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Sample records for extractable petroleum hydrocarbons

  1. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  2. Influence of soil and hydrocarbon properties on the solvent extraction of high-concentration weathered petroleum from contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hong; Hua, Zhengtao; Li, Xingang; Li, Hong; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum ether was used to extract petroleum hydrocarbons from soils collected from six oil fields with different history of exploratory and contamination. It was capable of fast removing 76-94 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons including 25 alkanes (C11-C35) and 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils at room temperature. The partial least squares analysis indicated that the solvent extraction efficiencies were positively correlated with soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, moisture, pH, and sand content of soils, while negative effects were observed in the properties reflecting the molecular size (e.g., molecular weight and number of carbon atoms) and hydrophobicity (e.g., water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, soil organic carbon partition coefficient) of hydrocarbons. The high concentration of weathered crude oil at the order of 10(5) mg kg(-1) in this study was demonstrated adverse for solvent extraction by providing an obvious nonaqueous phase liquid phase for hydrocarbon sinking and increasing the sequestration of soluble hydrocarbons in the insoluble oil fractions during weathering. A full picture of the mass distribution and transport mechanism of petroleum contaminants in soils will ultimately require a variety of studies to gain insights into the dynamic interactions between environmental indicator hydrocarbons and their host oil matrix.

  3. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dual phase vacuum extraction technology for the recovery of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from the subsurface : a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallur, V.G.; Agar, J.G.; Wong, T.T.; Naus, J. [O' Connor Associates Environmental Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Michielsen, A.P. [Imperial Oil Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a case history concerning the application of dual phase vacuum extraction (DPVE) technology for the remediation of subsurface petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination in silty soils at a service station site located in Vancouver, British Columbia. It also summarized the design and performance monitoring results for the site, in conjunction with the performance monitoring results from similar DPVE systems in operation at 7 other sites in western Canada. Each of these sites is underlain by both fine-grained and coarser grained sandy soils. The study offers useful design guidance and insight on the practical limitations of DPVE technology for PHC remediation. 2 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils: Comparison between Reflectance Spectroscopy and Solvent Extraction by 3 Certified Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used analytic method for assessing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in soil, EPA method 418.1, is usually based on extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113 and FTIR spectroscopy of the extracted solvent. This method is widely used for initial site investigation, due to the relative low price per sample. It is known that the extraction efficiency varies depending on the extracting solvent and other sample properties. This study’s main goal was to evaluate reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for TPH assessment, as compared with three commercial certified laboratories using traditional methods. Large variations were found between the results of the three commercial laboratories, both internally (average deviation up to 20%, and between laboratories (average deviation up to 103%. Reflectance spectroscopy method was found be as good as the commercial laboratories in terms of accuracy and could be a viable field-screening tool that is rapid, environmental friendly, and cost effective.

  6. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in sediments along northern west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  8. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  9. Organic metamorphism in the California petroleum basins; Chapter B, Insights from extractable bitumen and saturated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-five shales from the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Southern San Joaquin Valley Basins were extracted and analyzed. Samples were chosen on the basis of ROCK-EVAL analyses of a much larger sample base. The samples ranged in burial temperatures from 40 ? to 220 ? C, and contained hydrogen-poor to hydrogen-rich organic matter (OM), based on OM visual typing and a correlation of elemental kerogen hydrogen to carbon ratios with ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices. By extractable bitumen measurements, rocks with hydrogen- poor OM in the Los Angeles Basin began mainstage hydrocarbon (HC) generation by 90 ? C. The HC concentrations maximized by 165 ? C, and beyond 165 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all began decreasing to low values reached by 220 ? C, where HC generation was largely complete. Rocks with hydrogen-poor OM in the Southern San Joaquin Valley Basin commenced mainstage HC generation at 135 ? C and HC concentrations maximized by 180 ? C. Above 180 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all decreased to low values reached by 214 ? C, again the process of HC generation being largely complete. In both cases, bell-shaped HC-generation curves were present versus depth (burial temperature). Mainstage HC generation had not yet begun in Ventura Basin rocks with hydrogen-poor OM by 140 ? C. The apparent lower temperature for initiation of mainstage generation in the Los Angeles Basin is attributed to very recent cooling in that basin from meteoric-water flow. Thus, HC generation there most probably occurred at higher burial temperatures. In contrast, mainstage HC generation, and all aspects of organic metamorphism, were strongly suppressed in rocks with hydrogen-rich OM at temperatures as high as 198 ? C. For example, shales from the Wilmington field (Los Angeles Basin) from 180 ? to 198 ? C retained ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices of 550- 700 and had saturated-HC coefficients of only 4-15 mg/g organic carbon. The rocks

  10. Applied bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchee, R.E.; Kittel, J.A. [eds.] [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Reisinger, H.J. [ed.] [Integrated Science and Technology, Inc., Marietta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This volume is part of a ten volume set of papers derived from the Third International In Situ and On-Site Bioreclamation Symposium which was held in San Diego, California, in April 1995. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on bioremediation. The papers in this volume focus on petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation, with an emphasis on pilot-scale and field-scale applications. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  11. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  12. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic... hydrocarbons, synthetic. Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic, may be safely used in the production... isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, produced by synthesis from petroleum gases consist of a mixture of...

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in surface sediments in continental shelf region along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  14. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  15. Electrokinetic Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Spiked Soils

    OpenAIRE

    , M. Bilgin; , G. Akıncı

    2011-01-01

    In the presented study, remediation studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of electrokinetic method on the treatment of natural soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, in laboratory scale reactors. Electokinetic remediation of agricultural soil with an initial TPHs (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) concentration of 10000 ppm was investigated under 20 V or 40 V direct current by using NaOH and acetic acid as electrolyte solution, treatment efficiencies were observed accordin...

  16. Determining the better solvent and time for extracting soil by soxhlet in TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) gravimetric method; A determinacao de qual o melhor solvente e o melhor tempo de extracao de sedimento em aparato Soxhlet na metodologia do TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) gravimetrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Renato S.; Lima, Guilherme; Baisch, Paulo R. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    There are several methods of TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminants in sediment. The TPH gravimetric has been widely used in many studies and in oil spill monitoring case. The present work examined three different solvents (DCM, DCM/N-HEX and N-HEX), in three different times, to the purpose to optimize the contaminants extraction using USEPA 9071 and 3540 reference method. Then was realized analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for monitoring the reproducible extracts. The sediments used in this experiment was collected in the Cavalos Island, localized in the city of Rio Grande, RS-Brasil. The sediment was 'washed' and after then contaminated with petroleum. The extracts were realized in Soxhlet apparatus, in three different times (4, 8 and 12 hours), and TOC analysis were realized before and after the extraction. The result demonstrated that eight hours with DCM/N-HEX solvent is more indicated for TPH gravimetric in sediment analysis with high concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. TOC analysis demonstrated inappropriate for monitoring extract reproducibility. (author)

  17. Prediction of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils and Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.P.; Clemens, R.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, several laboratory methods have been developed for the prediction of contaminant bioavailability. So far, none of these methods has been extensively tested for petroleum hydrocarbons. In the present study we investigated solid-phase extraction and persulfate oxidation for the prediction of

  18. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments: metal influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Raquel; Mucha, Ana P; Teixeira, Catarina; Bordalo, Adriano A; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the potential effect of metals, such as Cd, Cu and Pb, on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments was investigated under laboratory conditions. Sandy and muddy non-vegetated sediments were collected in the Lima River estuary (NW Portugal) and spiked with crude oil and each of the metals. Spiked sediments were left in the dark under constant shaking for 15 days, after which crude oil biodegradation was evaluated. To estimate microbial abundance, total cell counts were obtained by DAPI staining and microbial community structure was characterized by ARISA. Culturable hydrocarbon degraders were determined using a modified most probable number protocol. Total petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations were analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy after their extraction by sonication, and metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained showed that microbial communities had the potential to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons, with a maximum of 32 % degradation obtained for sandy sediments. Both crude oil and metals changed the microbial community structure, being the higher effect observed for Cu. Also, among the studied metals, only Cu displayed measurable deleterious effect on the hydrocarbons degradation process, as shown by a decrease in the hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms abundance and in the hydrocarbon degradation rates. Both degradation potential and metal influence varied with sediment characteristics probably due to differences in contaminant bioavailability, a feature that should be taken into account in developing bioremediation strategies for co-contaminated estuarine sites.

  19. 21 CFR 573.740 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 573.740... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.740 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons complying with § 172.884(a) and (b) of this chapter may be safely used in an amount not in...

  20. 21 CFR 172.884 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 172.884... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.884 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with the following prescribed...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used, as a component of nonfood articles intended for use...

  2. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  3. Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Mehrasbi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (20 g/kg dw soil was investigated in 3 media, differing in the kind of petroleum fractions. In the laboratory experiments, during 5 months, the activities of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and dehydrogenase activity of soil was determined. Gas chromatographic analysis showed the biological decontaminations for gas oil, kerosene and synthetic mixture (gas oil, kerosene and furnace oil are 60 %, 36 % and 55 %, respectively. Dehydrogenase activity which was assessed by TTC technique, correlated significantly positive with the numbers of microorganisms. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients(r in contaminated soils with gas oil, kerosene and synthetic mixture were 0.79, 0.80 and 0.69, respectively.

  4. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  5. 21 CFR 172.882 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons. 172... hydrocarbons. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with the... liquid hydrocarbons meeting the following specifications: Boiling point 93-260 °C as determined by...

  6. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  7. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  8. Comparison of two extraction methods for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mallard duck eggs by GC and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, A.A.; Gay, M.L.; Coon, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon residues in pooled eggs from a mallard duck on a diet of 25,000 ppm South Louisiana crude oil were compared after cleanup with and without saponification. The saponification procedure yielded superior reproducibility and extraction efficiency

  9. Interpreting Interactions between Ozone and Residual Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tengfei; Delgado, Anca G; Yavuz, Burcu M; Maldonado, Juan; Zuo, Yi; Kamath, Roopa; Westerhoff, Paul; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2017-01-03

    We evaluated how gas-phase O3 interacts with residual petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were 18 ± 0.6 g/kg soil, and TPH carbon constituted ∼40% of the dichloromethane-extractable carbon (DeOC) in the soil. At the benchmark dose of 3.4 kg O3/kg initial TPH, TPH carbon was reduced by nearly 6 gC/kg soil (40%), which was accompanied by an increase of about 4 gC/kg soil in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a 4-fold increase in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5). Disrupting gas channeling in the soil improved mass transport of O3 to TPH bound to soil and increased TPH removal. Ozonation resulted in two measurable alterations of the composition of the organic carbon. First, part of DeOC was converted to DOC (∼4.1 gC/kg soil), 75% of which was not extractable by dichloromethane. Second, the DeOC containing saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA), was partially oxidized, resulting in a decline in saturates and aromatics, but increases in resins and asphaltenes. Ozone attack on resins, asphaltenes, and soil organic matter led to the production of NO3(-), SO4(2-), and PO4(3-). The results illuminate the mechanisms by which ozone gas interacted with the weathered petroleum residuals in soil to generate soluble and biodegradable products.

  10. Relationship between petroleum hydrocarbon and plankton in a mesocosm experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A mesocosm experiment was carried out from May 26 to June 1, 1998 at the location of bon to the ecosystem, furthermore, to estimate the environmental capacity. In the experiment, it is found that the petroleum hydrocarbon can, in some degree, enhance the growth of diatom, but inhibit the growth of dinoflagellate. In general, the petroleum hydrocarbon can inhibit the growth of both phytoplankton and zooplankton, and can also inhibit the growth of total plankton (including phytoplankton and zooplankton) as well. A kinetic model was presented to estimate the uptake/release rate constants of petroleum hydrocarbon by plankton, and thereafter, the uptake and release rate constants ( k1, k2),bioconcentration factor (BCF) as well as the petroleum hydrocarbon influenced uptake and release rate constants of nutrients by phytoplankton (kup, krel) were obtained. The results imply that the bioconcentration of petroleum hydrocarbon by plankton is fairly large and petroleum hydrocarbon caused no significant influence on the uptake of N- NO3, but significant influence on that of P- PO4. In addition,the application of kinetic model for the bioconcentration of volatile organic toxic compound by organism suggests that the uptake of petroleum hydrocarbon by plankton was an important process for the environmental capacity of petroleum hydrocarbon.

  11. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Heterogeneous Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren; Terry Brown

    2006-03-02

    Western Research Institute (WRI) in conjunction with the University of Wyoming, Department of Renewable Resources and the U.S. Department of Energy, under Task 35, conducted a laboratory-scale study of hydrocarbon biodegradation rates versus a variety of physical and chemical parameters to develop a base model. By using this model, biodegradation of Petroleum hydrocarbons in heterogeneous soils can be predicted. The base model, as developed in this study, have been tested by both field and laboratory data. Temperature, pH, and nutrients appear to be the key parameters that can be incorporate into the model to predict biodegradation rates. Results to date show the effect of soil texture and source on the role of each parameter in the rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Derived from the existing study, an alternative approach of using CO{sub 2} accumulation data has been attempted by our collaborators at the University of Wyoming. The model has been modified and fine tuned by incorporating these data to provide more information on biodegradation.

  12. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  13. Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Decomposing Fungi Isolated from Mangrove Rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuni Gofar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was done to obtain the isolates of soil borne fungi isolated from mangrove rhizosphere which were capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. The soil samples were collected from South Sumatra mangrove forest which was contaminated by petroleum. The isolates obtained were selected based on their ability to survive, to grow and to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in medium containing petroleum residue. There were 3 isolates of soil borne hydrocarbonoclastic fungi which were able to degrade petroleum in vitro. The 3 isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigates, A. parasiticus, and Chrysonilia sitophila. C. sitophila was the best isolate to decrease total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH from medium containing 5-20% petroleum residue.

  14. [Humus composition of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Dou, Sen

    2008-05-01

    An abandoned petroleum well which had been exploited for about twenty years in Songyuan city of Jilin Province, China, was selected to study the compositions and characteristics of soil humus using revised humus composition method and Simon-Kumada method. Soil samples were collected at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5 and 10.5 m apart from the well head. Results show that the petroleum contents increase from 0.08 g/kg (10.5 m to the well head) to 153.3 g/kg (0.5 m to the well head). With the increase in petroleum content, the contents of soil organic carbon and water soluble organic carbon increase; for total soil humus, the contents of extractable humus (HE) and humic acid (HA) decrease whereas that of humin (HM) increase; the percentage of HA/HE (PQ 72.0%-8.05%) decrease and HM/HE ratio (31.4-76.7) increase; for different combined humus, the contents of loosely combined humus (HI) and stably combined humus (HII) have a decrease tendency while that of tightly combined humus (HIII) increase; the HI/HII ratio (0.19-0.39) shows an increase tendency, whereas HI/HIII ratio (0.032-0.003) and HII/HIII ratio (0.096-0.009) decrease; the PQs of HI (3.21%-1.42%) and HIII (58.1%-35.5%) also decrease, and the range of PQ change is less in HI than in HII; the color coefficient (deltalogk) of water soluble organic matter (WSOM) decreases, whereas no obvious change for HA. The above results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbon promotes the formation of HM but not HA. The decrease in HA is mainly due to the restraining effect of petroleum hydrocarbon on the formation of stably combined HA. Petroleum hydrocarbon leads molecular structure of WSOM more complex but no effect on molecular structure of HA.

  15. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Phytoremediation Using Terrestrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushrifah Idris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH degradation in phytoremediation of spiked diesel in sand. The diesel was added to the sand that was planted with terrestrial plants. Four selected terrestrial plants used were Paspalum vaginatum Sw, Paspalums crobiculatum L. varbispicatum Hack, Eragrotis atrovirens (Desf. Trin. ex Steud and Cayratia trifolia (L. Domin since all the plants could survive at a hydrocarbon petroleum contaminated site in Malaysia. The samplings were carried out on Day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 72. The analysis of the TPH was conducted by extracting the spiked sand using ultrasonic extraction. The determination of the TPH concentration in the sand was performed using GC-FID. The degradation of TPH depends on the plant species and time of exposure. The highest percentage degradation by P. vaginatum, P. scrobiculatum, E. atrovirens and C. trifolia were 91.9, 74.0, 68.9 and 62.9%, respectively. In conclusion, the ability to degrade TPH by plants were P. vaginatum > P. scrobiculatum > E. atrovirens> C. trifolia.

  16. Concerning the petroleum hydrocarbons migration in the permafrost zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, I. V.; Panova, E.; Grinko, A.; Dudarev, O.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms controlling methane emissions in the Laptev Sea it is extremely important to know the distribution patterns of subsea permafrost in the coastal zone. One possible solution to this problem is to analyze the hydrocarbon fluids in the bottom sediments. The object of our study was the core sample from Ivashkinskaya lagoon (Lena Delta, Sakha Republic). Pyrolytic studies were performed for this core sample (ROCK- EVAL 6 TURBO). According to the pyrolysis results there were 5 samples from the upper section in the range 0.36-5.58m selected for the further studies. The common feature of these samples is high content level of the pelitic component. They contain more than 1.0% of TOC and are composed of volatile organic compounds. Extracts obtained from the core sample were analyzed by GC-MS («Hewlett Packard» 6890/5973). Analyzed extracts demonstrated different classes of organic compounds in their composition with saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons and acids dominating. Here are the histograms of n-alkanes in function of the carbon atoms number in the molecule (Figure). Considering our work experience with the Black Sea sediments we suggest that the samples with a high degree of even n-alkanes are confined to zones of petroleum hydrocarbons migration coming from the deep oil deposits. Figure. Typical n-alkanes distribution in the extracts (horizontal axis - the number of carbon atoms in the molecule, vertical axis - relative abundance)

  17. Environmental Risk Limits for mineral oil (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen EMJ; SEC

    2004-01-01

    In dit rapport zijn maximaal toelaatbare risiconiveaus en "serious risk concentrations" voor ecosystemen afgeleid voor minerale olie ("total petroleum hydrocarbons"). De gebruikte methode berust op een benadering met analyse van fracties, waarbij de alifatische en aromatische st

  18. Petroleum hydrocarbons in northwest coastal waters of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Bhangale, V.P.

    Impact of domestic and industrial wastewaters on coastal waters was studiEd. by monitoring petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (PHC) up to 25 km distance from shore, along Okha-Ratnagiri Coast, Maharashtra, India during 1989-92. Average PHC levels...

  19. Response of meiofauna to petroleum hydrocarbon of three fuel oils

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.; Badesab, S.

    Oil spills are recurrent problem in marine system. Effects of oil pollution are many. The present paper evaluates the effect of Petroleum Hydrocarbon of three fuel oils on metazoan meiofauna. The results suggest significant variations in the toxic...

  20. BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS: A FLEXIBLE VARIABLE SPEED TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons has evolved into a number of different processes. These processes include in-situ aquifer bioremediation, bioventing, biosparging, passive bioremediation with oxygen release compounds, and intrinsic bioremediation. Although often viewe...

  1. Environmental Risk Limits for mineral oil (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen EMJ; SEC

    2004-01-01

    In dit rapport zijn maximaal toelaatbare risiconiveaus en "serious risk concentrations" voor ecosystemen afgeleid voor minerale olie ("total petroleum hydrocarbons"). De gebruikte methode berust op een benadering met analyse van fracties, waarbij de alifatische en aromatische

  2. Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria exposed to ... spills is enhanced by the 'continuous' input of nitrogenous fertilizer (NPK) components. ... The net result is the increased recovery potential of this estuarine ...

  3. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons in surface sediments in Kandla creek (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.

    Petroleum hydrocarbons in the surface sediments were determined gravimetrically and spectroscopically to evaluate petroleum oil pollution in the Kandla creek. They ranged from 9.6 — 140.5 and 6.5 — 23.3 μg g-1 (wet wt.) respectively. Gas...

  5. Review of dermal effects and uptake of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kezic, S.; Kruse, J. [Coronel Institute of Occupational Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jakasa, I. [University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-12-15

    This report serves as an update to and an extension of a previous CONCAWE report on dermal absorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (Petroleum hydrocarbons: their absorption through and effects on the skin, CONCAWE Report 84/54, 1984). To contribute to health risk assessments associated with dermal exposure, this report evaluates experimental data to determine the extent to which petroleum hydrocarbons pass through the skin. These data strongly suggest that dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even following long-term exposures such as in occupational settings, will not cause systemic toxicity under normal working conditions and assuming an intact skin barrier. Skin contact with some petroleum products may cause skin irritation, leading to dermatitis, particularly after repeated or prolonged exposure. In addition to these irritating effects, the skin barrier function may be affected following repeated contact with petroleum hydrocarbons, making the skin potentially more susceptible to other irritants, sensitizing agents, and bacteria. In addition, the impaired skin barrier may lead to increased dermal penetration of hydrocarbons and other substances. To avoid this there is a need to minimise skin contact.

  6. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated site soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.; Angell, R.; Strive, E.; Ma, W. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Although the bioavailability and/or bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil can be measured by various ecological receptors, the methods that are suitable for metals do not necessarily work well for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). In this study, several biological and chemical methods were used at various PHC contaminated sites to find the most fitting method for different soil types in terms of predicting the biological responses of organisms as measured by standard single species toxicity tests. Organisms such as plants, earthworms, and collembolan were exposed to soils with different PHC concentrations. Multiple endpoints were then measured to evaluate the biological responses. The exposure concentrations for the 4 CCME hydrocarbon fractions were measured using hexane:acetone extraction as well as extractions with cyclodextrin, and a mixture of enzymes to simulate the gastro-intestinal fluid of an earthworm. The estimated exposure concentrations depended on the extraction method. The study showed that existing methodologies must be modified in order to better estimate the biological effect of PHCs in soil. Comparative data was presented and discussed along with proposed methodological modifications.

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in surface sediments of Beiluohe Basins, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Helin; Zhang, Li; Yue, Leping; Zheng, Guozhang

    2008-10-01

    Twenty-two surface sediment samples were collected from Beiluohe River, China, in 2005. Saturated hydrocarbons analysis was carried out on different river sediments in order to detect possible contaminations by petroleum development. Total concentrations of hydrocarbons in the sediments ranged from 6.4-147.3 microg g(-1) (dry wt) with an average of 76.8 microg g(-1), revealing relatively low to medium contamination in studied areas in spite of oil development for many years. The THC levels in the mainstream of Beiluohe River were relatively low. Sediment samples with higher total hydrocarbon concentrations were from the sites related to the petroleum activities or urban discharges. Gas chromatographic distribution patterns of n-alkanes are characteristic of petroleum in most samples. They show a strong unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with a small predominance of odd on even numbered n-alkanes. On the other hand, pentacyclic triterpanes and steranes occurred in all analyzed sediments and displayed similar signatures that are characteristic of mature organic matter contribution from oil contaminations. Hydrocarbons of terrestrial origin were also detected in the samples. However, contribution from plantwax hydrocarbons is overshadowed in samples by hydrocarbons of petroleum origin. This is obvious by the presence of the high relative abundance of UCM, and the identification of mature hopane and sterane in samples.

  8. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  9. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz Fernando; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2012-01-01

    Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review. PMID:24031900

  10. Avoidance from petroleum hydrocarbons by the cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhle, Bjørn

    1982-01-01

    In laboratory experiments cod was presented a choice situation between different concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, appearing as "water soluble fraction" and emulsified droplets derived from Fuel Oil No. 2. In most experiments, the fishes seemed to avoid water containing hydrocarbons, though some fishes for periods was indifferent also to considerable contaminated water. The over all results indicates that a majority of the fishes avoided water containing total hyd...

  11. Environmental Risk Limits for mineral oil (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen EMJ; SEC

    2004-01-01

    In this report maximum permissible concentrations and serious risk concentrations are derived for mineral oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons). The used method is based on a fraction analysis approach, in which aliphatic and aromatic compounds are regarded separately and are both further divided into

  12. Petroleum hydrocarbons in intertidal ecosystem along the Bombay Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Mayadeo, M.S.; Dhadke, P.M.

    Petroleum hydrocarbon content in intertidal sediment and water samples collected at Madh, Worli and Colaba were in the ranges of 5.1-7, 5.8-7.4, 2.9-10.3 mu g.g sup(-1), wet wt and N.D.-18.5, N.D.-5.8 mu g.l sup(-1) respectively. The concentrations...

  13. Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapors in the Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current state of practice to estimate the risk from intrusion of vapors of petroleum hydrocarbons from spills of gasoline is to measure the concentration of the chemical of concern in ground water under the spill, use Henry’s Law to estimate a concentration of the chemical ...

  14. Bacterial community response to petroleum hydrocarbon amendments in freshwater, marine, and hypersaline water-containing microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Sousa Lima, Laryssa Ribeiro Fonseca; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-10-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline Brazilian aquatic ecosystems (with water salinities corresponding to 0.2%, 4%, and 5%, respectively) were enriched with different hydrocarbons (heptadecane, naphthalene, or crude oil). Changes within the different microcosms of bacterial communities were analyzed using cultivation approaches and molecular methods (DNA and RNA extraction, followed by genetic fingerprinting and analyses of clone libraries based on the 16S rRNA-coding gene). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the genetic fingerprint data and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the clone libraries revealed hydrocarbon-enriched bacterial communities specific for each ecosystem studied. However, within the same ecosystem, different bacterial communities were selected according to the petroleum hydrocarbon used. In general, the results demonstrated that Acinetobacter and Cloacibacterium were the dominant genera in freshwater microcosms; the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Cycloclasticus genera predominated in marine microcosms; and the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter genus were selected in the different hydrocarbon-containing microcosms in hypersaline water. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in all microcosms after 32 days of incubation showed a decrease in the hydrocarbon concentration compared to that for the controls. A total of 50 (41.3%) isolates from the different hydrocarbon-contaminated microcosms were associated with the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the clone libraries, and their growth in the hydrocarbon contaminating the microcosm from which they were isolated as the sole carbon source was observed. These data provide insight into the general response of bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline aquatic ecosystems to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination.

  15. Petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from shoreline sediment collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coastline that could potentially be impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. Sediment was collected before M-1 well oil made significant local landfall and analyzed for baseline conditions by a suite of diagnostic petroleum biomarkers. Oil residue in trace quantities was detected in 45 of 69 samples. With the aid of multivariate statistical analysis, three different oil groups, based on biomarker similarity, were identified that were distributed geographically along the nGOM from Texas to Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts correlated with the M-1 well oil extract, however, the similarity of tarballs collected at one site (FL-18) with the M-1 well oil suggests that some oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill may have been transported to this site in the Florida Keys, perhaps by a loop current, before that site was sampled.

  16. A proposal for revised Intervention Values for petroleum hydrocarbons ('minerale olie') on base of fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken ROG; Baars AJ; Crommentuijn GH; Otte P; LBG

    1999-01-01

    The present Dutch intervention values for mineral oil (i.e. 'Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons') have been reviewed with respect to fractions of TPH and using ecotoxicological and human toxicological data. It is found that review of TPH-fractions is significant with respect to both human and ecological r

  17. Validation of an analytical methodology for the quantitative analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Yordad Companioni Damas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a validation of an analytical procedure for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment samples. The proposed protocol is able to measure n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in samples at concentrations as low as 30 ng/g, with a precision better than 15% for most of analytes. The extraction efficiency of fortified sediments varied from 65.1 to 105.6% and 59.7 to 97.8%, for n-alkanes and PAH in the ranges: C16 - C32 and fluoranthene - benzo(apyrene, respectively. The analytical protocol was applied to determine petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments collected from a marine coastal zone.

  18. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons: catabolic genes, microbial communities, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Méndez, Valentina; Aguila, Patricia; Seeger, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Bioremediation is an environmental sustainable and cost-effective technology for the cleanup of hydrocarbon-polluted soils and coasts. In spite of that longer times are usually required compared with physicochemical strategies, complete degradation of the pollutant can be achieved, and no further confinement of polluted matrix is needed. Microbial aerobic degradation is achieved by the incorporation of molecular oxygen into the inert hydrocarbon molecule and funneling intermediates into central catabolic pathways. Several families of alkane monooxygenases and ring hydroxylating dioxygenases are distributed mainly among Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Fungi strains. Catabolic routes, regulatory networks, and tolerance/resistance mechanisms have been characterized in model hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria to understand and optimize their metabolic capabilities, providing the basis to enhance microbial fitness in order to improve hydrocarbon removal. However, microbial communities taken as a whole play a key role in hydrocarbon pollution events. Microbial community dynamics during biodegradation is crucial for understanding how they respond and adapt to pollution and remediation. Several strategies have been applied worldwide for the recovery of sites contaminated with persistent organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum derivatives. Common strategies include controlling environmental variables (e.g., oxygen availability, hydrocarbon solubility, nutrient balance) and managing hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, in order to overcome the rate-limiting factors that slow down hydrocarbon biodegradation.

  19. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupka Daniel

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The abilities of microorganisms to mineralize a wide range of pollutants are well known. Biological processes for the removal of crude oil hydrocarbons from environment are attractive because they consume less energy than conventional physico-chemical processes and offer possibilities for recycling chemicals in the framework of integrated system.

  20. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  1. Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjana Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost-effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems.

  2. BIOREMEDIATION - TECHNOLOGY FOR DECONTAMINATION OF SOILS POLLUTED WITH PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of soil with petroleum hydrocarbons prevents unfolding processes ofwater infiltration in soil, its circulation and the exchanges of the gaseous substances with theatmosphere. The biodegradation speed of the pollutants by the microorganisms is influenced ofsome factors: nutrients, soil type, humidity, temperature, pH, the type and the metabolism of themicroorganisms. The spill of the crude oil in the soil results in numerical growth of bacteriapopulations, with a concomitant reduction in their diversity, respectively with the predominantspecies that degrade hydrocarbons to simpler compounds, determining their gradualdisappearance.

  3. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that hydrocarbon addition to soil provokes soil organic matter priming (Zyakun et al., 2011). It has further been shown that petroleum hydrocarbons deposit to roadside soils bound to fine mineral particles and together with vehicle spray (Mykhailova et al., 2014), and that hydrocarbon concentrations decrease to safe levels within the first 15 m from the road, reaching background concentrations at 60-100 m distance (Mykhailova et al., 2013). It was the aim of this study to (I) identify the bioavailability of different petroleum hydrocarbon fractions to degradation and to (II) identify the native (i.e. pedogenic) C fraction affected by hydrocarbon-mediated soil organic matter priming during decay. To address this aim, we collected soil samples at distances from 1 to 100 m (sampling depth 15 cm) near the Traktorostroiteley avenue and the Pushkinskaya street in Kharkov, as well as near the country road M18 near Kharkov, Ukraine. The roads have been under exploitation for several decades, so microbial adaptation to enhanced hydrocarbon levels and full expression of effects could be assumed. The following C fractions were quantified using 13C-CP/MAS-NMR: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lignin, Aliphates, Carbonyl/Carboxyl as well as black carbon according to Nelson and Baldock (2005). Petroleum hydrocarbons were determind after hexane extraction using GC-MS and divided into a light fraction (chain-length C27, Mykhailova et al., 2013). Potential soil respiration was determined every 48 h by trapping of CO2 evolving from 20 g soil in NaOH at 20 ° C and at 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and titration after a total incubation period of 4 weeks in the lab. It was found that soil respiration positively correlated with the ratio of the light fraction to the sum of medium and heavy fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons, which indicates higher biodegradation primarily of the light petroleum hydrocarbon fraction. Further, soil respiration was

  4. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum substances are used in large quantities, primarily as fuels. They are complex mixtures whose major constituents are hydrocarbons derived from crude oil by distillation and fractionation. Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the huge number of molecular components. This complex nature of petroleum products, with their varied number of constituents, all of them exhibiting different fate and effect characteristics, merits a dedicated hazard and risk assessment approach. From a regulatory perspective they pose a great challenge in a number of REACH processes, in particular in the context of dossier and substance evaluation but also for priority setting activities. In order to facilitate the performance of hazard and risk assessment for petroleum substances the European oil company association, CONCAWE, has developed the PETROTOX and PETRORISK spreadsheet models. Since the exact composition of many petroleum products is not known, an underlying assumption of the PETROTOX and PETRORISK tools is that the behaviour and fate of a total petroleum substance can be simulated based on the physical-chemical properties of representative structures mapped to hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) and on the relative share of each HB in the total mass of the product. To assess how differing chemical compositions affect the simulated chemical fate and toxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures, a series of model simulations were run using an artificial petroleum substance, containing 386 (PETROTOX) or 160 (PETRORISK) HBs belonging to different chemical classes and molecular weight ranges, but with equal mass assigned to each of them. To this artificial petroleum substance a guided series of subsequent modifications in mass allocation to a delineated number of HBs belonging to different chemical classes and carbon ranges was performed, in what we perceived as a guided "walking tour

  5. [Compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in contaminated soil of the oilfields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Li, Chuan; Dong, Qian-Qian; Li, Li-Ming; Li, Guang-He

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil, as well as to identify the source and weathering degree of the pollution. A total of 5 producing wells in Gudao and Hekou oil producing region of Shengli oilfields were analyzed. More than 50 individual target compounds including straight-and branched-chain alkanes( n-alkanes, pristine and phytane) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples and crude oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The percentages of chain alkanes and PAHs in total solvent extractable matters(TSEM) of soil samples were both much lower than those in the crude oil samples. The compositions of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil samples differed from those in crude oil, which indicated the n-alkanes with carbon numbers oil contaminated soils, the relationship between the index and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the n-alkanes with carbon numbers > 33 and the PAHs with rings between 3 and 5 were much harder to degrade. PCA of 4 indexes for source identification revealed more than 50% of the soil samples were polluted by crude oil, which needs more attention during remediation.

  6. 40 CFR 180.526 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons; tolerances for residues. 180.526 Section 180.526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.526 Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons complying with 21 CFR 172.882 (a)...

  7. Comparison of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rachel L; Hesterberg, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminants is a phytoremediation process that depends on interactions among plants, microbes, and soils. Trees and grasses are commonly used for phytoremediation, with trees typically being chosen for remediation of BTEX while grasses are more commonly used for remediation of PAHs and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of hydrocarbons and address the advantages of each vegetation type. Grasses were more heavily represented in the literature and therefore demonstrated a wider range of effectiveness. However, the greater biomass and depth of tree roots may have greater potential for promoting environmental conditions that can improve rhizoremediation, such as increased metabolizable organic carbon, oxygen, and water. Overall, we found little difference between grasses and trees with respect to average reduction of hydrocarbons for studies that compared planted treatments with a control. Additional detailed investigations into plant attributes that most influence hydrocarbon degradation rates should provide data needed to determine the potential for rhizoremediation with trees or grasses for a given site and identify which plant characteristics are most important.

  8. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M. [Research Centre for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ortega-Calvo, J.J. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Aliphatic, aromatic and polycyclic aromatic oil hydrocarbons are structurally complicated man-caused pollutants that are constantly brought into biosphere. Oil production in Russia, so as all over the world, is connected with pollution of biotopes, ecosystems and agro-landscapes. Presently large funds are allocated either for oil leak prevention or for discharged oil gathering. At the same time, in spite of large necessity in technologies for efficient reconstruction of soil bio-productivity, reliable regional systems of their remediation in situ have not been developed yet. One such method is rhizosphere remediation, a biotechnology, based on the functioning of plant-microbial complexes. Little is known about bioavailability in phyto-remediation systems. Specific bioavailability-promoting mechanisms, operating in soil with hydrocarbon-degrading populations, may be responsible for increased rates of pollutant transformation (increased bacterial adherence to the pollutants, production of bio-surfactants by bacteria or by plants, possible role of chemotaxis). In the course of work collection of 42 chemo-tactically active bio-surfactant producing strain-degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was created. Two representative strains were selected for detailed chemotaxis studies with PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), bacterial lipopolysaccharide and root exudates from seven different plants. These strains are produce the bio-surfactants (rhamno-lipid). The chemotactic response was quantified with a capillary and densitometric chemotaxis assay. Surface tension of cultural liquid was measured after cultivation of strains in the presence of hexadecane or phenanthrene with the use of a ring tensiometer. Before measuring of surface tension microbial cells were collected from liquid culture by centrifugation. Total petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy method. PAHs

  9. Uptake and trans-membrane transport of petroleum hydrocarbons by microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Fei; Wang, Hong Qi

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum-based products are a primary energy source in the industry and daily life. During the exploration, processing, transport and storage of petroleum and petroleum products, water or soil pollution occurs regularly. Biodegradation of the hydrocarbon pollutants by indigenous microorganisms is one of the primary mechanisms of removal of petroleum compounds from the environment. However, the physical contact between microorganisms and hydrophobic hydrocarbons limits the biodegradation rate...

  10. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  11. Eco-toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingchun Tang; Min Wang; Fei Wang; Qing Sun; Qixing Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contaminated soil samples were collected from Shengli Oilfield of China.Toxicity analysis was carried out based on earthworm acute toxicity, plant growth experiment and luminescent bacteria test.The soil was contaminated bypetroleum hydrogcarbons with TPH concentration of 10.57%.With lethal and sub-lethal rate as endpoint, earthworm test showed that the LD50 (lethal dose 50%) values in 4 and 7 days were 1.45% and 1.37% respectively, and the inhibition rate of earthworm body weight increased with higher oil concentration.TPH pollution in the soil inhibited seed germination in both wheat and maize experiment when the concentration of petroleum was higher than 0.1%.The EC50 (effective concentration 50%) for germination is 3.04% and 2.86% in maize and wheat, respectively.While lower value of ECs0 for root elongation was to be 1.11% and 1.64% in maize and wheat,respectively, suggesting higher sensitivity of root elongation on petroleum contamination in the soil.The ECs0 value in luminescent bacteria test was 0.47% for petroleum in the contaminated soil.From the experiment result, it was concluded that TPH content of 1.5% is considered to be a critical value for plant growth and living of earthworm and 0.5% will affect the activity of luminescent bacteria.

  12. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Organic Matter from Petroleum Source Rocks and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈忠民; 周光甲; 等

    1996-01-01

    Organic matter was experimentally extracted by supercritical fluids(CO2+1% isopropanol)from petroleum source rocks of different thermo-maturities at different buried depths in the same stratigraphic unit in the Dongying Basin.The results show that supercritical fluid extraction(SFE)is more effective than Soxhlet extraction(SE),with higher amounts and greater varieties of hydrocarbons and soluble organic matter becoming extractive.The supercritical CO2 extraction is therefore considered more valuable in evaluation of petroleum source rocks and oil resources,particularly those of immature types.

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Activated sludge treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue-Van Es, J.E. La.

    1993-05-01

    Batch activated sludge treatability studies utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (diesel oil and leaded gasoline) were conducted to determine: initial indigenous biological activity in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; limiting factors of microbiological growth by investigating nutrient addition, chemical emulsifiers, and co-substrate; acclimation of indigenous population of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as sole carbon source; and temperature effects. Soil samples were taken from three different contaminated sites and sequencing batch reactors were run. Substrate (diesel fuel) and nutrient were added as determined by laboratory analysis of orthophosphate, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Substrate was made available to the bacterial mass by experimenting with four different chemical emulsifiers. Indigenous microorganisms capable of biotransforming hydrocarbons seem to be present in all the contaminated soil samples received from all sites. Microscopic analysis revealed no visible activity at the beginning of the study and presence of flagellated protozoa, paramecium, rotifers, and nematodes at the end of the year. Nutrient requirements and the limiting factors in microorganism growth were determined for each site. An emulsifier was initially necessary to make the substrate available to the microbial population. Decreases in removal were found with lowered temperature. Removal efficiencies ranged from 50-90%. 95 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Applying petroleum biomarkers as a tool for confirmation of petroleum hydrocarbons in high organic content soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, G.; Martin, E.J.; Waddell, J.; Sandau, C.D. [TRIUM Environmental Solutions, Cochrane, AB (Canada); Denham, G. [Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Samis, M.W. [Great Plains Environmental Management Ltd., Medecine Hat, AB (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    It is often difficult to separate naturally occurring phytogenic organic materials from petrogenic sources in routine gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analyses. Phytogenic compounds include tannins, waxes, terpenes, fats and oils. This study examined the use of petroleum biomarkers as a means of determining the nature, sources, type and geological conditions of the formation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). The analysis was conducted at a former well site consisting of low-lying peat marshlands that had the potential to interfere with the delineation of PHC impacts. Fourteen boreholes and 8 hand auger holes were placed at the site. Soil samples were analyzed for salinity, metals, and PHC constituents. Biomarker targets included acyclic isoprenoid compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, terpanes, hopanes, and triaromatic steranes. A grain-size analysis showed the presence of peat materials within the saturated zone. Results of the study demonstrated the presence of PHC constituents that exceeded applicable guidelines. The biomarker analysis was used to statistically determine site-specific background levels of hydrocarbons. Nearly 3000 tonnes of soil were excavated from the site. It was concluded that site-specific conditions should be taken into consideration when evaluating reclamation targets. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  15. In situ petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greer, C.; Bell, T.; Lee, K.; Delisle, S.; Kovanen, D.; Craig, D.; Juck, D. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on the in-situ bioremediation of diesel contaminated soils at the Canadian Forces Station CFS-Alert, in the Arctic. The soil was amended with monoammonium phosphate (MAP). The operation was designed to take place in a 2 month period during the brief thaw season. This presentation described the installation of the bioventing stacks, the turning of soil, and the application of an oxygen release compound (ORC) at the surface of the permafrost. A significant decrease in petroleum hydrocarbons (PC) was noted over 2 months. The effect of MAP amendment was a slight decrease in biomass in the pristine environment and a significant increase in biomass in the contaminated environment. The alkB gene was found to be important in the biodegradation of alkanes. Stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify active organisms. This bioremediation study showed that even in harsh Arctic climates, soils that are moderately contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons can be remediated effectively and economically via biodegradation. tabs., figs.

  16. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results.

  17. [Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil by bioaugmentation products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Lin; Xu, Jin-Lan; Tang, Zhi-Xin; Xiao, Zhou-Qiang

    2009-06-15

    In an experimental investigation of bioaugmentation products affected on the petroleum contaminated soil. The influence of the bioaugmentation products dose, injections and temperature on bioremediation were studied. The results showed that the degradation rate was related positively to the amount of inoculation, when the dose was increased to 0.6 mg x kg(-1), total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation rate was 87% in 48 days. The results of GC-MS indicated that the dominant petroleum constituents in oil-contaminated raw soil were 82.1% n-alkane, 16% alkene and little of others hydrocarbons, such as carotane, alkylnaphthalenes, hopanes, and steranes. The peaks amount of GC profile decreased from 32 to 14 after 40 days of bioremediation, this result indicated that branched alkanes, alkene, and alkylnaphthalenes were thoroughly degraded, then line alkanes, hopanes, and steranes were left in soil. In addition, the longer part of n-alkane were degraded with rate relatively higher, while the residual fraction at the end of the test is shorter part of n-alkane because bacteria degraded the longer n-alkane to shorter. The shorter n-alkane concentration decreased with increasing inoculation. One time injection of bioaugmentation products into soil clearly improved the biodegradation efficiency higher than injection of bioaugmentation products in turn. Soil temperature also affected TPH degradation rate when it was 30 degrees C, TPH rate reached 80%, where as when it was 20 degrees C, the TPH rate was lower to 60%, which indicated higher temperature improved TPH degradation and accelerated bioremediation.

  18. [Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by cold-adapted microorganisms: research advance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-jie; Wang, Xiang; Lu, Gui-lan; Wang, Qun-hui; Li, Fa-sheng; Guo, Guan-lin

    2011-04-01

    Cold-adapted microorganisms such as psychrotrophs and psychrophiles widely exist in the soils of sub-Arctic, Arctic, Antarctic, alpine, and high mountains, being the important microbial resources for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature. Using the unique advantage of cold-adapted microorganisms to the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in low temperature region has become a research hotspot. This paper summarized the category and cold-adaptation mechanisms of the microorganisms able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbon at low temperature, biodegradation characteristics and mechanisms of different petroleum fractions under the action of cold-adapted microorganisms, bio-stimulation techniques for improving biodegradation efficiency, e. g., inoculating petroleum-degrading microorganisms and adding nutrients or bio-surfactants, and the present status of applying molecular biotechnology in this research field, aimed to provide references to the development of bioremediation techniques for petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum biomarkers in São Sebastião Channel, Brazil: assessment of petroleum contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Denis A M; Bícego, Márcia C

    2010-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and non-aromatic hydrocarbons (NAHs), including n-alkanes, isoprenoids and petroleum biomarkers (terpanes, hopanes, steranes and diasteranes), were quantified by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors in sediment samples collected from the São Sebastião Channel (SSC), Brazil, where the largest Brazilian maritime petroleum terminal is located. The concentrations of total PAHs, total n-alkanes and petroleum biomarkers ranged from below the detection limits to 370ngg(-1), 28microgg(-1), 2200ngg(-1) (dry weight), respectively. The analysis of PAH distribution suggested combustion sources of PAHs as the main input for these compounds with smaller amount from petroleum contamination. The distribution of petroleum biomarkers undoubtedly demonstrated petroleum as a source of anthropogenic contamination throughout the region. The assessment of petrogenic sources of contamination in marine sediment is more challenging if only PAH analysis were carried out, which demonstrates that more stable hydrocarbons such as petroleum biomarkers are useful for investigating potential presence of petroleum.

  20. Calculation of Environmental Capacity of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克强; 王修林; 邓宁宁; 石晓勇; 祝陈坚; 韩秀荣; 胡海燕

    2004-01-01

    The method has been established to calculate the environmental capacity (ECo),surplus environment capacity (SECo) of water with respect to marine petroleum hydrocarbons associated with oil (PHAOs) and the self-purification capacity (SPCo) of main self-purification process to PHAOs in the Jiaozhou Bay, China, according to the dynamic model for distribution of marine PHAOs among multiphase environments. The variation of concentration of PHAOs in the Jiaozhou Bay is well simulated by the dynamic model. Based on the model,the EC., SEC. of water with respect to PHAOs in the Jiaozhou Bay were calculated during the last 10 years under the first-class and second-class quality standard requirement, according to SPCoof main self-purification process to PHAOs. The results show that about 200 tons of PHAOs could be discharged into the Jiaozhou Bay for maintaining the first class seawater quality standard, and about 600 tons of PHAOs for the second class seawater quality standard later.

  1. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

  2. Fate and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFevre, Gregory Hallett

    This dissertation describes the investigation of the fate of hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention areas and those mechanisms that affect hydrocarbon fate in such systems. Seventy-five samples from 58 bioretention areas were collected and analyzed to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) residual and biodegradation functional genes. TPH residual in bioretention areas was greater than background sites but low overall (biodegradation. Field soils were capable of mineralizing naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) when incubated in the laboratory. In an additional laboratory investigation, a column study was initiated to comprehensively determine naphthalene fate in a simulated bioretention cell using a 14C-labeled tracer. Sorption to soil was the greatest sink of naphthalene in the columns, although biodegradation and vegetative uptake were also important loss mechanisms. Little leaching occurred following the first flush, and volatilization was insignificant. Significant enrichment of naphthalene degrading bacteria occurred over the course of the experiment as a result of naphthalene exposure. This was evident from enhanced naphthalene biodegradation kinetics (measured via batch tests), significant increases in naphthalene dioxygenase gene quantities, and a significant correlation observed between naphthalene residual and biodegradation functional genes. Vegetated columns outperformed the unplanted control column in terms of total naphthalene removal and biodegradation kinetics. As a result of these experiments, a final study focused on why planted systems outperform unplanted systems was conducted. Plant root exudates were harvested from hydroponic setups for three types of plants. Additionally, a solution of artificial root exudates (AREs) as prepared. Exudates were digested using soil bacteria to create metabolized exudates. Raw and metabolized exudates were characterized for dissolved organic carbon, specific UV absorbance, spectral slope

  3. Beyond TPH: health-based evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbon exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, M S; Pedersen, D; Anastas, N D; Fitzgerald, J; Silverman, D

    1996-08-01

    The term "total petroleum hydrocarbons" (TPH) is a widely used, but loosely defined, parameter quantified by a number of different methodologies for expressing the aggregate amount of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds (PHCs) in a sample. Because of the shortcomings associated with comparing data from different methods, and the difficulty of assessing potential toxicities of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, a new approach at more fully and explicitly defining the PHC composition of samples and predicting human noncancer health risks from those exposures has been developed. This new approach is the subject of this paper. This method can be used to perform site-specific risk assessments or to develop health-based cleanup standards for petroleum hydrocarbons. The technique divides the broad chemical classes of PHC (i.e., saturated versus unsaturated) into subgroups of compounds based on numbers of carbon atoms in the compounds within each subgroup. The mass of compounds in each subgroup is then translated into discrete estimates of health risk for specified exposure scenarios. The subgroups were identified from qualitative and quantitative changes in the nature of noncancer toxicities recorded in the literature. For saturated compounds, toxicity changes as carbon chain length increases (measured by numbers of carbon atoms). A "reference compound" was chosen for each range of compounds, usually because its toxicity was relatively well characterized. A published oral reference dose (RfD) was identified for these compounds, or in the absence of a published value, an oral dose-response value was developed from available toxicity information. For saturated PHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, and isoalkanes) the subgroups' reference compounds and assigned toxicity value used are C5 to C8 (n-hexane, 0.06 mg/kg/day); C9 to C18 (n-nonane, 0.6 mg/kg/day); and C19 to C32 (eicosane, 6.0 mg/kg/day). For unsaturated compounds (aromatics), one reference RfD was identified for all compounds

  4. Application of the salmonella mutagenicity assay and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workplaces exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monarca, S.; Pasquini, R.; Sforzolini, G.S.; Fagioli, F.; Viola, V.

    1982-02-01

    Workplaces of an Italian carbon electrode factory, exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke, were studied using a coupled chemical and biological approach to evaluate occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards. Analytical procedures for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity tests were performed on pitch and coke and airborne particulate matter of the working environment, after fractionating by sequential Soxhlet extractions with four organic solvents of increasing polarity (benzene, chloroform, methanol and acetone). The results showed: (a) the presence of extraordinarily high PAH (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) contents in the benzene extracts of petroleum pitch (3.6 wt% of total PAH) and of airborne particulate samples (up to 0.35 wt% of total PAH), in correlation with very high indirect mutagenic responses of benzene extracts; (b) very high indirect mutagenic responses in the other extracts of the airborne particulate samples; (c) the production during the processing at high temperatures of directly acting mutagens which were absent in the starting materials and their release in the air of workplaces. The comparison of chemical analytical and mutagenicity data has proved to be an interesting approach for better defining the relative health hazards due to occupational exposure to potentially mutagenic/carcinogenic petroleum products.

  5. Application of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workplaces exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monarca, S.; Pasquini, R.; Sforzolini, G.S.; Viola, V.; Fagioli, F.

    1982-02-01

    Workplaces of an Italian carbon electrode factory, exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke, were studied using a coupled chemical and biological approach to evaluate occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards. Analytical procedures for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity tests were performed on both industrial ingredients and airborne particulate matter of the working environment, after fractionating by sequential Soxhlet extractions with four organic solvents of increasing polarity. The results showed: the presence of extraordinarily high PAH contents in the benzene extracts of petroleum pitch and of airborne particulate samples, in correlation with very high indirect (after metabolic activation) mutagenic responses of benzene extracts with strain TA98; very high indirect mutagenic responses in the other extracts of the airborne particulate samples; the production during the processing at high temperatures of directly acting mutaggens which were absent in the starting materials and their release in the air of workplaces. The comparison of chemical analytical and mutagenicity data has proved to be an interesting approach for better defining the relative health hazards due to occupational exposure to potentially mutagenic/carcinogenic petroleum products.

  6. Analysis and stability of mercury speciation in petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, N S

    2000-03-01

    Raw petroleum and natural gas often contain high concentrations of mercury, which can be damaging to the metal components of production facilities, as well as to the environment. Various Hg species have different properties in terms of mobility, reactivity and bioavailability. Thus, for cost-effective decisions regarding plant design, Hg extraction, and pollution control, speciation information must be available at the production facility. In this paper, a simple, wet chemical speciation method, which provides data on Hg(o), dissolved and particulate total Hg, Hg(II), and methyl Hg is presented. The method incorporates species-specific extraction and separation procedures, followed by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). For each species, detection limits of approximately 0.1 ng/g were obtained. Storage experiments in various containers showed that organo-mercury species were stable for at least 30 days in all containers except those made of polyethylene; and Hg(o) was stable in all containers except those made of stainless steel or polyethylene. Hg(II) was rapidly lost from all containers except those made of aluminum, which rapidly converted it to Hg(o), which was stable. In general, most of the total Hg in petroleum products was particulate Hg, followed by dissolved Hg(II) and Hg(o). Sub-ng/g concentrations of methyl-Hg were observed in most samples.

  7. Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

    2012-09-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 μg g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 μg g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization

  8. The reduction of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil under saline conditions using ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, D. [SNC-Lavallin, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and salts are two of the most common soil contaminants found at oil and gas extraction sites. High concentrations of salt from brine spills may amplify the challenges of soil remediation by reducing bioavailability for remediation. This PowerPoint presentation described an ultrasonic soil flushing technology that used sonic cavitation to break down contaminants. Long chain and aromatic hydrocarbons with complex structures were broken down by the direct oxidation under high temperature and pressure environments created by the sonic cavitation process. The cavitation waves broke up the aggregates of solid particles and increased the turbulence and transportation of the contaminants. A laboratory study evaluated the ability of the treatment process to remediate salt and hydrocarbon contaminated soil samples. The adsorption isotherms of the samples were analyzed. Sand, clay, and muskeg samples were treated. Results of the study suggested that the treatment is more effective when treating granular soils with high hydraulic conductivity. Even small amounts of salt were found to have a negative impact on the reduction of hydrocarbon contaminants. tabs., figs.

  9. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum extraction and reservoir engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Back, L. H.; Berdahl, C. M.; Collins, E. E., Jr.; Gordon, P. G.; Houseman, J.; Humphrey, M. F.; Hsu, G. C.; Ham, J. D.; Marte, J. E.; hide

    1977-01-01

    Through contacts with the petroleum industry, the petroleum service industry, universities and government agencies, important petroleum extraction problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified, where possible. Some of the problems were selected for further consideration. Work on these problems led to the formulation of specific concepts as candidate for development. Each concept is addressed to the solution of specific extraction problems and makes use of specific areas of aerospace technology.

  10. CBOS damage assessment on Pacific herring - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  11. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in selected species of fish and prawn form northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehta, P.; Kadam, A.N.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Desai, B.N.

    Concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in 6 fish and prawn species sampled at 10 transects from Veraval to Ratnagiri were determined using alkali digestion and alumina column chromatography followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Efficiency...

  12. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.

    Acute toxicity (LC sub(50)) and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons (Toluene, Quinoline, Pyridine and Naphthalene) on the metabolic index (oxygen consumption rate) of an estuarine fish. Etroplus suratensis is reported. The LC sub(50) values were...

  13. Reduction of petroleum hydrocarbons and toxicity in refinery wastewater by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, Grazyna A; Jangid, Kamlesh; Lukasik, Krystyna; Nałecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Berry, Christopher J; Brigmon, Robin L

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate petroleum waste remediation and toxicity reduction by five bacterial strains: Ralstonia picketti SRS (BP-20), Alcaligenes piechaudii SRS (CZOR L-1B), Bacillus subtilis (I'-1a), Bacillus sp. (T-1), and Bacillus sp. (T'-1), previously isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils. Petroleum hydrocarbons were significantly degraded (91%) by the mixed bacterial cultures in 30 days (reaching up to 29% in the first 72 h). Similarly, the toxicity of the biodegraded petroleum waste decreased 3-fold after 30 days. This work shows the influence of bacteria on hydrocarbon degradation and associated toxicity, and its dependence on the specific microorganisms present. The ability of these mixed cultures to degrade hydrocarbons and reduce toxicity makes them candidates for environmental restoration applications at other hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  14. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. DWH damage assessment on marine species - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  16. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in edible marine biota from Northern Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 μg/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province.

  17. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  18. Combining Solvent Extraction and Bioremediation for Removing Weathered Petroleum from Contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guo-Zhong; F.COULON; YANG Yue-Wei; LI Hong; SUI Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy,practicality and sustainability of a combined approach based on solvent extraction and biodegradation to remediate the soils contaminated with high levels of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons.The soils used in this study were obtained from the Shengli Oilfield in China,which had a long history of contamination with high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons.The contaminated soils were washed using a composite organic solvent consisting of hexane and pentane (4:1,v/v) and then bioremediated in microcosms which were bioaugmentated with Bacillus subtilis FQ06 strains and/or rhamnolipid.The optimal solvent extraction conditions were determined as extraction for 20 min at 25 ℃ with solvent-soil ratio of 6:1 (v/w).On this basis,total petroleum hydrocarbon was decreased from 140000 to 14000 mg kg-1,which was further reduced to < 4000 mg kg-1 by subsequent bioremediation for 132 d.Sustainability assessment of this integrated technology showed its good performance for both short-and long-term effectiveness.Overall the results encouraged its application for remediating contaminated sites especially with high concentration weathered hydrocarbons.

  19. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the coastline and mangroves of the northern Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi-Nozar, Seyedeh Laili; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Ismail, Wan Ruslan; Mortazawi, Mohammad Seddiq; Salimizadeh, Maryam; Momeni, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Gholamali

    2015-06-15

    To provide baseline information for the marine ecosystem of Hormozgan province, the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated in 52 stations involved in the mangrove and coastline ecosystem. Coastline sampling sites included areas facing harbor, river, domestic and industrial discharge. Sediment samples were analyzed based on ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variations ranging from non-detectable (ND) to 1.71 and from 0.2 to 0.63μg/g dry weight for coastline and mangrove sediments, respectively. The detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than guideline values for ecological risk. Furthermore, the minimum environmental risk was confirmed by background levels for the Persian Gulf, the Sea of Oman, and detected values for reference areas. The results were regarded as background data in the studied area, and, considering the rapid expansion of activities related to the petroleum industry in Hormozgan province, the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended.

  20. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in a petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Li, Wei; Dick, Warren A; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Kost, David; Chen, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-polluted soil is carried out by various microorganisms. However, little information is available for the relationships between hydrocarbon degradation rates in petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity in laboratory assay. In a microcosm study, degradation rate and efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petroleum-contaminated soil were determined using an infrared photometer oil content analyzer and a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also, the populations of TPH, alkane, and PAH degraders were enumerated by a modified most probable number (MPN) procedure, and the hydrocarbon degrading activities of these degraders were determined by the Biolog (MT2) MicroPlates assay. Results showed linear correlations between the TPH and alkane degradation rates and the population and activity increases of TPH and alkane degraders, but no correlation was observed between the PAH degradation rates and the PAH population and activity increases. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial population measured by MPN was significantly correlated with metabolic activity in the Biolog assay. The results suggest that the MPN procedure and the Biolog assay are efficient methods for assessing the rates of TPH and alkane, but not PAH, bioremediation in oil-contaminated soil in laboratory.

  1. Prospects of using leguminous species in phytoremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the plant species to grow on aged petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soils is an important factor for a successful phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a green technology that can become a promising solution for decontaminating polluted soils and ecological restoration of the landscape. Our comparative studies evaluate the effect of oil hydrocarbon pollution with high initial concentration on the growth leguminous plant species: Vicia sativa and Glycine max. The experimental block contains control variants, polluted soil unfertilized / fertilized with municipal sludge anaerobically stabilized in absence/presence of modified volcanic tuff amendment. After period of time the experiment’s soil in which plant species had grown well was sampled and analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons removal. Both species showed promising efficiency in the phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon highly polluted soils but a reduced growth of the surveyed plants was noticed. The efficiency of the petroleum hydrocarbons diminution is increased in the case of the addition of fertilizer 16.6 % for Vicia sativa and 30 % for Glycine max vs. the initial quantity. In the case of the phytoremediation of polluted soils treated with fertilizer and volcanic tuff, the efficiency of the petroleum hydrocarbons reduction was 72.9 % for Vicia sativa and 53.7 % for Glycine max.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in chronically petroleum-contaminated soils in Mexico and the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Ramírez, Alicia; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Varela-Fregoso, Lucía; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2007-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been hypothesized to enhance plant adaptation and growth in petroleum-contaminated soils. Nevertheless, neither AMF-biodiversity under chronically petroleum-contaminated soils nor spore germination response to petroleum hydrocarbons has been well studied. Chronically petroleum-contaminated rhizosphere soil and roots from Echinochloa polystachya, Citrus aurantifolia and C. aurantium were collected from Activo Cinco Presidentes, Tabasco, Mexico. Root colonization and spore abundance were evaluated. Additionally, rhizosphere soil samples were propagated using Sorghum vulgare L. as a plant trap under greenhouse conditions; subsequently, AMF-spores were identified. AMF-colonization ranged from 63 to 77% while spore number ranged from 715 to 912 in 100 g soil, suggesting that AMF tolerate the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere. From grass species, four AMF-morphospecies were identified: Glomus ambisporum, G. sinuosum (previously described as Sclerocystis sinuosum), Acaulospora laevis, and Ambispora gerdermanni. From citrus trees, four AMF-species were also identified: Scutellospora heterogama, G. ambisporum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, and G. citricola. In a second study, it was observed that spore germination and hyphal length of G. mosseae, G. ambisporum, and S. heterogama were significantly reduced by either volatile compounds of crude oil or increased concentrations of benzo[a ]pyrene or phenanthrene in water-agar.

  3. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in anoxic marine sediments: consequences on the speciation of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Anno, Antonio; Beolchini, Francesca; Gabellini, Massimo; Rocchetti, Laura; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the effects of biostimulation and bioagumentation strategies applied to harbor sediments displaying reducing conditions and high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals. We compared the microbial efficiency of hydrocarbon removal from sediments maintained for 60 days in anoxic conditions and inoculated with acetate, sulfate-reducing bacterial strains and acetate and sulfate-reducing bacteria. All treatments determined a significant increase in the microbial growth and significant decreases of hydrocarbon contents and of redox potential values. The addition of sulfate-reducing bacterial strains to the sediment was the most efficient treatment for the hydrocarbon removal. In all experiments, significant changes of the heavy metals' phase repartition were observed. The results reported here suggest that the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in anoxic marine sediments may be enhanced by stimulating microbial anaerobic metabolism, but care should be applied to monitor the potential changes in the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals induced by bio-treatments.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  7. Total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by hybrid electrobiochemical reactor in oilfield produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Ibrahim E

    2016-08-15

    The crude oil drilling and extraction operations are aimed to maximize the production may be counterbalanced by the huge production of contaminated produced water (PW). PW is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological technologies. The efficiency of suggested hybrid electrobiochemical (EBC) methods for the simultaneous removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and sulfate from PW generated by petroleum industry is studied. Also, the factors that affect the stability of PW quality are investigated. The results indicated that the effect of biological treatment is very important to keep control of the electrochemical by-products and more TPH removal in the EBC system. The maximum TPH and sulfate removal efficiency was achieved 75% and 25.3%, respectively when the detention time was about 5.1min and the energy consumption was 32.6mA/cm(2). However, a slight increasing in total bacterial count was observed when the EBC compact unit worked at a flow rate of average 20L/h. Pseudo steady state was achieved after 30min of current application in the solution. Also, the results of the study indicate that when the current intensity was increased above optimum level, no significant results occurred due to the release of gases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  9. Combination of biochar amendment and phytoremediation for hydrocarbon removal in petroleum-contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tao; Zhao, Zhipeng; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum is a challenging task. Four different bioremediation strategies, including natural attenuation, biochar amendment, phytoremediation with ryegrass, and a combination of biochar and ryegrass, were investigated with greenhouse pot experiments over a 90-day period. The results showed that planting ryegrass in soil can significantly improve the removal rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and the number of microorganisms. Within TPHs, the rem...

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbon assessment in the sediments of the northeastern Havana littoral, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Companioni Dams, Eloy Yordad; Nunez Clemente, Ana Catalina; Cora Medina, Miriam Odette [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Investigaciones del Petroleo, Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: elocompa@yahoo.com; Gonzalez Brovo, Luis [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Habana, (Cuba); Marbot Ramada, Rolando [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica, Centro de Investigaciones del Petroleo, Habana (Cuba); Montes de Oca Porto, Rodny [Laboratorio Antidoping, Habana (Cuba); Rosabal Rodriguez, Maikel [Centro de Ingenieria y Manejo Ambiental de Bahias y Costas, Habana (Cuba); Diaz Diaz, Miguel angel [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Investigaciones del Petroleo, Habana (Cuba)

    2009-02-15

    As a part of a geochemical study, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in surficial sediments, from a Cuban coastal zone located in the Northeastern Havana Littoral. Sediment samples were collected at 15 sites in this area, and then extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detectors. Total concentration of both, aliphatic (AH) and aromatic (ArH) hydrocarbons, varied from 2.4 {+-} 0.2 to 105.1 {+-} 5.9 {mu}g/g (dry weight) and from 1.1 {+-} 0.2 to 38.4 {+-} 7.6 {mu}g/g (dry weight), respectively. The chromatography profile of AH was dominated by an unresolved complex mixture (UCM), and the presence of isoprenoid hydrocarbons, steranes and hopanes, indicated petroleum - related hydrocarbon inputs. The predominant concentration of phytoplanktonic molecular markers (pristane and nC17) in collected sediments, revealed the marine productivity in this sites. The anthropogenic contribution detected showed the impact of the petroleum exploration along this coastal area. [Spanish] Como parte de un estudio geoquimico se determinaron hidrocarburos alifaticos y aromaticos en sedimentos superficiales, de una zona costera situada en el Litoral Nordeste de La Habana. Las muestras de sedimento se colectaron en 15 estaciones de muestreo en esta area, y posteriormente se extrajeron y analizaron mediante cromatografia gaseosa con detectores de ionizacion a la llama y espectrometria de masas. Las concentraciones totales de hidrocarburos alifaticos (HA) e hidrocarburos aromaticos (HAr) variaron desde 2.4 {+-} 0.2 a 105.1 {+-} 5.9 {mu}g/g (peso eco) y desde 1.1 {+-} 0.2 a 38.4 {+-} 7.6 {mu}g/g (peso eco), respectivamente. El perfil cromatografico de los hidrocarburos alifaticos estuvo dominado por una mezcla compleja no resuelta (MCNR), y la presencia de hidrocarburos isoprenoides, esteranos y hopanos, indico el aporte de hidrocarburos derivados del petroleo. La concentracion predominante de marcadores moleculares

  11. Biosurfactant-producing strains in enhancing solubilization and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Wang, Hang; Chen, Xuehua; Liu, Na; Bao, Suriguge

    2014-07-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing strains designated as BS-1, BS-3, and BS-4 were screened out from crude oil-contaminated soil using a combination of surface tension measurement and oil spreading method. Thin layer chromatography and infrared analysis indicated that the biosurfactants produced by the three strains were lipopeptide, glycolipid, and phospholipid. The enhancement of solubilization and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater employing biosurfactant-producing strains was investigated. The three strain mixtures led to more solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater, and the solubilization rate was 10.5 mg l−1. The combination of biosurfactant-producing strains and petroleum-degrading strains exhibited a higher biodegradation efficiency of 85.4 % than the petroleum-degrading strains (71.2 %). Biodegradation was enhanced the greatest with biosurfactant-producing strains and petroleum-degrading strains in a ratio of 1:1. Fluorescence microscopy images illustrate that the oil dispersed into smaller droplets and emulsified in the presence of biosurfactant-producing strains, which attached to the oil. Thus, the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was enhanced.

  12. GC/GCMS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaheen Faizi; Saima Sumbul; Muhammed Ali Versiani; Rubeena Saleem; Aisha Sana; Hira Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the phytochemical constituents from petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) roots using GC/GC-MS. Methods: A total of 5.11 kg fresh and undried crushed root of M. oleifera were cut into small pieces and extracted with petroleum ether and dichloromethane (20 L each) at room temperature for 2 d. The concentrated extracts were subjected to their GC-MS analysis. Results:The GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of M. oleifera roots, which showed promising biological activities, has resulted in the identification 102 compounds. These constituents belong to 15 classes of compounds including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, alcohols, isothiocyanate, thiocyanate, pyrazine, aromatics, alkamides, cyanides, steroids, halocompounds, urea and N-hydroxyimine derivatives, unsaturated alkenamides, alkyne and indole. GC/GC-MS studies on petroleum ether extract of the roots revealed that it contained 39 compounds, belonging to nine classes. Cyclooctasulfur S8 has been isolated as a pure compound from the extract. The major compounds identified from petroleum ether extract were trans-13-docosene (37.9%), nonacosane (32.6%), cycloartenol (28.6%) nonadecanoic acid (13.9%) and cyclooctasulfur S8 (13.9%). Dichloromethane extract of the roots was composed of 63 compounds of which nasimizinol (58.8%) along with oleic acid (46.5%), N-benzyl-N-(7-cyanato heptanamide (38.3%), N-benzyl-N-(1-chlorononyl) amide (30.3%), bis [3-benzyl prop-2-ene]-1-one (19.5%) and N, N-dibenzyl-2-ene pent 1, 5-diamide (11.6%) were the main constituents. Conclusions:This study helps to predict the formula and structure of active molecules which can be used as drugs. This result also enhances the traditional usage of M. oleifera which possesses a number of bioactive compounds.

  13. Analysis of olefinic hydrocarbons in cracked petroleum stocks: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badoni, R.P.; Bhagat, S.D.; Joshi, G.C. (Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India))

    1992-05-01

    The present review surveys the existing methods of analysis, both chemical and instrumental techniques applicable for the determination of olefinic unsaturation in petroleum products ranging from gases to high molecular weight complex residues. The scope and limitation of each method in relation to its applicability to specific petroleum products is critically discussed. Standardized methods of olefin analysis covered by ASTM, IP and UOP test procedures have also been compiled. 123 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Assessing Biodegradation Susceptibilities of Selected Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Heryanto Langsa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility to biodegradation of selected saturated hydrocarbons (SHCs, polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAHs and asphaltenes in a Barrow crude oil and extracts isolated from soils contaminated with theBarrow crude oil at day 0 and 39 was determined. Soil samples were contaminated with a Barrow crude oil across thesurface (5% w/w as part of a mesocosm experiment in order to mimic similar conditions in the environment. Theextent of biodegradation of the Barrow oil extracted from the contaminated soils at day 0 and day 39 was assessed byGC-MS analyses of SHCs and PAHs fractions. Changes in the relative abundances of n-alkanes (loss of low-molecularweighthydrocarbons and pristane relative to phytane (Pr/Ph and their diastereoisomers were determined. Changesin the diastereoisomer ratios of Pr and Ph relate to the decrease in abundance of the phytol-derived 6(R,10(Sisoprenoids with increasing biodegradation. The percentage change in abundances of each of selectedalkylnaphathalenes with time (day 0 to 39 was determined, enabling an order of susceptibility of their isomers tobiodegradation. It was established that the 2-methylnaphthalene isomers (2-MN is more susceptible to microbialattack than 1-MN isomer indicated by decreasing in percent abundance from day 0 to 39 for the 2-MN isomer. TheGC-MS analyses of the original Barrow oil indicated the oil had not undergone biodegradation. When this oil wasused in the soil mesocosm experiments the oil was shown to biodegrade to about a level 2 -3 based on the biodegradationsusceptibility of the various SHCs and PAHs described above

  15. Efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from the soil samples collected from industrial dumping site. High concentrations of heavy metals (like iron, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt and zinc) and petroleum hydrocarbons were present in the contaminated soil samples. Lipopeptide biosurfactant, consisting of surfactin and fengycin was obtained from Bacillus subtilis A21. Soil washing with biosurfactant solution removed significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbon (64.5 %) and metals namely cadmium (44.2 %), cobalt (35.4 %), lead (40.3 %), nickel (32.2 %), copper (26.2 %) and zinc (32.07 %). Parameters like surfactant concentration, temperature, agitation condition and pH of the washing solution influenced the pollutant removing ability of biosurfactant mixture. Biosurfactant exhibited substantial hydrocarbon solubility above its critical micelle concentration. During washing, 50 % of biosurfactant was sorbed to the soil particles decreasing effective concentration during washing process. Biosurfactant washed soil exhibited 100 % mustard seed germination contradictory to water washed soil where no germination was observed. The results indicate that the soil washing with mixture of lipopeptide biosurfactants at concentrations above its critical micelle concentration can be an efficient and environment friendly approach for removing pollutants (petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals) from contaminated soil.

  16. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation Potential of Soil Bacteria Native to the Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen-Yu; GAO Dong-Mei; LI Feng-Min; ZHAO Jian; XIN Yuan-Zheng; S.SIMKINS; XING Bao-Shan

    2008-01-01

    The bioremediation potential of bacteria indigenous to soils of the Yellow River Delta in China was evaluated as a treatment option for soil remediation. Petroleum hydrocarbon degraders were isolated from contaminated soil samples from the Yellow River Delta. Four microbial communities and eight isolates were obtained. The optimal temperature, salinity, pH, and the ratios of C, N, and P (C:N:P) for the maximum biodegradation of diesel oil, crude oil, n-alkanes, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons by ndigenous bacteria were determined, and the kinetics changes in microbial communities were monitored. In general, the mixed microbial consortia demonstrated wider catabolic versatility and faster overall rate of hydrocarbon degradation than individual isolates. Our experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon by indigenous bacteria for oil remediation in the Yellow River Delta.

  17. Simultaneous species-specific PCR detection and viability testing of poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel-entrapped Rhodococcus spp. after their exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyukina, Maria S; Ivshina, Irena B; Serebrennikova, Marina K; Rubtsova, Ekaterina V; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V

    2013-08-01

    A method of simultaneous species-specific PCR detection and viability testing of poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel-entrapped Rhodococcus spp. was developed that allowed the estimation of immobilized Rhodococcus opacus and Rhodococcus ruber survival after their exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon mixture. Spectrophotometric INT assay revealed high tolerance of gel-immobilized rhodococci to petroleum hydrocarbons, while among two Rhodococcus strains studied, R. ruber tolerated better to hydrocarbons compared to R. opacus. These findings were confirmed by respirometry results that showed increased respiratory activity of gel-immobilized Rhodococcus strains after 10-day incubation with 3% (v/v) petroleum hydrocarbon mixture. Moreover, jointly incubated rhodococcal strains demonstrated higher oxidative activities toward petroleum hydrocarbons than individual strains. Both Rhodococcus species were recovered successfully in cryogel granules using 16S rDNA-targeted PCR, even though the granules were previously stained with INT and extracted with ethanol. The method developed can be used for rapid detection and monitoring of gel-immobilized bacterial inocula in bioreactors or contaminated soil systems.

  18. Assessment of five bioaccessibility assays for predicting the efficacy of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in aged contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandie, Catherine E; Weber, John; Aleer, Samuel; Adetutu, Eric M; Ball, Andy S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in aged contaminated soils (1.6-67gkg(-1)) was assessed using four non-exhaustive extraction techniques (100% 1-butanol, 100% 1-propanol, 50% 1-propanol in water and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) and the persulfate oxidation method. Using linear regression analysis, residual hydrocarbon concentrations following bioaccessibility assessment were compared to residual hydrocarbon concentrations following biodegradation in laboratory-scale microcosms in order to determine whether bioaccessibility assays can predict the endpoint of hydrocarbon biodegradation. The relationship between residual hydrocarbon concentrations following microcosm biodegradation and bioaccessibility assessment was linear (r(2)=0.71-0.97) indicating that bioaccessibility assays have the potential to predict the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation. However, the slope of best fit varied depending on the hydrocarbon fractional range assessed. For the C(10)-C(14) hydrocarbon fraction, the slope of best fit ranged from 0.12 to 0.27 indicating that the non-exhaustive or persulfate oxidation methods removed 3.5-8 times more hydrocarbons than biodegradation. Conversely, for the higher molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions (C(29)-C(36) and C(37)-C(40)), biodegradation removed up to 3.3 times more hydrocarbons compared to bioaccessibility assays with the resulting slope of best fit ranging from 1.0-1.9 to 2.0-3.3 respectively. For mid-range hydrocarbons (C(15)-C(28)), a slope of approximately one was obtained indicating that C(15)-C(28) hydrocarbon removal by these bioaccessibility assays may approximate the extent of biodegradation. While this study demonstrates the potential of predicting biodegradation endpoints using bioaccessibility assays, limitations of the study include a small data set and that all soils were collected from a single site, presumably resulting from a single contamination source. Further evaluation and validation is

  19. Potential of phytoremediation for the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated salt marsh sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Hugo; Mucha, Ana P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Bordalo, Adriano A

    2014-05-01

    Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in colonized and un-colonized sediments by salt marsh plants Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis collected in a temperate estuary was investigated during a 5-month greenhouse experiment. The efficiency of two bioremediation treatments namely biostimulation (BS) by the addition of nutrients, and bioaugmentation (BA) by addition of indigenous microorganisms was tested in comparison with hydrocarbon natural attenuation in un-colonized and with rhizoremediation in colonized sediments. Hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms and root biomass were assessed as well as hydrocarbon degradation levels. During the study, hydrocarbon degradation in un-colonized sediments was negligible regardless of treatments. Rhizoremediation proved to be an effective strategy for hydrocarbon removal, yielding high rates in most experiments. However, BS treatments showed a negative effect on the J. maritimus potential for hydrocarbon degradation by decreasing the root system development that lead to lower degradation rates. Although both plants and their associated microorganisms presented a potential for rhizoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated salt marsh sediments, results highlighted that nutrient requirements may be distinct among plant species, which should be accounted for when designing cleanup strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons through landfarming using apparent electrical conductivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Vijver, Ellen; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Seuntjens, Piet

    2015-04-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons through landfarming has been widely applied commercially at large scale. Biodegradation is one of the dominant pollutant removal mechanisms involved in landfarming, but strongly depends on the environmental conditions (e.g. presence of oxygen, moisture content). Conventionally the biodegradation process is monitored by the installation of field monitoring equipment and repeated sample collection and analysis. Because the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons and their degradation products can affect the electrical properties of the soil, proximal soil sensors such as electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors may provide an alternative to investigate the biodegradation process of these contaminants. We investigated the relation between the EMI-based apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) of a landfarm soil and the presence and degradation status of petroleum hydrocarbons. The 3 ha study area was located in an oil refinery complex contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly composed of diesel. At the site, a landfarm was constructed in 1999. The most recent survey of the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations was conducted between 2011 and 2013. The sampling locations were defined by a grid with a 10 m by 10 m cell size and on each location a sample was taken from four successive soil layers with a thickness of 0.5 m each. Because the survey was carried out in phases using different georeferencing methods, the final dataset suffered from uncertainty in the coordinates of the sampling locations. In September 2013 the landfarm was surveyed for ECa with a multi-receiver electromagnetic induction sensor (DUALEM-21S) using motorized conveyance. The horizontal measurement resolution was 1 m by 0.25 m. On each measurement location the sensor recorded four ECa values representative of measurement depths of 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.6 m and 3.2 m. After the basic processing, the ECa measurements were filtered to remove

  1. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Content (TPH) As an Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    potential for hydrocarbon accumulation and could be evaluated for its efficacy as a tool in phytoremediation exercise ... and biological components of the ecosystem. ... changes of distilled water. .... low molecular weight polynuclear aromatic.

  2. The influence of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon residues on natural phytoplankton biomass

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.

    The effect of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment on phytoplankton biomass measured as chlorophyll a was studied near the oil tanker route in the southern Bay of Bengal. In the transect from 5 degrees N, 77 degrees E to 5 degrees N...

  3. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in some regions of the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Qasim, S.Z.; Fondekar, S.P.; Topgi, R.S.

    Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in some parts of the Northern Indian Ocean using UV bsorbance technique with a clean up step. The concentration of oil ranged from 0.6 to 26.5 mu gl. Higher values were recorded along the oil tanker...

  4. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons along the oil tanker route in the southern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.; SenGupta, R.

    Concentrations of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons during 3 cruises (Nos. 51, 66 and 68) of R V Gaveshani, along the oil tanker route, in the southern Bay of Bengal at 0, 10 and 20 m were 19.95 + or - 3.38, 16.78 + or - 2.53 and 13.45 + or - 2.17 mu...

  5. Mathematical modelling on transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in saturated fractured rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Suresh Kumar

    2014-10-01

    The present paper addresses critical issues that describe the dissolution mass transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a saturated subsurface system. The field procedure associated with the estimation of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL) thickness in site monitor wells is revisited. A brief theory has been included on the composition and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons following an onshore oil spill in order to demonstrate the level of complexity associated with the LNAPL dissolution mass transfer even in a classical porous medium. However, such studies in saturated fractured rocks are highly complex and limited, and hence, deserve a special attention as the fate and transport of the petroleum hydrocarbons are not uncommon in saturated fractured rocks. In this context, an improved mathematical model has been proposed that will better describe the dissolution kinetics of petroleum hydrocarbons in saturated fractured rocks at the scale of a single fracture using dual-porosity concept. The lumped mass transfer coefficient in a classical porous medium proposed depends on mean grain size, while the same parameter has been replaced by an equivalent average thickness of fracture aperture that better describes the LNAPL dissolution rate in a coupled fracture-matrix system. A set of nonlinear coupled partial differential equations is deduced for a coupled fracture-matrix system in analogy with the differential equations of a classical porous medium. The proposed mathematical model may work well for the fracture aperture thicknesses varying between 100 and 500 microns with a relatively low Reynolds Number and initial NAPL saturation.

  6. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination along oil tanker routes in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Alagarsamy, R.

    Concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater from the oil tanker route region between 0-25 N and 45-75 E were estimated using UV-absorbance and fluoroscence techniques. Concentrations in surface waters averaged 9.2 plus or minus 1.18 mu g l-1...

  7. A closer look at bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in aquatic worms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijs, B.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (oils) are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, and adequate risk assessment is thus essential. Bioaccumulation plays a key role in risk assessment, but the current knowledge on bioaccumulation of oils is limited. Therefore, this process was studied in detail, using the aqua

  8. Abiogenic origin of petroleum hydrocarbons: Need to rethink exploration strategies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.

    and the organic matter that is being formed and deposited. As against, now a days there is growing belief that the origin of petroleum is not the 'biogenic (fossil fuel)' but is the 'abiogenic'. This hypothesis is supported by increasing body of evidences...

  9. Removal of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by heterotrophic bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... 1Health Safety and Environment, Shell Petroleum Development Company Limited, P. O. Box 263, Old Aba ... Sufficient supply of nutrients and their influence on the .... their enduring presence in the Niger Delta ecosystems ..... Soil and Fresh Water Vegetation Union Graft Publs. ... The bacterial Community.

  10. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems.

  11. A case study of the intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways including aerobic oxidation, Fe{sup 3+} reduction, and sulfate reduction. In laboratory experiments the addition of gas condensate hydrocarbons to saturated soil from the gas production site stimulated sulfate reduction under anaerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions, and nitrate and Fe{sup 3+} reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions, compared to biotic controls that lacked hydrocarbon and sterile controls. The sulfate reduction corresponded to a reduction in the amount of toluene relative to other hydrocarbons. These results confirmed that subsurface soils at the gas production site have the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons.

  12. Diagenesis of metabolites and a discussion of the origin of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    Proteins and carbohydrates are rapidly degraded to compounds of no direct interest in the problem of the origin of petroleum. Lignin, if carried into marine basins in the form of humic substances, is probably the major progenitor of kerogen rather than the precursor of petroleum. Pigments are but minor contributors to petroleum. The fate of fatty acids in a marine environment is not completely understood. Although they may not be directly decarboxylated biochemically, it is shown how they can be converted into oxygenated or dehydrogenated acids more reactive than the parent compounds. Illustrations are also given for Diels-Alder reactions that could account for the formation from these compounds of the alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum. It is most likely that crude oil is generated in sediments containing concentrations of lipids, the character of which governs the nature of the oil that is formed. ?? 1960.

  13. Identification of some novel tetracyclic diterpene hydrocarbons in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, A.A.; Pehk, T.Y.; Vorobieva, N.S.; Zemskova, Z.K. (Institute of Geology and Exploitation of Combustible Minerals, Moscow (USSR))

    1988-01-01

    A new group of tetracyclic diterpene hydrocarbons of molecular formula C{sub 19}H{sub 32} has been found in the Jurassic oils and condensates of the Central Kara-Kum (Turkmenia, U.S.S.R.). The structure of the hydrocarbons has been determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. Of the compounds identified 4,8-dimethyl-13-isopropyltetracyclo(6.6.0.0{sup 1,11}O{sup 3,7})- and 5,14-dimethyl-10-isopropyltetracyclo = (6.4.1.1.{sup 1,9}O{sup 4,13})tetradecanes are present in the highest concentrations. Some ideas are put forward about the source and the reactions involved in the formation of the hydrocarbons under natural conditions by the enzymic C{sub 5} cyclization of aliphatic isoprenoids.

  14. Forensic differentiation of biogenic organic compounds from petroleum hydrocarbons in biogenic and petrogenic compounds cross-contaminated soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Kelly-Hooper, F; Hollebone, B P; Peng, X; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Yang, Z

    2009-02-13

    "Total petroleum hydrocarbons" (TPHs) or "petroleum hydrocarbons" (PHCs) are one of the most widespread soil pollutants in Canada, North America, and worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils and sediments costs the Canadian economy hundreds of million of dollars annually. Much of this activity is driven by the need to meet regulated levels of PHC in soil. These PHC values are legally required to be assessed using standard methods. The method most commonly used in Canada, specified by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), measures the total hydrocarbon concentrations in a soil by carbon range (Fraction 1: C(6)-C(10); Fraction 2: C(10)-C(16), Fraction 3: C(16)-C(34): and Fraction 4: C(34)+). Using the CCME method, all of the materials extractible by a mixture of 1:1 hexane:acetone are considered to be petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants. Many hydrocarbon compounds and other extractible materials in soil, however, may originate from non-petroleum sources. Biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) is a general term used to describe a mixture of organic compounds, including alkanes, sterols and sterones, fatty acids and fatty alcohols, and waxes and wax esters, biosynthesized by living organisms. BOCs are also produced during the early stages of diagenesis in recent aquatic sediments. BOC sources could include vascular plants, algae, bacteria and animals. Plants and algae produce BOCs as protective wax coating that are released back into the sediment at the end of their life cycle. BOCs are natural components of thriving plant communities. Many solvent-extraction methods for assessing soil hydrocarbons, however, such as the CCME method, do not differentiate PHCs from BOCs. The naturally occurring organics present in soils and wet sediments can be easily misidentified and quantified as regulated PHCs during analysis using such methods. In some cases, biogenic interferences can exceed regulatory levels, resulting in remediation of petroleum impacts that

  15. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  16. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  17. Characterization of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons during a landfarming bioremediation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maletić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfarming bioremediation was performed over 2 years on soil heavily polluted with weathered oil and oil derivatives: 23200 mg kg-1 of mineral oil, 35300 mg kg-1 total hydrocarbons, and 8.65 mg kg-1 of total PAHs. During the experiment, mineral oil, total hydrocarbon and PAH concentrations decreased by approximately 53%, 27% and 72%, respectively. A GC/MS-Scan was used to identify the crude oil components that persist after bioremediation treatment of contaminated soil and the metabolites generated during this process. The data shows that in weathered-hydrocarbons contaminated soil, the number of initially detected compounds after the bioremediation process further decreased over a 2 year period, and at the same time several new compounds were observed at the end of experiment. Higher persistence was also shown for heavier n-alkanes and branched alkanes, which could be detected over a longer period of time. The analysis highlights the importance of n-alkanes, their substituted derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the most significant pollutants.

  18. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in Goa coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.

    Average hydrocarbon concentrations in water, plankton and sediment samples collected from the central west coast of India between 14 degrees 40'N and 15 degrees 50'N were 30.9 mu g/litre, 46.9 mu g/g dry wt and 7.1 degrees kg/g dry wt respectively...

  19. Subsurface fate of spilled petroleum hydrocarbons in continuous permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.; Walker, L.; Vigoren, L.

    2004-01-01

    Accidental releases of approximately 2000 m3 of fuel have resulted in subsurface contamination adjacent to Imikpuk Lake, a drinking-water source near Barrow, AK. This paper presents a conceptual model of the distribution and transport of subsurface free-phase hydrocarbons at this site. The mean annual temperature in Barrow is -13 ??C, and average monthly temperatures exceed 0 ??C only during the months of June, July, and August. As a result, the region is underlain by areally continuous permafrost that extends to depths of up to 300 m and constrains subsurface hydrologic processes to a shallow zone that temporarily thaws each summer. During the 1993 and 1994 thaw seasons, the measured depth of thaw varied across the site from approximately 0.5 to 2 m. However, exploratory borings in 1995 showed that free-phase hydrocarbons were present at depths greater than 3 m, indicating that permafrost at this site is not a barrier to the vertical migration of nonaqueous-phase liquids. In 1996, a subsurface containment barrier was installed to prevent lateral movement of contaminated water to Imikpuk Lake, and a recovery trench was excavated upgradient of the barrier to facilitate removal of free-phase hydrocarbons. Free-phase hydrocarbons were recovered from the trench during 1996, 1997, and 1998. Recovery rates diminished over this time, and in 1999, no further product was recovered and the recovery operation was halted. Subsequent exploratory borings in 2001 and 2002 have revealed that some product remains in the subsurface. Data indicate that this remaining product exists in small discrete pockets or very thin layers of hydrocarbon floating on brine. These small reservoirs appear to be isolated from one another by relatively impermeable permafrost. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Analysis of wax hydrocarbons in petroleum source rocks from the Damintun depression, eastern China, using high temperature gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiping Huang [University of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences; Chinese University of Geosciences, Beijing (China). Dept. of Petroleum Geology; Larter, S.R.; Love, G.D. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

    2003-12-01

    environmental conditions, as shown previously [Carlson, R.M.K., Teerman, S.C., Moldowan, J.M., Jacobson, S.R., Chan, E.l., Dorrough, K.S., Sectoo, W.C., Mertani, B., 1993. High temperature gas chromatography of high wax oils. In: Indonesian Petroleum Association, 22nd Annual Convention Proceedings. Jakarta, Indonesian, pp. 483-507. Carlson, R.M.K., Jacobsen, S.R., Moldowan, J.M., Chan E.l., 1994. Potential application of high temperature gas chromatography to Middle Eastern petroleum exploration and production. In: Al-Husseini, M.I. (Ed.), Geo'94, Vol I., Selected Middle East Papers from The Middle East Petroleum Geoscience Conference, 1994; Gulf PetroLink. Manama, Bahrain, pp. 258-2671]. Our study indicates for the first time that Es3 source rocks as well as Es4 facies contain HMVMCS. The distributions of extractable wax hydrocarbons suggest that both Es4 and Es3 members may potentially serve as important parent source rocks for generating waxy petroleum in this region. (author)

  1. Biodegradation testing of hydrophobic chemicals in mixtures at low concentrations – covering the chemical space of petroleum hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Hammershøj, Rikke Høst; Mayer, Philipp

    Petroleum products are complex mixtures of varying composition containing thousands of hydrocarbons each with their own physicochemical properties and degradation kinetics. One approach for risk assessment of these products is therefore to group the hydrocarbons by carbon number and chemical class...... i.e. hydrocarbon blocks. However, the biodegradation kinetic data varies in quantity and quality for the different hydrocarbon blocks, hampering the characterization of their fate properties. In this study, biodegradation kinetics of a large number of hydrocarbons aiming to cover the chemical space...... of petroleum hydrocarbons, were therefore determined at ng/L to µg/L concentrations in surface water, seawater and activated sludge filtrate. Two hydrocarbon mixtures were prepared, comprising a total of 53 chemicals including paraffins, naphthenics and aromatic hydrocarbons from C8 to C20. Passive dosing from...

  2. Variability of soil potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a heterogeneous subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Andreas Houlberg; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Mortensen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial variability of factors affecting natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in the unsaturated zone is important to (i) performing a reliable risk assessment and (ii) evaluating the possibility for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted sites. Most studies to date have focused...... on the shallow unsaturated zone. Based on a data set comprising analysis of about 100 soil samples taken in a 16-m-deep unsaturated zone polluted with volatile petroleum compounds, we statistically and geostatistically analyzed values of essential soil properties. The subsurface of the site was highly layered...

  3. Evaluation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in urban soil from Maicao, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Castellanos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and their effects on soil properties in urban area of Maicao, Colombia, was evaluated. 18 sites were selected: nine contaminated and nine non-contaminated and two depths (0-30 cm and 30-60 cm were evaluated. The medium TPH fraction (Soxhlet reflux method, EPA 3540C and heavy TPH fraction (Soxhlet reflux method, EPA 3550C were extracted. TPH were identified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID. Soil parameters related potential adsorption were determined: pH, electrical conductivity (EC, organic carbon (OC, cation exchange capacity (CEC, texture; soil moisture retention, aggregate stability. High contents of TPH was found in all fractions. No significant changes were found for texture and (EC. There was an increase in the content of OC (500%, soil aggregation and aggregate stability (200%; slight decrease pH, CEC and soil moisture retention (23.5% soil surface. These results show the vulnerability of the urban soils to the TPH contamination and exposure of the human population to these contaminants.

  4. Using Different Tolerant Plant for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soils with Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The extraction activity, transportation and processing of crude oil caused soil contamination with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH. The develop phytoremediation process of contaminated soils with 2.8 % TPH, were studied in pots, with a tolerant grass species, Lolium perenne. Four treatments, each consisting of three replicates, were realized in randomized block design. The experimental variants are: control, uncontaminated soil, untreated and treated contaminated soil with anaerobic stabilized sewage sludge (50 t/ha in absence/presence volcanic indigenous tuff amendment (5 t/ha. Removal efficiencies of TPH from the contaminated soils variants treated with organic fertilizer without volcanic indigenous tuff and mixed with tuff after eight months was 73.4 % and 78.9 % respectively. The results are supported by healthy plants with roots system well developed. The green biomass harvested from the variant fertilized with sludge mixed with volcanic tuff was similar to the harvested from control variant, 15.1-17.9 g / pot of vegetation The obtained results show that, the tolerant grass species, Lolium perenne must be applied safely to phytoremediation, on TPH contaminated soil.

  5. Design and implementation of a highly integrated and automated in situ bioremediation system for petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, J.C.; Rosenwinkel, P. [Resource Control Corp., Rancocas, NJ (United States); Norris, R.D. [Eckenfelder, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The proposed sale of an industrial property required that an environmental investigation be conducted as part of the property transfer agreement. The investigation revealed petroleum hydrocarbon compounds (PHCs) in the subsurface. Light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) varsol (a gasoline like solvent), gasoline, and fuel oil were found across a three (3) acre area and were present as liquid phase PHCs, as dissolved phase PHCs, and as adsorbed phase PHCs in both saturated and unsaturated soils. Fuel oil was largely present in the unsaturated soils. Fuel oil was largely present in the unsaturated soils. Varsol represented the majority of the PHCs present. The presence of liquid phase PHCs suggested that any remedial action incorporate free phase recovery. The volatility of varsol and gasoline and the biodegradability of the PHCs present in the subsurface suggested that bioremediation, air sparging, and soil vapor extraction/bioventing were appropriate technologies for incorporation in a remedy. The imminent conversion of the impacted area to a retail facility required that any long term remedy be unobtrusive and require minimum activity across much of the impacted area. In the following sections the site investigation, selection and testing of remedial technologies, and design and implementation of an integrated and automated remedial system is discussed.

  6. Bacterial biosurfactant in enhancing solubility and metabolism of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, N K; Konwar, B K

    2009-10-15

    Biosurfactant can make hydrocarbon complexes more mobile with the potential use in oil recovery, pumping of crude oil and in bioremediation of crude oil contaminant. In the investigation, bacterial isolates capable of utilizing poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like phenanthrene, pyrene and fluorene were used. A gradual decrease of the supplemented hydrocarbons in the culture medium was observed with corresponding increase in bacterial biomass and protein. The medium having the combined application of fluorine and phenanthrene caused better biosurfactant production (0.45 g l(-1)) and (0.38 g l(-1)) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains MTCC7815 and MTCC7814. The biosurfactant from MTCC7815 (41.0 microg ml(-1)) and MTCC7812 (26 microg ml(-1)) exhibited higher solubilization of pyrene; whereas, MTCC8165 caused higher solubilization of phenanthrene; and that of MTCC7812 (24.45 microg ml(-1)) and MTCC8163 (24.49 microg ml(-1)) caused more solubilzation of fluorene. Higher solubilization of pyrene and fluorene by the biosurfactant of MTCC7815 and MTCC7812, respectively enhanced their metabolism causing sustained growth. Biosurfactants were found to be lipopeptide and protein-starch-lipid complex in nature and they could reduce the surface tension of pure water (72 m Nm(-1)) to 35 m Nm(-1). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was also lower than the chemical surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). They differed in quantity and structure. The predominant rhamnolipids present in biosurfactants were Rha-C(8)-C(10) and Rha-C(10)-C(8).

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbon persistence following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as a function of shoreline energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meredith; Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando; Rosenheim, Brad E; Liu, Zhanfei

    2017-02-15

    An important aspect of oil spill science is understanding how the compounds within spilled oil, especially toxic components, change with weathering. In this study we follow the evolution of petroleum hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, on a Louisiana beach and salt marsh for three years following the Deepwater Horizon spill. Relative to source oil, we report overall depletion of low molecular weight n-alkanes and PAHs in all locations with time. The magnitude of depletion, however, depends on the sampling location, whereby sites with highest wave energy have highest compound depletion. Oiled sediment from an enclosed bay shows high enrichment of high molecular weight PAHs relative to 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane, suggesting the contribution from sources other than the Deepwater Horizon spill, such as fossil fuel burning. This insight into hydrocarbon persistence as a function of hydrography and hydrocarbon source can inform policy and response for future spills.

  8. Recent studies in microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Zhereppa Fathepure

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many hypersaline environments are often contaminated with petroleum compounds. Among these, oil and natural gas production sites all over the world and hundreds of kilometers of coastlines in the more arid regions of Gulf countries are of major concern due to the extent and magnitude of contamination. Because conventional microbiological processes do not function well at elevated salinities, bioremediation of hypersaline environments can only be accomplished using high salt-tolerant microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum compounds. In the last two decades, there have been many reports on the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in moderate to high salinity environments. Numerous microorganisms belonging to the domain Bacteria and Archaea have been isolated and their phylogeny and metabolic capacity to degrade a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in varying salinities have been demonstrated. This article focuses on our growing understanding of bacteria and archaea responsible for the degradation of hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions in moderate to high salinity conditions. Even though organisms belonging to various genera have been shown to degrade hydrocarbons, members of the genera Halomonas Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Haloferax, Haloarcula, and Halobacterium dominate the published literature. Despite rapid advances in understanding microbial taxa that degrade hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions, not much is known about organisms that carry out similar processes in anaerobic conditions. Also, information on molecular mechanisms and pathways of hydrocarbon degradation in high salinity is scarce and only recently there have been a few reports describing genes, enzymes and breakdown steps for some hydrocarbons. These limited studies have clearly revealed that degradation of oxygenated and non-oxygenated hydrocarbons by halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms occur by pathways similar to those found in non-halophiles.

  9. Organochlorine, Trace Element, and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants Investigation of the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, 1985-1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Organochlorine, trace element, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants were examined in sediment and biota from the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. The study was...

  10. Sources, vertical fluxes and accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the Mandovi Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Vethamony, P.; ManiMurali, R.; Babu, M.T.

    vegetation along the banks of the estuary) sources. The significant positive relationship between mud (silt + clay) and PHCs unveiled that high specific surface of area of mud content raise the level of petroleum hydrocarbons. Cluster analysis was used...

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  12. Bioavailability and exposure assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons and trace elements in birds nesting near the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to compare refinery-related petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and nestling house...

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbons contamination of sediments and accumulation in Tympanotonus fuscatus var. radula from the Qua Iboe Mangrove Ecosystem, Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nsikak U. Benson; Joseph P. Essien

    2009-01-01

    ... and biota from the impacted areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria, is practically scanty. This study was set out to provide information on the status of contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons in Tympanotonus fuscatus var...

  14. Comparison of the timing of hydrocarbon generation for major petroleum source rocks in North and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvie, D.M. [Humble Geochemical Services Division of Humble Instruments & Services, Inc., Humble, TX (United States); Wavrek, D. [Earth Sciences Research Institute, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The timing of hydrocarbon generation is an essential component in assessing the critical moment in the petroleum systems approach. World class petroleum source rocks from North and South America were evaluated to determine their rates of decomposition into hydrocarbons. The kinetics of hydrocarbon generation for the Villeta-Caballos(!) and Barnett petroleum systems were evaluated in detail. Comparison of kerogen decomposition rates of petroleum source rocks reveals relative temperature and maturity differences for the onset of and peak hydrocarbon generation based on an arbitrary constant heating rate model of 3-3{degrees}/million years: These differences reflect differences in composition and structure of source material which will affect the composition of the oil and gas generated from these sources. These data may be used to establish the critical moment limits.

  15. Distribution of Ni, V, and petroleum hydrocarbons in recent sediments from the Veracruz Coast, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, F.; Sanchez, M.; Alexander, H.; Delgado, D. (Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-05-01

    The coastline of Veracruz is a unique environment due to the presence of extensive coraline systems and of natural oil seeps. Depending on the environmental parameters the coraline system are highly productive and diverse. Changes in these parameters by non-natural processes will cause damage or even the disappearance of these systems. Thus baseline studies in the zone are important in order to establish the natural concentrations of trace metals and the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons originated either from natural oil seeps or accidental spills. In the present paper the concentrations of nickel and vanadium in seawater and in sediments, as well as petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments are described in order to obtain base line information for the assessment of future man-induced alterations of the study area.

  16. Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Knox, Annette M.; Owens, Christine E.; Shock, Everett L.

    1993-07-01

    The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested. Calculations were carried out to determine the distribution of species with the minimum Gibbs free energy in overpressured oil field waters in the Texas Gulf Coast assuming metastable equilibrium among calcite, albite, and a representative spectrum of organic and inorganic aqueous species at reservoir temperatures and pressures. The hypothesis that homogeneous equilibrium obtains among carboxylate and carbonate species in oil field waters is confirmed.

  17. Hydrocarbon group type analysis of petroleum heavy fractions using the TLC-FID technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, B.K.; Sarowha, S.L.S.; Bhagat, S.D. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India); Tiwari, R.K.; Gupta, S.K.; Venkataramani, P.S. [Defence Materials and Stores, Research and Development, Establishment, Kanpur (India)

    1998-03-01

    Hydrocarbon group type analysis is important in all conversion processes and in preparation of feed for these conversion processes so as to learn the selectivity of the different type of catalysts for product yield and quality. The use of the Mark 5 Iatroscan detector and the method reported here allowed for a rapid and quantitative hydrocarbon group type analysis of petroleum residues without prior separation of asphaltenes. SARA type analyses of petroleum residues have been performed by a three stage development using n-hexane, toluene and DCM (95%):MeOH (5%). The standard deviation and coefficient of variation in repeated measurements by this method were as low as 0.65 wt% or less and 3.5 wt% or less, respectively. The time required for analysis of 10 samples could be as short as 90 min. (orig.) With 2 figs., 6 tabs., 21 refs.

  18. Anoxic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in saline media using denitrifier biogranules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Shekoohiyan, Sakine; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-07-01

    The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) biodegradation was examined using biogranules at different initial TPH concentration and contact time under anoxic condition in saline media. The circular compact biogranules having the average diameter between 2 and 3mm were composed of a dense population of Bacillus spp. capable of biodegrading TPH under anoxic condition in saline media were formed in first step of the study. The biogranules could biodegrade over 99% of the TPH at initial concentration up to 2g/L at the contact time of 22h under anoxic condition in saline media. The maximum TPH biodegradation rate of 2.6 gTPH/gbiomass.d could be obtained at initial TPH concentration of 10g/L. Accordingly, the anoxic biogranulation is a possible and promising technique for high-rate biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in saline media.

  19. A study of light hydrocarbons (C{sub 4}-C{sub 1}3) in source rocks and petroleum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odden, Wenche

    2000-07-01

    This thesis consists of an introduction and five included papers. Of these, four papers are published in international journals and the fifth was submitted for review in April 2000. Emphasis has been placed on both naturally and artificially generated light hydrocarbons in petroleum fluids and their proposed source rocks as well as direct application of light hydrocarbons to oil/source rock correlations. Collectively, these papers describe a strategy for interpreting the source of the light hydrocarbons in original oils and condensates as well as the source of the asphaltene fractions from the reservoir fluids. The influence of maturity on light hydrocarbon composition has also been evaluated. The papers include (1) compositional data on the light hydrocarbons from thermal extracts and kerogen pyrolysates of sediment samples, (2) light hydrocarbon data of oils and condensates as well as the pyrolysis products of the asphaltenes from these fluids, (3) assessment of compositional alteration effects, such as selective losses of light hydrocarbons due to evaporation, thermal maturity, phase fractionation and biodegradation, (4) comparison of naturally and artificially generated light hydrocarbons, and (5) compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of the whole range of hydrocarbons of all sample types. (author)

  20. Effects of Temperature Changes on Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Soils from an Arctic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W.; Klemm, S.; Whyte, L.; Ghoshal, S.

    2009-05-01

    Bioremediation is being considered as a cost-effective and a minimally disruptive remedial option at remote sites in the Arctic and sub-Arctic impacted by petroleum NAPL contamination. The implementation of on-site bioremediation in cold environments has been generally limited in the short, non-freezing summer months since ground remains frozen for 8-9 months of the year. This study evaluates the effect of different temperature regimes on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation rates and extent, as well as on the microbial activity. A series of pilot-scale landfarming bioremediation experiments (1 m×0.6 m×0.35 m soil tank dimension) was performed using aged, petroleum fuel-contaminated soils shipped from Resolution Island, Nunavut, Canada. These experiments were conducted under the following temperature conditions: (1) variable daily average field temperatures (1 to 10°C) representative of summers at the site; (2) constant mean temperature-mode with 6°C, representing typical stable laboratory incubation; and (3) under seasonal freeze-thaw conditions (-8°C to 10°C). Data to be presented include changes with time of petroleum hydrocarbons concentration fractionated by C-lengths, soil moisture (unfrozen water) contents, O2 and CO2 concentrations in soil pore gas, microbial population size and community composition in nutrient- amended and untreated landfarms. Hydrocarbon biodegradation and heterotrophic respiration activity was more rapid under the variable temperature cycle (1 to 10°C) than at a constant average temperature of 6°C, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were reduced by 55% due to biodegradation over a 60 day test period under the variable temperature regime, compared to only 21% in soil tanks which were subjected to a constant temperature of 6°C. Shifts in microbial community were clearly observed in the both temperature modes using PCR-DGGE analyses and the emergence of a hydrocarbon-degrading population, Alkanindiges, was

  1. Evaluation of Empirical Data and Modeling Studies to Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria for Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study is an evaluation of empirical data and select modeling studies of the behavior of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) vapors in subsurface soils and how they can affect subsurface-to-indoor air vapor intrusion (VI), henceforth referred to as petroleum vapor intrusion or “PVI” ...

  2. Combination of biochar amendment and phytoremediation for hydrocarbon removal in petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Zhao, Zhipeng; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-11-01

    Remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum is a challenging task. Four different bioremediation strategies, including natural attenuation, biochar amendment, phytoremediation with ryegrass, and a combination of biochar and ryegrass, were investigated with greenhouse pot experiments over a 90-day period. The results showed that planting ryegrass in soil can significantly improve the removal rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and the number of microorganisms. Within TPHs, the removal rate of total n-alkanes (45.83 %) was higher than that of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (30.34 %). The amendment of biochar did not result in significant improvement of TPH removal. In contrast, it showed a clear negative impact on the growth of ryegrass and the removal of TPHs by ryegrass. The removal rate of TPHs was significantly lower after the amendment of biochar. The results indicated that planting ryegrass is an effective remediation strategy, while the amendment of biochar may not be suitable for the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  3. Permeable bio-reactive barriers to address petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Terry, Deborah; Wilkins, Dan; Spedding, Tim; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    A reliance on diesel generated power and a history of imperfect fuel management have created a legacy of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island. Increasing environmental awareness and advances in contaminant characterisation and remediation technology have fostered an impetus to reduce the environmental risk associated with legacy sites. A funnel and gate permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in 2014 to address the migration of Special Antarctic Blend diesel from a spill that occurred in 2002, as well as older spills and residual contaminants in the soil at the Main Power House. The PRB gate comprised of granular activated carbon and natural clinoptilolite zeolite. Petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in the soil water were successfully captured on the reactive materials, with concentrations at the outflow of the barrier recorded as being below reporting limits. The nutrient and iron concentrations delivered to the barrier demonstrated high temporal variability with significant iron precipitation observed across the bed. The surface of the granular activated carbon was largely free from cell attachment while natural zeolite demonstrated patchy biofilm formation after 15 months following PRB installation. This study illustrates the importance of informed material selection at field scale to ensure that adsorption and biodegradation processes are utilised to manage the environmental risk associated with petroleum hydrocarbon spills. This study reports the first installation of a permeable bio-reactive barrier in the subantarctic.

  4. Comparing Migration Pathways of Biodegradation Products from Petroleum Hydrocarbon Natural Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, E.; de Sieyes, N. R.; Mackay, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons contaminants frequently exist in both the vadose and saturated zones at contaminated fuel sites. Natural biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants occur in in situ reactive zones present in both the vadose and saturated zones. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons results in a mass discharge of gaseous biodegradation products through the vadose zone and transport of dissolved gases through the saturated zone. While previous studies have focused solely on transport of degradation products or geochemical parameters in groundwater or efflux of gaseous byproducts from the vadose zone, this study examines both pathways for discharge of degradation products. Quantifying the mass discharge of the biodegradation products through these zones is important to estimate the rates of natural source attenuation, assess the success of monitored natural attenuation, and quantify and document contaminant mass loss. In this study, surface efflux and groundwater mass discharge rates of biodegradation products (carbon dioxide, methane, and other intermediates) were quantified using field data. Field and analytical methodologies will be presented along with the results of the data analysis and a discussion of the uncertainties. Based on the data analysis, the surface efflux pathway through the vadose was found to be the dominant pathway for carbon loss at the monitored field site.

  5. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkali soil by wild ornamental Iridaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijuan; Wang, Yanan; Cai, Zhang; Liu, Jie; Yu, Binbin; Zhou, Qixing

    2017-03-04

    As a green remediation technology, phytoremediation is becoming one of the most promising methods for treating petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs)-contaminated soil. Pot culture experiments were conducted in this study to investigate phytoremediation potential of two representative Iridaceae species (Iris dichotoma Pall. and Iris lactea Pall.) in remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkali soil from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China. The results showed that I. lactea was more endurable to extremely high concentration of PHCs (about 40,000 mg/kg), with a relatively high degradation rate of 20.68%.The degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in soils contaminated with 10,000 and 20,000 mg/kg of PHCs was 30.79% and 19.36% by I. dichotoma, and 25.02% and 19.35% by I. lactea, respectively, which improved by 10-60% than the unplanted controls. The presence of I. dichotoma and I. lactea promoted degradation of PHCs fractions, among which saturates were more biodegradable than aromatics. Adaptive specialization was observed within the bacterial community. In conclusion, phytoremediation by I. dichotoma should be limited to soils contaminated with ≤20,000 mg/kg of PHCs, while I. lactea could be effectively applied to phytoremediation of contaminated soils by PHCs with at least 40,000 mg/kg.

  6. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediment of Tama River in Tokyo urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Akiko; Hosomi, Masaaki; Murakami, Akihiko [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Chemical Engineering Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Sakakibara, Koji [Hitachi Zosen Co., Konohana, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons, i.e., hexadecane (HEX), phenanthrene (PHE), and anthracene (ANT), were determined in estuarine sediment of the Tama River in urban Tokyo, followed by estimating their respective degradation potential. While in a sediment slurry, the aerobic biodegradation rates of these petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 40 to 70 {mu}g.g{sup -1} dry sediment:day{sup -1}. The anaerobic biodegradation rate of HEX was found to be 5 -8 {mu}g.g{sup -1} dry sediment.day{sup -1}, whereas that of PHE and ANT could not be detected following a 2-month incubation. Aerobic degradation of HEX was not affected by coexistence with either PHE or ANT, nor by the salinity level. The number of HEX-, PHE-, or ANT-utilizing bacteria ranged from 5 - 10% of the total number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. We calculated their biodegradation potentials using the biomass of naturally existing petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria present in the sampled sediment, with results for HEX, PHE, and ANT being 1.0 -3.5, 4.2 x 10{sup -2}, and 1.2 x 10{sup -2} -9.4 x 10{sup -1} {mu}g.g{sup -1} dry sediment day{sup -1}, respectively. In the aerobic tidal sediment of the Tama River, the purification potentials of HEX, PHE, and ANT were assessed to be approximately equal to their accumulation potentials occurring at the normal water level. (Author)

  7. Loads Limits Values of Soils with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Mihail; Vladimirescu, Andreea

    2017-04-01

    The high demand for oil and associated products as a source of energy, resulting in increased oil exploitation, producing, refining, transportation, storage, marketing and use led to high levels of environmental pollution. The optimum bioremediation variant proved to be the one in which fertilizer (potassium humate in NPK matrix with microelements and 8% monosaccharides) applied in a 650 l/ha dose was used together with the Zeba absorbent in 32 kg/ha dose, where the TPH level dropped by 58% in 45 days from the pollution with 3% crude oil. Most of these areas are affected by historical pollution. Many organic contaminants may undergo an ongoing process in the soil, whereby over time contaminant become less and less subject to decomposition even though relatively can still be detected in the laboratory analyses. In Romania about 50.000 ha are polluted with oil and/or brine. The bioremediation was the main method of rehabilitation. The Regulation on the assessment of environmental pollution, the following are presented as guide values for total oil hydrocarbons content in soil: - normal: less than 100 mg/kg; - alert values for sensitive soils: 200 mg/kg; - alert values for less sensitive soils: 1000 mg/kg; - intervention values for sensitive soils: 500 mg/kg; - intervention values for less sensitive soils: 2000 mg/kg. Researches done in laboratory monitored the effect of various concentrations of oil (under 2000 mg/kg, 3000 mg/kg, 5000 mg/kg, 7000 mg/kg, 10 000 mg/kg) on germination of wheat seeds at 5 and 7 days after seeding and (fresh and dry) biomass production after 40 days. Tree experiments were done: one with recently contaminated light oil, one with recently contaminated heavy oil and one with old contamination. After 5 days from sowing, the largest number of germinated seeds was found in the experiments with old contamination. The fewest germinated seeds was found in the experience with light oil. The experience with heavy oil showed an intermediate number of

  8. Characterization of Microorganisms Isolated from Petroleum Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Criste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation has received a great deal of attention, and bacteria isolated from polluted soil can be usedin that process. In this study, we performed an evaluation of the physiological groups of microorganisms fromsoil contaminated with petroleum. Bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soil using the selectiveenrichment technique. Minimal Salt Media was used for serial dilutions to determine viable cell count. Thenumber of total viable cells and different types of microorganisms in the original sample was determined by serialdilution, agar plating procedure using selective media. The plates were incubated at 300C for 24-72 hours. Distinctcolonies growing on each plate were selected, and stored at freezing temperatures. The bacterial colonies werethen identified by Gram staining and biochemical tests. Following our research, it was observed that although thetotal microbial load of soil is relatively close in value, there are differences regarding the physiological group ofmicroorganisms. In the oil contaminated soil sample the largest group of microorganisms was the nitrous nitrifyingbacteria followed by nitrate bacteria. All bacterial strains that were isolated from soil samples contaminated withhydrocarbons but also the Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtillis strains can use diesel fuel as a food source.With the increase of diesel fuel concentration from culture medium, the majority of the bacterial strains that wereused in our experiments showed an increased value of absorbance. This fact suggests that these strains can be usedin bioremediation processes.

  9. Estimation of ecotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in soil based on HPLC-GCXGC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Weltens, Reinhilde; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo

    2009-12-01

    Detailed HPLC-GCXGC/FID (high performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection) analysis of oil-contaminated soils was performed to interpret results of selected acute ecotoxicity assays. For the five ecotoxicity assays tested, plant seed germination and Microtox were selected as most sensitive for evaluating ecotoxicity of the oil in the soil phase and in the leaching water, respectively. The measured toxicity for cress when testing the soil samples did not correspond to TPH concentration in the soil. A detailed chemical composition analysis of the oil contamination using HPLC-GCXGC/FID allows to better predict the ecotoxicological risk and leaching potential of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. Cress biomass production per plant was well correlated to the total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration (R2=0.79, n=6), while cress seed germination was correlated (R2=0.82, n=6) with total concentration of "highly water-soluble aromatic hydrocarbons" (HSaromatics). The observed ecotoxicity of the leaching water for Microtox-bacteria related well to calculated (based on the HPLC-GCXGC/FID results) petroleum hydrocarbon equilibrium concentrations in water.

  10. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC RATIOS TO ASSESS THE APPORTIONMENT OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS CONTAMINANTION IN MARINE SEDIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dhamar Syakti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As maritime fulcrum nation, in Indonesia, marine environmental analytical chemistry field is still under developed. So that why, this review paper aims to provide basic understanding of the use some molecular diagnostic indices using n-alkanes indexes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs diagnostic ratios to estimate the source of apportionment of the hydrocarbons contamination and origin. The n-alkane chromatograms were then used to characterize the predominance of petrogenic or biogenic either terrestrial or aquatic. Furthermore, characterization allowed to discriminate riverine versus marine input. The occurrence of a broad unresolved complex mixture can be an evidence of biodegraded petroleum residues. For aromatic compounds, the prevalence of petrogenic, pyrolitic, and combustion-derived can be easily plotted by using isomers ratio calculation. This paper thus provides useful information on the hydrocarbon contamination origin, especially in marine sediments. Further researches should be undertaken in order to validate the use of molecular diagnostic ratio with isotopic approach.

  11. Paleozoic Composite Petroleum System of North Africa:Hydrocarbon Distribution and Main Controlling Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Guoping; Zheng Lei

    2007-01-01

    North Africa,which is one of the main oil and gas producing regions in the world,is best known for its sub-salt Paleozoic-Triassic reservoirs and Paleozoic source rocks. Hydrocarbon abundance varies greatly from one structural domain to another areally and from one stratigraphic interval to another vertically. Analyses of the essential elements and geological processes of the Paleozoic petroleum system indicate that the distribution of the Lower Silurian shale source rocks,the development of a thick Mesozoic overburden,the presence of the Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic evaporite seal are the most important factors governing the distribution of the Paleozoic-sourced hydrocarbons in North Africa. The Mesozoic sequence plays a critical role for hydrocarbons to accumulate by enabling the maturation of the Paleozoic source rocks during the Mesozoic-Paleogene times and preserving the accumulated hydrocarbons. Basins and surrounding uplifts,particularly the latter,with a thick Mesozoic sequence and a regional evaporite seal generally have abundant hydrocarbons. Basins where only a thin Mesozoic overburden was developed tend to have a very poor to moderate hydrocarbon prospectivity.

  12. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the presence of nickel and cobalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetibo, Ganiyu Oladunjoye; Ilori, Matthew Olusoji; Obayori, Oluwafemi Sunday; Amund, Olukayode Oladipo

    2013-11-01

    Bioremediation of environments co-contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals often pose a challenge as heavy metals exert toxicity to existing communities of hydrocarbon degraders. Multi-resistant bacterial strains were studied for ability to degrade hydrocarbons in chemically defined media amended with 5.0 mM Ni(2+), and Co(2+). The bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CA207Ni, Burkholderia cepacia AL96Co, and Corynebacterium kutscheri FL108Hg, utilized crude oil and anthracene without lag phase at specific growth rate spanning 0.3848-0.8259 per day. The bacterial populations grew in hydrocarbon media amended with nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) at 0.8393-1.801 days generation time (period of exponential growth, t = 15 days). The bacteria degraded 96.24-98.97, and 92.94-96.24% of crude oil, and anthracene, respectively, within 30 days without any impedance due to metal toxicity (at 5.0 mM). Rather, there was reduction of Ni and Co concentrations in the axenic culture 30 days post-inoculation to 0.08-0.12 and 0.11-0.15 mM, respectively. The metabolic functions of the bacteria are active in the presence of toxic metals (Ni and Co) while utilizing petroleum hydrocarbons for increase in biomass. These findings are useful to other baseline studies on decommissioning of sites co-contaminated with hydrocarbons and toxic metals.

  13. GC/GCMS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaheen; Faizi; saima; sumbul; Muhammed; Ali; Versiani; Rubeena; Saleem; Aisha; Sana; Hira; Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the phytochemical constituents from petroleum ether and diehloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera(M.oleufera)roots using GC/GC—MS.Methods:A total of 5.11 kg fresh and undried crashed root of M.oleifera were cut into small pieces and extracted with petroleum ether and diehloromethane(20 L.each) at room temperature for 2 d.The concentrated extracts were subjected to their GC—MS analysis.Results:The GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether and diehloromethane extracts of M.oleifern roots,which showed promising biological activities,has resulted in the identification 102 compounds.These constituents belong to 15 classes of compounds including hydrocarbons,fatty acids,esters,alcohols,isolhioeyanate.thiocyanale,pyrazine,aromalics.alkamides.cyanides,steroids,halocompounds.urea and N-hydroxyimine derivatives,unsaturated alkenamides.alkyne and indole.GC/GC-MS studies on petroleum ether extraet of the roots revealed that it contained 39 compounds,belonging to nine classes.Cyclooctasulfur S8 has been isolated as a pure compound from the extract.The major compounds identified from petroleum ether extract were trans-13-clocosene(37.9%).nonacosane(32.6%).cycloartenol(28.6%) nonadecanoic acid(13.9%) and cyclooctasulfur S8(13.9%).Dichloromethane extract of the roots was composed of 63 compounds of which nasimizinol(58.8%) along with oleic acid(46.5%),N—benzyl-N-(7—cyanato heptanamide(38.3%),N—benzyl-N—(1—chlorononyl) amide(30.3%),bis[3—benzyl prop-2-ene]-1-one(19.5%) and N.N-dibeuzyl—2-ene pent 1.5—diamide(11.6%) were the main constituents.Conclusions:This study helps to predict the formula and structure of active molecules which can be used as drugs.This result also enhances the traditional usage of M.oleifera which possesses a number of bioactive compounds.

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water: The perspectives of history and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation, the use of microbial degradation processes to detoxify environmental contamination, was first applied to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water systems in the early 1970s. Since that time, these technologies have evolved in some ways that were clearly anticipated early investigators, and in other ways that were not foreseen. The expectation that adding oxidants and nutrients to contaminated aquifers would enhance biodegradation, for example, has been born out subsequent experience. Many of the technologies now in common use such as air sparging, hydrogen peroxide addition, nitrate addition, and bioslurping, are conceptually similar to the first bioremediation systems put into operation. More unexpected, however, were the considerable technical problems associated with delivering oxidants and nutrients to heterogeneous ground water systems. Experience has shown that the success of engineered bioremediation systems depends largely on how effectively directions and rates of ground water flow can be controlled, and thus how efficiently oxidants and nutrients can be delivered to contaminated aquifer sediments. The early expectation that injecting laboratory-selected or genetically engineered cultures of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria into aquifers would be a useful bioremediation technology has not been born out subsequent experience. Rather, it appears that petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in ground water systems and that bacterial addition is usually unnecessary. Perhaps the technology that was least anticipated early investigators was the development of intrinsic bioremediation. Experience has shown that natural attenuation mechanisms - biodegradation, dilution, and sorption - limit the migration of contaminants to some degree in all ground water systems. Intrinsic bioremediation is the deliberate use of natural attenuation processes to treat contaminated ground water to specified concentration levels at predetermined

  15. The Effect of Urban Fuel Stations on Soil Contamination with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Parvizi Mosaed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:A critical environmental impact of the petroleum industry is the contamination of soil by oil and other related products which are highly toxic and exhibit molecular recalcitrance. Therefore, this study focused on investigating the total amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs in soil of urban fuel stations in Hamedan City, Iran. Methods:Thirteen high traffic urban fuel stations were selected and random soil samples were collected from surface soils at selected fuel stations. The physical and chemical proper-ties of the soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The concentration of TPHs in soils was determined by GC/MC. Results: Results showed that concentration of TPHs in all stations was more than the stand-ard level in soil (2000 mg kg-1. The minimum and maximum TPHs concentration observed in No. 5 and No.13 fuel station, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that spillage in urban fuel stations has clear effect on the content of TPH in soil, as concentration TPH in all of fuel stations was in the upper limit of the standard levels in soil. .Soil pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons has clear effects on soil biological, chemical and physical characteristics and results in decreasedg food elements, productivity and soil plant productions.

  16. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by oleophilic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J; Upasani, Vivek N

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential of an indigenous strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514, isolated from petroleum-polluted soil, for the biodegradation of crude petroleum oil. The isolate completely decolorized 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol in 120h when grown at (37±1°C), indicating its hydrocarbon utilizing nature. Ex situ biodegradation study was performed to find out quantitative utilization and biodegradation of paraffin(s) present in crude oil. When the culture was grown in Bushnell-Hass medium containing crude oil (3%,v/v) at 37°C, 180rpm for 60days, the viscosity of the oil was reduced from 1883cp to 1002cp. Gravimetric and gas chromatographic analysis showed 61.03% and 60.63% of biodegradation of C8-C36+ hydrocarbons, respectively. These results indicated that the isolate has potential to be used for ex-situ and in-situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants and could have promising applications in petrochemical industry.

  17. New hydrocarbon degradation pathways in the microbial metagenome from Brazilian petroleum reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Natalia Sierra-García

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs.

  18. New Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Microbial Metagenome from Brazilian Petroleum Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-García, Isabel Natalia; Correa Alvarez, Javier; Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Suzan; Pereira de Souza, Anete; dos Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24587220

  19. Assessment of the potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Railroad Industrial Area, Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Joan F.; Catterall, Peter H.; Richmond, Sharon A.

    1998-01-01

    Many technologies for the clean-up of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated sites depend on microbial degradation of the pollutant. In these technologies the site may be modified to enhance microbial activity, or may simply be monitored for naturally occurring microbial activity. In either case, an important aspect of site assessment for these technologies is to determine if the microorganisms present at the site have the potential to break down contaminants under the prevailing environmental conditions. We examined the numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in ground water collected from petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated and uncontaminated wells at the Railroad Industrial Area near Fairbanks, Alaska. We found that the population of gasoline-degrading microorganisms in ground water was correlated to the degree of contamination by benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). We also found that these organisms could actively mineralize these types of compounds in laboratory mineralization assays. Increasing temperature and adding nutrients both enhanced the rate of mineralization in the laboratory, but measurable degradation still occurred under conditions similar to those found in the field. Dissolved oxygen in ground water at this site ranged from 0 to 3.6 milligrams per liter. Therefore, oxygen may not always be available to microorganisms as a terminal electron acceptor. Preliminary geochemical evidence from the field indicates that alternative electron acceptors such as Fe(III), sulfate, or nitrate may be used, contributing to degradation of contaminants at this site.

  20. Horizontal arrangement of anodes of microbial fuel cells enhances remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueyong; Wang, Xin; Li, Xiaojing; Cheng, Lijuan; Wan, Lili; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-02-01

    With the aim of in situ bioremediation of soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, anodes arranged with two different ways (horizontal or vertical) were compared in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Charge outputs as high as 833 and 762C were achieved in reactors with anodes horizontally arranged (HA) and vertically arranged (VA). Up to 12.5 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was removed in HA after 135 days, which was 50.6 % higher than that in VA (8.3 %) and 95.3 % higher than that in the disconnected control (6.4 %). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rates of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in HA were higher than those in VA. Lower mass transport resistance in the HA than that of the VA seems to result in more power and more TPH degradation. Soil pH was increased from 8.26 to 9.12 in HA and from 8.26 to 8.64 in VA, whereas the conductivity was decreased from 1.99 to 1.54 mS/cm in HA and from 1.99 to 1.46 mS/cm in VA accompanied with the removal of TPH. Considering both enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbon and generation of charge in HA, the MFC with anodes horizontally arranged is a promising configuration for future applications.

  1. Risk-based evaluation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in vapor intrusion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Roger; Nagashima, Josh; Kelley, Michael; Heskett, Marvin; Rigby, Mark

    2013-06-13

    This paper presents a quantitative method for the risk-based evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in vapor intrusion investigations. Vapors from petroleum fuels are characterized by a complex mixture of aliphatic and, to a lesser extent, aromatic compounds. These compounds can be measured and described in terms of TPH carbon ranges. Toxicity factors published by USEPA and other parties allow development of risk-based, air and soil vapor screening levels for each carbon range in the same manner as done for individual compounds such as benzene. The relative, carbon range makeup of petroleum vapors can be used to develop weighted, site-specific or generic screening levels for TPH. At some critical ratio of TPH to a targeted, individual compound, the overwhelming proportion of TPH will drive vapor intrusion risk over the individual compound. This is particularly true for vapors associated with diesel and other middle distillate fuels, but can also be the case for low-benzene gasolines or even for high-benzene gasolines if an adequately conservative, target risk is not applied to individually targeted chemicals. This necessitates a re-evaluation of the reliance on benzene and other individual compounds as a stand-alone tool to evaluate vapor intrusion risk associated with petroleum.

  2. Risk-Based Evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Vapor Intrusion Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Brewer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative method for the risk-based evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH in vapor intrusion investigations. Vapors from petroleum fuels are characterized by a complex mixture of aliphatic and, to a lesser extent, aromatic compounds. These compounds can be measured and described in terms of TPH carbon ranges. Toxicity factors published by USEPA and other parties allow development of risk-based, air and soil vapor screening levels for each carbon range in the same manner as done for individual compounds such as benzene. The relative, carbon range makeup of petroleum vapors can be used to develop weighted, site-specific or generic screening levels for TPH. At some critical ratio of TPH to a targeted, individual compound, the overwhelming proportion of TPH will drive vapor intrusion risk over the individual compound. This is particularly true for vapors associated with diesel and other middle distillate fuels, but can also be the case for low-benzene gasolines or even for high-benzene gasolines if an adequately conservative, target risk is not applied to individually targeted chemicals. This necessitates a re-evaluation of the reliance on benzene and other individual compounds as a stand-alone tool to evaluate vapor intrusion risk associated with petroleum.

  3. Variability of soil potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a heterogeneous subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Andreas Houlberg; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Mortensen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial variability of factors affecting natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in the unsaturated zone is important to (i) performing a reliable risk assessment and (ii) evaluating the possibility for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted sites. Most studies to date have focused...... on the shallow unsaturated zone. Based on a data set comprising analysis of about 100 soil samples taken in a 16-m-deep unsaturated zone polluted with volatile petroleum compounds, we statistically and geostatistically analyzed values of essential soil properties. The subsurface of the site was highly layered......, resulting in an accumulation of pollution within coarse sandy lenses. Air-filled porosity, readily available phosphorous, and the first-order rate constant (k1) of benzene obtained from slurry biodegradation experiments were found to depend on geologic sample characterization (P

  4. Accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Haiqing; SONG Qian; WANG Xuchen

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation and distributions of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured in tissues of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum collected from 5 sites in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China. The concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbon and PAHs ranged from 570 to 2 574 ng/gdw (gram dry weight) and from 276 to 939 ng/gdw, in the most and least polluted sites, respectively. The bio-accumulation of hydrocarbons and PAHs in the clams appeared to be selective. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were predominantly represented by short chain (petroleum hydrocarbons were likely the major contamination source. The selective uptake of 3 and 4 ring PAHs, such as naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, by the clams was probably related to the physiological and bio-kinetic processes that were energetically favorable for uptake of compounds with fewer rings. Accumulation of the metals Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Hg, and As in the clam tissues also showed high variability, ranging from 0.043 to 87μg/gdw. Among the 7 detected metals, Zn, Cd, Cu, and As had a particularly high potential of accumulation in R. philippinarum. In general, a positive correlation was found between the tissue concentrations and sediment concentrations of hydrocarbons and of some metals. Our study suggests that moderate contamination with polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and low to moderate contamination with metals, currently exists for clam R. philippinarum in Jiaozhou Bay, in comparison with other regional studies. A long-term monitoring program is certainly needed for assessment of the potential ecological influence and toxicity of these contaminants of R. philippinarum in Jiaozhou Bay.

  5. Soil biogeochemical toxicity end points for sub-Antarctic islands contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2007-05-01

    Sub-Antarctic islands have been subjected to petroleum hydrocarbon spills, yet no information is available regarding the toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons to these subpolar soils. The purpose of the present study was to identify soil biogeochemical toxicity end points for petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sub-Antarctic soil. Soil from Macquarie Island, a sub-Antarctic island south of Australia, was collected and exposed to 10 concentrations of Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel fuel, ranging from 0 to 50,000 mg fuel/kg soil, for a 21-d period. The sensitivity of nitrification, denitrification, carbohydrate utilization, and total soil respiration to SAB fuel was assessed. Potential nitrification activity was the most sensitive indicator of SAB contamination assessed for nitrogen cycling, with an IC20 (concentration that results in a 20% change from the control response) of 190 mg fuel/ kg soil. Potential denitrification activity was not as sensitive to SAB contamination, with an IC20 of 950 mg fuel/kg soil for nitrous oxide production. Nitrous oxide consumption was unaffected by SAB contamination. Carbohydrate utilization (respiration caused by sucrose) was a more sensitive indicator (IC20, 16 mg fuel/kg soil) of SAB contamination than total respiration (IC20, 220 mg fuel/kg soil). However, total soil respiration was a more responsive measurement end point, increasing soil respiration over a 72-h period by 17 mg of CO2, compared to a change of only 2.1 mg of CO2 for carbohydrate utilization. Our results indicate that IC20s varied between 16 to 950 mg fuel/kg soil for Macquarie Island soil spiked with SAB diesel fuel. These results indicate that current cleanup levels derived from temperate zones may be too liberal for soil contamination in sub-Antarctic islands.

  6. Total petroleum hydrocarbon distribution in soils and groundwater in Songyuan oilfield, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yanguo; Feng, Dan; Song, Liuting; Wang, Jinsheng; Li, Jian

    2013-11-01

    In order to investigate the distribution of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in groundwater and soil, a total of 71 groundwater samples (26 unconfined groundwater samples, 37 confined groundwater samples, and 8 deeper confined groundwater samples) and 80 soil samples were collected in the Songyuan oilfield, Northeast China, and the vertical variation and spatial variability of TPH in groundwater and soil were assessed. For the groundwater from the unconfined aquifer, petroleum hydrocarbons were not detected in three samples, and for the other 23 samples, concentrations were in the range 0.01-1.74 mg/l. In the groundwater from the confined aquifer, petroleum hydrocarbons were not detected in two samples, and in the other 35 samples, the concentrations were 0.04-0.82 mg/l. The TPH concentration in unconfined aquifer may be influenced by polluted surface water and polluted soil; for confined aquifer, the injection wells leakage and left open hole wells may be mainly responsible for the pollution. For soils, the concentrations of TPH varied with sampling depth and were 0-15 cm (average concentration, 0.63 mg/g), >40-55 cm (average concentration, 0.36 mg/g), >100-115 cm (average concentration, 0.29 mg/g), and >500-515 cm (average concentration, 0.26 mg/g). The results showed that oil spillage and losses were possibly the main sources of TPH in soil. The consequences concluded here suggested that counter measures such as remediation and long-term monitoring should be commenced in the near future, and effective measures should be taken to assure that the oilfields area would not be a threat to human health.

  7. Removal of light petroleum hydrocarbons from water sources using polypropylene and titanium dioxide nano-composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Karyab

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petroleum hydrocarbons are the most important pollutants which threat human health and aquatics. Adsorbents are one of the common equipment in water pollution management; however, their applications have been associated with limitations. Objective: To evaluate the potential of polypropylene/titanium dioxide Nano-composite in adsorption of light petroleum hydrocarbons from water sources. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at school of health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2014-15. Activation of polypropylene fibers, with 1 cm length and 300 microns diameters, was achieved with wet heating. To synthesize of nano-composite the fibers were coated with nano-titanium dioxide with 20 nm diameter. The sonication was performed at 26 kHz and 100 W of power in 40ºc. The morphology of the fractured surfaces of impact specimens was examined by FESEM. The adsorption rate of petrol and gasoline, as surrogate of TPH, was evaluated in different retention time within polyamide mesh aperture diameter of 250 nm. Average of TPH adsorbing, per unit weight of adsorbent, were analyzed with analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc tests. Findings: The FESEM micrographs showed that the dispersion of the nano-Tio2 particles was relatively good and only few aggregations exist. The maximum adsorption capacity of petrol and gasoline was obtained in 30 minute. The adsorption rate of gasoline was 6.49±0.10 g/g and oil was 7.01±0.13 g/g. Conclusion: According to the results and in comparison with commercial imported adsorbents, the synthesized Nano-composite had favorable performance. The results show that the polypropylene/Tio2 Nano-composite can be used effectively in light petroleum hydrocarbons removal from polluted water sources.

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbon residues in the marine environment of Bassein-Mumbai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chouksey, M.K.; Kadam, A.N.; Zingde, M.D.

    stream_size 44891 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Pollut_Bull_49_2004_637.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Pollut_Bull_49_2004_637.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 , A... with respect to changes in the concentrations of dissolved 49 (2004) * Corresponding author. Tel.: +91-22-2636-1446x221; fax: +91-22- 2636-1573. Pollution of the sea by petroleum hydrocarbons oc- curs mainly through marine operations, land based discharges...

  9. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical condu...

  10. Microbial changes in rhizospheric soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons after bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xin; LI Pei-jun; ZHOU Qi-xing; XU Hua-xia; ZHANG Hai-rong

    2004-01-01

    Effects of bioremediation on microbial communities in soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons are a scientific problem to be solved. Changes in dominate microbial species and the total amount of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi in rhizospheric soils after bioremediation were thus evaluated using field bioremediation experiments. The results showed that there were changed dominant microorganisms including 11 bacterial strains which are mostly Gram positive bacteria and 6 fungal species which were identified. The total amount of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi increased after bioremediation of microbial agents combined with planting maize. On the contrary, fungi in rhizospheric soils were inhibited by adding microbial agents combined with planting soybean.

  11. Analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments of Red Sea of Yemen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil A. AL-SHWAFI; Abdulhakim AL-KHOLIDI; Aref M. O. AL-JABALI; Nengjuan ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    A field work has been carried out to identify the occurrence of oil and oil products pollution in mangrove sediment from Red Sea of Yemen. The concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons is from 700ng/g at Kamaran Island station to 400 ng/g at Al-Hodiedah station, and the total organic carbon (TOC) in samples ranges from 0.07% at Dhubab station to 0.03% at Kamaran Island station. This pollution is as a result of localized oil pollution and/or heavy ship traffic in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

  12. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  13. Theory of Nonmarine Hydrocarbon Generation and Its Relation to the Development of China Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jiandong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Since the foundation of new China, its petroleum industry has grown out of nothing and from weak to strong, as well as from onshore to offshore. In 1995,China's output of crude oil totaled149 × 10 6 t and that of natural gas17 × 109 m 3, thus, enabling the country to rank among the world's major oil producers. There have also been significant creations and inventions in related science and technology, among which the theory of nonmarine hydrocarbon generation is a typical one.

  14. A silica gel based method for extracting insect surface hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Ramírez, Santiago R; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2012-02-01

    Here, we describe a novel method for the extraction of insect cuticular hydrocarbons using silica gel, herein referred to as "silica-rubbing". This method permits the selective sampling of external hydrocarbons from insect cuticle surfaces for subsequent analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The cuticular hydrocarbons are first adsorbed to silica gel particles by rubbing the cuticle of insect specimens with the materials, and then are subsequently eluted using organic solvents. We compared the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that resulted from extractions using silica-rubbing and solvent-soaking methods in four ant and one bee species: Linepithema humile, Azteca instabilis, Camponotus floridanus, Pogonomyrmex barbatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Euglossa dilemma (Hymenoptera: Apidae). We also compared the hydrocarbon profiles of Euglossa dilemma obtained via silica-rubbing and solid phase microextraction (SPME). Comparison of hydrocarbon profiles obtained by different extraction methods indicates that silica rubbing selectively extracts the hydrocarbons that are present on the surface of the cuticular wax layer, without extracting hydrocarbons from internal glands and tissues. Due to its surface specificity, efficiency, and low cost, this new method may be useful for studying the biology of insect cuticular hydrocarbons.

  15. Using Ramped Pyrolysis - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Petroleum Hydrocarbons Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Bacosa, H. P.; Liu, J.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In summer of 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill polluted hundreds of miles of coastline along the Gulf of Mexico. A combination of human-mediated and natural weathering processes then altered the chemical composition (i.e. toxicity) of this spilled crude oil over time and space. One of the most important, yet challenging, aspects of oil spill science is to quantify these chemical changes in natural environments. In this study, we develop ramped pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) to address this challenge. In this technique, 0.1mg of freeze-dried sample is pyrolyzed over a gradual temperature ramp (50-650°C). The eluded gas is cold-trapped over different thermal ranges (a.k.a. thermal slicing) and each range is individually analyzed via GC-MS, yielding quantifiable, compound-specific results. Py-GC-MS with thermal slicing has never been used for petroleum hydrocarbon analysis, but it has many advantages - it uses minimal sample, is time efficient and does not require sample preparation (minimizing compound loss and increasing the analytical window). During development of this method, we analyzed oiled sediments and tar collected on Grand Isle, Louisiana from 2010-2012. We quantified n-alkane (C10-C38), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hopane content and confirmed these results with traditional solvent extraction, silica gel fractionation and mass spectrometry. Overall, we found rapid depletion of n-alkanes and PAHs (>90% depletion) in all samples within one year of Deepwater Horizon. After this, n-alkanes were almost 100% depleted by 2012, while PAH degradation continued to a maximum total degradation of 99% and 98% in sediment and tar, respectively. This not only describes the fate of petroleum compounds in salt marshes and beach deposits over time, but also complements previous radiocarbon studies of the same samples showing different rates of degradation in different micro-environments. In addition, the results presented

  16. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coastal, soil, and air were addressed in this review as well as sources of pollutants and their effect on biological systems, marine organisms, and human health. Emphasis is placed on marine pollution, particularly toxic metal, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminations. Major parts of this review discuss the consequences of the 1991 Gulf War on the environment, and the substantial changes associated with the marine habitats. The effects of oil field fires in Kuwait following the 1991 Gulf War were evaluated through studies that investigated hydrocarbons concentration and trace metals in samples of near shore sediments, bivalves, and fish collected from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE, and Oman. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were discussed in biota (fish and various bivalves and coastal sediments from six countries in the Gulf. The review has revealed different concentrations of pollutants, low, moderately, and chronically contaminated areas from oil and metals. It has also outlined effective sustainable management measures and goals as a first step in the evaluation of coastal, marine, soil, and air environment in the Arabian Gulf area.

  17. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Egg surface applications of microliter quantities of crude and refined oils of high aromatic content are embryotoxic to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other avian species; applications of aliphatic hydrocarbons have virtually no effect. Mallard eggs at 72 h of development were exposed to a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons or to aromatic compounds representative to those present in crude oil to assess their toxicity. The class composition of the mixture was similar to that of South Louisiana crude oil, an American Petroleum Institute reference oil. Application of 20 microliter of the mixture reduced embryonic survival by nearly 70%. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that after exposure to South Louisiana crude oil. Embryonic growth was stunted, as reflected by weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal survivors. When individual classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were tested, tetracyclics caused some embryonic death at the concentrations in the mixture. When classes were tested in all possible combinations of two, no combination appeared to be as toxic as the entire mixture. Addition of the tetracyclic compound chrysene to the aromatic mixture considerably enhanced embryotoxicity, but could not completely account for the toxicity of the crude oil. The presence of additional unidentified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as methylated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic compounds such as chrysene may further account for the embryotoxicity of the crude oil.

  18. A novel bioremediation strategy for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants using salt tolerant Corynebacterium variabile HRJ4 and biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hairong; Tang, Jingchun; Wang, Lin; Liu, Juncheng; Gurav, Ranjit Gajanan; Sun, Kejing

    2016-09-01

    The present work aimed to develop a novel strategy to bioremediate the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in the environment. Salt tolerant bacterium was isolated from Dagang oilfield, China and identified as Corynebacterium variabile HRJ4 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacterium had a high salt tolerant capability and biochar was developed as carrier for the bacterium. The bacteria with biochar were most effective in degradation of n-alkanes (C16, C18, C19, C26, C28) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NAP, PYR) mixture. The result demonstrated that immobilization of C. variabile HRJ4 with biochar showed higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (THPs) up to 78.9% after 7-day of incubation as compared to the free leaving bacteria. The approach of this study will be helpful in clean-up of petroleum-contamination in the environments through bioremediation process using eco-friendly and cost effective materials like biochar.

  19. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

    2012-04-01

    An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development

  20. An integrated bioremediation process for petroleum hydrocarbons removal and odor mitigation from contaminated marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lo, Irene M C; Yan, Dickson Y S

    2015-10-15

    This study developed a novel integrated bioremediation process for the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and the mitigation of odor induced by reduced sulfur from contaminated marine sediment. The bioremediation process consisted of two phases. In Phase I, acetate was dosed into the sediment as co-substrate to facilitate the sulfate reduction process. Meanwhile, akaganeite (β-FeOOH) was dosed in the surface layer of the sediment to prevent S(2-) release into the overlying seawater. In Phase II, NO3(-) was injected into the sediment as an electron acceptor to facilitate the denitrification process. After 20 weeks of treatment, the sequential integration of the sulfate reduction and denitrification processes led to effective biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), in which about 72% of TPH was removed. In Phase I, the release of S(2-) was effectively controlled by the addition of akaganeite. The oxidation of S(2-) by Fe(3+) and the precipitation of S(2-) by Fe(2+) were the main mechanisms for S(2-) removal. In Phase II, the injection of NO3(-) completely inhibited the sulfate reduction process. Most of residual AVS and S(0) were removed within 4 weeks after NO3(-) injection. The 16S rRNA clone library-based analysis revealed a distinct shift of bacterial community structure in the sediment over different treatment phases. The clones affiliated with Desulfobacterales and Desulfuromonadales were the most abundant in Phase I, while the clones related to Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus, Thiohalomonas nitratireducens and Sulfurimonas denitrificans predominated in Phase II.

  1. Patterns in the uptake, release, distribution, and the transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba-Akdah, M.A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The uptake and depuration patterns of petroleum hydrocarbons by marine invertebrates was studied using two deposit feeders, Scrobicularia plana (Bivalvia) and Arenicola marina (Polychaeta), and the suspension feeder Mytilus edulis (Bivalvia) using initial concentration of 500 ppm total oil in both sediments and seawater. It was shown that uptake and release of petroleum hydrocarbons was much higher and rapid from seawater than from sediment. The uptake, distribution, release, and the transfer of two PAHs, [9-{sup 14}C]-phenanthrene and [G-{sup 3}H]-benzo(a)pyrene were investigated separately through 3 trophic levels (mussels-amphipods-fish). It appeared that the mussel are capable of accumulating significant levels of these radiolabelled compounds from seawater into their tissues. The highest levels of radioactivity was localized in the visceral mass, followed by the mantle and gills, whereas the lowest content was found in the muscle. The elimination of the radioactivity of {sup 14}C-PHN was more rapid than the {sup 3}H-B(a)P. Gammarus locusta (the second trophic level in this study) freely fed on mussels contaminated with {sup 14}C-PHN or {sup 3}H-B(a)P showed a rapid uptake reaching its maximum in 2 days. The cumulative percentage retaintion ranged between 30-40% of the dose. (Author)

  2. [Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and impact on soil characteristics from oilfield Momoge Wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-yu; Feng, Jiang; Wang, Jing

    2009-08-15

    Momoge Wetland is an important international wetland. Crude oil exploration and production have been the largest anthropogenic factor contributing to the degradation of Momoge Wetland, China. To study the effects of crude oil residuals on wetland soils, the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were examined, as well as for pH and electricity conductivity (EC) from oilfield and uncontaminated area in Momoge Wetland. All contaminated areas had significantly higher (p contamination area with values ranging from 16,885 mg x kg(-1) to 31,230 mg x kg(-1). There was a significantly positive correlation between TOC and TPH contents in oilfield(r = 0.88, p Contaminated sites also exhibited significantly higher (p contamination also resulted the increase of the EC, however the impact of TPH on EC were not significant(p > 0.05). Collectively, petroleum hydrocarbon pollution has caused some major changes in soil properties in Momoge Wetland.

  3. The application of petroleum hydrocarbon fingerprint characterization in site investigation and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemo, D.A.; Bruya, J.E.; Graf, T.E.

    1995-07-01

    Tremendous resources have been and continue to be spent investigating and remediating petroleum hydrocarbon compounds (PHCs) in soil and ground water. Investigating and planning a remedial strategy for sites affected by PHCs is often a challenging task because of the complex chemical nature of the PHCs, the complex regulatory environment related to PHC cleanup, and the use of analytical methods that provide quantitation but not identification f PHCs. From a technical standpoint, the PHC impacting soil and/or ground water is frequently inadequately characterized, both in identification as well as in its general properties (solubility, toxicity). From a regulatory standpoint, promulgated or recommended total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) cleanup levels generally relate to assumed properties of specific unweathered products and are inconsistent among different agencies and regions. Accurately identifying the PHC and its nature, a process known as fingerprint characterization, is critical to the determination of appropriate regulatory goals and design of cost-effective remedial approaches. This paper presents several case studies in which fingerprint characterization made a significant difference in the project outcome.

  4. Study on bioadsorption and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by a microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nana; Bao, Mutai; Sun, Peiyan; Li, Yiming

    2013-12-01

    A microbial consortium isolated from Shengli oilfield polluted sludge was capable of degrading naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR) and crude oil. It performed high biodegradation activity and emulsifiability for petroleum hydrocarbons, and was tolerant to 6.2mM Cu(2+), 2.7 mM Zn(2+) and 9.5mM Pb(2+). Biodegradation rates of NAP, PHE, PYR and crude oil were 53%, 21%, 32% and 44% in the presence of heavy metal (Cu(2+), 1.7 mM and Zn(2+), 2mM), respectively. Exploration on the adsorption and uptake of petroleum hydrocarbons by microbe suggested the stability of surface adsorption and cell uptake by live microbial consortium followed a decreasing order of NAP > PHE ≈ PYR > crude oil. The adsorption by heat-killed microbial consortium was constant for PAHs, while decreased for crude oil. Experiments on enzymatic degradation indicated that the metabolic efficiency of periplasmic, cytoplasmic and extracellular enzymes secreted by the microbial consortium for diverse substrates was different.

  5. Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, M.; Tjeerdema, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Sowby, M. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean, it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, alters the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface organisms. Dispersing agents may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes.The objective of this research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, depuration, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, {sup 14}C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527 and undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities and temperatures. The model food chain consisted of Isochrysis galbana and Brachionus plicatilis. Direct aqueous exposure was compared with combined aqueous and dietary exposure. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil (DO) preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations.

  6. Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.; Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; McKinney, R.A.; Ryba, S.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Phototoxicity resulting from photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in the literature for a variety of freshwater organisms. The magnitude of increase in PAH toxicity often exceeds a factor of 100. In the marine environment phototoxicity to marine organisms has not been reported for individual or complex mixtures of PAHs. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis, and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, were exposed to individual known phototoxic PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene), as well as the water-accommodated fractions of several petroleum products (Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, Arabian Light Crude, Prudhoe Bay Crude, Fuel Oil {number_sign}6) containing PAHs. Phototoxicity of individual PAHs was 12 to >50,000 times that of conventional toxicity. Three of the petroleum products demonstrated phototoxicity while the lightest product, Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, was not phototoxic at the concentrations tested. The phototoxicity of petroleum products appears to be dependent on the composition and concentrations of phototoxic PAHs present: lighter oils have fewer multiple aromatic ring, phototoxic compounds while heavier oils have higher levels of these types of molecules. This study shows that phototoxicity can occur in marine waters to marine species. Further, the occurrence of oil in marine waters presents the additional risk of phototoxicity not routinely assessed for during oil spills.

  7. Evaluation of electrochemical processes for the removal of several target aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalka, Yamen; Karabet, François; Hashem, Shahir

    2011-03-01

    Ground and surface water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products is a serious and growing environmental problem throughout the world. Consequently, a study of the use of electrochemical treatment in the clean-up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination by aromatic pollutants to more acceptable levels. In the experiments described, water contamination by refined petroleum products was simulated under laboratory conditions. Electrochemical treatment, using aluminium electrodes, has been optimised by full factorial design and surface response analysis in term of BTEX and PAHs removal and energy consumption. The optimal conditions of pH, current density, electrolysis time, electrolyte type, and electrolyte concentration have then been applied in the treatment of real water samples which were monitored as petroleum contaminated samples. Treatment results have shown that electrochemical methods could achieve the concentration of these pollutants to undetectable levels in particular groundwater and surface water, hence, they can be highly effective in the remediation of water contaminated by aromatic hydrocarbons, and the use of these processes is therefore recommended.

  8. The Willow Microbiome is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and, after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67 growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment and thus protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology.

  9. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis, E-mail: subhasis.ghoshal@mcgill.ca

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Aeration and moisture addition alone caused extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation. • 30-day slurry reactor remediation endpoints attained in 385 days in biopiles. • High nitrogen concentrations inhibited hydrocarbon degradation. • Inhibition of biodegradation linked to lack of shifts in soil microbial community. - Abstract: Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16–C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16–C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day{sup −1} in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day{sup −1} in slurry bioreactors for C16–C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction

  10. Quantification of compositional changes of petroleum hydrocarbons by GC/FID and GC/MS during a long-term bioremediation experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine S.; Arvin, Erik; Svensmark, Bo

    2000-01-01

    Samples from a long-term bioremediation experiment contaminated with two crude oils, Arabian Heavy and Gullfax, was used to analyze the compositional change of petroleum hydrocarbons. A time course of five different homologous series of petroleum hydrocarbons were analysed by GC/FID and GC...

  11. A Field Scale Investigation of Enhanced Petroleum Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in the Vadose Zone Combining Soil Venting as an Oxygen Source with Moisture and Nutrient Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons has been extensively studied and well documented in the literature. A review of one computer database...Report AMXTH-TE-TR- 85026. U. S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. Edgewood, MD. Atlas, R. M. 1981. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons : An

  12. Optimisation research of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered drilling wastes from waste pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steliga, Teresa; Jakubowicz, Piotr; Kapusta, Piotr

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the problem of drilling waste remediation. Analyses and research showed that material stored in waste pits could be classified as soil with a high level of petroleum impurities (total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] = 102,417-132,472 mg kg(-1) dry mass). While preparing the complex technology of soil decontamination (which included primary reclamation, basic bioremediation and inoculation with biopreparations based on indigenous bacteria and fungi), laboratory tests indicated the use of an ex-situ method was fundamental. Remediation was controlled with a chromatographic method of qualitative and quantitative determination of petroleum hydrocarbons. Based on analytical data, there was the possibility to determine the effectiveness of consecutive purifying phases. Laboratory tests, following 135 days of basic bioremediation stimulated by optimum conditions to activate the growth of indigenous micro-organisms, resulted in a decrease in the TPH content, which was in the range of 52.3-72.5%. The next phase of soil decontamination lasted 135 days and involved the use of inoculation with biopreparations based on indigenous micro-organisms and fungi. This process enabled a TPH decrease of 93.8- 94.3%. Laboratory biodegradation research was done with the use of the biomarker C30-17α(H)21β(H)-hopane to normalize analyte (TPH, Σn-C8-n-C22 and Σn-C23-n-C36) concentrations. The calculated first-order biodegradation constants enable estimation of the purification stage dynamics and the effectiveness of the applied biopreparations. Furthermore, they represent the biodegradation degree of individual n-alkanes in subsequent stages of the soil purification process.

  13. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  14. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons by using a freshwater fern species Azolla filiculoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösesakal, Taylan; Ünal, Muammer; Kulen, Oktay; Memon, Abdülrezzak; Yüksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phytoremediation capacity of Azolla filiculoides Lam. for the water resources contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated. The plants were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% crude oil under greenhouse conditions for 15 days. Although the growth rate of the plants were not negatively influenced by the presence of crude oil in the media for the concentration of 0.005% and 0.01% v/v, a gradual impeding effect of crude oil in the growth media has been observed at concentrations 0.05-0.1%. More than 0.1% crude oil in the growth medium ostensibly retarded the growth. For example, 0.2% oil in the media reduced growth approximately 50% relative to the control, and the presence of crude oil at concentrations 0.3% or more were lethal. The data about the percentage of plant growth, fresh weight increase and root growth clearly indicated that the tolerance level of A. filiculoides plants to crude oil ranges between 0.1% and 0.2%. In comparison to control samples, the biodegradation rate of total aliphatic and aromatic (phenathrene) hydrocarbons at 0.05-0.2% oil concentrations, was 94-73% and 81-77%, respectively. On the other hand, in case of further increases in oil concentration in media, i.e.; 0.3-0.5%, the biodegradation rate was still higher in the experimental samples, respectively 71-63% and 75-71%. The high biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in the experimental samples suggested that A. filiculoides plants could be a promising candidate to be used for the phytoremediation of low crude oil contaminated precious freshwater resources.

  15. A novel phytoremediation technology shown to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons from soils in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.D.; Yu, X.M.; Gerhardt, K.; Glick, B.; Greenberg, B [Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2009-04-01

    This article described a newly developed, advanced microbe-enhanced phytoremediation system that can be used to remediate lands polluted by hydrocarbons, salts and metals. The technology uses 3 complementary processes to achieve effective remediation of strongly bound persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil. The remediation process involves physical soil treatment, photochemical photooxidation, microbial remediation and growth of plants treated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR-enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS) alleviates plant stress and increases biodegradation activities, thereby accelerating plant growth in the presence of POPs or poor soils. The PEPS has been used successfully to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from impacted soils in situ at several sites across Canada. Studies have shown that the PHCs are degraded in the rhizosphere. This article also presented a summary of the work conducted at 3 sites in Alberta. It took only 2 years to remediate the 3 sites to levels required for site closure under Alberta Tier 1 guidelines. It was concluded that PEPS is equally effective for total PHC and Fraction 3 CCME hydrocarbons. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  16. Pressure sensitive adhesive using light color, low softening point petroleum hydrocarbon resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahner, M.E.

    1987-07-28

    This patent describes an adhesive composition comprising from about 20% to about 80% by weight of a copolymer and, correspondingly, from about 80% to about 20% by weight of a tackifying petroleum hydrocarbon resin having a softening point of from 0/sup 0/C to about 40/sup 0/C. It has a number average molecular weight of from about 100 to about 600, and a Gardner color less than about 7 prepared by the aluminum chloride catalyzed Friedel Crafts polymerization of a hydrocarbon feed comprising: (a) from about 5% to about 75% by weight of C/sub 8/ to C/sub 10/ vinyl aromatic hydrocarbon stream; (b) from about 10% to about 35% by weight of a piperylene concentrate; and (c) from about 25% to about 70% by weight of a C/sub 4/ to C/sub 8/ monoolefin chain transfer agent of the formula RR'C=CHR'' where R and R' are C/sub 1/ to C/sub 5/ alkyl, and R'' is H or C/sub 1/ to C/sub 4/ alkyl group.

  17. Salinity and Conductivity Amendment of Soil Enhanced the Bioelectrochemical Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Binbin; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-09-01

    The extreme salinity and high internal resistance of saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons were two key limitations for using the bioelectrochemical remediation. In order to solve two problems, we simply rinsed soil, added carbon fiber to polluted soil. The charge output was enhanced by 110% with increase of the maximum current densities from 81 to 304 mA·m‑2 while hydrocarbons degradation rate enhanced by 484%, especially the high molecular weight fractions (C28–C36 of n-alkanes and 4–6 rings of PAHs). These effects were possibly due to the selective enrichment of species belonged to δ-Proteobacteria (Proteobacteria), Flavobacteriia (Bacteroidetes) or Clostridia (Firmicutes), the activities of biological electron transfer and enzymes. As we know, oxygenase gene that directly decided the process of degradation, was surveyed for the first time in soil bioelectrochemical remediation system. The results confirmed that the bio-current stimulated the activities of naphthalene dioxygenase and xylene monooxygenase and thus the hydrocarbons degradation and the electricity generation. Given that electricity generation and the remediation performance are governed by multiple factors, understanding of microbial community and enzyme gene is crucial to promote the power yield and the bioelectrochemical remediation applicability.

  18. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk.

  19. Process of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the downstream of the Tamagawa river. Tamagawa karyuiki ni okeru sekiyukei tanka suiso no biseibutsu bunkai katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morito, M. (Sumitomo 3M Co., Kanagawa (Japan)); Okada, M.; Murakami, A. (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-12-10

    The process of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated in the downstream of the Tamagawa river. Petroleum hydrocarbons, such as hexadecane, octylbenzene, and 1-methylnaphtalene were observed to be rapidly degraded by microorganisms in the water sampled from the surface of the river after a period of lag time. The longer lag time was observed in order of hexadecane hydrocarbons, but the rates was not be promoted by physical and chemical emulsification. It was suggested that petroleum hydrocarbons were degraded not in physical and chemical process in which the hydrocarbons were emulsified by microbial extracellular products, microfinded and enhanced contact area or frequency to microbes, but in biochemical process in which the microorganisms gained the ability of petroleum hydrocarbons degradation, that is, induction of production of a degrading enzyme. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  20. On-site and in situ remediation technologies applicable to petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Camenzuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites, associated with the contemporary and legacy effects of human activities, remain a serious environmental problem in the Antarctic and Arctic. The management of contaminated sites in these regions is often confounded by the logistical, environmental, legislative and financial challenges associated with operating in polar environments. In response to the need for efficient and safe methods for managing contaminated sites, several technologies have been adapted for on-site or in situ application in these regions. This article reviews six technologies which are currently being adapted or developed for the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic. Bioremediation, landfarming, biopiles, phytoremediation, electrokinetic remediation and permeable reactive barriers are reviewed and discussed with respect to their advantages, limitations and potential for the long-term management of soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in the Antarctic and Arctic. Although these technologies demonstrate potential for application in the Antarctic and Arctic, their effectiveness is dependent on site-specific factors including terrain, soil moisture and temperature, freeze–thaw processes and the indigenous microbial population. The importance of detailed site assessment prior to on-site or in situ implementation is emphasized, and it is argued that coupling of technologies represents one strategy for effective, long-term management of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic.

  1. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in @iEtroplus suratensis@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.

    Acute toxicity (LC@d50@@) and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons (Toluene, Quinoline, Pyridine and Naphthalene) on the metabolic index (oxygen consumption rate) of an estuarine fish. @iEtroplus suratensis@@ is reported. The LC@d50@@ values were...

  2. New caffeine bonded phase for separation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum asphaltenes by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, G.; Bertrand, C.; Gastel, F. van

    1985-03-01

    The preparation of a new caffeine phase for HPLC is described. The capacity ratios (k') of about ten polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been determined. It has been shown that the aromatics were eluted according the number of rings, only slightly influenced by the substituents. The performance of the stationary phase is demonstrated with separations of petroleum asphalts and residues and aromatic mixtures.

  3. Assessment of three approaches of bioremediation (Natural Attenuation, Landfarming and Bioagumentation - Assistited Landfarming) for a petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, C; Spada, V; Sciarrillo, R

    2017-03-01

    Contamination with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) subsequent to refining activities, is currently one of the major environmental problems. Among the biological remediation approaches, landfarming and in situ bioremediation strategies are of great interest. Purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of a remediation process wholly based on biological degradation applied to contaminated soils from a decommissioned refinery. This study evaluated through a pot experiment three bioremediation strategies: a) Natural Attenuation (NA), b) Landfarming (L), c) Bioaugmentation-assisted Landfarming (LB) for the treatment of a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). After a 90-days trial, Bioagumentation - assistited Landfarming approach produced the best results and the greatest evident effect was shown with the most polluted samples reaching a reduction of about 86% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), followed by Landfarming (70%), and Natural Attenuation (57%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of bioremediation strategies was the most advantageous option for the treatment of contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or landfarming applied alone. Besides, our results indicate that incubation with an autochthonous bacterial consortium may be a promising method for bioremediation of TPH-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber on central nervous system in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system activity of the petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber was examined in mice, fed normal as well as healthy conditions. The petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber at the doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg showed significant central nervous system activity in mice.

  5. Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Surface Water and Sediment in Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiandi; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Yu, Qiming; Lu, Gang

    2015-09-01

    A field study in the Pearl River Delta of China was conducted in order to describe to the spatial and seasonal variation of occurrence and concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in surface water and sediments. Petroleum hydrocarbons and isoprenoid alkanes were quantified by UV spectroscopy and gas chromatography with a mass selective detector. The concentrations of TPH ranged from 4.3 to 68.7 µg L(-1) in surface water, and from 66.6 to 1445 µg g(-1) in surface sediments. The ratios of pristine to phytane suggested that the main sources of TPH in the sediment were petroleum importation. The highest concentrations of TPH were present in the spring season. When compared with results from previous studies, it can be concluded that the Pearl River Delta was moderately polluted by TPH. No statistically significant correlations were observed between the concentrations of TPH in surface water and sediments.

  6. Field trial on removal of petroleum-hydrocarbon pollutants using a microbial consortium for bioremediation and rhizoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Niqui, José L; Roca, Amalia; Solano, Jennifer; Fernández, Matilde; Bastida, Felipe; García, Carlos; Ramos, Juan L

    2015-02-01

    Petroleum waste sludges are toxic and dangerous that is why environmental protection agencies have declared their treatment top priority. Physicochemical treatments are expensive and environmentally unfriendly, while alternative biological treatments are less costly but, in general, work at a slower pace. An in situ bioremediation and rhizoremediation field scale trial was performed in an area contaminated with oil refinery sludge under semiarid climate. The bioremediation and rhizoremediation treatments included the use of an artificial consortium made up of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria,and the combined use of the mentioned consortium along with pasture plants respectively. Rhizoremediation revealed that the development of vegetation favoured the evolution of indigenous microbiota with potential to remove petroleum wastes. This was inferred as the decline of total petroleum hydrocarbons 7 months after the biological treatment.

  7. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites by DNA diagnosis-based bioslurping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-11-01

    The application of effective remediation technologies can benefit from adequate preliminary testing, such as in lab-scale and Pilot-scale systems. Bioremediation technologies have demonstrated tremendous potential with regards to cost, but they cannot be used for all contaminated sites due to limitations in biological activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a DNA diagnostic method that reduces the time to select contaminated sites that are good candidates for bioremediation. We applied an oligonucleotide microarray method to detect and monitor genes that lead to aliphatic and aromatic degradation. Further, the bioremediation of a contaminated site, selected based on the results of the genetic diagnostic method, was achieved successfully by applying bioslurping in field tests. This gene-based diagnostic technique is a powerful tool to evaluate the potential for bioremediation in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

  8. Electrokinetic remediation and microbial community shift of β-cyclodextrin-dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chunli; Du, Maoan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Ma, Wencheng; Zheng, Lina

    2011-03-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) migration of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), which is inclusive of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), is an economically beneficial and environmentally friendly remediation process for oil-contaminated soils. Remediation studies of oil-contaminated soils generally prepared samples using particular TPHs. This study investigates the removal of TPHs from, and electromigration of microbial cells in field samples via EK remediation. Both TPH content and soil respiration declined after the EK remediation process. The strains in the original soil sample included Bacillus sp., Sporosarcina sp., Beta proteobacterium, Streptomyces sp., Pontibacter sp., Azorhizobium sp., Taxeobacter sp., and Williamsia sp. Electromigration of microbial cells reduced the biodiversity of the microbial community in soil following EK remediation. At 200 V m(-1) for 10 days, 36% TPH was removed, with a small population of microbial cells flushed out, demonstrating that EK remediation is effective for the present oil-contaminated soils collected in field.

  9. Effects of Temperature, Acetate and Nitrate on Methane Generation from Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chunshuang; Zhao Dongfeng; Zhang Yunbo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of temperature, acetate and nitrate on methane gas production from biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated. The results indicated that methane gas production at 35℃was higher than that obtained at 55℃. The acetate addition signiifcant enhanced the methane production at 35℃, however, at 55℃the nitrate addition could largely promote the methane production. The microbial community structures were revealed by PCR-DGGE. The Actinobacteria, Clostridia, Clostridiales, Syntrophus, Pseudomonas, and Proteobacteria-like bacteria and Methano-cellales, Methanosaeta, Methanomicrobiales, Methanolinea, Thermoprotei-like archaea had been enriched at 35 ℃in the acetate addition test. The Thermoprotei, Proteobacterium, Thermodesulfovibrio-like bacteria and Methanocellales-like ar-chaea had been enriched at 55℃in the nitrate addition test. The results may shed light on the bio-utilization of marginal oil reservoirs for enhancing energy recovery.

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marine sediments along Nagapattinam - Pondicherry coastal waters, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, K; Balakrishnan, S; Sampathkumar, P

    2017-04-15

    In this present study, petroleum hydrocarbons were statistically analyzed in three different coastal sediment cores viz., (N1, P1 and P2) from the Southeast coast of Tamil Nadu, India to examine the viability of PHCs. The significant positive relationship between mud (silt+clay+sand) and PHC unveiled that high specific surface of area of mud content raise the level of PHCs. Cluster analysis was used to discriminate the sediment samples based on their degree of contamination. The present study shows that instead of expensive and destructive PHC chemical methods, magnetic susceptibility is found to be a suitable, cheap and rapid method for detailed study of PHC in marine sediments. This baseline PHCs data can be used for regular ecological monitoring and effective management for the mining and tourism related activities in the coastal ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Petroleum hydrocarbons and their effects on fishery species in the Bohai Sea, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sisi; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Xuegang; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin; Yu, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Systematic studies on the changes in concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) and their effects on fishery species in the Bohai Sea during 1974-2004 are presented. Changes in PHs concentrations were closely related to Yellow River runoff. Concentrations of PHs accumulated in fish and shrimp increased by about 0.712 mg/kg dry weight when trophic level of fish and shrimps increased by 1. Attention should also be paid to the high PHs concentrations in mollusks along the coastal waters of the Bohai Sea. Average concentration of PHs in the adjacent coastal waters of Tianjin City during 1996-2005 decreased the population growth rates of fish, crustaceans and mollusks in the Bohai Sea by 2.58%, 6.59% and 2.33%, respectively. Therefore, PHs have significantly contributed to the decline in fisheries in the Bohai Sea, and they must be reduced to realize the sustainable fisheries.

  12. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-09-15

    Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems.

  13. Evaluation of phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals with using Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Askary Mehrabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil pollution is an inevitable worldwide phenomenon in oil producing and consuming areas that stems from human error, accidental discharge and other sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of vinca in petroleum-polluted soil. The experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design in 3 replications with different concentrations of crude oil (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 % V/W in pot planting stage. At the end of the 70-day period, soil samples were analyzed for total hydrocarbons removal. Contents of pb, zn and Ni were measured by atomic absorption from the soils and the leaves. Statistical analysis of data were performed on the basis of duncan’s test and by using of SPSS16 software. In concentrations higher than 3 % no growth was observed. The growth parameters such as stem length, stem fresh and dry matter decreased progressively from 0.5-3 % crude oil in soil. The results showed heavy metal accumulation in plant leaves and reduction of them in the soil. Heavy metals containing zinc, lead and nickel in plant increased in different concentration of crude oil. Total hydrocarbons and heavy metals containing zinc, lead and nickel reduced were in planted contaminated soil. This study showed that Periwinkle was able to grow and survive in low concentrations of oil and reduced pollutants in the soil. Based upon these results, Catharanthus roseus can be used as phytoremediator of petroleum-contaminated soil in low concentrations.

  14. A mesocasm study of enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Guigard, S.; Biggar, K. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Foght, J.; Semple, K. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Under certain conditions, Natural Attenuation (NA) processes can act to reduce the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume or concentrations of contaminants in soil or groundwater within a reasonable time frame. NA processes are considered to be a more cost-effective remediation approach than engineered processes. However, the rates of biodegradation in cold regions are slower and occasionally the processes are nutrient or Terminal Electron Acceptor (TEA) limited. These limitations may make NA less viable due to slower rates of biological activity. This paper discusses the results of a mesocasm study conducted in laboratory-controlled conditions to investigate the TEA and nutrient enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater from two sites in Alberta. Target compounds for the study were BTEX and the CCME F1 fraction. Samples taken from the site were used to set up 11 L mesocasms with a water to soil ratio of 10:1 under anaerobic conditions. The samples were amended with nitrate and sulfate and then incubated. Sub-sampling was carried out once a month to monitor substrate consumption, TEA depletion and evolution of biogenic gases. Microbial enumeration and metabolite analysis were also done. No final conclusions could be drawn from the study, which had only been carried out for 6 months at the time that this paper was written. However, results to date have indicated that the method of mesocasms and sub-sampling are applicable to anaerobic biodegradation studies. In addition, nutrient supplementation appears to enhance nitrate and sulfate reduction. However, the TEA depletion was greater than expected and could not be explained by the substrate consumption. Results also indicated that the groundwater from site 1 was sulfate-limited, suggesting that sulfate amendment could enhance anaerobic biodegradation of CCME F1 petroleum hydrocarbons. Data from the ongoing study may provide additional insight to clarify processes in the mesocasms. 9 refs

  15. Biodegradation of different petroleum hydrocarbons by free and immobilized microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tiantian; Pi, Yongrui; Bao, Mutai; Xu, Nana; Li, Yiming; Lu, Jinren

    2015-12-01

    The efficiencies of free and immobilized microbial consortia in the degradation of different types of petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated. In this study, the biodegradation rates of naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and crude oil reached about 80%, 30%, 56% and 48% under the optimum environmental conditions of free microbial consortia after 7 d. We evaluated five unique co-metabolic substances with petroleum hydrocarbons, α-lactose was the best co-metabolic substance among glucose, α-lactose, soluble starch, yeast powder and urea. The orthogonal biodegradation analysis results showed that semi-coke was the best immobilized carrier followed by walnut shell and activated carbon. Meanwhile, the significance of various factors that contribute to the biodegradation of semi-coke immobilized microbial consortia followed the order of: α-lactose > semi-coke > sodium alginate > CaCl2. Moreover, the degradation rate of the immobilized microbial consortium (47%) was higher than that of a free microbial consortium (26%) under environmental conditions such as the crude oil concentration of 3 g L(-1), NaCl concentration of 20 g L(-1), pH at 7.2-7.4 and temperature of 25 °C after 5 d. SEM and FTIR analyses revealed that the structure of semi-coke became more porous and easily adhered to the microbial consortium; the functional groups (e.g., hydroxy and phosphate) were identified in the microbial consortium and were changed by immobilization. This study demonstrated that the ability of microbial adaptation to the environment can be improved by immobilization which expands the application fields of microbial remediation.

  16. Extraction of hydrocarbons from high-maturity Marcellus Shale using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, Palma B.; Philip A. Candela,; Wenlu Zhu,; Alan J. Kaufman,

    2015-01-01

    Shale is now commonly exploited as a hydrocarbon resource. Due to the high degree of geochemical and petrophysical heterogeneity both between shale reservoirs and within a single reservoir, there is a growing need to find more efficient methods of extracting petroleum compounds (crude oil, natural gas, bitumen) from potential source rocks. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) was used to extract n-aliphatic hydrocarbons from ground samples of Marcellus shale. Samples were collected from vertically drilled wells in central and western Pennsylvania, USA, with total organic carbon (TOC) content ranging from 1.5 to 6.2 wt %. Extraction temperature and pressure conditions (80 °C and 21.7 MPa, respectively) were chosen to represent approximate in situ reservoir conditions at sample depth (1920−2280 m). Hydrocarbon yield was evaluated as a function of sample matrix particle size (sieve size) over the following size ranges: 1000−500 μm, 250−125 μm, and 63−25 μm. Several methods of shale characterization including Rock-Eval II pyrolysis, organic petrography, Brunauer−Emmett−Teller surface area, and X-ray diffraction analyses were also performed to better understand potential controls on extraction yields. Despite high sample thermal maturity, results show that supercritical CO2 can liberate diesel-range (n-C11 through n-C21) n-aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total quantity of extracted, resolvable n-aliphatic hydrocarbons ranges from approximately 0.3 to 12 mg of hydrocarbon per gram of TOC. Sieve size does have an effect on extraction yield, with highest recovery from the 250−125 μm size fraction. However, the significance of this effect is limited, likely due to the low size ranges of the extracted shale particles. Additional trends in hydrocarbon yield are observed among all samples, regardless of sieve size: 1) yield increases as a function of specific surface area (r2 = 0.78); and 2) both yield and surface area increase with increasing

  17. Bioremediation of weathered petroleum hydrocarbon soil contamination in the Canadian High Arctic: laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanscartier, David; Laing, Tamsin; Reimer, Ken; Zeeb, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    The bioremediation of weathered medium- to high-molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) in the High Arctic was investigated. The polar desert climate, contaminant characteristics, and logistical constraints can make bioremediation of persistent HCs in the High Arctic challenging. Landfarming (0.3 m(3) plots) was tested in the field for three consecutive years with plots receiving very little maintenance. Application of surfactant and fertilizers, and passive warming using a greenhouse were investigated. The field study was complemented by a laboratory experiment to better understand HC removal mechanisms and limiting factors affecting bioremediation on site. Significant reduction of total petroleum HCs (TPH) was observed in both experiments. Preferential removal of compounds nC16 occurred, whereas in the field, TPH reduction was mainly limited to removal of compounds nC16 was observed in the fertilized field plots only. The greenhouse increased average soil temperatures and extended the treatment season but did not enhance bioremediation. Findings suggest that temperature and low moisture content affected biodegradation of HCs in the field. Little volatilization was measured in the laboratory, but this process may have been predominant in the field. Low-maintenance landfarming may be best suited for remediation of HCs compounds

  18. Variability of soil potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a heterogeneous subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Andreas H; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Mortensen, Lars; Moldrup, Per

    2010-07-15

    Quantifying the spatial variability of factors affecting natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in the unsaturated zone is important to (i) performing a reliable risk assessment and (ii) evaluating the possibility for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted sites. Most studies to date have focused on the shallow unsaturated zone. Based on a data set comprising analysis of about 100 soil samples taken in a 16 m-deep unsaturated zone polluted with volatile petroleum compounds, we statistically and geostatistically analysed values of essential soil properties. The subsurface of the site was highly layered, resulting in an accumulation of pollution within coarse sandy lenses. Air-filled porosity, readily available phosphorous, and the first-order rate constant (k(1)) of benzene obtained from slurry biodegradation experiments were found to depend on geologic sample characterization (P<0.05), while inorganic nitrogen was homogenously distributed across the soil stratigraphy. Semivariogram analysis showed a spatial continuity of 4-8.6 m in the vertical direction, while it was 2-5 times greater in the horizontal direction. Values of k(1) displayed strong spatial autocorrelation. Even so, the soil potential for biodegradation was highly variable, which from autoregressive state-space modeling was partly explained by changes in soil air-filled porosity and gravimetric water content. The results suggest considering biological heterogeneity when evaluating the fate of contaminants in the subsurface.

  19. MBBR system performance improvement for petroleum hydrocarbon removal using modified media with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyahzadeh, Amir Hossein; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Ayati, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system has a successful operation in the treatment of different types of wastewater. Since the media, i.e. the place of growth and formation of biofilm, play the main role in the treatment in this system, MBBR systems were operated in the present research with modified Bee-cell media. Activated carbon granules of almond or walnut shells were placed in media pores to improve the treatment of refinery oil wastewater and their operation with MBBR system was compared with the conventional Bee-cell media. In these experiments, the effects of organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time (HRT), media filling ratio (MFR), and activated carbon concentration (ACC) used in the media were investigated on the operation of MBBR systems. The analysis of results estimated the optimal values of HRT, MFR, and ACC used in the media between the studied levels, being equal to 22 h, 50%, and 7.5 g/L, respectively. Under these conditions, total petroleum hydrocarbons removal efficiencies for MBBR systems using Bee-cell media with carbon of almond, carbon of walnut shells, and a carbon-free system were 95 ± 1.17%, 91 ± 1.11%, and 57 ± 1.7%, respectively, which confirms the adsorption ability of systems with the media containing activated carbon in the removal of petroleum compounds from wastewater.

  20. Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels Used in a Direct Hydrocarbon Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchen Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a direct hydrocarbon phosphoric acid fuel cell, PAFC, was investigated using petroleum diesel, biodiesel, and n-hexadecane as the fuels. We believe this is the first study of a fuel cell being operated with petroleum diesel as the fuel at the anode. Degradation in fuel cell performance was observed prior to reaching steady state. The degradation was attributed to a carbonaceous material forming on the surface of the anode. Regardless of the initial degradation, a steady-state operation was achieved with each of the diesel fuels. After treating the anode with water the fuel cell performance recovered. However, the fuel cell performance degraded again prior to obtaining another steady-state operation. There were several observations that were consistent with the suggestion that the carbonaceous material formed from the diesel fuels might be a reaction intermediate necessary for steady-state operation. Finally, the experiments indicated that water in the phosphoric acid electrolyte could be used as the water required for the anodic reaction. The water formed at the cathode could provide the replacement water for the electrolyte, thereby eliminating the need to provide a water feed system for the fuel cell.

  1. Concentration of Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contamination Shapes Fungal Endophytic Community Structure in Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdel, Guillaume; Roy-Bolduc, Alice; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous pattern of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of pollution reduce fungal

  2. A Study on Antibacterial Activity and Chemical Composition of the Petroleum Ether Extract from Aspergillusniger Mycelia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; XIAO; Wujuan; LIU; Zhu; LI

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop natural antibacterial agents,the antibacterial activity of Aspergillusnigerxj was investigated.After being cultured in potato dextrose liquid medium liquid medium,mycelia was under heating reflux extraction with 90% ethanol.Removal of ethanol under reduced pressure gave a residue,to which water was added and then extracted with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate.In vacuo evaporation of the solvents yielded three crude extracts.Then the disc diffusion method was used to measure the antibacterial activity of these extracts.The petroleum ether extract with antibacterial activity was separated by silica gel column chromatography method,then separated and identified by GC-MS after been methyl esterified.At the concentration of 50 mg /mL,the petroleum ether extract of mycelia exhibited inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus.The petroleum ether extract from Aspergillusnigerxj mycelia contained natural substances with antibacterial activity and fatty acids are the main constituents in it.

  3. Extraction of hydrocarbons from microalga Botryococcus braunii with switchable solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorì, Chiara; Torri, Cristian; Samorì, Giulia; Fabbri, Daniele; Galletti, Paola; Guerrini, Franca; Pistocchi, Rossella; Tagliavini, Emilio

    2010-05-01

    Lipid extraction is a critical step in the development of biofuels from microalgae. Here a new procedure was proposed to extract hydrocarbons from dried and water-suspended samples of the microalga Botryococcus braunii by using switchable-polarity solvents (SPS) based on 1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene (DBU) and an alcohol. The high affinity of the non-ionic form of DBU/alcohol SPS towards non-polar compounds was exploited to extract hydrocarbons from algae, while the ionic character of the DBU-alkyl carbonate form, obtained by the addition of CO(2), was used to recover hydrocarbons from the SPS. DBU/octanol and DBU/ethanol SPS were tested for the extraction efficiency of lipids from freeze-dried B. braunii samples and compared with n-hexane and chloroform/methanol. The DBU/octanol system was further evaluated for the extraction of hydrocarbons directly from algal culture samples. DBU/octanol exhibited the highest yields of extracted hydrocarbons from both freeze-dried and liquid algal samples (16% and 8.2% respectively against 7.8% and 5.6% with n-hexane).

  4. Changes in toxicity during in situ bioremediation of weathered drill wastes contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steliga, Teresa; Jakubowicz, Piotr; Kapusta, Piotr

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation of weathered drill wastes severely contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (90,000-170,000 mg kg(-1)) and BTEX (51.2-95.5 mg kg(-1)) to soil standards was achieved over a 3-year period in three phases: initial remediation, basic bioremediation and inoculation with a biopreparation. Fourteen non-pathogenic indigenous bacteria species belonging mainly to the Actinomycetales were identified and shown to be able to degrade 63-75% of nC(9)-nC(20), 36-51% of nC(21)-nC(36), 36% of BTEX and 20% of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Addition of five non-pathogenic fungi species to the bacterial consortium allowed degradation of 69-89% of nC(9)-nC(20), 47-80% of nC(21)-nC(36), 76% of BTEX, and 68% of PAHs. Microtox, Ostacodtoxkit, Phytotoxkit and Ames tests indicated that changes in toxicity were not connected with the decrease in TPH contents, possibly due to the formation of toxic indirect metabolites during bioremediation. No toxicity was found in the soil after bioremediation.

  5. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  6. Hydrocarbons derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramírez, Maria de Lourdes; Pérez, José Jesus

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two bottle sizes (1.5 and 19 L), all brought in supermarkets. The analysis was by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. -Concentrations of AHs (9.26-1.74 μg/L) were greater than PAHs (20.15-12.78 ng/L). Individual concentrations of PAHs such as fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene were comparable with data reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total concentrations of PAHs for all samples (BDW1: 12.78 μg/L, BDW2: 16.72 μg/L, BDW3: 14.62 μg/L, BDW4: 20.15 μg/L and BDW5: 13.23 ng/L) were below the maximum permissible European level of 100 ng/L; no regulations exist for AHs although their values were greater than PAHs (BDW1: 3.11 μg/L, BDW2: 8.45 μg/L, BDW3: 1.74 μg/L, BDW4: 4.75 μg/L and BDW5: 9.26 μg/L).

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbons in water from a Brazilian tropical estuary facing industrial and port development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Rafael Thompson de Oliveira; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Martins; Zanardi-Lamardo, Eliete

    2014-05-15

    A fast paced industrial and port development has occurred at Suape Estuary, Northeast Brazil, but no information about hydrocarbon concentrations in water is available to this area. Considering that, the contamination level of Suape was determined by UV-Fluorescence in terms of dissolved and/or dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPHs), during wet and dry seasons. DDPHs ranged between 0.05 and 4.59 μg L(-1) Carmópolis oil equivalents and 0.01-1.39 μg L(-1) chrysene equivalents, indicating DDPHs close to a baseline contamination level. Some relatively high concentrations (>1 μg L(-1)) were probably associated with shipyard operations (hull paintings and ship docking), pollutants remobilization by dredging operations, occasional industrial discharges and oil derivatives released by vessels. DDPHs concentrations were lower in the wet season suggesting that the increased dilution rates caused by rainfall dominated upon the wet deposition of atmospheric combustion-derived PAHs process. Results in this study may be used as baseline to further studies in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Activity and diversity of methanogens in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleikemper, Jutta; Pombo, Silvina A; Schroth, Martin H; Sigler, William V; Pesaro, Manuel; Zeyer, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Methanogenic activity was investigated in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer by using a series of four push-pull tests with acetate, formate, H(2) plus CO(2), or methanol to target different groups of methanogenic Archaea. Furthermore, the community composition of methanogens in water and aquifer material was explored by molecular analyses, i.e., fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes amplified with the Archaea-specific primer set ARCH915 and UNI-b-rev, and sequencing of DNA from dominant DGGE bands. Molecular analyses were subsequently compared with push-pull test data. Methane was produced in all tests except for a separate test where 2-bromoethanesulfonate, a specific inhibitor of methanogens, was added. Substrate consumption rates were 0.11 mM day(-1) for methanol, 0.38 mM day(-1) for acetate, 0.90 mM day(-1) for H(2), and 1.85 mM day(-1) for formate. Substrate consumption and CH(4) production during all tests suggested that at least three different physiologic types of methanogens were present: H(2) plus CO(2) or formate, acetate, and methanol utilizers. The presence of 15 to 20 bands in DGGE profiles indicated a diverse archaeal population. High H(2) and formate consumption rates agreed with a high diversity of methanogenic Archaea consuming these substrates (16S rRNA gene sequences related to several members of the Methanomicrobiaceae) and the detection of Methanomicrobiaceae by using FISH (1.4% of total DAPI [4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole]-stained microorganisms in one water sample; probe MG1200). Considerable acetate consumption agreed with the presence of sequences related to the obligate acetate degrader Methanosaeata concilii and the detection of this species by FISH (5 to 22% of total microorganisms; probe Rotcl1). The results suggest that both aceticlastic and CO(2)-type substrate-consuming methanogens are likely involved in the terminal step of hydrocarbon degradation

  9. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface near Cass Lake, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Dina M.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Warren, Ean; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Herkelrath, William N.; Delin, Geoffrey N.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated the natural attenuation of subsurface petroleum hydrocarbons leaked over an unknown number of years from an oil pipeline under the Enbridge Energy Limited Partnership South Cass Lake Pumping Station, in Cass Lake, Minnesota. Three weeks of field work conducted between May 2007 and July 2008 delineated a dissolved plume of aromatic hydrocarbons and characterized the biodegradation processes of the petroleum. Field activities included installing monitoring wells, collecting sediment cores, sampling water from wells, and measuring water-table elevations. Geochemical measurements included concentrations of constituents in both spilled and pipeline oil, dissolved alkylbenzenes and redox constituents, sediment bioavailable iron, and aquifer microbial populations. Groundwater in this area flows east-southeast at approximately 26 meters per year. Results from the oil analyses indicate a high degree of biodegradation, characterized by nearly complete absence of n-alkanes. Cass Lake oil samples were more degraded than two oil samples collected in 2008 from the similarly contaminated USGS Bemidji, Minnesota, research site 40 kilometers away. Based on 19 ratios developed for comparing oil sources, the conclusion is that the oils at the two sites appear to be from the same hydrocarbon source. In the Cass Lake groundwater plume, benzene concentrations decrease by three orders of magnitude within 150 meters (m) downgradient from the oil body floating on the water table (between well MW-10 and USGS-4 well nest). The depths of the highest benzene concentrations increase with distance downgradient from the oil, a condition typical of plumes in shallow, unconfined aquifers. Background groundwater, which is nearly saturated with oxygen, becomes almost entirely anaerobic in the plume. As at the Bemidji site, the most important biodegradation processes are anaerobic and dominated by iron reduction. The similarity between the Cass Lake and

  10. Bioinformatic Approaches Including Predictive Metagenomic Profiling Reveal Characteristics of Bacterial Response to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in Diverse Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arghya; Chettri, Bobby; Langpoklakpam, James S; Basak, Pijush; Prasad, Aravind; Mukherjee, Ashis K; Bhattacharyya, Maitree; Singh, Arvind K; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti

    2017-04-24

    Microbial remediation of oil polluted habitats remains one of the foremost methods for restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environments. The development of effective bioremediation strategies however, require an extensive understanding of the resident microbiome of these habitats. Recent developments such as high-throughput sequencing has greatly facilitated the advancement of microbial ecological studies in oil polluted habitats. However, effective interpretation of biological characteristics from these large datasets remain a considerable challenge. In this study, we have implemented recently developed bioinformatic tools for analyzing 65 16S rRNA datasets from 12 diverse hydrocarbon polluted habitats to decipher metagenomic characteristics of the resident bacterial communities. Using metagenomes predicted from 16S rRNA gene sequences through PICRUSt, we have comprehensively described phylogenetic and functional compositions of these habitats and additionally inferred a multitude of metagenomic features including 255 taxa and 414 functional modules which can be used as biomarkers for effective distinction between the 12 oil polluted sites. Additionally, we show that significantly over-represented taxa often contribute to either or both, hydrocarbon degradation and additional important functions. Our findings reveal significant differences between hydrocarbon contaminated sites and establishes the importance of endemic factors in addition to petroleum hydrocarbons as driving factors for sculpting hydrocarbon contaminated bacteriomes.

  11. Application of electrochemical technology for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water using lead dioxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Gargouri, Olfa Dridi; Gargouri, Bochra; Trabelsi, Souhel Kallel; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Although diverse methods exist for treating polluted water, the most promising and innovating technology is the electrochemical remediation process. This paper presents the anodic oxidation of real produced water (PW), generated by the petroleum exploration of the Petrobras plant-Tunisia. Experiments were conducted at different current densities (30, 50 and 100 mA cm(-2)) using the lead dioxide supported on tantalum (Ta/PbO2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes in an electrolytic batch cell. The electrolytic process was monitored by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon [TPH] in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. The characterization and quantification of petroleum wastewater components were performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The COD removal was approximately 85% and 96% using PbO2 and BDD reached after 11 and 7h, respectively. Compared with PbO2, the BDD anode showed a better performance to remove petroleum hydrocarbons compounds from produced water. It provided a higher oxidation rate and it consumed lower energy. However, the energy consumption and process time make useless anodic oxidation for the complete elimination of pollutants from PW. Cytotoxicity has shown that electrochemical oxidation using BDD could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of hydrocarbons compounds. All results suggest that electrochemical oxidation could be an effective approach to treat highly concentrated organic pollutants present in the industrial petrochemical wastewater and significantly reduce the cost and time of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbial metabolism and community structure in response to bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huggins, Tyler; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-04-01

    This study demonstrates that electrodes in a bioelectrochemical system (BES) can potentially serve as a nonexhaustible electron acceptor for in situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The deployment of BES not only eliminates aeration or supplement of electron acceptors as in contemporary bioremediation but also significantly shortens the remediation period and produces sustainable electricity. More interestingly, the study reveals that microbial metabolism and community structure distinctively respond to the bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation. Tubular BESs with carbon cloth anode (CCA) or biochar anode (BCA) were inserted into raw water saturated soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons for enhancing in situ remediation. Results show that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal rate almost doubled in soils close to the anode (63.5-78.7%) than that in the open circuit positive controls (37.6-43.4%) during a period of 64 days. The maximum current density from the BESs ranged from 73 to 86 mA/m(2). Comprehensive microbial and chemical characterizations and statistical analyses show that the residual TPH has a strongly positive correlation with hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (HDM) numbers, dehydrogenase activity, and lipase activity and a negative correlation with soil pH, conductivity, and catalase activity. Distinctive microbial communities were identified at the anode, in soil with electrodes, and soil without electrodes. Uncommon electrochemically active bacteria capable of hydrocarbon degradation such as Comamonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas putida, and Ochrobactrum anthropi were selectively enriched on the anode, while hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria were dominant in soil samples. Results from genus or phylum level characterizations well agree with the data from cluster analysis. Data from this study suggests that a unique constitution of microbial communities may play a key role in BES enhancement of petroleum hydrocarbons

  13. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and trace heavy metals in roadside soils along the Lagos-Badagry expressway, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Adeleke A; Owoade, Olabisi J

    2010-08-01

    This study reports the level of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and trace heavy metals (lead, copper, and cadmium) in soil samples collected randomly from Iyana-Iba garage, Lagos State University bus stop, Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education bus stop, and a control site off Lusada-Atan road, near Crawford University, Igbesa, Ogun state. TPH was estimated gravimetrically after Soxhlet extraction and column clean up, while soil metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using mineral acid digestion. For TPH, the sites have mean values of 19.43+/-1.27, 16.11+/-1.85, and 11.43+/-4.33 mg/g with a control mean value of 0.33+/-0.16 mg/g. For trace heavy metals, cadmium was not detected. However, the mean levels of lead are 4.24+/-3.10, 3.72+/-0.60, and 3.70+/-1.32 microg/g, respectively, whereas mean copper concentrations are 20.63+/-9.02, 19.35+/-3.61, and 16.76+/-3.02 microg/g in all sites, respectively, compared to the control mean of 0.25+/-0.13 and 5.99+/-1.23 microg/g for lead and copper, respectively. Sites studied have higher levels of TPH and metals compared to the control soil samples. This is indicated by a statistically significant difference found between the concentration of analyzed elements in soils collected along Lagos-Badagry expressway and the control site.

  14. Investigation of ethyl lactate as a green solvent for desorption of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian Ahmadkalaei, Seyedeh Pegah; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Abdul Talib, Suhaimi

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of oil-contaminated soil is a major environmental concern worldwide. The aim of this study is to examine the applicability of a green solvent, ethyl lactate (EL), in desorption of diesel aliphatic fraction within total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soil and to determine the associated desorption kinetics. Batch desorption experiments were carried out on artificially contaminated soil at different EL solvent percentages (%). In analysing the diesel range of TPH, TPH was divided into three fractions and the effect of solvent extraction on each fraction was examined. The experimental results demonstrated that EL has a high and fast desorbing power. Pseudo-second order rate equation described the experimental desorption kinetics data well with correlation coefficient values, R (2), between 0.9219 and 0.9999. The effects of EL percentage, initial contamination level of soil and liquid to solid ratio (L/S (v/w)) on initial desorption rate have also been evaluated. The effective desorption performance of ethyl lactate shows its potential as a removal agent for remediation of TPH-contaminated soil worldwide.

  15. Evaluation of genotoxic responses of Chaetoceros tenuissimus and Skeletonema costatum to water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons as biomarker of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, S R; Deasi, S R; Verlecar, X N; Ansari, Z A; Jagtap, T G; Sarkar, A; Vashistha, Deepti; Dalal, S G

    2010-04-01

    Genotoxic responses towards chronic exposure of Chaetoceros tenuissimus and Skeletonema costatum to water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons (WAF-P) were evaluated as biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons pollution. The DNA damage caused by water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons was assessed in terms of the DNA integrity measured by alkaline unwinding assay. The comparative study of the growth pattern of C. tenuissimus with respect to DNA integrity and the DNA strand breaks in different concentrations of WAF-P showed sufficient tolerance. However, its toxicity increased proportionately with exposure to elevated levels of WAF-P. Although DNA damage in S. costatum was similar to C. tenuissimus, its tolerance level to WAF-P was at least 5 times lower than that of C. tenuissimus indicating its high sensitivity to petroleum hydrocarbons. Active growth was exhibited by C. tenuissimus between 10 and 20% WAF-P (ranging from 0.59 to 1.18mg/L petroleum hydrocarbons) which can be related to the polluted regions only, suggesting the tolerant nature of this organism. Considering the degree of sensitivity to petroleum products and good growth under laboratory conditions, these two diatoms could be recommended as model species for evaluating ecogenotoxic effects of wide range of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants using alkaline unwinding assays. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading and biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. P-1 strain as a potential tool for bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna Anna; Poliwoda, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. P-1 strain, isolated from heavily petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was investigated for its capability to degrade hydrocarbons and produce a biosurfactant. The strain degraded crude oil, fractions A5 and P3 of crude oil, and hexadecane (27, 39, 27 and 13% of hydrocarbons added to culture medium were degraded, respectively) but had no ability to degrade phenanthrene. Additionally, the presence of gene-encoding enzymes responsible for the degradation of alkanes and naphthalene in the genome of the P-1 strain was reported. Positive results of blood agar and methylene blue agar tests, as well as the presence of gene rhl, involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnolipid, confirmed the ability of P-1 for synthesis of glycolipid biosurfactant. 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and mass spectrum analyses indicated that the extracted biosurfactant was affiliated with rhamnolipid. The results of this study indicate that the P-1 and/or biosurfactant produced by this strain have the potential to be used in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  17. A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw for oil recovery from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Hou, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw was examined for recovering oil from the high-moisture petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge. Five solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), dichloromethane (DCM), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), ethyl acetate (EA), and 2-propanol (2-Pro) were examined. It was found that these solvents except 2-Pro showed a promising oil recovery rate of about 40%, but the recycling of DCM solvent after oil extraction was quite low. Three solvents (CHX, MEK and EA) were then selected for examining the effect of freeze/thaw treatment on improving the quality of recovered oil. This treatment increased the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in recovered oil from about 40% to 60% for both MEK and EA extractions, but little effect was observed for CHX extraction. Although the solid residue after oil recovery had a significantly decreased TPH content, a high concentration of heavy metals was observed, indicating that this residue may require proper management. In general, the combination of solvent extraction with freeze/thaw is effective for high-moisture oily hazardous waste treatment.

  18. Trace elements and petroleum hydrocarbons in the aquatic bird food chain of process water evaporation ponds at the Little America Refinery, Casper, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study determined the nature and extent of trace elements, metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons in evaporation ponds used for the disposal of process water from...

  19. Evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and sentinel benthic organisms of the Delaware Bay Division, Cape May National Wildlife Refuge and adjoining marshes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This pilot study was conducted to characterize ambient petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marshes of the Cape May NWR and adjacent areas bordering the Delaware...

  20. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated clayey soils from a sub-arctic site: the role of aggregate size and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wonjae; Akbari, Ali; Snelgrove, Jessica; Frigon, Dominic; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of non-volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) and the associated microbial activity in predominant aggregate sizes during a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. The in situ aggregate microstructure was characterized by N2 adsorption and X-ray CT scanning. The soils in the nutrient (N)-amended and unamended biopile tanks were comprised of macroaggregates (>2 mm) and mesoaggregates (0.25-2 mm). Nutrient addition significantly enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in macroaggregates, but not in mesoaggregates. At the end of 65-d biopile experiment, 42% of the C16-C34 hydrocarbons were degraded in the nutrient-amended macroaggregates, compared to 13% in the mesoaggregates. Higher microbial activity in the macroaggregates of the nutrient amended biopile was inferred from a larger increase in extractable protein concentrations, compared to the other aggregates. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes showed that there was no selection of bacterial populations in any of the aggregates during biopile treatment, suggesting that the enhanced biodegradation in nutrient-amended macroaggregates was likely due to metabolic stimulation. X-ray micro CT scanning revealed that the number of pores wider than 4 μm, which would be easily accessible by bacteria, were an order of magnitude higher in macroaggregates. Also, N2 adsorption analyses showed that pore surface areas and pore volumes per unit weight were four to five-times larger, compared to the mesoaggregates. Thus the higher porosity microstructure in macroaggregates allowed greater hydrocarbon degradation upon biostimulation by nutrient addition and aeration.

  1. Data on biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons using co-composting of cow manure/oily drill wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil drill cuttings are challenging wastes in oil sites especially in Khuzestan province, a major oil producing region in Iran. As co- composting is a simple and eco- friendly technique for bioremediation of oil base drill cutting, this data article designed to describe co- composting of oil base drill cutting with cow manure. The data suggest that with optimized mixture of cow manure/oily drill wastes (here, 20:1 could engender more effective treatment of the wastes (with final total petroleum hydrocarbon of 0.01 g/Kg. The data will be informative for oil drilling companies and environmental agencies for choosing it as a practical bioremediation process of soil/wastes polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons.

  2. Enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbons using a bioelectrochemical remediation system with pre-cultured anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRCCARE), Mawson Lakes, SA5095 (Australia); Megharaj, Mallavarapu, E-mail: megh.mallavarapu@newcastle.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRCCARE), Mawson Lakes, SA5095 (Australia); Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Marzorati, Massimo [Laboratory for Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Gent University, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Lockington, Robin [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRCCARE), Mawson Lakes, SA5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRCCARE), Mawson Lakes, SA5095 (Australia); Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical remediation (BER) systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently emerged as a green technology for the effective remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (PH) coupled with simultaneous energy recovery. Recent research has shown that biofilms previously enriched for substrate degrading bacteria resulted in excellent performance in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation but the effects on hydrocarbon contaminant degradation were not examined. Here we investigate the differences between enriched biofilm anodes and freshly inoculated new anodes in diesel fed single chamber mediatorless microbial fuel cells (DMFC) using various techniques for the enhancement of PH contaminant remediation with concomitant electricity generation. An anodophilic microbial consortium previously selected for over a year through continuous culturing with a diesel concentration of about 800 mg l{sup −1} and which now showed complete removal of this concentration of diesel within 30 days was compared to that of a freshly inoculated new anode MFC (showing 83.4% removal of diesel) with a simultaneous power generation of 90.81 mW/m{sup 2} and 15.04 mW/m{sup 2} respectively. The behaviour of pre-cultured anodes at a higher concentration of PH (8000 mg l{sup −1}) was also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed a thick biofilm covering the pre-cultured anodic electrode but not the anode from the freshly inoculated MFC. High resolution imaging showed the presence of thin 60 nm diametre pilus-like projections emanating from the cells. Anodic microbial community profiling confirmed that the selection for diesel degrading exoelectrogenic bacteria had occurred. Identification of a biodegradative gene (alkB) provided strong evidence of the catabolic pathway used for diesel degradation in the DMFCs.

  3. Enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbons using a bioelectrochemical remediation system with pre-cultured anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Marzorati, Massimo; Lockington, Robin; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical remediation (BER) systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently emerged as a green technology for the effective remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (PH) coupled with simultaneous energy recovery. Recent research has shown that biofilms previously enriched for substrate degrading bacteria resulted in excellent performance in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation but the effects on hydrocarbon contaminant degradation were not examined. Here we investigate the differences between enriched biofilm anodes and freshly inoculated new anodes in diesel fed single chamber mediatorless microbial fuel cells (DMFC) using various techniques for the enhancement of PH contaminant remediation with concomitant electricity generation. An anodophilic microbial consortium previously selected for over a year through continuous culturing with a diesel concentration of about 800mgl(-1) and which now showed complete removal of this concentration of diesel within 30days was compared to that of a freshly inoculated new anode MFC (showing 83.4% removal of diesel) with a simultaneous power generation of 90.81mW/m(2) and 15.04mW/m(2) respectively. The behaviour of pre-cultured anodes at a higher concentration of PH (8000mgl(-1)) was also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed a thick biofilm covering the pre-cultured anodic electrode but not the anode from the freshly inoculated MFC. High resolution imaging showed the presence of thin 60nm diametre pilus-like projections emanating from the cells. Anodic microbial community profiling confirmed that the selection for diesel degrading exoelectrogenic bacteria had occurred. Identification of a biodegradative gene (alkB) provided strong evidence of the catabolic pathway used for diesel degradation in the DMFCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Remediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons using combined in-vessel composting ‎and oxidation by activated persulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Asgari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was investigated the efficiency of activated persulfate and ‎in-vessel composting for removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons. ‎Remediation by activated persulfate with ferrous sulfate as pre-treatment was done at batch system. In the chemical oxidation, various variables including persulfate concentrations (10-3000 mg/g as waste, pH (3-7, ferrous sulfate (0.5-4 mg/g as wasteand temperature (20-60°C were studied. In the biological system, premature compost was added as an amendment. The filter cake to compost ratio were 1:0 (as control and 1:5 to 15 (as dry basis. C: N: P ratio and moisture content were 100:5:1 and 45-60%, respectively. The results showed that acidic pH (pH=3 had high efficiency for the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons by activated persulfate. Temperature had the significant effect during the persulfate oxidation. When ferrous sulfate was used as an activator for degradation at acidic condition and 60°C, removal efficiency increased to 47.32%. The results of biological process showed that the minimum total petroleum hydrocarbons removal in all reactors was 62 percent. The maximum and minimum removal efficiency was obtained at 1:5 (69.46% and 1:10 (62.42% mixing ratios, respectively. Kinetic study showed that second order kinetic model (R2>0.81 shows the best agreement with the experimental data and the rate of TPH degradation at low mixing ratio (1:3 was faster than high mixing ratio (1:15. Therefore, according to the results, in-vessel composting after pre-treatment by activated persulfate is suggested as an efficient process for degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons.

  5. A combined approach of physicochemical and biological methods for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Liu, Haijun; Liu, Wenjuan; Cai, Minmin; Choi, Martin M F

    2014-01-01

    Main physicochemical and microbiological parameters of collected petroleum-contaminated soils with different degrees of contamination from DaGang oil field (southeast of Tianjin, northeast China) were comparatively analyzed in order to assess the influence of petroleum contaminants on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soil. An integration of microcalorimetric technique with urease enzyme analysis was used with the aim to assess a general status of soil metabolism and the potential availability of nitrogen nutrient in soils stressed by petroleum-derived contaminants. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of contaminated soils varied from 752.3 to 29,114 mg kg(−1). Although the studied physicochemical and biological parameters showed variations dependent on TPH content, the correlation matrix showed also highly significant correlation coefficients among parameters, suggesting their utility in describing a complex matrix such as soil even in the presence of a high level of contaminants. The microcalorimetric measures gave evidence of microbial adaptation under highest TPH concentration; this would help in assessing the potential of a polluted soil to promote self-degradation of oil-derived hydrocarbon under natural or assisted remediation. The results highlighted the importance of the application of combined approach in the study of those parameters driving the soil amelioration and bioremediation.

  6. Intrinsic bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. F.; Kao, C. M.; Chen, T. Y.; Weng, C. H.; Tsai, C. T.

    2006-06-01

    An oil-refining plant site located in southern Taiwan has been identified as a petroleum-hydrocarbon [mainly methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] spill site. In this study, groundwater samples collected from the site were analyzed to assess the occurrence of intrinsic MTBE biodegradation. Microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of biodegrading MTBE by indigenous microorganisms under aerobic, cometabolic, iron reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Results from the field investigation and microbial enumeration indicate that the intrinsic biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX is occurring and causing the decrease in MTBE and BTEX concentrations. Microcosm results show that the indigenous microorganisms were able to biodegrade MTBE under aerobic conditions using MTBE as the sole primary substrate. The detected biodegradation byproduct, tri-butyl alcohol (TBA), can also be biodegraded by the indigenous microorganisms. In addition, microcosms with site groundwater as the medium solution show higher MTBE biodegradation rate. This indicates that the site groundwater might contain some trace minerals or organics, which could enhance the MTBE biodegradation. Results show that the addition of BTEX at low levels could also enhance the MTBE removal. No MTBE removal was detected in iron reducing and methanogenic microcosms. This might be due to the effects of low dissolved oxygen (approximately 0.3 mg/L) within the plume. The low iron reducers and methanogens (bioremediation using indigenous microorganisms would be a feasible technology to clean up this MTBE-contaminated site.

  7. PROSPECTIVE IN-SILCO APPROACH IN BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON: SUCCESS SO FAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nadeem Khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation has the potential to reduce contaminated environment inexpensively yet effectively. But, the lack of information about the factors controlling the growth and metabolism in microorganisms in polluted environment often limits its implementation. However rapid advances in the understanding of bioremediation are on the horizon. With advances in biotechnology, bioremediation has become one of the most rapidly developing fields of environmental restoration, utilizing microorganisms to reduce the concentration and toxicity of various chemical pollutants, such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In this mini-review, the current state of the field is described and the role of synthetic biology in biotechnology in short and medium term is discussed. A number of bioremediation strategies have been developed to treat contaminated wastes and sites. Selecting the most appropriate strategy to treat a specific site can be guided by considering three basic principles: the amenability of the pollutant to biological transformation to less toxic products, the bioavailability of the contaminant to microorganisms and the opportunity for bioprocess optimization. By the recent advances on in-silico dimensions of bioremediation, it seems that the synthetic biology software will soon drive the wet-lab implementation at molecular level.

  8. Sources and Variability of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Residues in Sediments of Chilika Lagoon, East Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bita; Muduli, Pradipta R; Cooper, Gregory; Barik, Saroja K; Mahapatro, Debasish; Behera, Alaya T; Pattnaik, Ajit K

    2017-03-14

    The spatio-temporal distribution and the controlling factors of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in sediments of Chilika lagoon was investigated. Samples were collected during three seasons and quantified using UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. Concentrations of PHCs in surface sediments varies from 0.18 to 12.13 ppm (mean 3.71 ± 3.94 ppm). Compared to the lagoon, the monitoring stations adjacent to jetties with high boating activities tend to have higher PHC concentrations, suggesting that the contribution is likely to be from fossil fuel combustion and accidental seepage. The sediment organic matter (OM) of Chilika ranges from 0.26% to 6.23%. PHC maintains a positive correlation with OM (p < 0.05; f = 0.334), indicating the long term deposition of PHC as sediment OM. However, there is no significant relation between PHC and sediment texture, indicating its negligible control over PHC. The recorded PHC concentrations are below the threshold limit (70 ppm) as classified by United States (US) National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and also lower than those reported from similar ecosystems in India and overseas. Since the long term deposition and the bioaccumulation of PHC cannot be avoided, it is essential to monitor these parameters periodically.

  9. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in tropical estuary of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celino, Joil Jose; Oliveira, Olivia Maria Cordeiro de; Queiroz, Antonio Fernando de Souza [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Trigueis, Jorge Alberto [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Karina Santos [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As part of the environmental assessment within Todos os Santos Bay, State of Bahia - Brazil, in summer of 2005, superficial water and sediments samples of the mangrove were collected at five locations to determine the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants in the Dom Joao estuary at the Sao Francisco do Conde Region. Sandy sediments with low organic matter content dominate the studied area. Trace metal levels indicated that sediments were moderately polluted with Cu (overall mean: 21.48 +/- 4.76 {mu}g.g-1 dry sediment), but not with Pb (15 +/- 8), Zn (38 +/- 10), Cr (15 +/- 7), Ni (13 +/- 6) and Cd (0.4 +/- 0.2). Depending on location, total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 1.6 to 10.6 {mu}g.g-1. To discriminate pattern differences and similarities among samples, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using a correlation matrix. PCA revealed the latent relationships among all the stations investigated and confirmed our analytical results. Principal components analysis confirmed two regions according to their environmental quality. The results pointed out that almost all the area presented some substances that can cause adverse biological effects, especially in the outermost region where some metals are above TEL level. (author)

  10. Suitability of Scirpus maritimus for petroleum hydrocarbons remediation in a refinery environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, M Nazaré P F S; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2012-01-01

    In the ambit of a project searching for appropriate biological approaches for recovering a refinery soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC), we compared results obtained in the absence and in the presence of the salt marsh plant Scirpus maritimus or Juncus maritimus or an association of these two plants, which were tested in the refinery environment. Synergistic effects caused by addition of a non-ionic surfactant and/or a bioaugmentation product were also investigated. Major challenges of this study were: field conditions and weathered contamination. Transplants of the plants were carried out in individual containers filled with a weathered contaminated soil, which was recontaminated with turbine oil with two purposes: for increasing PHC level and allowing a comparison of the potential of plants for remediation of ancient and recent contamination. Analysis of total PHC led to the conclusion that, after 24-month exposure, neither J. maritimus nor the association caused any improvement in remediation. In contrast, S. maritimus revealed potential for PHC remediation, favoring degradation of both recent and older contamination (which was refractory to natural attenuation). About 15% of remediation improvement was found in the soil layer with higher root density (5-10 cm). A more marked improvement in that layer (28%) was observed when non-ionic surfactant amendment and bioaugmentation were used jointly. The fact that S. maritimus has demonstrated capability for PHC remediation, leads to admit that it has potential to be also used for recovering sediments that have suffered accidental oil spills.

  11. Breakdown of low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soil using grasses and willows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Patrick; Kuzovkina, Yulia A; Schulthess, Cristian P; Guillard, Karl

    2016-01-01

    A phytoremediation study targeting low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was conducted using cool- and warm-season grasses and willows (Salix species) grown in pots filled with contaminated sandy soil from the New Haven Rail Yard, CT. Efficiencies of the TPH degradation were assessed in a 90-day experiment using 20-8.7-16.6 N-P-K water-soluble fertilizer and fertilizer with molasses amendments to enhance phytoremediation. Plant biomass, TPH concentrations, and indigenous microbes quantified with colony-forming units (CFU), were assessed at the end of the study. Switchgrass grown with soil amendments produced the highest aboveground biomass. Bacterial CFU's were in orders of magnitude significantly higher in willows with soil amendments compared to vegetated treatments with no amendments. The greatest reduction in TPH occurred in all vegetated treatments with fertilizer (66-75%) and fertilizer/molasses (65-74%), followed sequentially by vegetated treatments without amendments, unvegetated treatments with amendments, and unvegetated treatments with no amendment. Phytoremediation of low-level TPH contamination was most efficient where fertilization was in combination with plant species. The same level of remediation was achievable through the addition of grasses and/or willow combinations without amendment, or by fertilization of sandy soil.

  12. Enhancement of nitrate-induced bioremediation in marine sediments contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by using microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zheng, Guanyu; Lo, Irene M C

    2015-06-01

    The effect of microemulsion on the biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in nitrate-induced bioremediation of marine sediment was investigated in this study. It was shown that the microemulsion formed with non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), 1-pentanol, linseed oil, and either deionized water or seawater was stable when subjected to dilution by seawater. Desorption tests revealed that microemulsion was more effective than the Tween 80 solution or the solution containing Tween 80 and 1-pentanol to desorb TPH from marine sediment. In 3 weeks of bioremediation treatment, the injection of microemulsion and NO3 (-) seems to have delayed the autotrophic denitrification between NO3 (-) and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) in sediment compared to the control with NO3 (-) injection alone. However, after 6 weeks of treatment, the delaying effect of microemulsion on the autotrophic denitrification process was no longer observed. In the meantime, the four injections of microemulsion and NO3 (-) resulted in as high as 29.73 % of TPH degradation efficiency, higher than that of two injections of microemulsion and NO3 (-) or that of four or two injections of NO3 (-) alone. These results suggest that microemulsion can be potentially applied to enhance TPH degradation in the nitrate-induced bioremediation of marine sediment.

  13. Remediation of spilled petroleum hydrocarbons by in situ landfarming at an arctic site

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.; Walker, L.; Vigoren, L.; Bartel, J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, economical landfarming operation was implemented to treat 3600 m3 of soil at a site just northeast of Barrow, AK (latitude 71.3 ??N). Prior to landfarming, diesel-range organics (DRO) and trimethylbenzenes (TMB) were present in the soil at concentrations more than an order of magnitude greater than the established cleanup goals, and moderate levels of gasoline-range organics (GRO) and BTEX compounds were also present. The landfarming operation included application of a commercial fertilizer mix at a rate designed to approach, but not exceed, soil concentrations of 100 mg N/kg soil and 50 mg P/kg soil, and an aggressive schedule of soil tilling using heavy equipment that was readily available from a local source. The operation was designed to continue through the brief thaw season-a scheduled duration of 70 days-but was successfully completed more than 2 weeks ahead of schedule. This work demonstrates that even in extremely harsh climates, soils that are moderately contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons can be effectively and economically remediated within reasonable time frames via landfarming. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollution of Mangrove Swamps: The Promises of Remediation by Enhanced Natural Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Orji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Remediation by Enhanced Natural Attenuation (RENA is currently being used as a cleanup technology in polluted environments in the Niger Delta and other parts of the globe. The effectiveness of RENA as a remediation technology in the most recent time has been challenged by few authorities. The deleterious effects of pollutants on the environment have led to increased awareness and vigilance against contamination of the Niger Delta environment. Bio remediation which has been defined as biological response to environmental abuse has continued to receive research attentions across the globe. This study addresses issues against the RENA and recommended ways forward. Approach: The review paper studied published articles and Oil companies routine practices of managing petroleum hydrocarbon polluted Environments including mangrove swamps from 1970 till date. The Remediation by Enhanced Natural Attenuation (RENA is currently being used as a cleanup technology in polluted environments in the Niger Delta including mangrove ecosystems. Results: The study made inputs on the controversial issues around RENA technology and recommended certain ways forward. This revision also reported the ways of managing the concerns raised against RENA. Conclusion/Recommendations: Oil firms, remediation contractors and consultants using this RENA approach should employ strict monitoring during the process and also adhere strictly to standard practices and the mitigation measures for all the cases against RENA as documented in this review study. This is to ensure the achievement of Sustainable Development.

  15. Environmental Capacity of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollutants in Jiaozhou Bay, China: Modeling and Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Keqiang; SU Ying; YING Jun; WANG Xiulin; MU Jinbo

    2013-01-01

    An environmental capacity model for the petroleum hydrocarbon pollutions (PHs) in Jiaozhou Bay is constructed based on field surveys,mesocosm,and parallel laboratory experiments.Simulated results of PHs seasonal successions in 2003 match the field surveys of Jiaozhou Bay resaonably well with a highest value in July.The Monte Carlo analysis confirms that the variation of PHs concentration significantly correlates with the river input.The water body in the bay is reasonably subjected to self-purification processes,such as volatilization to the atmosphere,biodegradation by microorganism,and transport to the Yellow Sea by water exchange.The environmental capacity of PHs in Jiaozhou Bay is 1500 tons per year IF the seawater quality criterion (Grade Ⅰ/Ⅱ,0.05 mgL-1) in the region is to be satisfied.The contribution to self-purification by volatilization,biodegradation,and transport to the Yellow Sea accounts for 48%,28%,and 23%,respectively,which make these three processes the main ways of PHs purification in Jiaozhou Bay.

  16. Biotransformation of petroleum asphaltenes and high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Neosartorya fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, E Lorena; Perezgasga, Lucia; Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Neosartorya fischeri, an Aspergillaceae fungus, was evaluated in its capacity to transform high molecular weight polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) and the recalcitrant fraction of petroleum, the asphaltenes. N. fischeri was able to grow in these compounds as sole carbon source. Coronene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, together with the asphaltenes, were assayed for fungal biotransformation. The transformation of the asphaltenes and HMW-PAHs was confirmed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nano-LC mass spectrometry, and IR spectrometry. The formation of hydroxy and ketones groups on the PAH molecules suggest a biotransformation mediated by monooxygenases such as cytochrome P450 system (CYP). A comparative microarray with the complete genome from N. fischeri showed three CYP monooxygenases and one flavin monooxygenase genes upregulated. These findings, together with the internalization of aromatic substrates into fungal cells and the microsomal transformation of HMW-PAHs, strongly support the role of CYPs in the oxidation of these recalcitrant compounds.

  17. Screening of biosurfactant producers from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sources in cold marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinhong; Zhang, Baiyu; Chen, Bing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Lin, Weiyun; Cao, Tong

    2014-09-15

    An overview of literature about isolating biosurfactant producers from marine sources indicated no such producers have been reported form North Atlantic Canada. Water and sediment samples were taken from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated coastal and offshore areas in this region. Either n-hexadecane or diesel was used as the sole carbon source for the screening. A modified colony-based oil drop collapsing test was used to cover sessile biosurfactant producers. Fifty-five biosurfactant producers belong to genera of Alcanivorax, Exiguobacterium, Halomonas, Rhodococcus, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Streptomyces were isolated. The first three genera were established after 1980s with interesting characteristics and limited relevant publications. Some of the 55 isolated strains were found with properties such as greatly reducing surface tension, stabilizing emulsion and producing flocculant. Isolates P6-4P and P1-5P were selected to demonstrate the performance of biosurfactant production, and were found to reduce the surface tension of water to as low as 28 dynes/cm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental capacity of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in Jiaozhou Bay, China: Modeling and calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keqiang; Su, Ying; Ying, Jun; Wang, Xiulin; Mu, Jinbo

    2013-03-01

    An environmental capacity model for the petroleum hydrocarbon pollutions (PHs) in Jiaozhou Bay is constructed based on field surveys, mesocosm, and parallel laboratory experiments. Simulated results of PHs seasonal successions in 2003 match the field surveys of Jiaozhou Bay resaonably well with a highest value in July. The Monte Carlo analysis confirms that the variation of PHs concentration significantly correlates with the river input. The water body in the bay is reasonably subjected to self-purification processes, such as volatilization to the atmosphere, biodegradation by microorganism, and transport to the Yellow Sea by water exchange. The environmental capacity of PHs in Jiaozhou Bay is 1500 tons per year IF the seawater quality criterion (Grade I/II, 0.05 mgL-1) in the region is to be satisfied. The contribution to self-purification by volatilization, biodegradation, and transport to the Yellow Sea accounts for 48%, 28%, and 23%, respectively, which make these three processes the main ways of PHs purification in Jiaozhou Bay.

  19. Potential of fungal co-culturing for accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanto, Dede Heri Yuli; Tachibana, Sanro

    2014-08-15

    The potential of fungal co-culture of the filamentous Pestalotiopsis sp. NG007 with four different basidiomycetes--Trametes versicolor U97, Pleurotus ostreatus PL1, Cerena sp. F0607, and Polyporus sp. S133--for accelerating biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) was studied using three different physicochemical characteristic PHCs in soil. All the combinations showed a mutual intermingling mycelial interaction on the agar plates. However, only NG007/S133 (50/50) exhibited an optimum growth rate and enzymatic activities that supported the degradation of asphalt in soil. The co-culture also degraded all fractions at even higher concentrations of the different PHCs. In addition, asphaltene, which is a difficult fraction for a single microorganism to degrade, was markedly degraded by the co-culture, which indicated that the simultaneous biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene fractions had occurred in the co-culture. An examination of in-vitro degradation by the crude enzymes and the retrieval fungal culture from the soil after the experiment confirmed the accelerated biodegradation due to enhanced enzyme activities in the co-culture. The addition of piperonyl butoxide or AgNO3 inhibited biodegradation by 81-99%, which demonstrated the important role of P450 monooxygenases and/or dioxygenases in the initial degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions in PHCs.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON DEGRADATION FROM SOIL AND TARBALL BY FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Lotfinasabasl1, V. R.Gunale1, N. S. Rajurkar 1, 2

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Four fungi strains viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Rhizopus sp and Penicillium sp were isolated from soil and tarball samples collected from mangrove forest of Alibaug and Akshi coastal area, Maharashtra, India. These strains were assessed for their degradation capability of petroleum hydrocarbons measuring growth diameter in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA solid media for different concentrations of kerosene (5%- 20% (v/v. Rhizopus sp showed the highest growth diameter in 5% kerosene and Aspergillus niger showed the highest growth diameter in 20% kerosene while, penicillium sp showed the lowest growth diameter at all the concentrations of kerosene as compared to other three strains. The bioremediation of 20% oil contaminated soil by different fungi strains was found in the order Aspergillus niger> Rhizopus sp> Aspergillus terreus > Penicillium sp. In order to determine the effect of mixed fungal culture in contrast with single one, studies were carried out in 10% (v/v oil contaminated PDA media. It was observed that a mix culture consisting of penicillium sp, Rhizopus sp and Aspergillus terreus showed highest growth diameter.

  1. Phytoremediation of a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated shallow aquifer in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie; Cook, Rachel L.; Landmeyer, James E.; Atkinson, Brad; Malone, Donald R.; Shaw, George; Woods, Leilani

    2014-01-01

    A former bulk fuel terminal in North Carolina is a groundwater phytoremediation demonstration site where 3,250 hybrid poplars, willows, and pine trees were planted from 2006 to 2008 over approximately 579,000 L of residual gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Since 2011, the groundwater altitude is lower in the area with trees than outside the planted area. Soil-gas analyses showed a 95 percent mass loss for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and a 99 percent mass loss for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). BTEX and methyl tert-butyl ether concentrations have decreased in groundwater. Interpolations of free-phase, fuel product gauging data show reduced thicknesses across the site and pooling of fuel product where poplar biomass is greatest. Isolated clusters of tree mortalities have persisted in areas with high TPH and BTEX mass. Toxicity assays showed impaired water use for willows and poplars exposed to the site's fuel product, but Populus survival was higher than the willows or pines on-site, even in a noncontaminated control area. All four Populus clones survived well at the site.

  2. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil by Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haihua; Luo, Jinxue; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-09-01

    Bio-augmentation is a promising technique for remediation of polluted soils. This study aimed to evaluate the bio-augmentation effect of Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer (RBF) on the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contaminated soil. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted over a period of 120 days, three methods for enhancing bio-augmentation were tested on TPH contaminated soils, including single addition RBF, planting, and combining of RBF and three crop species, such as wheat (W), cabbage (C) and spinach (S), respectively. The results demonstrated that the best removal of TPH from contaminated soil in the RBF bio-augmentation rhizosphere soils was found to be 46.2%, 65.4%, 67.5% for W+RBF, C+RBF, S+RBF rhizosphere soils respectively. RBF supply impacted on the microbial community diversity (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) and the activity of soil enzymes, such as dehydrogenase (DH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and urease (UR). There were significant difference among the soil only containing crude oil (CK), W, C and S rhizosphere soils and RBF bio-augmentation soils. Moreover, the changes were significantly distinct depended on crops species. It was concluded that the RBF is a valuable material for improving effect of remediation of TPH polluted soils.

  3. The Interaction between Plants and Bacteria in the Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Daghio, Matteo; Franzetti, Andrea; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Sillen, Wouter; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-01-01

    Widespread pollution of terrestrial ecosystems with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) has generated a need for remediation and, given that many PHCs are biodegradable, bio- and phyto-remediation are often viable approaches for active and passive remediation. This review focuses on phytoremediation with particular interest on the interactions between and use of plant-associated bacteria to restore PHC polluted sites. Plant-associated bacteria include endophytic, phyllospheric, and rhizospheric bacteria, and cooperation between these bacteria and their host plants allows for greater plant survivability and treatment outcomes in contaminated sites. Bacterially driven PHC bioremediation is attributed to the presence of diverse suites of metabolic genes for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, along with a broader suite of physiological properties including biosurfactant production, biofilm formation, chemotaxis to hydrocarbons, and flexibility in cell-surface hydrophobicity. In soils impacted by PHC contamination, microbial bioremediation generally relies on the addition of high-energy electron acceptors (e.g., oxygen) and fertilization to supply limiting nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium) in the face of excess PHC carbon. As an alternative, the addition of plants can greatly improve bioremediation rates and outcomes as plants provide microbial habitats, improve soil porosity (thereby increasing mass transfer of substrates and electron acceptors), and exchange limiting nutrients with their microbial counterparts. In return, plant-associated microorganisms improve plant growth by reducing soil toxicity through contaminant removal, producing plant growth promoting metabolites, liberating sequestered plant nutrients from soil, fixing nitrogen, and more generally establishing the foundations of soil nutrient cycling. In a practical and applied sense, the collective action of plants and their associated microorganisms is advantageous for remediation of PHC

  4. The Interaction between Plants and Bacteria in the Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Daghio, Matteo; Franzetti, Andrea; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Sillen, Wouter; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-01-01

    Widespread pollution of terrestrial ecosystems with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) has generated a need for remediation and, given that many PHCs are biodegradable, bio- and phyto-remediation are often viable approaches for active and passive remediation. This review focuses on phytoremediation with particular interest on the interactions between and use of plant-associated bacteria to restore PHC polluted sites. Plant-associated bacteria include endophytic, phyllospheric, and rhizospheric bacteria, and cooperation between these bacteria and their host plants allows for greater plant survivability and treatment outcomes in contaminated sites. Bacterially driven PHC bioremediation is attributed to the presence of diverse suites of metabolic genes for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, along with a broader suite of physiological properties including biosurfactant production, biofilm formation, chemotaxis to hydrocarbons, and flexibility in cell-surface hydrophobicity. In soils impacted by PHC contamination, microbial bioremediation generally relies on the addition of high-energy electron acceptors (e.g., oxygen) and fertilization to supply limiting nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium) in the face of excess PHC carbon. As an alternative, the addition of plants can greatly improve bioremediation rates and outcomes as plants provide microbial habitats, improve soil porosity (thereby increasing mass transfer of substrates and electron acceptors), and exchange limiting nutrients with their microbial counterparts. In return, plant-associated microorganisms improve plant growth by reducing soil toxicity through contaminant removal, producing plant growth promoting metabolites, liberating sequestered plant nutrients from soil, fixing nitrogen, and more generally establishing the foundations of soil nutrient cycling. In a practical and applied sense, the collective action of plants and their associated microorganisms is advantageous for remediation of PHC

  5. The Interaction between Plants and Bacteria in the Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Gkorezis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Widespread pollution of terrestrial ecosystems with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs has generated a need for remediation and, given that many PHCs are biodegradable, bio- and phyto-remediation are often viable approaches for active and passive remediation. This review focuses on phytoremediation with particular interest on the interactions between and use of plant – associated bacteria to restore PHC polluted sites. Plant-associated bacteria include endophytic, phyllospheric and rhizospheric bacteria, and cooperation between these bacteria and their host plants allows for greater plant survivability and treatment outcomes in contaminated sites. Bacterially-driven PHC bioremediation is attributed to the presence of diverse suites of metabolic genes for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, along with a broader suite of physiological properties including biosurfactant production, biofilm formation, chemotaxis to hydrocarbons, and flexibility in cell-surface hydrophobicity. In soils impacted by PHC contamination, microbial bioremediation generally relies on the addition of high-energy electron acceptors (e.g. oxygen and fertilization to supply limiting nutrients (e.g. nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium in the face of excess PHC carbon. As an alternative, the addition of plants can greatly improve bioremediation rates and outcomes as plants provide microbial habitats, improve soil porosity (thereby increasing mass transfer of substrates and electron acceptors, and exchange limiting nutrients with their microbial counterparts. In return, plant-associated microorganisms improve plant growth by reducing soil toxicity through contaminant removal, producing plant growth promoting metabolites, liberating sequestered plant nutrients from soil, fixing nitrogen, and more generally establishing the foundations of soil nutrient cycling. In a practical and applied sense, the collective action of plants and their associated microorganisms is advantageous for

  6. Reactive Extraction of Alcohols from Apolar Hydrocarbons with Aqueous Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmanovic, B.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.; Kwant, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous solutions are evaluated as sustainable reactive extraction solvents for the recovery of monohydroxyl alcohols (benzyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, cyclohexanol) present in few-percent concentrations in apolar hydrocarbons (toluene, n-hexane, and cyclohexane) by considering two approaches. An aque

  7. Reactive Extraction of Alcohols from Apolar Hydrocarbons with Aqueous Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmanovic, Boris; Kuipers, Norbert J.M.; Haan, de André B.; Kwant, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous solutions are evaluated as sustainable reactive extraction solvents for the recovery of monohydroxyl alcohols (benzyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, cyclohexanol) present in few-percent concentrations in apolar hydrocarbons (toluene, n-hexane, and cyclohexane) by considering two approaches. An aque

  8. Bacteria to extract petroleum; Des bacteries pour extraire le petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezet, A.

    2004-10-01

    Researchers of the research institute for development (IRD, France) have identified some bacteria species which can synthesize bio-surfactants or can produce gases and enhance the recovery of petroleum in oil fields. Short paper. (J.S.)

  9. Role of nutrients and illuminance in predicting the fate of fungal mediated petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Khan, Aqib Hassan; Tanveer, Sundus; Anees, Mariam; Muhammad, Yousaf Shad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Yousaf, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradation and biomass production are affected by numerous environmental factors including pH, oxygen availability and presence of pollutants. The present study, for the first time, elucidated the effects of nutrients and light on mycodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel oil. Seven fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus FA3, Aspergillus niger FA5, Aspergillus terreus FA6, Penicillium chrysogenum FP4, Aspergillus terreus FP6, Aspergillus flavus FP10, and Candida sp. FG1) were used for hydrocarbon degradation under static conditions, in four combinations of nutrient media and illuminance for 45 days. Highest degradation was achieved by Aspergillus terreus FA6 and Candida sp. FG1 under both conditions of light and dark, with nutrient deprived HAF (Hydrocarbon adopted fungi) broth. Under HAF/Dark diesel oil degradation by FA6 and FG1 was 87.3% and 84.3% respectively, while under HAF/Light both FA6 and FG1 performed 84.3% biodegradation. The highest biomass was produced by Aspergillus flavus FP10 in PDB (Potato dextrose broth)/Dark (109.3 mg). Fungal degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was negatively affected by the presence of other simpler-to-degrade carbon sources in the medium. The biomass production was enhanced by improved nutrient availability and diminished by illuminance.

  10. Seawater-cultured Botryococcus braunii for efficient hydrocarbon extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Furuhashi

    Full Text Available As a potential source of biofuel, the green colonial microalga Botryococcus braunii produces large amounts of hydrocarbons that are accumulated in the extracellular matrix. Generally, pretreatment such as drying or heating of wet algae is needed for sufficient recoveries of hydrocarbons from B. braunii using organic solvents. In this study, the Showa strain of B. braunii was cultured in media derived from the modified Chu13 medium by supplying artificial seawater, natural seawater, or NaCl. After a certain period of culture in the media with an osmotic pressure corresponding to 1/4-seawater, hydrocarbon recovery rates exceeding 90% were obtained by simply mixing intact wet algae with n-hexane without any pretreatments and the results using the present culture conditions indicate the potential for hydrocarbon milking.Seawater was used for efficient hydrocarbon extraction from Botryococcus braunii. The alga was cultured in media prepared with seawater or NaCl. Hydrocarbon recovery rate exceeding 90% was obtained without any pretreatment.

  11. Simultaneous application of chemical oxidation and extraction processes is effective at remediating soil Co-contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Lee, Chadol; Lee, Jeung-Sun; Baek, Kitae

    2017-01-15

    Chemical extraction and oxidation processes to clean up heavy metals and hydrocarbon from soil have a higher remediation efficiency and take less time than other remediation processes. In batch extraction/oxidation process, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could remove approximately 70% of the petroleum and 60% of the Cu and Pb in the soil, respectively. In particular, petroleum was effectively oxidized by H2O2 without addition of any catalysts through dissolution of Fe oxides in natural soils. Furthermore, heavy metals bound to Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides could be extracted by metal-EDTA as well as Fe-EDTA complexation due to the high affinity of EDTA for metals. However, the strong binding of Fe-EDTA inhibited the oxidation of petroleum in the extraction-oxidation sequential process because Fe was removed during the extraction process with EDTA. The oxidation-extraction sequential process did not significantly enhance the extraction of heavy metals from soil, because a small portion of heavy metals remained bound to organic matter. Overall, simultaneous application of oxidation and extraction processes resulted in highly efficient removal of both contaminants; this approach can be used to remove co-contaminants from soil in a short amount of time at a reasonable cost.

  12. Biochemical ripening of dredged sediments. Part 2. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total petroleum hydorcarbons in slurried and consolidated sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Gool, van M.P.M.; Mentink, G.H.; Joziasse, J.; Bruning, H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ripening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) polluted dredged sediment can be considered as a bioremediation technique. Aerobic biodegradation of PAH and TPH was studied in five previously anaerobic-slurried sediments during a 350-d laboratory incubation

  13. Biochemical ripening of dredged sediments. Part 2. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total petroleum hydorcarbons in slurried and consolidated sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Gool, van M.P.M.; Mentink, G.H.; Joziasse, J.; Bruning, H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ripening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) polluted dredged sediment can be considered as a bioremediation technique. Aerobic biodegradation of PAH and TPH was studied in five previously anaerobic-slurried sediments during a 350-d laboratory incubation

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different methods for the remediation of contaminated groundwater by determining the petroleum hydrocarbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevoda, Maryna; Geyer, Wolfgang; Mothes, Sibylle [Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Mosig, Peter [Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Seeger, Eva M. [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The effectiveness of different remediation procedures for decreasing the amount of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) in contaminated groundwater was evaluated at the site of a former refinery. The investigations were carried out on samples taken from several gravel based HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) constructed wetlands (CW) which differed in relation to their filter material additives (no additive, charcoal, and ferric oxides additives) and examined the potential effect of these additives on the overall treatment efficiency. Samples of the following gravel based HSSF CW were investigated. No filter additive (system A), 0.1% activated carbon (system B), 0.5% iron(III) hydroxide (system C), and the reference (system D). Systems A-C were planted with common reed (Phragmites australis), whereas system D remained unplanted. In addition, the influence of seasonal conditions on the reduction of these hydrocarbons and the correlation between the amounts of TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers), on the one hand, and methyl tert-butyl ether, on the other, was investigated. The study was carried out by using a modified GC-FID approach and multivariate methods. The investigations carried out in the first year of operation demonstrated that the effectiveness of the petroleum hydrocarbon removal was highest and reached a level of 93 {+-} 3.5% when HSSF filters with activated carbon as a filter additive were used. This remediation method allowed the petroleum hydrocarbon content to be reduced independently of seasonal conditions. The correlation between the reduction of TPH and BTEX was found to be R = 0.8824. Using this correlation coefficient, the time-consuming determination of the BTEX content was no longer necessary. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Single and joint effects of petroleum hydrocarbons and cadmium on the polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using the concentration gradient and combined pollutant exposure method, the single and joint effects of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and cadmium (Cd) on polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube, an ecologically keystone species in estuarine and coastal environment, have been investigated. The results indicate that the toxicity of PHCs to P. aibuhitensis is stronger than that of Cd to the organism. There are positive correlations between the mortality of worms and the exposed concentration of single Cd or PHCs in solution. Similarly, the accumulation of Cd or PHCs in worms increases with increasing Cd- or PHC-exposed concentrations. All the correlation relationships can be described using unitary quadratic equations (Y or Z = aX2 + bX + c). It is calculated, on the basis of these expressions, that the median lethal dose (LC50) of P. aibuhitensis exposed to a single Cd or PHC is 793.4-13567.3 and 28.0-119.9 μg/L, respectively. The exposed time has some stimulative effect on the two pollutants and on the mortality of the worms. Thus, even a low concentration of a single Cd or PHC may have strong toxic effects on the worms when the exposed time becomes longer. The accumulation of Cd or PHCs in worms differs with an increase in exposure time at the given exposed concentration of a single Cd or PHC. Noticeably, the accumulation of PHCs in worms decreases with an increase in exposure time at the given high concentration of PHCs in solution. The joint effect of PHCs and Cd on P. aibuhitensis is very complicated and changes with the exposed concentrations of the two pollutants. At the given concentration of PHCs, the joint toxicity of the two pollutants on the worms changes from synergism to antagonism with an increase in Cd concentration. The accumulation of Cd in the worms significantly decreases with the addition of PHCs to exposure solution.

  16. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site

  17. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical conductivity (60.66 %), total nitrogen (47.37 %), chloride (60.66 %), total organic carbon (49.22 %), sulphate (60.59 %), nitrate (60.65 %), phosphate (60.80 %), sodium (60.65 %), potassium (60.67 %), calcium (60.67 %), magnesium (60.68 %), zinc (60.59 %), manganese (60.72 %), copper (60.68 %), nickel (60.58 %), cadmium (60.44 %), vanadium (61.19 %), chromium (53.60 %), lead (60.38 %), mercury (61.11 %), arsenic (80.85 %), TPH (84.99 %). Among the BTEX constituents, only benzene (8.35 %) was detected in soil at the end of the study. Earthworm tissue analysis showed varying levels of TPH (57.35 %), benzene (38.91 %), toluene (27.76 %), ethylbenzene (42.16 %) and xylene (09.62 %) in E. eugeniae at the end of the study. The study has shown that E. eugeniae could be applied as a possible bioremediator in diesel polluted soil.

  18. Control of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater by intrinsic and enhanced bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ku-Fan; Kao, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Surampalli, Rao Y; Lee, Mu-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    In the first phase of this study, the effectiveness of intrinsic bioremediation on the containment of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated at a gasoline spill site. Evidences of the occurrence of intrinsic bioremediation within the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) plume included (1) decreased BTEX concentrations; (2) depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, and sulfate; (3) production of dissolved ferrous iron, methane, and CO2; (4) deceased pH and redox potential; and (5) increased methanogens, total heterotrophs, and total anaerobes, especially within the highly contaminated areas. In the second phase of this study, enhanced aerobic bioremediation process was applied at site to enhance the BTEX decay rates. Air was injected into the subsurface near the mid-plume area to biostimulate the naturally occurring microorganisms for BTEX biodegradation. Field results showed that enhanced bioremediation process caused the change of BTEX removal mechanisms from anaerobic biodegradation inside the plume to aerobic biodegradation. This variation could be confirmed by the following field observations inside the plume due to the enhanced aerobic bioremediation process: (1) increased in DO, CO2, redox potential, nitrate, and sulfate, (2) decreased in dissolved ferrous iron, sulfide, and methane, (3) increased total heterotrophs and decreased total anaerobes. Field results also showed that the percentage of total BTEX removal increased from 92% to 99%, and the calculated total BTEX first-order natural attenuation rates increased from 0.0092% to 0.0188% per day, respectively, after the application of enhanced bioremediation system from the spill area to the downgradient area (located approximately 300 m from the source area).

  19. Stimulating in situ surfactant production to increase contaminant bioavailability and augment bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, N. W.; Bentley, H. W.; Yiannakakis, A.; Bentley, A. J.; Cassidy, D. P.

    2006-12-01

    The effectiveness of a bioremediation strategy is largely dependent on relationships between contaminant sequestration (geochemical limitations) and microbial degradation potential (biological limitations). As contaminant bioavailability becomes mass transfer limited, contaminant removal will show less sensitivity to biodegradation enhancements without concurrent enhancements to rates of mass transfer into the bioavailable phase. Implementing a strategy that can simultaneously address geochemical and biological limitations is motivated by a subsurface zone of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons (LPH) contamination that is in excess of 10 acres (40,000 sq. meters). Biodegradation potential at the site is high; however, observed biodegradation rates are generally low, indicative of bioavailability limitations (e.g., low aqueous solubilities, nutrient deficiencies, and/or mass transfer limitations), and estimates indicate that bioremediation (i.e., biosparging/bioventing) with unaugmented biodegradation may be unable to achieve the remedial objectives within an acceptable time. Bench-scale experiments using soils native to the site provide evidence that, in addition to nutrient additions, a pulsed oxygen delivery can increase biodegradation rates by stimulating the microbial production of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), leading to a reduction in surface tension and an increase in contaminant bioavailability. Pilot-scale tests at the field site are evaluating the effectiveness of stimulating in situ biosurfactant production using cyclic biosparging. The cyclic sparging creates extended periods of alternating aerobic and oxygen-depleted conditions in the submerged smear zone. The increased bioavailability of LPH and the resulting biodegradation enhancements during the test are evaluated using measurements of surface tension (as confirmation of biosurfactant accumulation) and nitrate concentrations (as substantiation of anaerobic biodegradation during shut-off periods). The

  20. [Oil pollution status expressed as the fraction of dissolved and dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A; Gómez-Ramírez, Eddy; García-Céspedes, Jairo

    2004-12-01

    Four coastal ecosystems with contrasting characteristics were sampled in Costa Rica (2000-2002). Oil pollution status, expressed as the fraction of dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons related to chrysene equivalents, was determined by the molecular fluorescence analytical technique. A total of 130 water samples were taken, from the Caribbean (Moín Bay), and from the Pacific (Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Nicoya and Dulce Gulf). On one occasion, seven samples along the Puntarenas estuary were also analysed. In Moín the mean and standard deviation were 0.10 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.18 micro x L(-1), ranging from non detectable (nd) to 0.65 microg x L(-1). For the Pacific ecosystems the total range was from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). In Bahia Culebra no fluorescence signals were obtained. In the Gulf of Nicoya the mean and standard deviation were 0.04 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.09 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.33 microg x L(-1). Values in Dulce Gulf were 0.05 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.11 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). Along the Puntarenas estuary the range was 0.17 to 5.91 microg x L(-1), with a mean of 1.21 microg x L(-1) and a standard deviation of +/- 2.10 microg x L(-1). The four coastal ecosystems had concentrations below the 10 microg x L(-1) limit for polluted oceanic areas. The Puntarenas estuary reflects the influence of antropogenic activities from and around the City of Puntarenas. These levels are considered low for inshore waters.

  1. Large Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Waste at Various Installations of ONGC. India: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ and ex situ bioremediation of oil contaminated effluent pits, sludge pits, oil spilled land and tank bottom, and effluent treatment plant (ETP oily sludge was carried out at Ankleshwar, Mehsana, Assam and Cauvery Asset of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC, India. The types of contaminant were heavy paraffinic, asphaltic and light crude oil and emulsified oily sludge /contaminated soil. An indigenous microbial consortium was developed by assembling four species of bacteria, isolated from various oil contaminated sites of India, which could biodegrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of the oily waste to environment friendly end products. The said consortium was on a large scale field applied to the above oil installations and it successfully bioremediated 30,706 tonnes of different types of oily waste. In 65 case studies of different batch size of in situ and ex situ bioremediation processes, the initial TPH content varying from 69.20 to 662.70 g/kg of oily waste has been biodegraded to 5.30 – 16.90 g/kg of oily waste in a range of 2 to 33 months. Biodegradation rate varied in the range of 0.22 – 1.10 Kg TPH /day/m2 area due to the climatic condition of the treatment zone and the type of waste treated. The bioremediated soil was non-toxic and natural vegetation was found to be grown on the same ground. Successful eco-restoration of one large effluent pit of 26,000 m2 area was carried out by cultivation of local fish species after completion of bioremediation. Bioremediation technology has helped ONGC with the management of their hazardous oily wastes in an environment friendly manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.68.2.5632

  2. Petroleum hydrocarbon remediation in frozen soil using a meat and bonemeal biochar plus fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Erin M; Stewart, Katherine J; Farrell, Richard E; Siciliano, Steven D

    2017-04-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) degradation slows significantly during the winter which substantially increases the time it takes to remediate soil in Arctic landfarms. The aim of this laboratory trial was to assess the potential of a meat and bonemeal (MBM) biochar to stimulate PHC degradation in contaminated soil collected from Iqaluit, Canada. Over 90 days, 3% (w/w) MBM biochar significantly increased F3- (equivalent nC16-C34) PHC degradation rate constants (k) in frozen soils when compared to the fertilizer (urea and monoammonium phosphate) control. Taking into consideration extensive variability within treatments and negative k values, this difference may not reflect significant remediation. Decreasing C17/Pr and C18/Ph ratios in the frozen soil suggest that this reduction is a result of microbial degradation rather than volatilization. Amendment type and application rate affected the immediate abiotic losses of F2 and F3-PHC in sterile soils, with the greatest losses occurring in compost-amended treatments in the first 24 h. In frozen soils, MBM biochar was found to increase liquid water content (θliquid) but not nutrient supply rates. Under frozen but not thawed conditions, genes for aromatic (C2,3O and nahAc) but not aliphatic (alkB) PHC degradation increased over time in both biochar-amended and control treatments but total viable PHC-degrading populations only increased in biochar-amended soils. Based on these results, it is possible that PHC degradation in biochar-amended soils is active and even enhanced under frozen conditions, but further investigation is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrous pyrolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and implications for the origin of PAH in hydrothermal petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollom, T. M.; Simoneit, B. R.; Shock, E. L.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are found at high concentrations in thermally altered organic matter and hydrothermally generated petroleum from sediment-covered seafloor hydro-thermal systems. To better understand the factors controlling the occurrence of PAH in thermally altered environments, the reactivities of two PAH, phenanthrene and anthracene, were investigated in hydrothermal experiments. The compounds were heated with water at 330 degrees C in sealed reaction vessels for durations ranging from 1 to 17 days. Iron oxide and sulfide minerals, formic acid, or sodium for-mate were included in some experiments to vary conditions within the reaction vessel. Phenanthrene was unreactive both in water alone and in the presence of minerals for up to 17 days, while anthracene was partially hydrogenated (5-10%) to di- and tetrahydroanthracene. In the presence of 6-21 vol % formic acid, both phenanthrene and anthracene reacted extensively to form hydrogenated and minor methylated derivatives, with the degree of hydrogenation and methylation increasing with the amount of formic acid. Phenanthrene was slightly hydrogenated in sodium formate solutions. The hydrogenation reactions could be readily reversed; heating a mixture of polysaturated phenanthrenes resulted in extensive dehydrogenation (aromatization) after 3 days at 330 degrees C. While the experiments demonstrate that reaction pathways for the hydrogenation of PAH under hydrothermal conditions exist, the reactions apparently require higher concentrations of H2 than are typical of geologic settings. The experiments provide additional evidence that PAH may be generated in hydrothermal systems from progressive aromatization and dealkylation of biologically derived polycyclic precursors such as steroids and terpenoids. Furthermore, the results indicate that PAH initially present in sediments or formed within hydrothermal systems are resistant to further thermal degradation during hydrothermal alteration.

  4. Influence of liquid water and soil temperature on petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity in Antarctic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Alexis N; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Fuel spills in Antarctica typically occur in rare ice-free oases along the coast, which are areas of extreme seasonal freezing. Spills often occur at subzero temperatures, but little is known of ecosystem sensitivity to pollutants, in particular the influence that soil liquid water and low temperature have on toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in Antarctic soil. To evaluate PHC toxicity, 32 locations at an aged diesel spill site in Antarctica were sampled nine times to encompass frozen, thaw, and refreeze periods. Toxicity was assessed using potential activities of substrate-induced respiration, basal respiration, nitrification, denitrification, and metabolic quotient as well as microbial community composition and bacterial biomass. The most sensitive indicator was community composition with a PHC concentration effecting 25% of the population (EC25) of 800 mg/kg, followed by nitrification (2,000 mg/kg), microbial biomass (2,400 mg/kg), and soil respiration (3,500 mg/kg). Despite changes in potential microbial activities and composition over the frozen, thaw, and refreeze period, the sensitivity of these endpoints to PHC did not change with liquid water or temperature. However, the variability associated with ecotoxicity data increased at low liquid water contents. As a consequence of this variability, highly replicated (n = 50) experiments are needed to quantify a 25% ecological impairment by PHCs in Antarctic soils at a 95% level of significance. Increases in biomass and respiration associated with changes in community composition suggest that PHC contamination in Antarctic soils may have irrevocable effects on the ecosystem.

  5. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  6. A comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and petroleum hydrocarbon uptake by mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in Hong Kong coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, B.J.; Zheng, G.J.; Tse, E.S.C.; De Luca-Abbott, S.B.; Siu, S.Y.M.; Lam, P.K.S

    2003-04-01

    Mussels had higher levels of contaminants than semi-permeable membrane devices. - The ability of mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from five sites in Hong Kong's coastal waters was compared. Mussels consistently had higher levels of contaminants, but their utility was limited at one highly polluted site due to mortality. Mussels and SPMDs ranked sites differently in terms of individual contaminant levels. Although SPMDs overcome many of the disadvantages of using living organisms to measure contaminants in marine waters, they cannot be used as 'mimics' due to different PAH and PHC accumulation patterns.

  7. Novel nanoporous sorbent for solid-phase extraction in petroleum fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Hlengilizwe, Nyoni; Dare, E. Olugbenga; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Akinlabi, A. Kehinde; Aiyedun, P. O.

    2016-04-01

    Sample preparation is crucial in the analysis of petroleum and its derivatives. In this study, developing affordable sorbent for petroleum fingerprinting analysis using polymer waste such expanded polystyrene was explored. The potential of electrospun expanded polystyrene (EPS) as a sorbent for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique was investigated, and its efficiency was compared with commercial cartridges such as alumina, silica and alumina/silica hybrid commercial for petroleum fingerprinting analysis. The chromatograms showed that the packed electrospun EPS fibre demonstrated excellent properties for SPE applications relative to the hybrid cartridges.

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation under seasonal freeze-thaw soil temperature regimes in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wonjae; Klemm, Sara; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal; Whyte, Lyle; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    Several studies have shown that biostimulation in ex situ systems such as landfarms and biopiles can facilitate remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at sub-Arctic sites during summers when temperatures are above freezing. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of semivolatile (F2: C10-C16) and nonvolatile (F3: C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial respiration and population dynamics at post- and presummer temperatures ranging from -5 to 14 °C. The studies were conducted in pilot-scale tanks with soils obtained from a historically contaminated sub-Arctic site in Resolution Island (RI), Canada. In aerobic, nutrient-amended, unsaturated soils, the F2 hydrocarbons decreased by 32% during the seasonal freeze-thaw phase where soils were cooled from 2 to -5 °C at a freezing rate of -0.12 °C d(-1) and then thawed from -5 to 4 °C at a thawing rate of +0.16 °C d(-1). In the unamended (control) tank, the F2 fraction only decreased by 14% during the same period. Biodegradation of individual hydrocarbon compounds in the nutrient-amended soils was also confirmed by comparing their abundance over time to that of the conserved diesel biomarker, bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BS). During this period, microbial respiration was observed, even at subzero temperatures when unfrozen liquid water was detected during the freeze-thaw period. An increase in culturable heterotrophs and 16S rDNA copy numbers was noted during the freezing phase, and the (14)C-hexadecane mineralization in soil samples obtained from the nutrient-amended tank steadily increased. Hydrocarbon degrading bacterial populations identified as Corynebacterineae- and Alkanindiges-related strains emerged during the freezing and thawing phases, respectively, indicating there were temperature-based microbial community shifts.

  9. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  10. Efficiency of Indigenous Filamentous Fungi for Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Medium and Soil: Laboratory Study from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddela, N R; Scalvenzi, L; Pérez, M; Montero, C; Gooty, J M

    2015-09-01

    The competence of two fungal isolates for degrading petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated. The filamentous fungi were isolated from a crude oil-contaminated soil in northeastern Ecuador, and were 99 %-100 % similar in 18S rDNA sequence to the genus Geomyces. Their efficiencies of degradation were tested in vitro for 30 days, using medium and soil microcosm. Residual hydrocarbons were tracked by gas liquid chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The maximum removal percentages of total petroleum hydrocarbons were 77.3 % and 79.9 % for experiments in the medium and soil microcosm, respectively. The percent germination of cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds was increased from 20 % to 100 % upon bioremediation. Isolates sporulated optimally on minimal salts agar medium at pH 5, 25°C temperature, 1 %-1.5 % substrate (crude oil) and 4-6 g L(-1) N-P-K. These findings suggest that these fungal isolates are potential degraders for bioremediation in crude oil-contaminated areas in Ecuador.

  11. Multi-Year Analysis of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities at the Petroleum-Contaminated site in Bemidji, Minn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, S.; Beaver, C. L.; Atekwana, E. A.; Enright, A. M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Lund, A.; Slater, L. D.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was the synchronized geophysical and microbiological analysis of the subsurface petroleum spill in Bemidji, MN. Initially, the center of the free-phase hydrocarbon plume exhibited high magnetic susceptibility (MS) around the water table, however, the MS values decreased in subsequent years. To monitor the composition of the microbial community over time, sediment cores were collected in five consecutive years from the free-phase petroleum plume. Assisted by the sample-freezing drive shoe, continuous cores were collected that stretched below the water table. High-throughput DNA sequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene was applied to closely-spaced samples from the cores, and MS was measured in situ and from the cores. Exactly around the fluctuating water table, where the magnetic susceptibility anomaly had been measured, a methanogenic microbial community was found. The main microbial populations in this community were, besides the hydrocarbon-degrading Firmicutes, the syntrophic propionate oxidizer Smithella and the methanogenic Archaeon Methanoregula. Both genera, Smithella and Methanoregula, were consistently present in samples from all five years, and seem to follow the fluctuating water table. A high water table coincided with high MS and the presence of magnetite, whereas a lower water table may have resulted in the oxidation of magnetite resulting in the measurements of lower MS. Augmented by laboratory analyses of iron oxide minerals and microcosm studies, we are evaluating how certain microbial populations influence the geophysical characteristics of the surrounding sediments during microbial hydrocarbon degradation.

  12. Use of dissolved and vapor-phase gases to investigate methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, R.T.; Mayer, K.U.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.; Williams, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] At many sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, methanogenesis is a significant degradation pathway. Techniques to estimate CH4 production, consumption, and transport processes are needed to understand the geochemical system, provide a complete carbon mass balance, and quantify the hydrocarbon degradation rate. Dissolved and vapor-phase gas data collected at a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site near Bemidji, Minnesota, demonstrate that naturally occurring nonreactive or relatively inert gases such as Ar and N2 can be effectively used to better understand and quantify physical and chemical processes related to methanogenic activity in the subsurface. In the vadose zone, regions of Ar and N2 depletion and enrichment are indicative of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones, and concentration gradients between the regions suggest that reaction-induced advection can be an important gas transport process. In the saturated zone, dissolved Ar and N2 concentrations are used to quantify degassing driven by methanogenesis and also suggest that attenuation of methane along the flow path, into the downgradient aquifer, is largely controlled by physical processes. Slight but discernable preferential depletion of N2 over Ar, in both the saturated and unsaturated zones near the free-phase oil, suggests reactivity of N2 and is consistent with other evidence indicating that nitrogen fixation by microbial activity is taking place at this site. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. The potential for hydrocarbon biodegradation and production of extracellular polymeric substances by aerobic bacteria isolated from a Brazilian petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, S P; Dellagnezze, B M; Wieland, A; Klock, J-H; Santos Neto, E V; Marsaioli, A J; Oliveira, V M; Michaelis, W

    2011-06-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) can contribute to the cellular degradation of hydrocarbons and have a huge potential for application in biotechnological processes, such as bioremediation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Four bacterial strains from a Brazilian petroleum reservoir were investigated for EPS production, emulsification ability and biodegradation activity when hydrocarbons were supplied as substrates for microbial growth. Two strains of Bacillus species had the highest EPS production when phenanthrene and n-octadecane were offered as carbon sources, either individually or in a mixture. While Pseudomonas sp. and Dietzia sp., the other two evaluated strains, had the highest hydrocarbon biodegradation indices, EPS production was not detected. Low EPS production may not necessarily be indicative of an absence of emulsifier activity, as indicated by the results of a surface tension reduction assay and emulsification indices for the strain of Dietzia sp. The combined results gathered in this work suggest that a microbial consortium consisting of bacteria with interdependent metabolisms could thrive in petroleum reservoirs, thus overcoming the limitations imposed on each individual species by the harsh conditions found in such environments.

  14. Production of Mesophase Pitch from Coal Tar and Petroleum Pitches using Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEL, Mustafa Z.

    2002-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is currently being investigated as a possible technique in the production of high quality mesophase pitch from coal tar and petroleum pitches. Mesophase pitch is used to make high technology products, such as carbon fibre. The conventional production of mesophase pitch initially involves the removal of low molecular weight species from coal tar and petroleum pitches. The remaining residue is then transformed into a mesophase pitch through a polym...

  15. Analytical Methods for the Determination of the Distribution of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Water and Sediment of Aquatic Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adeniji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several methods of extraction and analytical determination for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHCs in aqueous and solid samples are reviewed. Infrared spectroscopy is one of the efficient methods that are being replaced today pursuant to getting rid of some halogenated solvents classified as ozone-depleting substances. The gravimetric method which uses n-hexane as an extraction solvent for the determination of oil and grease, as well as the nonpolar materials, has become a preferred choice, despite being not suitable for volatiles because of the mandatory evaporation step. Other frequently used methods include gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (FID or mass spectrometric detector (MSD which has the capacity to reveal the type of hydrocarbons present and is applicable to both volatile and semivolatile samples. Ultraviolet fluorescence is another method that is available both as a portable field device and as off-site laboratory equipment. Each of the methods has its own advantages and disadvantages; hence, the choice of method is guided by the type of data needed as discussed in detail in this review. The distribution of TPHC in water and sediments across the globe and the factors influencing the distribution were also reviewed.

  16. The effect of salinity, redox mediators and temperature on anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelaja, Oluwaseun, E-mail: o.adelaja@my.westminster.ac.uk; Keshavarz, Tajalli, E-mail: t.keshavarz@westminster.ac.uk; Kyazze, Godfrey, E-mail: g.kyazze@westminster.ac.uk

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Effective degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures was achieved using MFC. • Adapted anaerobic microbial consortium was used as inoculum. • Bio-electricity generation was enhanced by 30-fold when riboflavin, was added. • Optimum MFC performance was obtained at mesophilic and moderately saline conditions. • Stable MFC performance was obtained during prolonged fed-batch MFC operation. - Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to be robust if they are to be applied in the field for bioremediation. This study investigated the effect of temperature (20–50 °C), salinity (0.5–2.5% (w/v) as sodium chloride), the use of redox mediators (riboflavin and anthraquinone-2-sulphonate, AQS) and prolonged fed-batch operation (60 days) on biodegradation of a petroleum hydrocarbon mix (i.e. phenanthrene and benzene) in MFCs. The performance criteria were degradation efficiency, % COD removal and electrochemical performance. Good electrochemical and degradation performance were maintained up to a salinity of 1.5% (w/v) but deteriorated by 35-fold and 4-fold respectively as salinity was raised to 2.5%w/v. Degradation rates and maximum power density were both improved by approximately 2-fold at 40 °C compared to MFC performance at 30 °C but decreased sharply by 4-fold when operating temperature was raised to 50 °C. The optimum reactor performance obtained at 40 °C was 1.15 mW/m{sup 2} maximum power density, 89.1% COD removal and a degradation efficiency of 97.10%; at moderately saline (1% w/v) conditions the maximum power density was 1.06 mW/m{sup 2}, 79.1% COD removal and 91.6% degradation efficiency. This work suggests the possible application of MFC technology in the effective treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated site and refinery effluents.

  17. Detailed analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon attenuation in biopiles by high-performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Van Look, Dirk; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo

    2009-02-27

    Enhanced bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in two biopiles was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCXGC). The attenuation of 34 defined hydrocarbon classes was calculated by HPLC-GCXGC analysis of representative biopile samples at start-up and after 18 weeks of biopile operation. In general, a-cyclic alkanes were most efficiently removed from the biopiles, followed by monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Cycloalkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were more resistant to degradation. A-cyclic biomarkers farnesane, trimethyl-C13, norpristane, pristane and phytane dropped to only about 10% of their initial concentrations. On the other hand, C29-C31 hopane concentrations remained almost unaltered after 18 weeks of biopile operation, confirming their resistance to biodegradation. They are thus reliable indicators to estimate attenuation potential of petroleum hydrocarbons in biopile processed soils.

  18. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments of the Mediterranean: assessment and source recognition of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Sadaawy, Manal M; Khaled, Azza; Draz, Suzanne O

    2013-06-01

    Coastal marine sediment samples were collected from ten sampling stations along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast in April 2010. All sediment samples were analyzed for aliphatic (C7 to C34) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as total organic carbon (TOC) contents and grain size analysis. Total aliphatic hydrocarbons ranged from 1621.82 to 9069.99 ng/g (dry weight), while aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs) varied between 208.69 and 1020.02 ng/g with an average of 530.68 ± 225.86 ng/g dwt. Good correlations observed between certain PAH concentrations allowed to identify its origin. The average TOC percent was varied from 0.13 to 1.46 %. Principal component analysis was used to determine the sources of hydrocarbon pollutants in sediments of Mediterranean. Additionally, special PAHs compound ratios suggest the petrogenic origins.

  19. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil spiked with model mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons and heterocycles using biosurfactants from Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irina; Kostina, Ludmila; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya; Kuyukina, Maria; Peshkur, Tatyana; Anderson, Peter; Cunningham, Colin

    2016-07-15

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil using biosurfactants (BS) produced by Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231 was studied in soil columns spiked with model mixtures of major petroleum constituents. A crystalline mixture of single PAHs (0.63g/kg), a crystalline mixture of PAHs (0.63g/kg) and polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), and an artificially synthesized non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) containing PAHs (3.00g/kg) dissolved in alkanes C10-C19 were used for spiking. Percentage of PAH removal with BS varied from 16 to 69%. Washing activities of BS were 2.5 times greater than those of synthetic surfactant Tween 60 in NAPL-spiked soil and similar to Tween 60 in crystalline-spiked soil. At the same time, amounts of removed PAHs were equal and consisted of 0.3-0.5g/kg dry soil regardless the chemical pattern of a model mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons and heterocycles used for spiking. UV spectra for soil before and after BS treatment were obtained and their applicability for differentiated analysis of PAH and PASH concentration changes in remediated soil was shown. The ratios A254nm/A288nm revealed that BS increased biotreatability of PAH-contaminated soils.

  20. Determination of organochlorinated compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment sample IAEA-408. Results from a world-wide intercalibration exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, J P; de Mora, S J; Cattini, C; Carvalho, F P

    2000-10-01

    A sediment sample from the intertidal mudflats of the Tagus estuary was prepared, homogenised and distributed globally to laboratories as the IAEA-408 intercomparison material for the analyses of organochlorinated pesticides, PCBs and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs). A total of 48 laboratories from 36 countries reported their results. The data from participants show that there still remain some difficulties with the accurate determination of organic contaminants such as pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). More consistent interlaboratory results were obtained for PCBs congeners. The final results of this intercomparison exercise enable individual participants to assess their performance and, where necessary, to introduce appropriate modifications in their analytical procedures. Furthermore, as a series of statistical criteria was fulfilled for a number of compounds, the sample IAEA-408 can now be used as a reference material for quality control in the determination of some persistant organic pollutants (POPs) in marine sediment samples.

  1. Modified sequential extraction for biochar and petroleum coke: Metal release potential and its environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, Konstantin; Alam, Md Samrat; Hubmann, Magdalena; Ok, Yong Sik; Konhauser, Kurt O; Alessi, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    A modified Community Bureau of Reference (CBR) sequential extraction method was tested to assess the composition of untreated pyrogenic carbon (biochar) and oil sands petroleum coke. Wood biochar samples were found to contain lower concentrations of metals, but had higher fractions of easily mobilized alkaline earth and transition metals. Sewage sludge biochar was determined to be less recalcitrant and had higher total metal concentrations, with most of the metals found in the more resilient extraction fractions (oxidizable, residual). Petroleum coke was the most stable material, with a similar metal distribution pattern as the sewage sludge biochar. The applied sequential extraction method represents a suitable technique to recover metals from these materials, and is a valuable tool in understanding the metal retaining and leaching capability of various biochar types and carbonaceous petroleum coke samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Main controlling factors for hydrocarbon reservoir formation and petroleum distribution in Cratonic Area of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Cratonic Area of the Tarim Basin is located in the central part of the basin, developing primarily with Cambrian marine source rocks and secondly Middle to Upper Ordovician marine and Carboniferous-Permian transitional facies source rocks. The source rocks were matured in the changeable period and space, forming multiple hydrocarbon generating centers during the periods. The Cratonic Area experienced multiple tectonic orogenies, forming several palaeouplifts. The matching condition between effective hydrocarbon generating centers and the palaeouplifts in various periods is the main control factor for the formation and distribution of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The palaeouplifts have experienced multiple hydrocarbon-filling phases, several periods of modifications and even breakdown. The palaeouplifts and the adjacent slopes around the effective hydrocarbon generating center compose the most favorable places for hydrocarbon accumulation. The hydrocarbon phase is related with the evolution of the hydrocarbon generating center. In the Tarim Basin's Cratonic Area, reservoirs were mostly formed during late Hercynian. The originally formed hydrocarbon reservoirs which are adjacent to source kitchens and in the good preservation condition are the most favorable prospecting targets. Hydrocarbon is richly accumulated under the regional caprock, surrounding the faulted trends, and over and below the unconformity surfaces. Reservoirs in the Carboniferous sandstone, Ordovician karstic weathered crust and carbonate rock inside the buried hill compose the main intervals for hydrocarbon accumulation. Carboniferous and Silurian sandstone pinchout reservoirs and carbonate lithologic reservoirs with rich fractures and pores are the main targets for further prospecting.

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE PETROLEUM ETHER EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mizanur Rahman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new compounds, normal alcohol containing of higher carbons and isomer of β-sitosterol were isolated for the first time from the petroleum extract of the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa. The structure of the compound has been established on the basis of UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectra and identified as nonanol and isomer of β-sitosterol.   Keywords: Lagerstroemia speciosa, petroleum ether extracts, isolation, 1-nonanol, 2 β-sitostero, spectral analyses.

  4. A water and hydrocarbon emulsion for extracting residual oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verderevskiy, Yu.L.; Abramzon, A.A.; Gusev, V.I.; Kulikov, Yu.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Starosud, A.N.; Tavrin, A.Ye.; Zheranin, V.L.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the oil displacing properties of the composition in conditions of high mineralization of the stratum waters and to reduce the cost of the emulsion. To do this, the water and hydrocarbon emulsion for extracting residual oil, which includes water, liquid hydrocarbons, water and oil soluble surfacants (PAV), contains oxyethylated alkylphenol of the OP-10 type as the water soluble surfacant and contains oxytehylated alkylphenol of the OP-4 type as the oil soluble surfacant in the following component relationship (percent by mass): oxyethylated alkylphenol of the OP-4 type, 3.9 to 5.5; oxyethylated alkylphenol of the OP-10 type, 0.1 to 0.2; liquid hydrocargon, 40 to 41 and water, the remainder.

  5. The use of solvent extractions and solubility theory to discern hydrocarbon associations in coal, with application to the coal-supercritical CO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Samples of three high volatile bituminous coals were subjected to parallel sets of extractions involving solvents dichloromethane (DCM), carbon disulfide (CS2), and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) (40 °C, 100 bar) to study processes affecting coal–solvent interactions. Recoveries of perdeuterated surrogate compounds, n-hexadecane-d34 and four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), added as a spike prior to extraction, provided further insight into these processes. Soxhlet-DCM and Soxhlet-CS2 extractions yielded similar amounts of extractable organic matter (EOM) and distributions of individual hydrocarbons. Supercritical CO2 extractions (40 °C, 100 bar) yielded approximately an order of magnitude less EOM. Hydrocarbon distributions in supercritical CO2 extracts generally mimicked distributions from the other solvent extracts, albeit at lower concentrations. This disparity increased with increasing molecular weight of target hydrocarbons. Five- and six-ring ring PAHs generally were not detected and no asphaltenes were recovered in supercritical CO2 extractions conducted at 40 °C and 100 bar. Supercritical CO2 extraction at elevated temperature (115 °C) enhanced recovery of four-ring and five-ring PAHs, dibenzothiophene (DBT), and perdeuterated PAH surrogate compounds. These results are only partially explained through comparison with previous measurements of hydrocarbon solubility in supercritical CO2. Similarly, an evaluation of extraction results in conjunction with solubility theory (Hildebrand and Hansen solubility parameters) does not fully account for the hydrocarbon distributions observed among the solvent extracts. Coal composition (maceral content) did not appear to affect surrogate recovery during CS2 and DCM extractions but might affect supercritical CO2 extractions, which revealed substantive uptake (partitioning) of PAH surrogates into the coal samples. This uptake was greatest in the sample (IN-1) with the highest vitrinite content. These

  6. Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Stephan R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    During/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers, fisherpersons, SCUBA divers, and coastal residents were exposed to crude oil and dispersants. These people experienced acute physiological and behavioral symptoms and consulted a physician. They were diagnosed with petroleum hydrocarbon poisoning and had blood analyses analyzed for volatile organic compounds; samples were drawn 5-19 months after the spill had been capped. We examined the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the blood. The aromatic compounds m,p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, o-xylene, and styrene, and the alkanes hexane, 3-methylpentane, 2-methylpentane, and iso-octane were detected. Concentrations of the first four aromatics were not significantly different from US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey/US National Institute of Standards and Technology 95th percentiles, indicating high concentrations of contaminants. The other two aromatics and the alkanes yielded equivocal results or significantly low concentrations. The data suggest that single-ring aromatic compounds are more persistent in the blood than alkanes and may be responsible for the observed symptoms. People should avoid exposure to crude oil through avoidance of the affected region, or utilizing hazardous materials suits if involved in cleanup, or wearing hazardous waste operations and emergency response suits if SCUBA diving. Concentrations of alkanes and PAHs in the blood of coastal residents and workers should be monitored through time well after the spill has been controlled.

  7. Microbiological characteristics of multi-media PRB reactor in the bioremediation of groundwater contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zhang, Lanying; Deng, Haijing; Liu, Na; Liu, Cuizhu

    2011-10-01

    A multi-media bio-PRB reactor was designed to treat groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. After a 208-day bioremediation, combined with the total petroleum hydrocarbons content in the groundwater flowed through the reactor, microbiological characteristics of the PRB reactor including microbes immobilized and its dehydrogenase activity were investigated. TPH was significantly reduced by as much as 65% in the back of the second media layer, whereas in the third layer, the TPH content reached lower than 1 mg l⁻¹. For microbes immobilized on the media, the variations with depth in different media were significantly the same and the regularity was obvious in the forepart of the media, which increased with depth at first and then reduced gradually, while in the back-end, the microbes almost did not have any variations with depth but decreased with the distance. The dehydrogenase activity varied from 2.98 to 16.16 mg TF L⁻¹ h⁻¹ and its distribution illustrated a similar trend with numbers of microbial cell, therefore, the noticeable correlation was found between them.

  8. Distinguishing natural versus petroleum F3 hydrocarbons in diesel invert biopiles and crude oil impacted Muskeg soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly-Hooper, F.; Dixon, D.G.D. [Waterloo Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the chemical signatures of uncontaminated organic soils and compost materials as compared to crude oil and diesel invert and to test existing biogenic versus petrogenic hydrocarbon distinction methods under controlled experimental conditions. A third purpose was to apply research results and conclusions to the development of new data evaluation methods. This presentation discussed standard classification of petroleum hydrocarbon sources; F3a F3b patterns in 13 crude oils and 34 background soil samples; 2008 tri-national soil survey background sample collections; CCME soil guideline compliance results; relevance to soil remediation projects; F3a F3b distributions in used diesel drilling waste and composted manure; F3a F3b distributions in fresh federated crude oil and uncontaminated peat; F3a F3b distributions in aged spill sites; and a 300 day experiment of federated crude oil contaminated peat and sand. It was concluded that the F3a/F3b approach was not a blanket solution and that case-by-case petroleum source carbon distribution patterns must be first identified. tabs., figs.

  9. Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manab Sarma, P.; Bhattacharya, D.; Krishnan, S. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Center of Bioresources and Biotechnology, New Delhi (India); Lal, B. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Microbial Biotechnology Division, New Delhi (India)

    2004-06-01

    Intra-species diversity among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils from different geographic regions in India was assessed, including their capability to degrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbons. A total of 96 strains were isolated from five different sites. Of the 96 isolates, 25 strains were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii; all of these strains were biochemically profiled and grouped into eight phenovars on the basis of multivariate analysis of their substrate utilization profiles. All strains were able to degrade the total petroleum hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil. Intraspecies relatedness among the 25 strains was determined using tRNA intergenic spacer length polymorphism. Specific variants among the strains with different degradation capacities for different fractions of crude oil were detected. Environmental influences that cause intra-species diversity, such as functional resilience, within the selected strains of A. baumannii were also noted. It is suggested that such diversities may make it possible to select contaminant-specific strains for efficient biotechnological strategies in environmental remediation. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Risk assessment of nitrate and petroleum-derived hydrocarbon addition on Contricriba weissflogii biomass, lifetime, and nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shun-Xing, Li; Feng-Jiao, Liu; Feng-Ying, Zheng; Xu-Guang, Huang; Yue-Gang, Zuo

    2014-03-15

    Coastal diatoms are often exposed to both petroleum-derived hydrocarbon pollution and eutrophication. How these exposures influence on algal biomass, lifetime, and nutritional value are unknown. To examine a more accurate risk assessment of the pollutants on the role of diatoms in coastal ecosystem functions, Conticribra weissflogii was maintained at different concentrations of nitrate (N) and/or water-soluble fractions of No.0 diesel oil (WSF). Algal density, cell growth cycle, protein, chlorophyll a, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malonaldehyde (MDA) were determined for the assessment of algal biomass, lifetime, nutritional value, photosynthesis and respiration, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation, respectively.When N addition was combined with WSF pollution, the cell growth cycles were shortened by 27-44%; SOD activities were decreased by 1-64%; algal density, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, protein, and MDA were varied between 38 and 310%, 62 and 712%, 4 and 124%, and 19 and 233% of the values observed in N addition experiments, respectively. Coastal ecosystem functions were severely weakened by N and WSF additions, and the influence was increased in the order: Npetroleum-derived hydrocarbon on coastal ecosystem functions.

  11. A novel infrared spectrophotometric method for the rapid determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, and animal and vegetable oils in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Lin Tang; Yong Zhang; Sheng Zhong; Ai Min Li

    2012-01-01

    To determine the concentrations of total oils,petroleum hydrocarbons,and animal and vegetable oils in water,the conventional analytical methods involve two scans as well as a step of magnesium silicate adsorption to remove the animal and vegetable oils in water samples.In this study,a novel analytical method was developed to determine the above oils in wastewater samples through just one scan-the concentration of animal and vegetable oils,and that of total oils were determined by measuring the absorbance of the >C=O bond in the peak area between 1750 cm-1 and 1735 cm-1,and ofthe C-H bond at 2930cm-1,2960 cm-1,and 3030 cm- 1,respectively.The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons was then calculated by subtracting the concentration of animal and vegetable oils from that of total oils.Compared with the well-known analytical method GB/T 16488-1996,the novel approach displayed similar accuracy in the quantitative determination of oils in wastewater samples,but significantly reduced material cost and operation time.

  12. An In Silico Approach for Evaluating a Fraction-Based, Risk Assessment Method for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ching Y. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP and the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG developed fraction-based approaches for assessing human health risks posed by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH mixtures in the environment. Both organizations defined TPH fractions based on their expected environmental fate and by analytical chemical methods. They derived toxicity values for selected compounds within each fraction and used these as surrogates to assess hazard or risk of exposure to the whole fractions. Membership in a TPH fraction is generally defined by the number of carbon atoms in a compound and by a compound's equivalent carbon (EC number index, which can predict its environmental fate. Here, we systematically and objectively re-evaluate the assignment of TPH to specific fractions using comparative molecular field analysis and hierarchical clustering. The approach is transparent and reproducible, reducing inherent reliance on judgment when toxicity information is limited. Our evaluation of membership in these fractions is highly consistent (̃80% on average across various fractions with the empirical approach of MADEP and TPHCWG. Furthermore, the results support the general methodology of mixture risk assessment to assess both cancer and noncancer risk values after the application of fractionation.

  13. The Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons on Algae Can Be Reversed in the Presence of a Primary Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changyou; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hongli; Xing, Wenhui; Yu, Hua

    2015-09-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons were tested on densities of two algae, Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis and Isochrysis galbana, and of a rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, by single-species and customized community experiments. Test concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 mg L(-1), while five to seven treatments were assessed in triplicate within 1 month. A significant decrease in densities during single-species toxicity tests were found when concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons were above 1.0 mg L(-1). However, equilibrium densities of algae in the customized community showed a different pattern, which increased with concentration and reached a peak at 20.0 mg L(-1). The community-based no observed effect concentration (NOEC; 1.0 mg L(-1)) was different from the NOEC derived by single-species toxic tests (0.25 mg L(-1)). This demonstrates that ecotoxicological effects on plankton as part of a community is significantly different from single-species toxicity tests owing to ecological interactions.

  14. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Regine; Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Infante, Carmen; Broll, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world. For the rehabilitation of oil-contaminated sites, phytoremediation represents a promising technology whereby plants are used to enhance biodegradation processes in soil. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the tolerance of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) to a Venezuelan heavy crude oil in soil. Additionally, the plant's potential for stimulating the biodegradation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons was tested under the application of two fertilizer levels. In the presence of contaminants, biomass and plant height were significantly reduced. As for fertilization, the lower fertilizer level led to higher biomass production. The specific root surface area was reduced under the effects of petroleum. However, vetiver was found to tolerate crude-oil contamination in a concentration of 5% (w/w). Concerning total oil and grease content in soil, no significant decrease under the influence of vetiver was detected when compared to the unplanted control. Thus, there was no evidence of vetiver enhancing the biodegradation of crude oil in soil under the conditions of this trial. However, uses of vetiver grass in relation to petroleum-contaminated soils are promising for amelioration of slightly polluted sites, to allow other species to get established and for erosion control.

  15. The role of root exuded low molecular weight organic anions in facilitating petroleum hydrocarbon degradation: current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Belinda C; George, Suman J; Price, Charles A; Ryan, Megan H; Tibbett, Mark

    2014-02-15

    Rhizoremediation is a bioremediation technique whereby enhanced microbial degradation of organic contaminants occurs within the plant root zone (rhizosphere). It is considered an effective and affordable 'green technology' for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). This paper critically reviews the potential role of root exuded compounds in rhizoremediation, with emphasis on commonly exuded low molecular weight aliphatic organic acid anions (carboxylates). The extent to which remediation is achieved shows wide disparity among plant species. Therefore, plant selection is crucial for the advancement and widespread adoption of this technology. Root exudation is speculated to be one of the predominant factors leading to microbial changes in the rhizosphere and thus the potential driver behind enhanced petroleum biodegradation. Carboxylates can form a significant component of the root exudate mixture and are hypothesised to enhance petroleum biodegradation by: i) providing an easily degradable energy source; ii) increasing phosphorus supply; and/or iii) enhancing the contaminant bioavailability. These differing hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive, require further investigation to progress our understanding of plant-microbe interactions with the aim to improve plant species selection and the efficacy of rhizoremediation.

  16. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons in copper phytoremediation by a salt marsh plant (Juncus maritimus) and the role of autochthonous bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, I P F M; Mucha, A P; Reis, I; Rodrigues, P; Almeida, C M R

    2016-10-01

    This work aimed to investigate, under controlled but environmental relevant conditions, the effects of the presence of both inorganic and organic contaminants (copper and petroleum hydrocarbons) on phytoremediation potential of the salt marsh plant Juncus maritimus. Moreover, bioaugmentation, with an autochthonous microbial consortium (AMC) resistant to Cu, was tested, aiming an increase in the remediation potential of this plant in the presence of a co-contamination. Salt marsh plants with sediment attached to their roots were collected, placed in vessels, and kept in greenhouses, under tidal simulation. Sediments were contaminated with Cu and petroleum, and the AMC was added to half of the vessels. After 5 months, plants accumulated significant amounts of Cu but only in belowground structures. The amount of Cu was even higher in the presence of petroleum. AMC addition increased Cu accumulation in belowground tissues, despite decreasing Cu bioavailability, promoting J. maritimus phytostabilization potential. Therefore, J. maritimus has potential to phytoremediate co-contaminated sediments, and autochthonous bioaugmentation can be a valuable strategy for the recovery and management of moderately impacted estuaries. This approach can contribute for a sustainable use of the environmental resources. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  17. Laboratory Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon – Polluted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to carry-out laboratory–scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted mangrove swamps using cow dung as source of limiting of nutrients.Methodology and Results: In a 70 days study, the cow dung treated polluted soil had its total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacterial/fungi, heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts increased progressively from the 28th day to the 70th day. The control set- up showed very slight increment in its microbial growth. Alkaline pH was observed in all the treatments and control during the study period. The conductivity values of cow dung decreased progressively. In the cow dung treatment option, the nitrate concentration decreased from 35.44 mg/kg to 14.28 mg/kg. Phosphate concentration of cow dung option decreased from 25.41 mg/kg to 9.31mg/kg. The control had the nitrate decreased from 8.42 mg/kg to 6.98 mg/kg. Percentage total organic carbon (% TOC in the cow dung option decreased from 4.06% to 0.96%. Control experiment had the % TOC decreased from 3.32% to 2.99%. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that 0%, 49.88%, and 69.85% of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively in the cow dung option. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0%, 7.14% and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of organic nutrient sources such as cow dung has shown good promises in bioremediation of crude oil impacted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta. The next line of action is to transfer the technology to pilot scale study.

  18. Cooperation of the Institute of Industrial Chemistry with a petroleum refinery at Plotska for the purpose of modernizing the technology for producing aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tecza, U.; Lisicki, Z.; Manka, S.; Mierzejewski, M.; Prakhmajer, A.

    1982-01-01

    A project of the technological system of a unit for producing aromatic hydrocarbons at a petroleum refinery in Plotska and projects to modernize the technological processes in the production of aromatic hydrocarbons which are related to it is examined. These projects were carried out by colleagues of Institute of Industrial Chemistry (Warsaw) at the plant in 1974-80. They led to intensification of the production of xylenes and to the production of new products.

  19. Mild extractability and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Alexander, M.

    1999-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between bioavailability of unaged and aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and the amounts detected by mild solvent extraction. More aged than unaged anthracene remained in Lima loam following introduction of earthworms (Eisenia foetida), a mixed culture containing anthracene-degrading microorganisms, or earthworms or wheat after bacterial biodegradation of the compound. Aging decreased the percentage of anthracene recovered by mild extraction with n-butanol from soil following introduction of earthworms, growth of wheat, biodegradation by bacteria, or when maintained sterile. Biodegradation resulted in a marked decrease in the percentage of aged and unaged anthracene recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol or ethyl acetate. Aging of fluoranthene and pyrene decreased the amount removed by mild extraction with n-butanol, ethyl acetate, and propanol. The uptake of aged and unaged anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene by earthworms was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol, propanol, and ethyl acetate. The retention of aged and unaged anthracene by wheat and barley was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by the same procedure. The authors suggest that mild extraction with organic solvents can be used to predict the bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  20. The Amoco CadizOil Spill: Evolution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Ile Grande Salt Marshes (Brittany) after a 13-year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, G.; Munoz, D.; Jacquot, F.; Rivet, L.; Bertrand, J.-C.

    1998-11-01

    The Ile Grande salt marshes (Brittany coast) were polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons after theAmoco Cadizgrounding in 1978. Thirteen years after the oil spill, sediments were analysed for residual hydrocarbons in order to monitor the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon signatures and to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively the changes in composition of theAmoco Cadizoil. Six stations were selected in the Ile Grande salt marshes and sediments were sampled to a depth of 20 cm. For each sample, the hydrocarbon compositions were determined for alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and biomarkers (terpanes, steranes, diasteranes). Hydrocarbon levels drastically decreased between 1978 and 1991, but to different extents according to the initial degree of contamination. In 1991, hydrocarbon concentrations never exceeded 1·7 g kg-1sediment dry weight, and in most cases were less than 0·1 g kg-1sediment dry weight. Even though petroleum hydrocarbons are still present, natural hydrocarbons were also detected at several stations. Changes in some biomarker distributions were observed 13 years after the oil spill. Nevertheless, most of the biomarkers are very stable in the salt marsh environment and remain unaltered even after a 13-year period.

  1. The effect of different oil spill remediation techniques on petroleum hydrocarbon elimination in Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A M; Nugegoda, D; Gagnon, M M

    2001-02-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated in juvenile Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, following exposure to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Bass Strait crude oil, chemically dispersed crude oil, and burnt crude oil. Each treatment was administered for 16 days either through the water column or through the diet (amphipod, Allorchestes compressa). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) elimination was determined by measuring biliary benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and naphthalene-type metabolites. Biliary PAH-type metabolite concentrations varied with the type of oil spill remediation technique, route of exposure (food versus water), and exposure concentration. Fish exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil via the water exhibited the highest PAH-type biliary metabolite concentrations, relative to fish exposed to other treatments. In fish exposed via the diet, the highest concentration of both types of biliary metabolites also appeared in the dispersed oil-exposed individuals. The results suggest that chemically dispersing oil may have the greatest effect on bioavailability of hydrocarbons, both through waterborne and food chain exposures.

  2. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked fish using pressurized liquid extraction with integrated fat removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mette; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish products often requires multiple clean-up steps to remove fat and other compounds that may interfere with the chemical analysis. We present a novel pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method that integrates exhaustive...

  3. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-07

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  4. Reactive Extraction of Alcohols from Apolar Hydrocarbons with Aqueous Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous solutions are evaluated as sustainable reactive extraction solvents for the recovery of monohydroxyl alcohols (benzyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, cyclohexanol) present in few-percent concentrations in apolar hydrocarbons (toluene, n-hexane, and cyclohexane) by considering two approaches. An aqueous solution containing a reactive extractant, like borate salts, borate complexes, a monosalt of dicarboxylic acid,hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins, and silver nitrate, shows limited potential to be used. Another approach, in which the alcohol is chemically modified prior to the extraction into an easy-extractable form, in this case a monoesterlcarboxylic acid, shows much more potential. An environmentally benign aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate can provide a distribution ratio of benzyl alcohol up to 200, leaving the solubility of the organic solvent in the aqueous solution unchanged relative to pure water and therefore increasing the selectivity with two orders of magnitude. The modification of aromatic, cyclo-aliphatic, and linear aliphatic alcohols can be performed efficiently in the apolar organic solvent without need for a catalyst. The recovery of the modified alcohol can be performed by back-extraction in combination with a spontaneous hydrolysis.

  5. Using variances in hydrocarbon concentration and carbon stable isotope to determine the important influence of irrigated water on petroleum accumulation in surface soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Renqing; Yang, Juncheng; Hou, Hong; Du, Xiaoming; Dai, Jiulan

    2013-05-01

    Hunpu is a wastewater-irrigated area southwest of Shenyang. To evaluate petroleum contamination and identify its sources at the area, the aliphatic hydrocarbons and compound-specific carbon stable isotopes of n-alkanes in the soil, irrigation water, and atmospheric deposition were analyzed. The analyses of hydrocarbon concentrations and geochemical characteristics reveal that the water is moderately contaminated by degraded heavy oil. According to the isotope analysis, inputs of modern C3 plants and degraded petroleum are present in the water, air, and soil. The similarities and dissimilarities among the water, air, and soil samples were determined by concentration, isotope, and multivariate statistical analyses. Hydrocarbons from various sources, as well as the water/atmospheric deposition samples, are more effectively differentiated through principal component analysis of carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C) relative to hydrocarbon concentrations. Redundancy analysis indicates that 57.1 % of the variance in the δ(13)C of the soil can be explained by the δ(13)C of both the water and air, and 35.5 % of the variance in the hydrocarbon concentrations of the soil can be explained by hydrocarbon concentrations of both the water and the air. The δ(13)C in the atmospheric deposition accounts for 28.2 % of the δ(13)C variance in the soil, which is considerably higher than the variance in hydrocarbon concentrations of the soil explained by hydrocarbon concentrations of the atmospheric deposition (7.7 %). In contrast to δ(13)C analysis, the analysis of hydrocarbon concentrations underestimates the effect of petroleum contamination in the irrigated water and air on the surface soil. Overall, the irrigated water exerts a larger effect on the surface soil than does the atmospheric deposition.

  6. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated groundwater by the combined technique of adsorption onto perlite followed by the O3/H2O2 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Amir

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was treated using a combined system of adsorption onto powdered expanded perlite (PEP) followed by the O3/H2O2 process. The pretreatment investigations indicated a high capacity for PEP to remove petroleum hydrocarbons from the contaminated water. An experimental total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) adsorption capacity of 275 mg/g PEP was obtained at the natural pH of water. The experimental data fit best with the Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo-second-order adsorption model. The second phase of the experiment evaluated the performance of the O3/H2O2 process in the removal of residual TPH from pretreated water and compared the results with that of raw water. The O3/H202 process attained a maximum TPH removal rate for the pretreated water after 70 min, when 93% of the residual TPH in the effluent of the adsorption system was removed. Overall, the combination of adsorption onto PEP for 100 min and the subsequent treatment with the O3/H2O2 process for 70min eliminated over 99% of the TPH of highly petroleum-contaminated groundwater, with initial values of 162 mg/L. Therefore, we can conclude that the developed treatment system is an appropriate method of remediation for petroleum-contaminated waters.

  7. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Nytoft, H. Peter; Bojesen-Koefoed, Jørgen A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m), may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been repo...

  8. Improvement of Bioremediation Performance for the Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rocchetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcosm bioremediation strategies were applied to sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed in aerobic conditions in a single-step treatment and in a two-step anaerobic-aerobic treatment. In aerobic conditions, either inorganic nutrients or composts were added to the microcosms, while, in the first anaerobic phase of the two-step experiment, acetate and/or allochthonous sulfate-reducing bacteria were used. After the treatment under anaerobic conditions, samples were exposed to aerobic conditions in the presence of compost. In the aerobic treatments, 81% hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed after 43 days in the presence of inorganic nutrients. In aerobic conditions in the presence of mature compost, hydrocarbon biodegradation was 51% after 43 days of treatment, whereas it was 47% after 21 days with fresh compost. The two-step experiment allowed us to obtain a hydrocarbon degradation of 91%, after a first anaerobic step with an inoculum of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes.

  9. Proceedings of Conference on Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils (3rd) Held in Amherst, Massachusetts on September 1989 (Petroleum Contaminated Soils. Volume 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    gra- dient , the presence or absence of floating product, and petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the groundwater should be understood prior to...Chianotti, and N. DeGiovanni. "Accidental Death by Gasoline Ingestion," Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 4(2):153-157 (1983). 13. Machle, W. "Gas

  10. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in industrial wastewater: A review%生物法降解工业废水中石油烃研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张攀; 尤朝阳; 陈纪赛; 孙永军; 张路广; 夏钱华

    2016-01-01

    介绍了微生物降解石油烃的机理,探讨了生物可利用性、营养物质、pH、温度等因素对微生物降解石油烃的影响.综述了生物法在工业废水降解石油烃应用方面的研究进展.提出了当前存在的微生物降解机理、降解污染物酶系统及构建降解石油烃基因工程菌研究不足问题,对未来的研究趋势进行了展望.%This review highlights the mechanism of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon and discusses the influencing factors (biodegradability,nutrients,pH value,temperature and biosurfactants) on the microbial degradation.The recent development of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon in industrial wastewater has also been summarized.Insufficient aspects of recent research,including the mechanism of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon,the enzyme systems that degrade pollutants and applications for genetically engineered microorganisms,have also been mentioned.Additionally,further development on the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon in industrial wastewater has been prospected.

  11. Uptake of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Oryza sativa L. Grown in Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Devi, Arundhuti; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased. Further, from GC-MS analysis, it was observed that PAHs including naphthalene and phenanthrene bioaccumulated in rice plant parts. Vital physico-chemical properties of soil were also altered due to crude oil contamination. Our study revealed that rice plants grown in crude oil polluted sites can uptake TPH including PAHs, thus emphasising the importance of prior investigation of soil condition before cultivation of crops.

  12. Variability of soil potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a heterogeneous subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Andreas Houlberg; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Mortensen, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    on the shallow unsaturated zone. Based on a data set comprising analysis of about 100 soil samples taken in a 16-m-deep unsaturated zone polluted with volatile petroleum compounds, we statistically and geostatistically analyzed values of essential soil properties. The subsurface of the site was highly layered...

  13. Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Shuhui; Li, Yubao

    2016-09-18

    The effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process on oil recovery from refinery oily sludge was examined in this study. Two types of UAE treatment including UAE probe (UAEP) system and UAE bath (UAEB) system were investigated. Their oil recovery efficiencies were compared to that of mechanical shaking extraction (MSE). Three solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), ethyl acetate (EA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were examined as the extraction solvents. The influence of experimental factors on oil and solvent recovery was investigated using an orthogonal experimental design. Results indicated that solvent type, solvent-to-sludge (S/S) ratio, and treatment duration could have significant effects on oil recovery in UAE treatment. Under the optimum conditions, UAEP treatment can obtain an oil recovery of 68.8% within 20 s, which was higher than that (i.e., 62.0%) by MSE treatment after 60 min' extraction. UAEB treatment can also obtain a promising oil recovery within shorter extraction duration (i.e., 15 min) than MSE. UAE was thus illustrated as an effective and improved approach for oily sludge recycling.

  14. Rapid prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using a hand-held mid-infrared field instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Grant T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirk, Joel; Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stewart, Richard J

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript reports on the performance of a hand-held diffuse reflectance (mid)-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometer for the prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in three different diesel-contaminated soils. These soils include: a carbonate dominated clay, a kaolinite dominated clay and a loam from Padova Italy, north Western Australia and southern Nigeria, respectively. Soils were analysed for TPH concentration using a standard laboratory methods and scanned in DRIFT mode with the hand-held spectrometer to determine TPH calibration models. Successful partial least square regression (PLSR) predictions, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ~0.99 and root mean square error (RMSE) held mid-infrared instrument can accurately detect TPH across different soil types and concentrations, which paves the way for a variety of applications in the field.

  15. Determination of microbial carbon sources and cycling during remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon impacted soil using natural abundance (14)C analysis of PLFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Benjamin R; Greenberg, Bruce M; Slater, Gregory F

    2010-04-01

    In a petroleum impacted land-farm soil in Sarnia, Ontario, compound-specific natural abundance radiocarbon analysis identified biodegradation by the soil microbial community as a major pathway for hydrocarbon removal in a novel remediation system. During remediation of contaminated soils by a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS), the measured Delta(14)C of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers ranged from -793 per thousand to -897 per thousand, directly demonstrating microbial uptake and utilization of petroleum hydrocarbons (Delta(14)C(PHC) = -1000 per thousand). Isotopic mass balance indicated that more than 80% of microbial PLFA carbon was derived from petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and a maximum of 20% was obtained from metabolism of more modern carbon sources. These PLFA from the contaminated soils were the most (14)C-depleted biomarkers ever measured for an in situ environmental system, and this study demonstrated that the microbial community in this soil was subsisting primarily on petroleum hydrocarbons. In contrast, the microbial community in a nearby uncontaminated control soil maintained a more modern Delta(14)C signature than total organic carbon (Delta(14)C(PLFA) = +36 per thousand to -147 per thousand, Delta(14)C(TOC) = -148 per thousand), indicating preferential consumption of the most modern plant-derived fraction of soil organic carbon. Measurements of delta(13)C and Delta(14)C of soil CO(2) additionally demonstrated that mineralization of PHC contributed to soil CO(2) at the contaminated site. The CO(2) in the uncontaminated control soil exhibited substantially more modern Delta(14)C values, and lower soil CO(2) concentrations than the contaminated soils, suggesting increased rates of soil respiration in the contaminated soils. In combination, these results demonstrated that biodegradation in the soil microbial community was a primary pathway of petroleum hydrocarbon removal in the PEPS system. This study

  16. The effect of salinity, redox mediators and temperature on anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaja, Oluwaseun; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Kyazze, Godfrey

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to be robust if they are to be applied in the field for bioremediation. This study investigated the effect of temperature (20-50°C), salinity (0.5-2.5% (w/v) as sodium chloride), the use of redox mediators (riboflavin and anthraquinone-2-sulphonate, AQS) and prolonged fed-batch operation (60 days) on biodegradation of a petroleum hydrocarbon mix (i.e. phenanthrene and benzene) in MFCs. The performance criteria were degradation efficiency, % COD removal and electrochemical performance. Good electrochemical and degradation performance were maintained up to a salinity of 1.5% (w/v) but deteriorated by 35-fold and 4-fold respectively as salinity was raised to 2.5%w/v. Degradation rates and maximum power density were both improved by approximately 2-fold at 40°C compared to MFC performance at 30°C but decreased sharply by 4-fold when operating temperature was raised to 50°C. The optimum reactor performance obtained at 40°C was 1.15 mW/m(2) maximum power density, 89.1% COD removal and a degradation efficiency of 97.10%; at moderately saline (1% w/v) conditions the maximum power density was 1.06 mW/m(2), 79.1% COD removal and 91.6% degradation efficiency. This work suggests the possible application of MFC technology in the effective treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated site and refinery effluents.

  17. From Rare to Dominant: a Fine-Tuned Soil Bacterial Bloom during Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Barra, Bárbara; Caporaso, J Gregory; Seeger, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Hydrocarbons are worldwide-distributed pollutants that disturb various ecosystems. The aim of this study was to characterize the short-lapse dynamics of soil microbial communities in response to hydrocarbon pollution and different bioremediation treatments. Replicate diesel-spiked soil microcosms were inoculated with either a defined bacterial consortium or a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment and incubated for 12 weeks. The microbial community dynamics was followed weekly in microcosms using Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both the bacterial consortium and enrichment enhanced hydrocarbon degradation in diesel-polluted soils. A pronounced and rapid bloom of a native gammaproteobacterium was observed in all diesel-polluted soils. A unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU) related to the Alkanindiges genus represented ∼ 0.1% of the sequences in the original community but surprisingly reached >60% after 6 weeks. Despite this Alkanindiges-related bloom, inoculated strains were maintained in the community and may explain the differences in hydrocarbon degradation. This study shows the detailed dynamics of a soil bacterial bloom in response to hydrocarbon pollution, resembling microbial blooms observed in marine environments. Rare community members presumably act as a reservoir of ecological functions in high-diversity environments, such as soils. This rare-to-dominant bacterial shift illustrates the potential role of a rare biosphere facing drastic environmental disturbances. Additionally, it supports the concept of "conditionally rare taxa," in which rareness is a temporary state conditioned by environmental constraints.

  18. Potential Use of Polyacrylamide Encapsulation for Treatment of Petroleum Drilling Cuttings and Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy H. Adams

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineral soil of alluvial origin, contaminated with diesel+lubricating oil (1:2, was treated with a commercial polyacrylamide product at 100 % of the distributer recommended dosage, producing a reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (EPA 9074 of 76 % that remained stable during the study period (38 days and even after thermal treatment (60 ºC, 18 hrs.. Increasing the dosage to 150 % did not improve the treatment results, but repeating the treatment (at 100 % resulted in a slight additional reduction (4 %. Similar results were obtained with oil-based drilling cuttings (~60 % reduction at both 100 % and 150 %. Pre-drying of the drilling cuttings prior to treatment did not improve the hydrocarbon reduction, but it did produce smaller, potentially more stable aggregates (0.5 – 1-0 mm in diameter. The treatment of organic soil resulted in a similar reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (65 % and a reduction of acute toxicity (Microtox to below background levels, however this effect was not stable. An additional application (including mixing of the polyacrylamide product resulted in partial disintegration of the organic fibres and release of the stabilized hydrocarbons, measuring an overall increase in hydrocarbon concentration of 19 %.

  19. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed.

  20. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - biocell treatment of petroleum contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Biocells are engineered systems that use naturally occurring microbes to degrade fuels and oils into simpler, nonhazardous, and nontoxic compounds. Biocells are able to treat soils contaminated with petroleum based fuels and lubricants, including diesel, jet fuel, and lubricating and hydraulic oils. The microbes use the contaminants as a food source and thus destroy them. By carefully monitoring and controlling air and moisture levels, degradation rates can be increased and total treatment time reduced over natural systems.

  1. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  2. Planar chromatography for the hydrocarbon group type analysis of petroleum middle distillates and coal-derived products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt, Muriel; Gruber, Rene [Laboratoire de thermodynamique et d' analyses chimiques, Universite de Metz, Ile du Saulcy, UFR SciFA, 57045 cedex 1 Metz (France); Galvez, Eva; Cebolla, Vicente; Membrado, Luis; Vela, Jesus [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2002-06-20

    Different methodologies, based on planar chromatography/detection with densitometry, have been used to analyse compound classes (also known as hydrocarbon group type (HGT)) in samples coming from petroleum and coal conversion. The main problem encountered to analyse these samples is the choice of standard: because of the high variability of the signal that is dependent of molecular structure, one pure hydrocarbon does not reflect the response of a mixture. However, a step based on thin layer chromatography at preparative scale has allowed the fractionation of sample to obtain its derived standards. After this, alkanes have been quantified by fluorescence in presence of berberine sulfate and aromatic compounds have been detected by UV after separation by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) at analytical scale.The feasibility of the planar chromatography has been tested. The quantitative results obtained for different samples are in agreement with those provided using well-established techniques in the petrochemical industry and the coal-derived product (CDP) analysis.

  3. Hydrologic and microbiological factors affecting persistence and migration of petroleum hydrocarbons spilled in a continuous-permafrost region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, J.F.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Fuel spills, totaling about 1300 m3, occurred between 1976 and 1978 adjacent to Imikpuk Lake, a drinking water source near Barrow, AK. Substantial contamination of soils and groundwater near the lake persists. We examined the magnitude and direction of groundwater flux and the microbial activity at this site to understand the persistence of contamination and its effect on the lake. We found that groundwater flux is small due to shallow permafrost, which restricts the cross-sectional area available for flow, and to the short annual thaw season (ca. 90 days). The small flux and limited depth also constrain contaminant transport and dispersion, resulting in persistent, shallow contamination. The numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms and their laboratory mineralization potentials for benzene (at 10 ??C) were higher in samples from contaminated areas than in reference samples. Benzene mineralization potentials in groundwater samples were comparable to more temperate systems (0.1-0.5 mg of benzene mineralized L-1 day-1) and were stimulated by nutrient additions. Field measurements of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, ferrous iron, and sulfide in groundwater provided evidence that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is occurring in situ. Despite evidence of an active microbial population, microbial processes, like contaminant transport, are likely limited at this site by the short annual thaw season.

  4. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Nwogu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH, nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P<0.05 in TPH concentrations for both samples at different time intervals. Similarly, there was a gradual decrease in the concentrations of total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in both samples. The culturable hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (CHUB increased steadily from 8.5 × 105 cfu/g to 2.70 × 106 cfu/g and from 8.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.78 × 106 cfu/g for both samples. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were isolated from amended sample with Pseudomonas being the predominant isolated bacterial genus. This study demonstrated that C. a. hircus manure is a good biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS.

  5. Effects of chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons on two species of marine fish infected with a hemoprotozoan, Trypanosoma murmanensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, R.A. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland St. John' s, NF (Canada))

    1987-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to ascertain the effects of a blood protozoan, Trypanosoma murmanensis, on two species of marine fish exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. Infected juvenile and adult winter flounder were exposed for 6 weeks to sediment contaminated with a Venezuelan crude (total hydrocarbon concentration, 2600-3200 {mu}g/g) whereas Atlantic cod were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (50-100 {mu}g/l) for 12 weeks. Three other groups, uninfected controls, fish infected with trypanosomes only, and oil-treated, uninfected fish, were held in aquaria in a continuously flowing seawater system. Mortality was higher in the infected, oil-treated flounder and subadult cod than in the trypanosome-infected only, oil-treated, and control groups. Death in oil-treated flounder was associated with severe tail rot and hypersecretion of mucus from the gills, whereas blood values (hematocrit, hemoglobin, total plasma protein) were significantly depressed in both infected groups. Low body condition, excessive mucus secretion by the gills, and retarded gonadal development were observed in adult, oil-treated cod but these were more pronounced in the infected, oil-treated groups. Prevalence of the infection and parasitemias were higher in the oil-treated groups than in untreated fish. These results provide evidence that the combined effects of parasites and chronic oil pollution can not only cause mortality but can also jeopardize health and reproduction in surviving fish. 41 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Candidates for the development of consortia capable of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    David, J.; Gupta, R.; Mohandass, C.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    Bacteria and yeasts from different niches of the tropical Indian waters were screened for their hydrocarbon degrading potential using 1% w/v in artificial seawater over a period of 6 days. About 20% of the 75 bacterial and 24% of the 27 yeast...

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn) seed petroleum ether extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundarikakshudu, Kilambi; Shah, Deepak H.; Panchal, Aashish H.; Bhavsar, Gordhanbhai C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds. Materials and Methods: Fenugreek seed powder was extracted in petroleum ether by cold maceration. This fenugreek seed petroleum ether extract (FSPEE) was analyzed by gas–liquid chromatography (GLC) and tested on rats against carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis and cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Changes in serum glutamic oxaloacetic tansaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in liver and serum were also studied in cotton pellet-induced arthritic rats. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: GLC of FSPEE showed oleic (33.61%), linoleic (40.37%), and linolenic (12.51%) acids. With 0.5 mL/kg FSPEE treatment, there was 37% (P < 0.05) and 85% (P < 0.05) reduction in inflammation of the paw in carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema. In CFA-induced arthritis, a biphasic increase in paw volume followed by decrease was seen. There was 42.5% (P < 0.01) reduction in the weight of cotton pellets and significant (P < 0.01) reductions in the elevated SGPT and ALP activities in serum and liver of FSPEE (0.5 mL/kg) treated rats. Conclusion: Thus, petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities which are due to the presence of linolenic and linoleic acids.

  8. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Darne G. Almeida; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F.; Luna, Juliana M.; Raquel D. Rufino; Santos, Valdemir A.; Ibrahim M Banat; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfac...

  9. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    OpenAIRE

    DARNE GERMANO DE ALMEIDA; Rita De Cássia Freire Soares da Silva; Juliana Moura Luna; Raquel Diniz Rufino; Valdemir Alexandre Santos; Ibrahim M Banat; Leonie Asfora Sarubbo

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfact...

  10. Effects of diurnal temperature variation on microbial community and petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2015-12-01

    Contaminated soils are subject to diurnal and seasonal temperature variations during on-site ex-situ bioremediation processes. We assessed how diurnal temperature variations similar to that in summer at the site from which petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was collected affect the soil microbial community and the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons compared with constant temperature regimes. Microbial community analyses for 16S rRNA and alkB genes by pyrosequencing indicated that the microbial community for soils incubated under diurnal temperature variation from 5°C to 15°C (VART5-15) evolved similarly to that for soils incubated at constant temperature of 15°C (CST15). In contrast, under a constant temperature of 5°C (CST5), the community evolved significantly different. The extent of biodegradation of C10-C16 hydrocarbons in the VART5-15 systems was 48%, comparable with the 41% biodegradation in CST15 systems, but significantly higher than CST5 systems at 11%. The enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria was observed in the alkB gene-harbouring communities in VART5-15 and CST15 but not in CST5 systems. However, the Actinobacteria was abundant at all temperature regimes. The results suggest that changes in microbial community composition as a result of diurnal temperature variations can significantly influence petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation performance in cold regions.

  11. Air pollution impacts due to petroleum extraction in the Norwegian Sea during the ACCESS aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tuccella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from oil/gas extraction activities in the Arctic are already important in certain regions and may increase as global warming opens up new opportunities for industrial development. Emissions from oil/gas extraction are sources of air pollutants, but large uncertainties exist with regard to their amounts and composition. In this study, we focus on detailed investigation of emissions from oil/gas extraction in the Norwegian Sea combining measurements from the EU ACCESS aircraft campaign in July 2012 and regional chemical transport modeling. The goal is to (1 evaluate emissions from petroleum extraction activities and (2 investigate their impact on atmospheric composition over the Norwegian Sea. Numerical simulations include emissions for permanently operating offshore facilities from two datasets: the TNO-MACC inventory and emissions reported by Norwegian Environment Agency (NEA. It was necessary to additionally estimate primary aerosol emissions using reported emission factors since these emissions are not included in the inventories for our sites. Model runs with the TNO-MACC emissions are unable to reproduce observations close to the facilities. Runs using the NEA emissions more closely reproduce the observations although emissions from mobile facilities are missing from this inventory. Measured plumes suggest they are a significant source of pollutants, in particular NOx and aerosols. Sensitivities to NOx and NMVOC emissions show that, close to the platforms, O3 is sensitive to NOx emissions and is much less sensitive to NMVOC emissions. O3 destruction, via reaction with NO, dominates very close to the platforms. Far from the platforms, oil/gas facility emissions result in an average daytime O3 enhancement of +2% at the surface. Larger enhancements are predicted at noon ranging from +7% at the surface to +15% at 600 m. Black carbon is the aerosol species most strongly influenced by petroleum extraction emissions. The results highlight

  12. Biological remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons from a refinery's soil : comparison of different technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazare Couto, M.; Vasconcelos, T.S.D. [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Porto (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation discussed bioremediation methods used at a refinery in Portugal with a high distillation capacity. The aim of the project was to develop a method for restoring contaminated sites using rhizoremediation and bio-augmentation. Hydrocarbon molecules were tightly sorbed to the soil particles at the refinery. Plants used in the bioremediation project included Scirpus maritimus and Juncus maritimus, as well as Cortoaderia selloana taken from an estuary near the refinery. Tests were conducted both with, and without the use of microorganisms. Commercial bio-augmentation products were used. Plant growth was evaluated for a period of 64 days. It was concluded that the technology is cheaper than many traditional methods of treating hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. tabs., figs.

  13. Analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum fractions using gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and mass fragmentrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubelka, V.

    1980-01-01

    Mass spectrometry in combination with gas chrom. used to analyze hydrocarbon mixtures results in qualit. and semi-quant. data regarding composition of the analyzed mixture. Use of mass fragmentrography during chromatographic separation will allow simultaneous recording of changes in intensity of characteristic ions and thus determine the retention index, for this substance. Combining mass spectre and retention index, it is possible to identify the given subst. or limit the number of possible combinations.

  14. Role of tissue analysis for petroleum hydrocarbons in marine pollution research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, J. W.; Vanderhorst, J. R.; Anderson, J. W.

    1979-05-01

    Analytical chemists have devoted considerable effort to develop detailed analysis of hydrocarbons in tissues. The methods developed are time consuming, and there is often a high degree of variability between samples. In light of this, the cost effectiveness of these analyses is questioned. The need to simplify tissue analysis is discussed. Data are provided on a number of benthic marine organisms exposed to continuous contamination with crude oil and problems of individual organism variability are discussed.

  15. Hydrocarbon Degradation in Caspian Sea Sediment Cores Subjected to Simulated Petroleum Seepage in a Newly Designed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Treude

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbial community response to petroleum seepage was investigated in a whole round sediment core (16 cm length collected nearby natural hydrocarbon seepage structures in the Caspian Sea, using a newly developed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through (SOFT system. Distinct redox zones established and migrated vertically in the core during the 190 days-long simulated petroleum seepage. Methanogenic petroleum degradation was indicated by an increase in methane concentration from 8 μM in an untreated core compared to 2300 μM in the lower sulfate-free zone of the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective decrease in the δ13C signal of methane from -33.7 to -49.5‰. The involvement of methanogens in petroleum degradation was further confirmed by methane production in enrichment cultures from SOFT sediment after the addition of hexadecane, methylnapthalene, toluene, and ethylbenzene. Petroleum degradation coupled to sulfate reduction was indicated by the increase of integrated sulfate reduction rates from 2.8 SO42-m-2 day-1 in untreated cores to 5.7 mmol SO42-m-2 day-1 in the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective accumulation of sulfide from 30 to 447 μM. Volatile hydrocarbons (C2–C6 n-alkanes passed through the methanogenic zone mostly unchanged and were depleted within the sulfate-reducing zone. The amount of heavier n-alkanes (C10–C38 decreased step-wise toward the top of the sediment core and a preferential degradation of shorter (C30 was seen during the seepage. This study illustrates, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time the development of methanogenic petroleum degradation and the succession of benthic microbial processes during petroleum passage in a whole round sediment core.

  16. Analysis of root causes of major hazard precursors (hydrocarbon leaks) in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnem, Jan Erik, E-mail: jev@preventor.n [Preventor AS/University of Stavanger, Rennebergstien 30, 4021 Stavanger (Norway); Hestad, Jon Andreas [Safetec Nordic AS, Bergen (Norway); Kvaloy, Jan Terje [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger (Norway); Skogdalen, Jon Espen [Department of Industrial Economics, Risk Management and Planning, University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    The offshore petroleum industry in Norway reports major hazard precursors to the authorities, and data are available for the period 1996 through 2009. Barrier data have been reported since 2002, as have data from an extensive questionnaire survey covering working environment, organizational culture and perceived risk among all employees on offshore installations. Several attempts have been made to analyse different data sources in order to discover relations that may cast some light on possible root causes of major hazard precursors. These previous attempts were inconclusive. The study presented in this paper is the most extensive study performed so far. The data were analysed using linear regression. The conclusion is that there are significant correlations between number of leaks and safety climate indicators. The discussion points to possible root causes of major accidents.

  17. Effect of salt on aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Ania C; Guigard, Selma E; Foght, Julia M; Semple, Kathleen M; Pooley, Kathryn; Armstrong, James E; Biggar, Kevin W

    2009-02-01

    Hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and groundwater at oil and gas production sites may be additionally impacted by salts due to release of produced waters. However, little is known about the effect of salt on the in-situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons by terrestrial microbes, especially at low temperatures. To study this effect, we prepared a groundwater-soil slurry from two sites in Canada: a former flare pit site contaminated with flare pit residue (Site A), and a natural gas processing facility contaminated with natural gas condensate (Site B). The slurry with its indigenous microbes was amended with radiolabeled hydrocarbons dissolved in free product plus nutrients and/or NaCl, and incubated in aerobic biometer flasks with gyrotory shaking at either 25 or 10 degrees C for up to 5 weeks. Cumulative production of (14)CO(2) was measured and the lag time, rate and extent of mineralization were calculated. For Site A, concentrations of NaCl >or=1% (w/v) delayed the onset of mineralization of both (14)C-hexadecane and (14)C-phenanthrene under nutrient-amended conditions, but once biodegradation began the degradation rates were similar over the range of salt concentrations tested (0-5% NaCl). For Site B, increasing concentrations of NaCl >or=1% (w/v) increased the lag time and decreased the rate and extent of mineralization of aliphatic and aromatic substrates. Of particular interest is the observation that low concentrations of salt (

  18. Biotreatment of hydrocarbons from petroleum tank bottom sludges in soil slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, M.D.; Neirotti, E.; Albornoz, C.; Mostazo, M.R.; Cozzo, M. [Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland Pando, Canelones (Uruguay). Centro de Investigaciones Tecnologicas

    1996-11-01

    Biotreatment of oil wastes in aqueous slurries prepared with sandy loam soil and inoculated with selected soil cultures was evaluated. After 90 days, oil removal was 47%. Removal of each hydrocarbon class was 84% for saturates, 20% for aromatics, and 44% for asphaltenes. Resins increased by 68%. The use of a soil with a lower level of fine particles or minor organic matter content, or reinoculation with fresh culture did not improve oil elimination. Residual oil recovered from slurries was biotreated. Oil removal was 22%. Slurry-phase biotreatment showed less variability and faster oil removal than solid-phase biotreatment. (author)

  19. Effect of salt on aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foght, J.; Semple, K.; Pooley, K.; Guigard, S.; Biggar, K. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Biodegradation can be limited by low concentrations of dissolved oxygen and other terminal electron acceptors, low nutrient concentrations, low temperatures and potentially by low numbers of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbes in inhospitable environments. At flare pit sites, salt is a common co-contaminant in subsurface sediments and groundwater contaminated with crude oil. There are few published reports on the effects of salt on hydrocarbon degradation by soil or freshwater microbial communities. In this study, subsurface sediment and groundwater were collected and stored. Five grams of sediment and 50 ml of groundwater were added to flasks, providing replicate indigenous microbial populations. Nutrients were added to certain flasks as autoclaved solutions of ammonium nitrate and potassium phosphate. Positive and negative controls were included in each test series. Flasks were sealed with neoprene stoppers and unsealed briefly to introduce fresh oxygen to maintain aerobic conditions. Results indicate that nutrient addition is required for significant aliphatic but not aromatic hydrocarbon mineralization. Salt was found to be inhibitory to general metabolic activity. Salt concentrations above 1 per cent wt/vol resulted in increased lag times and a lower extent of mineralization. Inhibitory effects observed included increased lag times and decreased rates and extents of mineralization. Low levels of salt were sometimes stimulatory, which may be explained by the salt providing a more ionically balanced medium for the microbes, or by the dispersal of clays to provide a larger surface area for attachment of cells or for access to trace nutrients. It was noted that certain flasks within a replicate set experienced a long lag time before eventually and suddenly beginning to mineralize the substrate at a rate similar to that of less stressed flasks. The lag time may be considered as an adaptation period of the consortium to the stressors, during which there is

  20. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish.

  1. Monitoring of DNA damage in individuals exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-y-Miño, César; López-Cortés, Andrés; Arévalo, Melissa; Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2008-10-01

    Currently, it is known that several chemical agents used or generated by the oil industry are classified as mutagens and/or carcinogens. Among these we have gasoline, diesel, butane gas, styrene, benzene, chloroform, and others. Studies have verified that these chemicals have effects in fertility (abortions, sterility); produce various upheavals, such as dizziness, nausea, muscular pain; and produce chromosomal damage at the DNA level, which in the long or medium run, can develop into cancer and leukemia. The genetic damage in exposed individuals was measured by means of the comet test, chromosomal alterations test, and the study of the CYP 1A1 and MSH2 genes. These methods were applied to determine the genotoxicity of hydrocarbons and their residue in human beings. When conducting these tests on the blood samples of individuals exposed to hydrocarbons (workers of oil companies) and of a control population of the area of study and Quito, it was found that, in effect, the exposed individuals presented a greater amount of damage at the DNA level as well as at the chromosomal level than the individuals from the control populations (Poil impact has been greater.

  2. Identifying the source of petroleum pollution in sediment cores of southwest of the Caspian Sea using chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2017-02-15

    In this study, the concentration and sources of aliphatic and petroleum markers were investigated in 105 samples of Anzali, Rezvanshahr and Astara cores from the southwest of Caspian Sea. Petroleum importation was diagnosed as a main source in most depths of cores by the results of unresolved complex mixture, carbon preference index and hopanes and steranes. From the chemical diagnostic parameters, petroleum inputs in sediment of cores were determined to be different during years and the sources of hydrocarbons in some sections differed than Anzali and Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan oils. Diagenic ratios in most sediments of upper and middle sections in Astara core were determined to be highly similar to those of Azerbaijan oil, while the presence of Turkmenistan and Anzali oils were detected in a few sections of Anzali and Rezvanshahr cores and only five layers of downer section in Anzali core, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal; Atanu Jana; Mr. Abhijit Datta; Sarma, Priyangshu M.; Banwari Lal; Jayati Datta

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste) and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of th...

  4. Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Analytical Methods, Toxicology, and Risk Assessment Research: Seafood Safety after a Petroleum Spill as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Wickliffe, Jeffrey; Overton, Edward; Frickel, Scott; Howard, Jessi; Wilson, Mark; Simon, Bridget; Echsner, Stephen; Nguyen, Daniel; Gauthe, David; Blake, Diane; Miller, Charles; Elferink, Cornelis; Ansari, Shakeel; Fernando, Harshica; Trapido, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are abundant and widespread environmental chemicals. They are produced naturally and through man-made processes, and they are common in organic media, including petroleum. Several PAHs are toxic, and a subset exhibit carcinogenic activity. PAHs represent a range of chemical structures based on two or more benzene rings and, depending on their source, can exhibit a variety of side modifications resulting from oxygenation, nitrogenation, and a...

  5. Some aspects concerning photo-chemical degradation and determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environment; Alguns aspectos sobre a degradacao fotoquimica e a determinacao de hidrocarbonetos do petroleo no ambiente marinho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicego, Marcia Caruso

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum and its products are mainly introduced in marine environment either from tankers accidents and operations or urban and industrial discharges. The purpose of this work was to study petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environment and some aspects of their photo-oxidation reactions. The methodology is described. Results are presented. (author)

  6. 石油烃分子组成预测研究进展%The research progress of petroleum hydrocarbon molecules prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 焦国凤; 周祥; 郭锦标

    2014-01-01

    The molecules composition of petroleum hydrocarbon is important data in petroleum refining and processing. According to the bulk properties obtained molecules predicted, it can provide a good reference for the petroleum processing. Summarizes the main method of predicted petroleum hydrocarbon molecules composition, such as Stochastic Reconstruction, Entropy Maximum, Monte Carlo Simulation, Molecular Type Homologous Series, Analyzes the characteristics and shortcomings of these methods, and discusses the direction of development on the future.%石油烃分子组成是目前石油炼制和加工过程中重要数据,通过易得的宏观物性对分子组成进行预测可以为石油加工过程提供良好的参考。对国内外石油烃分子组成的主要预测方法随机重构方法,熵最大化法,蒙特卡洛模拟方法,MTHS矩阵法等方法进行了介绍,对其特点与不足进行了讨论,并对未来的发展方向进行了展望。

  7. Subtask 1.20 - Development of Methods to Determine the Environmental Availability of PAHs, PCBs, and Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Hawthorne

    2007-06-30

    Three methods to determine the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were modified and developed for application to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water/XAD desorption and selective supercritical fluid extraction methods were developed to determine the rapidly-released fraction of PCBs from contaminated soils and sediments. A method to determine PCBs in sediment pore water based on solid-phase microextraction was also developed that is capable of determining low pg/mL concentrations with water samples as small as 1.5 mL.

  8. Application of real-time PCR, DGGE fingerprinting, and culture-based method to evaluate the effectiveness of intrinsic bioremediation on the control of petroleum-hydrocarbon plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chih-Ming; Chen, Colin S; Tsa, Fu-Yu; Yang, Kai-Hsing; Chien, Chih-Ching; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Yang, Chin-an; Chen, Ssu Ching

    2010-06-15

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the culture-based method were applied in the intrinsic bioremediation study at a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated site. The genes of phenol hydroxylase (PHE), ring-hydroxylating toluene monooxygenase (RMO), naphthalene dioxygenase (NAH), toluene monooxygenase (TOL), toluene dioxygenase (TOD), and biphenyl dioxygenase (BPH4) were quantified by real-time PCR. Results show that PHE gene was detected in groundwater contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers (BTEX) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and this indicates that intrinsic bioremediation occurred at this contaminated site. Results from DGGE analyses reveal that the petroleum-hydrocarbon plume caused the variation in microbial communities. In this study, MTBE degraders including Pseudomonas sp. NKNU01, Bacillus sp. NKNU01, Klebsiella sp. NKNU01, Enterobacter sp. NKNU01, and Enterobacter sp. NKNU02 were isolated from the contaminated groundwater using the cultured-based method. Results from MTBE biodegradation experiment show that the isolated bacteria were affected by propane. This indicates that propane may influence the metabolic pathway of MTBE by these bacteria. Knowledge and comprehension obtained from this study will be helpful in evaluating the occurrence and effectiveness of intrinsic bioremediation on the remediation of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater.

  9. The use of sensory perception indicators for improving the characterization and modelling of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxo, Sónia; de Almeida, José António; Matias, Filipa Vieira; Mata-Lima, Herlander; Barbosa, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a multistep approach for creating a 3D stochastic model of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in potentially polluted soils of a deactivated oil storage site by using chemical analysis results as primary or hard data and classes of sensory perception variables as secondary or soft data. First, the statistical relationship between the sensory perception variables (e.g. colour, odour and oil-water reaction) and TPH grade is analysed, after which the sensory perception variable exhibiting the highest correlation is selected (oil-water reaction in this case study). The probabilities of cells belonging to classes of oil-water reaction are then estimated for the entire soil volume using indicator kriging. Next, local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell are computed, combining the probabilities of belonging to a specific sensory perception indicator class and conditional to the simulated values of TPH grade. Finally, simulated images of TPH grade are generated by using the P-field simulation algorithm, utilising the local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell. The set of simulated TPH values allows several calculations to be performed, such as average values, local uncertainties and the probability of the TPH grade of the soil exceeding a specific threshold value.

  10. Numerical modelling on fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in an unsaturated subsurface system for varying source scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Berlin; M Vasudevan; G Suresh Kumar; Indumathi M Nambi

    2015-04-01

    The vertical transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from a surface spill through an unsaturated subsurface system is of major concern in assessing the vulnerability of groundwater contamination. A realistic representation on fate and transport of volatile organic compounds at different periods after spill is quite challenging due to the variation in the source behaviour at the surface of spill as well as the variation in the hydrodynamic parameters and the associated inter-phase partitioning coefficients within the subsurface. In the present study, a one dimensional numerical model is developed to simulate the transport of benzene in an unsaturated subsurface system considering the effect of volatilization, dissolution, adsorption and microbial degradation of benzene for (i) constant continuous source, (ii) continuous decaying source, and (iii) residual source. The numerical results suggest that volatilization is the important sink for contaminant removal considering the soil air migration within the unsaturated zone. It is also observed that the coupled effect of dissolution and volatilization is important for the decaying source at the surface immediately after the spill, whereas rate-limited dissolution from residually entrapped source is responsible for the extended contamination towards later period.

  11. Changes in liquid water alter nutrient bioavailability and gas diffusion in frozen antarctic soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Bioremediation has been used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated sites in polar regions; however, limited knowledge exists in understanding how frozen conditions influence factors that regulate microbial activity. We hypothesized that increased liquid water (θ(liquid) ) would affect nutrient supply rates (NSR) and gas diffusion under frozen conditions. If true, management practices that increase θ(liquid) should also increase bioremediation in polar soils by reducing nutrient and oxygen limitations. Influence of θ(liquid) on NSR was determined using diesel-contaminated soil (0-8,000 mg kg(-1)) from Casey Station, Antarctica. The θ(liquid) was altered between 0.007 and 0.035 cm(3) cm(-3) by packing soil cores at different bulk densities. The nutrient supply rate of NH 4+ and NO 3-, as well as gas diffusion coefficient, D(s), were measured at two temperatures, 21°C and -5°C, to correct for bulk density effects. Freezing decreased NSR of both NH 4+ and NO 3-, with θ(liquid) linked to nitrate and ammonia NSR in frozen soil. Similarly for D(s), decreases due to freezing were much more pronounced in soils with low θ(liquid) compared to soils with higher θ(liquid) contents. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship between degradation rates and θ(liquid) under frozen conditions.

  12. Lotus corniculatus Crop Growth in Crude Oil Polluted Soil. Part1 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons Reduction of Polluted and Cultivated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of power plant fly ash, by its physical-chemical properties, can significantly change the characteristics of soils polluted with oil (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, TPH, in their rehabilitation process, if combined with biodegradable organic materials, wastes such as sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Maintaining vegetation on soils polluted with 80.5 ± 3.9 g·kg-1 D.M. of TPH under perennial regime specific to bird’s foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, demonstrates the tolerance of the plant to the created conditions by the treatment of polluted soil with adequate amounts of fertilizer and fly ash from burning coal in power stations. The addition of 50-500 g fly ash per vegetation pot equipped with crude oil polluted soil mixed with 250 g sewage sludge per pot has reduced the oil content in the soil, in two ways: on the one hand influenced by the state of development of plants and on the other hand by weather conditions (alternation of seasons. The amount of TPH lost during the 16 months of vegetation in soils polluted with 80.5±3.9 g·kg-1 D.M. was 73.3-77.5 g·kg-1 D.M.

  13. Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy products derived from coal and petroleum by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changming; Zhang, Xiaohang; Yang, Jianli; Liu, Zhenyu

    2007-10-12

    A systematic study was made on the identification and quantitative determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in heavy products derived from coal and petroleum with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After the separation of PAHs by a high-resolution column, identification was made through four methods: (1) the relative retention time (RRT) method, (2) the stop-flow-UV scanning method, (3) the method of fluorescence characteristic index Phi' and (4) the method of V' index at different UV wavelengths. For the quantitative determination of the components, methods of external standard (E-X), internal standard (I-N) and external standard-response factors (E-F) were compared. The E-F method was recommended by the present paper. For the determination of quantitative response factors (F) two methods were studied, including the HPLC peak-area method (Peak-area method) and the UV absorbance method using a UV spectrometer (absorbance method). The absorbance method was better and is recommended by the present paper. The F values of 30 PAHs from the two different methods are given. The samples analyzed include a coal tar pitch, a thermal cracking residue oil and a residual oil from ethylene production.

  14. A safe, efficient and cost effective process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from a highly heterogeneous and relatively inaccessible shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2015-10-01

    A rocky, intractable and highly heterogeneous, intertidal zone, was contaminated from a diesel fuel spill that occurred during refuelling of a grader used in road construction, on an operational mine's shiploading facility. A practical, cost-effective, and safer (to personnel by avoiding drilling and earthworks), and non-invasive sampling and remediation strategy was designed and implemented since the location and nature of the impacted geology (rock fill) and sediment, precluded conventional ex-situ and any in-situ treatment where drilling would be required. Enhanced biostimulation with surfactant, available N & P (which were highly constrained), and increased aeration, increased the degradation rate from no discernable change for 2 years post-spill, to 170 mg/kg/day; the maximum degradation rate after intervention. While natural attenuation was ineffective in this application, the low-cost, biostimulation intervention proved successful, allowing the site owner to meet their regulatory obligations. Petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic fraction) decreased from ∼20,000 mg/kg to <200 mg/kg at the completion of 180 weeks of treatment.

  15. Pollution Condition of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollutant and Estimation of Its Environmental Capacities in Summer in the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The pollution condition of petroleum hydrocarbon (PH) was summarized in the Bohai Sea in this paper. The results showed that the mean concentration of PH was (25.7±13.6)mg/m3, varying from 4.4 to 64.8 mg/m3 in the survey sea area. Laizhou Bay and Bohai Bay have been contaminated badly inshore. The dynamic model for distribution of marine PH among multiphase environments in the Bohai Sea has been established. The environmental capacities (ECo) and surplus environmental capacities (SECo) of PH have been estimated in the Bohai Sea according to the dynamic model. The results showed that the ECo separately were about 29 169 t/a, 177 306 t/a and 298 446 t/a under the first, second and third, fourth class seawater quality standards requirement. And the ECo of Bohai Bay, Liaodong Bay, Laizhou Bay and Central Bohai Sea were about 5 255 t/a, 8 869 t/a, 4889 /a and 10 156 t/a respectively under the first and second class seawater quality standards requirement.

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, plant identity and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community determine assemblages of the AMF spore-associated microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    The root-associated microbiome is a key determinant of pollutant degradation, soil nutrient availability and plant biomass productivity, but could not be examined in depth prior to recent advances in high-throughput sequencing. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with the majority of vascular plants. They are known to enhance mineral uptake and promote plant growth and are postulated to influence the processes involved in phytoremediation. Amplicon sequencing approaches have previously shown that petroleum hydrocarbon pollutant (PHP) concentration strongly influences AMF community structure in in situ phytoremediation experiments. We examined how AMF communities and their spore-associated microbiomes were structured within the rhizosphere of three plant species growing spontaneously in three distinct waste decantation basins of a former petrochemical plant. Our results show that the AMF community was only affected by PHP concentrations, while the AMF-associated fungal and bacterial communities were significantly affected by both PHP concentrations and plant species identity. We also found that some AMF taxa were either positively or negatively correlated with some fungal and bacterial groups. Our results suggest that in addition to PHP concentrations and plant species identity, AMF community composition may also shape the community structure of bacteria and fungi associated with AMF spores. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Monitoring the effect of poplar trees on petroleum-hydrocarbon and chlorinated-solvent contaminated ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    At contaminated groundwater sites, poplar trees can be used to affect groundwater levels, flow directions, and ultimately total groundwater and contaminant flux to areas downgradient of the trees. The magnitude of the hydrologic changes can be monitored using fundamental concepts of groundwater hydrology, in addition to plant physiology-based approaches, and can be viewed as being almost independent of the contaminant released. The affect of poplar trees on the fate of groundwater contaminants, however, is contaminant dependent. Some petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated solvents may be mineralized or transformed to innocuous compounds by rhizospheric bacteria associated with the tree roots, mineralized or transformed by plant tissues in the transpiration stream or leaves after uptake, or passively volatilized and rapidly dispersed or oxidized in the atmosphere. These processes also can be monitored using a combination of physiological- or geochemical-based field or laboratory approaches. When combined, such hydrologic and contaminant monitoring approaches can result in a more accurate assessment of the use of poplar trees to meet regulatory goals at contaminated groundwater sites, verify that these goals continue to be met in the future, and ultimately lead to a consensus on how the performance of plant-based remedial strategies (phytoremediation) is to be assessed.

  18. The impact of Deepwater Horizon oil spill on petroleum hydrocarbons in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing; Gardner, Wayne S.; Shank, G. Christopher; Ostrom, Nathaniel E.

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated impacts of the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill on petroleum hydrocarbons in surface waters of the Louisiana continental shelf in northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface water ( top 5 cm) without visible oil was collected from three cruises in May 2010 during the oil spill, August 2010 after the well was capped, and May 2011 one year after the spill. Concentrations of total dissolved n-alkanes (C9-C35) in surface seawater were more than an order of magnitude higher in May 2010 than August 2010 and May 2011, indicating contamination by the DWH oil spill. This conclusion was further supported by more abundant smaller n-alkanes (C9-C13), together with pristane and phytane, in May than August 2010 samples. In contrast, even carbon-numbered dissolved n-alkanes (C14-C20) dominated the May 2011 samples, and this distribution pattern of dissolved n-alkanes is the first documentation for water samples in the northern Gulf of Mexico. However, this pattern was not observed in May 2011 suspended particles except for Sta. OSS. This decoupling between dissolved and particle compositions suggests that either these even carbon-numbered n-alkanes originated from bacteria rather than algae, or that the alkanes in the shelf were transported from elsewhere. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suspended particles were 5 times higher on average in May 2010 (83-252 ng L-1) than May 2011 (7.2-83 ng L-1), also indicating contamination by the DWH oil spill. Application of a biomarker ratio of 17α(H),21β(H)-30-norhopane over 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane confirmed that suspended particles from at least two stations were contaminated by the DWH oil spill in May 2010. Taken together, these results showed that surface waters of the sampling area in May 2010 were contaminated by the oil spill, but also that rapid weathering and/or physical dilution quickly reduced hydrocarbon levels by August 2010.

  19. Alteration in cell surface properties of Burkholderia spp. during surfactant-aided biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Mukherji, Suparna [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering (CESE)

    2012-04-15

    Chemical surfactants may impact microbial cell surface properties, i.e., cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and cell surface charge, and may thus affect the uptake of components from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). This work explored the impact of Triton X-100, Igepal CA 630, and Tween 80 (at twice the critical micelle concentration, CMC) on the cell surface characteristics of Burkholderia cultures, Burkholderia cepacia (ES1, aliphatic degrader) and Burkholderia multivorans (NG1, aromatic degrader), when grown on a six-component model NAPL. In the presence of Triton X-100, NAPL biodegradation was enhanced from 21% to 60% in B. cepacia and from 18% to 53% in B. multivorans. CSH based on water contact angle (50-52 ) was in the same range for both strains while zeta potential at neutral pH was -38 and -31 mV for B. cepacia and B. multivorans, respectively. In the presence of Triton X-100, their CSH increased to greater than 75 and the zeta potential decreased. This induced a change in the mode of uptake and initiated aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation by B. multivorans and increased the rate of aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation in B. cepacia. Igepal CA 630 and Tween 80 also altered the cell surface properties. For B. cepacia grown in the presence of Triton X-100 at two and five times its CMC, CSH increased significantly in the log growth phase. Growth in the presence of the chemical surfactants also affected the abundance of chemical functional groups on the cell surface. Cell surface changes had maximum impact on NAPL degradation in the presence of emulsifying surfactants, Triton X-100 and Igepal CA630.

  20. Understanding the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from coal tar within gasholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Frédéric; Orsi, Roberto; Turner, Claire; Walton, Chris; Daly, Paddy; Pollard, Simon J T

    2009-02-01

    Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. Workers involved in former gasholders decommissioning are potentially exposed to relevant concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons upon opening up derelict tanks and during tar excavation/removal. While information on contaminated sites air-quality and its implications on medium-long term exposure is available, acute exposure issues associated with the execution of critical tasks are less understood. Calculations indicated that the concentration of a given contaminant in the gasholder vapour phase only depends on the coal tar composition, being only barely affected by the presence of water in the gasholder and the tar volume/void space ratio. Fugacity modelling suggested that risk-critical compounds such as benzene, naphthalene and other monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may gather in the gasholder air phase at significant concentrations. Gasholder emissions were measured on-site and compared with the workplace exposure limits (WELs) currently in use in UK. While levels for most of the toxic compounds were far lower than WELs, benzene air-concentrations where found to be above the accepted threshold. In addition due to the long exposure periods involved in gasholder decommissioning and the significant contribution given by naphthalene to the total coal tar vapour concentration, the adoption of a WEL for naphthalene may need to be considered to support operators in preventing human health risk at the workplace. The Level I fugacity approach used in this study demonstrated its suitability for applications to sealed environments such as gasholders and its further refining could provide a useful tool for land remediation risk assessors.

  1. Embryotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene in petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Gay, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Studies with different avian species have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 70% of the egg surface result in considerable reduction in hatching with teratogenicity and stunted growth. Other stUdies have shown that the embryo toxicity is dependent on the aromatic hydrocarbon content, further suggesting that the toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study the effects of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons identified in petroleum were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Addition of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), chrysene, or 7,7 2-dimethylbenz[ a]anthracene (DMBA) to a synthetic petroleum hydrocarbon mixture of known composition and relatively low embryotoxicity resulted in embryo toxicity that was enhanced or equal to that of crude oil when 10 :I was applied externally to eggs at 72 h of development. The order of ability to enhance embryo toxicity was DMBA > BaP > chrysene. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that reported after exposure to crude oil, with additional mortality occurring after outgrowth of the chorioallantois. Retarded growth, as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, was accompanied by teratogenicity. Abnormal embryos exhibited extreme stunting; eye, brain, and bill defects; and incomplete ossification. Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analysis of externally treated eggs showed the passage of aromatic hydrocarbons including chrysene through the shell and shell membranes to the developing embryos. These findings suggest that the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum, including BaP, chrysene, and DMBA, significantly enhances the overall embryotoxicity in avian species.

  2. Case study: In situ and intrinsic bioremediation strategies at a petroleum hydrocarbon site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemperline, A.F. [Air Force Environmental Management Div., Hill AFB, UT (United States); Glascott, R.A.; Fulton, D.A. [Montgomery Watson, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Hill Air Force Base (AFB) tested several conventional and innovative approaches to develop a cleanup strategy for a jet-fuel release to soil and groundwater at its petroleum, oil, and lubricant (POL) tank farm site. The technologies applied at the site include bioventing, skimming and sorbent-removal of light, nonaqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL), and vacuum-assisted free-product recovery (bioslurping). Detailed field investigation and numerical contaminant transport modeling using BIOPLUME II{reg_sign} documented intrinsic remediation as a viable cleanup alternatives for the dissolved-phase contamination. Based on field treatability studies, bioslurping was not as attractive an option as a combination of LNAPL recovery and bioventing to reduce the mass of contaminants in the source at this site. Evaluation of site geochemical data indicated biodegradation occurs through intrinsic processes including aerobic respiration, denitrification, iron reduction, sulfanogenesis, and methanogenesis. The modeling effort concluded that the contamination could be naturally attenuated within 13 years provided there was minimal source removal.

  3. A framework for assessing water and proppant use and flowback water extraction associated with development of continuous petroleum resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Cook, Troy; Thamke, Joanna N.; Davis, Kyle W.; Long, Andrew J.; Healy, Richard W.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Engle, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing approaches for the quantitative assessment of water and proppant involved with possible future production of continuous petroleum deposits. The assessment approach is an extension of existing U.S. Geological Survey petroleum-assessment methods, and it aims to provide objective information that helps decision makers understand the tradeoffs inherent in resource-development decisions. This fact sheet provides an overview of U.S. Geological Survey assessments for quantities of water and proppant required for drilling and hydraulic fracturing and for flowback water extracted with petroleum; the report also presents the form of the intended assessment output information.

  4. Combining HPLC-GCXGC, GCXGC/ToF-MS, and selected ecotoxicity assays for detailed monitoring of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in soil and leaching water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Weltens, Reinhilde; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo

    2009-10-15

    HPLC-GCXGC/FID (high-performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection) and GCXGC/ToF-MS (comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry) were used to study the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil microcosms during 20 weeks. Two soils were studied: one spiked with fresh diesel and one field sample containing weathered diesel-like oil. Nutrient amended and unamended samples were included. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels in spiked soil decreased from 15,000 to 7,500 mg/kg d.m. and from 12,0O0 to 4,000 mg/kg d.m. in the field soil. Linear alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons were better biodegradable (>60% degraded) than iso-alkanes; cycloalkanes were least degradable (water showed that initially various oxygenated hydrocarbons were produced. Compound peaks seemed to move up and rightward in the GCXGC chromatograms, indicating that more polar and heavier compounds were formed as biodegradation proceeded. Nutrient amendment can increase TPH removal rates, but had adverse effects on ecotoxicity and leaching potential in our experiment This was explained by observed shifts in the soil microbial community. Ecotoxicity assays showed that residual TPH still inhibited cress (Lepidium sativum) seed germination, but the leaching water was no longer toxic toward luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri).

  5. In situ remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, J.; Snape, I.; Ferguson, S.; Harvey, P.; Raymond, T. [Australian Government Antarctic Div., Kingston, Tasmania (Australia). Environmental Protection and Change; Mumford, K.; Stevens, G. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Walworth, J. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The results of 2 bioremediation experiments conducted in Antarctica were presented. The aim of the study was to improve in situ remediation techniques in cold, remote locations using tracer tests and intensive monitoring. Sampling techniques were used to assess the effectiveness of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) at Casey Station, Antarctica. A micro-bioventing trial was conducted at Macquarie Island. The PRB was installed to prevent off-site migration of hydrocarbons and to promote the biodegradation of organic compounds. The PRB was comprised of 5 cage pallets containing 5 different treatments of granulated materials separated by 2 mm galvanized steel plates. Treatments consisted of controlled release nutrients at the front of the barrier, hydrocarbon and nutrient sorption in the middle, and excess nutrient sorption at the effluent end. Materials included zeolite, Max bac, granulated activated carbon, and sand. Water from a catchment was directed into the barriers from 2 subsurface drains. Residence times and proportion of flow were measured with a salt tracer test by analyzing the breakthrough curves at locations throughout the PRC. Tracer tests were used to assess bypass or short-circuiting of flow. The micro bioventing test at Macquarie Island was installed to provide maximum oxygenation of a shallow, water-saturated subsurface to promote the biodegradation of a 20-year old fuel spill. The effectiveness of the biovents was monitored with in-situ oxygen sensors. Water samples were collected before and after aeration. Respiration rates were estimated by stopping the aeration process and compared with laboratory studies to determine nutrient, oxygen, and moisture status. Results for the PRB tests showed that hydraulic conductivity was different in all 5 treatments. Estimates from the slopes of each residence time curve ranged from 2000 m/d to 4000 m/d. Tracer mass distribution curves ranged from 30 per cent to 15 per cent. Results of the micro bioventing study

  6. Potential of preliminary test methods to predict biodegradation performance of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichberger, H; Hasinger, Marion; Braun, Rudolf; Loibner, Andreas P

    2005-03-01

    Preliminary tests at different scales such as degradation experiments (laboratory) in shaking flasks, soil columns and lysimeters as well as in situ respiration tests (field) were performed with soil from two hydrocarbon contaminated sites. Tests have been evaluated in terms of their potential to provide information on feasibility, degradation rates and residual concentration of bioremediation in the vadose zone. Sample size, costs and duration increased with experimental scale in the order shaking flasks - soil columns - lysimeter - in situ respiration tests, only time demand of respiration tests was relatively low. First-order rate constants observed in degradation experiments exhibited significant differences between both, different experimental sizes and different soils. Rates were in line with type and history of contamination at the sites, but somewhat overestimated field rates particularly in small scale experiments. All laboratory experiments allowed an estimation of residual concentrations after remediation. In situ respiration tests were found to be an appropriate pre-testing and monitoring tool for bioventing although residual concentrations cannot be predicted from in situ respiration tests. Moreover, this method does not account for potential limitations that might hamper biodegradation in the longer term but only reflects the actual degradation potential when the test is performed.

  7. Microbial community analysis of soils contaminated with lead, chromium and petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynt, Janet; Bischoff, Marianne; Turco, Ron; Konopka, Allan; Nakatsu, Cindy H

    2006-02-01

    The impact on the microbial community of long-term environmental exposure to metal and organic contamination was investigated. Twenty-four soil samples were collected along a transect dug in soils contaminated with road paint and paint solvents, mainly toluene. Chemical analysis along the transect revealed a range from high to low concentrations of metals (lead and chromium) and organic solvent compounds. Principal components analysis of microbial community structure based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene and fatty acid methyl esters derived from phospholipids (phospholipid fatty acid analysis) showing samples with similar fingerprints also had similar contaminant concentrations. There was also a weak positive correlation between microbial biomass and the organic carbon concentration. Results indicated that microbial populations are present despite some extreme contaminant levels in this mixed-waste contaminated site. Nucleotide sequence determination of the 16S rRNA gene indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse bacteria belonging to the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-Proteobacteria, the high and low G + C Gram-positive bacteria, green nonsulfur, OP8, and others that did not group within a described division. This indicates that soils contaminated with both heavy metals and hydrocarbons for several decades have undergone changes in community composition, but still contain a phylogenetically diverse group of bacteria (including novel phylotypes) that warrant further investigation.

  8. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  9. An Approach that Uses the Concentrations of Hydrocarbon Compounds in Soil Gas at the Source of Contamination to Evaluate the Potential for Intrusion of Petroleum Vapors into Buildings (PVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    If motor fuels are spilled from underground storage tanks, petroleum hydrocarbons can vaporize from the spill and move as a vapor through the unsaturated zone. If a building is sited above or near the spill, the hydrocarbons may intrude into the air space of the building. This ...

  10. An Approach that Uses the Concentrations of Hydrocarbon Compounds in Soil Gas at the Source of Contamination to Evaluate the Potential for Intrusion of Petroleum Vapors into Buildings (PVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    If motor fuels are spilled from underground storage tanks, petroleum hydrocarbons can vaporize from the spill and move as a vapor through the unsaturated zone. If a building is sited above or near the spill, the hydrocarbons may intrude into the air space of the building. This ...

  11. A Procedure for the supercritical fluid extraction of coal samples, with subsequent analysis of extracted hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report provides a detailed, step-by-step procedure for conducting extractions with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) using the ISCO SFX220 supercritical fluid extraction system. Protocols for the subsequent separation and analysis of extracted hydrocarbons are also included in this report. These procedures were developed under the auspices of the project 'Assessment of Geologic Reservoirs for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration' (see http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs026-03/fs026-03.pdf) to investigate possible environmental ramifications associated with CO2 storage (sequestration) in geologic reservoirs, such as deep (~1 km below land surface) coal beds. Supercritical CO2 has been used previously to extract contaminants from geologic matrices. Pressure-temperature conditions within deep coal beds may render CO2 supercritical. In this context, the ability of supercritical CO2 to extract contaminants from geologic materials may serve to mobilize noxious compounds from coal, possibly complicating storage efforts. There currently exists little information on the physicochemical interactions between supercritical CO2 and coal in this setting. The procedures described herein were developed to improve the understanding of these interactions and provide insight into the fate of CO2 and contaminants during simulated CO2 injections.

  12. Removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons by surfactant-modified natural zeolite: the effect of surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabian, Ali; Seifi, Laleh; Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Azimi, Ali Akbar [Faculty of the Environment, University of Tehran (Iran); Kazemian, Hossein [SPAG Zeolite R and D Group, Technology Incubation Centre, Science and Technology Park of Tehran University, Tehran (Iran); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Ghadiri, Seid Kamal [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) are a very important category of water pollutants. These volatile compounds are very hazardous because of their fast migration in soil and water bodies and their acute and chronic toxicities when inhaled or ingested, especially benzene which is a known carcinogenic molecule. In this study, a natural zeolite (i. e., clinoptilolite-rich tuffs) was modified by two cationic surfactants (i. e., hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (HDTMA-Cl), and N-cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB)). The prepared adsorbents were then characterized, and their adsorptive capabilities for BTEX examined at different experimental conditions. The results of adsorption tests at 24 h revealed that the adsorption capacity of the modified zeolites improved by increasing the surfactant loading (i. e., less than the critical micelle concentration (CMC), to higher than the CMC), which caused an increase in sorption capacity from 60 to 70% for HDTMA-modified samples, and from 47 to 99% for CPB-modified zeolite. Adsorption kinetic tests showed the optimum contact time was 48 h with an average BTEX removal of 90 and 93% for HDTMA-modified and CPB-modified zeolite, respectively. Results showed that by increasing of pH from 3 to 11, the sorption capacity of the adsorbent decreased markedly from 97 to 75%. Analyzing the influence of temperature showed that the adsorption efficiency of adsorbents for benzene reduced from 93% at 20 C to 10% at 4 C. However, the influence of temperature on other compounds was not remarkable. Overall, CPB-modified zeolite exhibited higher selectivity toward BTEX compounds at optimum experimental conditions. Although commercial powder activated carbon (PAC) showed a higher capacity for all BTEX compounds and faster adsorption kinetics, the adsorption capacity of the CPB-modified zeolite at optimized conditions was competitive with PAC results. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals

  13. Geomembrane applications for controlling diffusive migration of petroleum hydrocarbons in cold region environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWatters, Rebecca S; Rutter, Allison; Rowe, R Kerry

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory permeation tests examine the migration of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX)) at 2, 7 and 14 °C through three different types of geomembrane (high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)). Tests on both virgin and exhumed field samples provide permeation parameters (partitioning (Sgf), diffusion (Dg), and permeation (Pg) coefficients) for the three geomembranes. These results are combined with published values for the same geomembranes at 23 °C to establish an Arrhenius relationship that can be used to estimate diffusion parameters at temperatures other than those for which tests were conducted. Tests on an HDPE geomembrane sample exhumed after 3 years from a landfill site in the Canadian Arctic showed no significant difference in diffusion characteristics compared to an otherwise similar unaged and unexposed HDPE geomembrane. Contaminant transport modeling for benzene through HDPE, LLPDE and PVC in a simulated landfill cover show that for the conditions examined the presence of any of the three geomembranes below the 2 m thick soil cover substantially reduced the contaminant flux compared to the soils alone for realistic degrees of saturation in the cover soil. For these same realistic cold climate cases, of the three geomembranes examined, the HDPE geomembrane was the most effective at controlling the contaminant flux out of the landfill. An increase in soil cover and liner temperature by 2 °C (from potential climate change effects) above those currently measured at an Arctic landfill showed an increase in contaminant transport through the cover system for all geomembranes due to the increase surface temperature (especially in the summer months). Modeling of the addition of an extra 0.5 m of soil cover, as a mitigation measure for the effects of climate change, indicates that the main benefit of adding this unsaturated soil was to reduce the

  14. Development of a screening tool to prioritize testing for the carcinogenic hazard of residual aromatic extracts and related petroleum streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyak, Katy O; Kung, Ming H; Chen, Min; Aldous, Keith K; Freeman, James J

    2016-12-15

    Residual aromatic extracts (RAE) are petroleum substances with variable composition predominantly containing aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers greater than C25. Because of the high boiling nature of RAEs, the aromatics present are high molecular weight, with most above the range of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, refinery distillations are imperfect; some PAHs and their heteroatom-containing analogs (collectively referred to as polycyclic aromatic content or PAC) may remain in the parent stream and be extracted into the RAE, and overall PAC content is related to the carcinogenic potential of an RAE. We describe here a real-time analytical chemistry-based tool to assess the carcinogenic hazard of RAE via the development of a functional relationship between carcinogenicity and boiling point. Samples representative of steps along the RAE manufacturing process were obtained from five refineries to evaluate relationships between mutagenicity index (MI), PAC ring content and gas chromatographic distillation (GCD) curves. As expected, a positive linear relationship between MI and PAC ring content occurred, most specifically for 3-6 ring PAC (R(2)=0.68). A negative correlation was found between MI and temperature at 5% vaporization by GCD (R(2)=0.72), indicating that samples with greater amounts of lower boiling constituents were more likely to be carcinogenic. The inverse relationship between boiling range and carcinogenicity was further demonstrated by fractionation of select RAE samples (MI=0.50+0.07; PAC=1.70+0.51wt%; n=5) into low and high boiling fractions, where lower boiling fractions were both more carcinogenic than the higher boiling fractions (MI=2.36±0.55 and 0.17±0.11, respectively) and enriched in 3-6 ring PACs (5.20+0.70wt% and 0.97+0.35wt%, respectively). The criteria defining carcinogenicity was established as 479°C for the 5% vaporization points by GCD, with an approximate 95% probability of a future sample having

  15. Salt Marsh Sediment Mixing Following Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exposure from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, R. S.; Yeager, K. M.; Brunner, C. A.; Wade, T. L.; Briggs, K. B.; Schindler, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal marshes support valuable ecosystems, but their coastal locations make them susceptible to oil spills. Oil spilled in the ocean is easily transported via tidal and wind-driven currents to the shore and incorporated into sediments. The primary goal of this research was to determine how deeply oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill has penetrated sediments along the Gulf Coast, and whether oil has quantifiably affected benthic ecosystems at these sites. Sediment cores were taken from three marsh environments at sites classified as unoiled, lightly oiled, and heavily oiled based on data from NOAA's Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA). These classifications have been verified by measurements of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ([TPAH] without perylene). Bioturbators, such as polychaetes and oligochaetes, constantly rework sediments as they burrow into them. In this way, bioturbators can play a role in the fate of organic contaminants, either by allowing for natural remediation of contaminants via enhanced microbial degradation, or by mixing oil from the surface deeper into the sediment column. The constant fallout radionuclide 7Be was measured to determine short-term sediment mixing depths. However, there was a conspicuous absence of 7Be at most sites. This could be due to sediment composition constraints on 7Be sorption (coarse-grained sediment, high organic matter contents), or rapid erosion of the marsh surface. Instead, minimum mixing depths were derived from 234Thxs profiles. Thorium-234 is a lithogenic isotope that has widely been used to trace particle mixing on short time scales near that of its mean life (36 days). Penetration depths of 234Thxs ranged between 0.25 and 4.5 cm. Sediment accumulation rates will be determined using 210Pb, with verification from an independent tracer, 137Cs, in selected cores. Preliminary results from 210Pb profiles reveal thorough, long-term (decadal) sediment mixing to at least 40 cm at all sites

  16. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Abdullahi Dyadya; Isah, Abubakar Garba; Umaru, Musa; Ahmed, Shehu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna (Nigeria); Abdullahi, Yababa Nma [National Petroleum Investment Management Services (Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation), Lagos (Nigeria)

    2012-07-01

    Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

  17. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Dyadya Mohammed, Abubakar Garba Isah, Musa Umaru, Shehu Ahmed, Yababa Nma Abdullahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

  18. Efficiency of in-vessel composting process in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Naddafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Remaining of crude oil in storage tanks usually results in accumulating oily sludge at the bottom of the tank, which should be treated and disposed of in a suitable manner. The efficiency of in-vessel composting process in removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated in the present study. Material and methods: The sludge was mixed with immature compost at the ratios of 1:0 (as control, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10 (as dry basis with the initial C:N:P and moisture content of 100:5:1 and 55% respectively for a period of 10 weeks. The moisture adjustment and mixing process were done 3 times a day during the composting period. Sampling and analysis of TPH and pH were done every week and every two days, respectively. Results: TPH removal in the 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10 composting reactors was 66.59, 73.19, 74.81, 80.20, and 79.91%, respectively. Thus, initial adjustment of sludge to immature compost ratios plays a great role in reduction of TPH. The results of the control reactors indicated that the main mechanism of TPH removal in the composting reactors was biological process. Conclusions: In-vessel composting by addition of immature compost as amendment is a viable choice for bioremediation of the bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks.

  19. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and toluene biodegradation, Knox Street fire pits, Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, S.L.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    ground-water toluene concentration data, a maximum rate constant for anaerobic biodegradation of toluene in the saturated zone was estimated to be as low as 0.002 d-1 or as high as 0.026 d-1. Based on analyses of ground-water/vapor samples, toluene was the prin- cipal TEX compound identified in ground water discharging to Beaver Creek. Observed decreases in ground-water/vapor toluene concentrations during the study period may reflect a decrease in source inputs, an increase in dilution caused by higher ground-water flow, and(or) removal by biological or other physical processes. Rate constants of toluene anaerobic biodegradation determined by laboratory measurements illustrate a typical acclimation response of micro-organisms to hydrocarbon contamination in sediments collected from the site. Toluene biodegradation rate constants derived from laboratory microcosm studies ranged from 0.001 to 0.027 d-1, which is similar to the range of 0.002 to 0.026 d-1 for toluene biodegradation rate constants derived from ground-water analytical data. The close agreement of toluene biodegradation rate constants reported using both approaches offer strong evidence that toluene can be degraded at environmentally significant rates at the study site.

  20. The synergic extraction of uranium (Ⅵ) with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and petroleum sulfoxides(PSO)/benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The synergistic extraction of uranium (Ⅵ) from nitric acid aqueous solution with a mixture of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and petroleum sulfoxides(PSO) in benzene was studied. It has been found that the maximum synergistic extraction effect occurs where the molar ratio of PSO to TBP is one to two. The composition of the complex of synergistic extraction is UO2(NO3)2.TB P.PSO. The formation constant of the complex KTp=57.44.

  1. Measurement and modeling of activated carbon performance for the sequestration of parent- and alkylated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum-impacted sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongju; Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Gala, William R; Luthy, Richard G

    2013-01-15

    We present a first comprehensive set of experiments that demonstrate the performance of activated carbon (AC) to reduce the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including alkylated-PAHs in petroleum-impacted sediments. The uptake in polyethylene samplers for total PAHs in a well-mixed sediment slurry was reduced up to 99% and 98% for petroleum-impacted sediments with oil contents of 1% and 2%, respectively, by treatment with 5% AC. The AC showed similar efficiency for parent-PAHs and a suite of alkylated-PAHs, which predominate over parent-PAHs in petroleum-impacted sediments. A mass transfer model was used to simulate the AC performance in a slurry phase with site-specific mass transfer parameters determined in this study. Comparison between the experimental data and simulation results suggested that dissolved organic matter and/or oil phase may have attenuated the AC performance by a factor of 5-6 for 75-300 μm AC with 5% dose at one month. The attenuation in AC performance became negligible with increase in AC-sediment slurry contact time to 12 months and with decrease in AC particle size. The results show the potential for AC amendment to sequester PAHs in petroleum-impacted sediments and the effect of contact time and AC particle size on the efficiency of the treatment.

  2. Biological Parameters for Evaluating the Toxic Potency of Petroleum Ether Extract of Wattakaka volubilis in Wistar Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmani Gopal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study investigated the toxic properties of petroleum ether extract of Wattakaka (W. volubilis in Wistar female rats. Methods: An in vitro brine shrimp lethality bioassay was studied in A. Salina nauplii, and the lethality concentrations were assessed for petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis. A water soluble portion of the test extract was used in different concentrations from 100-1000 μg/mL of 1 mg/mL stock solution. A 24-hours incubation with a 1-mL aliquot in 50 mL of aerated sea water was considered to calculate the percentage rate of dead nauplii with test extract administration against a potassium-dichromate positive control. The acute and the sub-acute toxicities of petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis were evaluated orally by using gavage in female Wistar rats. Food and water intake, body weight, general behavioral changes and mortality of animals were noted. Toxicity or death was evaluated following the administration of petroleum ether extract for 28 consecutive days in the female rats. Serum biochemical parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and α-amylase levels, were measured in the toxicity evaluations. Pathological changes in isolated organs, such as the liver, kidneys, and pancreas, were also examined using hematoxylin and eosin dye fixation after the end of the test extract’s administration. Results: The results of the brine-shrimp assay indicate that the evaluated concentrations of petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis were found to be non-toxic. In the acute and the sub-acute toxicity evaluations, no significant differences were observed between the control animals and the animals treated with extract of W. volubilis. No abnormal histological changes were observed in any of the animal groups treated with petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvatovich, P; Miesch, M; Hasselmann, C; Marchioni, E

    2000-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide can be used to carry out a selective and fast extraction (30 min) of volatile hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones contained in irradiated foods. After elimination of the traces of triglycerides still contained in the extracts on a silica column, the compounds were ana

  4. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  5. Extracellular terpenoid hydrocarbon extraction and quantitation from the green microalgae Botryococcus braunii var. Showa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Ela; Melis, Anastasios

    2010-04-01

    Mechanical fractionation and aqueous or aqueous/organic two-phase partition approaches were applied for extraction and separation of extracellular terpenoid hydrocarbons from Botryococcus braunii var. Showa. A direct spectrophotometric method was devised for the quantitation of botryococcene and associated carotenoid hydrocarbons extracted by this method. Separation of extracellular botryococcene hydrocarbons from the Botryococcus was achieved upon vortexing of the micro-colonies with glass beads, either in water followed by buoyant density equilibrium to separate hydrocarbons from biomass, or in the presence of heptane as a solvent, followed by aqueous/organic two-phase separation of the heptane-solubilized hydrocarbons (upper phase) from the biomass (lower aqueous phase). Spectral analysis of the upper heptane phase revealed the presence of two distinct compounds, one absorbing in the UV-C, attributed to botryococcene(s), the other in the blue region of the spectrum, attributed to a carotenoid. Specific extinction coefficients were developed for the absorbance of triterpenes at 190nm (epsilon = 90 +/- 5 mM(-1) cm(-1)) and carotenoids at 450 nm (epsilon=165+/-5mM(-1) cm(-1)) in heptane. This enabled application of a direct spectrophotometric method for the quantitation of water- or heptane-extractable botryococcenes and carotenoids. B. braunii var. Showa constitutively accumulates approximately 30% of the dry biomass as extractable (extracellular) botryococcenes, and approximately 0.2% of the dry biomass in the form of a carotenoid. It was further demonstrated that heat-treatment of the Botryococcus biomass substantially accelerates the rate and yield of the extraction process. Advances in this work serve as foundation for a cyclic Botryococcus growth, non-toxic extraction of extracellular hydrocarbons, and return of the hydrocarbon-depleted biomass to growth conditions for further product generation.

  6. Effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of African catfish Heterobranchus ... carried out in the Institute of Oceanography Fish Farm, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Petroleum hydrocarbon was extracted from the two oils in separate 30litre ...

  7. The Evolution of Multicomponent Systems at High Pressures: VI. The Thermodynamic Stability of the Hydrogen-Carbon System: The Genesis of Hydrocarbons and the Origin of Petroleum

    CERN Document Server

    Kenney, J F; Bendeliani, N A; Alekseev, V A; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Bendeliani, Nikolai A.; Alekseev, Vladimir A.

    2002-01-01

    The spontaneous genesis of hydrocarbons which comprise natural petroleum have been analyzed by chemical thermodynamic stability theory. The constraints imposed upon chemical evolution by the second law of thermodynamics are briefly reviewed; and the effective prohibition of transformation, in the regime of temperatures and pressures characteristic of the near-surface crust of the Earth, of biological molecules into hydrocarbon molecules heavier than methane is recognized. A general, first-principles equation of state has been developed by extending scaled particle theory (SPT) and by using the technique of the factored partition function of the Simplified Perturbed Hard Chain Theory (SPHCT). The chemical potentials, and the respective thermodynamic Affinity, have been calculated for typical components of the hydrogen-carbon (H-C) system over a range pressures between 1-100 kbar, and at temperatures consistent with those of the depths of the Earth at such pressures. The theoretical analyses establish that the ...

  8. Climate impacts of shipping and petroleum extraction in an unlocked Arctic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samset, B. H.; Berntsen, T.; Dahlsøren, S. B.; Eide, L. I.; Eide, M. S.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Glomsrød, S.; Lindholt, L.; Myhre, G.; Nilssen, T. B.; Peters, G. P.; Ødemark, K.

    2012-04-01

    Reductions in sea ice extent are expected to open up the Arctic region to increased volumes of ship traffic and petroleum extraction activities. Both of these potentially entail changes in concentrations of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) such as aerosols and ozone, which may impact the future climate. The response of the Arctic to SLCF emissions is however not well constrained, as the annual cycle, solar irradiation, surface albedo and ambient temperature are special to this region. The present study investigates the effects of SLCF emissions in the Arctic in 2004, as well as in 2030 and 2050. An emission inventory is used for present day activities, while future emissions are taken from models of the global energy market and shipping fleet. Atmospheric concentrations are input to the OsloCTM2 chemical transport model, and radiative forcings (RFs) are calculated using a multi-stream radiation transport code. Climate impacts are quantified via RFs and Global Warming Potentials of the various emitted components, in addition to estimates of the first indirect aerosol effect and the snow albedo effect from black carbon (BC). For present day emissions we calculate a net negative RF from shipping, mainly driven by the indirect aerosol effect, and a net positive RF from petroleum extraction, mainly due to the BC snow albedo effect. For future emissions the general results remain similar, but the total RFs develop with changes in emission volume and composition. We discuss the sensitivity of the Arctic region to emissions in terms of normalized RFs as function of season and geographical location.

  9. Four-year survey of dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons on surface waters of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Caruso Bícego

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Seawater from 8 stations in Admiralty Bay was systematically sampled during the summer of 1994, 1995, 1996 and 1997 and analyzed by spectrofluorimetry to measure dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPHs. The purpose of this study was to detect some temporal and spatial changes in terms of oil contamination of the region. The results indicate low levels of oil pollution with relatively high concentrations near the research stations located in the study area. During the summers of 1995 and 1996 the average concentrations for individual stations were low and below of 0.50 ¼g.L-1. Summers of 1994 and 1997 had relatively higher average concentrations (up to 1.57 ¼g.L-1, mainly in front of Arctowski and Ferraz Research Stations.Amostras de água na Baía do Almirantado, Península Antártica, foram sistematicamente coletadas em 8 estações durante os verões de 1994 a 1997 onde foram analisados hidrocarbonetos do petróleo dispersos e dissolvidos por espectrofluorescência. O objetivo foi avaliar variações temporais e espaciais em termos de contaminação por óleo na região. Os resultados em geral indicam baixos níveis de poluição embora tenham sido verificadas algumas concentrações relativamente maiores nas proximidades das estações de pesquisa fixadas na região de estudo. Durante os anos de 1995 e 1996 a média das concentrações foram baixas e menores que 0,50 ¼g.L-1 para os pontos individuais. Os verões de 1994 e 1997 tiveram concentrações médias mais elevadas (até 1,57 ¼g.L-1, e os maiores valores foram nas proximidades das estações brasileira e polonesa.

  10. Use of Ionic Liquid-filled Semipermeable Membrane for Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Yan ZHAO; Meng HAN; Shu Gui DAI; Xia ZHONG

    2005-01-01

    A novel and facile sample preparation method was developed for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous sample solution using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4MIM] [PF6]) - filled semipermeable membrane. For24 hrs extraction of naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-chloronaphthalene, phenanthrene, the result showed that the extraction efficiency, correlation coefficient (R2) and RSD (n=5) were in the range of 67-102 %, 0.9870-0.9962, and 2.1-5.3 %, respectively.

  11. Removal of nitrogen compounds from Brazilian petroleum samples by oxidation followed by liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, L.; Pergher, S.B.C. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], E-mail: pergher@uricer.edu.br; Oliveira, J.V. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia dos Alimentos; Souza, W.F. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2009-10-15

    This work reports liquid-liquid extraction of nitrogen compounds from oxidized and non-oxidized Brazilian petroleum samples. The experiments were accomplished in a laboratory-scale liquid-liquid apparatus in the temperature range of 303 K-323 K, using methanol, n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and N,Ndimethylformamide (DMF), and their mixtures as extraction solvents, employing solvent to sample volume ratios of 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1, exploring up to three separation stages. Results show that an increase in temperature, solvent to oil ratio, and number of equilibrium stages greatly improves the nitrogen removal from the oxidized sample (from 2600 to 200 ppm). The employed oxidation scheme is thus demonstrated to be an essential and efficient step of sample preparation for the selective liquid-liquid removal of nitrogen compounds. It is shown that the use of mixtures of DMF and NMP as well their use as co-solvents with methanol did not prove to be useful for selective nitrogen extraction since great oil losses were observed in the final process. (author)

  12. The peroxidase-mediated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a H2O2-induced SBR using in-situ production of peroxidase: Biodegradation experiments and bacterial identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoohiyan, Sakine; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-08-05

    A bacterial peroxidase-mediated oxidizing process was developed for biodegrading total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Almost complete biodegradation (>99%) of high TPH concentrations (4g/L) was attained in the bioreactor with a low amount (0.6mM) of H2O2 at a reaction time of 22h. A specific TPH biodegradation rate as high as 44.3mgTPH/gbiomass×h was obtained with this process. The reaction times required for complete biodegradation of TPH concentrations of 1, 2, 3, and 4g/L were 21, 22, 28, and 30h, respectively. The catalytic activity of hydrocarbon catalyzing peroxidase was determined to be 1.48U/mL biomass. The biodegradation of TPH in seawater was similar to that in fresh media (no salt). A mixture of bacteria capable of peroxidase synthesis and hydrocarbon biodegradation including Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. were identified in the bioreactor. The GC/MS analysis of the effluent indicated that all classes of hydrocarbons could be well-degraded in the H2O2-induced SBR. Accordingly, the peroxidase-mediated process is a promising method for efficiently biodegrading concentrated TPH-laden saline wastewater.

  13. Phenolic content, antioxidant and antifungal activities of acetonic, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašković Pavle Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal and antioxidant activities of Hypericum perforatum L. extracts against the growth of certain fungi. The ethanolic, acetonic and petroleum ether extracts of the plant were evaluated for phenols, flavonoids and non-flavonoids. The highest amounts of phenols (17.6 mg EPC/g dry extract and flavonoids (16.85 mg EPC/g dry extract were found in the acetonic extract. The highest inhibitory effect on the growth of Penicillium canescens, Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus glaucus and Phialophora fastigiata by the disk diffusion method was exhibited by the ethanolic extract at the concentration of 25 mg/disk. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts was 20 mg/mL. The acetonic extract did not affect the growth of the tested fungi. Antioxidant activity was assessed by determining 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum L. possesses antioxidant activity. The IC50 values, defined as the concentration of the test sample leading to 50% reduction of the free radical concentration, determined for each measurement were <7.8125, 105.9, 5.99 and 12.77 μg/ml for the ethanolic extract, the acetonic extract, ascorbic acid and BHT, respectively, for DPPH free radical scavenging activity.

  14. Comparative bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons co-contaminated soil by natural attenuation, phytoremediation, bioaugmentation and bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A C; Bagard, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G; Huguenot, D

    2016-09-01

    Biological remediation technologies are an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated through a pot experiment four bioremediation strategies: a) natural attenuation, b) phytoremediation with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), c) bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and d) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation, for the treatment of a co-contaminated soil presenting moderate levels of heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn at 87, 100 and 110mgkg(-1) DW, respectively) and petroleum hydrocarbons (3800mgkg(-1) DW). As demonstrated by plant biomass and selected physiological parameters alfalfa plants were able to tolerate and grow in the co-contaminated soil, especially when soil was inoculated with P. aeruginosa, which promoted plant growth (56% and 105% increase for shoots and roots, respectively) and appeared to alleviate plant stress. The content of heavy metals in alfalfa plants was limited and followed the order: Zn>Cu>Pb. Heavy metals were mainly concentrated in plant roots and were poorly translocated, favouring their stabilization in the root zone. Bioaugmentation of planted soil with P. aeruginosa generally led to a decrease of plant metal concentration and translocation. The highest degree of total petroleum hydrocarbon removal was obtained for bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation treatment (68%), followed by bioaugmentation (59%), phytoremediation (47%) and natural attenuation (37%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of plant and bacteria was the most advantageous option for the treatment of the present co-contaminated soil, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or phytoremediation applied alone.

  15. Bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within roots of plants growing in a soil highly contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) belong to phylum Glomeromycota, an early divergent fungal lineage forming symbiosis with plant roots. Many reports have documented that bacteria are intimately associated with AMF mycelia in the soil. However, the role of these bacteria remains unclear and their diversity within intraradical AMF structures has yet to be explored. We aim to assess the bacterial communities associated within intraradical propagules (vesicles and intraradical spores) harvested from roots of plant growing in the sediments of an extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted basin. Solidago rugosa roots were sampled, surface-sterilized, and microdissected. Eleven propagules were randomly collected and individually subjected to whole-genome amplification, followed by PCRs, cloning, and sequencing targeting fungal and bacterial rDNA. Ribotyping of the 11 propagules showed that at least five different AMF OTUs could be present in S. rugosa roots, while 16S rRNA ribotyping of six of the 11 different propagules showed a surprisingly high bacterial richness associated with the AMF within plant roots. Most dominant bacterial OTUs belonged to Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Massilia sp., and Methylobacterium sp. This study provides the first evidence of the bacterial diversity associated with AMF propagules within the roots of plants growing in extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted conditions.

  16. Application of a biofilm formed by a mixture of yeasts isolated in Vietnam to degrade aromatic hydrocarbon polluted wastewater collected from petroleum storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhi Cong, Le Thi; Ngoc Mai, Cung Thi; Thanh, Vu Thi; Nga, Le Phi; Minh, Nghiem Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three good biofilm-forming yeast strains, including Candida viswanathii TH1, Candida tropicalis TH4 and Trichosporon asahii B1, were isolated from oil-contaminated water and sediment samples collected in coastal zones of Vietnam. These strains were registered in the GenBank database with the accession numbers JX129175, JX129176 and KC139404 for strain TH1, TH4 and B1, respectively. The biofilm formed by a mixture of these organisms degraded 90, 85, 82 and 67% of phenol, naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, after a 7-day incubation period using an initial concentration of 600 ppm phenol and 200 ppm of each of the other compounds. In addition, this biofilm completely degraded these aromatic compounds, which were from wastewater collected from petroleum tanks in Do Xa, Hanoi after 14 days of incubation based on gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. To the best of our knowledge, reports on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and phenol degradation by biofilm-forming yeasts are limited. The results obtained indicate that the biofilm formed by multiple yeast strains may considerably increase the degradation efficiency of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, and may lead to a new approach for eliminating petroleum oil-contaminated water in Vietnam.

  17. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in fine particulate matter emitted from burning kerosene, liquid petroleum gas, and wood fuels in household cookstoves

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all data in figures in the manuscript and supporting information for the publication entitled "Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon...

  19. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Mineral Spirits 150 EC, Naphtha, Mixed Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Naphtha, Naphthol Spirits, Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha, Solvent Naphtha, Solvent Blend. c Medium-flash Naphtha, High-flash Naphtha, Aromatic Naphtha, Light Aromatic Naphtha, Light Aromatic Hydrocarbons...

  20. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soot and sediment : solvent selection and implications for sorption mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Soot contains high levels of toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Extraction of PAHs from soot for quantitative analysis is difficult because the compounds are extremely tightly bound to the sorbent matrix. This study was designed to investigate the effect of solvent type

  1. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  2. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  3. A new mechanism for efficient hydrocarbon electro-extraction from Botryococcus braunii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guionet, Alexis; Hosseini, Bahareh; Teissié, Justin; Akiyama, Hidenori; Hosseini, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Recent understanding that specific algae have high hydrocarbon production potential has attracted considerable attention. Botryococcus braunii is a microalga with an extracellular hydrocarbon matrix, which makes it an appropriate green energy source. This study focuses on extracting oil from the microalgae matrix rather than the cells, eliminating the need for an excessive electric field to create electro-permeabilization. In such a way, technical limitations due to high extraction energy and cost can be overcome. Here, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) with 80 ns duration and 20-65 kV/cm electric fields were applied. To understand the extraction mechanism, the structure of the algae was accurately studied under fluorescence microscope; extraction was quantified using image analysis; quality of extraction was examined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC); and the cell/matrix separation was observed real-time under a microscope during nsPEF application. Furthermore, optimization was carried out by screening values of electric fields, pulse repetition frequencies, and energy spent. The results offer a novel method applicable for fast and continues hydrocarbon extraction process at low energy cost.

  4. In Vivo assay of Antidiarrhoeal activity of Methanoli c and Petroleum ether extracts of Manilkara Zapota Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manirujjaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the possible antidiarrhoeal action of Methanolic extract (MEMZ and petroleum ether (PEMZ extracts of leaves of Manilkara zapota(Sapotaceae. The anti-diarrheal activity of MEMZ & PEMZ extracts was investigated by castor oil and Magnesium sulfate induced diarrhea in albino mice. The parameters ofthis study were number of diarrheal episodes and mean weight of stool of mice. The percentage protection in extracts treated animals showing diarrhea was compared with castor oil and Magnesium sulfate treated and loperamide treated animals. In the Castor oil induced method only the PEMZ extract, showed statistically significant (p0.05. These results indicate that the extracts possess antidiarrhoeal activity in mice.

  5. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy......-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site...... was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils...

  6. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils.

  7. Assessment of heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the Sultanate of Oman with emphasis on harbours, marinas, terminals and ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Barry P; Fowler, Scott W; Dobretsov, Sergey; van der Wiele, Henk; Al-Ghafri, Ahmed

    2017-08-15

    The assessment here includes data on levels of contaminants (petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals) in sediments and biomonitor organisms, including the eulittoral rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata and subtidal biomonitors, the barnacle Balanus trigonus and the antipatharian coral Antipathes sp., at harbours, marinas, terminals and large ports along the coastline of Oman. TBT levels in harbour and port sediments up to a maximum of 100ppb TBT dry weight are highlighted. Oysters contained concentrations up to 367ppm mg TPH/kg dry weight. The maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the subtidal sediments and barnacles at the oil tanker loading Single Buoy Mooring stations in Mina Al Fahal. In general, the levels of most of the contaminants analysed are at low to moderate concentrations compared to those in highly contaminated sites such as shipyards and dry docks, but continued monitoring is recommended especially during any dredging campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome sequence of obligate marine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading bacterium Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME, isolated from petroleum deposits of the sunken tanker Amoco Milford Haven, Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Enzo; Denaro, Renata; Crisafi, Francesca; Smedile, Francesco; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, Maria; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Russo, Daniela; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter; Yakimov, Michail M

    2016-02-01

    Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME isolated from petroleum deposits of the sunken tanker “Amoco Milford Haven” (Gulf of Genoa, Ligurian Sea, Italy) could effectively degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of up to five condensed rings. The genome of 78-ME was sequenced and analysed to gain insights into its remarkable degrading capacities. It comprises two circular replicons, the 2,613,078 bp chromosome and the plasmid of 42,347 bp, with 41.84% and 53.28% of the G + C content respectively. A total of 2585 protein-coding genes were obtained, and three large operons with more than fifteen enzymes belonging to four different classes of ring-cleavage dioxygenases were found.

  9. Extraction of hydrocarbons from freshwater green microalgae (Botryococcus sp.) biomass after phycoremediation of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Paran; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed; Matias-Peralta, Hazel; Mohamed, Radin Maya Saphira Radin; Latiff, Ab Aziz Abdul; Parjo, Umi Kalthsom

    2017-07-03

    This study was undertaken to analyze the efficiency of Botryococcus sp. in the phycoremediation of domestic wastewater and to determine the variety of hydrocarbons derived from microalgal oil after phycoremediation. The study showed a significant (p oil. The composition analysis using Gas Chromatogram - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) found that phthalic acid, 2-ethylhexyltridecyl ester (C29H48O4), contributed the highest percentage (71.6%) of the total hydrocarbon compounds to the extracted algae oil. The result of the study suggests that Botryococcus sp. can be used for effective phycoremediation, as well as to provide a sustainable hydrocarbon source as a value-added chemical for the bio-based plastic industry.

  10. Earthworm Comet Assay for Assessing the Risk of Weathered Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils: Need to Look Further than Target Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Palanisami, Thavamani; Smith, Euan; Mayilswami, Srinithi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Earthworm toxicity assays contribute to ecological risk assessment and consequently standard toxicological endpoints, such as mortality and reproduction, are regularly estimated. These endpoints are not enough to better understand the mechanism of toxic pollutants. We employed an additional endpoint in the earthworm Eisenia andrei to estimate the pollutant-induced stress. In this study, comet assay was used as an additional endpoint to evaluate the genotoxicity of weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soils containing 520 to 1450 mg hydrocarbons kg(-1) soil. Results showed that significantly higher DNA damage levels (two to sixfold higher) in earthworms exposed to hydrocarbon impacted soils. Interestingly, hydrocarbons levels in the tested soils were well below site-specific screening guideline values. In order to explore the reasons for observed toxicity, the contaminated soils were leached with rainwater and subjected to earthworm tests, including the comet assay, which showed no DNA damage. Soluble hydrocarbon fractions were not found originally in the soils and hence no hydrocarbons leached out during soil leaching. The soil leachate's Electrical Conductivity (EC) decreased from an average of 1665 ± 147 to 204 ± 20 µS cm(-1). Decreased EC is due to the loss of sodium, magnesium, calcium, and sulphate. The leachate experiment demonstrated that elevated salinity might cause the toxicity and not the weathered hydrocarbons. Soil leaching removed the toxicity, which is substantiated by the comet assay and soil leachate analysis data. The implication is that earthworm comet assay can be included in future eco (geno) toxicology studies to assess accurately the risk of contaminated soils.

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Hydrocarbon Expulsion of Petroleum Systems in the Niuzhuang Sag,Bohai Bay Basin,East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi; LI Sumei; JIN Zhijun; BAI Guoping

    2004-01-01

    Based on a detailed survey of the distribution and organic geochemical characteristics of potential source rocks in the South Slope of the Niuzhuang Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China, a new approach to assess the amount of hydrocarbons generated and expelled has been developed. The approach is applicable to evaluate hydrocarbons with different genetic mechanisms. The results show that the models for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion vary with potential source rocks, depending on thermal maturity, types of organic matter and paleoenvironment. Hydrocarbons are mostly generated and expelled from source rocks within the normal oil window. It was calculated that the special interval (algal-rich shales of the Es4 member formed in brackish environments) in the South Slope of the Niuzhuang Sag has a much higher potential of immature oil generation than the other intervals in the area. This suggests that hydrocarbons can definitely be generated in early diagenesis, especially under certain special geological settings. The proportion of hydrocarbons generated and expelled from the Es4 shales in the early diagenetic stage is up to 26.75% and 17.36%,respectively. It was also observed that laminated shales have a much higher expulsion efficiency than massive mudstones.In contrast, the special interval of the Es4 shales proposed from previous studies is probably not the whole rock for oil in the South Slope of the Niuzhuang Sag because of the small proportion of the gross volume and corresponding low percentage of hydrocarbons generated and expelled. A much lower expulsion efficiency of the source rock during the early stage relative to that within the normal oil window has been calculated. Our results indicate that the Es4 mudstones rather than the shales deposited in the Niuzhuang and Guangli Sag are the main source rocks for the oil discovered.

  12. Pyrolysates of raw vitrinites and their residues after CS2-NMP solvent extraction and its significance for petroleum geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dayong; PENG Ping'an

    2006-01-01

    Binary solvent (CS2-NMP) has extreme high extraction ability to coals, and it can extract most bitumens out of coals and vitrinites. And large amount of messages on side chains and their distribution character in vitrinites should be acquired through flash pyrolysis before and after binary solvent (CS2-NMP) extraction. A few low maturated coals have been selected and vitrinites are handpicked from coals. Then vitrinites have been extracted using different solvents in the order of polarity. Flash pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrum has been applied to samples. The result shows that CS2-NMP is efficient for the extraction of vitirnites, giving much higher extraction yield than common solvents. Production ratio of liquid hydrocarbons in pyrolysates of vitrinites extracted with CS2-NMP is lower than that of raw vitrinites. And relative ratio of each component in pyrolysates has changed apparently. Production ratio of aliphatic hydrocarbons, especially those long chain aliphatics have decreased much after mixed solvent extraction. It shows that bitumens extracted with CS2-NMP have largely contributed to pyrolysates, especially those aliphatics in pyrolysates.

  13. Spatial distribution and concentration assessment of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal zone surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carine S; Moreira, Icaro T A; de Oliveira, Olivia M C; Queiroz, Antonio F S; Garcia, Karina S; Falcão, Brunno A; Escobar, Narayana F C; Rios, Mariana Cruz

    2014-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the concentrations and spatial distribution of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the intertidal zone surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, to assess the distribution and degree of contamination by TPHs, measure the level of TPH degradation in the surface sediment, and identify the organic matter sources. The surface sediment used in this study was collected in 50 stations, and TPHs, isoprenoid alkanes (pristane and phytane), and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The total concentrations ranged from 0.22 to 40,101 μg g(-1) dry weight and showed a strong correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC) content. The highest TPH concentrations were observed in samples from the mangrove sediments of a river located near a petroleum refinery. Compared with other studies in the world, the TPH concentrations in the intertidal surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay were below average in certain stations and above average in others. An analysis of the magnitude of UCM (0.11 to 17,323 μg g(-1) dry weight) and the ratios nC17/Pr and nC18/Ph suggest that an advanced state of oil weathering, which indicates previous contamination. The molar C/N ratios varied between 5 and 43, which indicate organic matter with a mixed origin comprising marine and continental contributions.

  14. Determination of diesel fuel and motor oil in water and wastes by a modified diesel-range organics total petroleum hydrocarbon method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, W.M.; Dhaliwal, J.S.; Perera, S.K.; Baumann, F.J. [California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The American Petroleum Institute method for determination of diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection was modified to allow simultaneous determination of motor oil. Motor oil elutes as a broad hump of unresolved alkanes and can be distinguished readily from diesel fuel and other fuel oils by its profile. The boiling point ranges for No. 2 diesel fuel and motor oil are C{sub 10{minus}} C{sub 21} and C{sub 21}-C{sub 38}, respectively, and these ranges define TPHs in diesel fuel (TPH-D) and motor oil (TPH-M). By this convention, less than 6% of No. 2 diesel is characterized as TPH-M, and less than 9% of motor oil is quantitated as TPH-D. Inlet discrimination was observed when motor oil was injected with a splitless injector. Accurate motor oil quantitation with splitless sample introduction requires calibration with the product or triacontane, which has a similar response factor. Detector response to motor oil (and other petroleum products) and a homologous series of n-alkanes was nearly constant when on-column injection was used. Instrument detection limit for motor oil was about 0.5 {mu}g (splitless injection, total area under the curve), and the widest linear range (up to 100 {mu}g) was obtained by subtracting the solvent chromatogram. Procedures for isolation of motor oil from oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are described. Method detection limits for diesel fuel and motor oil in purified water were 0.041 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. 11 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Cytotoxic Activity and Composition of Petroleum Ether Extract from Magydaris tomentosa (Desf. W. D. J. Koch (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Autore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether extract of Magydaris tomentosa flowers (Desf. W. D. J. Koch has been analyzed by GC-MS. It is mainly constituted by furanocoumarins such as xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol, isopimpinellin, and bergaptene. Other coumarins such as 7-methoxy-8-(2-formyl-2-methylpropyl coumarin and osthole also occurred. The antiproliferative activity of Magydaris tomentosa flower extract has been evaluated in vitro on murine monocye/macrophages (J774A.1, human melanoma (A375 and human breast cancer (MCF-7 tumor cell lines, showing a major activity against the latter.

  16. Study on the Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil by Wastewater Treatment Agent ABR Hydrocarbon%废水处理剂ABR Hydrocarbon对石油污染土壤生物修复的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜国丰

    2016-01-01

    The application conditions of wastewater treatment agent ABR Hydrocarbon and the microbial remediation of petroleum contaminated soil were studied. The results showed that the optimal fermentation temperature of wastewater treatment agent ABR Hydrocarbon was 40 ℃, and the optimal fermentation pH was 7. 0 , surfactants produced in the fermentation liquid, there was a good correlation between the activity of dehydrogenase activity and the degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. After continuous cultivation for 32 days, petroleum hydrocarbon degradation rate reached 33. 4%, soil microbial dehydrogenase activity was 83. 0 μg/( g · h ) . The experiments showed that the wastewater treatment agent ABR Hydrocarbon had good petroleum hydrocarbon degradation ability.%对废水处理剂ABR Hydrocarbon的应用条件及其对石油污染土壤的微生物修复进行了研究。结果表明:废水处理剂ABR Hydrocarbon的最佳发酵温度为40益、最佳发酵pH为7.0,发酵液中有表面活性物质产生,土壤中微生物的脱氢酶活性与石油烃降解率之间存在较好的相关性。连续培养32天,石油烃的降解率达到了33.4%,土壤微生物脱氢酶活性为83.0μg/( g·h)。试验表明废水处理剂ABR Hydrocarbon具有较好的石油烃降解能力。

  17. Contributions in petroleum geology and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This book provides a discussion of Petroleum Reservoir Analysis. Contents include: Introduction to laboratory equipment and procedures. Fluid saturation of hydrocarbon reservoir rocks by the distillation extraction and Dean Stark procedures. Fluid saturation of hydrocarbon reservoir rocks by retort method (atmospheric distillation). Fluid saturation of hydrocarbon reservoir rocks by temperature retorting analysis. Fluid saturation of hydrocarbon reservoir rocks by vacuum distillation method. Effective porosity by Barnes and modified Barnes method. Effective porosity determination by the mercury injection and Kobe methods. Effective porosity determination by the mercury injection and Kobe methods. Effective porosity determination by use of the helium porosimeter. Total porosity and grain density determination. Absolute air permeability with correction for Klinkenberg effect. Absolute liquid permeability. Liquid viscosity by use of a falling ball viscometer. Surface and interfacial tension measurement. Capillary pressure determination.

  18. Effects of Pinus sylvestris root growth and mycorrhizosphere development on bacterial carbon source utilization and hydrocarbon oxidation in forest and petroleum-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonsalo, J; Haahtela, K.; Sen, R. [Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Biosciences, Helsinki (Finland); Jorgensen, K. S. [Finnish Environmental Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-05-01

    A forest ecosystem-based phytoremediation simulation project was carried out to demonstrate that pine root and mycorrhizosphere development beneficially influence bacterial community-linked carbon utilization. The process is also believed to drive a concomitant reduction of mineral oil levels in petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated soil. Results showed that total cell and culturable bacterial densities significantly increased in both rhizospheres and mycorrhizospheres that actively developed in the humus and PHC-contaminated soil. It was also observed that mycorrhizospheres supported the largest number of bacteria. The multivariate analysis of bacterial community carbon source utilization profiles from different rhizosphere, mycorrhizospheres, unplanted bulk soil and rhizosphere in contaminated soils highlighted three main niche-related groupings, and correspondence analysis identified amino acid preferences in rhizosphere and mycorrhizosphere compartments. Decreased levels of mineral oil were detected in PHC-contaminated soil colonized by pine root and mycorrhizal fungi, providing further confirmation of the importance of root-fungal bacterial associations in active transformations in higher molecular weight hydrocarbons in natural and contaminated soils. 61 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  19. Distribution and origins of n-alkanes, hopanes, and steranes in rivers and marine sediments from Southwest Caspian coast, Iran: implications for identifying petroleum hydrocarbon inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of n-alkanes and biomarkers (hopane and sterane) in surface sediments from Southwestern coasts of Caspian Sea and 28 rivers arriving to this lake, determined with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, was used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activities in the studied area. The concentrations of total n-alkanes (Σ21 n-alkane) in costal and riverine sediments varied from 249.2 to 3899.5 and 56 to 1622.4 μg g(-1), respectively. An evaluation of the source diagnostic indices indicated that petroleum related sources (petrogenic) were mainly contributed to n-alkanes in costal and most riverine sediments. Only the hydrocarbons in sediment of 3 rivers were found to be mainly of biogenic origin. Principal component analysis using hopane diagnostic ratios in costal and riverine sediments, and Anzali, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan oils were used to identify the sources of hydrocarbons in sediments. It was indicated that the anthropogenic contributions in most of the costal sediment samples are dominated with inputs of oil spills from Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan countries.

  20. A Preliminary Estimate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water and Some Commercially Important Fish Species in the Amba Estuary, West Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswar Rao, M; Ram, Anirudh; Rokade, M A; Raja, P; Rakesh, P S; Chemburkar, Parul; Gajbhiye, S N

    2016-07-01

    Amba Estuary, which receives effluent from several industries including a petrochemical complex, opens to the southern limits of the Mumbai Harbor. The study was conducted to find out the level of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) in water and their bioconcentration in ten commercially important fishes from Amba Estuary during different months. In water high concentration of TPHs (39.7 μg/L) was obtained during December (middle of estuary) and minimum value (7.2 μg/L) was observed in September (lower estuarine). The maximum concentration of TPHs was found to be in Trichiurus savala (3.2 µg/g) during December and minimum in Boleophthalmus sp (0.4 µg/g) during May. Irrespective of the monthly variations, TPHs accumulation in all the species was considerably lower than hazardous levels. Although there was no statistical significance between TPHs and total length/weight, the T. savala recording maximum concentration during all months and it can be used as indicator of hydrocarbon pollution in this region.

  1. Dispersion pattern of petroleum hydrocarbon in coastal water of Bay of Bengal along Odisha and West Bengal, India using geospatial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, P K; Satapathy, D R; Panda, C R; Kar, R N

    2014-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) concentration was monitored in water of estuaries, ports, and coastal transects up to 10-km distance in East Coast of India once in every year during 2002-2009. The highest concentration was observed at Haldia port (1.60-20.11 μg/l) due to the impact of hydrocarbon discharges from nearby oil refinery, petrochemical industries, handling of crude oils, etc. The concentration of PHC exhibited relatively higher values during low tide than the high tide in all the four estuaries indicating riverine inputs and land-based discharges, which contribute substantial amounts of PHC to the coastal water. Hoogly estuary recorded higher values of PHC (1.17-18.50 μg/l) due to the influence of industrial wastes, land runoff, and port activities. The spatial distribution of PHC estimated by the kriging method showed a variation in concentration of PHC over the whole region. To discriminate the dispersion pattern of PHC, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using a correlation matrix.

  2. Specific in vitro toxicity of crude and refined petroleum products. 1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrabie, C.M.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Murk, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first in a series reporting on in vitro toxic potencies of oils. The objective was to determine whether 11 crude oils and refined products activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in a dioxin receptor¿mediated luciferase assay. Cells were exposed for 6 and 24 h to differ

  3. Specific in vitro toxicity of crude and refined petroleum products. 1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrabie, C.M.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Murk, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first in a series reporting on in vitro toxic potencies of oils. The objective was to determine whether 11 crude oils and refined products activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in a dioxin receptor–mediated luciferase assay. Cells were exposed for 6 and 24 h to differ

  4. Specific in vitro toxicity of crude and refined petroleum products. 1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrabie, C.M.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Murk, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first in a series reporting on in vitro toxic potencies of oils. The objective was to determine whether 11 crude oils and refined products activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in a dioxin receptor¿mediated luciferase assay. Cells were exposed for 6 and 24 h to

  5. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  6. [Rapid quantitative analysis of hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Hu, Ai-Qin; Liu, Wei; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Song, Yi-Chang; He, Qi-Jun; Liu, Sha; Xu, Xiao-Xuan

    2014-07-01

    A set of rapid analysis system for hydrocarbon composition of heavy oils was designed using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectrometer and chemometrics to determine the hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils. Sixty two extract oil samples were collected and their saturates and aromatics content data were determined according to the standard NB/SH/T0509-2010, then the total contents of resins plus asphaltenes were calculated by the subtraction method in the percentage of weight. Based on the partial least squares (PLS), calibration models for saturates, aromatics, and resin+asphaltene contents were established using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy, with their SEC, 1.43%, 0.91% and 1.61%, SEP, 1.56%, 1.24% and 1.81%, respectively, meeting the accuracy and repeatability required for the standard. Compared to the present standard method, the efficiency of hydrocarbon composition analysis for furfural extract oils is significantly improved by the new method which is rapid and simple. The system could also be used for other heavy oil analysis, with excellent extension and application foreground.

  7. Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons at a petroleum-contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Victoria A; Brubaker, Gaylen R; Zenker, Matthew J; Prince, Roger C; Gieg, Lisa M; Da Silva, Marcio L B; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2009-03-01

    Field metabolomics and laboratory assays were used to assess the in situ anaerobic attenuation of hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer underlying a former refinery. Benzene, ethylbenzene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were targeted as contaminants of greatest regulatory concern (COC) whose intrinsic remediation has been previously reported. Metabolite profiles associated with anaerobic hydrocarbon decay revealed the microbial utilization of alkylbenzenes, including the trimethylbenzene COC, PAHs and several n-alkanes in the contaminated portions of the aquifer. Anaerobic biodegradation experiments designed to mimic in situ conditions showed no loss of exogenously amended COC; however, a substantive rate of endogenous electron acceptor reduction was measured (55 ± 8 µM SO(4) day(-1)). An assessment of hydrocarbon loss in laboratory experiments relative to a conserved internal marker revealed that non-COC hydrocarbons were being metabolized. Purge and trap analysis of laboratory assays showed a substantial loss of toluene, m- and o-xylene, as well as several alkanes (C(6)-C(12)). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that benzene is persistent under the prevailing site anaerobic conditions. We could find no in situ benzene intermediates (phenol or benzoate), the parent molecule proved recalcitrant in laboratory assays and low copy numbers of Desulfobacterium were found, a genus previously implicated in anaerobic benzene biodegradation. This study also showed that there was a reasonable correlation between field and laboratory findings, although with notable exception. Thus, while the intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation was clearly evident at the site, non-COC hydrocarbons were preferentially metabolized, even though there was ample literature precedence for the biodegradation of the target molecules.

  8. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soot and sediment: solvent evaluation and implications for sorption mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Koelmans, Albert A

    2002-10-01

    Soot contains high levels of toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Extraction of PAHs from soot for quantitative analysis is difficult because the compounds are extremely tightly bound to the sorbent matrix. This study was designed to investigate the effect of solvent type on PAH extraction yield, to identify the most optimal solvent for PAH extraction from soot, and to gain insight into the mechanism of PAH sorption to soot in aquatic environments. To that end, different types of soot as well as coal, charcoal, and sediments containing soot-like material were extracted with seven organic solvents. Large differences in extraction recoveries were observed among solvents, with relative values as low as 16% as compared to the best extracting solvent. These differences were much larger for soot than for sediments. Dichloromethane, which to date is the most widely used solvent for soot and sediment extractions, appeared to be the overall worst extractant, whereas toluene/methanol (1:6) gave the best results. Based on extraction yields and solvent properties, extraction of PAHs from soot was explained by a two-step mechanism involving swelling of the sorbent matrix and subsequent displacement of sorbates by solvent molecules. Due to the low displacement capacity of water, desorption of PAHs from soot in the aquatic environment will be strongly limited. Moreover, a certain fraction of the total PAH mass on soot is suggested to be physically entrapped, making it unavailable for partitioning to the aqueous phase.

  9. Factors that influence the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Niu, Z.; Chou, C.-L.; Qi, C.; Zheng, Lingyun; Zhang, H.

    2007-01-01

    Coal samples and carbonaceous mudstone were collected from the Huaibei coalfield, China, and experiments investigating the factors influencing the extraction of the sixteen US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out. Different extraction times, solvents, and methods were used. Major interest was focused on finding optimum conditions for extracting the PAHs from coal. We conclude that (1) coal composition, including the H/C and O/C ratios, is an important factor for the distribution of PAHs in coals; (2) the total amount of EPA priority PAHs increases with increasing extraction time, 30 min being suitable for ultrasonic-assisted extraction and 24 h for Soxhlet extraction; (3) CS2 is effective in extracting low molecular weight PAHs, while CH2Cl2 is better for extracting high molecular weight PAHs (both are excellent extraction solvents vs hexane); (4) both Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction showed a similar PAH concentration profile, but the ultrasonic method is less efficient. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  10. Extractable hydrocarbons, nickel and vanadium contents of Ogbodo-Isiokpo oil spill polluted soils in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, Samuel O

    2005-11-01

    An oil spill polluted site at Ogbodo-Isiokpo in Ikwere Local Government Area of Rivers State in southern Nigeria, was identified for study following three successive reconnaissance surveys of oil fields in the Agbada west plain of Eastern Niger Delta. A sampling area of 200 m x 200 m was delimited at the oil spill impacted site using the grid technique and soils were collected at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths from three replicate quadrats. A geographically similar, unaffected area, located 50 m adjacent to the polluted site, was chosen as a control (reference) site. Total extractable hydrocarbon contents of the polluted soils ranged from 3.02-4.54 and 1.60-4.20 mg/kg (no overlap in standard errors) at surface and subsurface depths respectively. The concentrations of two "diagnostic" trace heavy metals, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V), which are normal constituents of crude oil, were also determined in the soils by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method after pre-extraction of cations with dithionite-citrate carbonate. Ni varied from 0.15 to 1.65 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.18 to 0.82 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots; vanadium varied from 0.19 to 0.70 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.14 to 0.38 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots. Ni and V were more enhanced (p vanadium via the injection and availability of the petroleum hydrocarbons that might have increased the activities of biodegradation on site, the physico-chemical properties of the soils and inherent mobility of metals, as well as the intense rainfall and flooding that characterized the period of study, may have also contributed, at least in part, to these enhanced concentrations. Such levels of Ni and V may result to enhanced absorption by plants, which may bring about possible bioaccumulation in such plants and the animals that depend on them for survival and all of these may lead to toxic reactions along the food chain.

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of water column total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from the Deepwater Horizon (Macondo) incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Terry L; Sericano, José L; Sweet, Stephen T; Knap, Anthony H; Guinasso, Norman L

    2016-02-15

    Pre-spill background concentrations of TPH and PAH in water samples from the Gulf of Mexico are compared with samples (over 20,000) collected during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident (13,000 stations). Samples were collected by multiple response agencies, trustees and BP and reported in the Gulf Science Data. The samples were collected from a few m to over 800 km in all directions from the wellhead. During the incident, samples with the highest concentrations of hydrocarbons were collected proximal to the wellhead or in samples collected from surface slicks and dispersant use. Of the 13,172 water sample TPH concentrations reported, 84% were below 1 μg/L (background). Of the 16,557 water sample PAH concentrations reported, 79% were below 0.056 μg/L (the median field blank, background). The percentage of samples below background increased rapidly after the well was capped. The spatial and temporal distributions of these hydrocarbon data are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs.

  13. 计算机重构石油烃降解的微生物代谢途径%Computational Reconstruction of Microbial Pathways for Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 何涛; 邵卫东; 汪莉; 王玉民

    2012-01-01

    目的:用计算机重构石油烃降解通路,为石油污染的生物修复提供理论依据.方法:利用KEGG反应、化合物数据提取反应等式,过滤掉所有反应中的通用化合物及小分子化合物并构建反应矩阵,然后利用广度优先搜索算法在反应矩阵中搜索降解石油烃的代谢途径.结果:计算机分别重构了256 132条链烷烃降解途径和44条环己烷降解途径,以酿酒酵母作为降解石油烃的基因工程菌为例,通过限制改构菌整合的关键酶数目,分别得到了213条不需要转入关键酶的链烷烃降解通路和6条以氧化还原酶、松柏醇脱氢酶或环己醇脱氢酶和环己酮单氧酶为关键酶的环己烷降解通路,并构建相应的降解网络图,标注每个反应的酶.结论:应用计算机重构了2种石油烃降解途径,可为利用微生物对石油污染进行生物修复提供理论依据.%Objective: Metabolic pathways for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons were reconstructed by computational skills to provide theoretical basis for the bioremediation of oil polution. Methods: At first, the reaction equations were extracted from the KEGC reaction database and the compound database. And then current metabolites and micromolecule compounds in all the reactions were filtered out. Finally, the reaction matrix was constructed to search metabolic pathways for degrading petroleum hydrocarbons by the breadth first search approach. Results: 256 132 pathways for degrading alkanes and 44 pathways for degrading cyclohexane were reconstructed by computational skills. Taking Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the genetic engineering bacteria, we picked out 219 pathways by limiting the number of pivotal enzymes to construct the metabolic network, including 213 pathways without key enzymes and 6 pathways with oxidoreductases, coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase or cyclohexanol dehydroge-nase and cyclohexanone monooxygenase as key enzymes. Catalytic enzymes of every reaction

  14. Optimization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Extraction Efficiency Parameters for Sub- and Supercritical Water Extraction (SCWE) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Asahi A.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of molecules composed of multiple, bonded benzene rings. As PAHS are believed to be present on Mars, positive confirmation of their presence on Mars is highly desirable. To extract PAHS, which have low volatility, a fluid extraction method is ideal, and one that does not utilize organic solvents is especially ideal for in situ instrumental analysis. The use of water as a solvent, which at subcritical pressures and temperatures is relatively non-Polar, has significant potential. As SCWE instruments have not yet been commercialized, all instruments are individually-built research prototypes: thus, initial efforts were intended to determine if extraction efficiencies on the JPL-built laboratory-scale SCWE instrument are comparable to differing designs built elsewhere. Samples of soil with certified reference concentrations of PAHs were extracted using SCWE as well as conventional Soxhlet extraction. Continuation of the work would involve extractions on JPL'S newer, portable SCWE instrument prototype to determine its efficiency in extracting PAHs.

  15. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater at low temperatures (0-5 degrees C) and bacterial communities associated with degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd G; Bonaunet, Kristin

    2006-02-01

    In this study biodegradation of hydrocarbons in thin oil films was investigated in seawater at low temperatures, 0 and 5 degrees C. Heterotrophic (HM) or oil-degrading (ODM) microorganisms enriched at the two temperatures showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities to several bacteria of Arctic or Antarctic origin. Biodegradation experiments were conducted with a crude mineral oil immobilized as thin films on hydrophobic Fluortex adsorbents in nutrient-enriched or sterile seawater. Chemical and respirometric analysis of hydrocarbon depletion showed that naphthalene and other small aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs) were primarily biodegraded after dissolution to the water phase, while biodegradation of larger polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and C(10)-C(36) n-alkanes, including n-hexadecane, was associated primarily with the oil films. Biodegradation of PAH and n-alkanes was significant at both 0 and 5 degrees C, but was decreased for several compounds at the lower temperature. n-Hexadecane biodegradation at the two temperatures was comparable at the end of the experiments, but was delayed at 0 degree C. Investigations of bacterial communities in seawater and on adsorbents by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments and DGGE analysis indicated that predominant bacteria in the seawater gradually adhered to the oil-coated adsorbents during biodegradation at both temperatures. Sequence analysis of most DGGE bands aligned to members of the phyla Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria) or Bacteroidetes. Most sequences from experiments at 0 degree C revealed affiliations to members of Arctic or Antarctic consortia, while no such homology was detected for sequences from degradation experiment run at 5 degrees C. In conclusion, marine microbial communities from cold seawater have potentials for oil film HC degradation at temperatures bacteria may play an important role during oil HC biodegradation in seawater close to freezing point.

  16. Processes in petroleum chemistry. Technical and economical characteristics Vol. 1. Synthesis gas and derivatives. Main hydrocarbon intermediaries (2 ed. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvel, A.; Lefebvre, G.; Castex, L.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this book is to give rudiments for a preliminary study to outline petrochemical operation and cost estimation. Basic operations are examined: Steam reforming or partial oxidation, steam or thermal cracking and catalytic reforming. The main topics examined include: hydrogen purification, hydrogen fabrication from hydrocarbons, carbonaceous materials or water, production of carbon monoxide, ammoniac synthesis methanol synthesis from synthesis gas, preparation of formol, urea, acetylene and monomers for the preparation of plastics.

  17. In situ biostimulation of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by nitrate and phosphate injection using a dipole well configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsin, Violaine; Coulomb, Bruno; Guelorget, Yves; Maier, Joachim; Höhener, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of source zone bioremediation by nitrate and nutrient injection in a crude-oil contaminated aquifer using a recirculating well dipole. Groundwater pumped from a downgradient well at a rate of 2.5 m3 h- 1 was enriched with bromide (tracer), nitrate and ammonium phosphate and injected in a well 40 m upgradient. The test was run for 49 days with solute injection, followed by 65 days of dipole operation without solute addition. The resulting bromide breakthrough curve allowed quantifying a first-order leakage coefficient of 0.017 day- 1 from the dipole, whereas from the nitrate data a first-order nitrate consumption rate of 0.075 day- 1 was determined. Dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations including benzene decreased to non-detect in 84 days but experienced important rebounds after ending circulation. Nitrite accumulated temporarily but was consumed entirely when solute injection stopped. The mass balance calculations revealed that about 83% of the nitrate was used for hydrocarbon degradation, with the remaining being used for oxidation of reduced sulfur. A reactive transport model was used for the delineation of the treated zone. This model suggested that denitrification influenced flow and transport in the dipole. It is concluded that successful promotion of denitrifying hydrocarbon degradation is easily obtained in this aquifer and enables to abate dissolved concentrations, and that dipole configuration is a good option.

  18. Evaluating Samgor petroleum kerosene fractions for content of n-paraffin hydrocarbons (for production of surfactants and cleaning substances)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benashvili, Ye.M.; Uchaneyshvili, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper investigates content and formation of n-alkanes (NA) of very high purity in Samgor petroleum for the purpose of surfactant production. Distillates of 185-275/sup 0/C and 190-260/sup 0/C were utilized. Production of NA was carried out with the aid of synthetic zeolite TK-58 type SaA, with dynamic activity in pairs of n-heptane 59 mg/cm/sup 3/. Adsorption temperature was 250-275/sup 0/C; volume flow rate 0.2 hour/sup -1/; ratio of raw materials: adsorbent 1:5. Desorption of NA was carried out with aqueous steam at 350-370/sup 0/C. After removing traces of heterocompounds, NA was subjected to adsorption cleaning using natural clinoptilolite at 20/sup 0/ temp. via percolation. Individual composition of NA was investigated via GLC (gas liquid chromatography). The tested fractions contained 52.3-55.5% alkanes, including NA C/sub 10/-C/sub 15/ 17.6-18.2%. The latter are utilized for production of surfactants and synthetic detergents; the refined petroleum serves as a component for diesel and jet fuels.

  19. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  20. Prediction of mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in spiked soils using cyclodextrin extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Ian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Semple, Kirk T. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Lancaster University, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Hare, Rina [Alcontrol Laboratories, Chester CH5 3US (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [Alcontrol Laboratories, Chester CH5 3US (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk

    2006-11-15

    In this study, an aqueous-based hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction technique was assessed for its capacity to determine the microbially degradable fraction of mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in four dissimilar soils. A linear relationship (slope = 0.90; R {sup 2} = 0.89), approaching 1:1 between predicted and observed phenanthrene mineralization, was demonstrated for the cyclodextrin extraction; however, the water only extraction underestimated the microbially available fraction by a factor of three (slope = 3.35; R {sup 2} = 0.64). With respect to determining the mineralizable fraction of p-cresol in soils, the cyclodextrin extraction (slope = 0.94; R {sup 2} = 0.84) was more appropriate than the water extraction (slope = 1.50; R {sup 2} = 0.36). Collectively, these results suggested that the cyclodextrin extraction technique was suitable for the prediction of the mineralizable fraction of representative PAHs and phenols present in dissimilar soils following increasing soil-contaminant contact times. The assessment of the microbial availability of contaminants in soils is important for a more representative evaluation of soil contamination. - An aqueous-based HPCD extraction technique was more appropriate than the water extraction in prediction of the mineralizable fraction of phenanthrene and p-cresol present in a range of dissimilar soils.

  1. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhe; Zeng, Fangang; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles (200 μm coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0-20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 μg/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 μg/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand>coarse sand>silt>clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay>silt>coarse sand>fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites.

  2. Determining the group hydrocarbon composition of oil distillates and residues using highly effective liquid chromatography. 2. A method for determining the calibrating coefficients based on the specific weight of a petroleum product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadas, M.; Yetsuro, N.

    1984-01-01

    The calibrating coefficients (F) for saturated hydrocarbons (Uv) and aromatic hydrocarbons (ArU) proceeding from data based on d 15/4 for the studied petroleum products were identified in order to evaluate the group hydrocarbon composition of petroleum distillates and residues using high resolution liquid chromatography (VEZhKh). The relationship between d 15/4 and deltan (the difference in the refraction index between d 15/4 and n-C6H14) for each type of hydrocarbon was used for this purpose. The relationships between the calibrating coefficients and deltan are studied for solutions of pure hydrocarbons in n-C6H14. (The calibrating coefficients are not proportional to delatn). The effect of the length of the tower and the packing on the relationship between the calibrating coefficients and deltan is also studied. Standard compounds are selected to determine the relationship between the calibrating coefficients and deltan. The relationship is expressed by the formula F = A(1 - Bexp(-Cdeltan)), where A, B and C are constants. Good agreement is observed for the values of the calibrating coefficients calculated by this method and measured by a known method.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts from fruits of Seseli devenyense Simonk. and the herb of Peucedanum luxurians Tamam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widelski Jaroslaw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Apiaceae family usually contain coumarins. These are used worldwide in traditional medicine, as well as in modern therapeutics. The aim of our study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of four extracts (methanolic and petroleum ether extracts obtained from two Apiaceae species: Seseli devenyense (fruits and Peucedanum luxurians (herb.

  4. Extraction of lignite coal fly ash for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: modified and unmodified supercritical fluid extraction, enhanced-fluidity solvents, and accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, D V; Olesik, S V

    1998-02-01

    A comparison among modified and unmodified supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced-fluidity liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) techniques was made for the extraction of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an aged, spiked lignite coal fly ash. All of the attempted extraction conditions allowed the extraction of the PAHs to some degree, but no single extraction technique proved to be superior for all of the PAHs used. Three groups of PAHs with similar extraction efficiencies were identified. The group with the lowest molecular weights was best recovered using a 90% CO2-10% methanol mixture at 70 degrees C and 238 atm. The group of medium-molecular-weight PAHs was recovered equally well using any of three extraction conditions: SFE (100% CO2, 90 degrees C, and 238 atm), enhanced-fluidity liquid mixture (60% CO2-40% methanol, 70 degrees C, and 238 atm), and a methanol ASE mixture. The group of high-molecular-weight PAHs seemed to be equally well recovered with all of the attempted extraction conditions, but the enhanced-fluidity conditions (60% CO2-40% methanol, 70 degrees C, and 238 atm) had extraction recoveries (> 85%) with the lowest standard deviations (approximately 5%).

  5. Petroleum pollutant degradation by surface water microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić, Malisa P; Jovancićević, Branimir S; Ilić, Mila; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2006-09-01

    It is well known that the composition of petroleum or some of its processing products changes in the environment mostly under the influence of microorganisms. A series of experiments was conducted in order to define the optimum conditions for an efficient biodegradation of petroleum pollutant, or bioremediation of different segments of the environment. The aim of these investigations was to show to what extent the hydrocarbons of a petroleum pollutant are degraded by microbial cultures which were isolated as dominant microorganisms from a surface water of a wastewater canal of an oil refinery and a nitrogen plant. Biodegradation experiments were conducted on one paraffinic, and one naphthenic type of petroleum during a three month period under aerobic conditions, varying the following parameters: Inorganic (Kp) or an organic medium (Bh) with or without exposition to light. Microorganisms were analyzed in a surface water sample from a canal (Pancevo, Serbia), into which wastewater from an oil refinery and a nitrogen plant is released. The consortia of microorganisms were isolated from the water sample (most abundant species: Phormidium foveolarum--filamentous Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae and Achanthes minutissima, diatoms, algae). The simulation experiments of biodegradation were conducted with the biomass suspension and crude oils Sirakovo (Sir, paraffinic type) and Velebit (Ve, naphthenic type). After a three month period, organic substance was extracted by means of chloroform. In the extracts, the content of saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and fatty acids was determined (the group composition). n-Alkanes and isoprenoid aliphatic alkanes, pristane and phytane, in the aliphatic fractions, were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC). Total isoprenoid aliphatic alkanes and polycyclic alkanes of sterane and triterpane types were analyzed by GC-MS. Paraffinic type petroleums have a significant loss of saturated hydrocarbons. For naphthenic

  6. 红球菌在石油烃类物质降解中的作用%Progress in Petroleum Hydrocarbon Biodegradation by Rhodococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光军; 方萍

    2013-01-01

    红球菌属是有机污染物降解的重要微生物之一.由于红球菌能够适应各种各样的底物环境,具有极强的有机溶剂耐受性和很宽的降解谱,同时它们还能通过产生表面活性剂和改变细胞表面组成结构来提升自身对于疏水性环境的适应能力,因此,红球菌在石油污染物降解及石油污染的生物修复等领域有着极其重要的应用价值.文章基于近年来在红球菌降解石油烃方面的研究进展,从红球菌适应疏水性环境的机制、石油烃中烷烃、环烷烃、芳香烃的降解途径等几个方面进行综述,同时对今后研究的方向进行了展望.%Rhodococcus as a sort of microbial for organic compounds biodegradation with strong organic solvent tolerance and wide degradation spectrum, can adapt to various substrates, as well as promoting its adaption to hydrophobic surroundings by producing surfactants or changing cell surface composition and structure.Due to the characteristics, Rhodococcus acts extremely important roles in oil pollution bioremediation.Based on progress in petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation by Rhodococcus, the adaption mechanism to hydrophobic environment, the degradation process of alkane, cycloparafin hydrocarbon and aromatics were reviewed.The prospect related to Rhodococcus in bioremediation in future was also proposed.

  7. Field survey of Canadian background soils: Implications for a new mathematical gas chromatography-flame ionization detection approach for resolving false detections of petroleum hydrocarbons in clean soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hooper, Francine; Farwell, Andrea J; Pike, Glenna; Kennedy, Jocelyn; Wang, Zhendi; Grunsky, Eric C; Dixon, D George

    2014-08-01

    The reference method for the Canada-wide standard (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil provides laboratories with methods for generating accurate and reproducible soil analysis results. The CWS PHC tier 1 generic soil-quality guidelines apply to 4 carbon ranges/fractions: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (C10-C16), F3 (C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). The methods and guidelines were developed and validated for soils with approximately 5% total organic carbon (TOC). However, organic soils have much higher TOC levels because of biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) originating from sources such as plant waxes and fatty acids. Coextracted BOCs can have elevated F2-F4 concentrations, which can cause false exceedances of PHC soil guidelines. The present study evaluated false PHC detections in soil samples collected from 34 background sites. The list of analytes included soil type, TOC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), F2, F3, F4, F3a (C16-C22), and F3b (C22-C34). Soils with 3% to 41% TOC falsely exceeded the CWS PHC 300 mg/kg F3 coarse soil guideline. It was previously demonstrated that clean peat had F2:F3b ratios of less than 0.10, while crude oil spiked peat and spiked sand had higher ratios of greater than 0.10. In the present background study, all of the clean organic soils with at least 300 mg/kg F3 had F2:F3b ratios of less than 0.10, which indicated false guideline exceedances. Clean inorganic soils had low F3 concentrations, resulting in high F2:F3b ratios of greater than 0.10. Validation field studies are required to determine if the F2:F3b 0.10 PHC presence versus absence threshold value is applicable to crude oil- and diesel-contaminated sites.

  8. Determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water by solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianli; Kang, Haiyan; Wu, Junfeng

    2016-05-01

    Given the potential risks of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the analysis of their presence in water is very urgent. We have developed a novel procedure for determining chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water based on solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The extraction parameters of solid-phase extraction were optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method showed wide linear ranges (1.0-1000 ng/L) with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9952 to 0.9998. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.591 and 0.045-1.502 ng/L, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 82.5 to 102.6% with relative standard deviations below 9.2%. The obtained method was applied successfully to the determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real water samples. Most of the chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected and 1-monochloropyrene was predominant in the studied water samples. This is the first report of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples in China. The toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the studied tap water were 9.95 ng the toxic equivalency quotient m(-3) . 9,10-Dichloroanthracene and 1-monochloropyrene accounted for the majority of the total toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tap water.

  9. Intrinsic rates of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in Gulf of Mexico intertidal sandy sediments and its enhancement by organic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, Behzad, E-mail: bmortazavi@ua.edu [University of Alabama, Department of Biological Sciences, Box 870344, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Dauphin Island Sea Lab, 101 Bienville Boulevard, Dauphin Island, AL, 36528 (United States); Horel, Agota [University of Alabama, Department of Biological Sciences, Box 870344, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Dauphin Island Sea Lab, 101 Bienville Boulevard, Dauphin Island, AL, 36528 (United States); Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A. [University of Alabama, Department of Biological Sciences, Box 870344, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The rates of crude oil degradation by the extant microorganisms in intertidal sediments from a northern Gulf of Mexico beach were determined. The enhancement in crude oil degradation by amending the microbial communities with marine organic matter was also examined. Replicate mesocosm treatments consisted of: (i) controls (intertidal sand), (ii) sand contaminated with crude oil, (iii) sand plus organic matter, and (iv) sand plus crude oil and organic matter. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) production was measured daily for 42 days and the carbon isotopic ratio of CO{sub 2} (δ{sup 13}CO{sub 2}) was used to determine the fraction of CO{sub 2} derived from microbial respiration of crude oil. Bacterial 16S rRNA clone library analyses indicated members of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi occurred exclusively in control sediments whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes occurred in both control and oil contaminated sediments. Members of the hydrocarbon-degrading genera Hydrocarboniphaga, Pseudomonas, and Pseudoxanthomonas were found primarily in oil contaminated treatments. Hydrocarbon mineralization was 76% higher in the crude oil amended with organic matter treatment compared to the rate in the crude oil only treatment indicating that biodegradation of crude oil in the intertidal zone by an extant microbial community is enhanced by input of organic matter.

  10. BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-POLLUTED MANGROVE SWAMPS USING NUTRIENT FORMULA PRODUCED FROM WATER HYACINT (EICCHORNIA CRASSIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Anayo Orji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale studies were carried out using a nutrient formula produced from Eicchornia crassipes plant to achieve bioremediation of crude oil impacted mangrove soil. In a 70 day study, the culturable heterotrophic bacterial population of the Eichhornia crassipes recipe increased from 6.26×105 Cfu/g to 2.69×107 Cfu/g. The control set-up had its total culturable bacterial count increased from 5.76×105 Cfu/g to 1.24×106 Cfu/g. Statistical analyses showed significant difference for the two conditions (p ≥ 0.05. The total culturable heterotrophic fungal count in the Eichhornia crassipes recipe treatment increased from 5.36×105 Cfu/g to 2.50×107 Cfu/g respectively. The total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacteria in Eichhornia crassipes treated polluted mangrove soil increased from 2.52×104 Cfu/g to 3.81×107 Cfu/g. Statistical analyses showed significant difference at p ≥ 0.05 level for the two conditions (Eicchornia crassipes nutrient treated soil and control. The total culturable hydrocarbon utilising fungal counts increased significantly for both the control and Eichhornia crassipes treatment. There was no regular trend in pH changes in all the conditions. The conductivity value of the Eichhornia crassipes recipe treated soil decreased progressively. Phosphate, nitrate, %total organic carbon, Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that in the Eichhornia crassipes recipe treated polluted mangrove soil, 0, 58.92 and 75.36% were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0, 7.14 and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively. There was no significant difference between the control experiment and Eichhornia crassipes (p = 0.054. The use of organic nutrient sources such Eichhornia crassipes recipe/nutrient powder is of good use as source of limiting nutrient needed for

  11. Extraction techniques using isopropanol and Tenax to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioavailability in sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Xi; Ji, Fangying; Hu, Bibo

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium strain J1-q (Sphingomonas pseudosanguinis strain J1-q) was isolated from Yangtze River surface sediment in the downtown area of Chongqing in a previous study. Isopropanol and Tenax extraction techniques were used to characterize the bioavailability of target PAH compounds. Phenanthrene (Phe) and fluoranthene (Fluo) were the target PAHs due to their significant background concentrations in surface sediment samples. Isopropanol solutions at concentrations of 50-100% and residual Phe and Fluo concentrations in sediment were correlated, with R(2) values of 0.9846 and 0.9649, respectively. The quantities of the Phe and Fluo fractions extracted for 3days with isopropanol from sediment were closely related with the corresponding quantities of PAHs degraded by bacterial strain J1-q when the extracting concentrations were 55% and 80%, respectively. The quantity of Phe extracted by Tenax agreed with the total quantity biodegraded when the Tenax: sediment mass ratio was 0.25 and the target PAHs were degraded for 30d, whereas the extracted quantity of Fluo accounted for 93.30% of the total quantity biodegraded by the bacterium. The triphasic model was appropriate to simulate the consecutive Phe and Fluo extraction process using Tenax at various Tenax: sediment ratios, and all simulated correlation coefficients were >0.9151. A 24-h extraction period was adequate to estimate the rapidly desorbing fractions when they were extracted with Tenax. Isopropanol extraction was preferable to characterize Phe and Fluo bioavailability under the experimental conditions, whereas Tenax extraction was useful to predict bioavailability of the two target PAHs with particular selectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of Polycyclic Arimatic Hydrocarbon (PAH on Foods using Numerous