profiles of around 1,000 human plasma samples from healthy Danish twins. The problem was addressed with a combination of univariate and multivariate...

  12. Studies of biological properties of Uncaria tomentosa extracts on human blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bors, Milena; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Pilarski, Radosław; Sicińska, Paulina; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Bukowska, Bożena

    2012-08-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC is a lignified climbing plant from South and Central America, which (under the name of "vilcacora" or "cat's claw") has become highly popular in many countries due to its proven immunostimmulatory and anti-inflammatory activities and also with respect to its anticancer and antioxidative effects. There are insufficient data on the mechanism of U. tomentosa action on normal blood mononuclear cells. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of ethanol and aqueous extracts from bark and leaves of Uncaria tomentosa on the structure and function of human mononuclear cells and to find out whether the kind of extractant used modulates biological activity of the extracts studied. Plant material consisted of four different extracts: (1) ethanol extract from leaves, (2) aqueous extract from leaves, (3) ethanol extract from bark and (4) aqueous extract from bark. The effect of these extracts on protein damage as well as on free-radical formation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analyzed. Moreover, changes in viability, size, and granularity as well as apoptotic alterations in human blood mononuclear cells exposed to U. tomentosa extracts were investigated. The oxidative changes were observed in mononuclear blood cells exposed to both ethanol and aqueous extracts obtained from bark and leaves. Moreover, in the cells studied the extracts from U. tomentosa induced apoptosis and a decrease in viability of mononuclear blood cells, with the exception of aqueous extract from leaves. Additionally, no statistically significant changes in the cell size were observed both for aqueous extracts from leaves and bark. Changes in the blood mononuclear cell granularity were observed at 250 μg/mL for all extracts examined. The strongest changes were observed for the ethanol extract of the bark, which increased cell granularity at 50 μg/mL and changed cell size at 100 μg/mL. The conducted research showed differences in biological activity

  13. Synergistic effects of acarbose and an Oroxylum indicum seed extract in streptozotocin and high-fat-diet induced prediabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenlong; Sang, Yuanbin; Zhang, Bowei; Yu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Qinmin; Xiu, Zhilong; Dong, Yuesheng

    2017-03-01

    Prediabetes is defined as blood glucose levels above normal but below diabetes thresholds, and up to 70% of individuals with prediabetes will eventually develop diabetes if left untreated. Acarbose, the first FDA approved anti-prediabetes agent, has some disadvantages, such as reducing the risk of diabetes by only 36%, side effects and limited effects on complications. The aim of this study is to develop a new agent to treat prediabetes and to investigate the anti-prediabetes effects and mechanisms of acarbose and an Oroxylum indicum seed extract (OISE) in prediabetic mice. The combined drugs can reduce the dose of acarbose by 80% and reduce the risk of diabetes by 75%, which is one fold higher than acarbose monotherapy. The combined drugs showed synergistic anti-prediabetes effects and could be effective in preventing the complications of prediabetes. The combined drugs could improve glucose tolerance, improve lipid metabolism and reduce oxidative stress and tissue damage. For the mechanisms, the combined drugs can reduce synergistically postprandial hyperglycaemia by inhibiting α-glucosidase. Furthermore, baicalein in OISE was demonstrated to be a major component in reducing oxidative stress and chrysin was the primary compound that activated PPARγ.

  14. The effect of diurnal distribution of carbohydrates and fat on glycaemic control in humans: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Katharina; Hornemann, Silke; Petzke, Klaus J.; Kemper, Margrit; Kramer, Achim; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; Pivovarova, Olga; Rudovich, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Diurnal carbohydrate and fat distribution modulates glycaemic control in rodents. In humans, the optimal timing of both macronutrients and its effects on glycaemic control after prolonged consumption are not studied in detail. In this cross-over trial, 29 non-obese men were randomized to two four-week diets: (1) carbohydrate-rich meals until 13.30 and fat-rich meals between 16.30 and 22.00 (HC/HF) versus (2) inverse sequence of meals (HF/HC). After each trial period two meal tolerance tests were performed, at 09.00 and 15.40, respectively, according to the previous intervention. On the HF/HC diet, whole-day glucose level was increased by 7.9% (p = 0.026) in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT, n = 11), and GLP-1 by 10.2% (p = 0.041) in normal glucose-tolerant subjects (NGT, n = 18). Diet effects on fasting GLP-1 (p = 0.009) and PYY (p = 0.034) levels were observed in IFG/IGT, but not in NGT. Afternoon decline of glucose tolerance was more pronounced in IFG/IGT and associated with a stronger decrease of postprandial GLP-1 and PYY levels, but not with changes of cortisol rhythm. In conclusion, the HF/HC diet shows an unfavourable effect on glycaemic control in IFG/IGT, but not in NGT subjects. Consequently, large, carbohydrate-rich dinners should be avoided, primarily by subjects with impaired glucose metabolism. PMID:28272464

  15. The effect of diurnal distribution of carbohydrates and fat on glycaemic control in humans: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Katharina; Hornemann, Silke; Petzke, Klaus J; Kemper, Margrit; Kramer, Achim; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Pivovarova, Olga; Rudovich, Natalia

    2017-03-08

    Diurnal carbohydrate and fat distribution modulates glycaemic control in rodents. In humans, the optimal timing of both macronutrients and its effects on glycaemic control after prolonged consumption are not studied in detail. In this cross-over trial, 29 non-obese men were randomized to two four-week diets: (1) carbohydrate-rich meals until 13.30 and fat-rich meals between 16.30 and 22.00 (HC/HF) versus (2) inverse sequence of meals (HF/HC). After each trial period two meal tolerance tests were performed, at 09.00 and 15.40, respectively, according to the previous intervention. On the HF/HC diet, whole-day glucose level was increased by 7.9% (p = 0.026) in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT, n = 11), and GLP-1 by 10.2% (p = 0.041) in normal glucose-tolerant subjects (NGT, n = 18). Diet effects on fasting GLP-1 (p = 0.009) and PYY (p = 0.034) levels were observed in IFG/IGT, but not in NGT. Afternoon decline of glucose tolerance was more pronounced in IFG/IGT and associated with a stronger decrease of postprandial GLP-1 and PYY levels, but not with changes of cortisol rhythm. In conclusion, the HF/HC diet shows an unfavourable effect on glycaemic control in IFG/IGT, but not in NGT subjects. Consequently, large, carbohydrate-rich dinners should be avoided, primarily by subjects with impaired glucose metabolism.

  16. Decaffeinated green tea extract rich in epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves insulin resistance and metabolic profiles in normolipidic diet--but not high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Aline; Santamarina, Aline; Souza, Gabriel; Mennitti, Laís; Okuda, Marcos; Venancio, Daniel; Seelaender, Marilia; do Nascimento, Claudia Oller; Ribeiro, Eliane; Lira, Fabio; Oyama, Lila

    2015-09-01

    Supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which restores metabolic profiles, has been proposed as an option for preventing and treating obesity. We investigated whether decaffeinated green tea extract rich in EGCG, attenuates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic alterations in Swiss mice. The mice were maintained on either a control diet (CD) or HFD for 8 weeks and supplemented with either a placebo or EGCG (50mg/kg/day). Body weight, serum lipid profiles, cytokine protein expression, and content in epididymal (EPI) and retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissues, and adipocyte area were measured. The body weights of HFD + placebo-fed mice were increased compared with those of HFD + EGCG-fed mice (28 and 21%, respectively), whereas the body weights of CD + EGCG-fed mice were decreased 16% compared with those of the CD + placebo group. Serum triglyceride levels were decreased 32% in the CD + EGCG group compared with the CD + placebo group. Compared with the CD + placebo group, increased phosphorylation of AMPK and hormone-sensitive lipase in EPI and RET, respectively, was found in the CD + EGCG group. Increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation was observed in both adipose tissues. In addition, TNF-α and IL-10 levels in EPI and adiponectin levels were higher in the CD + EGCG group than in the CD + placebo group. TNF-α levels were lower in the HFD + EGCG group than in the HFD + placebo group. Furthermore, the CD + EGCG group exhibited a lower adipocyte area than the CD + placebo group. These indicate that the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract on body mass may be related to the crosstalk between lipolytic and inflammatory pathways in normolipidic diet-fed mice but not in HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract in a high-fat diet STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Sekar, Ashwini; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2012-03-01

    Semecarpus anacardium commonly known as marking nut has been used in the Siddha system of medicine against various ailments. The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of the drug was evaluated in Type 2 diabetic rats induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 35 mg/kg body weight. Three days after STZ induction, the hyperglycemic rats were treated with Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (SA) orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days. Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight, orally) was used as a reference drug. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, Hb, HbA1c levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were measured, and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were observed. SA significantly (p < .05) reduced and normalized blood glucose levels and also decreased the levels of HbA1c as compared with that of HFD STZ control group. SA treatment also significantly (p < .05) increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes while decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation. The potential antihyperglycemic action and antioxidant role might be due to the presence of flavonoids in the drug.

  18. Reduction of body fat and improved lipid profile associated with daily consumption of a Puer tea extract in a hyperlipidemic population: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte S; Beaman, Joni L; He, Yi; Guo, Zhixin; Sun, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of Puer tea extract (PTE) on body weight, body-fat composition, and lipid profile in a non-Asian population in the absence of dietary restrictions. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design was used. A total of 59 overweight or mildly obese subjects were enrolled upon screening to confirm fasting cholesterol level at or above 220 mg/dL (5.7 mmol/dL). After giving informed consent, subjects were randomized to consume PTE (3 g/day) or placebo for 20 weeks. At baseline and at 4-week intervals, blood lipids, C-reactive protein, and fasting blood glucose were evaluated. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at baseline and at study exit to evaluate changes to body composition. Appetite and physical and mental energy were scored at each visit using visual analog scales (0-100). Consumption of PTE was associated with statistically significant weight loss when compared to placebo (Plipid profile, including a mild reduction in cholesterol and the cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio after only 4 weeks, as well as a reduction in triglycerides and very small-density lipoproteins, where average blood levels reached normal range at 8 weeks and remained within normal range for the duration of the study (Plipid profile.

  19. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp. and hepatic triglyceride (TG levels (up to 528% in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g. significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35% and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8% in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g. significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%, it elevated the hepatic index (by 77% in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46 g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment.

  20. Immature Citrus sunki peel extract exhibits antiobesity effects by β-oxidation and lipolysis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Il; Shin, Hye-Sun; Kim, Hyo-Min; Hong, Youn-Suk; Yoon, Seon-A; Kang, Seung-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Moo-Han; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae

    2012-01-01

    The peel of Citrus sunki HORT. ex TANAKA has been widely used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of many diseases, including indigestion and bronchial asthma. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity activity of immature C. sunki peel extract (designated CSE) using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6 mice and mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the animal study, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride in the CSE-administered group decreased significantly compared to the HFD group. Also, CSE supplementation reduced serum levels of glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, it significantly decreased the accumulation of fatty droplets in liver tissue, suggesting a protective effect against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Dietary supplementation with CSE reversed the HFD-induced decrease in the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are related to fatty acid β-oxidation, in the epididymal adipose tissue. Also, CSE increased AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CSE also enhanced lipolysis by phosphorylation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that CSE had an antiobesity effect via elevated β-oxidation and lipolysis in adipose tissue.

  1. Effects of Fat-soluble Extracts From Vegetable Powder and β-carotene on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Lung Cancer Cell YTMLC-90

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN-JUN LU; CHENG-YU HUANG; SHU-XIANG YAO; RUI-SHU WANG; XIAO-NA WU

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of fat-soluble extracts from vegetable powder (FEFVP) and β-carotene on the proliferation and apoptosis of cultured YTMLC-90lung cancer cells. Methods The lung cancer cells were continuously exposed to a broad range of concentration of FEFVP and β-carotene. The proliferation was evaluated in MTT test. The induction of apoptosis was evaluated by morphological change, DNA fragmentation analysis, and DNA content analysis combined with flow cytometric analysis. Results Both FEFVP and β-carotene were found to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce morphologic changes consistent with apoptosis in YTMLC-90 cancer cells, including cellular shrinkage, chromatin condensation and cytometric analysis revealed decreased DNA content and the presence of a sub-G1 apoptotic peak.Conclusion These findings are consistent with the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the effects of FEFVP are stronger than those of β-carotene. FEFVP inhibits the growth of YTMLC-90 probably via the induction of apoptosis cancer cells.

  2. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Pelletier, Catherine; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

    2005-09-01

    It has been reported that green tea has a thermogenic effect, due to its caffeine content and probably also to the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The main aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a mixture of green tea and Guarana extracts containing a fixed dose of caffeine and variable doses of EGCG on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Fourteen subjects took part to this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Each subject was tested five times in a metabolic chamber to measure 24 h energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. During each stay, the subjects ingested a capsule of placebo or capsules containing 200 mg caffeine and a variable dose of EGCG (90, 200, 300 or 400 mg) three times daily, 30 min before standardized meals. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure increased significantly by about 750 kJ with all EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. No effect of the EGCG-caffeine mixture was observed for lipid oxidation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by about 7 and 5 mmHg, respectively, with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. This increase was significant only for 24 h diastolic blood pressure. The main finding of the study was the increase in 24 h energy expenditure with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures. However, this increase was similar with all doses of EGCG in the mixtures.

  3. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  4. PRDM16 sustains white fat gene expression profile in human adipocytes in direct relation with insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco; Moreno, María; Xifra, Gemma; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2015-04-15

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the possible role of PRDM16 in human adipocytes and in whole adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin sensitivity. PRDM16 knockdown (KD) had a dual behavior. While KD in preadipocytes led to enhanced gene expression markers of adipocyte differentiation, PRDM16 KD in fully differentiated adipocytes resulted in decreased adipogenic gene expression and insulin action. In line with KD in adipocytes, PRDM16 was positively associated with the expression of several genes involved in adipogenesis, insulin signaling, mitochondrial function and brown adipocyte-related markers in whole adipose tissue from two independent cohorts. PRDM16 was decreased in obese subjects in relation with the decrease of insulin sensitivity [HOM(AIR) (cohort 1) and M clamp value (cohort 2)]. Rosiglitazone (5 µmol/l) and metformin (5 mmol/l) led to increased PRDM16 mRNA and protein levels in isolated human adipocytes and in whole adipose tissue. In conclusion, PRDM16 might contribute to maintain adipose tissue "white fat" gene expression profile and systemic metabolic homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuropeptide Y and peptide YY inhibit lipolysis in human and dog fat cells through a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, P; Berlan, M; Beauville, M; Crampes, F; Montastruc, J L; Lafontan, M

    1990-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) are regulatory peptides that have considerable sequence homology with pancreatic polypeptide. Because (a) NPY has been shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in peripheral as well as central catecholaminergic neurons, and (b) alpha 2-adrenergic receptors of adipocytes play a major role in the regulation of lipolysis, we investigated the effect of NPY and PYY on isolated fat cells. In human fat cells NPY and PYY promoted a dose-dependent inhibition of lipolysis elicited by 2 micrograms/ml adenosine deaminase (removal of adenosine) whatever the lipolytic index used (glycerol or nonesterified fatty acids). In dog fat cells NPY and PYY inhibited adenosine deaminase-, isoproterenol- and forskolin-induced lipolysis. In humans and dogs the effects of NPY or PYY were abolished by treatment of cells with Bordetella pertussis toxin, clearly indicating the involvement of a Gi protein in the antilipolytic effects. This study indicates that, in addition to alpha 2-adrenergic agonists, NPY and PYY are also involved in the regulation of lipolysis in human and dog adipose tissue as powerful antilipolytic agents. Further studies are needed to characterize the pharmacological nature of the receptor mediating the inhibitory effect of NPY and PYY in fat cells. Images PMID:2104880

  6. Continuous feedings of fortified human milk lead to nutrient losses of fat, calcium, and phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification, and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre...

  7. Effects of growth hormone on glucose and fat metabolism in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens O L; Møller, Louise; Krag, Morten Brøgger

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on in vivo data from tests performed in normal subjects and in patients who had abnormal growth hormone (GH) status. Experimental data in human subjects demonstrate that GH acutely inhibits glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. At the same time GH stimulates the turnover...

  8. Efficient discrimination and removal of phospholipids during electromembrane extraction from human plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vårdal, Linda; Gjelstad, Astrid; Huang, Chuixiu

    2017-01-01

    AIM: For the first time, extracts obtained from human plasma samples by electromembrane extraction (EME) were investigated comprehensively with particular respect to phospholipids using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Thhe purpose was to invest...

  9. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Pijuan, Mercedes; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    The new sample preparation concept “Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME)” was evaluated for extraction of the acidic drugs ketoprofen, fenoprofen, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil from human plasma samples. Plasma samples (250 μL) were loaded into individual...

  10. Cytotoxicity screening of Melastoma malabathricum extracts on human breast cancer cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfariza Ahmad Roslen

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: The extracts from leaves and flowers of M. malabathricum showed promising anticancer activity toward human breast cancer cell lines with the lowest IC50 at 7.14 μg/mL while the extracts from stems showed less growth inhibition activity.

  11. Beyond fat grafting: what adipose tissue can teach us about the molecular mechanisms of human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stransky, Carrie A; Hsu, Vivian M; Dierov, Raia; Hoover, William J; Donahue, Greg; Bucky, Louis P; Percec, Ivona

    2012-10-01

    The concept of aging and the mechanisms responsible for soft tissue aging have become progressively more important as the world's population ages and demands a higher quality of life. Although molecular mechanisms of aging have been evaluated in model organisms, specific genomic, genetic, and epigenetic modifications that can be translated to normal human tissue aging have yet to be identified. We propose that adipose tissue is an excellent model with which to investigate molecular aging pathways. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that primary human adipose tissue can serve as a model of human aging, and further, can be used to detect differences in genomic transcriptional profiling between cell types in adipose tissue as well as between youthful and older age groups. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was excised during cosmetic procedures from healthy patients. Adipocytes and stromal vascular fractions from the anterior abdomen were isolated from 3 young (26-39 years) and 3 old (52-64 years) patients and analyzed for genome-wide transcriptional differences between varying ages and cell types using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene Chip 1.0ST. Genes specific to adipocytes were more highly expressed in adipocytes than in stromal vascular fractions, validating that adipose tissue should be examined in a cell-specific manner. An increase in overall gene expression was observed among patients in the older age group, consistent with senescence-related chromatin dysregulation. Principal components analysis revealed no clear delineation between age groups and a clear separation by cell type. Analysis of variance revealed cell type as the most significant variable in transcriptional differences, whereas age-related differences were a distant second. Gene Ontology categories of the most significantly modified genes included RNA splicing and mRNA metabolism, plasma membrane, and mitochondrial metabolism. Primary adipose tissue is an effective model for the study of the

  12. Strategies for Prospecting and Extracting Water on Mars for Long-Term Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolley, R. J.; Saikia, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    We aim to develop a specific set of criteria to classify water reserves on Mars, and to design water prospecting and extraction systems for various human landing sites using a requirements-driven framework.

  13. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percentage body fat in a heterogeneous group of adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, J D; Zimmerman, S L; Miller, W C; Hildebrandt, L; Hammer, R L; Fernhall, B

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to compare estimations of percentage body fat (%fat) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a heterogeneous (age and %fat) sample of the population. Of secondary importance was to determine whether there were differences between the two methods among lean (n = 32), average (n = 34) and overweight (n = 29) subsets of this sample. A total of 95 adults (men 27, women 68) ranging in age from 18-52 years volunteered for this study. Test-retest reliability for %fat ADP (n = 16) was 0.99 with a technical error of 0.75%fat and a coefficient of variation of 3.4%fat. Mean body density using ADP [1.048 (SD 0.016) g.ml-1] was not significantly different when compared to HW [1.049 (SD 0.017) g.ml-1], which corresponded to a non-significant difference in %fat [22.5 (SD 7.3)% ADP compared to 22.0 (SD 7.6)% HW]. Regression analysis provided the equation: %fat HW = 0.9121%fat ADP + 1.5123; r = 0.88, SEE = 3.6, which did not differ significantly from the line of identity. Data for the subsets revealed a significant overestimation of %fat ADP [16.4 (SD 4.8)%] compared to HW [14.1 (SD 3.2)%] (P = 0.001) for lean individuals while no difference was found in the average [21.9 (SD 4.4)%fat ADP compared to 22.0 (SD 3.4)%fat HW] or overweight [29.9 (SD 5.5)%fat ADP compared to 30.8 (SD 4.1)%fat HW] subsets. Measuring %fat by ADP is a highly reliable method and valid when compared to HW for a heterogeneous sample of adults. The ADP method requires little expertise to operate, is quick to perform, and may be more accommodating for certain individuals compared to HW. However, in this study ADP was less valid for lean individuals. Further investigation is warranted to determine the bias of this method for subsets of the population which may be outside the average range of %fat (men 15.4%-22.0%, women 18.4%-28.5%).

  14. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  15. Extraction of human genomic DNA from whole blood using a magnetic microsphere method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rui; Li, Shengying

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of molecular biology and the life sciences, magnetic extraction is a simple, automatic, and highly efficient method for separating biological molecules, performing immunoassays, and other applications. Human blood is an ideal source of human genomic DNA. Extracting genomic DNA by traditional methods is time-consuming, and phenol and chloroform are toxic reagents that endanger health. Therefore, it is necessary to find a more convenient and efficient method for obtaining human genomic DNA. In this study, we developed urea-formaldehyde resin magnetic microspheres and magnetic silica microspheres for extraction of human genomic DNA. First, a magnetic microsphere suspension was prepared and used to extract genomic DNA from fresh whole blood, frozen blood, dried blood, and trace blood. Second, DNA content and purity were measured by agarose electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The human genomic DNA extracted from whole blood was then subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis to further confirm its quality. The results of this study lay a good foundation for future research and development of a high-throughput and rapid extraction method for extracting genomic DNA from various types of blood samples.

  16. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Boong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties.

  17. Cytotoxic activities of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extracts on human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    four human liver cancer (7703, HepG2, 7721, PLC) and four human breast cancer (Bcap37, ZR75-30, MCF-7, T-47D) cell lines using a MTT cytotoxicity assay. The results showed that the CVP ... Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics ...

  18. ASTHMATIC HUMAN SERUM IGE-REACTIVITY WITH MOLD EXTRACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although molds have demonstrated the ability to induce allergic asthma-like responses in mouse models, their role in human disease is unclear. This study was undertaken to provide insight into the prevalence of human IgE-reactivity and identify the target mold protein(s). The st...

  19. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-03-31

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis.

  20. Development and validation of an extraction method for the analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Hye; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2017-02-16

    Human hair has many advantages as a non-invasive sample; however, analytical methods for detecting perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human hair are still in the development stage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for monitoring 11 PFASs in human hair. Solid-phase extraction (SPE), ion-pairing extraction (IPE), a combined method (SPE+IPE) and solvent extraction with ENVI-carb clean-up were compared to develop an optimal extraction method using two types of hair sample (powder and piece forms). Analysis of PFASs was performed using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Among the four different extraction procedures, the SPE method using powdered hair showed the best extraction efficiency and recoveries ranged from 85.8 to 102%. The method detection limits for the SPE method were 0.114-0.796 ng/g and good precision (below 10%) and accuracy (66.4-110%) were obtained. In light of these results, SPE is considered the optimal method for PFAS extraction from hair. It was also successfully used to detect PFASs in human hair samples.

  1. When fat becomes an ally of the enemy: adipose tissue as collaborator in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeire, Lore; Denys, Hannelore; Cocquyt, Véronique; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Since the discovery of leptin in 1994, our vision of adipose tissue as a static organ regulating mainly lipid storage and release has been completely overthrown, and adipose tissue is now seen as an active and integral organ in human physiology. In the past years, extensive research has tremendously given us more insights in the mechanisms and pathways involved not only in normal but also in 'sick' adipose tissue, for example, in obesity and lipodystrophy. With growing evidence of a link between obesity and several types of cancer, research focusing on the interaction between adipose tissue and cancer has begun to unravel the interesting but complex multi-lateral communication between the different players. With breast cancer as one of the first cancer types where a positive correlation between obesity and breast cancer incidence and prognosis in post-menopausal women was found, we have focused this review on the paracrine and endocrine role of adipose tissue in breast cancer initiation and progression. As important inter-species differences in adipose tissue occur, we mainly selected human adipose tissue- and breast cancer-based studies with a short reflection on therapeutic possibilities. This review is part of the special issue on "Adiposopathy in Cancer and (Cardio)Metabolic Diseases".

  2. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acids. Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and/or trans fats and have less monounsaturated ... Animal products containing solid fats also contain cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) ...

  3. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit your health. Polyunsaturated fat is different than saturated fat and trans fat. These unhealthy fats can increase ... of those fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Limit saturated fat (found in red meat, butter, cheese, and whole- ...

  4. Inhibitory effects of pomegranate extracts on recombinant human maltase-glucoamylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kayoko; Li, Peng; Uraji, Misugi; Hatanaka, Tadashi; Ito, Hideyuki

    2014-09-01

    α-Glucosidase inhibitors are currently used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities of aril and pericarp extracts from pomegranates obtained various regions against recombinant human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM). The inhibitory activities of the aril extracts tended to be stronger than those of the pericarp extracts. The Iranian aril extract was the most effective inhibitor. We investigated the polyphenol content of the pomegranate extracts using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Among the aril extracts, the Iranian aril extract showed the highest polyphenol content. We further evaluated inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase from the rat small intestine. Pomegranate extract used in this study showed slightly different inhibitory activities according to α-glucosidase origin. Iranian aril extract was the most effective inhibitor of α-glucosidases, especially recombinant human MGAM. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the pomegranate arils led to identification of punicalagin and oenothein B as potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Oenothein B showed inhibitory activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of 174 μM. Its potency was comparable to that of the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose with an IC(50) value of 170 μM. Dixon plot kinetic analysis of oenothein B showed a noncompetitive inhibition with a K(i) value of 102 μM. These results suggest that pomegranate arils would be useful for suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia.

  5. In vivo determination of human breast fat composition by ¹H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Ivan E; Douglas, Deborah; Ren, Jimin; Smith, Nadine B; Webb, Andrew G; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    The role of diet and fat consumption in the pathogenesis of breast cancer is an important subject. We report a method for noninvasive determination of lipid composition in human breast by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 7 T. Two respiratory-triggered TE-averaged stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) acquisitions were performed on the adipose tissue of 10 healthy volunteers where the second acquisition had all gradients inverted. This acquisition protocol allows the suppression of modulation sidebands that complicate spectral analysis at the short TE(avg) = 24.5 ms. The entire acquisition takes ∼10 min. Ten lipid peaks were typically resolved. T(1) and T(2) were also measured and used to correct the peak intensities. The calculated average lipid composition for saturated was 28.7 ± 8.4%, monounsaturated, 48.5 ± 7.9%, and polyunsaturated, 22.7 ± 3.1%, in close agreement with reported values from subcutaneous adipose measurements. Intrasubject variability was 2.0, 1.6, and 3.6% for the saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fractions, respectively. In conclusion, we have shown that a chemical analysis of lipids in breast tissue can be determined quite simply, quickly, and noninvasively by proton MRS at 7 T.

  6. Application of Green Tea Catechin for Inducing the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dedifferentiated Fat Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kaida

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in stem cell biology, there are few effective techniques to promote the osteogenic differentiation of human primary dedifferentiated fat (DFAT cells. We attempted to investigate whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the main component of green tea catechin, facilitates early osteogenic differentiation and mineralization on DFAT cells in vitro. DFAT cells were treated with EGCG (1.25–10 μM in osteogenic medium (OM with or without 100 nM dexamethasone (Dex for 12 days (hereafter two osteogenic media were designated as OM(Dex and OM. Supplementation of 1.25 μM EGCG to both the media effectively increased the mRNA expression of collagen 1 (COL1A1 and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2 and also increased proliferation and mineralization. Compared to OM(Dex with EGCG, OM with EGCG induced earlier expression for COL1A1 and RUNX2 at day 1 and higher mineralization level at day 12. OM(Dex with 10 μM EGCG remarkably hampered the proliferation of the DFAT cells. These results suggest that OM(without Dex with EGCG might be a preferable medium to promote proliferation and to induce osteoblast differentiation of DFAT cells. Our findings provide an insight for the combinatory use of EGCG and DFAT cells for bone regeneration and stem cell-based therapy.

  7. Application of Green Tea Catechin for Inducing the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dedifferentiated Fat Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Koji; Honda, Yoshitomo; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Tanaka, Masahiro; Baba, Shunsuke

    2015-11-25

    Despite advances in stem cell biology, there are few effective techniques to promote the osteogenic differentiation of human primary dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. We attempted to investigate whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main component of green tea catechin, facilitates early osteogenic differentiation and mineralization on DFAT cells in vitro. DFAT cells were treated with EGCG (1.25-10 μM) in osteogenic medium (OM) with or without 100 nM dexamethasone (Dex) for 12 days (hereafter two osteogenic media were designated as OM(Dex) and OM). Supplementation of 1.25 μM EGCG to both the media effectively increased the mRNA expression of collagen 1 (COL1A1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and also increased proliferation and mineralization. Compared to OM(Dex) with EGCG, OM with EGCG induced earlier expression for COL1A1 and RUNX2 at day 1 and higher mineralization level at day 12. OM(Dex) with 10 μM EGCG remarkably hampered the proliferation of the DFAT cells. These results suggest that OM(without Dex) with EGCG might be a preferable medium to promote proliferation and to induce osteoblast differentiation of DFAT cells. Our findings provide an insight for the combinatory use of EGCG and DFAT cells for bone regeneration and stem cell-based therapy.

  8. Apoptosis induction of Persicae Semen extract in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hee-Young; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Hahn, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2003-02-01

    The major ingredient of Persicae Semen is a cynogenic compound, amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile-beta-gentiobioside). Controversial results on the anticancer activity of amygdalin were reported due to its conversion to its inactive isomer, neoamygdalin. In order to inhibit the epimerization of amygdalin, we used newly developed simple acid boiling method in preparation of Persicae Semen extract. HPLC analysis revealed most of amygdalin in Persicae Semen extract was active D-form. Persicae Semen extract was used to analyze its effect on cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. Persicae Semen extract was cytotoxic to HL-60 cells with IC50 of 6.4 mg/mL in the presence of 250 nM of beta-glucosidase. The antiproliferative effects of Persicae Semen extract appear to be attributable to its induction of apoptotic cell death, as Persicae Semen extract induced nuclear morphology changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation.

  9. Human Cytosolic Extracts Stabilize the HIV-1 Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Thomas; Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Wang, Xiaozhao; Smith, Amos B.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of the HIV-1 core in the cytoplasm is crucial for productive HIV-1 infection. Mutations that stabilize or destabilize the core showed defects on HIV-1 reverse transcription and infection. We developed a novel and simple assay to measure the stability of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. The assay allowed us to demonstrate that cytosolic extracts strongly stabilize the HIV-1 core. Interestingly, stabilization of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes is not due solely to macromolecular crowding, suggesting the presence of specific cellular factors that stabilize the HIV-1 core. By using our novel assay, we measured the abilities of different drugs, such as PF74, CAP-1, IXN-053, cyclosporine, Bi2 (also known as BI-2), and the peptide CAI, to modulate the stability of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. Interestingly, we found that PF74 and Bi2 strongly stabilized HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. On the other hand, the peptide CAI destabilized HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. We also found that purified cyclophilin A destabilizes in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes in the presence of cellular extracts in a cyclosporine-sensitive manner. In agreement with previous observations using the fate-of-the-capsid assay, we also demonstrated the ability of recombinant CPSF6 to stabilize HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. Overall, our findings suggested that cellular extracts specifically stabilize the HIV-1 core. We believe that our assay can be a powerful tool to assess HIV-1 core stability in vitro. PMID:23885082

  10. Assignment of Milk Fat Fatty Acid Propyl Esters by GC-FID Analysis with the Aid of Ag-ion Solid-phase Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ryo; Umezawa, Masatoshi; Tsukahara, Satoru; Ishiguro, Takashi; Sato, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yomi

    2015-01-01

    The recovery of short-chain fatty acids (FAs) in milk fat (MF) is improved when the analysis of the FA composition of MF by gas chromatography (GC) is conducted with the propyl or butyl ester derivatives, instead of the methyl esters. However, this approach complicates the detection of minor FAs, such as the minor positional isomers of 16:1, which represent <0.2% of the total content. In addition, the standards of these minor esters are not commercially available. In this study, with the aim to identify minor FAs, the fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) of MF were fractionated by Ag-ion solid phase extraction (Ag(+)-SPE) and analyzed by GC using a DB-23 capillary column. FAPEs were successfully fractionated mainly according to the degree of unsaturation by adjusting the elution conditions of the Ag(+)-SPE, and the minor FAPEs were easily determined without the aid of standard compounds. For example, by comparison of the GC profile of the saturated Ag(+)-SPE fraction with that of the original MF, minor FAs, such as iso-, anteiso-, and saturated FAs of 15:0 and 17:0, were expected to be eluted in this order. In addition, 16:1 propyl ester was co-eluted with iso 17:0 propyl ester under the GC conditions used in this study, as confirmed by the detection of the corresponding molecular ions (296 and 312, respectively) by GC-MS. Moreover, 9c,11t-conjugated linoleic acid was found to elute between 18:3 and 20:0. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that the peak observed before that of cis-12:1 corresponds to trans-12:1. In conclusion, Ag(+)-SPE fractionation of FAPEs contributed to the identification of minor FAs in MF without the use of standard compounds.

  11. Myrciaria cauliflora extracts attenuate diabetic nephropathy involving the Ras signaling pathway in streptozotocin/nicotinamide mice on a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major cause of end-stage renal disease and its mortality is continuously increasing worldwide. Previous studies indicate that reactive oxygen species play an important role in high glucose-induced renal injury. Myrciaria cauliflora has been reported as a functional food rich in anthocyanins possessing anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examined whether M. cauliflora extracts (MCE can attenuate diabetic nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetes mellitus mice. First, the composition of the anthocyanins and polyphenols of MCE were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. One hundred mg/kg of streptozotocin and 240 mg/kg nicotinamide were administered to C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet and varied concentrations of MCE. The plasma glucose concentration, body weight, oral glucose tolerance, blood pressure, renal ultrasound ultrasonic wave were monitored every 2 weeks. Following euthanasia, the kidneys of the mice were analyzed using hematoxylin–eosin, periodic acid Schiff, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemistry staining. The results showed that MCE stabilized the plasma glucose and indirectly improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice. In addition, diabetes-caused glomerular atrophy, accumulation of saccharide, and formation of collagen IV were recovered or reduced under treatment with MCE in diabetic mice. Our results indicate that MCE has beneficial effects in DN and the mechanism has been confirmed to inhibit Ras/PI3K/Akt and kidney fibrosis related proteins. This work illustrates the potential of MCE rich in anthocyanins and polyphenols as a natural food to inhibit DN.

  12. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC. Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD. The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC (p < 0.05. Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  13. Dietary aloe vera gel powder and extract inhibit azoxymethane- induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci in mice fed a high- fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Sonoda, Shigeru; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment.

  14. Mechanism of cytotoxicity by Psoralea corylifolia extract in human breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Vasumathy; Tripathi, Jyoti; Variyar, Prasad; Pandey, Badri Narain

    2014-01-01

    Psoralea corylifolia has been widely used in herbal medicine, and a few studies show its anticancer activity. However, the detailed mechanism of the anticancer activity of P. corylifolia seed extract (PC extract) was not studied. This study evaluates the anticancer activity and underlying mechanism of PC extract in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). PC extract caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the proliferation of MCF7 cells and an increase in apoptotic death as measured by annexin-V-FITC and TUNEL assays. Increased cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in cells treated with PC extract further confirmed the apoptotic mode of cell death. There was a decrease (~2-fold) of mitochondrial membrane potential in cells treated with PC extract. In cells treated with PC extract, an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in mitochondrial ROS was observed. A significant decrease in ATP (~1.8-fold) was observed in extract-treated cells. Moreover, MCF7 cells treated with extract showed cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-7, upregulation of Bax, release of cytochrome-c, and loss of mitochondrial integrity. Taken together, these results suggest the involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in PC extract-induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells.

  15. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  16. Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Serum Samples following Curcuma longa Extract Supplementation in High-Fructose and Saturated Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, Fabrice; Shintu, Laetitia; Rakotoniaina, Zo; Tchiakpe, Léopold; Deyris, Valérie; Hiol, Abel; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We explored, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics and fatty acids profiling, the effects of a common nutritional complement, Curcuma longa, at a nutritionally relevant dose with human use, administered in conjunction with an unbalanced diet. Indeed, traditional food supplements have been long used to counter metabolic impairments induced by unbalanced diets. Here, rats were fed either a standard diet, a high level of fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet, a diet common to western countries and that certainly contributes to the epidemic of insulin resistance (IR) syndrome, or a HFS diet with a Curcuma longa extract (1% of curcuminoids in the extract) for ten weeks. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) on the serum NMR profiles and fatty acid composition (determined by GC/MS) showed a clear discrimination between HFS groups and controls. This discrimination involved metabolites such as glucose, amino acids, pyruvate, creatine, phosphocholine/glycerophosphocholine, ketone bodies and glycoproteins as well as an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and a decrease of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although the administration of Curcuma longa did not prevent the observed increase of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels, discriminating metabolites were observed between groups fed HFS alone or with addition of a Curcuma longa extract, namely some MUFA and n-3 PUFA, glycoproteins, glutamine, and methanol, suggesting that curcuminoids may act respectively on the fatty acid metabolism, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and alcohol oxidation. Curcuma longa extract supplementation appears to be beneficial in these metabolic pathways in rats. This metabolomic approach highlights important serum metabolites that could help in understanding further the metabolic mechanisms leading to IR.

  17. DNA extraction from fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dzamko, Nicolas; Halliday, Glenda; Huang, Yue

    2013-10-01

    Both fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human brain tissues are invaluable resources for molecular genetic studies of central nervous system diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders. To identify the optimal method for DNA extraction from human brain tissue, we compared methods on differently-processed tissues. Fragments of LRRK2 and MAPT (257 bp and 483 bp/245 bp) were amplified for evaluation. We found that for FFPE samples, the success rate of DNA extraction was greater when using a commercial kit than a laboratory-based method (successful DNA extraction from 76% versus 33% of samples). PCR amplicon size and storage period were key factors influencing the success rate of DNA extraction from FFPE samples. In the fresh-frozen samples, the DNA extraction success rate was 100% using either a commercial kit (QIAamp DNA Micro) or a laboratory-based method (sample boiling in 0.1 mol/L NaOH, followed by proteinase K digestion, and then DNA extraction using Chelex-100) regardless of PCR amplicon length or tissue storage time. Although the present results demonstrate that PCR-amplifiable genomic DNA can be extracted from both fresh-frozen and FFPE samples, fresh brain tissue is recommended for DNA extraction in future neuropathological studies.

  18. Determination of trans-fatty acid isomers in human milk fat by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry%气相色谱-质谱联用法检测母乳脂肪中反式脂肪酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林麒; 李国波; 葛品; 许榕仙; 林国斌

    2016-01-01

    建立了母乳中反式脂肪酸( TFAs)的气相色谱-质谱( GC-MS)检测方法,并应用于母乳脂肪中 TFAs 的检测。母乳用氨水水解,乙醚和石油醚提取脂肪,提取的脂肪加入 C21:0内标,用三氟化硼甲醇溶液在80℃水浴中冷凝回流15 min进行甲酯化,正己烷提取,上清液用 GC-MS分析,内标法定量。在低、中、高加标水平上验证方法的准确度与精密度,结果显示该方法可用于母乳中18种 TFAs及其同分异构体的检测,其中12种 TFAs在母乳脂肪中的方法检出限为4.0~47.1 mg/kg,回收率为80%~113%,RSD为2.9%~14.5%( n=6)。TFAs在部分母乳脂样品中检出,含量为9.54~6.9 mg/kg。该方法定性、定量准确,可有效用于母乳中 TFAs的检测,但仍存在脂肪酸本底干扰等问题,可结合银离子固相萃取柱预分离技术进一步完善。%A method for the determination of trans-fatty acid isomers in human milk fat was developed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry( GC-MS),and applied to analyze TFAs in human milk fat. The fat was extracted with diethylether and petroleum ether after ammonia hydrolysis of human milk. C21:0 internal standard and boron trifluoride methanol solution were added to the extract for fat esterification. The solution then was refluxed in 80 ℃ water bath for 15 min. Finally the trans-fatty acid methyl ester isomers were extracted with hexane,and ana-lyzed by GC-MS. GC conditions were as follows:an HP-88 column(100 m×0. 25 mm×0. 2 μm) with inlet temperature of 260 ℃,at a split ratio of 10:1,and a He flow rate of 1 mL/min. The initial column temperature was 140 ℃( held for 5 min),then raised up to 240 ℃ at a rate of 4℃/min( held for 15 min). The electronic ionization( EI)source energy was 70 eV,with auxil-iary( AUX)temperature of 280 ℃,ion source temperature of 230 ℃,quadrupole temperature of 150 ℃ in selected ion monitoring( SIM)mode. This method can

  19. 酸浆提取物对高脂膳食大鼠抗氧化作用的影响%Antioxidant Effect of Physalis alkekengi Extracts to Rats with High Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌; 马洪波; 杜娟; 葛红娟

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the antioxidant effect of Physalis alkekengi extracts to the rats with high fat diet. [Method]50 Wistar rate were randomly and equally divided into five groups (control group,high fat group,low-dose Physalis alkekengi extracts group,medium-dose Physalis alkekengi extracts group and high-dose Physalis alkekengi extracts group). After 30 days intragastric administration with the same dose of drugs,the SOD activity and MDA content in the serum of rats were determined. [Result]The high fat group was significantly different from other groups in the SOD activity of rats,and from the medium and high-dose group in the MDA content of rats,which had statistical sense. [ Conclusion] Appropriate amount of Physalis alkekengi extracts could effectively enhance the antioxidant effect of rats.%[目的]探讨酸浆提取液对高脂膳食大鼠抗氧化能力的影响.[方法]取Wistar大鼠50只,随机分为5组(空白组、高脂组、酸菜提取液低剂量组、酸浆提取液中剂量组、酸浆提取液高剂量组),每组10只.取相应剂量的药物持续灌胃30d,测定大鼠血清SOD活力和MDA含量.[结果]各组大鼠SOD活力与高脂组相比差异显著,有统计学意义;中、高剂量组大鼠MDA含量与高脂组差异显著,有统计学意义.[结论]摄入适量酸浆提取液可以有效地增强大鼠机体抗氧化能力.

  20. Cafeteria Diet Is a Robust Model of Human Metabolic Syndrome With Liver and Adipose Inflammation: Comparison to High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampey, Brante P.; Vanhoose, Amanda M.; Winfield, Helena M.; Freemerman, Alex J.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Fueger, Patrick T.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Makowski, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and reports estimate that American children consume up to 25% of calories from snacks. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare high-fat diets (HFD) traditionally used in rodent models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) to diets consisting of food regularly consumed by humans, including high-salt, high-fat, low-fiber, energy dense foods such as cookies, chips, and processed meats. To investigate the obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of a cafeteria diet (CAF) compared to a lard-based 45% HFD in rodent models, male Wistar rats were fed HFD, CAF or chow control diets for 15 weeks. Body weight increased dramatically and remained significantly elevated in CAF-fed rats compared to all other diets. Glucose- and insulin-tolerance tests revealed that hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance were exaggerated in the CAF-fed rats compared to controls and HFD-fed rats. It is well-established that macrophages infiltrate metabolic tissues at the onset of weight gain and directly contribute to inflammation, insulin resistance, and obesity. Although both high fat diets resulted in increased adiposity and hepatosteatosis, CAF-fed rats displayed remarkable inflammation in white fat, brown fat and liver compared to HFD and controls. In sum, the CAF provided a robust model of human metabolic syndrome compared to traditional lard-based HFD, creating a phenotype of exaggerated obesity with glucose intolerance and inflammation. This model provides a unique platform to study the biochemical, genomic and physiological mechanisms of obesity and obesity-related disease states that are pandemic in western civilization today. PMID:21331068

  1. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; KANG, YONG JUNG; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells ...

  2. Identification of new genes involved in human adipogenesis and fat storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Söhle

    Full Text Available Since the worldwide increase in obesity represents a growing challenge for health care systems, new approaches are needed to effectively treat obesity and its associated diseases. One prerequisite for advances in this field is the identification of genes involved in adipogenesis and/or lipid storage. To provide a systematic analysis of genes that regulate adipose tissue biology and to establish a target-oriented compound screening, we performed a high throughput siRNA screen with primary (preadipocytes, using a druggable siRNA library targeting 7,784 human genes. The primary screen showed that 459 genes affected adipogenesis and/or lipid accumulation after knock-down. Out of these hits, 333 could be validated in a secondary screen using independent siRNAs and 110 genes were further regulated on the gene expression level during adipogenesis. Assuming that these genes are involved in neutral lipid storage and/or adipocyte differentiation, we performed InCell-Western analysis for the most striking hits to distinguish between the two phenotypes. Beside well known regulators of adipogenesis and neutral lipid storage (i.e. PPARγ, RXR, Perilipin A the screening revealed a large number of genes which have not been previously described in the context of fatty tissue biology such as axonemal dyneins. Five out of ten axonemal dyneins were identified in our screen and quantitative RT-PCR-analysis revealed that these genes are expressed in preadipocytes and/or maturing adipocytes. Finally, to show that the genes identified in our screen are per se druggable we performed a proof of principle experiment using an antagonist for HTR2B. The results showed a very similar phenotype compared to knock-down experiments proofing the "druggability". Thus, we identified new adipogenesis-associated genes and those involved in neutral lipid storage. Moreover, by using a druggable siRNA library the screen data provides a very attractive starting point to identify anti

  3. Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants associate in divergent ways to fat mass measured by DXA in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönn, Monika; Lind, Lars; van Bavel, Bert; Salihovic, Samira; Michaëlsson, Karl; Lind, Pia Monica

    2011-10-01

    Environmental contaminants have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. To explore relations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and fat mass independently of body stature, using a cross-sectional design. In the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), fat mass was determined in 70-year-old subjects (n=890) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The plasma levels of 21 POPs (including 16 PCB congeners, 3 OC pesticides, 1 BDE47, and 1 dioxin) were measured by high resolution chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Lipid-standardized plasma concentrations of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), the PCBs 74, 99, 105 and 118, and the pesticides HCB, TNK, and DDE were all positively related to fat mass (p=0.03-0.0001). Subjects in the fifth quintile for PCB 105 showed a mean fat mass that was 4.8 kg more than subjects in the first quintile. On the other hand, the PCBs 156, 157, 169, 170, 180, 189, 194, 206, and 209 were negatively related to fat mass (p=0.0001). For PCB 194, subjects in the fifth quintile showed a mean fat mass that was 10.8 kg less than subjects in the first quintile. Following adjustment for smoking, physical activity, education level, height, lean mass, and gender, these results remained significant (p=0.01-0.0001) except for the PCBs 74 and 99. For some PCBs, the associations vs. fat mass were more pronounced in women than in men. Plasma concentrations of some pesticides are positively related to fat mass, while divergent associations are seen for the PCBs. These results implicate a complex role of POPs in obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative study of two methods for the isolation of human leucocytes for DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L H; Ton, S H; Cheong, S K

    1990-06-01

    The 'Dextran' and the 'Buffy-coat' methods for isolation of human leucocytes for DNA extraction were compared on the basis of DNA yield from the same amounts (10 ml) of blood. Human leucocytes from a total of 11 samples were isolated using both methods for each sample after which DNA was extracted. Extracted DNA samples were treated with ribonucleases and proteinase K after which the yields were quantitated by measuring absorbance at 260 nm. The 'Buffy-coat' method yielded a mean concentration of DNA of 476.7 micrograms/ml (range: 212 to 700 micrograms/ml) while the 'Dextran' method yielded 188.4 micrograms/ml (range: 64 to 340 micrograms/ml). The difference was confirmed by subjecting the extracted DNA samples to agarose gel electrophoresis.

  5. Effect of Baliospermum montanum root extract on phagocytosis by human neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Kalpana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of roots of Baliospermum montanum was evaluated on preliminary basis for immunomodulatory activity by studying neutrophil phagocytic function. The different concentration of (25, 50, 100 mg/ml of aqueous extract of roots of Baliospermum montanum was subjected to study its effect on different in vitro methods of phagocytosis such as neutrophil locomotion, chemotaxis, immunostimulant activity of phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans and qualitative nitroblue tetrazolium test by using human neutrophils. This preliminary study revealed that Baliospermum montanum extract has stimulated chemotactic, phagocytic and intracellular killing potency of human neutrophils at the different concentration. From the results obtained it can be observed that the aqueous extract of Baliospermum montanum stimulate cell-mediated immune system by increasing neutrophil function.

  6. Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum extracts in the protection of human plasma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Malinowska, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalska, Iwona; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Clovers (genus: Trifolium) have been used in traditional medicine by many cultures, but the biological activity of the most of these plants still remains unknown. The aim of our in vitro study was to assess the antioxidative action of phenolic extracts from aerial parts of Trifolium scabrum and Trifolium pallidum in human blood plasma, exposed to oxidative stress. In the present study we also demonstrate, for the first time the effects of the tested extracts on coagulative properties and fibrinolytic activity of blood plasma. The protective properties of the examined extracts (0.5-50 μg/ml) against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress were estimated by the measurements of 3-nitrotyrosine, thiol groups and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels. The extracts considerably prevented the oxidative and nitrative damage to plasma proteins. Even the lowest doses of the Trifolium extracts (0.5 μg/ml) were able to markedly reduce 3-nitrotyrosine formation (by about 50%) and to increase the level of -SH groups (by about 30%), in comparison to the plasma exposed to ONOO(-) in the absence of the extracts. The protective action of all the used concentrations of the Trifolium extracts in the prevention of lipid peroxidation was also found. The tested extracts influenced neither the coagulative properties nor fibrinolytic activity of plasma. Moreover, the extracts were able to significantly reduce the inhibitory effect of ONOO(-) on fibrinolytic activity of plasma (assessed with the use of a chromogenic substrate for plasmin).

  7. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges by coal dust and tobacco snuff extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J.D.; Ong, T.

    1985-01-01

    The organic solvent extracts of sub-bituminous coal dust and tobacco snuff, both together and separately, were tested for the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results indicate that these extracts induced SCEs, and that when tested together synergistically induced SCEs in two of three donors. Studies with the organic solvent extracts of all five ranks of coal indicate that the extracts of bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not anthracite, induced SCEs. Similar experiments conducted with water extracts, induced SCEs, and that anthracite was equivocal. To determine whether individuals differed in their SCE responses to coal dust extracts, lymphocytes from five donors were tested with organic solvent extracts of bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. An analysis of variance indicates that the SCE response was significantly influenced by the donor and each of the two coal extracts. The findings presented here suggest that coal dust, with or without tobacco snuff, may play a role in the elevated incidence of gastric cancer in coal miners. Because water extracts of some ranks of coal induced SCEs, there exists the possibility of adverse environmental effects due to coal leachates.

  8. Postexercise High-Fat Feeding Suppresses p70S6K1 Activity in Human Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Kelly M; Impey, Samuel G; Currell, Kevin; Mitchell, Nigel; Shepherd, Sam O; Jeromson, Stewart; Hawley, John A; Close, Graeme L; Hamilton, Lee D; Sharples, Adam P; Morton, James P

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of reduced CHO but high postexercise fat availability on cell signaling and expression of genes with putative roles in regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, lipid metabolism, and muscle protein synthesis. Ten males completed a twice per day exercise model (3.5 h between sessions) comprising morning high-intensity interval training (8 × 5 min at 85% V˙O2peak) and afternoon steady-state (SS) running (60 min at 70% V˙O2peak). In a repeated-measures design, runners exercised under different isoenergetic dietary conditions consisting of high-CHO (HCHO: 10 g·kg CHO, 2.5 g·kg protein, and 0.8 g·kg fat for the entire trial period) or reduced-CHO but high-fat availability in the postexercise recovery periods (HFAT: 2.5 g·kg CHO, 2.5 g·kg protein, and 3.5 g·kg fat for the entire trial period). Muscle glycogen was lower (P increased post-SS in either condition (P = 0.41), although comparable increases (all P fat feeding does not augment the mRNA expression of genes associated with regulatory roles in mitochondrial biogenesis, although it does increase lipid gene expression. However, postexercise ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 activity is reduced under conditions of high-fat feeding, thus potentially impairing skeletal muscle remodeling processes.

  9. Extracting Three Dimensional Surface Model of Human Kidney from the Visible Human Data Set using Free Software

    CERN Document Server

    P, Kirana Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Three dimensional digital model of a representative human kidney is needed for a surgical simulator that is capable of simulating a laparoscopic surgery involving kidney. Buying a three dimensional computer model of a representative human kidney, or reconstructing a human kidney from an image sequence using commercial software, both involve (sometimes significant amount of) money. In this paper, author has shown that one can obtain a three dimensional surface model of human kidney by making use of images from the Visible Human Data Set and a few free software packages (ImageJ, ITK-SNAP, and MeshLab in particular). Images from the Visible Human Data Set, and the software packages used here, both do not cost anything. Hence, the practice of extracting the geometry of a representative human kidney for free, as illustrated in the present work, could be a free alternative to the use of expensive commercial software or to the purchase of a digital model.

  10. 淫羊藿总黄酮的超声辅助提取及其抗氧化活性%Ultrasonic-assisted ethanol extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium and their antioxidative effects on fats and oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊生; 陈莉华; 汤小虎; 张烨; 李三艳

    2012-01-01

    利用超声波辅助乙醇提取淫羊藿中的总黄酮,通过单因素和正交试验法获得最佳工艺条件后,考察黄酮提取物对油脂的抗氧化性能及对·OH的清除效果.结果表明:体积分数70%的乙醇、料液比(g/mL) 1:30、超声提取时间30 min、超声温度50℃时为最佳条件,得到淫羊藿提取物中总黄酮质量分数为2.246%.淫羊藿总黄酮对·OH清除效果随浓度的增大而升高,对油脂氧化亦有较强的抑制作用.%Flavonoids were extracted from Epimedium with ultrasonic assistance, using ethanol as extraction solvent. The optimal extracting conditions were obtained based on single factor test and orthogonal experimental design. The hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacities and antioxidative activities against the peroxidation of oils and fats of the flavonoid extracts were obtained compared with reference antioxidants. Results showed that under the conditions of 70% ethanol, 1: 30 (g/mL) material-to-liquid ratio, and 30 min ultrasonic extracting time, the total flavonoid mass fraction of extracts was 2. 246%. The extracts showed good antioxidative effects on oils and fats.

  11. The effect of Lamium album extract on cultivated human corneal epithelial cells (10.014 pRSV-T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Paduch

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Selected Lamium album extracts influence human corneal epithelial cells. Generally, while not toxic, they modulate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels, and decrease NO release by cells; moreover, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts reduce ROS levels.

  12. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  13. Oxygen-independent killing of Bacteroides fragilis by granule extracts from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Wetherall, B L; Pruul, H; McDonald, P J

    1984-01-01

    Granule proteins from human neutrophils were prepared by extraction with acetate, and their antibacterial activity against Bacteroides fragilis was determined. Activity was highly dependent on pH; greatest killing occurred at the most acid pH tested (pH 5.0). Optimum activity was observed at physiological ionic strength and low bacterial numbers. Killing was inhibited by incubation temperatures of less than 37 degrees C. Eight times more extract was required to kill 50% of stationary-phase ba...

  14. Regenerative medicine for Parkinson's disease using differentiated nerve cells derived from human buccal fat pad stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Haruka; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akira

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of human adipose stem cells derived from the buccal fat pad (hBFP-ASCs) for nerve regeneration. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons. PD is a candidate disease for cell replacement therapy because it has no fundamental therapeutic methods. We examined the properties of neural-related cells induced from hBFP-ASCs as a cell source for PD treatment. hBFP-ASCs were cultured in neurogenic differentiation medium for about 2 weeks. After the morphology of hBFP-ASCs changed to neural-like cells, the medium was replaced with neural maintenance medium. Cells differentiated from hBFP-ASCs showed neuron-like structures and expressed neuron markers (β3-tubulin, neurofilament 200, and microtubule-associated protein 2), an astrocyte marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein), or dopaminergic neuron-related marker (tyrosine hydroxylase). Induced neural cells were transplanted into a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat hemi-parkinsonian model. At 4 weeks after transplantation, 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were subjected to apomorphine-induced rotation analysis. The transplanted cells survived in the brain of rats as dopaminergic neural cells. No tumor formation was found after cell transplantation. We demonstrated differentiation of hBFP-ASCs into neural cells, and that transplantation of these neural cells improved the symptoms of model rats. Our results suggest that neurons differentiated from hBFP-ASCs would be applicable to cell replacement therapy of PD.

  15. APA-style human milk fat analogue from silkworm pupae oil: Enzymatic production and improving storage stability using alkyl caffeates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xudong; Pang, Na; Zhu, Weijie; Zhao, Xingyu; Wang, Fangqin; Wu, Fuan; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-08

    Silkworm pupae oil derived from reeling waste is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which has multipal applications. ALAs were added in sn-1, 3 positions in a triacylglycerol (TAG) to produce an APA-human milk fat analogues (APA-HMFAs, A: α-linolenic acid, P: palmitic acid). The optimum condition is that tripalmitin to free fatty acids of 1:12 (mole ratio) at 65 °C for 48 h using lipase Lipozyme RM IM. Results show that, the major TAG species that comprised APA-HMFAs were rich in ALA and palmitic acid, which contained 64.52% total unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and 97.05% PA at the sn-2 position. The melting point of APA was -27.5 °C which is much lower than tripalmitin (40.5 °C) indicating more plastic character. In addition, the practical application of alkyl caffeates as liposoluble antioxidants in APA was developed. Alkyl caffeate showed a superior IC50 (1.25-1.66 μg/mL) compared to butyl hydroxy anisd (1.67 μg/mL) and L-ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (L-AP) (1.87 μg/mL) in DPPH analysis. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil achieved a higher UFAs content (73.58%) at high temperatures. Overall, APA was obtained from silkworm pupae oil successfully, and the addition of caffeates extended storage ranges for APA-HMFAs.

  16. Extraction of DNA from human embryos after long-term preservation in formalin and Bouin's solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Momoko; Minegishi, Katsura; Komada, Munekazu; Tsuchiya, Maiko; Kameda, Tomomi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2016-05-01

    The "Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos" at Kyoto University was begun in 1961. Although morphological analyses of samples in the Kyoto Collection have been performed, these embryos have been considered difficult to genetically analyze because they have been preserved in formalin or Bouin's solution for 20-50 years. Owing to the recent advances in molecular biology, it has become possible to extract DNA from long-term fixed tissues. The purpose of this study was to extract DNA from wet preparations of human embryo samples after long-term preservation in fixing solution. We optimized the DNA extraction protocol to be suitable for tissues that have been damaged by long-term fixation, including DNA-protein crosslinking damage. Diluting Li2 CO3 with 70% ethanol effectively removed picric acid from samples fixed in Bouin's solution. Additionally, 20.0 mg/mL proteinase was valuable to lyse the long-term fixed samples. The extracted DNA was checked with PCR amplification using several sets of primers and sequence analysis. The PCR products included at least 295- and 838-bp amplicons. These results show that the extracted DNA is applicable for genetic analyses, and indicate that old embryos in the Kyoto Collection should be made available for future studies. The protocol described in this study can successfully extract DNA from old specimens and, with improvements, should be applicable in research aiming to understand the molecular mechanisms of human congenital anomalies. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  17. Neuroprotective Effect of Human Adipose Stem Cell-Derived Extract in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Gye Sun; Im, Wooseok; Shim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Mijung; Kim, Myung-Jin; Hong, Yoon-Ho; Seong, Seung-Yong; Kim, Manho; Sung, Jung-Joon

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating human neurodegenerative disease. The precise pathogenic mechanisms of the disease remain uncertain, and as of yet, there is no effective cure. Human adipose stem cells (hASC) can be easily obtained during operative procedures. hASC have a clinically feasible potential to treat neurodegenerative disorders, since cytosolic extract of hASC contain a number of essential neurotrophic factors. In this study, we investigated effects of hASC extract on the SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS and in vitro test. Administration of hASC extract improved motor function and prolonged the time until symptom onset, rotarod failure, and death in ALS mice. In the hASC extracts group, choline acetyltransferase immunostaining in the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord showed a large number of motor neurons, suggesting normal morphology. The neuroprotective effect of hASC extract in ALS mice was also suggested by western blot analysis of spinal cord extract from ALS mice and in vitro test. hASC extract treatment significantly increased expression of p-Akt, p-CREB, and PGC-1α in SOD1 G93A mouse model and in vitro test. Our results indicated that hASC extract reduced apoptotic cell death and recovered mutant SOD1-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, hASC extract reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that hASC extract exert a potential therapeutic action in the SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS and in vitro test. These findings suggest that hASC hold promise as a novel therapeutic strategy for treating ALS.

  18. Cytotoxicity screening of Melastoma malabathricum extracts on human breast cancer cell lines in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurfariza; Ahmad; Roslen; Nur; Aizura; Mat; Alewi; Hadji; Ahamada; Mohammad; Syaiful; Bahari; Abdull; Rasad

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To screen the cytotoxic activity of Melasloma malabathricum(M,malubathricum)against human breast carreer cell line(MCF-7)in vitro.Methods:A three steps extraction protocol using n-hexane,chloroform and methanol as the solvents systems was carried out on leaves,stems and flowers of M.nalabathricum.Dimethyl sulfoxide was used in extracts dilution and serial dilutions were conducted to obtain five different extract concentrations(100μg/mL,50μg/mL,25μg/mL,123μg/rnL and 6.25μg/mL).The evaluation of cell growth was determined using methylene blue assay.Results:Methanol extract from the leaves showed significant anticancer activity against MCF-7cell lines with the TC50value of 7.14μg/ml while methanol and chloroform extract from the flowers exhibited a moderate activity towards MCF-7 cell line,with the IC50value of 33.63μg/mL and 45.76μg/mL respectively after 72 h of treatment.Conclusions:The extracts from leaves and flowers of M.nulabatkricum showed promising anticancer activity toward human breast cancer cell lines with the lowest IC50at 7.14μg/mL while the extracts from stems showed less growth inhibition activity.

  19. Effects of Two Different Rhodiola rosea Extracts on Primary Human Visceral Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pomari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea (Rro has been reported to have various pharmacological properties, including anti-fatigue, anti-stress and anti-inflammatory activity. It is also known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, but the effects of Rhodiola rosea on adipocyte differentiation and metabolism are not still elucidated. In this study the anti-adipogenic and lipolytic activity of two extracts of Rhodiola rosea, containing 3% salidroside (RS or 1% salidroside and 3% rosavines (RR on primary human visceral adipocytes was investigated. Pre-adipocytes were analyzed after 10 and 20 days of treatment during differentiation and after 7 days of treatment when they reached mature shape. The RS extract significantly induced higher apoptosis and lipolysis in comparison to control cells and to RR extract. In contrast, RR extract significantly reduced triglyceride incorporation during maturation. Differentiation of pre-adipocytes in the presence of RS and RR extracts showed a significant decrease in expression of genes involved in adipocyte function such as SLC2A4 and the adipogenic factor FGF2 and significant increase in expression of genes involved in inhibition of adipogenesis, such as GATA3, WNT3A, WNT10B. Furthermore RR extract, in contrast to RS, significantly down-regulates PPARG, the master regulator of adipogenesis and FABP4. These data support the lipolytic and anti-adipogenetic activity of two different commercial extracts of Rhodiola rosea in primary human visceral pre-adipocytes during differentiation.

  20. Cytotoxicity screening of Melastoma malabathricum extracts on human breast cancer cell lines in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurfariza Ahmad Roslen; Nur Aizura Mat Alewi; Hadji Ahamada

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To screen the cytotoxic activity of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in vitro. Methods: A three steps extraction protocol using n-hexane, chloroform and methanol as the solvents systems was carried out on leaves, stems and flowers of M. malabathricum. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used in extracts dilution and serial dilutions were conducted to obtain five different extract concentrations (100 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, 12.5 µg/mL and 6.25 µg/mL). The evaluation of cell growth was determined using methylene blue assay.Results:Methanol extract from the leaves showed significant anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell lines with the IC50 value of 7.14 µg/ml while methanol and chloroform extract from the flowers exhibited a moderate activity towards MCF-7 cell line with the IC50 value of 33.63 µg/mL and 45.76 µg/mL respectively after 72 h of treatment.Conclusions:The extracts from leaves and flowers of M. malabathricum showed promising anticancer activity toward human breast cancer cell lines with the lowest IC50 at 7.14 µg/mL while the extracts from stems showed less growth inhibition activity.

  1. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehelean Cristina A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%. Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma, A2780 (ovarian carcinoma, HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma, by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts.

  2. Curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract synergically inhibit inflammatory and catabolic mediator's synthesis by normal bovine and osteoarthritic human chondrocytes in monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comblain, Fanny; Sanchez, Christelle; Lesponne, Isabelle; Balligand, Marc; Serisier, Samuel; Henrotin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract in normal bovine chondrocytes and osteoarthritic human chondrocytes cultured in monolayer. This study also investigated the synergic or additive effects of these compounds. Enzymatically isolated primary bovine or human chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer until confluence and then incubated for 24 hours or 48 hours in the absence or in the presence of interleukin-1β and with or without curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen or green tea extract, added alone or in combination, at different concentrations. Cell viability was neither affected by these compounds, nor by interleukin 1β. In the absence of interleukin-1β, compounds did not significantly affect bovine chondrocytes metabolism. In human chondrocytes and in the absence of interleukin 1β, curcuminoids extract alone or in combination with hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract significantly inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-3 production. In interleukin-1β-stimulated bovine chondrocytes, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase2, matrix metalloproteinase 3, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motifs 4 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motifs 5 expressions were decreased by curcuminoids extract alone or in combination with hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract. The combination of the three compounds was significantly more efficient to inhibit interleukin-1β stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression than curcuminoids extract alone. In interleukin-1β-stimulated human chondrocytes, nitric oxide, interleukin-6 and matrix metalloproteinase 3 productions were significantly reduced by curcuminoids extract alone or in combination with hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract. These findings indicate that a mixture of curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea

  3. Effect of Hypericum perforatum L. extract on insulin resistance and lipid metabolic disorder in high-fat-diet induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin-ying; Tao, Rong-ya; Zhang, Xiao-lin; Liu, Qian; He, Yi-Bo; Su, Ya-lun; Ji, Teng-fei; Ye, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Natural product Hypericum perforatum L. has been used in folk medicine to improve mental performance. However, the effect of H. perforatum L. on metabolism is still unknown. In order to test whether H. perforatum L. extract (EHP) has an effect on metabolic syndrome, we treated diet induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice with the extract. The chemical characters of EHP were investigated with thin-layer chromatography, ultraviolet, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and HPLC-mass spectrometry fingerprint analysis. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), and the glucose infusion rate (GIR) in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test were performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle was examined for lipid metabolism. The results suggest that EHP can significantly improve the glucose and lipid metabolism in DIO mice. In vitro, EHP inhibited the catalytic activity of recombinant human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and reduced the protein and mRNA levels of PTP1B in the skeletal muscle. Moreover, expressions of genes related to fatty acid uptake and oxidation were changed by EHP in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that EHP may improve insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in DIO mice.

  4. Serum-free growth of human mammary epithelial cells: rapid clonal growth in defined medium and extended serial passage with pituitary extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, S.L.; Ham, R.G.; Stampfer, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    A serum-free medium with bovine pituitary extract as the only undefined supplement has been developed for long-term culture of human mammary epithelial cells. This medium supports serial subculture of normal cells for 10-20 passages (1:10 splits) without conditioning or special substrates, and it supports rapid clonal growth with plating efficiencies up to 35%. It consists of an optimized basal nutrient medium, (MCDB 170, supplemented with insulin, hydrocortisone, epidermal growth factor, ethanolamine, phosphoethanolamine, and bovine pituitary extract. Replacement of pituitary extract with prostaglandin E/sub 1/ and ovine prolactin yields a defined medium that supports rapid clonal growth and serial subculture for three of four passages. Cultures initiated in these media from normal reduction mammoplasty tissue remain diploid and maintain normal epithelia morphology, distribution of cell-associated fibronectin, expression of keratin fibrils, and a low level of expression of milk fat globule antigen. Large cell populations can now be generated and stored frozen, permitting multiple experiments over a period of time with cells from a single donor. These media greatly extend the range of experiments that can be performed both conveniently and reproducibly with cultured normal and tumor-derived human mammary epithelial cells. 31 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  6. [Determination of amphetamines in human urine using microwave extraction-gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jifen; Sun, Hongfeng; Ye, Nengsheng; Gu, Xuexin; Li, Wenjun; Li, Ying

    2008-03-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in human urine using microwave extraction-gas chromatography(GC). To improve the extraction efficiency, experimental parameters of the extraction, including extraction solvent and its amount, pH value of the urine sample, extraction time and temperature were investigated. The optimal conditions were as follows: the pH value of urine sample at pH 12, cyclohexane as extraction solvent, extraction at 40 degrees C for 10 min. The average recoveries of MA, MDA and MDMA with this extraction method were 92.25%, 85.94% and 91.50%, the relative standard deviations were 5.5%, 5.5% and 6.1%(n = 5), and the limits of detection were 10, 20 and 20 ng/mL, respectively. Using this method, MA, MDA and MDMA need not be derivatized and can be separated from the matrix. The results indicate that the developed method is rapid, accurate and sensitive, and can be used for the simultaneous determination of MA, MDA and MDMA in urine samples.

  7. Evaluation of antimicrobial properties of four plant extracts against human pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjali Rawani; Sudin Pal; GoutamChandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity of the extracts of Alternanthera philoxeroides (A. philoxeroides), Plumeria obtusa (P. obtusa), Polyalthia cerasoides (P. cerasoides) and Ixoraacuminate (I. acuminate) against human pathogens. Methods: Aqueous and chloroform: methanol (1:1) extracts of the dried leaf of A. philoxeroides, flowers of P. obtusa, fruits of P. cerasoides and flowers of I. acuminate were tested in vitro by the disk diffusion method against four bacterial strains, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonasaeruginosa. Susceptibility of four reference bacterial strains to some antibiotics in nutrient agar was also tested. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined and qualitative phytochemical analysis of the crude extract of the tested plant parts was done. Results: Both the aqueous and the chloroform: methanol (1:1) extracts of P. cerasoides showed the strongest activity, followed by flowers of P. obtusa, leaves of A. philoxeroides and flowers of I. acuminate. Aqueous extracts of all the plant parts appeared to have less antibacterial activity than the chloroform:methanol (1:1) extracts. The result of phytochemical analysis of the crude extract of the tested plants showed that flavonoid was absent from all plant parts whereas steroid was present in all tested plant parts. Conclusions: The results support that these plant extracts can be used for the treatment of bacterial diseases.

  8. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties through scratch assay and in this investigation we have used allantoin, as a positive control to compare efficacy among the phytoextracts. Interestingly, aqueous extract were found to stimulate proliferation and migration of HDF cells at given concentrations and enhanced closure rate of wound area within 24 hours after treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have shown proliferative effect, however these extracts did not aid in the migration and closure of wound area when compared to aqueous extract. Based on phytochemical profile of the plant extracts analyzed by LC-MS/MS, it was shown that compounds supposedly involved in accelerating wound healing are cinnamic acid, narigenin, kaempferol, temsirolimus, phosphatidylserine isomeric derivatives and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Our findings concluded that blue-green algae may pose potential biomedical application to treat various chronic wounds especially in diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27004048

  9. Interaction mechanism between green tea extract and human α-amylase for reducing starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Huan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xingfeng

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of the green tea extract on human pancreatic α-amylase activity and its molecular mechanism. The green tea extract was composed of epicatechin (59.2%), epigallocatechin gallate (14.6%) and epicatechin gallate (26.2%) as determined by HPLC analysis. Enzyme activity measurement showed that % inhibition and IC50 of the green tea extract (10%, based on starch) were 63.5% and 2.07 mg/ml, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten constant remained unchanged but the maximal velocity decreased from 0.43 (control) to 0.07 mg/(ml × min) (4 mg/ml of the green tea extract), indicating that the green tea extract was an effective inhibitor against α-amylase with a non-competitive mode. The fluorescence data revealed that the green tea extract bound with α-amylase to form a new complex with static quenching mechanism. Docking study showed the epicatechin gallate in the green tea extract presented stronger affinity than epigallocatechin gallate, with more number of amino acid residues involved in amylase binding with hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. Thus, the green tea extract could be used to manipulate starch digestion for potential health benefits.

  10. Dual effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Lin, Juan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Sun, Xue-Min; Zeng, Cheng-Ming

    2009-02-01

    Extracts from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba have been used in Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Today, various standardized preparations from G. biloba leaf extract have been developed. G. biloba leaf extract, which contains flavonoids and terpenoids as the major biologically active components, has become one of the most popular and commonly used herbal remedies due to its wide spectrum of beneficial effects on health. In this study, we investigated the effects of G. biloba leaf extract on the properties of human red blood cells in the presence and absence of amyloid peptide (Abeta25-35), peroxide and hypotonic stress. The results suggest that G. biloba leaf extract has a dual action, both protective and disruptive, on red blood cells, depending on whether an exogenous stress is present. G. biloba leaf extract has a protective role on red blood cells against Abeta- and hypotonic pressure-induced haemolysis, peroxide-induced lipoperoxidation, as well as glutathione consumption and methaemoglobin formation. On the other hand, G. biloba leaf extract also exhibited damage to red blood cells by increasing cell fragility, changing cellular morphology and inducing glutathione consumption and methaemoglobin formation, especially when applied at high doses. These anti- and pro-oxidative activities of polyphenolic substances are thought to be involved in the dual function of G. biloba leaf extract. The results of this study suggest that high doses of herbal remedies and dietary supplements can be toxic to cells.

  11. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties through scratch assay and in this investigation we have used allantoin, as a positive control to compare efficacy among the phytoextracts. Interestingly, aqueous extract were found to stimulate proliferation and migration of HDF cells at given concentrations and enhanced closure rate of wound area within 24 hours after treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have shown proliferative effect, however these extracts did not aid in the migration and closure of wound area when compared to aqueous extract. Based on phytochemical profile of the plant extracts analyzed by LC-MS/MS, it was shown that compounds supposedly involved in accelerating wound healing are cinnamic acid, narigenin, kaempferol, temsirolimus, phosphatidylserine isomeric derivatives and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Our findings concluded that blue-green algae may pose potential biomedical application to treat various chronic wounds especially in diabetes mellitus patients.

  12. Methanolic Extract of Plumbago Zeylanica - A Remarkable Antibacterial Agent Against Many Human and Agricultural Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current investigation was carried out to determine the cytotoxic and the antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Plumbago zeylanica. Methods: The stems, leaves, and whole plants were air dried and extracted with methanol by using a Soxhlet extractor for 72 hours at 55 - 60°C. The antimicrobial activities were determined from the zones of inhibition, which were measured by using the agar well diffusion method, and the cytotoxicity assays were performed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay method. Results: The methanolic extracts of the stem and the leaves of Plumbago zeylanica were tested against six bacterial species and nine fungal species, and both extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a dose-dependent manner. The leaf extract of Plumbago zeylanica showed maximum antimicrobial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus sub sp aureus and Fusarium oxysporum. The stem extract was found to be more antimicrobial against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Penicillium expansum species. MTT assays were used to test the cytotoxicity of the whole plant extract in the HCT-116 and the K-562 cell lines, and that extract was shown to have weak cytotoxicity in both cell lines. Conclusion: In the present study, the methanolic stem extracts of Plumbago zeylanica were found to possess remarkable antibacterial activities against many human and agricultural pathogens. The extracts were also found to possess significant antifungal activities, but the antifungal activities were less than the antibacterial activities. Finally, the extracts were found to have weak cytotoxicities in the HCT-116 and the K-562 cell lines.

  13. Methanolic Extract of Plumbago Zeylanica - A Remarkable Antibacterial Agent Against Many Human and Agricultural Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ajit; Sawarkar, Hemant; Gupta, Anshita; Gidwani, Bina; Dhongade, Hemant; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The current investigation was carried out to determine the cytotoxic and the antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Plumbago zeylanica. Methods: The stems, leaves, and whole plants were air dried and extracted with methanol by using a Soxhlet extractor for 72 hours at 55 - 60°C. The antimicrobial activities were determined from the zones of inhibition, which were measured by using the agar well diffusion method, and the cytotoxicity assays were performed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method. Results: The methanolic extracts of the stem and the leaves of Plumbago zeylanica were tested against six bacterial species and nine fungal species, and both extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a dose-dependent manner. The leaf extract of Plumbago zeylanica showed maximum antimicrobial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus sub sp aureus and Fusarium oxysporum. The stem extract was found to be more antimicrobial against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Penicillium expansum species. MTT assays were used to test the cytotoxicity of the whole plant extract in the HCT-116 and the K-562 cell lines, and that extract was shown to have weak cytotoxicity in both cell lines. Conclusion: In the present study, the methanolic stem extracts of Plumbago zeylanica were found to possess remarkable antibacterial activities against many human and agricultural pathogens. The extracts were also found to possess significant antifungal activities, but the antifungal activities were less than the antibacterial activities. Finally, the extracts were found to have weak cytotoxicities in the HCT-116 and the K-562 cell lines.

  14. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9-11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9-11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of -1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=-1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development.

  15. In vitro anti-proliferative activity of clove extract on human gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cancer cell resistance to common chemotherapy agents is on rise. Plants are considered valuable sources of herbal drugs for cancer therapy. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and apoptosis-inducing properties of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L. extract in human gastric carcinoma (AGS. Methods: Crude ethanol extract of S. aromaticum dried buds was prepared and  in vitro anti-proliferative effects of the extract on AGS and normal Human dermal fibroblasts (HDF cell lines were studied by MTT assay. To examine apoptosis induction, AGS cells were incubated with IC50 concentrations of the extract, stained with propidium iodide (PI and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, and analyzed by flow cytometry. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics and flavonoids contents were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Results: The IC50 of DPPH and total phenolics and flavonoids contents of the extract were 10.05±1.93 μg/mL, 225.6±40 mg GAE/g, and 29.30±2.35 mgRUT/g, respectively. The IC50 of the extract against HDFs was 649 µg/mL, higher than AGS cells, which was 118.7 g/mL at 48 h after treatment. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the extract induced cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Crude ethanol S. aromaticum extract had high total phenolics content, and suppressed the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells, likely due to apoptosis induction. Further studies should be conducted to determine the mechanisms of its anticancer effects.

  16. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 μg/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 μg/ml) and α-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 μg/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 μM) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 μg/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic.

  17. 桦褐孔菌提取物对食用油脂的抗氧化效应研究%Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus extracts on edible oils and fats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓宗; 郝莉花; 路源; 孙艳

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of Inonotus obliquus extracts ( IOE ) on edible oils and fats ( lard and soybean oil) were studied. In addition,the antioxidant capacity of IOE on edible oils and fats was com-pared with synthetic antioxidants. The results showed that IOE could inhibit the oxidation of edible oils and fats,extend the induction period and enhance the antioxidant capacity,which were positively correla-ted to the dosage. The antioxidant capacity of 0. 04% IOE was the strongest,followed by 0. 02% TBHQ, 0. 02% IOE,0. 02%PG and 0. 02%PA. Therefore,IOE could be used as a kind of ideally natural antiox-idant in edible oils and fats.%研究桦褐孔菌提取物( Inonotus obliquus extracts,IOE)对食用油脂(猪油和大豆油)氧化的抑制作用;此外,还将IOE与人工合成抗氧化剂对食用油脂的抗氧化能力进行比较. 结果表明:IOE能够抑制食用油脂氧化,延长诱导期,增强抗氧化能力,并与其添加量成正比. IOE与人工合成抗氧化剂的抗氧化能力强弱顺序为0 . 04%IOE>0 . 02%TBHQ>0 . 02%IOE>0 . 02%PG>0 . 02%PA.因此,IOE可作为一种理想的天然抗氧化剂应用到食用油脂中.

  18. The anti-angiogenic herbal extract from Melissa officinalis inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Hong, Yeonhee; Kim, Min-Young; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2016-02-03

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) has been used traditionally and contemporarily as an anti-stress herb. Current hypotheses suggest that not only chronic stress promotes angiogenesis, but angiogenesis also modulates adipogenesis and obesity. Because the herbal extract ALS-L1023 from M. officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) has an anti-angiogenic activity, we hypothesized that ALS-L1023 could inhibit adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy. ALS-L1023 was prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from M. officinalis. The effects of ALS-L1023 on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice were measured using in vivo and in vitro approaches. ALS-L1023 inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner in the HUVEC tube formation assay in vitro. Treatment of cells with ALS-L1023 inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression caused by troglitazone or MDI differentiation mix. ALS-L1023 reduced mRNA expression of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in differentiated cells. In contrast, mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) increased. Protease activity, as measured by zymography, showed that activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 decreased in ALS-L1023-treated cells. ALS-L1023 also inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 reporter gene expression in the presence of the MMP inducer phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. An in vivo study showed that ALS-L1023 not only decreased adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size, but also reduced mRNA levels of adipose tissue angiogenic factors and MMPs in HFD-fed obese mice. These results suggest that the anti-angiogenic herbal extract ALS-L1023 suppresses adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy, and this effect may be mediated by inhibiting angiogenesis and MMP activities. Thus, by curbing adipogenesis, anti-angiogenic ALS-L1023 yields a possible therapeutic choice for the prevention and treatment of human obesity and

  19. Influence of low temperature storage on the properties of human placenta extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina D. Rozanova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research represents the results of comparative investigations of the composition and biological activity of aqueous-saline extracts, obtained from fresh and stored at –196ºC human placental tissues. Methods: The studying of quantitative composition of proteins in human placenta extract (HPE was performed with gel-chromatography method. Content of lipid peroxidation products and catalase activity in the extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric assay. Biological activity of extracts was evaluated by studying the modifications of structural and functional parameters of erythrocytes after exposure with the extracts. Results: Our researches have shown that properties of HPE from the stored at –196ºС tissues slightly differ from those of fresh tissues. In extract of frozen tissues the content of high-molecular proteins is relatively higher. Content of malonyldialdehyde in extracts of the tissues stored at –196ºC does not change. Catalase activity decreases. For evaluation of biological effect of the extract on erythrocytes we have analyzed the following structural and functional parameters of red blood cells: spontaneous hemolysis, osmotic, and low-pH resistances, which characterize mechanical properties and stability of cellular membranes; relative content of main forms of hemoglobin (oxy-, deoxy-, and met-Hb, which elucidate the functioning of biochemical systems; and cytosol microviscosity, which reflects structure-dynamical state, determined, first of all, by interaction of cytosol and components of cytoskeleton with membranes. Conclusion: It was shown that distinctions between the effects of extracts on erythrocytes were mainly manifested at cellular membrane level, not affecting main vital parameters. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(3.000: 213-217

  20. Assessing the impact of protein extraction methods for human gut metaproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Leyuan; Mayne, Janice; Ning, Zhibin; Stintzi, Alain; Figeys, Daniel

    2017-07-10

    Metaproteomics is a promising methodology for the functional characterizations of the gut microbiome. However, the performance of metaproteomic analysis is affected by protein extraction protocols in terms of the amount of protein recovered and the relative abundance of different bacteria observed in microbiome. Currently, there is a lack of consistency on protein extraction methods in published metaproteomics studies. Here we evaluated the effects of different protein extraction methods on human fecal metaproteome characterizations. We found that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-based lysis buffer obtained higher protein yields and peptide/protein group identifications compared to urea and the non-ionic detergent-based B-Per buffer. The addition of bead beating to any of the extraction buffers increased both protein yields and protein identifications. As well, bead beating led to a significant increase of the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. We also demonstrated that ultrasonication, another commonly used mechanical disruption approach, performed even better than bead beating for gut microbial protein extractions. Importantly, proteins of the basic metabolic pathways showed significantly higher relative abundances when using ultrasonication. Overall, these results demonstrate that protein extraction protocols markedly impact the metaproteomic results and recommend a protein extraction protocol with both SDS and ultrasonication for metaproteomic studies. The gut microbiome is emerging as an important factor influencing human health. Metaproteomics is promising for advancing the understanding of the functional roles of the microbiome in disease. However, metaproteomics suffers from a lack of consistent sample preparation procedures. In the present study, protein extraction protocols for fecal microbiome samples were evaluated for their effects on protein yields, peptide identifications, protein group identifications, taxonomic compositions and

  1. EXTRACTING HUMAN BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS BY MINING GEO-SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Forghani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of positioning technologies such as GPS offer the opportunity to store one’s travel experience and publish it on the web. Using this feature in web-based social networks and considering location information shared by users as a bridge connecting the users’ network to location information layer leads to the formation of Geo-Social Networks. The availability of large amounts of geographical and social data on these networks provides rich sources of information that can be utilized for studying human behavior through data analysis in a spatial-temporal-social context. This paper attempts to investigate the behavior of around 1150 users of Foursquare network by making use of their check-ins. The authors analyzed the metadata associated with the whereabouts of the users, with an emphasis on the type of places, to uncover patterns across different temporal and geographical scales for venue category usage. The authors found five groups of meaningful patterns that can explore region characteristics and recognize a number of major crowd behaviors that recur over time and space.

  2. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen J; Smith, George Davey

    2016-04-01

    Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline and Embase, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomized with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.04, 71,790 participants) or cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to

  3. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hooper

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol, but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. METHODS: Search methods: For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Medline and Embase, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria: Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1 randomized with appropriate control group, 2 intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions, 3 not multi factorial, 4 adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5 intervention at least six months, 6 mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis: Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%. Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women. There were no clear effects of dietary fat

  4. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen; Smith, George Davey

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. Objectives To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. Search methods For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. Main results This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0

  5. In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruban P; Gajalakshmi K

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results: The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coliviz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions: The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development.

  6. Withania somnifera Root Extract Has Potent Cytotoxic Effect against Human Malignant Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Babli; Singh, Shruti; Thakur, Suman S

    2015-01-01

    In Ayurveda, Withania somnifera is commonly known as Ashwagandha, its roots are specifically used in medicinal and clinical applications. It possesses numerous therapeutic actions which include anti-inflammatory, sedative, hypnotic and narcotic. Extracts from this plant have been reported for its anticancer properties. In this study we evaluated for the first time, the cytotoxic effect of Withania root extract on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. The crude extract of Withania was tested for cytotoxicity against A375 cells by MTT assay. Cell morphology of treated A375 cells was visualized through phase contrast as well as fluorescence microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to check DNA fragmentation of the crude extract treated cells. Crude extract of Withania root has the potency to reduce viable cell count in dose as well as time dependent manner. Morphological change of the A375 cells was also observed in treated groups in comparison to untreated or vehicle treated control. Apoptotic body and nuclear blebbing were observed in DAPI stained treated cells under fluorescence microscope. A ladder of fragmented DNA was noticed in treated cells. Thus it might be said that the crude water extract of Withania somnifera has potent cytotoxic effect on human malignant melanoma A375 cells.

  7. Anti-Endometriotic Effects of Pueraria Flower Extract in Human Endometriotic Cells and Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ji‐Hyun Kim; Jeong‐Hwa Woo; Hye Mi Kim; Myung Sook Oh; Dae Sik Jang; Jung‐Hye Choi

    2017-01-01

    Pueraria flowers have been used as a vegetable and an ingredient for tea and jelly. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pueraria flower extract (PFE) on endometriosis, a common gynaecological disease characterised by local sterile inflammation of peritoneal cavity. PFE suppressed the adhesion of human endometriotic cells 11Z and 12Z to human mesothelial Met5A cells. In addition, PFE significantly inhibited the migration of 11Z and 12Z cells as shown by woundhealing and transwel...

  8. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  9. 3种藏药乙醇提取物对食用油脂抗氧化性的研究%Antioxidant effects on oils and fats of ethanol extracts of three kinds of Tebitan herbal medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史雪林

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of three kinds of Tebitan herbal medicines including Descurainia sophia(L. ) , Hedyasrum multijugum Maxim, and Stellaria media(L. ) Cyrill were added into rapeseed oil, ghee, lard, peanut oil and soybean oil, and Vc was used as reference substance, and then the POV of the edible oils and fats were determined to study the antioxidant activities of three kinds of ethanol extracts. The result showed that ethanol extracts of three kinds of Tebitan herbal medicines had definite antioxidant effects on five kinds of edible oils and fats.%在日常食用的菜籽油、酥油、猪油、花生油、大豆油中添加播娘蒿、红花岩黄芪和繁缕3种藏药的乙醇提取物,以Vc为对照,测定不同时期油脂的过氧化值,以研究3种藏药乙醇提取物对食用油脂的抗氧化作用.结果表明,3种藏药的乙醇提取物均有一定的抗氧化作用.

  10. The Chemistry of Oils and Fats and their Extraction and Refining Processes [A Química dos Óleos e Gorduras e seus Processos de Extração e Refino

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo A. Z. Suarez; Ramalho,Hugo F.

    2013-01-01

    Fats and oils, both in their raw form or chemically modified, have been used by humans for thousands years for different purposes, such as illumination, paints, soaps, etc. Mainly because of economic reasons, during the XXth century fatty materials were replaced by petroleum derived chemicals in several fields. Nonetheless, in the last decade, oil chemistry has emerged as an elegant alternative to fossil raw materials to produce a wide number of products, such as polymers, fuels, inks and lub...

  11. In vitro anticancer activity of extracts of Mentha Spp. against human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Hussain, Shabir; Gupta, Moni; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In vitro anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plants of Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and M. viridis at concentration of 100 μg/ml was evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines--A-549, COLO-205, HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and U-87MG from six different origins (breast, colon, glioblastoma, lung, leukemia and prostate) using sulphorhodamine blue (SRB) assay. Methanolic extracts of above-mentioned Mentha Spp. displayed anti-proliferative effect in the range of 70-97% against four human cancer cell lines, namely COLO-205, MCF-7, NCI-H322 and THP-1; however, aqueous extracts were found to be active against HCT-116 and PC-3. The results indicate that Mentha Spp. contain certain constituents with cytotoxic properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents.

  12. Protective Effect of Strawberry Extract against Inflammatory Stress Induced in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Gasparrini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A protracted pro-inflammatory state is a major contributing factor in the development, progression and complication of the most common chronic pathologies. Fruit and vegetables represent the main sources of dietary antioxidants and their consumption can be considered an efficient tool to counteract inflammatory states. In this context an evaluation of the protective effects of strawberry extracts on inflammatory stress induced by E. coli LPS on human dermal fibroblast cells was performed in terms of viability assays, ROS and nitrite production and biomarkers of oxidative damage of the main biological macromolecules. The results demonstrated that strawberry extracts exerted an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-treated cells, through an increase in cell viability, and the reduction of ROS and nitrite levels, and lipid, protein and DNA damage. This work showed for the first time the potential health benefits of strawberry extract against inflammatory and oxidative stress in LPS-treated human dermal fibroblast cells.

  13. Antimutagenic effect of aqueous extract from Agaricus brasiliensis on culture of human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Paula H; Nascimento, José S; Rocha, Beatriz H G; Piana, Clause F B; Santos, Raquel A; Takahashi, Catarina S

    2013-02-01

    The mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom), native from the southeast of Brazil, is well known by its medicinal properties that include effects on diabetes, cholesterol levels, and osteoporosis. The antimutagenic effects of A. brasiliensis has been investigated recently and revealed some controversial results depending on the temperature by which the A. brasiliensis tea is obtained. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the A. brasiliensis extract prepared in two different temperatures, 4°C and 25°C, on the doxorubicin-induced DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in human lymphocytes. The results demonstrated that A. brasiliensis was able to reduce the DXR-induced DNA damage in both temperatures; however, the CA test was more sensitive to demonstrate a better reduction when the cells were treated with an extract obtained at 25°C. A. brasiliensis extract obtained in different temperatures exhibited antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects in human lymphocytes.

  14. Water soluble nanocurcumin extracted from turmeric challenging the microflora from human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Chun, Se-Chul

    2016-11-15

    Water soluble nanocurcumin prepared from commercial turmeric powders was compared against ethanol extracted curcumin particles. The oral microflora from five different human volunteers was collected and the efficacy of solvent extracted curcumin versus water extracted nanocurcumin was demonstrated. Nanocurcumin activity against oral microflora confirms its antimicrobial potency. Confocal laser scanning microscopic results revealed the enhanced entry of nanocurcumin particles into microbial cells. The nanosized nature of nanocurcumin appears to have led to increased cellular interaction and thereby efficient destruction of microbial cells in the mouth. In addition, solubility of nanocurcumin is also believed to be a crucial factor behind its successful antimicrobial activity. This study proves that the bioactivity of a compound is greatly influenced by its solubility in water. This work recommends the use of water soluble nanocurcumin (extracted from turmeric) as potent substitute for curcumin in dental formulations.

  15. Hypocholesterolemic property of Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria extracts in human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Park, Sang-Kyu; Kang, Sung-Il; Kang, Han-Chul; Oh, Han-Jin; Bae, Chul-Young; Bae, Dong-Ho

    2003-12-01

    This study was undertaken to observe the effects of the blend of partially purified Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria extracts on cholesterol levels in the human's blood and gastrointestinal functions, and to determine if a new cholesterol-lowering drug can be developed by the further purification of the extracts. Ultrafiltration and sequential diafiltration increased the amounts of steroidal saponin in aqueous yucca extract and terpenoid saponin in aqueous quillaja extract from 9.3% and 21.4% to 17.2% and 61.8%, respectively. Taking 0.9 mg of the blend (6:4, v:v) of the resulting filtrates a day for 4 weeks resulted in the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol levels in blood plasma of hyper-cholesterolemic patients with enhancement in gastrointestinal symptoms of patients.

  16. Purple Tea and Its Extract Suppress Diet-induced Fat Accumulation in Mice and Human Subjects by Inhibiting Fat Absorption and Enhancing Hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to ce...

  17. The extracts of bredigite bioceramics enhanced the pluripotency of human dental pulp cellss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihong; Liu, Lu; Wu, Chengtie; Yang, Ruiqi; Chang, Jiang; Wei, Xi

    2017-09-02

    Biomaterials have a profound effect on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, but few studies have reported the role of extracts from bioceramics in the regulation of stem cell pluripotency. The present study investigated the effects of bioceramics extracts, including silicate bredigite (Ca7 MgSi4 O16 ) and conventional β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), on the pluripotency and the multilineage differentiation potential of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which is a known regulator of hDPCs pluripotency, was used as a reference. Bredigite extracts significantly promoted cell growth, proliferation, TERT expression and maintained hDPCs in a presenescent state. The extracts of bredigite significantly up-regulated the expression of pluripotency-related genes such as Stro1, Oct4 and Sox2, and further promoted the multilineage differentiation of hDPCs after odontogenic/adipogenic induction. The stimulation of bredigite extracts on hDPCs pluripotency was comparable to that of bFGF, whereas β-TCP extracts lacked these properties. Our results suggested for the first time that bredigite extracts enhance the pluripotency of dental-derived stem cells, paving the way for extended applications in regenerative medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Vinegar as a disinfectant of extracted human teeth for dental educational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Tijare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Extracted human teeth are routinely used in dentistry to learn technical and preclinical skills. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has adopted guidelines for infection control of extracted teeth used for research and teaching, requiring that teeth be sterilized before use. Many of the proposed disinfection methods starting from use of formalin, sodium hypochlorite and to autoclaving have their own drawbacks and may not be practical. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of vinegar for disinfection/sterilization of extracted human teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 extracted non-carious human teeth were kept in seven disinfectant media-10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 70% alcohol, vinegar, neem extract and normal saline. Ten samples were placed in each disinfectant individually for a period of 7 days, at room temperature. In all, 10 teeth were treated with microwave irradiation at 650 W for 3 min. Later, teeth from each group were placed individually in separate test tubes containing 10 ml of tryptic soy broth at 37°C for 48 h to observe the evidence of growth of microorganisms. Semiquantitative analysis of all the samples was done in Clade agar at 37°C for 48 h. Statistical Analysis Used: The number of teeth disinfected in each group was compared using Chi square test. Results: 10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide and vinegar were totally effective. The result was statistically significant with a Chi square value of 61.414 and P < 0.001. Conclusions: Vinegar can be used as an effective disinfectant medium for extracted human teeth.

  19. Effect of saturated and unsaturated fat diets on molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin of human plasma lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myher, J J; Kuksis, A; Shepherd, J; Packard, C J; Morrisett, J D; Taunton, O D; Gotto, A M

    1981-10-23

    Four healthy 21-23-year-old males with normal lipoprotein patterns and plasma lipid concentrations were subjected voluntarily to two diets of 5 weeks duration each: I, highly saturated fat diet; II, highly polyunsaturated fat diet. The VLDL, LDL and HD