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Sample records for extract significantly suppressed

  1. Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation.

  2. The influence of extractable organic matter on vitrinite reflectance suppression: A survey of kerogen and coal types

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    Barker, C.E.; Lewan, M.D.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The vitrinite reflectance suppression literature shows that while bitumen impregnation of the vitrinite group is often invoked as a significant contributor to suppression, its existence is not often supported by petrological evidence. This study examines bitumen impregnation as a factor in vitrinite suppression by comparing the vitrinite reflectance of source rock and coal samples before and after solvent-extraction. Bitumen, often defined as organic matter soluble or extractable in certain organic solvents, should be removed by Soxhlet method solvent extraction using chloroform. Removing the extractable bitumen should restore the suppressed reflectance to its true higher value. However, the solvent extracted samples averaged 0.014% Rv less than that of the unextracted samples. We conclude from these results and from other published data that reflectance suppression by bitumen impregnation in the vitrinite maceral group, above the huminite stage of gelification, is seemingly a rare phenomenon and whose effect on suppressing vitrinite reflectance is typically negligible. ?? 2006.

  3. Ground-roll noise extraction and suppression using high-resolution linear Radon transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Wang, Limin; Cheng, Feng; Luo, Yinhe; Shen, Chao; Mi, Binbin

    2016-05-01

    Ground-roll is a main type of strong noises in petroleum seismic exploration. Suppression of this kind of noise is essential to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of seismic data. In the time-offset (t-x) domain, the ground-roll noise and the effective waves (e.g., direct waves, reflections) overlap with each other in terms of time and frequency, which make it difficult to suppress ground roll noise in exploration seismic data. However, significant different features shown in the frequency-velocity (f-v) domain make it possible to separate ground roll noise and effective waves effectively. We propose a novel method to separate them using high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). Amplitude and phase information is preserved during the proposed quasi-reversible transformation. The reversibility and linearity of LRT provide a foundation for ground-roll noise suppression in the f-v domain. We extract the energy of ground-roll noise in the f-v domain, and transform the extracted part back to the t-x domain to obtain the ground-roll noise shot gather. Finally, the extracted ground-roll noise is subtracted from the original data arithmetically. Theoretical tests and a real world example have been implemented to illustrate that the ground-roll noise suppression can be achieved with negligible distortion of the effective signals. When compared with the adaptive ground-roll attenuation method and the K-L transform method, the real world example shows the superiority of our method in suppressing the ground-roll noise and preserving the amplitude and phase information of effective waves.

  4. Mechanism of herpes simplex virus type 2 suppression by propolis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolkemper, Silke; Reichling, Jürgen; Sensch, Karl Heinz; Schnitzler, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a chronic, persistent infection spreading efficiently and silently as sexually transmitted disease through the population. Antiviral agents currently applied for the treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and derivatives. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of propolis were phytochemically analysed, different polyphenols, flavonoids and phenylcarboxylic acids were identified as major constituents. The aqueous propolis extract revealed a relatively high amount of phenylcarboxylic acids and low concentrations flavonoids when compared to the ethanolic special extract GH 2002. The cytotoxic and antiherpetic effect of propolis extracts against HSV-2 was analysed in cell culture, and revealed a moderate cytotoxicity on RC-37 cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of aqueous and ethanolic GH 2002 propolis extracts for HSV-2 plaque formation was determined at 0.0005% and 0.0004%, respectively. Both propolis extracts exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against HSV-2 in viral suspension tests, infectivity was significantly reduced by >99% and a direct concentration- and time-dependent antiherpetic activity could be demonstrated for both extracts. In order to determine the mode of virus suppression by propolis, the extracts were added at different times during the viral infection cycle. Addition of these drugs to uninfected cells prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells during intracellular replication had no effect on virus multiplication. However both propolis extracts exhibited high anti-herpetic activity when viruses were pretreated with these drugs prior to infection. Selectivity indices were determined at 80 and 42.5 for the aqueous and ethanolic extract, respectively, thus propolis extracts might be suitable for topical therapy in recurrent herpetic infection.

  5. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  6. Extract of Rhus verniciflua Bark Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

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    Dong Ki Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RV has traditionally been used as a food supplement and a traditional herbal medicine for centuries in Korea. Recent studies suggest that RV has potent antioxidative, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of RV from mice sensitized with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB and activated macrophages were investigated. The results showed that RV reduced ear swelling and hyperplasia of ear tissue as well as an increase in vascular permeability, which are characteristics of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD with evident histomorphological changes in epidermis and dermis. Decreased numbers of infiltrated mast cells were seen in RV extract treated group, using toluidine blue staining. RV extract significantly regulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS at the translational level in activated macrophages. Furthermore, RV extract and its active compound, fisetin, attenuated the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6 mRNA in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Anti-ACD effect of RV extract may be due to the suppression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines which might be mediated via the NFκB signaling pathways. Collectively, RV extract has potential for alleviating ACD-like symptoms induced by DNFB in the mouse.

  7. Effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after air assisted lamellar keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyun; Park, Young Woo; Lee, Euiri; Park, Sang Wan; Park, Sungwon; Noh, Hyunwoo; Kim, Jong Whi; Seong, Je Kyung; Seo, Kangmoon

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after applying the air assisted lamellar keratectomy. The air assisted lamellar keratectomy was performed on 24 canine eyes. They were treated with an artificial tear (group C), prednisolone acetate (group P), onion extract (group O) and TGF-β1 (group T) three times per day from 7 to 28 days after the surgery. Corneal haze occurred on the all eyes and was observed beginning 7 days after the surgery. The haze was significantly decreased in groups P and O from day 14 compared with the group C using the clinical (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.037) and objective evaluation method (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.039). In contrast, it was significantly increased in group T from day 14 compared with group C based on the clinical (P=0.002) and objective evaluation method (Phaze development by suppressing the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.

  8. Suppression of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammatory responses in a mouse model of asthma by Mimosa pudica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ji-Sook; Yun, Chi-Young; Ryang, Yong Suk; Kim, Jong-Bae; Kim, In Sik

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease. The pathogenic mechanisms of asthma include the infiltration of leukocytes and release of cytokines. Mimosa pudica (Mp) has been used traditionally for the treatment of insomnia, diarrhea and inflammatory diseases. Although Mp extract has various therapeutic properties, the effect of this extract on asthma has not yet been reported. This study investigated the suppressive effects of Mp extract on asthmatic responses both in vitro and in vivo. Mp extract was acquired from dried and powdered whole plants of M. pudica using 80% ethanol. BALB/c mice were used for the mouse model of asthma induced by ovalbumin. Mp extract significantly inhibited the HMC-1 cell migration induced by stem cell factor and blocked the release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in EoL-1 cells. Leukocytosis, eosinophilia and mucus hypersecretion in asthmatic lung were significantly suppressed by Mp extract. The release of ovalbumin-specific IgE in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum was also decreased. Mp extract treatment resulted in no liver cytotoxicity. The Mp extract has inhibitory properties on asthma and may be used as a potent therapeutic agent for allergic lung inflammation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-08-01

    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  10. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase

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    Hogan Shelly

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. Methods The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. Results The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin

  11. Suppressed decomposition of organometal halide perovskites by impermeable electron-extraction layers in inverted solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, K O; Zhao, J; Pourdavoud, N; Becker, T; Hu, T; Olthof, S; Meerholz, K; Hoffmann, L; Gahlmann, T; Heiderhoff, R; Oszajca, M F; Luechinger, N A; Rogalla, D; Chen, Y; Cheng, B; Riedl, T

    2017-01-09

    The area of thin-film photovoltaics has been overwhelmed by organometal halide perovskites. Unfortunately, serious stability concerns arise with perovskite solar cells. For example, methyl-ammonium lead iodide is known to decompose in the presence of water and, more severely, even under inert conditions at elevated temperatures. Here, we demonstrate inverted perovskite solar cells, in which the decomposition of the perovskite is significantly mitigated even at elevated temperatures. Specifically, we introduce a bilayered electron-extraction interlayer consisting of aluminium-doped zinc oxide and tin oxide. We evidence tin oxide grown by atomic layer deposition does form an outstandingly dense gas permeation barrier that effectively hinders the ingress of moisture towards the perovskite and-more importantly-it prevents the egress of decomposition products of the perovskite. Thereby, the overall decomposition of the perovskite is significantly suppressed, leading to an outstanding device stability.

  12. Suppressed decomposition of organometal halide perovskites by impermeable electron-extraction layers in inverted solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, K.O.; Zhao, J.; Pourdavoud, N.; Becker, T.; Hu, T.; Olthof, S.; Meerholz, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Gahlmann, T.; Heiderhoff, R.; Oszajca, M. F.; Luechinger, N. A.; Rogalla, D.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, B.; Riedl, T

    2017-01-01

    The area of thin-film photovoltaics has been overwhelmed by organometal halide perovskites. Unfortunately, serious stability concerns arise with perovskite solar cells. For example, methyl-ammonium lead iodide is known to decompose in the presence of water and, more severely, even under inert conditions at elevated temperatures. Here, we demonstrate inverted perovskite solar cells, in which the decomposition of the perovskite is significantly mitigated even at elevated temperatures. Specifically, we introduce a bilayered electron-extraction interlayer consisting of aluminium-doped zinc oxide and tin oxide. We evidence tin oxide grown by atomic layer deposition does form an outstandingly dense gas permeation barrier that effectively hinders the ingress of moisture towards the perovskite and—more importantly—it prevents the egress of decomposition products of the perovskite. Thereby, the overall decomposition of the perovskite is significantly suppressed, leading to an outstanding device stability. PMID:28067308

  13. Suppressed decomposition of organometal halide perovskites by impermeable electron-extraction layers in inverted solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, K. O.; Zhao, J.; Pourdavoud, N.; Becker, T.; Hu, T.; Olthof, S.; Meerholz, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Gahlmann, T.; Heiderhoff, R.; Oszajca, M. F.; Luechinger, N. A.; Rogalla, D.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, B.; Riedl, T.

    2017-01-01

    The area of thin-film photovoltaics has been overwhelmed by organometal halide perovskites. Unfortunately, serious stability concerns arise with perovskite solar cells. For example, methyl-ammonium lead iodide is known to decompose in the presence of water and, more severely, even under inert conditions at elevated temperatures. Here, we demonstrate inverted perovskite solar cells, in which the decomposition of the perovskite is significantly mitigated even at elevated temperatures. Specifically, we introduce a bilayered electron-extraction interlayer consisting of aluminium-doped zinc oxide and tin oxide. We evidence tin oxide grown by atomic layer deposition does form an outstandingly dense gas permeation barrier that effectively hinders the ingress of moisture towards the perovskite and--more importantly--it prevents the egress of decomposition products of the perovskite. Thereby, the overall decomposition of the perovskite is significantly suppressed, leading to an outstanding device stability.

  14. Spent coffee ground extract suppresses ultraviolet B-induced photoaging in hairless mice.

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    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Park, Eu Ddeum; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of spent coffee ground (SCG) ethanol extract on UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. An ethanol extract of SCG (ESCG) was prepared using the residue remaining after extraction of oil from roasted SCG. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the content of caffeine (41.58 ± 0.54 μg/mg) was higher than that of chlorogenic acid isomers (~9.17 μg/mg) in ESCG. ESCG significantly decreased the UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species in HaCaT cells. UVB-induced wrinkle formation in mice dorsal skin was effectively reduced by ESCG administration; high dose of ESCG (5 g/L) caused the reduction of wrinkle area by 30% compared with UVB-treated control (UVBC). This result correlated with the ESCG-mediated decrease in epidermis thickness (25%). In addition, ESCG administration significantly reduced transdermal water loss (20%) and erythema formation (35%) derived from UVB exposure. Collagen type I (COL-1) level in dorsal skin was effectively recovered by ESCG administration. These results were supported by down-regulation of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and 9 (MMP9) expressions. Our results indicate that ESCG protects mouse skin from UVB-induced photoaging by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Our study suggests that ESCG may be anti-photoaging agent.

  15. Automatically extracting the significant aspects evaluated in game reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Chiok Hoong; Ng, Yen Kaow

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the criteria (or "aspects") that reviewers use to evaluate games is important to game developers and publishers, since this will give them important input on how to improve their products. Techniques for the extraction of such aspects have been studied by others, albeit not specific to the gaming industry. In this paper we demonstrate an aspect extraction and analysis system specific to computer games. The system extracts game review texts from a list of known websites and automatically extracts candidate aspects from the review text using techniques from natural language processing and sentiment analysis. It then ranks the candidate aspects using the HITS algorithm. To evaluate the correctness of the extracted aspects, we used the system to calculate an overall score for each game by aggregating its highly-rated aspects, weighted by the importance of the respective aspects. The aggregated scores resulted in a ranking of games, which we compared to a known ranking from a popular website - the rankings showed overall consistency, which suggests that the system has extracted valuable aspects from the reviews. Using the extracted aspect, our system also facilitates the analysis of a game, by evaluating how review articles have rated its performance in these extracted aspects.

  16. SUPPRESSION ABILITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT DERIVED FROM MARINE BIOTA AGAINST FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. VANILLAE

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    I Ketut Suada

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate suppression ability of marine biota extracts against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae of vanilla stem rot. Samples were collected at intertidal zones and in the depth of 1-7 m from seven beaches in Bali. Screening of active compounds of biota extracts were conducted using inhibition zone of well diffusion method on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA. The extract was tested in-vitro in PDA medium using completely randomized design with three replicates. The methanolic extract of Aglaophenia sp. was able to suppress the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. vanillae effectively, with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC of 0.05 %. The extract inhibited colony growth diameter and total mycelial dry weight.

  17. Comparison of tamoxifen with edible seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii L.) extract in suppressing breast tumor.

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    Shamsabadi, Fatemeh T; Khoddami, Ali; Fard, Samaneh Ghasemi; Abdullah, Rasedee; Othman, Hemn Hassan; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2013-01-01

    The tropical edible red seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii L.) is rich in nutrients and polyphenolic compounds that may suppress cancer through its antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. The study reports on rat mammary tumor suppression and tissue antioxidant status modulation by E. cottonii ethanol extract (ECE). The effect of orally administered ECE (100 mg/kg body-weight) was compared with that of tamoxifen (10 mg/kg body-weight). Rat was induced to develop mammary tumor with subcutaneous injection of LA-7 cells (6 × 10(6) cells/rat). The ECE was more effective than tamoxifen in suppressing tumor growth (27%), improving tissues (plasma, liver, and kidney) malondialdehyde concentrations, superoxide dismutase activity and erythrocyte glutathione concentrations (P < 0.05). Unlike tamoxifen, the ECE displayed little toxicity to the liver and kidneys. The ECE exhibited strong anticancer effect with enzyme modulating properties, suggesting its potential as a suppressing agent for mammary gland tumor.

  18. Cyclosporin A significantly improves preeclampsia signs and suppresses inflammation in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bihui; Yang, Jinying; Huang, Qian; Bao, Junjie; Brennecke, Shaun Patrick; Liu, Huishu

    2016-05-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with an increased inflammatory response. Immune suppression might be an effective treatment. The aim of this study was to examine whether Cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, improves clinical characteristics of preeclampsia and suppresses inflammation in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced preeclampsia rat model. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group 1 (PE) rats each received LPS via tail vein on gestational day (GD) 14; group 2 (PE+CsA5) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (5mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 3 (PE+CsA10) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (10mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 4 (pregnant control, PC) rats were treated with the vehicle (saline) used for groups 1, 2 and 3. Systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin, biometric parameters and the levels of serum cytokines were measured on day 20. CsA treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced systolic blood pressure and the mean 24-h urinary albumin excretion. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the LPS treatment group but were reduced in (LPS+CsA) group (PCyclosporine A improved preeclampsia signs and attenuated inflammatory responses in the LPS induced preeclampsia rat model which suggests that immunosuppressant might be an alternative management option for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Safflower extract: a novel renal fibrosis antagonist that functions by suppressing autocrine TGF-beta.

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    Yang, Yu-Lin; Chang, Shan-Yu; Teng, Hsiang-Chun; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Lee, Tao-Chen; Chuang, Lea-Yea; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Chang, Fang-Rong; Liao, Tung-Nan; Huang, Jau-Shyang; Yeh, Jeng-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Teng; Hung, Min-Yuan; Wang, Ching-Jen; Chiang, Tai-An; Hung, Chien-Ya; Hung, Tsung-Jen

    2008-06-01

    Progressive renal disease is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the renal interstitium. Hence, developing agents that antagonize fibrogenic signals is a critical issue facing researchers. The present study investigated the blood-circulation-promoting Chinese herb, safflower, on fibrosis status in NRK-49F cells, a normal rat kidney interstitial fibroblast, to evaluate the underlying signal transduction mechanism of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a potent fibrogenic growth factor. Safflower was characterized and extracted using water. Renal fibrosis model was established both in vitro with fibroblast cells treated with beta-hydroxybutyrate and in vivo using rats undergone unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Western blotting was used to examine protein expression in TGF-beta-related signal proteins such as type I and type II TGF-beta receptor, Smads2/3, pSmad2/3, Smads4, and Smads7. ELISA was used to analyze bioactive TGF-beta1 and fibronectin levels in the culture media. Safflower extract (SE) significantly inhibited beta-HB-induced fibrosis in NRK cells concomitantly with dose-dependent inhibition of the type I TGF-beta1 receptor and its down-stream signals (i.e., Smad). Moreover, SE dose-dependently enhanced inhibitory Smad7. Thus, SE can suppress renal cellular fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-beta autocrine loop. Moreover, remarkably lower levels of tissue collagen were noted in the nephron and serum TGF-beta1 of UUO rats receiving oral SE (0.15 g/3 ml/0.25 kg/day) compared with the untreated controls. Hence, SE is a potential inhibitor of renal fibrosis. We suggest that safflower is a novel renal fibrosis antagonist that functions by down-regulating TGF-beta signals.

  20. Transketolase A from E. coli Significantly Suppresses Protein Glycation by Glycolaldehyde and Glyoxal in Vitro.

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    Klaus, Alexander; Pfirrmann, Thorsten; Glomb, Marcus A

    2017-09-20

    Short-chained carbonyl species such as glycolaldehyde and its oxidized pendant glyoxal are highly reactive Maillard agents, leading to the formation of protein modifications. These advanced glycation endproducts have gained considerable interest as they have been linked to various pathologies in vivo. The ability of transketolase to use glycolaldehyde as a substrate suggested the possibility to modulate carbonyl-driven Maillard reactions. Model incubations with recombinant transketolase A from Escherichia coli in the presence of bovine serum albumin and glycolaldehyde indeed led to a decrease in glycolaldehyde concentrations paralleled by the enzymatic conversion to erythrulose. As a result, reversibly protein-bound glycolaldehyde and the major final endproduct N(6)-carboxymethyl lysine were significantly reduced by approximately 50%, respectively. Glycolaldehyde is easily oxidized to glyoxal in the presence of amines and oxygen. In the presence of transketolase, the lower amounts of glycolaldehyde therefore also strongly suppressed the formation of glyoxal specific arginine modifications, measured as 5-(2-imino-5-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)norvaline after acid hydrolysis.

  1. The Methanol Extract of Angelica sinensis Induces Cell Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Human Malignant Brain Tumors

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    Yu-Ling Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a highly vascularized and invasive neoplasm. The methanol extract of Angelica sinensis (AS-M is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several diseases, such as gastric mucosal damage, hepatic injury, menopausal symptoms, and chronic glomerulonephritis. AS-M also displays potency in suppressing the growth of malignant brain tumor cells. The growth suppression of malignant brain tumor cells by AS-M results from cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. AS-M upregulates expression of cyclin kinase inhibitors, including p16, to decrease the phosphorylation of Rb proteins, resulting in arrest at the G0-G1 phase. The expression of the p53 protein is increased by AS-M and correlates with activation of apoptosis-associated proteins. Therefore, the apoptosis of cancer cells induced by AS-M may be triggered through the p53 pathway. In in vivo studies, AS-M not only suppresses the growth of human malignant brain tumors but also significantly prolongs patient survival. In addition, AS-M has potent anticancer effects involving cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. The in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of AS-M indicate that this extract warrants further investigation and potential development as a new antibrain tumor agent, providing new hope for the chemotherapy of malignant brain cancer.

  2. Withania somnifera root extract prolongs analgesia and suppresses hyperalgesia in mice treated with morphine.

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    Orrù, Alessandro; Marchese, Giorgio; Casu, Gianluca; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Kasture, Sanjay; Cottiglia, Filippo; Acquas, Elio; Mascia, Maria Paola; Anzani, Nicola; Ruiu, Stefania

    2014-04-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that Withania somnifera Dunal (WS), a safe medicinal plant, prevents the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. In the present study, we investigated whether WS extract (WSE) (100 mg/kg, i.p.) may also modulate the analgesic effect induced by acute morphine administration (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) in the tail-flick and in the hot plate tests, and if it may prevent the development of 2.5 mg/kg morphine-induced rebound hyperalgesia in the low intensity tail-flick test. Further, to characterize the receptor(s) involved in these effects, we studied, by receptor-binding assay, the affinity of WSE for opioid (μ, δ, k), cannabinoid (CB1, CB2), glutamatergic (NMDA), GABAergic (GABAA, GABAB), serotoninergic (5HT2A) and adrenergic (α2) receptors. The results demonstrated that (i) WSE alone failed to alter basal nociceptive threshold in both tests, (ii) WSE pre-treatment significantly protracted the antinociceptive effect induced by 5 and 10 mg/kg of morphine only in tail-flick test, (iii) WSE pre-treatment prevented morphine-induced hyperalgesia in the low intensity tail-flick test, and (iv) WSE exhibited a high affinity for the GABAA and moderate affinity for GABAB, NMDA and δ opioid receptors. WSE prolongs morphine-induced analgesia and suppresses the development of morphine-induced rebound hyperalgesia probably through involvement of GABAA, GABAB, NMDA and δ opioid receptors. This study suggests the therapeutic potential of WSE as a valuable adjuvant agent in opioid-sparing therapies.

  3. Cinnamon extract suppresses experimental colitis through modulation of antigen-presenting cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho-Keun Kwon; Zee Yong Park; Sin-Hyeog Im; Ji-Sun Hwang; Choong-Gu Lee; Jae-Seon So; Anupama Sahoo; Chang-Rok Im; Won Kyung Jeon; Byoung Seob Ko; Sung Haeng Lee

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamon extract and elucidate its mechanisms for targeting the function of antigen presenting cells. METHODS:Cinnamon extract was used to treat murine macrophage cell line (Raw 264.7),mouse primary antigen-presenting cells (APCs,MHCII+) and CD11c+ dendritic cells to analyze the effects of cinnamon extract on APC function.The mechanisms of action of cinnamon extract on APCs were investigated by analyzing cytokine production,and expression of MHC antigens and co-stimulatory molecules by quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry.In addition,the effect of cinnamon extract on antigen presentation capacity and APC-dependent T-cell differentiation were analyzed by [H3]-thymidine incorporation and cytokine analysis,respectively. To confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamon extract in vivo ,cinnamon or PBS was orally administered to mice for 20 d followed by induction of experimental colitis with 2,4,6 trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid.The protective effects of cinnamon extract against experimental colitis were measured by checking clinical symptoms,histological analysis and cytokine expression profiles in inflamed tissue. RESULTS:Treatment with cinnamon extract inhibited maturation of MHCII+ APCs or CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) by suppressing expression of co-stimulatory molecules (B7.1,B7.2,ICOS-L),MHCII and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2.Cinnamon extract induced regulatory DCs (rDCs) that produce low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β,IL-6,IL-12,interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] while expressing high levels of immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β).In addition, rDCs generated by cinnamon extract inhibited APC-dependent T-cell proliferation,and converted CD4+ T cells into IL-10high CD4+ T cells.Furthermore,oral administration of cinnamon extract inhibited development and progression of intestinal colitis by inhibiting expression of COX-2 and pro

  4. Developing Algorithms to Improve Defect Extraction and Suppressing Undesired Heat Patterns in Sonic IR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Omar; Yu, Qiuye; Han, Xiaoyan

    2016-12-01

    Sonic IR imaging is an emerging NDE technology. This technology uses short pulses of ultrasonic excitation together with infrared imaging to detect defects in materials and structures. Sonic energy is coupled to the specimen under inspection by means of direct contact between the transducer tip and the specimen at some convenient point. This region which is normally in the field of view of the camera appears as intensity peak in the image which might be misinterpreted as defects or obscure the detection and/or extraction of the defect signals in the proximity of the contact region. Moreover, certain defects may have very small heat signature or being buried in noise. In this paper, we present algorithms to improve defect extraction and suppression of undesired heat patterns in sonic IR images. Two approaches are presented, each fits to a specific category of sonic IR images.

  5. Red Wine and Pomegranate Extracts Suppress Cured Meat Promotion of Colonic Mucin-Depleted Foci in Carcinogen-Induced Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Nadia M; Naud, Nathalie; Nassy, Gilles; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2017-01-01

    Processed meat intake is carcinogenic to humans. We have shown that intake of a workshop-made cured meat with erythorbate promotes colon carcinogenesis in rats. We speculated that polyphenols could inhibit this effect by limitation of endogenous lipid peroxidation and nitrosation. Polyphenol-rich plant extracts were added to the workshop-made cured meat and given for 14 days to rats and 100 days to azoxymethane-induced rats to evaluate the inhibition of preneoplastic lesions. Colons of 100-d study were scored for precancerous lesions (mucin-depleted foci, MDF), and biochemical end points of peroxidation and nitrosation were measured in urinary and fecal samples. In comparison with cured meat-fed rats, dried red wine, pomegranate extract, α-tocopherol added at one dose to cured meat and withdrawal of erythorbate significantly decreased the number of MDF per colon (but white grape and rosemary extracts did not). This protection was associated with the full suppression of fecal excretion of nitrosyl iron, suggesting that this nitroso compound might be a promoter of carcinogenesis. At optimized concentrations, the incorporation of these plant extracts in cured meat might reduce the risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat consumption.

  6. Enhanced sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs via suppression of Nrf2 by procyanidins from Cinnamomi Cortex extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoi, Ayano; Kawana, Ayako; Nishiyama, Takahito; Ogura, Kenichiro [Department of Drug Metabolism and Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Hiratsuka, Akira, E-mail: hiratuka@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Drug Metabolism and Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} We found a novel inhibitor of Nrf2 known as a chemoresistance factor. {yields} Overexpressed Nrf2 in lung cancer cells was suppressed by Cinnamomi Cortex extract. {yields} Cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs in cells treated with the extract was enhanced. {yields} Procyanidin tetramers and pentamers were active components in suppressing Nrf2. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important cytoprotective transcription factor because Nrf2-regulated enzymes play a key role in antioxidant and detoxification processes. Recent studies have reported that lung cancer cells overexpressing Nrf2 exhibit increased resistance to chemotherapy. Suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 is needed for a new therapeutic approach against lung cancers. In the present study, we found that Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CCE) has an ability to suppress Nrf2-regulated enzyme activity and Nrf2 expression in human lung cancer A549 cells with high Nrf2 activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that CCE significantly enhances sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of doxorubicin and etoposide as well as increasing the intracellular accumulation of both drugs. These results suggest that CCE might be an effective concomitant agent to reduce anticancer drug resistance derived from Nrf2 overexpression. Bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed that procyanidin tetramers and pentamers contained in CCE were active components in suppressing Nrf2.

  7. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop; Kang, Hee Wan

    2015-09-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction.

  8. Significance of classifying antiarrhythmic actions since the cardiac arrhythmia suppression trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan Williams, E M

    1991-02-01

    The Cardiac Antiarrhythmic Suppression Trial (CAST) showed flecainide and encainide induced excess mortality compared with placebo. Labeling drugs as Class 1C is based on clinical observations, comprising measurements of the electrocardiographic parameters QRS. H-V and J-T intervals and of effective refractory period (ERP) as follows: 1--(QRS) wide, 2--(HV) long, 3--(ERP) unchanged, 4--(JT) unchanged. In vitro electrophysiology helped to explain the clinical findings. Flecainide and encainide rendered Na channels as nonconducting, but F and E were only slowly released from the channels after repolarization. At any given drug concentration, a proportion of total channels were eliminated, and the steady-state proportion increased at rising heart rate. It is not proven that the properties that lead to classification of a drug as 1C were those that caused excess deaths in the CAST. The proarrhythmic tendency of 1C drugs can be reduced by beta-blockade, and the mechanisms of adrenergic arrhythmogenicity are discussed. Propafenone is both a 1C drug and a beta-blocker, and its pharmacologic profile is reviewed to illustrate how it resembles and differs from flecainide and encainide. Some features of the CAST are assessed with particular reference to the extent to which conclusions drawn from the results may be justifiably extrapolated to other drugs classified as 1C.

  9. Hawthorn ethanolic extracts with triterpenoids and flavonoids exert hepatoprotective effects and suppress the hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rezaei-Golmisheh

    2015-07-01

    Results: The highest phenol content, oleanolic acid, quercetin and lupeol levels and free radical scavenging potency were found in the bark extract, and the highest ursolic acid level was found in the berries extract. Orlistat and extracts significantly (P

  10. Evaluation of Fertility Disrupting Potentials of Abrus precatorius Seed Extracts in Male Rats for Arresting Spermatogenesis and Suppressed Fertility In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranika Talukder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the contraceptive potentials of different chemical extracts of Abrus precatorius seeds in male albino rats. The active ingredients of crushed seeds were extracted with 60% aqueous acetone and then partitioned consecutively with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Water suspended chemical fractions at different doses were administered orally to the male rats for 40 days. Effects of different treatments on various male reproductive endpoints and contraceptive efficacy were evaluated. Oral administration of both organic (methanol soluble at 50 and 75 mg/kg BW and aqueous soluble of A. precatorius seed extracts caused infertility in study subjects at varying degrees. At necropsy, average weights of testes, epididymis, ventral prostate gland and seminal vesicles were decreased significantly. Histology of testes revealed marked atrophy of the seminiferous tubules characterized by disruption of the germinal epithelium and atrophy of the Leydig cells. Epididymis also showed histological alterations. Hormonal assay revealed a significant decrease in serum level of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH that possibly resulted in suppressed spermatogenesis of male rats. These effects lead to the reduction of pregnancy rate of untreated fertile female rats while mated with the methanol extract (50 and 75 mg/kg BW and aqueous extract-treated male rats. The results show that A. precatorius seed extract causes suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility, thereby suggesting the potential of this plant in the regulation of male fertility.

  11. Suppressive effect on food intake of a potato extract (Potein®) involving cholecystokinin release in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenya; Hira, Tohru; Nakajima, Shingo; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Hara, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We have recently reported that oral gavage of a potato extract (Potein®) suppressed the food intake in rats. The satiating effect of the potato extract was compared in the present study to other protein sources, and the involvement of endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion was examined. Food consumption was measured in 18-h fasted rats after oral gavage of the potato extract or other protein sources. The CCK-releasing activity of the potato extract was then examined in anesthetized rats with a portal cannula. Oral gavage of the potato extract reduced the food intake in the rats, the effect being greater than with casein and a soybean β-conglycinin hydrolysate. The suppressive effect on appetite of the potato extract was attenuated by treating with a CCK-receptor antagonist (devazepide). The portal CCK concentration was increased after a duodenal administration of the potato extract to anesthetized rats. These results indicate that the potato extract suppressed the food intake in rats through CCK secretion.

  12. Radioprotective effect of green tea and grape seed extracts mixture on gamma irradiation induced immune suppression in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desouky, Wael; Hanafi, Amal; Abbas, Manal M

    2017-04-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) and grape seed extract (GSE) have antioxidant and radioprotective effects. The current study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effect of GTE and GSE mixture on radiation-induced immune suppression in rats. A total of 35 male albino rats were divided into five groups: group 1 (control rats). The 2nd and 3rd groups rats were exposed to a single dose of gamma radiation (5 and 10 Gy), respectively. The 4th and 5th groups of rats were gamma-irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy, respectively, then administrated by gavage with GTE and GSE mixture (100 mg: 200 mg/kg BW), respectively, for 14 consecutive days. Gamma irradiation induced hematological, immunological and biochemical effects in rats. Treated rats with GTE and GSE mixture (1:2) showed an increase in concentrations of immune cells including CD4 and CD8. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines Tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein elevated after γ-irradiation and significantly decreased by mixture administration. Moreover, groups treated with antioxidant mixture showed a significant increase in all hematological parameters and a significant decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride levels. GTE and GSE mixture is a good radioprotector and immune modulator compound, indicating its possible use as an adjuvant during radiotherapy.

  13. Perilla frutescens extract ameliorates DSS-induced colitis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushima, Hayato; Nishimura, Junichi; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Ito, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects have been reported in Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PE), which is a plant of the genus belonging to the Lamiaceae family. We examined the effect of PE on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Preliminarily, PE was safely administered for 7 wk without any adverse effects. In the preventive protocol, mice were fed 1.5% DSS solution dissolved in distilled water (control group) or 0.54% PE solution (PE group) ad libitum for 7 days. In the therapeutic protocol, distilled water or 0.54% PE solution was given for 10 days just after administration of 1.5% DSS for 5 days. PE intake significantly improved body weight loss. The serum cytokine profile demonstrated that TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-10 were significantly lower in the PE group than in the control group. In the therapeutic protocol, mice in the PE group showed significantly higher body weight and lower histological colitis scores compared with mice in the control group on day 15. The serum cytokine profile demonstrated that TGF-β was significantly higher in the PE group than in the control group. In distal colon mRNA expression, TNF-α, and IL-17A were significantly downregulated. In vitro analyses of biologically active ingredients, such as luteolin, apigenin, and rosmarinic acid, in PE were performed. Luteolin suppressed production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17A. Apigenin also suppressed secretion of IL-17A and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Rosmarinic acid increased the regulatory T cell population. We conclude that PE might be useful in treatment and prevention of DSS-induced colitis.

  14. Suppression of gastric cancer by extract from the tuber of amorphophallus konjac via induction of apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Yuan, Lin-Qing; Li, Lin-Jie; Lv, Yao; Chen, Pei-Feng; Pan, Lei

    2017-08-01

    The tuber of amorphophallus konjac (TuAK) is an antitumor herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of TuAK against gastric cancer and the underlying mechanisms associated with two programmed cell death pathways, apoptosis and autophagy. TuAK was extracted by organic solvents including ethanol and ligarine. The extract of TuAK, shortened as TuAKe, significantly inhibited the growth of cultured gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and AGS, with IC50 of 35-45 µg/ml. TuAKe could increase cell apoptosis and induce cell cycle arrest. For the apoptosis-associated proteins, expressions of survivin and Bcl-2 were decreased by treatment of TuAKe, and the expression of Bax and caspase-9 was increased. Furthermore, TuAKe could promote autophagy, and the antitumor efficacy of TuAKe was significantly hampered by targeted suppression of autophagy, suggesting that autophagy contributed to TuAKe-induced cell death. Furthermore, patients with gastric cancer who received TuAK-based medicinal decoction achieved improved scores in assessment of life quality compared with those without TuAK treatment. This study demonstrated the antitumor activity of TuAKe against gastric cancer, and is the first report to show that the underlying mechanism is associated with induction of autophagy. Our data provided support of the clinical use of amorphophallus konjac-based medication in combination with classical chemotherapy to achieve optimized outcome for gastric cancer.

  15. Spatholobus suberectus Column Extract Inhibits Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer via Suppressing ER MAPK PI3K/AKT Pathway

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    Jia-Qi Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Chinese herbal compounds have long been alternatively applied for cancer treatment in China, their treatment effects have not been sufficiently investigated. The Chinese herb Spatholobus suberectus is commonly prescribed to cancer patients. HPLC analysis has shown that the main components of Spatholobus suberectus are flavonoids that can be classified as phytoestrogens, having a structure similar to estrogen. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Spatholobus suberectus column extract (SSCE on the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and its possible molecular mechanism. In our study, MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. The results show that SSCE (80, 160, and 320 μg/ml significantly decreased the viability of MCF-7 cells. SSCE also triggered apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, and inhibited cell migration. A dual-luciferase reporter system showed that SSCE suppressed intranuclear p-ER activity; Western blot analysis confirmed the repressed expression of phosphorylated-ER alpha (p-ERα, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, AKT, p-AKT, p-mTOR, PI3K, and p-PI3K, indicating that SSCE suppressed the MAPK PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that SSCE causes apoptosis, an arrest in the G0/G1 phase, and a decrease in migration in ER+ MCF-7 cells via hypoactivity of the ER and suppression of the MAPK PI3K/AKT pathway.

  16. Pu-erh Tea Extract Ameliorates Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis in Rats and Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro

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    Titi Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Tea drinking is associated with positive effects on bone health and may protect against osteoporosis, especially in elderly women. Pu-erh tea has many beneficial effects on human health; however, whether Pu-erh tea has anti-osteoporotic potential remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the effects of Pu-erh tea extract (PTE on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats and on osteoclastogenesis in vitro.Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: the sham, model, and Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule (XLGB groups, and the low-, medium-, and high-dose PTE groups. Ovariectomized (OVX rats were used as an animal model of osteoporosis. The animals were intragastrically administered distilled water, XLGB, or different concentrations of PTE for 13 weeks. Body weight, blood biochemical indicators, relative organ coefficients, femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone biomechanical properties, and bone microarchitecture were examined and analyzed. Additionally, the in vitro effects of PTE on osteoclastic activities were investigated using the RAW 264.7 cell line as an osteoclast differentiation model. The effects of PTE on osteoclast differentiation and the expression of osteoclast-specific genes and proteins were determined.Results: PTE reduced OVX-induced body weight gain after 6 weeks of treatment, and the high-dose exerted a significant effect. High-dose PTE significantly ameliorated OVX-induced estradiol (E2 deficiency. PTE treatment maintained calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and improved other blood biochemical parameters to various degrees. In addition, PTE treatment improved organ coefficients of the femur, uterus, and vagina and improved femoral BMD and bone biomechanical properties. PTE treatment strikingly ameliorated bone microarchitecture. Moreover, in the in vitro studies, osteoclast differentiation using the differentiation cell model was significantly inhibited by PTE without cytotoxic effects. Additionally

  17. Fertility suppression in male albino rats by administration of methanolic extract of Opuntia dillenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, V K; Gupta, R S

    2012-05-01

    To control growing world population, there is a need for male contraceptive methods that are comparable to female contraceptives, but due to lack of knowledge or investigation, no sufficient safe and effective contraceptives were developed till now. In the present investigation, the effect of 100% methanol extract of Opuntia dillenii phylloclade on reproduction in male rats was studied. A first group (I) received vehicle alone to serve as control. The second group (II) was further divided into treated and recovery groups, and the plant extract at 50 mg kg body weight(-1) was administered orally for 30 days. Biochemical, haematological and histopathological analyses were carried out to reveal the effects on reproductive organs in the male rats. The weights of reproductive organs were recorded. It was found that the number of fertile males, number of inseminated females, number of litters delivered and testosterone levels were reduced significantly. Epididymal sperm count and motility were also significantly decreased. Biochemical parameters support the antifertility activity of O. dillenii i.e. decreases in protein, glycogen content and elevation in cholesterol level. Testes and sperm morphology were altered significantly. Haematological parameters have not shown any significant changes. It is concluded that 100% methanol extract of O. dillenii possesses antifertility effects on male reproduction without change in general physiology.

  18. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

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    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  19. DETECTION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THROMBOMODULIN IN BOTH PLASMA AND TISSUE EXTRACTS OF CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓华; 卢兴国; 徐根波; 朱蕾; 黄连生

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of thrombomodulin (TM) in both plasma and tissue extracts of cancer patients for evaluating its clinical significance. Methods: Plasma TM levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in both plasma of 188 cancer patients and 24 cancer tissue extracts including their adjacent non-cancer tissues. Results: The plasma TM levels both in cancer patients and in metastasis patients were significantly higher than that in controls [(33.47±14.25)μg/L, (41.68±16.96)μg/L, vs(20.40±7.22)μg/L,P0.05). The TM levels in cancer tissue extracts were significantly lower than that in their adjacent non-cancer tissue extracts [(647.71±317.51)μg/L vs (1455.63±772.22)μg/L, P<0.01]. On the contrary, the plasma TM levels in these cancers were significantly higher than that in controls. Conclusion: The rise of plasma TM levels in cancer patients was associated with metastasis and diffusion of cancers. The TM levels can be served as an sensitive index for judging progression and metastasis of cancers.

  20. The Growth of SGC-7901 Tumor Xenografts Was Suppressed by Chinese Bayberry Anthocyanin Extract through Upregulating KLF6 Gene Expression

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    Yue Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the antitumor effect of anthocyanins extracted from Chinese bayberry fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc., a nude mouse tumor xenograft model was established. Treatments with C3G (cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin significantly suppressed the growth of SGC-7901 tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in p21 expression, indicating that the cell cycle of tumor xenografts was inhibited. qPCR screening showed that C3G treatment up-regulated the expression of the KLF6 gene, which is an important tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers. Western blot showed that C3G treatments markedly increased KLF6 and p21 protein levels, inhibited CDK4 and Cyclin D1 expression, but did not notably change the expression of p53. These results indicated that KLF6 up-regulates p21 in a p53-independent manner and significantly reduces tumor proliferation. This study provides important information for the possible mechanism of C3G-induced antitumor activity against gastric adenocarcinoma in vivo.

  1. The Growth of SGC-7901 Tumor Xenografts Was Suppressed by Chinese Bayberry Anthocyanin Extract through Upregulating KLF6 Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xia-nan; Xie, Wen-hua; Zheng, Yi-xiong; Cao, Jin-ping; Cao, Pei-rang; Chen, Qing-jun; Li, Xian; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of anthocyanins extracted from Chinese bayberry fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), a nude mouse tumor xenograft model was established. Treatments with C3G (cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin) significantly suppressed the growth of SGC-7901 tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in p21 expression, indicating that the cell cycle of tumor xenografts was inhibited. qPCR screening showed that C3G treatment up-regulated the expression of the KLF6 gene, which is an important tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers. Western blot showed that C3G treatments markedly increased KLF6 and p21 protein levels, inhibited CDK4 and Cyclin D1 expression, but did not notably change the expression of p53. These results indicated that KLF6 up-regulates p21 in a p53-independent manner and significantly reduces tumor proliferation. This study provides important information for the possible mechanism of C3G-induced antitumor activity against gastric adenocarcinoma in vivo. PMID:27690088

  2. Ginkgo biloba extract suppresses hypertrophy and extracellular matrix accumulation in rat mesangial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-yun WANG; Xiao-xing YIN; Yun-ming WU; Dao-quan TANG; Yuan-yuan GAO; Mei-rong WAN; Xiao-yu HOU; Bei ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To observe the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) on the hypertrophy of mesangial cells and the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in mesangial cells. Methods: Cultured mesangial cells were allotted into 7 groups: normal group, solvent control group, high glucose group, low dose of EGb group, moderate dose of EGb group, high dose of EGb group, and captopril group. Activities of cell antioxidases, S phase percentage and G0/G1 phase percentage, collagen Ⅳ and laminin, Smad2/3 and Smad7, TGF-β1, Mrna were measured by different methods. Results: For EGb-treated groups, when compared with high glucose group, the cell percentage of S phase was raised and the percentage of G0/G1 was lowered. The intensity of oxidative stress was weakened. The expression of Smad2/3 was greatly decreased and Smad7 was increased. Collagen Ⅳ, laminin and TGF-β1 Mrna were also reduced. Conclusion: EGb can suppress cell hypertrophy and the accumulation of ECM in rat mesangial cells, which means it could play a vital role in the delay of glomerulosclerosis in diabetic nephropathy.

  3. Significance and suppression of redundant IL17 responses in acute allograft rejection by bioinformatics based drug repositioning of fenofibrate.

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    Silke Roedder

    Full Text Available Despite advanced immunosuppression, redundancy in the molecular diversity of acute rejection (AR often results in incomplete resolution of the injury response. We present a bioinformatics based approach for identification of these redundant molecular pathways in AR and a drug repositioning approach to suppress these using FDA approved drugs currently available for non-transplant indications. Two independent microarray data-sets from human renal allograft biopsies (n = 101 from patients on majorly Th1/IFN-y immune response targeted immunosuppression, with and without AR, were profiled. Using gene-set analysis across 3305 biological pathways, significant enrichment was found for the IL17 pathway in AR in both data-sets. Recent evidence suggests IL17 pathway as an important escape mechanism when Th1/IFN-y mediated responses are suppressed. As current immunosuppressions do not specifically target the IL17 axis, 7200 molecular compounds were interrogated for FDA approved drugs with specific inhibition of this axis. A combined IL17/IFN-y suppressive role was predicted for the antilipidemic drug Fenofibrate. To assess the immunregulatory action of Fenofibrate, we conducted in-vitro treatment of anti-CD3/CD28 stimulated human peripheral blood cells (PBMC, and, as predicted, Fenofibrate reduced IL17 and IFN-γ gene expression in stimulated PMBC. In-vivo Fenofibrate treatment of an experimental rodent model of cardiac AR reduced infiltration of total leukocytes, reduced expression of IL17/IFN-y and their pathway related genes in allografts and recipients' spleens, and extended graft survival by 21 days (p<0.007. In conclusion, this study provides important proof of concept that meta-analyses of genomic data and drug databases can provide new insights into the redundancy of the rejection response and presents an economic methodology to reposition FDA approved drugs in organ transplantation.

  4. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and prevents lipid oxidation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C; Kitts, D D

    2005-08-01

    Flavonoids and coumaric acid derivatives were identified from dandelion flower (Taraxacum officinale). Characteristics of chain-breaking antioxidants, such as extended lag phase and reduced propagation rate, were observed in oxidation of linoleic acid emulsion with the addition of dandelion flower extract (DFE). DFE suppressed both superoxide and hydroxyl radical, while the latter was further distinguished by both site-specific and non-specific hydroxyl radical inhibition. DPPH-radical-scavenging activity and a synergistic effect with alpha-tocopherol were attributed to the reducing activity derived from phenolic content of DFE. A significant (p < 0.05) and concentration-dependent, reduced nitric oxide production from acterial-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells was observed with the addition of DFE. Moreover, peroxyl-radical-induced intracellular oxidation of RAW264.7 cells was inhibited significantly (p < 0.05) by the addition of DFE over a range of concentrations. These results showed that the DFE possessed marked antioxidant activity in both biological and chemical models. Furthermore, the efficacy of DFE in inhibiting both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide were attributed to its phenolic content.

  5. Rosehip Extract Inhibits Lipid Accumulation in White Adipose Tissue by Suppressing the Expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Matsuura, Yoichi; Shibata, Nobuhito

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that Rosa canina L. and tiliroside, the principal constituent of its seeds, exhibit anti-obesity and anti-diabetic activities via enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in the liver and skeletal muscle. However, the effects of rosehip, the fruit of this plant, extract (RHE), or tiliroside on lipid accumulation in adipocytes have not been analyzed. We investigated the effects of RHE and tiliroside on lipid accumulation and protein expression of key transcription factors in both in vitro and in vivo models. RHE and tiliroside inhibited lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells. We also analyzed the inhibitory effect of RHE on white adipose tissue (WAT) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice model. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD or HFD supplemented with 1% RHE (HFDRH) for 8 weeks. The HFDRH-fed group gained less body weight and had less visceral fat than the HFD-fed group. Liver weight was significantly lower in the HFDRH-fed group and total hepatic lipid and triglyceride (TG) content was also reduced. A significant reduction in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was observed in epididymal fat in the HFDRH-fed group, in comparison with controls, through Western blotting. These results suggest that downregulation of PPARγ expression is involved, at least in part, in the suppressive effect of RHE on lipid accumulation in WAT.

  6. Chitinase genes revealed and compared in bacterial isolates, DNA extracts and a metagenomic library from a phytopathogen suppressive soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjort, K.; Bergstrom, M.; Adesina, M.F.; Jansson, J.K.; Smalla, K.; Sjoling, S.

    2009-09-01

    Soil that is suppressive to disease caused by fungal pathogens is an interesting source to target for novel chitinases that might be contributing towards disease suppression. In this study we screened for chitinase genes, in a phytopathogen-suppressive soil in three ways: (1) from a metagenomic library constructed from microbial cells extracted from soil, (2) from directly extracted DNA and (3) from bacterial isolates with antifungal and chitinase activities. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of chitinase genes revealed differences in amplified chitinase genes from the metagenomic library and the directly extracted DNA, but approximately 40% of the identified chitinase terminal-restriction fragments (TRFs) were found in both sources. All of the chitinase TRFs from the isolates were matched to TRFs in the directly extracted DNA and the metagenomic library. The most abundant chitinase TRF in the soil DNA and the metagenomic library corresponded to the TRF{sup 103} of the isolate, Streptomyces mutomycini and/or Streptomyces clavifer. There were good matches between T-RFLP profiles of chitinase gene fragments obtained from different sources of DNA. However, there were also differences in both the chitinase and the 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns depending on the source of DNA, emphasizing the lack of complete coverage of the gene diversity by any of the approaches used.

  7. Efficient perovskite/fullerene planar heterojunction solar cells with enhanced charge extraction and suppressed charge recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Wang, Fuzhi; Xu, Jia; Yao, Jianxi; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Chunfeng; Xiao, Min; Dai, Songyuan; Li, Yongfang; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol soluble titanium chelate TIPD (titanium (diisopropoxide) bis(2,4-pentanedionate)) was used as an electron transporting layer to form an ohmic contact with the negative electrode, aiming to enhance the charge extraction and suppress the charge recombination for high performance CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM-based PHJ perovskite solar cells. The TIPD layer shows excellent suitability to CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite synthesized by different methods. For one-step synthesized CH3NH3PbI3, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device with the TIPD buffer reaches 8.75%, with a nearly 33% increase in comparison with the device without the buffer layer (6.58%). For two-step synthesized CH3NH3PbI3, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.89 V, a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 22.57 mA cm-2, and a fill factor (FF) of 64.5%, corresponding to a PCE of 12.95% for the device with a TIPD buffer layer were achieved, which is among the best performances reported in the literature for CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM-based PHJ perovskite solar cells.Alcohol soluble titanium chelate TIPD (titanium (diisopropoxide) bis(2,4-pentanedionate)) was used as an electron transporting layer to form an ohmic contact with the negative electrode, aiming to enhance the charge extraction and suppress the charge recombination for high performance CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM-based PHJ perovskite solar cells. The TIPD layer shows excellent suitability to CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite synthesized by different methods. For one-step synthesized CH3NH3PbI3, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device with the TIPD buffer reaches 8.75%, with a nearly 33% increase in comparison with the device without the buffer layer (6.58%). For two-step synthesized CH3NH3PbI3, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.89 V, a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 22.57 mA cm-2, and a fill factor (FF) of 64.5%, corresponding to a PCE of 12.95% for the device with a TIPD buffer layer were achieved, which is among the best performances reported in the literature

  8. Acute hypothalamic suppression significantly affects trabecular bone but not cortical bone following recovery and ovariectomy surgery in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R. Yingling

    2016-01-01

    RH-a group compared to C, a similar deficit in BV/TV was also measured following recovery and post-OVX. The trabecular number and thickness were lower in the GnRH-a group compared to control.Conclusion. These data suggest that following a transient delay in pubertal onset, trabecular bone volume was significantly lower and no restoration of bone volume occurred following recovery or post-OVX surgery. However, cortical bone strength was maintained through architectural adaptations in the cortical bone envelope. An increase in the polar moment of inertia offset increased bone resorption. The current data are the first to suppress trabecular bone during growth, and then add an OVX protocol at maturity. Trabecular bone and cortical bone differed in their response to hypothalamic suppression during development; trabecular bone was more sensitive to the negative effects of hypothalamic suppression.

  9. Humic-Like Substances from Different Compost Extracts Could Significantly Promote Cucumber Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Da-Bing; WANG Qiu-Jun; WU Yun-Cheng; YU Guang-Hui; SHEN Qi-Rong; HUANG Qi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The effects of direct extracts of compost (DEC),aerated fermentation extracts of compost (AFEC) and non-aerated fermentation extracts of compost (NAFEC) on cucumber growth and the action mechanisms were evaluated based on the structure and activity analysis of humic-like substances.AFEC increased cucumber growth most significantly,followed by DEC and NAFEC,which was insignificant compared to the control treatment.Humic-like substances from compost extracts played an important role in promoting cucumber growth.Application of humic-like substances stimulated auxin-like activity and increased chlorophyll content and nitrogen accumulation in plants.The positive auxin-like activity of humic-like substances could be attributed to the relative distribution of special carbon groups,such as those with a large amount of peptidic and carbohydratic groups or with a low content of phenolic groups.In conclusion,the best growth promotion by application of AFEC was mainly attributed to the humic-like substances in the AFEC.

  10. Buckwheat protein extract suppression of the growth depression in rats induced by feeding amaranth (Food Red No. 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayashita, J; Nagai, H; Kato, N

    1996-09-01

    Dietary fiber has an ameliorative effect on the toxicity of amaranth (Food Red No. 2). To test the possibility that a buckwheat protein extract (BWPE) has dietary fiber-like activity by virtue of its low digestibility, we examined the influence of BWPE on amaranth toxicity in rats. The results show that BWPE-containing diet suppressed the growth depression induced by the dietary addition of 5% amaranth.

  11. Green tea extract inhibits paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by suppression of oxidative stress and endothelin-l expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Ryul; Park, Byung-Kyu; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Yun-Song; Lee, Dong-Soon; Kim, Hyun-Kuk; Kim, Joo-Young; Shim, Tae-Sun; Lee, Sang-Do

    2006-01-01

    Paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis involves two factors, direct injury by oxygen free radicals and indirect injury by inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been shown to act as a mediator of pulmonary fibrosis, and its formation increases during oxidative stress. We investigated whether green tea extract (GTE), which has antioxidant properties, inhibits paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis and whether ET-1 is involved in this process. Paraquat (0.3 mg/kg) was instilled into the right lungs of rats, following which the rats were either not further treated (Group P, n = 7), or they were administered 1% GTE mixed with feed (Group PG; n = 7) or the ET(A) receptor antagonist ZD2574 (10 mg/kg through gavage; Group PZ; n = 7) for two weeks. As control, we used rats instilled with saline (Group N; n = 6). Two weeks after paraquat instillation, we assayed the degree of pulmonary fibrosis by light microscopic morphometry and hydroxyproline content; lipid peroxidation as a marker of oxidative stresses by measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA); ET-1 by immunohistochemistry; and prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Compared with Group N, significant pulmonary fibrosis was observed in Group P, accompanied by increases in MDA, ET-1, and prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression. Compared with Group P, Group PG showed significant decreases in pulmonary fibrosis, along with decreases in MDA, ET-1, and prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression. We also observed significant decreases in pulmonary fibrosis in Group PZ compared with Group P. These findings suggest that GTE inhibits paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by suppression of oxidative stress and ET-1 expression.

  12. Achyranthes japonica Nakai Water Extract Suppresses Binding of IgE Antibody to Cell Surface FcɛRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sun Yup; Lee, Mina; Lee, Kyung Dong

    2016-01-01

    Achyranthes japonica Nakai (AJN) water extract has a variety of physiological properties, including anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-oxidative activities. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of AJN extract were investigated in high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcɛRI)-mediated KU812F cells activation. AJN extract showed suppressive effects on histamine release and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i elevation from anti-FcɛRI antibody (CRA-1)-stimulated cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis showed that AJN extract treatment caused a dose-dependent decrease in the cell surface FcɛRI expression and the binding between the cell surface FcɛRI and the IgE antibody. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that levels of the mRNA for the FcɛRI α chain was decreased by treatment with AJN extract. These results indicate that AJN extract may exert anti-allergic effects via the inhibition of calcium influx and histamine release, which occurs as a result from the down-regulation of the binding of IgE antibody to cell surface FcɛRI. This mechanism may occur through FcɛRI expression inhibition. PMID:28078254

  13. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Todd

    Full Text Available Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can

  14. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Daniel A; Gulledge, Travis V; Britton, Emily R; Oberhofer, Martina; Leyte-Lugo, Martha; Moody, Ashley N; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Grubbs, Laura F; Juzumaite, Monika; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Faeth, Stanley H; Laster, Scott M; Cech, Nadja B

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can originate from endophytic

  15. Dendritic cells treated with crude Plasmodium berghei extracts acquire immune-modulatory properties and suppress the development of autoimmune neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, Rodolfo; Issayama, Luidy K; Alves da Costa, Thiago; Gangi, Rosária D; Ferreira, Isadora T; Rapôso, Catarina; Lopes, Stefanie C P; da Cruz Höfling, Maria Alice; Costa, Fábio T M; Verinaud, Liana

    2014-10-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells specifically targeted during Plasmodium infection. Upon infection, DCs show impaired antigen presentation and T-cell activation abilities. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether cellular extracts obtained from Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes (PbX) modulate DCs phenotypically and functionally and the potential therapeutic usage of PbX-modulated DCs in the control of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the mouse model for human multiple sclerosis). We found that PbX-treated DCs have impaired maturation and stimulated the generation of regulatory T cells when cultured with naive T lymphocytes in vitro. When adoptively transferred to C57BL/6 mice the EAE severity was reduced. Disease amelioration correlated with a diminished infiltration of cytokine-producing T cells in the central nervous system as well as the suppression of encephalitogenic T cells. Our study shows that extracts obtained from P. berghei-infected erythrocytes modulate DCs towards an immunosuppressive phenotype. In addition, the adoptive transfer of PbX-modulated DCs was able to ameliorate EAE development through the suppression of specific cellular immune responses towards neuro-antigens. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present evidence that DCs treated with P. berghei extracts are able to control autoimmune neuroinflammation.

  16. Suppressive effects of an ethanol extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns on human SNU-5 gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Jung; Ryu, Dong Hee; Jang, Lee Chan; Cho, Seok-Cheol; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2013-04-01

    The thorns of Gleditsia sinensis are a traditional Oriental medicine used for the treatment of swelling, suppuration, carbuncle and skin diseases. In the present study, we identified a novel molecular mechanism by which an ethanol extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns (EEGS) inhibits the growth of the SNU-5 human gastric cancer cell line. EEGS treatment inhibited cell growth and was associated with G1 phase cell cycle arrest at a concentration of 400 µg/ml (IC50) in SNU-5 cells. Treatment with EEGS also stimulated p21WAF1 expression, which significantly decreased the expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Further study suggested that p38 MAP kinase pathways may be involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation through p21WAF1‑dependent G1 phase cell cycle arrest in EEGS-treated cells. In addition, NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factor binding sites were identified as the cis-elements for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in SNU-5 cells, as determined by gel-shift assay. Treatment of cells with EEGS suppressed MMP-9 expression induced by TNF-α via a decrease in the binding activity of both NF-κB and AP-1 motifs. These data demonstrate that EEGS-mediated inhibition of cell growth appears to involve the activation of p38 MAP kinase, subsequently leading to the induction of p21WAF1 and the downregulation of cyclin D1/CDK4 and cyclin E/CDK2 complexes. Moreover, EEGS strongly inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression by impeding the DNA binding activity of NF-κB and AP-1. Overall, these results provide a potential mechanism for EEGS in the treatment of gastric cancer.

  17. Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Caulerpa mexicana Suppress Cell Migration and Ear Edema Induced by Inflammatory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourt, Mariana Angelica Oliveira; Dantas, Gracielle Rodrigues; Lira, Daysianne Pereira; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; de Miranda, George Emmanuel Cavalcanti; de Oliveira Santos, Barbara Viviana; Souto, Janeusa Trindade

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of the inflammatory response is essential to maintaining homeostasis. Several studies have investigated new drugs that may contribute to avoiding or minimizing excessive inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of green algae Caulerpa mexicana on models inflammation. In mice, the inflammatory peritonitis model is induced by zymosan. Previous treatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic extracts of C. mexicana was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity, in a time-dependent but not in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment of mice with C. mexicana extracts also decreased the xylene-induced ear edema, exerting strong inhibitory leukocyte migration elicited by zymosan into the air pouch. We concluded that administration of the extracts resulted in a reduction of cell migration to different sites as well as a decrease in edema formation induced by chemical irritants. This study demonstrates for the first time the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts from the green marine algae Caulerpa mexicana. PMID:21892348

  18. The inhibitory effect of an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. on ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation via the suppression of endothelin-converting enzyme-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachiya, Akira; Kobayashi, Akemi; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori [Kao Biological Science Lab., Ichikai, Tochigi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been reported to be expressed in human epidermis at both the gene and protein levels. ET-1 plays a pivotal role in ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced pigmentation due to its accentuated secretion after UVB irradiation and its function as a mitogen and as a melanogen for human melanocytes. We have recently found that endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1{alpha} plays a constitutive role in the secretion of ET-1 by human keratinocytes and that an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. inhibits ECE activity in human endothelial cells, which predominantly express ECE-1{alpha}. In this report, to clarify the potential use of this botanical extract as a whitening agent, we examined whether this extract inhibits UVB-induced pigmentation in vivo. When this extract was applied to human keratinocytes after UVB irradiation, secretion of ET-1 by those cells was reduced, and this was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the secretion of inactive precursor Big endothelin-1. When hairless mice were exposed to UVB light and were treated with the extract, it suppressed the induction of ET-1 in the UVB-irradiated epidermis. In the course of UVB-induced pigmentation of brownish guinea pig skin, this extract significantly diminished pigmentation in UVB-exposed areas. These findings indicate that ECE-1{alpha} in keratinocytes plays a pivotal role in the induction of pigmentation following UVB irradiation and that an extract of S. officinalis, which inhibits ET-1 production in human keratinocytes, is a good ingredient for a whitening agent. (author)

  19. A simple liquid extraction protocol for overcoming the ion suppression of triacylglycerols by phospholipids in liquid chromatography mass spectrometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Pedro; Tilahun, Ephrem; Breivik, Joar Fjørtoft; Abdulkader, Bashir M; Frøyland, Livar; Zeng, Yingxu

    2016-02-01

    It is well-known that triacylglycerol (TAG) ions are suppressed by phospholipid (PL) ions in regiospecific analysis of TAG by mass spectrometry (MS). Hence, it is essential to remove the PL during sample preparation prior to MS analysis. The present article proposes a cost-effective liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method to remove PL from TAG in different kinds of biological samples by using methanol, hexane and water. High performance thin layer chromatography confirmed the lack of PL in krill oil and salmon liver samples, submitted to the proposed LLE protocol, and liquid chromatography tandem MS confirmed that the identified TAG ions were highly enhanced after implementing the LLE procedure.

  20. Anthocyanin-rich blackberry extract suppresses the DNA-damaging properties of topoisomerase I and II poisons in colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselen, Melanie; Boettler, Ute; Teller, Nicole; Bachler, Simone; Hutter, Melanie; Rufer, Corinna E; Skrbek, Susanne; Marko, Doris

    2011-07-13

    In the present study, we addressed the question whether cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) or complex C3G-rich blackberry extracts affect human topoisomerases with special emphasis on the contribution of the potential degradation products phloroglucinol aldehyde (PGA) and protocatechuic acid (PCA). In HT29 colon carcinoma cells a C3G-rich blackberry extract suppressed camptothecin- (CPT-) or doxorubicin- (DOX-) induced stabilization of the covalent DNA-topoisomerase intermediate, thus antagonizing the effects of these classical topoisomerase poisons on DNA integrity. As a single compound, C3G (100 μM) decreased the DNA-damaging effects of CPT as well, but did not significantly affect those induced by DOX. At the highest applied concentration (100 μM), cyanidin protected DNA from CPT- and DOX-induced damage. Earlier reports on DNA-damaging properties of cyanidin were found to result most likely from the formation of hydrogen peroxide as an artifact in the cell culture medium when the incubation was performed in the absence of catalase. The suppression of hydrogen peroxide accumulation, achieved by the addition of catalase, demonstrated that cyanidin does not exhibit DNA-damaging properties in HT29 cells (up to 100 μM). The observed effects on topoisomerase interference and DNA protection against CPT or DOX were clearly limited to the parent compound and were not observed for the potential cyanidin degradation products PGA and PCA.

  1. Improvement of extraction system geometry with suppression of possible Penning discharge ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Tuske, O.

    2014-02-01

    During the past two years, a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source has been developed especially dedicated to intense light ion injector project like IPHI (Injecteur Proton Haute Intensité), IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility), to reduce beam emittance at RFQ entrance by shortening the length of the LEBT. This new ALISES concept (Advanced Light Ion Source Extraction System) is based on the use of an additional LEBT short length solenoid very close to the extraction aperture. The fringe field of this new solenoid produces the needed magnetic field to create the ECR resonance in the plasma chamber. Such geometry allows first putting the solenoid at ground potential, while saving space in front of the extraction to move the first LEBT solenoid closer and focus earlier the intense extracted beam. During the commissioning of the source in 2011-2012, ALISES has produced about 20 mA extracted from a 6 mm diameter plasma extraction hole at 23 kV. But the magnetic configuration combined to the new extraction system geometry led to important Penning discharge conditions in the accelerator column. Lots of them have been eliminated by inserting glass pieces between electrodes to modify equipotential lines with unfavorable ExB vacuum zones where particles were produced and trapped. To study Penning discharge location, several 3D calculations have been performed with OPERA-3D/TOSCA code to simulate the possible production and trapping of electrons in the extraction system. The results obtained on different sources already built have shown very good agreement with sparks location observed experimentally on electrodes. The simulations results as well as experimental measurements are presented and solutions to prevent possible Penning discharge in future source geometries are established.

  2. Suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 gene transcription by humulon of beer hop extract studied with reference to glucocorticoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Wang, J; Yamamoto, S; Tobe, H

    2000-01-14

    In murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells which produced prostaglandin E2 as a bone resorption factor, the cyclooxygenase-2 induction by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) was suppressed by dexamethasone with an IC(50) of 1 nM. Humulon isolated from hop extract for beer brewing was reported previously as an inhibitor of bone resorption [Tobe, H. et al. (1997) Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 61, 158-159]. We showed that the compound suppressed the TNFalpha-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 induction with an IC(50) of as low as about 30 nM as demonstrated experimentally by catalytic activity assay, Northern blot analysis and promoter analysis. Reporter gene experiments suggested that humulon blocked the cyclooxygenase-2 expression mediated by NFkappaB and NF-IL6, but the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor was not involved. The catalytic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 was inhibited by humulon with an IC(50) of as high as 1.6 microM. These results showed that humulon suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 induction at the step of transcription.

  3. Areca nut extract suppresses T-cell activation and interferon-gamma production via the induction of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C C; Liu, T Y; Wey, S P; Wang, F I; Jan, T R

    2007-08-01

    Areca quid chewing is a major risk factor associated with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral cancer. Experimental evidence indicates that immune deterioration is associated with the pathophysiology of OSF and oral cancer. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is shown to play a role in the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect induced by areca nut extracts (ANE) in oral cells. The present studies investigated the effects of ANE on T-cell reactivity and the role of ROS in ANE effects. Treatment of splenocytes with ANE induced a marked cytotoxic effect, and suppressed the production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma, whereas the production of IL-4 was unaffected. The ANE-mediated cytotoxicity, and suppression of IFN-gamma and IL-2 production were attenuated by the presence of antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Moreover, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated an increase in cellular ROS levels in splenic T-cells treated with ANE, which was also attenuated by the presence of NAC. Concordantly, the cellular level of glutathione was diminished by ANE in splenic T-cells pretreated with NAC. Collectively, these results demonstrated that ANE markedly suppressed T-cell activation and Th1 cytokine production, which was mediated, at least in part, by the induction of oxidative stress.

  4. Suppressive activity of the chloroform extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f on effector T cell activation during Hymenolepis nana infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, K; Matsuishi, J; Yu, Y; Nemoto, K; Nakazawa, M; Kasahara, T; Hisamitsu, T

    1998-01-01

    The chloroform extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f (TWH extract) administered into mice daily at doses of 80.0 to 200.0 micrograms/kg (but not 40.0 micrograms/kg) caused suppression of protective immunity to Hymenolepis nana when the extract was injected subcutaneously during the induction phase of protective immunity. Daily administration of 200.0 micrograms/kg TWH extract, during the course of larval development from challenge, also suppressed protective immunity. Inhibition of protective immunity was only observed in mice that received TWH extract for 6 days at a daily dose of 200.0 micrograms/kg and were challenged 24 h after the final injection. TWH extract did not inhibit formation of effector cells that mediate delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) to H. nana egg antigen when the extract was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 200.0 micrograms/kg/day for 5 days before cell preparation. However, TWH extract did inhibit DTH effector cell activation when cells prepared from infected, PBS-injected mice were transferred into 200.0 micrograms/kg TWH extract-treated recipient mice. These results strongly indicate that TWH extract cannot inhibit the generation of effector cells but will suppress their function in vivo.

  5. Justicia procumbens Extract (DW2008) Selectively Suppresses Th2 Cytokines in Splenocytes and Ameliorates Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Jihyun; Lee, Hyunyong; Chang, Hwan Bong; Jeon, Jihyun; Yoon, Mi Hee; Woo, Ji Young; Choi, Min-Soo; Hwang, Yunha; Seong, Seungkyoo; Na, Kyuheum; Yoon, Joobyoung

    2017-01-01

    DW2008 is an anhydrous ethanol extract of Justicia procumbens produced by Dong-Wha Pharmaceutical, Inc., Co. as a candidate anti-asthmatic drug. In this study, DW2008 selectively reduced T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines in mouse splenocytes and ameliorated ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation by downregulating pulmonary infiltration of differential inflammatory cells and Th2 cytokines more than a decoction or ethanol extract of J. procumbens did in a mouse asthma model. DW2008 also significantly inhibited airway hyperresponsiveness and reduced the thickness of the airway epithelium. HPLC analysis showed that the major peaks (justicidin A and B) of DW2008 were higher than those of the other extracts. Justicidin A and B significantly suppressed Th2 cytokine levels in mouse spleen cells and exhibited a protective effect in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Our findings indicate that DW2008 effectively inhibits allergic airway inflammatory reactions and airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of asthma, suggesting its potential as an anti-asthmatic agent.

  6. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Woan Sean; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was quantified through Griess reaction while proinflammatory cytokines and other key inflammatory markers were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Results. Hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower significantly suppressed the secretion and expression of NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, it significantly increased the production of IL-10 and IκB-α (inhibitor of κB) in a concentration dependent manner (100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL). Conclusion. These results suggest that 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower has anti-inflammatory action related to its inhibition of NO, PGE2, proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory mediator's production in LPS-stimulated macrophages through preventing degradation of IκB-α in NF-κB signaling pathway.

  7. Suppressive levothyroxine therapy has no significant influence on bone degradation in women with thyroid carcinoma: a comparison with other disorders affecting bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikosch, P; Jauk, B; Gallowitsch, H J; Pipam, W; Kresnik, E; Lind, P

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine different influences on bone degradation (estrogen status, thyroid function, parathyroid function, bone metastases) with special interest focusing on the significance of suppressive levothyroxine therapy (LT4) on bone degradation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Two markers of bone degradation (ELItest NTx = U-NTx; Serum CrossLaps = S-CTx) were used (1) to quantify the influence of different metabolic influences on bone degradation and (2) to compare these two markers with each other. One hundred forty samples of 98 female patients ages 23-86 years were analyzed. The correlation between the two assays of bone degradation was high (r = 0.825; p < 0.001). Both assays demonstrated that estrogen deficiency, hyperparathyroidism, and bone metastases caused significant increases of bone degradation. A suppressive LT4 therapy, as used for patients with DTC, led to no significant increases of S-CTx and U-NTx. The study indicates that a well-controlled suppressive LT4 therapy has only a minor effect on the degree of bone degradation and that a possible estrogen deficiency in patients with DTC has a greater impact on bone degradation. Thus, female patients with DTC on suppressive LT4 therapy and estrogen deficiency may benefit from hormone replacement therapy, as patients with DTC and normal estrogen levels presented similar results to euthyroid controls.

  8. In vitro antibacterial evaluation of Anabaena sp. against several clinically significant microflora and HPTLC analysis of its active crude extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible antibacterial activity of Anabaena extracts. Anabaena was isolated from a natural source and cultured in vitro. after suitable growth, cyanobacterial culture was harvested using different solvents. Extracts, thus prepared, were evaluated for their antibacterial potential by agar-well diffusion assay against bacterial species of clinical significance. MIC values were determined further to check the concentration ranges for significant inhibition. HPTLC analysis was done to separate the components of active crude extract in an attempt to identify the bio-active chemical entity. Methanol extract exhibited more potent activity than that of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. No inhibitory effect was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Staphylococcus aureus required about 256 μg/ml of the crude methanol extract for effective inhibition. HPTLC evaluation at λ 254 nm was performed for the separation of a complex mixture of the methanol extract. The results provide evidence that Anabaena sp. extracts might indeed be potential sources of new antibacterial agents.

  9. Phellinus linteus Extract Exerts Anti-asthmatic Effects by Suppressing NF-κB and p38 MAPK Activity in an OVA-induced Mouse Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guang Hai; Choi, Yun Ho

    2014-04-01

    Phellinus linteus has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in Asian countries and is known to have anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities. However, the protective effects of P. linteus against experimental asthma have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine whether P. linteus ethanol extract (PLE) suppresses inflammatory response in an OVA-induced asthma model. As expected, the oral administration of PLE significantly inhibited eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in OVA-challenged BALB/c mice. Supporting these data, the augmentation of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), eotaxin, and adhesion molecules in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after OVA inhalation was markedly attenuated by PLE. Furthermore, PLE reduced OVA-induced activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK in lung tissues. Therefore, our results suggest the potential of P. linteus as a therapeutic agent for asthma.

  10. Experimental Study of Three-body Cabibbo-suppressed D0 Decays and Extraction of Cp Violation Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Kalanand; /Nehru U.

    2008-02-22

    The authors present measurements of the relative branching ratios, Dalitz plot structures and CP-asymmetry values in the three-body singly Cabibbo-suppressed decays D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} and D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy ring at SLAC. The author applies the results of the D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} analysis to extracting CP-violation parameters related to the CKM angle {gamma} (or {phi}{sub 3}) using the decay B{sup -} {yields} D{sub {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}} K{sup -}.

  11. Walnut Phenolic Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Regulating Colon Cancer Stemness

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    Jisoo Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-CSCs potential of walnut phenolic extract (WPE and its bioactive compounds, including (+-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid. In the present study, CD133+CD44+ cells were isolated from HCT116 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS and then treated with WPE. As a result, survival of the CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells was inhibited and cell differentiation was induced by WPE. In addition, WPE down-regulated the CSC markers, CD133, CD44, DLK1, and Notch1, as well as the β-catenin/p-GSK3β signaling pathway. WPE suppressed the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Furthermore, the WPE exhibited stronger anti-CSC effects than its individual bioactive compounds. Finally, the WPE inhibited specific CSC markers in primary colon cancer cells isolated from primary colon tumor. These results suggest that WPE can suppress colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of colon CSCs.

  12. Korean Red Ginseng water extract inhibits COX-2 expression by suppressing p38 in acrolein-treated human endothelial cells

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    Seung Eun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is considered a major risk factor for vascular diseases. There are many toxic compounds in cigarette smoke, including acrolein and other α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, which are regarded as mediators of inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde in cigarette smoke, induces inflammatory mediator expression, which is known to be related to vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated whether Korean Red Ginseng (KRG water extract suppressed acrolein-induced cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Acrolein-induced COX-2 expression was accompanied by increased levels of phosphorylated p38 in HUVECs and KRG inhibited COX-2 expression in HUVECs. These results suggest that KRG suppresses acrolein-induced COX-2 expression via inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In addition, KRG exhibited an inhibitory effect on acrolein-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by annexin V–propidium iodide staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Consistent with these results, KRG may exert a vasculoprotective effect through inhibition of COX-2 expression in acrolein-stimulated human endothelial cells.

  13. Walnut Phenolic Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Regulating Colon Cancer Stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jisoo; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, JaeHwan; Heo, Seung Chul; Lee, Kook Lae; Choi, Sang-Woon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-07-21

    Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs) which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-CSCs potential of walnut phenolic extract (WPE) and its bioactive compounds, including (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid. In the present study, CD133⁺CD44⁺ cells were isolated from HCT116 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and then treated with WPE. As a result, survival of the CD133⁺CD44⁺ HCT116 cells was inhibited and cell differentiation was induced by WPE. In addition, WPE down-regulated the CSC markers, CD133, CD44, DLK1, and Notch1, as well as the β-catenin/p-GSK3β signaling pathway. WPE suppressed the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Furthermore, the WPE exhibited stronger anti-CSC effects than its individual bioactive compounds. Finally, the WPE inhibited specific CSC markers in primary colon cancer cells isolated from primary colon tumor. These results suggest that WPE can suppress colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of colon CSCs.

  14. Sarsaparilla (Smilax Glabra Rhizome extract inhibits migration and invasion of cancer cells by suppressing TGF-β1 pathway.

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    Tiantian She

    Full Text Available Sarsaparilla, also known as Smilax Glabra Rhizome (SGR, was shown to modulate immunity, protect against liver injury, lower blood glucose and suppress cancer. However, its effects on cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion were unclear. In the present study, we found that the supernatant of water-soluble extract from SGR (SW could promote adhesion, inhibit migration and invasion of HepG2, MDA-MB-231 and T24 cells in vitro, as well as suppress metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells in vivo. Results of F-actin and vinculin dual staining showed the enhanced focal adhesion in SW-treated cells. Microarray analysis indicated a repression of TGF-β1 signaling by SW treatment, which was verified by real-time RT-PCR of TGF-β1-related genes and immunoblotting of TGFBR1 protein. SW was also shown to antagonize TGF-β1-promoted cell migration. Collectively, our study revealed a new antitumor function of Sarsaparilla in counteracting invasiveness of a subset of cancer cells by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling.

  15. Sarsaparilla (Smilax Glabra Rhizome) extract inhibits migration and invasion of cancer cells by suppressing TGF-β1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Tiantian; Zhao, Chuanke; Feng, Junnan; Wang, Lixin; Qu, Like; Fang, Ke; Cai, Shaoqing; Shou, Chengchao

    2015-01-01

    Sarsaparilla, also known as Smilax Glabra Rhizome (SGR), was shown to modulate immunity, protect against liver injury, lower blood glucose and suppress cancer. However, its effects on cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion were unclear. In the present study, we found that the supernatant of water-soluble extract from SGR (SW) could promote adhesion, inhibit migration and invasion of HepG2, MDA-MB-231 and T24 cells in vitro, as well as suppress metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells in vivo. Results of F-actin and vinculin dual staining showed the enhanced focal adhesion in SW-treated cells. Microarray analysis indicated a repression of TGF-β1 signaling by SW treatment, which was verified by real-time RT-PCR of TGF-β1-related genes and immunoblotting of TGFBR1 protein. SW was also shown to antagonize TGF-β1-promoted cell migration. Collectively, our study revealed a new antitumor function of Sarsaparilla in counteracting invasiveness of a subset of cancer cells by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling.

  16. Soy Leaf Extract Containing Kaempferol Glycosides and Pheophorbides Improves Glucose Homeostasis by Enhancing Pancreatic β-Cell Function and Suppressing Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Ji, Hyeon-Seon; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Ha; Park, Ho-Yong; Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, In-Kyung; Yun, Bong-Sik; Jeong, Tae-Sook

    2015-08-19

    This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidiabetic effect of an ethanol extract of soy leaves (ESL) in db/db mice. Control groups (db/+ and db/db) were fed a normal diet (ND), whereas the db/db-ESL group was fed ND with 1% ESL for 8 weeks. Dietary ESL improved glucose tolerance and lowered plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR, and triglyceride levels. The pancreatic insulin content of the db/db-ESL group was significantly greater than that of the db/db group. ESL supplementation altered pancreatic IRS1, IRS2, Pdx1, Ngn3, Pax4, Ins1, Ins2, and FoxO1 expression. Furthermore, ESL suppressed lipid accumulation and increased glucokinase activity in the liver. ESL primarily contained kaempferol glycosides and pheophorbides. Kaempferol, an aglycone of kaempferol glycosides, improved β-cell proliferation through IRS2-related FoxO1 signaling, whereas pheophorbide a, a product of chlorophyll breakdown, improved insulin secretion and β-cell proliferation through IRS1-related signaling with protein kinase A in MIN6 cells. ESL effectively regulates glucose homeostasis by enhancing IRS-mediated β-cell insulin signaling and suppressing SREBP-1-mediated hepatic lipid accumulation in db/db mice.

  17. Ethanol Extracts of Fresh Davallia formosana (WL1101 Inhibit Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing RANKL-Induced Nuclear Factor-κB Activation

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    Tzu-Hung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Davallia formosana is commonly used to treat bone disease including bone fracture, arthritis, and osteoporosis in Chinese herbal medicine. Here, we report the effects of WL1101, the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. In addition, excess activated bone-resorbing osteoclasts play crucial roles in inflammation-induced bone loss diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study, we examined the effects of WL1101 on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with WL1101 significantly inhibited RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Two isolated active compounds, ((−-epicatechin or WL14 (4-hydroxy-3-aminobenzoic acid could also inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. WL1101 suppressed the RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation, which is the key process during osteoclastogenesis, by inhibiting the activation of IκB kinase (IKK and IκBα. In animal model, oral administration of WL1101 (50 or 200 mg/kg/day effectively decreased the excess bone resorption and significantly antagonized the trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana inhibit osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of NF-κB activation and effectively ameliorate ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. WL1101 may thus have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases associated with excessive osteoclastic activity.

  18. The Hot-Water Extract of Smilacis Chinae Rhizome Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene and House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Nam Yong; Park, Eun-Ji; Sung, In sung; Ju, Seul A; Kim, Kyoung Un; Kim, Mi Rae; Song, Do Yeon; Lee, Min-Ju; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Chung, Hun-Jong; Choi, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ki-Hun; Lee, Min Won; Yun, Seongho; Min, Bokkee; Kwon, Suk Hyung; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2016-04-01

    Smilacis Chinae Rhizome (SCR) has been used as an oriental folk medicine for various biological activities. However, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) remains undetermined to date. We assessed the effect of orally administered hot-water extract of SCR on AD-like skin lesions in mice and its underlying mechanisms. AD-like murine model was prepared by repeated alternate application of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for 4 weeks, topically to the ears. Daily oral administration of SCR for 3 and 4 weeks significantly reduced inflammatory ear thickening, with the effect being enhanced at the earlier start and longer period of administration. This effect was accompanied by a significant decrease in both Th2 and Th1 serum antibodies (total IgE, DFE-specific IgE, and IgG2a). Histological analysis showed that SCR markedly decreased the epidermal/dermal ear thickening and the dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, SCR suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TSLP, and IFN-γ genes in the ear tissue. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SCR exerts beneficial effect in mouse AD model, suggesting that SCR has the therapeutic potential as an orally active treatment of AD by modulating both Th1 and Th2 responses.

  19. Purple Tea and Its Extract Suppress Diet-induced Fat Accumulation in Mice and Human Subjects by Inhibiting Fat Absorption and Enhancing Hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-06-01

    A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to certain tea constituents found in green tea, also contains anthocyanins. The major constituents in the leaves of purple tea are caffeine, theobromine, epigallocatechin (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucose (GHG). We investigated the efficacy of purple tea extract (PTE) on diet-induced fat accumulation in mice. PTE administration (200 mg/kg) significantly suppressed body weight gain, liver weight, abdominal fat and triglycerides in serum and liver. Protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1A was also enhanced. In olive oil loaded mice, PTE (100 mg/kg) and caffeine (25 mg/kg) suppressed fat absorption. PTE (10 μg/mL) and GHG (10 μg/mL) also enhanced protein expression of CPT1A in HepG2 hepatoma. Moreover, 4-week daily consumption of purple tea drink in humans improved obesity parameters compared to baseline, including body weight (79.9 ± 3.1 kg vs 80.8 ± 3.2, pweight gain by suppression of fat absorption and enhancement of hepatic fat metabolism.

  20. Ginkgo biloba extract prevents acute myocardial infarction and suppresses the inflammation‑ and apoptosis‑regulating p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases, nuclear factor‑κB and B‑cell lymphoma 2 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Zhang, Ya; Wen, Min; Zhang, Ju; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Yuan; Deng, Jiagang

    2017-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a plant known from the Mesozoic and has been regarded as one of the first to be used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The plant extract has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. The Ginkgo biloba leaf contains flavones and diterpenes. In addition, Ginkgo biloba performs certain pharmacologic actions, including antioxidant and anti‑aging activities. The aim of the present study was to examine whether Ginkgo biloba extract prevents acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibited infarct size, increased serum histamine levels and weakened creatine kinase (CK)‑MB activity in AMI mice. Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibited serum interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑1β levels, and caspase‑3/9 activity. In addition, it suppressed matrix metallopeptidase‑9, transforming growth factor‑β, p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB protein expression, and promoted B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) protein expression in AMI mice. The results of in vivo assays demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract prevents AMI and suppresses inflammation‑ and apoptosis‑regulating p38 MAPK, NF‑κB and Bcl‑2 signaling pathways.

  1. Silkworm Thorn Stem Extract Targets RSK2 and Suppresses Solar UV-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression

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    Jong-Eun Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to solar UV (sUV is associated with numerous human skin disorders, such as carcinogenesis, skin photoaging and skin inflammation. Silkworm Thorn (Cudraniatricuspidata, SW is a plant belonging to the Moraceae family and widely present throughout Korea, China, and Japan. Most parts of the tree (including the fruit, leaf, stem, root, and bark is consumable as a functional food or tea. In this study, we found that SW extract (SWE inhibited the elevated expression of sUV-induced cyclooxygenase (COX-2 levels in both HaCaT and JB6 cells. Levels of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1, two crucial transcription factors involved in COX-2 expression, were elevated by sUV treatment. Treatment with SWE abolished this activation. SWE also inhibited sUV-induced histone H3 phosphorylation. However, sUV-induced phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 kinase remained unchanged in the presence of SWE. SWE inhibited RSK2 activity, and pull-down assays using SWE-Sepharose beads revealed that SWE binds directly with RSK2 in an ATP-competitive manner. These results suggest a potential for SWE to be developed as a cosmeceutical material and functional food constituent for the promotion of skin health.

  2. Measuring root disease suppression in response to a compost water extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Pew, Tom; VanEtten, Hans D; Zhongguo, Xiong; Yu, Naitong; Hawes, Martha C

    2013-03-01

    Commercial application of compost to prevent plant disease is hindered by variable performance. Here, we describe the use of a growth pouch assay to measure impact of a compost water extract (CWE) on root infection under controlled conditions. Most pea roots (≥95%) inoculated with Fusarium solani or Phoma pinodella spores rapidly develop a single local lesion in the region of elongation. In the presence of CWE, infection of pea roots grown in pouches was reduced by 93 to 100%. CWE used as a drench on pea seedlings grown in sand also resulted in 100% protection but, in a heavy clay soil, infection was reduced by roots. CWE inhibited mycelial growth of both pea- and cucumber-infecting isolates of F. solani in culture but exerted root infection. CWE treatment of pea but not cucumber was associated with retention of a sheath of border cells interspersed with bacteria covering the region of elongation. Growth pouch assays may provide a system to monitor effects of specific compost mixtures on root-rhizosphere interactions, and to identify variables influencing disease control.

  3. Grape seed extract suppresses MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, Simona; Pasqualato, Alessia; Cucina, Alessandra; Coluccia, Pierpaolo; Ferranti, Francesca; Canipari, Rita; Catizone, Angela; Proietti, Sara; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Ricci, Giulia; Palombo, Alessandro; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a leading cause of mortality among women. In metastasis, cascade migration of cancer cells and invasion of extracellular matrix (ECM) represent critical steps. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), as well as metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, strongly contribute to ECM remodelling, thus becoming associated with tumour migration and invasion. In addition, the high expression of cytoskeletal (CSK) proteins, as fascin, has been correlated with clinically aggressive metastatic tumours, and CSK proteins are thought to affect the migration of cancer cells. Consumption of fruits and vegetables, characterized by high procyanidin content, has been associated to a reduced mortality for breast cancer. Therefore, we investigated the biological effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the highly metastatic MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell line, focusing on studying GSE ability in inhibiting two main metastatic processes, i.e., cell migration and invasion. After MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells stimulated with GSE migration and invasion were evaluated by means of trans-well assays and uPA as well as MMPs activity was detected by gelatin zymography. Fascin, β-catenin and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were determined using western blot technique. β-Catenin localization was observed by confocal microscopy. We observed that high concentrations of GSE inhibited cell proliferation and apoptosis. Conversely, low GSE concentration decreased cell migration and invasion, likely by hampering β-catenin expression and localization, fascin and NF-κB expression, as well as by decreasing the activity of uPA, MMP-2 and MMP-9. These results make GSE a powerful candidate for developing preventive agents against cancer metastasis.

  4. Grape seed extract inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wei; Lu, Jianming; Zhang, Keqiang; Chen, Shiuan

    2008-12-01

    Blockade of angiogenesis is an important approach for cancer treatment and prevention. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most critical factors that induce angiogenesis and has thus become an attractive target for antiangiogenesis treatment. However, most current anti-VEGF agents often cause some side effects when given chronically. Identification of naturally occurring VEGF inhibitors derived from diet would be one alternative approach with an advantage of known safety. Grape seed extract (GSE), a widely used dietary supplement, is known to have antitumor activity. In this study, we have explored the activity of GSE on VEGF receptor and angiogenesis. We found that GSE could directly inhibit the kinase activity of purified VEGF receptor 2, a novel activity of GSE that has not been characterized. GSE could also inhibit the VEGF receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signaling pathway in endothelial cells. As a result, GSE could inhibit VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration as well as sprout formation from aorta ring. In vivo assay further showed that GSE could inhibit tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in mice. Consistent with the in vitro data, GSE treatment of tumor-bearing mice led to concomitant reduction of blood vessel density and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Depletion of polyphenol with polyvinylpyrrolidone abolished the antiangiogenic activity of GSE, suggesting a water-soluble fraction of polyphenol in GSE is responsible for the antiangiogenic activity. Taken together, this study indicates that GSE is a well-tolerated and inexpensive natural VEGF inhibitor and could potentially be useful in cancer prevention or treatment.

  5. Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seed extract suppresses breast cancer growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Yanmin; Liu, Yanping; Yang, Xiaoyan Ou; Zhan, Yingzhuan

    2015-10-01

    The herb Momordica cochinchinensis has been used for a variety of purposes, and been shown to have anti‑cancer properties. The present study assessed the potency and the underlying mechanisms of action of the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (ESMC2) on breast cancer cells. Therefore, the effects of ESMC2 on the cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of MDA‑MB‑231 cells were investigated. The results showed that ESMC2 exerted a marked growth inhibitory effect on the cells. Cell cycle arrest in G2 phase following treatment with ESMC2 was associated with a marked increase in the protein levels of cyclin B1, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and a decrease in cyclin D1 expression. In addition, ESMC2 dose‑dependently induced cell apoptosis, which was mediated via upregulation of the apoptosis-associated proteins p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer and Bcl-2-associated death promoter expression, as well as downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B, Bcl‑2 and myeloid cell leukemia‑1. Furthermore, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt phosphorylation were decreased by ESMC2 in a dose‑dependent manner, indicating that ESMC2 exerted its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/JNK pathway. Furthermore, nude mouse xenotransplant models were used to evaluate the tumor growth inhibitory effects of ESMC2. The possible chemical components of ESMC2 were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 12 compounds were detected from the major peaks based on the similarity index with entries of a compound database. The results of the present study may aid in the development of novel therapies for breast cancer.

  6. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woan Sean Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Nitric oxide (NO production was quantified through Griess reaction while proinflammatory cytokines and other key inflammatory markers were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunoblotting. Results. Hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower significantly suppressed the secretion and expression of NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, inducible NO synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. However, it significantly increased the production of IL-10 and IκB-α (inhibitor of κB in a concentration dependent manner (100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL. Conclusion. These results suggest that 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower has anti-inflammatory action related to its inhibition of NO, PGE2, proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory mediator’s production in LPS-stimulated macrophages through preventing degradation of IκB-α in NF-κB signaling pathway.

  7. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Woan Sean; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was quantified through Griess reaction while proinflammatory cytokines and other key inflammatory markers were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Results. Hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower significantly suppressed the secretion and expression of NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, it significantly increased the production of IL-10 and IκB-α (inhibitor of κB) in a concentration dependent manner (100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL). Conclusion. These results suggest that 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower has anti-inflammatory action related to its inhibition of NO, PGE2, proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory mediator's production in LPS-stimulated macrophages through preventing degradation of IκB-α in NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26609199

  8. Ethanol Extract of Cordyceps militaris Grown on Germinated Soybeans Attenuates Dextran-Sodium-Sulfate- (DSS- Induced Colitis by Suppressing the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Inflammatory Mediators

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    Dong Ki Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM grown on germinated soybeans (GSC in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS- induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs.

  9. Ethanol Extract of Cordyceps militaris Grown on Germinated Soybeans Attenuates Dextran-Sodium-Sulfate- (DSS-) Induced Colitis by Suppressing the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Inflammatory Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) grown on germinated soybeans (GSC) in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI) as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs. PMID:23841050

  10. Quantification of appetite suppressing steroid glycosides from Hoodia gordonii in dried plant material, purified extracts and food products using HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H.-G.; Swindells, C.; Gunning, P.; Wang, W.; Grün, C.; Mahabir, K.; Maharaj, V.J.; Apps, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV and HPLC-Mass Spectrometry (MS) methods were developed for the quantitative analysis of the family of Hoodia gordonii steroid glycosides with appetite suppressing properties in dried plant material, in purified and enriched extracts and in various pro

  11. Ion suppression in the determination of clenbuterol in urine by solid-phase extraction atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion-trap mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, M.W.J.; Niederlander, H.A G; de Zeeuw, R.A.; de Jong, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Ion suppression effects were observed during the determination of clenbuterol in urine with solid-phase extraction/multiple-stage ion-trap mass spectrometry (SPE/MS3), despite the use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. During SPE, a polymeric stationary phase (polydivinylbenzene) was appli

  12. Herbal Extract SH003 Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metastasis of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells by Inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 Signaling

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    Youn Kyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer inflammation promotes cancer progression, resulting in a high risk of cancer. Here, we demonstrate that our new herbal extract, SH003, suppresses both tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling path. Our new herbal formula, SH003, mixed extract from Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica gigas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz, suppressed MDA-MB-231 tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo and reduced the viability and metastatic abilities of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Furthermore, SH003 inhibited STAT3 activation, which resulted in a reduction of IL-6 production. Therefore, we conclude that SH003 suppresses highly metastatic breast cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling path.

  13. Crude Extracts from Lycium barbarum Suppress SREBP-1c Expression and Prevent Diet-Induced Fatty Liver through AMPK Activation

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    Wang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP is well known in traditional Chinese herbal medicine that, has beneficial effects. Previous study reported that LBP reduced blood glucose and serum lipids. However, the underlying LBP-regulating mechanisms remain largely unknown. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether LBP prevented fatty liver through activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet, high-fat diet, or 100 mg/kg LBP-treatment diet for 24 weeks. HepG2 cells were treated with LBP in the presence of palmitic acid. In our study, LBP can improve body compositions and lipid metabolic profiles in high-fat diet-fed mice. Oil Red O staining in vivo and in vitro showed that LBP significantly reduced hepatic intracellular triacylglycerol accumulation. H&E staining also showed that LBP can attenuate liver steatosis. Hepatic genes expression profiles demonstrated that LBP can activate the phosphorylation of AMPK, suppress nuclear expression of SREBP-1c, and decrease protein and mRNA expression of lipogenic genes in vivo or in vitro. Moreover, LBP significantly elevated uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α expression of brown adipose tissue. In summary, LBP possesses a potential novel treatment in preventing diet-induced fatty liver.

  14. Facilitated cellular uptake and suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by a metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenhut, Klaus; Högger, Petra

    2012-07-15

    Many natural products exhibit anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing excessive nitric oxide (NO) production by inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol has been formerly shown to decrease nitrite generation, taken as an index for NO, but so far it was not clear which constituent of the complex flavonoid mixture mediated this effect. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the in vivo generated Pycnogenol metabolite M1 (δ-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone) displayed any activity in the context of induction of iNOS expression and excessive NO production. For the first time we show that M1 inhibited nitrite production (IC(50) 1.3 μg/ml, 95% CI 0.96-1.70) and iNOS expression (IC(50) 3.8 μg/ml, 95% CI 0.99-14.35) in a concentration-dependent fashion. This exemplifies bioactivation by metabolism because the M1 precursor molecule catechin is only weakly active. However, these effects required application of M1 in the low-micromolar range, which was not consistent with concentrations previously detected in human plasma samples after ingestion of maritime pine bark extract. Thus, we investigated a possible accumulation of M1 in cells and indeed observed high-capacity binding of this flavonoid metabolite to macrophages, monocytes, and endothelial cells. This binding was distinctly decreased in the presence of the influx inhibitor phloretin, suggesting the contribution of a facilitated M1 transport into cells. In fact, intracellular accumulation of M1 could explain why in vivo bioactivity can be observed with nanomolar plasma concentrations that typically fail to exhibit measurable activity in vitro.

  15. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L. cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sofiman, Othman Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    In this study, freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay. Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg. Onions (A. cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark. Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals' scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards. Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA, but worse than BHT. The extract alone, as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division, and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P ≤ 0.05). However, cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed. The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A. cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract. The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M. fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent.

  16. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristicafragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L.cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akeem AKINBORO; Kamaruzaman Bin MOHAMED; Mohd Zaini ASMAWI; Shaida Fariza SULAIMAN; Othman Ahmad SOFIMAN

    2011-01-01

    In this study,freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay.Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500,1000,2000,and 4000 mg/kg.Onions (A.cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark.Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation.2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals' scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards.Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA,but worse than BHT.The extract alone,as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division,and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P≤0.05).However,cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed.The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A.cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract.The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M.fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent.

  17. An extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice inhibits inflammation markers in RAW264.7 macrophages by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and mediators and up-regulating antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Han, Eun Su; Park, Dong Ki; Lee, Chan; Lee, Ki Won

    2010-12-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of an organic extract of Phellinus linteus grown on slightly germinated brown rice (PBR) was previously demonstrated. Here, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory activity of the PBR extract by analyzing its effect on the expression of macrophage-derived cytokines, chemokines, and mediator genes that participate in immune and inflammatory responses and diseases. The extract profoundly inhibited the induction of cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-6, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. It also greatly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. PBR extract inhibited NO production with a twofold lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration value than P. linteus extract. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of action, we examined the effect of the PBR extract on the LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in RAW264.7 cells. PBR extract greatly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and slightly inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation. It also significantly increased intracellular glutathione peroxidase activity and heme oxygenase-1 protein expression. Thus, the PBR extract has anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by virtue of its ability to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via inhibition of MAPK activation and up-regulation of antioxidant activities.

  18. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

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    Yang Nan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao and Dianthus superbus (Qumai. Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments.

  19. Extracting biologically significant patterns from short time series gene expression data

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    McGinnis Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time series gene expression data analysis is used widely to study the dynamics of various cell processes. Most of the time series data available today consist of few time points only, thus making the application of standard clustering techniques difficult. Results We developed two new algorithms that are capable of extracting biological patterns from short time point series gene expression data. The two algorithms, ASTRO and MiMeSR, are inspired by the rank order preserving framework and the minimum mean squared residue approach, respectively. However, ASTRO and MiMeSR differ from previous approaches in that they take advantage of the relatively few number of time points in order to reduce the problem from NP-hard to linear. Tested on well-defined short time expression data, we found that our approaches are robust to noise, as well as to random patterns, and that they can correctly detect the temporal expression profile of relevant functional categories. Evaluation of our methods was performed using Gene Ontology (GO annotations and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip data. Conclusion Our approaches generally outperform both standard clustering algorithms and algorithms designed specifically for clustering of short time series gene expression data. Both algorithms are available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/astro/.

  20. Pharmacokinetic and nephroprotective benefits of using Schisandra chinensis extracts in a cyclosporine A-based immune-suppressive regime

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    Lai Q

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Qiao Lai,1 Jiabao Wei,1 Mohammed Mahmoodurrahman,2 Chenxue Zhang,1 Shijian Quan,1 Tongming Li,1 Yang Yu11Department of Formulas of Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Cyclosporine A (CsA is a powerful immunosuppressive drug. However, nephrotoxicity resulting from its long-term usage has hampered its prolonged therapeutic usage. Schisandra chinensis extracts (SCE have previously been used in traditional Chinese medicine and more recently coadministered with Western medicine for the treatment of CsA-induced side effects in the People’s Republic of China. This study aimed to investigate the possible effects of SCE on the pharmacokinetics of CsA in rats and elucidate the potential mechanisms by which it hinders the development of CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for determining the effect of SCE on the pharmacokinetics of CsA. Male Sprague Dawley rats, which were administered with CsA (25 mg/kg/d alone or in combination with SCE (54 mg/kg/d and 108 mg/kg/d for 28 days, were used to evaluate the nephroprotective effects of SCE. Our study showed that SCE increased the mean blood concentration of CsA. Furthermore, we found that the concomitant administration of SCE alongside CsA prevented the disruption of catalase activity and reduction in creatinine, urea, renal malondialdehyde, and glutathione peroxidase levels that would have otherwise occurred in the absence of SCE administration. SCE treatment markedly suppressed the expression of 4-hydroxynonenal, Bcl-2-associated X protein, cleaved caspase 3, and autophagy-related protein LC3 A/B. On the other hand, the expression of heme oxygenase-1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, and P-glycoprotein was enhanced by

  1. Momordica cochinchinensis seed extracts suppress migration and invasion of human breast cancer ZR-75-30 cells via down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Yan-Min; Zhan, Ying-Zhuan; Liu, Chang-Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Metastases and invasion are the main reasons for oncotherapy failure. Momordica cochinchinensis (Mu Bie Zi in Chinese) had been used for a variety of purposes, and shown anti-cancer action. In this article, we focused on effects on regulation of breast cancer cell ZR-75-30 metastases and invasion by extracts of Momordica cochinchinensis seeds (ESMCs). Effect of ESMCs on ZR-75-30 human breast cancer cells proliferation were evaluated by MTT assay and on invasion and migration by wound-healing and matrigel invasion chamber assays. Expression and protease activity of two matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, were analyzed by Western blotting and gelatin zymography, respectively. ESMC revealed strong growth inhibitory effects on ZR-75-30 cells, and effectively inhibited ZR-75-30 cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot and gelatin zymography analysis showed that ESMC significantly inhibited the expression and secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in ZR-75-30 cells. ESMC has the potential to suppress the migration and invasion of ZR-75-30 cancer cells, and it might prove to of interest in the development of novel inhibitors for breast cancer.

  2. Aqueous extract of the edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata inhibits hepatitis C viral replication via cyclooxygenase-2 suppression and reduces virus-induced inflammation.

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    Kuan-Jen Chen

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is an important human pathogen leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. Using an in vitro cell-based HCV replicon and JFH-1 infection system, we demonstrated that an aqueous extract of the seaweed Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT concentration-dependently inhibited HCV replication at nontoxic concentrations. AEGT synergistically enhanced interferon-α (IFN-α anti-HCV activity in a combination treatment. We found that AEGT also significantly suppressed virus-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression at promoter transactivation and protein levels. Notably, addition of exogenous COX-2 expression in AEGT-treated HCV replicon cells gradually abolished AEGT anti-HCV activity, suggesting that COX-2 down-regulation was responsible for AEGT antiviral effects. Furthermore, we highlighted the inhibitory effect of AEGT in HCV-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression such as the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, inducible nitrite oxide synthase and COX-2 in a concentration-dependent manner to evaluate the potential therapeutic supplement in the management of patients with chronic HCV infections.

  3. Aqueous extract of the edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata inhibits hepatitis C viral replication via cyclooxygenase-2 suppression and reduces virus-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Jen; Tseng, Chin-Kai; Chang, Fang-Rong; Yang, Jin-Iong; Yeh, Chi-Chen; Chen, Wei-Chun; Wu, Shou-Fang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. Using an in vitro cell-based HCV replicon and JFH-1 infection system, we demonstrated that an aqueous extract of the seaweed Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT) concentration-dependently inhibited HCV replication at nontoxic concentrations. AEGT synergistically enhanced interferon-α (IFN-α) anti-HCV activity in a combination treatment. We found that AEGT also significantly suppressed virus-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression at promoter transactivation and protein levels. Notably, addition of exogenous COX-2 expression in AEGT-treated HCV replicon cells gradually abolished AEGT anti-HCV activity, suggesting that COX-2 down-regulation was responsible for AEGT antiviral effects. Furthermore, we highlighted the inhibitory effect of AEGT in HCV-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression such as the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, inducible nitrite oxide synthase and COX-2 in a concentration-dependent manner to evaluate the potential therapeutic supplement in the management of patients with chronic HCV infections.

  4. Citrus auraptene suppresses cyclin D1 and significantly delays N-methyl nitrosourea induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Grand Robert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a major problem in the United States leading to tens of thousands of deaths each year. Although citrus auraptene suppresses cancer in numerous rodent models, its role in breast cancer prevention previously has not been reported. Thus, our goal was to determine the anticarcinogenic effects of auraptene against breast cancer. Methods The effects of auraptene on cell proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells in culture was assessed by measuring metabolism of a substrate to a formazan dye. Dietary effects of auraptene on tumor incidence, multiplicity and latency were studied in the N-methyl nitrosourea (MNU induced mammary carcinogenesis model in female Sprague Dawley rats. The concentration of auraptene in rat tissues was analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. Cyclin D1 expression in MCF-7 cells and rat tumors was measured by western blot. Results Auraptene (500 ppm significantly delayed median time to tumor by 39 days compared to the MNU only group (p Conclusion Overall, these observations suggest that the predominant effect of auraptene was to delay the development of tumors possibly through the suppression of cyclin D1 expression. These results point to the potential chemopreventive effects of auraptene in mammary carcinogenesis.

  5. Lemon Pepper Fruit Extract (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. Suppresses the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Macrophages In Vitro

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    Yanti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Lemon pepper fruits (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.; Rutaceae have been used as a traditional source against stomach ache by Batak people in North Sumatera province, Indonesia. However, its scientific evidence for treatment of inflammatory disorders particularly gastritis has not been reported. Approach: Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of Lemon Pepper Fruit Extract (LPFE against inflammatory biomarkers by conducting cell culture experiments in vitro. The fruits of lemon pepper were dried and extracted twice in 70% ethanol, followed by evaporation and freeze-drying. The concentrated extract was further tested for its potential inhibition on the protein and gene expression of several inflammatory biomarkers, i.e., Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, inducible Nitric Oxyde Synthase (iNOS, Cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP-9, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced macrophages by performing Western blot, gelatin zymography and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. Results: LPFE (1-10 μg mL-1 and LPS (2 μg mL-1 had no cytotoxicity effects on macrophages. LPFE dose dependently decreased the expression of TNF-α and COX-2 proteins and MMP-9 activity in macrophages treated with LPS. At the gene level, LPFE were effectively found to block the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, COX-2 and MMP-9. Conclusion: Our results suggest that LPFE significantly inhibits selected inflammatory biomarkers at the protein and gene levels in LPS-induced macrophages. Further in vivo study using animal models is needed to determine the exact anti-inflammatory potential of LPFE.

  6. Pharmacokinetic and nephroprotective benefits of using Schisandra chinensis extracts in a cyclosporine A-based immune-suppressive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Qiao; Wei, Jiabao; Mahmoodurrahman, Mohammed; Zhang, Chenxue; Quan, Shijian; Li, Tongming; Yu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a powerful immunosuppressive drug. However, nephrotoxicity resulting from its long-term usage has hampered its prolonged therapeutic usage. Schisandra chinensis extracts (SCE) have previously been used in traditional Chinese medicine and more recently coadministered with Western medicine for the treatment of CsA-induced side effects in the People's Republic of China. This study aimed to investigate the possible effects of SCE on the pharmacokinetics of CsA in rats and elucidate the potential mechanisms by which it hinders the development of CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for determining the effect of SCE on the pharmacokinetics of CsA. Male Sprague Dawley rats, which were administered with CsA (25 mg/kg/d) alone or in combination with SCE (54 mg/kg/d and 108 mg/kg/d) for 28 days, were used to evaluate the nephroprotective effects of SCE. Our study showed that SCE increased the mean blood concentration of CsA. Furthermore, we found that the concomitant administration of SCE alongside CsA prevented the disruption of catalase activity and reduction in creatinine, urea, renal malondialdehyde, and glutathione peroxidase levels that would have otherwise occurred in the absence of SCE administration. SCE treatment markedly suppressed the expression of 4-hydroxynonenal, Bcl-2-associated X protein, cleaved caspase 3, and autophagy-related protein LC3 A/B. On the other hand, the expression of heme oxygenase-1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and P-glycoprotein was enhanced by the very same addition of SCE. SCE was also able to increase the systemic exposure of CsA in rats. The renoprotective effects of SCE were thought to be mediated by its antiapoptotic and antioxidant abilities, which caused the attenuation of CsA-induced autophagic cell death. All in all, these findings suggest the prospective use of SCE as an effective adjunct in a Cs

  7. Extracts of Leptadenia hastata Leaf, a Famine Food and Traditional Remedy for Furuncles, Suppress Inflammation in Murine Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezike, Adaobi Chioma; Ufere, Ifechukwu Kenneth; Akah, Peter Achunike; Ezea, Samson Chukwuemeka; Okoli, Charles Ogbonnaya

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the methanol extract (LHE), hexane (LHHF), ethylacetate (LHEF) and methanol (LHMF) fractions of leaf of Leptadenia hastata on acute and chronic inflammation were studied. Furthermore, the effects of LHE on acetic acid induced increase in vascular permeability, carrageenan induced leucocyte migration and membrane stability were evaluated. The LHE and fractions were also subjected to phytochemical analysis. The LHE, LHEF and LHMF significantly (p 5 g/kg for LHE. The LHEF elicited the greatest inhibition, suggesting that the observed anti-inflammatory effects may be attributable to the flavonoids abundant in the fraction. These findings demonstrate that the effectiveness of L. hastata leaf in the treatment of furuncles may largely derive from anti-inflammatory activities mediated through inhibition of both increase in vascular permeability and leucocyte migration, and stabilization of cell membranes.

  8. Improvement of the extraction efficiency of D-amygdalin from Armeniacae Semen powder through inactivating emulsin and suppressing the epimerization of D-amygdalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ha-Jeong; Lee, Je-Hyun; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2010-01-01

    Armeniacae Semen contains not only amygdalin but also emulsin, which is an enzyme that hydrolyzes amygdalin. This hydrolysis reaction has been a major problem associated with the water extraction of Armeniacae Semen powder. In this study, the emulsin was inactivated by extracting Armeniacae Semen powder at a constant temperature of 90 degrees C. In addition, in order to suppress the epimerization of D-amygdalin, the extraction time was kept to less than 8 min. The use of a 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 2.3) containing 13.5% acetonitrile as a mobile phase in reversed-phase HPLC was effective in separating and analyzing the D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin. The linearity between the concentrations and detector responses was obtained in the range of 0.05 to 0.5 mM. The detection limits for D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin were approximately 5 microM per amount injected.

  9. Aqueous Extract of Paris polyphylla (AEPP Inhibits Ovarian Cancer via Suppression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma Coactivator (PGC-1alpha

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    Chia-Woei Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy, a major approach was used in carcinoma treatment, always involves the development of drug resistance as well as side-effects that affect the quality of patients’ lives. An association between epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and chemotherapy resistance was established recently. We demonstrate in this paper that the aqueous extract of Paris polyphylla (AEPP—a traditional Chinese medicine—can be used in various cancer types for suppression of carcinogenesis. We evaluated the suppressions of EMT and mitochondrial activity by AEPP treatment in a high-glucose (HG induced-human ovarian carcinoma cell line (OVCAR-3 cells. The mitochondrial morphology was investigated using MitoTracker Deep Red FM staining. Our results indicated that AEPP reduced the viability of OVCAR-3 cells considerably through induction of apoptosis. However, this inhibitory potential of AEPP was attenuated by HG induction in OVCAR-3 cells. The levels of estrogen-related receptor (ERR-alpha activator and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC-1alpha were elevated by HG induction, but were suppressed by AEPP treatment. Down-regulations of cell survival and EMT were oberved in OVCAR-3 cells through suppression of PGC-1alpha by AEPP treatment. These results were confirmed through PGC-1alpha knockdown and overexpression in OVCAR-3 cells. Thus, AEPP can be beneficial for treating ovarian cancer and has potential for development of an integrative cancer therapy against ovarian cancer proliferation, metastasis, and migration.

  10. The ultrasound-assisted extraction and identification of antifungal substances from B. amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 suppressing Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2012-12-01

    The primary mechanism underlying antagonism among microorganisms is the production of antagonistic substances called antibiotics that inhibit the growth of pathogens. In this study, the antagonistic substances produced by the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 that had antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum were extracted and identified. The active antifungal substance was extracted from dried leavening with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using n -butanol as the extractant. HPLC/ESI-MS was performed to investigate the components of the extracts. The results of the study showed that the antimicrobial substances consisted of three homologues of the iturin A family with molecular weights of 1043, 1057 and 1071 Da and of two homologues of the fengycin family with molecular weights of 1477 and 1491 Da. The effects of ultrasonic treatment time, extraction time and extractant volume, three major methodological parameters, were also studied to determine the optimal conditions for extraction. Compared with traditional extraction techniques, UAE is a simple, cheap and environmentally friendly method that represents a new option for the isolation and identification of lipopeptides and other active compounds. These antifungal substances extracted and identified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 will help us to understand its biocontrol mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum.

  11. A Novel Approach to Extract Significant Patterns of Travel Time Intervals of Vehicles from Freeway Gantry Timestamp Sequences

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    Jing-Doo Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is attractive to extract and determine the key features of traffic patterns for mitigating road congestion and predicting travel time of vehicles in traffic analysis. Based on the previous work that is a scalable approach via a Hadoop MapReduce programming model, this paper aims to extract significant patterns of travel time intervals of vehicles from freeway traffic in Taiwan, and meanwhile to compute the statistics of these patterns from the point of view one may concern. Experimental resources are the records of timestamp gantry sequences of vehicles passed in five months from 2016/11 to 2017/3 that were downloaded from the Traffic Data Collection System, one of Taiwan government open data platforms. To select one specific gantry sequence for demonstration, the longest sequence on the trip within the Taiwan National Freeway No. 5 is selected. Experimental results show that some statistics of vehicle travel time intervals according to 24 h per day are computed for illustration. These statistics can not only provide clues to experts to analyze traffic congestions, but also help drivers how to avoid rush hours. Furthermore, this work is able to handle a larger amount of real data and be promising for further traffic and transportation research in the future.

  12. A hepatoprotective Lindera obtusiloba extract suppresses growth and attenuates insulin like growth factor-1 receptor signaling and NF-kappaB activity in human liver cancer cell lines

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    Stroh Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, an aqueous extract derived from wood and bark of the Japanese spice bush Lindera obtusiloba (L.obtusiloba is applied to treat inflammations and chronic liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously demonstrated anti-fibrotic effects of L.obtusiloba extract in hepatic stellate cells. Thus, we here consequently examine anti-neoplastic effects of L.obtusiloba extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines and the signaling pathways involved. Methods Four human HCC cell lines representing diverse stages of differentiation were treated with L.obtusiloba extract, standardized according to its known suppressive effects on proliferation and TGF-β-expression. Beside measurement of proliferation, invasion and apoptosis, effects on signal transduction and NF-κB-activity were determined. Results L.obtusiloba extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in all HCC cell lines and provoked a reduced basal and IGF-1-induced activation of the IGF-1R signaling cascade and a reduced transcriptional NF-κB-activity, particularly in the poorly differentiated SK-Hep1 cells. Pointing to anti-angiogenic effects, L.obtusiloba extract attenuated the basal and IGF-1-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Conclusions The traditional application of the extract is confirmed by our experimental data. Due to its potential to inhibit critical receptor tyrosine kinases involved in HCC progression via the IGF-1 signaling pathway and NF-κB, the standardized L.obtusiloba extract should be further analysed for its active compounds and explored as (complementary treatment option for HCC.

  13. Suppression of tumor growth by Pleurotus ferulae ethanol extract through induction of cell apoptosis, and inhibition of cell proliferation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilan; Chen, Kaixu; Liu, Qing; Johnston, Nathan; Ma, Zhenghai; Zhang, Fuchun; Zheng, Xiufen

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Edible medicinal mushrooms have been used in traditional medicine as regimes for cancer patients. Recently anti-cancer bioactive components from some mushrooms have been isolated and their anti-cancer effects have been tested. Pleurotus ferulae, a typical edible medicinal mushroom in Xinjiang China, has also been used to treat cancer patients in folk medicine. However, little studies have been reported on the anti-cancer components of Pleurotus ferulae. This study aims to extract bioactive components from Pleurotus ferulae and to investigate the anti-cancer effects of the extracts. We used ethanol to extract anti-cancer bioactive components enriched with terpenoids from Pleurotus ferulae. We tested the anti-tumour effects of ethanol extracts on the melanoma cell line B16F10, the human gastric cancer cell line BGC 823 and the immortalized human gastric epithelial mucosa cell line GES-1 in vitro and a murine melanoma model in vivo. Cell toxicity and cell proliferation were measured by MTT assays. Cell cycle progression, apoptosis, caspase 3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), migration and gene expression were studied in vitro. PFEC suppressed tumor cell growth, inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cells at G0/G1 phases and was not toxic to non-cancer cells. PFEC also induced cell apoptosis and necrosis, increased caspase 3 activity, reduced the MMP, prevented cell invasion and changed the expression of genes associated with apoptosis and the cell cycle. PFEC delayed tumor formation and reduced tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, ethanol extracted components from Pleurotus ferulae exert anti-cancer effects through direct suppression of tumor cell growth and invasion, demonstrating its therapeutic potential in cancer treatment.

  14. Myrciaria cauliflora extract improves diabetic nephropathy via suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation in streptozotocin-nicotinamide mice

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    Jeng-Dong Hsu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria cauliflora is a functional food rich in anthocyanins, possessing antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Our previous results demonstrated M. cauliflora extract (MCE had beneficial effects in diabetic nephropathy (DN and via the inhibition of Ras/PI3K/Akt and kidney fibrosis-related proteins. The purpose of this study was to assess the benefit of MCE in diabetes associated with kidney inflammation and glycemic regulation in streptozotocin–nicotinamide (STZ/NA-induced diabetic mice. Compared with the untreated diabetic group, MCE significantly improved blood glucose and serum biochemical characteristic levels. Exposure to MCE increased antioxidative enzyme activity and diminished reactive oxygen synthesis. Mice receiving MCE supplementation had reduced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α levels compared to the untreated diabetic mice. Inflammatory and fibrotic related proteins such as collagen IV, fibronectin, Janus kinase (JAK, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, protein kinase C beta (PKC-β, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB were also inhibited by MCE treatment in STZ/NA mice. These results suggest that MCE may be used as a hypoglycemic agent and antioxidant in Type 2 diabetic mice.

  15. Silibinin and Paclitaxel Cotreatment Significantly Suppress the Activity and Lung Metastasis of Triple Negative 4T1 Mammary Tumor Cell in Mice

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    Bing-Ying Ho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of silibinin (SB, paclitaxel (PTX and SB and PTX in combination (SB+PTX against murine metastatic mammary 4T1 cancer cell line were investigated. Isobologram and combination index (CI analyses showed that SB and PTX can function synergistically in the inhibition of 4T1 cell proliferation with a CI value<1. Both SB and PTX alone or SB+PTX treatment inhibited 4T1 cell migration and motility possibly through downregulation of the serpin protease nexin-1 (PN-1 and N-cadherin expression, inhibition of matrix metalloprotease (MMP-9 activity, and upregulation of E-cadherin. Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses demonstrated that both drugs deregulated cell-cycle mediators and induced apoptosis in 4T1 cells. A real-time in vivo bioluminescence imaging system to monitor the breast cancer cell metastasis in syngeneic BALB/c mice was established using a stable 4T1pGL−COX−2/Luc cell clone carrying a COX-2 promoter driven-luciferase reporter gene. In vivo study using the allograft 4T1pGL−COX−2/Luc metastatic mouse model indicated that SB co-treated with PTX can significantly suppress lung metastasis of 4T1 cells likely through inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Together, this study demonstrates that SB could act synergistically with PTX in 4T1 cells, providing a therapeutic option for highly metastatic triple negative breast cancer.

  16. Polyyne-Enriched Extract from Oplopanax elatus Significantly Ameliorates the Progression of Colon Carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ Mice

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    Xin Qiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world. Oplopanax elatus is widely used in traditional medicine. However, little is known about its pharmacological effects and bioactive compounds. We evaluated the effects of the polyyne-enriched extract from O. elatus (PEO on the progression of colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. In addition, these effects were also investigated in HCT116 and SW480 cells. After PEO oral administration (0.2% diet for 12 weeks, PEO significantly improved body weight changes and reduced the tumor burden and tumor multiplicity compared with the untreated mice. Meanwhile, western blot and immunohistochemistry results showed PEO significantly reduced the expression of β-catenin and cyclinD1 in both small intestine and the colon tissues compared with the untreated mice. In addition, PEO treatment significant decreased the cell viability in both HCT116 and SW480 cell lines. It also decreased the levels of β-catenin, cyclinD1, c-myc and p-GSK-3β in HCT116 and SW480 cells at 25 μM. These results indicate that PEO may have potential value in prevention of colon cancer by down-regulating Wnt-related protein.

  17. Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract specifically suppresses the growth of tumors in H22-bearing Kunming mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenxiang; Jiang, Cuihua; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi; Yin, Zengfang; Zhu, Yunfeng; Fu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recently, neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract (NTE) has been reported to have various antitumor activities against gastric, breast, prostate, and skin cancer, respectively. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of NTE on hepatic cancer in a mouse model. The possible side effects elicited by NTE were also evaluated. The components in NTE were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). H22 cells-bearing Kumming mice were generated by injecting H22 cells subcutaneously into the right forelimb armpit of the mice. Then the mice were treated daily for 27 days with NTE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric administration, using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, 1%) as blank control and cyclophosphamide (CTX, 20 mg/kg) as positive control. The antitumor effect of NTE was evaluated by assessment of survival rate, body weight, tumor volume and weight, tumor histology, thymus and spleen indexes, and liver histology. The tumor weight and volume in groups of NTE and CTX were significantly lower than those in the CMC group. The survival rate in the NTE group receiving the high dose (600 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that in the CTX and CMC groups. Compared with CTX, NTE was observed to have a tumor-specific cytotoxicity without impairing the normal liver tissue. Additionally, the higher indexes of thymus and spleen indicated that NTE could facilitate the growth of immune organs. The results indicate that NTE is a promising candidate for the antitumor treatment with high efficacy and safety.

  18. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish

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    Hasumura Takahiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral fat accumulation is one of the most important predictors of mortality in obese populations. Administration of green tea extract (GTE can reduce body fat and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases in mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of GTE on adiposity in diet-induced obese (DIO zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish at 3.5 to 4.5 months post-fertilization were allocated to four groups: non-DIO, DIO, DIO + 0.0025%GTE, and DIO + 0.0050%GTE. The non-DIO group was fed freshly hatched Artemia once daily (5 mg cysts/fish daily for 40 days. Zebrafish in the three DIO groups were fed freshly hatched Artemia three times daily (60 mg cysts/fish daily. Zebrafish in the DIO + 0.0025%GTE and DIO + 0.0050%GTE groups were exposed to GTE after the start of feeding three times daily for 40 days. Results Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis showed that GTE exposure significantly decreased the volume of visceral but not subcutaneous fat tissue in DIO zebrafish. GTE exposure increased hepatic expression of the lipid catabolism genes ACOX1 (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl, ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, c-4 to c-12 straight chain, and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. GTE exposure also significantly decreased the visceral fat expression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3b which inhibits leptin signaling. Conclusions The present results are consistent with those seen in mammals treated with GTE, supporting the validity of studying the effects of GTE in DIO zebrafish. Our results suggest that GTE exerts beneficial effects on adiposity, possibly by altering the expression of lipid catabolism genes and SOCS3.

  19. Extraction of high quality of RNA and construction of a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Tao, Nengguo; Hu, Zhiyong; Yue, Hailin; Deng, Xiuxin

    2006-04-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a rare fruit crop of promising economical importance in fruit and ornamental exploitation in China. Isolation of high quality RNA from chestnut rose is difficult due to its high levels of polyphenols, polysaccharides and other compounds, but a modified CTAB extraction procedure without phenol gave satisfactory results. High concentrations of PVP (2%, w/v), CTAB (2%, w/v) and beta-mercaptoethanol (4%, v/v) were used in the extraction buffer to improve RNA quality. The average yield was about 200 microg RNA g(-1) fresh leaves. The isolated RNA was of sufficient quality for construction of suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) library, which allowed the isolation of several pathogen-induced defense genes.

  20. Acellular bone marrow extracts significantly enhance engraftment levels of human hematopoietic stem cells in mouse xeno-transplantation models.

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    Kazem Zibara

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC derived from cord blood (CB, bone marrow (BM, or mobilized peripheral blood (PBSC can differentiate into multiple lineages such as lymphoid, myeloid, erythroid cells and platelets. The local microenvironment is critical to the differentiation of HSCs and to the preservation of their phenotype in vivo. This microenvironment comprises a physical support supplied by the organ matrix as well as tissue specific cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. We investigated the effects of acellular bovine bone marrow extracts (BME on HSC in vitro and in vivo. We observed a significant increase in the number of myeloid and erythroid colonies in CB mononuclear cells (MNC or CB CD34+ cells cultured in methylcellulose media supplemented with BME. Similarly, in xeno-transplantation experiments, pretreatment with BME during ex-vivo culture of HSCs induced a significant increase in HSC engraftment in vivo. Indeed, we observed both an increase in the number of differentiated myeloid, lymphoid and erythroid cells and an acceleration of engraftment. These results were obtained using CB MNCs, BM MNCs or CD34(+ cells, transplanted in immuno-compromised mice (NOD/SCID or NSG. These findings establish the basis for exploring the use of BME in the expansion of CB HSC prior to HSC Transplantation. This study stresses the importance of the mechanical structure and soluble mediators present in the surrounding niche for the proper activity and differentiation of stem cells.

  1. Anti-proliferative and angio-suppressive effect of Stoechospermum marginatum (C. Agardh) Kutzing extract using various experimental models.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayak, R.C.; Puttananjaiah, S.; Chatterji, A.; Salimath, B.

    , hindering the recognition of competent dietary-based chemo preventive approaches. The aim of this research was to establish the antiproliferative potency and angiosuppressive mode of action of Stoechospermum marginatum seaweed methanolic extract using...

  2. Triphala Extract Suppresses Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Stem Cells via Suppressing c-Myc/Cyclin D1 and Elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 Ratio

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    Ramakrishna Vadde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the USA. Cancer stem cells (CSCs have the ability to drive continued expansion of the population of malignant cells. Therefore, strategies that target CSCs could be effective against colon cancer and in reducing the risk of relapse and metastasis. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of triphala, a widely used formulation in Indian traditional medicine, on HCT116 colon cancer cells and human colon cancer stem cells (HCCSCs. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and phytochemical composition (LC-MS-MS of methanol extract of triphala (MET were also measured. We observed that MET contains a variety of phenolics including naringin, quercetin, homoorientin, and isorhamnetin. MET suppressed proliferation independent of p53 status in HCT116 and in HCCSCs. MET also induced p53-independent apoptosis in HCCSCs as indicated by elevated levels of cleaved PARP. Western blotting data suggested that MET suppressed protein levels of c-Myc and cyclin D1, key proteins involved in proliferation, and induced apoptosis through elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, MET inhibited HCCSCs colony formation, a measure of CSCs self-renewal ability. Anticancer effects of triphala observed in our study warrant future studies to determine its efficacy in vivo.

  3. Pyrolysates of raw vitrinites and their residues after CS2-NMP solvent extraction and its significance for petroleum geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dayong; PENG Ping'an

    2006-01-01

    Binary solvent (CS2-NMP) has extreme high extraction ability to coals, and it can extract most bitumens out of coals and vitrinites. And large amount of messages on side chains and their distribution character in vitrinites should be acquired through flash pyrolysis before and after binary solvent (CS2-NMP) extraction. A few low maturated coals have been selected and vitrinites are handpicked from coals. Then vitrinites have been extracted using different solvents in the order of polarity. Flash pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrum has been applied to samples. The result shows that CS2-NMP is efficient for the extraction of vitirnites, giving much higher extraction yield than common solvents. Production ratio of liquid hydrocarbons in pyrolysates of vitrinites extracted with CS2-NMP is lower than that of raw vitrinites. And relative ratio of each component in pyrolysates has changed apparently. Production ratio of aliphatic hydrocarbons, especially those long chain aliphatics have decreased much after mixed solvent extraction. It shows that bitumens extracted with CS2-NMP have largely contributed to pyrolysates, especially those aliphatics in pyrolysates.

  4. Tumor-targeted delivery of a C-terminally truncated FADD (N-FADD) significantly suppresses the B16F10 melanoma via enhancing apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Wen; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Huang, Xian-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Xin; Zhang, Lin-Kai; Li, Jia-Huang; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), a pivotal adaptor protein transmitting apoptotic signals, is indispensable for the induction of extrinsic apoptosis. However, overexpression of FADD can form large, filamentous aggregates, termed death effector filaments (DEFs) by self-association and initiate apoptosis independent of receptor cross-linking. A mutant of FADD, which is truncated of the C-terminal tail (m-FADD, 182–205 aa) named N-FADD (m-FADD, 1–181 aa), can dramatically up-regulate the strength of FADD self-association and increase apoptosis. In this study, it was found that over-expression of FADD or N-FADD caused apoptosis of B16F10 cells in vitro, even more, N-FADD showed a more potent apoptotic effect than FADD. Meanwhile, Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain VNP20009 was engineered to express FADD or N-FADD under the control of a hypoxia-induced NirB promoter and each named VNP-pN-FADD and VNP-pN-N-FADD. The results showed both VNP-pN-FADD and VNP-pN-N-FADD delayed tumor growth in B16F10 mice model, while VNP-pN-N-FADD suppressed melanoma growth more significantly than VNP-pN-FADD. Additionally, VNP-pN-FADD and VNP-pN-N-FADD induced apoptosis of tumor cells by activating caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Our results show that N-FADD is a more potent apoptotic inducer and VNP20009-mediated targeted expression of N-FADD provides a possible cancer gene therapeutic approach for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:27767039

  5. Complete suppression of metastable phase and significant enhancement of magnetic properties of B-rich PrFeB nanocomposites prepared by devitrifying amorphous ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. Y.; Chiu, C. H.; Zhang, L. C.; Biswas, K.; Ehrenberg, H.; Chang, W. C.; Eckert, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of refractory element addition on phase transformation, crystallization behavior and magnetic properties of Pr 8.5Fe 81.5B 10 (addition-free) and Pr 8.5Fe 81.5M 2B 10 (M=V, Cr, Nb, Zr, Ti) ribbons has been investigated. The annealed addition-free ribbon as well as the samples with V or Cr additions are mainly composed of the metastable Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phase, whereas annealed ribbons with Nb, Zr or Ti additions primarily consist of Pr 2Fe 14B and a minor amount of Fe 3B/boride. The complete suppression of the metastable Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phase due to Nb, Zr or Ti additions leads to a significant enhancement of the magnetic properties. For example, the remanence, the coercivity and the energy product are remarkably increased from 2.5 kG, 0.4 kOe and 0.2 MG Oe for the addition-free material to 9.2 kG, 4.7 kOe and 7.6 MG Oe for the specimens with Nb addition. The successful elimination of the metastable Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phase is believed to profit from two factors: (a) Nb, Zr or Ti atoms substitute the Pr site, comparatively increase the Pr content, and thus inhibit the nucleation of Pr-lean Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phases, and (b) the formation of Nb, Zr, or Ti borides consumes some part of B, which hinders the generation of the B-rich Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phase.

  6. Complete suppression of metastable phase and significant enhancement of magnetic properties of B-rich PrFeB nanocomposites prepared by devitrifying amorphous ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.Y. [FG Physikalische Metallkunde, FB 11 Material- und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: wyzhang2005@yahoo.com; Chiu, C.H. [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, 168, San-Hsing, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Zhang, L.C. [FG Physikalische Metallkunde, FB 11 Material- und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Biswas, K. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Ehrenberg, H. [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Chang, W.C. [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, 168, San-Hsing, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Eckert, J. [FG Physikalische Metallkunde, FB 11 Material- und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The effect of refractory element addition on phase transformation, crystallization behavior and magnetic properties of Pr{sub 8.5}Fe{sub 81.5}B{sub 10} (addition-free) and Pr{sub 8.5}Fe{sub 81.5}M{sub 2}B{sub 10} (M=V, Cr, Nb, Zr, Ti) ribbons has been investigated. The annealed addition-free ribbon as well as the samples with V or Cr additions are mainly composed of the metastable Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 23}B{sub 3} phase, whereas annealed ribbons with Nb, Zr or Ti additions primarily consist of Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and a minor amount of Fe{sub 3}B/boride. The complete suppression of the metastable Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 23}B{sub 3} phase due to Nb, Zr or Ti additions leads to a significant enhancement of the magnetic properties. For example, the remanence, the coercivity and the energy product are remarkably increased from 2.5 kG, 0.4 kOe and 0.2 MG Oe for the addition-free material to 9.2 kG, 4.7 kOe and 7.6 MG Oe for the specimens with Nb addition. The successful elimination of the metastable Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 23}B{sub 3} phase is believed to profit from two factors: (a) Nb, Zr or Ti atoms substitute the Pr site, comparatively increase the Pr content, and thus inhibit the nucleation of Pr-lean Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 23}B{sub 3} phases, and (b) the formation of Nb, Zr, or Ti borides consumes some part of B, which hinders the generation of the B-rich Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 23}B{sub 3} phase.

  7. The leaf extract of Mallotus japonicus and its major active constituent, rutin,suppressed on melanin production in murine B16F1 melanoma简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junsei; Taira; Eito; Tsuchida; Masatsugu; Uehara; Natsuko; Ohhama; Wakana; Ohmine; Takayuki; Ogi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find anti-melanogenesis materials used in whitening cosmetics.Methods: The ethanolic leaf extract of Mallotus japonicus(M. japonicus) having an anti-melanogenesis activity was separated by a sephadex LH-20 chromatography. Each fraction was measured for its tyrosinase inhibitory activity together with its polyphenol content using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The anti-melanogenesis activity of the active fractions was determined by the melanin content in the murine B16F1 melanoma. The active fractions were put together due to similar constituents, and then separated by high performance liquid chromatography using a C-18 ODS column. The major antimelanogenesis compound was identified using1 H and13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.Results: The ethanolic leaf extract of M. japonicus showed an anti-tyrosinase activity with a high polyphenol content, resulting in suppression of melanin production in the B16F1 melanoma. The extract was separated and the active compound was identical as rutin based on the1 H,13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis data. In addition, the rutin treatment with cells reduced the melanin content in a concentration dependent manner without any cell toxicity. The leaf extract of M. japonicus containing rutin would be useful in whitening cosmetics for protection from UV-light exposure to be limiting the accumulation of melanin in skin.Conclusions: The leaf extract of M. japonicus and/or rutin isolated from the extract as a key whitening agent would be useful as a whitening cosmetic material for protecting against disorder skin due to melanin accumulation.

  8. The leaf extract ofMallotus japonicus and its major active constituent, rutin, suppressed on melanin production in murine B16F1 melanoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junsei Taira; Eito Tsuchida; Masatsugu Uehara; Natsuko Ohhama; Wakana Ohmine; Takayuki Ogi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To find anti-melanogenesis materials used in whitening cosmetics. Methods: The ethanolic leaf extract ofMallotus japonicus (M. japonicus) having an anti-melanogenesis activity was separated by a sephadexLH-20 chromatography. Each fraction was measured for its tyrosinase inhibitory activity together with its polyphenol content using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The anti-melanogenesis activity of the active fractions was determined by the melanin content in the murine B16F1 melanoma. The active fractions were put together due to similar constituents, and then separated by high performance liquid chromatography using a C-18 ODS column. The major anti-melanogenesis compound was identified using 1Hand13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The ethanolic leaf extract ofM. japonicus showed an anti-tyrosinase activity with a high polyphenol content, resulting in suppression of melanin production in the B16F1 melanoma. The extract was separated and the active compound was identical as rutin based on the1H,13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis data. In addition, the rutin treatment with cells reduced the melanin content in a concentration dependent manner without any cell toxicity. The leaf extract ofM. japonicus containing rutin would be useful in whitening cosmetics for protection from UV-light exposure to be limiting the accumulation of melanin in skin. Conclusions: The leaf extract ofM. japonicus and/or rutin isolated from the extract as a key whitening agent would be useful as a whitening cosmetic material for protecting against disorder skin due to melanin accumulation.

  9. Crocus sativus stigma extract and its major constituent crocin possess significant antiproliferative properties against human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Anna M; Mancini, Andrea; Lizzi, Anna Rita; De Simone, Angela; Marroccella, Carmine Esposito; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Tatone, Carla; Festuccia, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of saffron extract (SE) and its major constituent crocin on 5 different malignant and 2 nonmalignant prostate cancer cell lines. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the purity and content of crocin were determined. All cells were incubated with different concentrations of SE or crocin for 48 h. Cell cycle and apoptosis were also evaluated. In a time- and concentration-dependent manner, both SE and crocin reduced cell proliferation in all malignant cell lines with IC50 values ranging between 0.4 and 4 mg/ml for SE and between 0.26 and 0.95 mM/ml for crocin. Nonmalignant cells were not affected. Flow cytometry profiles revealed that most cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase with a significant presence of apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of Bcl-2 was strikingly downregulated, whereas Bax was upregulated. Analysis of caspase activity indicated a caspase-dependent pathway with involvement of caspase-9 activation, suggesting an intrinsic pathway. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that both SE and crocin can inhibit cell proliferation, arrest cell cycle progression, inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer. Consequently, these agents could potentially be used as a chemopreventive as well as a chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer management.

  10. Significant Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) in the Lipids Extracted by Supercritical CO2 from the Livers of Australian Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung T; Zhang, Wei; Barber, Andrew R; Su, Peng; He, Shan

    2015-05-13

    Australian rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) liver contains approximately 24.3% (w/w) lipids, which can contain a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, this material has been found to be contaminated with arsenic (240 mg/kg) and cadmium (8 mg/kg). The high level of contaminants in the raw material and the large amount of PUFAs in the lipids prove a significant challenge in the extraction of high-quality lipids from this byproduct by conventional methods. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a highly promising technology for lipid extraction with advantages including low contamination and low oxidation. The technique was optimized to achieve nearly 94% extraction of lipids relative to conventional Soxhlet extraction in Australian rock lobster liver at conditions of 35 MPa and 50 °C for 4 h. The extracted lipids are significantly enriched in PUFAs at 31.3% of total lipids, 4 times higher than those in the lipids recovered by Soxhlet extraction (7.8%). Specifically, the concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in SC-CO2 extraction are 7 times higher than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, very small amounts of toxic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids, 0.5-27 times lower than those in the Soxhlet-extracted lipids, which are 40-200 times lower than the regulatory limit maximum values. The low levels of contaminants and the high proportion of PUFAs (dominated by DHA and EPA) found in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids from Australian rock lobster liver suggest that the material could potentially be used as a valuable source of essential fatty acids for human consumption.

  11. Mechanisms of cinnamon extract-induced suppression of the overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and is associated with aberrant metabolism of apoB-containing lipoprotein particles produced by not only the liver but also the small intestine. We have reported previously that an aqueous extract from cinnamon (CE) improves high...

  12. Tumorigenic effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals are alleviated by licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract through suppression of AhR expression in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiao Ting; de la Cruz, Joseph; Hwang, Seong Gu; Hong, Heeok

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been reported to interfere with estrogen signaling. Exposure to these chemicals decreases the immune response and causes a wide range of diseases in animals and humans. Recently, many studies showed that licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract (LRE) commonly called "gamcho" in Korea exhibits antioxidative, chemoprotective, and detoxifying properties. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of LRE and to determine if and how LRE can alleviate the toxicity of EDCs. LRE was prepared by vacuum evaporation and freeze-drying after homogenization of licorice root powder that was soaked in 80% ethanol for 72 h. We used 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a representative EDC, which is known to induce tumors or cancers; MCF-7 breast cancer cells, used as a tumor model, were treated with TCDD and various concentrations of LRE (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. As a result, TCDD stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation, but LRE significantly inhibited TCDD-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of TCDD toxicity-related genes, i.e., aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), AhR nuclear translocator, and cytochrome P450 1A1, was also down-regulated by LRE in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of cell cycle distribution after treatment of MCF-7 cells with TCDD showed that LRE inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via G2/M phase arrest. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis also revealed that LRE dose-dependently increased the expression of the tumor suppressor genes p53 and p27 and down-regulated the expression of cell cycle-related genes. These data suggest that LRE can mitigate the tumorigenic effects of TCDD in breast cancer cells by suppression of AhR expression and cell cycle arrest. Thus, LRE can be used as a potential toxicity-alleviating agent against EDC-mediated diseases.

  13. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Pia K; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf; Overmann, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particular Actino bacteria and Proteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Pia K.; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particular Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. PMID:26896137

  15. Ethylacetate extract from Draconis Resina inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses in vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages via suppression of ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Sook-Kyoung; Yi, Hyo-Seung; Yun, Hyun-Jeong; Ko, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Sun-Dong

    2010-05-01

    Draconis Resina (DR) is a type of dragon's blood resin obtained from Daemomorops draco BL. (Palmae). DR has long been used as a traditional Korean herbal medicine, and is currently used in traditional clinics to treat wounds, tumors, diarrhea, and rheumatism, insect bites and other conditions. In this study, we evaluated fractionated extracts of DR to determine if they inhibited the production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. The results of this analysis revealed that the ethylacetate extract of Draconis Resina (DREA) was more potent than that of other extracts. Moreover, DREA inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-8 and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, treatment with an NADPH oxidase assembly inhibitor, AEBSF, efficiently blocked LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation, as did DREA. These findings indicate that DREA inhibits the production of NO, PGE(2), TNF-alpha, IL-8, and IL-6 by LPS via the inhibition of ROS production, which demonstrates that DREA inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses via the suppression of ROS production. Taken together, these results indicate that DREA has the potential for use as an anti-atherosclerosis agent.

  16. Myrciaria cauliflora extract improves diabetic nephropathy via suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation in streptozotocin-nicotinamide mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng-Dong Hsu; Chia-Chun Wu; Chi-Nan Hung; Chau-Jong Wang; Hui-Pei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Myrciaria cauliflora is a functional food rich in anthocyanins, possessing antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Our previous results demonstrated M. cauliflora extract (MCE) had beneficial effects in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and via the inhibition of Ras/PI3K/Akt and kidney fibrosis-related proteins. The purpose of this study was to assess the benefit of MCE in diabetes associated with kidney inflammation and glycemic regulation in streptozotocin–nicotinamide (STZ/NA)-induced diab...

  17. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Rameshkumar Santhanam; Sunghyun Hong; Jin-Woo Jhoo; Songmun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the inhibitory effects of acetone extracts from the stem bark of three Acacia species(Acacia dealbata, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia leucophloea) on nitric oxide production.Methods: The lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were used to investigate the regulatory effect of acetone extracts of three Acacia stem barks on nitric oxide production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase,cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a. Further, the phenolic profile of acetone extracts from the Acacia barks was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis.Results: All the three extracts significantly decreased LPS-induced NO production as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a in a concentration dependent manner(25, 50 and 75 mg/m L). In the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, acetone extract of Acacia ferruginea bark revealed the presence of 12 different phenolic components including quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid and rosmanol. However, Acacia dealbata and Acacia leucophloea barks each contained 6 different phenolic components.Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  18. Inhibitory effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark extract on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through suppressions of arachidonic acid liberation and ERK1/2 MAPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong-Ju; Lim, Yong; Park, Young-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Keun; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Hong, Jin-Tae; Takeoka, Gary R; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Mi-Ran; Kim, Jeong-Han; Park, Byeoung-Soo

    2006-11-03

    The antiplatelet and antiproliferative activities of extract of Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark (taheebo) were investigated using washed rabbit platelets and cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. n-Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed marked and selective inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen and arachidonic acid (AA) in a dose-dependent manner. These fractions, especially the chloroform fraction, also significantly suppressed AA liberation induced by collagen in [(3)H]AA-labeled rabbit platelets. The fractions, especially the chloroform fraction, potently inhibited cell proliferation and DNA synthesis induced by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, and inhibited the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) stimulated by PDGF-BB, in the same concentration range that inhibits VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis.

  19. Exogenous neutrophil elastase enters bronchial epithelial cells and suppresses cigarette smoke extract-induced heme oxygenase-1 by cleaving sirtuin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Jeong, Jiyeong; Koo, Yoon-Jung; Jang, An-Hee; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2017-07-14

    An imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant activity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke, a major risk factor of COPD, induces cellular oxidative stress, but levels of antioxidants such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) are reduced in individuals with severe COPD. In this study, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of reduced HO-1 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells. We found that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) increases HO-1 levels via activation of NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). However, pretreating cells with the protease neutrophil elastase (NE) suppressed the CSE-induced expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein. NE also decreased the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) level, but did not inhibit CSE-induced nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of Nrf2. Transfection of cells with a Myc/His-tagged SIRT1 expression vector completely blocked the NE-mediated suppression of HO-1 expression. We further noted that the NE-induced down-regulation of SIRT1 was not due to decreased transcription or proteasomal/lysosomal degradation or loss of solubility. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that NE enters the cell cytoplasm, and we observed that NE directly cleaved SIRT1 in vitro, indicating that SIRT1 levels are decreased via direct degradation by internalized NE. Of note, we observed decreased SIRT1 levels in NE-treated primary human bronchial epithelial cells and in lung homogenates from both smokers and patients with COPD. In conclusion, NE suppresses CSE-induced HO-1 expression by cleaving SIRT1. This finding indicates the importance of cross-talk between oxidative stress and protease responses in the pathogenesis of COPD. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Ethyl acetate extract from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and its main constituents inhibit α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanogenesis by suppressing oxidative stress in B16 mouse melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Xu, Xiao-Hao; Wang, Ke; Yang, Xin-Zhao; Bi, Ying-Fei; Yan, Yao; Liu, Jian-Zeng; Chen, Xue-Nan; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Guo, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Da-Qing; Sun, Li-Wei

    2017-08-17

    Hyperpigmentation disease involves darkening of the skin color due to melanin overproduction. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and has a long history of use as a skin lightener to inhibit melanin formation in China, Korea and some other Asian countries. However, the constituents and the molecular mechanisms by which they affect melanogenesis are not fully clear. The purpose of this study was to identify the active ingredient in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer extract that inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity and to investigate the antioxidative capacity and molecular mechanisms of the effective extract on melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer were successively fractionated with an equal volume of chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butyl alcohol to determine the effects by examining the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. The effective fraction was analyzed using HPLC and LC-MS. The antioxidative capacity and the inhibitory effects on melanin content, cell intracellular tyrosinase activity, and melanogenesis protein levels were determined in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-treated B16 mouse melanoma cells. The ethyl acetate extract from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PG-2) had the highest inhibiting effect on mushroom tyrosinase, mainly contained phenolic acids, including protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid, and caffeic acid, and exhibited apparent antioxidant activity in vitro. PG-2 and its main constituents significantly decreased melanin content, suppressed cellular tyrosinase activity, and reduced expression of tyrosinase protein to inhibit B16 cells melanogenesis induced by α-MSH, and no cytotoxic effects were observed. They also inhibited cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) level in α-MSH-treated B16 cells effectively. And those activities of its main constituents

  1. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  2. Aqueous extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata suppresses LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation in RAW 264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages and exerts hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride-treated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Kai; Lin, Chun-Kuang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Feng-Lin; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chen, Wei-Chun; Yeh, Chi-Chen; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the previous investigations of bioactivity of aqueous extract of the edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT) against H2O2-induced DNA damage and hepatitis C virus replication, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of AEGT against inflammation and hepatotoxicity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 cells, primary rat peritoneal macrophages and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatitis model in rats. AEGT concentration-dependently inhibited the elevated RNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, thereby reducing nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels, respectively. Moreover, AEGT significantly suppressed the production of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. These inhibitory effects were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation by AEGT in LPS-stimulated cells. In addition, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of AEGT in a rat model of CCl4-intoxicated acute liver injury, which was evident from reduction in the elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels as well as amelioration of histological damage by pre-treatment or post-treatment of AEGT. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that AEGT may serve as a potential supplement in the prevention or amelioration of inflammatory diseases.

  3. Aqueous extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata suppresses LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation in RAW 264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages and exerts hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride-treated rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Kai Tseng

    Full Text Available In addition to the previous investigations of bioactivity of aqueous extract of the edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT against H2O2-induced DNA damage and hepatitis C virus replication, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of AEGT against inflammation and hepatotoxicity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 cells, primary rat peritoneal macrophages and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced acute hepatitis model in rats. AEGT concentration-dependently inhibited the elevated RNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, thereby reducing nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels, respectively. Moreover, AEGT significantly suppressed the production of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. These inhibitory effects were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation by AEGT in LPS-stimulated cells. In addition, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of AEGT in a rat model of CCl4-intoxicated acute liver injury, which was evident from reduction in the elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels as well as amelioration of histological damage by pre-treatment or post-treatment of AEGT. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that AEGT may serve as a potential supplement in the prevention or amelioration of inflammatory diseases.

  4. Flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract alleviates diet-induced insulin resistance via suppressing mTOR/SREBP-1 mediated lipogenesis in liver and restoring insulin signaling in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Wen; Wei, Chu-Chun; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chen, Yun-An; Chang, Sue-Joan

    2016-10-01

    An elevated intracellular lipid contents resulted from lipid oversupply links obesity to insulin resistance. Flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract, oligonol, exhibited anti-obesity property in vitro and in vivo; however, the effects of oligonol on peripheral lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity have not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that oligonol alleviated insulin resistance via decreasing intracellular lipid contents in peripheral tissues. Dietary oligonol supplementation (20 or 200 mg/kg bw) reduced glucose and insulin levels, improved oral glucose tolerance, and suppressed inflammatory markers, MCP-1 and IL-6, in High-Fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice. Marked decreases in subcutaneous and visceral fat area, adipocyte size, and adipocyte released hormones including leptin and resistin by high-dose oligonol treatment were associated with downregulation of PPARγ gene expression. Significantly reduced intrahepatocellular lipid contents and hepatic triglyceride levels by oligonol (both doses) were associated with downregulation of mTOR/SREBP-1-mediated de novo lipogenesis. In skeletal muscle, oligonol enhanced Sirtuin1 protein expression and AMPKα activation, consequently resulted in reductions of intramuscular lipid contents and triglyceride levels and restoration of IRS-1 and AS160 phosphorylation. Oligonol reduced intracellular lipid contents in liver and skeletal muscle and suppressed inflammatory markers, thereby alleviating HFD-induced insulin resistance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Herbal tea extract combined with light-induced significant in vitro cytotoxicity of human bladder cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseyo, Unyime; Kim, Albert; Stavropoulos, Nicholas E.; Skalkos, Dimitris; Nseyo, U. U.; Chung, Theodore D.

    2005-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antiviral, and antidepressant activities of the Greek herb, Hypericum Perforatum L, HP L, have been attributed to the total extract or single constituents. We investigated the use of the extract,specifically of the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) of Epirus"HPL in photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone and in combination with recombinant Interferon-a2b (IFN) and gemcitabine (GCB) in the treatment of human bladder cancer cells. The PMF was extracted from the dry herb with methanol, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with petroleum ether. T-24 bladder cancer cells were plated (105 cells/well) and placed in the incubator (370 C, 5%CO) for 24 hours prior to addition of drugs. PMF 60ug/ml was added and incubation continued. After 24 hours, the cells were subjected to laser light (630nm) treatment with 0, 1, 4 and 8 Joules. After reincubation for 24 hours, IFN, (50,000 IU) or GCB, (2ug/ml) was added to the PDT-treated cells. After this incubation cell survival was assessed by the MTT assay. PMF-PDT alone-induced percent cell kill of 0%, 8%, 44% and 80% versus 31%, 64 and 86 % for PMF-PDT and IFN, versus 63%, 80% and 88% for MPF-PDT plus GCB at 1, 2, 4 and 8 Joules respectively. IFN and GCB induced 20% and 53% cell kill respectively. Our data suggest that MPF may be an effective agent for in vitro photodynamic therapy. PMF-PDT combined with Intron A, or gemcitabine achieved improved kill of cultured bladder cancer cells. Confirmation of these results in preclinical studies may lead to clinical trials.

  6. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, part II: Grafting of polyphenols extracted from grape skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenols, as one of the most important family of phytochemicals protective substances from grape fruit, possess various biological activities and health-promoting benefits, for example: inhibition of some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, reduction of plasma oxidative stress and slowing aging. The combination of polyphenols and biomaterials may have good potential to reach good bioavailability and controlled release, as well as to give biological signaling properties to the biomaterial surfaces. In this research, conventional solvent extraction was developed for obtaining polyphenols from dry grape skins. The Folin&Ciocalteu method was used to determine the amount of total polyphenols in the extracts. Surface functionalization of two bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2) was performed by grafting the extracted polyphenols on their surfaces. The effectiveness of the functionalization was tested by UV spectroscopy, which analyzes the amount of polyphenols in the uptake solution (before and after functionalization) and on solid samples, and XPS, which analyzes the presence of phenols on the material surface.

  7. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-02-22

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA.

  8. An Aqueous-Ethanol Extract of Liriope spicata var. prolifera Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy through Suppression of Renal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jen Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tuberous root of Liriope spicata var. prolifera (TRLS; Liliaceae family is valued for the ability to promote glucose homeostasis, and it may therefore be utilized as an adjuvant therapy in the control of diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an aqueous ethanol extract from TRLS (TRLS-ext (100 or 200 mg kg−1 per day for eight weeks on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN. Renal dysfunction in diabetic rats was ameliorated by TRLS-ext as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, as well as increased blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria. Treatment with TRLS-ext was found to markedly improve histological architecture in the diabetic kidney. Hyperglycemia induced degradation of inhibitory kappa B and reduced nuclear factor kappa B activation, leading to increased infiltration of macrophages and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. All of the above abnormalities were reversed by TRLS-ext treatment, which also decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fibronectin in the diabetic kidneys. These findings provide a perspective on the renoprotective effects of TRLS-ext in DN.

  9. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA. PMID:28225075

  10. Distribution and significance of C40+ alkanes in the extracts of Cretaceous source rocks from the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; ZiHui; FANG; Wei; ZHANG; JuHe; LI; ZhenGuang; HUANG; ChunYan; WANG; Xue; ZHAO; QinLing; HUO; QiuLi

    2007-01-01

    Source rock extracts and crude oils from the Songliao Basin were analyzed by high-temperature gas chromatography (HTGC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HTGC-MS) and gas chromatography-isotope ratio-mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS), for high molecular-weight alkanes. The distributions of n-alkanes in the Nenjiang Formation extracts are in the C14―C63 range; a bimodal distribution occurs in the and C21―40 regions. The C30―C37 n-alkanes are accompanied by C29―C35 hopanes, whereas the high molecular-weight C45―C47 n-alkanes co-occur with abundant isoalkanes, alkylcyclohexanes and alkylcyclopentanes. The high δ13C values of the n-alkanes and the microscopic maceral compositions indicate a highly diversified organic source input for the Nenjiang Formation source rocks, ranging from aquatic plants, blue alge-bacteria, to land plant material. In contrast, n-alkanes in the rock extracts of the Qingshankou Formation are characterized by a single modal distribution, with relatively low abundances of C29―C35 hopanes, but high molecular-weight isoalkanes, alkylcyclohexanes and alkylcyclopentanes. The relatively low δ13C values of C22―C44 n-alkanes and organic material compositions indicate that the source rocks in the Qingshankou Formation contain dominantly type I algal organic matter. The relative abundance of compounds in source rocks changes little at low maturity stage, but decreases drastically at higher maturity levels, with a concurrent reduction in the odd/even carbon predominance. In crude oils, in contrast, the relative abundance of compounds appears to relate closely with the oil source and oil viscosity.

  11. Ethyl acetate extract of Squilla oratoria suppresses growth of HepG2 cells by inducing S phase arrest

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    Xiangwei Qi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The oceans and seas are a rich source of organisms from which anti-cancer drugs can be isolated and developed. Marine organisms have been screened in our laboratory, and organic solvent extracts of Squilla oratoria (ESO have been shown to possess cytostatic effects on cancer cell lines of diverse origins. To explore the underlying mechanisms, the growth inhibition by ESO was investigated in the present study. Methods: Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC derived cells (HepG2 were used. The cells were challenged with ESO, cell cycle profile was assayed, and level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression and that of cyclin D1 and cyclin A were evaluated with flow cytomtery. The in vivo antitumor effect of ESO was tested in nude mouse xenografts. PCNA expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in nude mouse xenograft tissues. Results: With the increase in dose of injected ESO, expression of PCNA by human HCC xenografts increased. ESO inhibited the growth of human HCC HepG2 cells both in vitro and in vivo. The effect was correlated with arrest of the cell cycle in S phase. Expression of PCNA, which is a cell-cycle regulator that promotes S phase entry, was elevated in both cell lines and xenografts whereas that of cyclins that promote M phase entry was down-regulated by exposure to ESO. Conclusion: Growth inhibition was explained by arrest of the cell cycle in S phase and down-regulation of molecules that promote cells to enter S phase. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(4.000: 313-322

  12. Effective suppression of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes: role of significant reduction of carrier density and built-in field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang-Seok; Na, Jong-Ho; Son, Sung Jin; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A critical issue in GaN-based high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is how to suppress the efficiency droop problem occurred at high current injection while improving overall quantum efficiency, especially in conventional c-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW), without using complicated bandgap engineering or unconventional materials and structures. Although increasing thickness of each QW may decrease carrier density in QWs, formation of additional strain and defects as well as increased built-in field effect due to enlarged QW thickness are unavoidable. Here, we propose a facile and effective method for not only reducing efficiency droop but also improving quantum efficiency by utilizing c-plane InGaN/GaN QWs having thinner barriers and increased QW number while keeping the same single well thickness and total active layer thickness. As the barrier thickness decreases and the QW number increases, both internal electric field and carrier density within QWs are simultaneously reduced without degradation of material quality. Furthermore, we found overall improved efficiency and reduced efficiency droop, which was attributed to the decrease of the built-in field and to less influence by non-radiative recombination processes at high carrier density. This simple and effective approach can be extended further for high power ultraviolet, green, and red LEDs. PMID:27756916

  13. Ganoderiol A-enriched extract suppresses migration and adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells by inhibiting FAK-SRC-paxillin cascade pathway.

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    Guo-Sheng Wu

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion, migration and invasion are critical steps for carcinogenesis and cancer metastasis. Ganoderma lucidum, also called Lingzhi in China, is a traditional Chinese medicine, which exhibits anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation and anti-metastasis properties. Herein, GAEE, G. lucidum extract mainly contains ganoderiol A (GA, dihydrogenated GA and GA isomer, was shown to inhibit the abilities of adhesion and migration, while have a slight influence on that of invasion in highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells at non-toxic doses. Further investigation revealed that GAEE decreased the active forms of focal adhesion kinase (FAK and disrupted the interaction between FAK and SRC, which lead to deactivating of paxillin. Moreover, GAEE treatment downregulated the expressions of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42, and decreased the interaction between neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP and Cdc42, which impair cell migration and actin assembly. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that G.lucidum triterpenoids could suppress cell migration and adhesion through FAK-SRC-paxillin signaling pathway. Our study also suggests that GAEE may be a potential agent for treatment of breast cancer.

  14. Foliar Application of Extract from an Azalomycin-Producing Streptomyces malaysiensis Strain MJM1968 Suppresses Yam Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Sasikumar; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Woh

    2016-06-28

    Yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C.g) is the most devastating disease of yam (Dioscorea sp.). In the present study, we evaluated the culture filtrate extract (CFE) of azalomycin-producing Streptomyces malaysiensis strain MJM1968 for the control of yam anthracnose. MJM1968 showed strong antagonistic activity against C.g in vitro. Furthermore, the MJM1968 CFE was tested for inhibition of spore germination in C.g, where it completely inhibited spore germination at a concentration of 50 μg/ml. To assess the in planta efficacy of the CFE and spores of MJM1968 against C.g, a detached leaf bioassay was conducted, which showed both the treatments suppressed anthracnose development on detached yam leaves. Furthermore, a greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the CFE from MJM1968 as a fungicide for the control of yam anthracnose. The CFE non-treated plants showed a disease severity of >92% after 90 days of artificial inoculation with C.g, whereas the disease severity of CFE-treated and benomyl-treated yam plants was reduced to 26% and 15%, respectively, after 90 days. Analysis of the yam tubers from the CFE-treated and non-treated groups showed that tubers from the CFE-treated plants were larger than that of non-treated plants, which produced abnormal smaller tubers typical of anthracnose. This study demonstrated the utility of the CFE from S. malaysiensis strain MJM1968 as a biofungicide for the control of yam anthracnose.

  15. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND EXTRACTION OF BITUMEN FROM BITUMINOUS SAND AND HEAVY OIL IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nwizug-bee L. K.

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria has the largest oil sands and bitumen resources in Africa and is one of the main leading countries in the world from the point of view of its significant potential heavy oil deposits. Research of geological and physicochemical properties confirmed that the Nigerian bitumen is an important energy source and an alternative source of hydrocarbon feedstock for the petrochemical industry. Nigeria imports black oil for the petrochemical industry and its heavy oil can act in place of this bl...

  16. Suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways by goshonoside-F5 extracted from Rubi Fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Ming; Chen, Shi-Cai; Li, Run-Ping; Yuan, Liang-Xi; Bao, Jun-Min; Guo, Mei-Li

    2015-02-01

    Rubi Fructus, a traditional Chinese medicine, was considered as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine. In the present study, we investigated the signalling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of goshonoside-F5 (GF5), isolated from Rubi Fructus, in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. GF5 decreased NO and PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated macrophages (IC50=3.84 and 3.16μM). This effect involved the suppression of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression at the transcriptional level. Examination of the effects of GF5 on NF-κB signalling demonstrated that it inhibits the phosphorylation of IκB-α and IκB-β, blocking their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signalling was also observed, and phosphorylation of p38 and JNK was suppressed in the presence of GF5. Inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, were down-regulated by this compound after activation with LPS (IC50=17.04 and 4.09μM). Additionally, GF5 (30 and 90mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the circulating cytokine levels (IL-6 and TNF-α) and increased survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. These results show that GF5 significantly inhibits the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS, both in vitro and in vivo. Our results provide a strong pharmacological basis for further understanding the potential therapeutic role of GF5 in inflammatory disease and shed new light on the bioactivity of ent-labdane diterpene glucoside. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Suppressive effects of Chelidonium majus methanol extract in knee joint, regional lymph nodes, and spleen on collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Cheol; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Roh, Seong-Soo; Choi, Ho-Young; Seo, Young-Bae

    2007-05-30

    Chelidonium majus L. has multiple applications in Korean traditional medicine because of its anti-tumoral, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities and has long been known to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, no study on the anti-arthritic activity of Chelidonium majus has been reported in vivo. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with chronic inflammation characterized by hyperplasia of synovial cells in affected joints, which ultimately leads to the destruction of cartilage and bone. Cytokine production and gene expression were assessed during CIA (collagen-induced arthritis) model mice in knee joint, lymph node (LN), and spleen, using ELISA and competitive RT-PCR. DBA/1J mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen. After a second collagen immunization, mice were treated with CME orally at 400, 40mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. The severity of arthritis within the knee joints was evaluated by histological assessment of cartilage destruction and pannus formation. Administration of CME significantly suppressed the progression of CIA and inhibited the production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in spleen and lymph node. The erosion of cartilage was dramatically reduced in mouse knees after treatment with CME. In conclusion, our results demonstrates that CME significantly suppressed the progression of CIA and that this action was characterized by the decreased production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-gamma, B cells, gammadelta T cells (in spleen) and increased proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in vivo. In the serum of CME-treated mice, the levels of IgG and IgM RA factor were decreased.

  18. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND EXTRACTION OF BITUMEN FROM BITUMINOUS SAND AND HEAVY OIL IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwizug-bee L. K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has the largest oil sands and bitumen resources in Africa and is one of the main leading countries in the world from the point of view of its significant potential heavy oil deposits. Research of geological and physicochemical properties confirmed that the Nigerian bitumen is an important energy source and an alternative source of hydrocarbon feedstock for the petrochemical industry. Nigeria imports black oil for the petrochemical industry and its heavy oil can act in place of this black oil. In addition, researchers have successfully established the possibility of producing electrical energy from this heavy oil. Tar sands and bitumen are able to help improve the economy of Nigeria

  19. Sunitinib significantly suppresses the proliferation, migration, apoptosis resistance, tumor angiogenesis and growth of triple-negative breast cancers but increases breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, Edmund; Makey, Kristina L; Gibson, John; Chen, Fang; Cole, Shelby A; Megason, Gail C; Vijayakumar, Srinivassan; Miele, Lucio; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The majority of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are basal-like breast cancers. However there is no reported study on anti-tumor effects of sunitinib in xenografts of basal-like TNBC (MDA-MB-468) cells. In the present study, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 cells were cultured using RPMI 1640 media with 10% FBS. Vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were detected using ELISA (R & D Systams). MDA-MB-468 cells were exposed to sunitinib for 18 hours for measuring proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), migration (BD Invasion Chamber), and apoptosis (ApopTag and ApoScreen Anuexin V Kit). The effect of sunitinib on Notch-1 expression was determined by Western blot in cultured MDA-MB-468 cells. 10(6) MDA-MB-468 cells were inoculated into the left fourth mammary gland fat pad in athymic nude-foxn1 mice. When the tumor volume reached 100 mm(3), sunitinib was given by gavage at 80 mg/kg/2 days for 4 weeks. Tumor angiogenesis was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from the tumors were determined by flow cytometry analysis using CD44(+)/CD24(-) or low. ELISA indicated that VEGF was much more highly expressed in MDA-MB-468 cells than MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Sunitinib significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis resistance in cultured basal like breast cancer cells. Sunitinib significantly increased the expression of Notch-1 protein in cultured MDA-MB-468 or MDA-MB-231 cells. The xenograft models showed that oral sunitinib significantly reduced the tumor volume of TNBCs in association with the inhibition of tumor angiogeneisis, but increased breast CSCs. These findings support the hypothesis that the possibility should be considered of sunitinib increasing breast CSCs though it inhibits TNBC tumor angiogenesis and growth/progression, and that effects of sunitinib on Notch expression and hypoxia may increase breast cancer stem cells. This work provides the groundwork for an

  20. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Diethyl Ether Extract of Trinia glauca (L.) Dumort. (Apiaceae) and the Chemotaxonomic Significance of 5-O-Methylvisamminol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Đorđević, Miljana R; Dekić, Milan S; Blagojević, Polina D

    2016-04-01

    Analyses by GC, GC/MS, and NMR spectroscopy (1D- and 2D-experiments) of the essential oil and Et2O extract of Trinia glauca (L.) Dumort. (Apiaceae) aerial parts allowed a successful identification of 220 constituents, in total. The major identified compounds of the essential oil were (Z)-falcarinol (10.6%), bicyclogermacrene (8.0%), germacrene D (7.4%), δ-cadinene (4.3%), and β-caryophyllene (3.2%), whereas (Z)-falcarinol (47.2%), nonacosane (7.4%), and 5-O-methylvisamminol (4.0%) were the dominant constituents of the extract of T. glauca. One significant difference between the compositions of the herein and the previously analyzed T. glauca essential oils (only two reports) was noted. (Z)-Falcarinol was the major constituent in our case, whereas germacrene D (14.4 and 19.6%) was the major component of the previously studied oils. Possible explanations for this discrepancy were discussed. 5-O-Methylvisamminol, a (furo)chromone identified in the extract of T. glauca, has a limited occurrence in the plant kingdom and is a possible excellent chemotaxonomic marker (family and/or subfamily level) for Apiaceae.

  1. Enrichment and purification of total flavonoids from Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae extracts and their suppressive effect on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Qi, Chao; Wang, Gang; Dai, Xinpeng; Hou, Xiaohong

    2015-12-15

    In the present work, a simple and efficient chromatographic separation method was developed for preparative separation and enrichment of total flavonoids (TFs) from Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae (CJM) extracts and then the protective effect of TFs against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice was investigated. Enrichment and purification of TFs from CJM extracts were studied using six macroporous resins and HPD-750 resin was selected as the best resin according to its adsorption and desorption properties. The operating parameters of resin column chromatography were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, TFs from CJM with purity larger than 50% were produced and their antioxidant activity was further evaluated in vitro. The mice were orally administrated with the purified TFs for seven days and then given CCl4 (0.3%, 10mL/kg i.p.). The results showed that TFs of CJM significantly attenuated the activities of serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) compared with model group, as well as the relative liver weight. Histopathological observation also revealed that TFs reduced the incidence of liver lesions and improved hepatocyte abnormality. Moreover, oral administration of TFs significantly enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Histopathological and biochemical results elicited that TFs of CJM had significant hepatoprotective activity comparable to the standard silymarin. This is the first time to reveal the protective actions of the TFs from CJM against CCl4-induced liver damage in mice and this natural product should be developed as a new drug for treatment of live injury in future.

  2. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina, Willow Bark (Salix alba, and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shakibaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina, willow bark (Salix alba, and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG, β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  3. Oral Treatment with Extract of Agaricus blazei Murill Enhanced Th1 Response through Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Suppressed OVA-Sensitized Allergy in Mice

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    Go Bouike

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the mechanism of the antiallergic activity of Agaricus blazei Murill extract (ABME, the present paper used an in vivo allergy model and an in vitro intestinal gut model. During OVA sensitization, the serum IgE levels decreased significantly in ABME group. Interleukin (IL-4 and -5 produced from OVA-restimulated splenocytes was significantly decreased, and anti-CD3ε/CD28 antibody treatment also reduced IL-10, -4, and -5 production and increased IFN-γ production in ABME group. These results suggest that oral administration of ABME improves Th1/Th2 balance. Moreover, a coculture system constructed of Caco-2 cells and splenocytes from OT-II mice or RAW 264.7 cells indicated that the significant increases in IFN-γ production by ABME treatment. Therefore, it was concluded that the antiallergic activity of ABME was due to the activation of macrophages by epithelial cells and the promotion of the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th1 cells in the immune.

  4. Suppressive effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon extracts on lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in mouse macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu Yeon; Kwon, Taek Hwan; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sung-Joon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Jiyoung

    2008-04-30

    A variety of anti-inflammatory agents have been shown to exert chemopreventive activity via targeting of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB and AP-1. Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) has long been used in traditional oriental medicine. In this study, we demonstrated the inhibitory effects of LE extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of inflammatory cytokines. As an underlying mechanism of inhibition, LE extracts reduced LPS-induced transactivation of AP-1 as well as NF-kappaB in mouse macrophage cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that LE extracts inhibited the DNA binding activities of AP-1 and NF-kappaB. In addition, phosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha protein was suppressed by LE extracts. Moreover, LE extracts inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated signaling pathways. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of LE extracts may be mediated by the inhibition of signal transduction pathways that normally lead to the activation of AP-1and NF-kappaB. These inhibitory effects may be useful for chemoprevention of cancer or other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  5. A novel method for RNA extraction from FFPE samples reveals significant differences in biomarker expression between orthotopic and subcutaneous pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark; Maawy, Ali; Chang, Alexander; Lee, Jacqueline; Gharibi, Armen; Katz, Matthew H; Fleming, Jason; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael; Doebler, Robert; Kelber, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can identify and validate new biomarkers of cancer onset, progression and therapy resistance. Substantial archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer samples from patients represent a rich resource for linking molecular signatures to clinical data. However, performing NGS on FFPE samples is limited by poor RNA purification methods. To address this hurdle, we developed an improved methodology for extracting high-quality RNA from FFPE samples. By briefly integrating a newly-designed micro-homogenizing (mH) tool with commercially available FFPE RNA extraction protocols, RNA recovery is increased by approximately 3-fold while maintaining standard A260/A280 ratios and RNA quality index (RQI) values. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mH-purified FFPE RNAs are longer and of higher integrity. Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) gene expression signatures vary significantly under in vitro versus in vivo and in vivo subcutaneous versus orthotopic conditions. By using our improved mH-based method, we were able to preserve established expression patterns of KRas-dependency genes within these three unique microenvironments. Finally, expression analysis of novel biomarkers in KRas mutant PDAC samples revealed that PEAK1 decreases and MST1R increases by over 100-fold in orthotopic versus subcutaneous microenvironments. Interestingly, however, only PEAK1 levels remain elevated in orthotopically grown KRas wild-type PDAC cells. These results demonstrate the critical nature of the orthotopic tumor microenvironment when evaluating the clinical relevance of new biomarkers in cells or patient-derived samples. Furthermore, this new mH-based FFPE RNA extraction method has the potential to enhance and expand future FFPE-RNA-NGS cancer biomarker studies. PMID:27602776

  6. Methanol extract of Codium fragile inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells by suppressing nuclear factor-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Kang, Chang-Hee; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate whether the methanol extract of Codium fragile (MECF) regulates tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis were performed to analyze the expression of MMP-9 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunits, p65 and p50, and IκB in MDA-MB-231 cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used for cell viability. MMP-9 activity and invasion were measured by gelatin zymography and a matrigel invasion assay, respectively. NF-κB activity was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase activity. MECF had no effect on cell viability up to a concentration of 100 μg/mL in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells regardless of the presence of TNF-α. MDA-MB-231 cells that were stimulated with TNF-α showed a marked increase of invasion compared to the untreated control, whereas pretreatment with MECF downregulated the TNF-α-induced invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, zymography, western blot analysis, and RT-PCR confirmed that MECF decreased TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression and activity which is a key regulator for cancer invasion. According to an electrophoretic morbidity shift assay, pretreatment with MECF in MDA-MB-231 cells significantly decreased the TNF-α-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB, which is an important transcription factor for regulating cancer invasion-related genes such as MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with MECF sustained the expression of p65 and p50 in response to TNF-α in the cytosolic compartment. The luciferase assay demonstrated that MECF attenuated TNF-α-induced NF-κB luciferase activity. MECF exhibited its anti-invasive capability by downregulating TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression, resulting from the suppression of NF-κB activity in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231

  7. Comparison of Essential Oils Obtained from Different Extraction Techniques as an Aid in Identifying Aroma Significant Compounds of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, S Prasad

    2015-08-01

    Distribution of volatile constituents in the essential oil of nutmeg obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), high vacuum distillation (HVD) and super critical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared with reduced pressure distillation (RPD) and head space (HS) analysis. HS and RPD volatiles were characterized by a high content of sabinene, followed by α-pinene and β-pinene. Interestingly, unlike the SDE, HVD and SFE oils, distillates from HS and RPD were marked by the absence of phenolic ethers namely myristicin, elemicin and safrole. The HS and RPD volatiles possessed a pleasant nutmeg aroma indicating a significant role of terpenic constituents in contributing to the top aroma note. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) of the oils aided in establishing the role of sabinene, α-pinene and β-pinene in contributing to the distinctive note of the spice. A high odor activity value (OAV) of sabinene and α-pinene established the role of these two constituents in imparting the characteristic nutmeg odor.

  8. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  9. Zinc absorption from composite meals. I. The significance of whest extraction rate, zinc, calcium, and protein content in meals based on bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, B; Arvidsson, B; Cederblad, A; Björn-Rasmussen, E

    1980-04-01

    The absorption of zinc in man from composite meals based on bread was measured with a radionuclide technique using 65Zn and whole-body counting. Bread was made up from wheat flour of 100 and 72% extraction rate. A lower absolute amount of zinc was absorbed from the white bread compared to the absorption from the same amount of wholemeal bread. When the two types of bread were enriched with zinc chloride the absorption was higher from the white bread than from the wholemeal bread. Addition of calcium in the form of milk products improved the absorption of zinc from a meal with wholemeal bread. A significant positive correlation was found between zinc absorption and the protein content in meals containing milk, cheese, beef, and egg in various combinations with the wholemeal bread.

  10. 基于视觉显著性的人脸文字区域提取%Regional Extraction of Human Faces and Text Based on Visual Significant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何贵阳

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Matlab image text region detection method,a new method combining graphic separation and signifi-cant operation was proposed.Further significant fusion about traditional face text area detection results was realized based on visual significant face text region extraction demonstration system.The experimental results show that the proposed solution has higher recall ratio and precision.%基于Matlab 图像文字区域检测新方法对图文进行分离和显著性操作,并采用显著性度量对传统人脸文字区域检测的结果做进一步的显著性融合,实现了基于视觉显著性的人脸文字区域提取。实验结果表明,这种基于视觉显著性的人脸文字区域提取解决方案具有比较高的查全率和精确度。

  11. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  12. OM-X®, Fermented Vegetables Extract Suppresses Antigen-Stimulated Degranulation in Rat Basophilic Leukemia RBL-2H3 Cells and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Miyake, Yasuyoshi; Kasashima, Takuya; Shimomiya, Yoshie; Nakamura, Yuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Takahata, Muneaki

    2015-09-01

    OM-X® is a hand-made and naturally manufactured probiotic supplement. This fermented food product is made from vegetables, fruits, seaweeds and mushrooms, using 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. OM-X® is also known to have beneficial health properties, and some of its components show effects on antigen (Ag)-stimulated degranulation activity, indicating that OM-X® may be useful in the treatment of allergy responses and symptoms. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of OM-X® on Ag-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells, clarified the underlying mechanisms, and determined the active compounds in OM-X® for suppression of degranulation. Treatment with OM-X® gradually suppressed Ag-stimulated degranulation throughout the maturation period. OM-X® also gradually produced melanoidins by lactic acid bacterial fermentation during the maturation process. There was a high correlation between the suppression levels of Ag-stimulated degranulation and the browning of OM-X®. Furthermore, the inhibition of Ag-stimulated degranulation by OM-X® was found to be partially due to the direct inactivation of NADPH oxidase. To elucidate the in vivo effects of OM- X®, type I allergy model mice were orally administered with OM-X®, and the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction was measured. OM-X® intake remarkably suppressed the PCA reaction. Taken together, our findings suggest that OMX® could be a beneficial food to ameliorate allergic reactions.

  13. Suppression of human cervical cancer cell lines Hela and DoTc2 4510 by a mixture of lysine, proline, ascorbic acid, and green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomi, M W; Ivanov, V; Kalinovsky, T; Niedzwiecki, A; Rath, M

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women, once metastasized, leads to poor prognosis. We investigated the antitumor effect of a nutrient mixture (NM) containing lysine, proline, arginine, ascorbic acid, and green tea extract on human cervical cancer cells Hela (CCL-2) and DoTc2 4510 by measuring cell proliferation (MTT assay), modulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9) expression (gelatinase zymography), and cancer cell invasive potential (Matrigel). NM showed significant antiproliferative effect on CCL-2 and DoTc2 4510 cancer cells. The NM inhibited CCL-2 expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in a dose-dependent fashion, with virtual total inhibition of MMP-2 at 1000 microg/mL and MMP-9 at 500 microg/mL NM. Untreated DoTc2 4510 cells showed MMP-9 expression, which was enhanced with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate treatment. NM inhibited MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent fashion, with virtual inhibition at 500 microg/mL. Invasion of human cervical cancer cells CCL-2 and DoTc2 4510 through Matrigel decreased in a dose-dependent fashion, with 100% inhibition at 500 microg/mL NM (P cervical cancer by inhibiting critical steps in cancer development and spread.

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on Quercus acuta Thunb. (Fagaceae Extract: Active Constituents, Serum Uric Acid Suppression, and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Soo Yoon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus acuta Thunb. (Fagaceae (QA is cultivated as a dietary and ornamental plant in China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. It has been widely used as the main ingredient of acorn tofu, a traditional food in China and South Korea. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro and in vivo xanthine oxidase (XO inhibitory and antihyperuricemic activities of an ethyl acetate extract of QA leaf (QALE and identify its active phytochemicals using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and liquid chromatography (LC systems. The QALE was found to possess potent in vitro antioxidant and XO inhibitory activities. In vivo study using hyperuricemic mice induced with potassium oxonate demonstrated that the QALE could inhibit hepatic XO activity at a relatively low oral dose (50 mg/kg and significantly alleviate hyperuricemia to a similar extent as allopurinol. Several active compounds including vitamin E known to possess XO inhibitory activity were identified from the QALE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reports the active constituents and antihyperuricemic effect of QA, suggesting that it is feasible to use QALE as a food therapy or alternative medicine for alleviating hyperuricemia and gout.

  15. Standardized Salvia miltiorrhiza Extract Suppresses Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Attenuates Steatohepatitis Induced by a Methionine-Choline Deficient Diet in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Sung Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of standardized extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SME on gene and protein expression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH-related factors in activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSC, and in mice with steatohepatitis induced by a methionine-choline deficient (MCD diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were placed on an MCD or control diet for 8 weeks and SME (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg body weight was administered orally every other day for 4 or 6 weeks. HSCs from the LX-2 cell line were treated with transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1 or TGF-β1 plus SME (0.1–10 μg/mL. To investigate the effect of SME on reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced condition, LX-2 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or H2O2 plus SME (0.1–100 μg/mL. MCD administration for 12 weeks increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, TGF-β1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, C-reactive protein (CRP, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9. TGF-β1-induced LX-2 cells exhibited similar gene expression patterns. SME treatment significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression of NASH-related factors in the mouse model and HSCs. Histopathological liver analysis showed improved non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD activity and fibrosis score in SME-treated mice. The in vivo studies showed that SME had a significant effect at low doses. These results suggest that SME might be a potential therapeutic candidate for NAFLD treatment.

  16. Alpinia pricei Rhizome Extracts Induce Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Squamous Carcinoma KB Cells and Suppress Tumor Growth in Nude Mice

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    You-Cheng Hseu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia pricei has been shown to induce apoptosis in human squamous carcinoma (KB cells. In this study, we report the effectiveness of the ethanol (70% extracts of A. pricei rhizome (AP extracts in terms of tumor regression as determined using both in vitro cell culture and in vivo athymic nude mice models of KB cells. We found that the AP extract (25–200 μg/mL treatment decreased the proliferation of KB cells by arresting progression through the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. This cell cycle blockade was associated with reductions in cyclin A and B1, Cdc2, and Cdc25C, and increased p21/WAF1, Wee1, p53 and phospho-p53 (p-p53 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that AP extract treatment decreased metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA expression, while expression of their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 (TIMP-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, were increased in KB cells. Furthermore, AP extract treatment effectively delayed tumor incidence in nude mice inoculated with KB cells and reduced the tumor burden. AP extract treatment also induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation, as detected by in situ TUNEL staining. Thus, A. pricei may possess antitumor activity in human squamous carcinoma (KB cells.

  17. ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, significantly improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, So Young; Lee, Ki Yong; Koo, Kyung Ah; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Lim, Song Won; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2005-02-25

    We assessed the effects of oral treatments of ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, on learning and memory deficit. The cognition-enhancing effect of ESP-102 was investigated in scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) amnesic mice with both passive avoidance and Morris water maze performance tests. Acute oral treatment (single administration prior to scopolamine treatment) of mice with ESP-102 (doses in the range of 10 to 100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the passive avoidance performance test. Another noteworthy result included the fact that prolonged oral daily treatments of mice with much lower amounts of ESP-102 (1 and 10 mg/kg body weight) for ten days reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits. In the Morris water maze performance test, both acute and prolonged oral treatments with ESP-102 (single administration of 100 mg/kg body weight or prolonged daily administration of 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight for ten days, respectively, significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory deficits as indicated by the formation of long-term and/or short-term spatial memory. In addition, we investigated the effects of ESP-102 on neurotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta25-35) or glutamate in primary cultured cortical neurons of rats. Pretreatment of cultures with ESP-102 (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mug/ml) significantly protected neurons from neurotoxicity induced by either glutamate or Abeta25-35. These results suggest that ESP-102 may have some protective characteristics against neuronal cell death and cognitive impairments often observed in Alzheimer's disease, stroke, ischemic injury and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Ethanol Extracts of Fruiting Bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea Suppress CL1-5 Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells Migration by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/9 through ERK, JNK, p38, and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis is a primary cause of cancer death. Antrodia cinnamomea (A. cinnamomea, a medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, has shown antioxidant and anticancer activities. In this study, we first observed that ethanol extract of fruiting bodies of A. cinnamomea (EEAC exerted a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on migration and motility of the highly metastatic CL1-5 cells in the absence of cytotoxicity. The results of a gelatin zymography assay showed that A. cinnamomea suppressed the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-(MMP- 2 and MMP-9 in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot results demonstrated that treatment with A. cinnamomea decreased the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2; while the expression of the endogenous inhibitors of these proteins, that is, tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 increased. Further investigation revealed that A. cinnamomea suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK1/2. A. cinnamomea also suppressed the expressions of PI3K and phosphorylation of Akt. Furthermore, treatment of CL1-5 cells with inhibitors specific for PI3K (LY 294002, ERK1/2 (PD98059, JNK (SP600125, and p38 MAPK (SB203580 decreased the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. This is the first paper confirming the antimigration activity of this potentially beneficial mushroom against human lung adenocarcinoma CL1-5 cancer cells.

  19. Aqueous Date Flesh or Pits Extract Attenuates Liver Fibrosis via Suppression of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Reduction of Inflammatory Cytokines, Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Angiogenic Markers in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf M. Al-Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous data indicated the protective effect of date fruit extract on oxidative damage in rat liver. However, the hepatoprotective effects via other mechanisms have not been investigated. This study was performed to evaluate the antifibrotic effect of date flesh extract (DFE or date pits extract (DPE via inactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, reducing the levels of inflammatory, fibrotic and angiogenic markers. Coffee was used as reference hepatoprotective agent. Liver fibrosis was induced by injection of CCl4 (0.4 mL/kg three times weekly for 8 weeks. DFE, DPE (6 mL/kg, coffee (300 mg/kg, and combination of coffee + DFE and coffee + DPE were given to CCl4-intoxicated rats daily for 8 weeks. DFE, DPE, and their combination with coffee attenuated the elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. The increased levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and collagen deposition in injured liver were alleviated by both extracts. CCl4-induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin was suppressed indicating HSCs inactivation. Increased angiogenesis was ameliorated as revealed by reduced levels and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and CD31. We concluded that DFE or DPE could protect liver via different mechanisms. The combination of coffee with DFE or DPE may enhance its antifibrotic effects.

  20. Chronic administration of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) may compromise glycaemic efficacy of Sitagliptin with no significant effect in retinopathy in a diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurishe, Comfort; Kwanashie, Helen; Zezi, Abdulkadiri; Danjuma, Nuhu; Mohammed, Bisalla

    2016-12-24

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) has gained awareness for its antidiabetic effect, and is used as alternative therapy or concurrently with orthodox medicines such as sitagliptin in diabetes mellitus. This is without ascertaining the possibility of drug-herb interactions, which could either lead to enhanced antidiabetic efficacy, increased toxicity, or compromised glycaemic control with negative consequence in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the effect, of sitagliptin (50mg/kg), Moringa oleifera (300mg/kg) leaf extract, and a combination of both on glycaemic control parameters, lenticular opacity and changes in retinal microvasculature in alloxan (150mg/kg i.p) induced diabetic rat model. Seven groups of eight rats per group were used, with groups I, II and VII as normal (NC), diabetic (DC) and post-prandial controls (PPC). Groups III to VI were diabetic rats on sitagliptin (III), M. oleifera (IV), sitagliptin and M. oleifera (SM) (V), for 42 days with 2 weeks delayed treatment in a post-prandial hyperglycaemic group (PPSM) (VI). Glycaemic control parameters, insulin levels, body weights, and effects of retinal microvasculature on lenticular opacity/morphology were investigated. A significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels was displayed in SM group from day 14(60%) (poleifera showed a progressive decrease in anti-hyperglycaemic effect of sitagliptin, and although it delayed the onset of lenticular opacity (i.e. cataract-like changes) it did not prevent the progression nor ameliorated pathologic lesions in the retina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of cartilage degradation and suppression of PGE2 and MMPs expression by pomegranate fruit extract in a model of posttraumatic osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nahid; Khan, Nazir M; Ashruf, Omer S; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage degradation in the affected joints. Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibits cartilage degradation in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral consumption of PFE inhibits disease progression in rabbits with surgically induced OA. OA was surgically induced in the tibiofemoral joints of adult New Zealand White rabbits. In one group, animals were fed PFE in water for 8 wk postsurgery. In the second group, animals were fed PFE for 2 wk before surgery and for 8 wk postsurgery. Histologic assessment and scoring of the cartilage was per Osteoarthritis Research Society International guidelines. Gene expression and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) activity were determined using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and fluorometric assay, respectively. Interleukin (IL)-1 β, MMP-13, IL-6, prostaglandin (PG)E2, and type II collagen (COL2A1) levels in synovial fluid/plasma/culture media were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of active caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase p85 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Effect of PFE and inhibitors of MMP-13, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB was studied in IL-1 β-stimulated rabbit articular chondrocytes. Safranin-O-staining and chondrocyte cluster formation was significantly reduced in the anterior cruciate ligament transaction plus PFE fed groups. Expression of MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 mRNA was higher in the cartilage of rabbits given water alone but was significantly lower in the animals fed PFE. PFE-fed rabbits had lower IL-6, MMP-13, and PGE2 levels in the synovial fluid and plasma, respectively, and showed higher expression of aggrecan and COL2A1 mRNA. Significantly higher numbers of chondrocytes were positive for markers of apoptosis in the joints of rabbits with OA given water only compared with those in the PFE-fed groups. PFE pretreatment significantly reduced

  2. Protection against septic shock and suppression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and nitric oxide production on macrophages and microglia by a standard aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (VIMANG). Role of mangiferin isolated from the extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Gabino; Delgado, René; Lemus, Yeny; Rodríguez, Janet; García, Dagmar; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J

    2004-08-01

    The present study illustrates the effects of a standard aqueous extract, used in Cuba under the brand name of VIMANG, from the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. on the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide (NO) in in vivo and in vitro experiments. In vivo was determined by the action of the extract and its purified glucosylxanthone (mangiferin) on TNFalpha in a murine model of endotoxic shock using Balb/c mice pre-treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 0.125 mg kg(-1), i.p. In vitro, M. indica extract and mangiferin were tested on TNFalpha and NO production in activated macrophages (RAW264.7 cell line) and microglia (N9 cell line) stimulated with LPS (10ng ml(-1)) and interferon gamma (IFNgamma, 2U ml(-1)). M. indica extract reduced dose-dependently TNFalpha production in the serum (ED50 = 64.5 mg kg(-1)) and the TNFalpha mRNA expression in the lungs and livers of mice. Mangiferin also inhibited systemic TNFalpha at 20 mg kg(-1). In RAW264.7, the extract inhibited TNFalpha (IC50 = 94.1 microg ml(-1)) and NO (IC50 = 64.4 microg ml(-1)). In microglia the inhibitions of the extract were IC50 = 76.0 microg ml(-1) (TNFalpha) and 84.0 microg ml(-1) (NO). These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory response observed during treatment with M. indica extract must be related with inhibition of TNFalpha and NO production. Mangiferin, a main component in the extract, is involved in these effects. The TNFalpha and NO inhibitions by M. indica extract and mangiferin on endotoxic shock and microglia are reported here for the first time.

  3. Gardenia jasminoides extracts and gallic acid inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by suppression of JNK2/1 signaling pathways in BV-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hung Lin

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion:Taken together, these results indicate that the protective mechanism of the GJ extract involves an antioxidant effect and inhibition of JNK2/1 MAP kinase and COX-2 expressions in LPS-induced inflammation of BV-2 cells.

  4. SUPPRESSION OF DAMPING-OFF OF CUCUMBER CAUSED BY PYTHIUM ULTIMUM WITH LIVE CELLS AND EXTRACTS OF SERRATIA MARCESCENS N4-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally friendly control measures are needed for the soilborne pathogens Pythium ultimum and Meloidogyne incognita. These pathogens can cause severe losses to field- and greenhouse-grown cucumber and other cucurbits. Live cells and ethanol extracts of cultures of the bacterium Serratia mar...

  5. Mechanisms of cinnamon extract-induced suppression of the intestinal overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in insulin resistant high-fructose fed animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reported previously that cinnamon extract (CE) prevents high-fructose (HF) feeding-induced whole-body insulin resistance by enhancing insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated whether intestinal apolipoprotein overproduction is inhibited by CE in this insulin-resis...

  6. Quarkonium suppression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Petreczky

    2003-04-01

    I discuss quarkonium suppression in equilibrated strongly interacting matter. After a brief review of basic features of quarkonium production I discuss the application of recent lattice data on the heavy quark potential to the problem of quarkonium dissociation as well as the problem of direct lattice determination of quarkonium properties in finite temperature lattice QCD.

  7. Simultaneous determination of dimethylamine, trimethylamine and trimethylamine-n-oxide in aquatic products extracts by ion chromatography with non-suppressed conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Liu, Hong-ying; Xue, Chang-hu; Xin, Xue-qian; Xu, Jie; Chang, Yao-guang; Xue, Yong; Yin, Li-ang

    2009-07-31

    An ion chromatography method with non-suppressed conductivity detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine-n-oxide (TMAO) in aquatic products. They were separated by means of cation-exchange chromatography using a 3.0 mmol/L methanesulfonic acid solution as eluent and an IonPac CS17 column (250 mm x 4 mm i.d.) as the separation column. Detection limits of dimethylamine, trimethylamine and trimethylamine-n-oxide were 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 mg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of peak area were less than 3.53%. The recoveries were between 93.7% and 104.1%. Unlike traditional methods, this validated method is inexpensive and stable.

  8. Lemon Pepper Fruit Extract (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.) Suppresses the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Macrophages In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Yanti; Theodorus E. Pramudito; Nerissa Nuriasari; Katarina Juliana

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Lemon pepper fruits (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.; Rutaceae) have been used as a traditional source against stomach ache by Batak people in North Sumatera province, Indonesia. However, its scientific evidence for treatment of inflammatory disorders particularly gastritis has not been reported. Approach: Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of Lemon Pepper Fruit Extract (LPFE) against inflammatory biomarkers by conducting cell culture experiments in vitro. The fruit...

  9. The Hydroalcoholic Extract of Matricaria chamomilla Suppresses Migration and Invasion of Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikseresht, Mohsen; Kamali, Ali Mohammad; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Matricaria chamomilla is an aromatic plant with antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the inhibitory role of M. chamomilla on migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells remains unclear. This study investigated the methods to evaluate these anticancer mechanisms of M. chamomilla on human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines. The cells were treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. chamomilla at different concentrations (50-1300 μg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h in a culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. This study quantified the 50% growth inhibition concentrations (IC50) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; apoptosis and necrosis through Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining; cell proliferation and clone formation by clonogenic assay as well as cellular migration, invasion, and attachment. After 24, 48, and 72 h of treatment, the IC50levels were 992 ± 2.3 μg/mL, 893 ± 5.4 μg/mL, and 785 ± 4.8 μg/mL against MDA-MB-468, respectively, and 1288 ± 5.6 μg/mL, 926 ± 2.5 μg/mL, and 921 ± 3.5 μg/mL, against MCF-7, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the extract concentrations induced cellular apoptosis and necrosis and decreased cellular invasion or migration through 8 μm pores, colonization and attachment in a dose-dependent manner. It indicated time- and dose-dependent anti-invasive and antimigrative or proliferative and antitoxic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of chamomile on breast cancer cells. This study demonstrated an effective plant in preventing or treating breast cancer. Antioxidant compounds in Matricaria chamomilla have anticancer effects.Hydroalcoholic extract of M. chamomilla controls cellular proliferation and apoptosis induction.Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining suggested that the extract induces apoptosis more than necrosis.Hydroalcoholic extract of M. chamomilla prevents colonization and cellular migration of human breast

  10. Dual Stimulus-Dependent Effect of Oenothera paradoxa Extract on the Respiratory Burst in Human Leukocytes: Suppressing for Escherichia coli and Phorbol Myristate Acetate and Stimulating for Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Burzynska-Pedziwiatr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a growing body of evidence suggests that plant polyphenols can modulate human immune responses, their simultaneous action on monocyte and neutrophil oxidative burst is currently poorly understood. Based on the hypothesis that various polyphenols contained in plant extracts might affect the oxidative burst of phagocytes, we evaluated the effects of ethanolic O. paradoxa extract polyphenols on monocyte and neutrophil oxidative burst in vitro activated by different stimuli, including opsonized bacteria E. coli, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP. Samples were analyzed by the dihydrorhodamine flow cytometry assay. Our results showed that the extract repressed significantly and dose-dependently reactive oxygen species production in both cell types stimulated with E. coli and PMA (P < 0.05 and its inhibitory efficiency was stimulus- and cell-type-dependent. Interestingly, there was significant stimulatory effect of the extract on bursting phagocytes induced by fMLP (P < 0.05. Additionally, several flavonoids and phenolic compounds as well as penta-galloyl-β-(D-glucose (PGG, the representative of hydrolyzable tannins, were identified in the 60% extract by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. In summary, the ethanolic O. paradoxa extract, rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibits dual stimulus-dependent effect on the respiratory burst in human leukocytes; hence, it might affect immune responses in humans.

  11. Suppression of LPS-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris through inhibition of the NF-κB/Snail signaling pathway and regulation of EMT-related protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Hye; Jang, Eun Hyang; Hong, Darong; Jung, Bom; Park, Min-Ju; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal event in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Prunella vulgaris (PV) inhibits the proliferation of various cancer cells; however, its possible role in EMT has not been demonstrated. In the present study, we explored the effect of PV aqueous extract (PVAE), a typical medicine for decoction, on EMT. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced EMT-like phenotype changes in cancer cell lines that enhanced cell migration and invasion. PVAE markedly inhibited these effects and produced accompanying changes in the expression of EMT markers, including decreased expression of N-cadherin and vimentin, and increased expression of β-catenin. We found that PVAE effects on LPS-induced EMT were mediated by inhibition of the NF-κB/Snail signaling pathway. Our findings provide new evidence that PVAE suppresses cancer invasion and migration by inhibiting EMT. Therefore, we suggest that PVAE is an effective dietary chemopreventive agent with antimetastatic activity against malignant tumors.

  12. Dual-wavelength in-line phase-shifting interferometry based on two dc-term-suppressed intensities with a special phase shift for quantitative phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yawei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Jin, Weifeng

    2016-06-01

    To efficiently promote the phase retrieval in quantitative phase imaging, a new approach of quantitative phase extraction is proposed based on two intensities with dual wavelength after filtering the corresponding dc terms for each wavelength, in which a special phase shift is used. In this approach, only the combination of the phase-shifting technique and subtraction procedures is needed, and no additional algorithms are required. The thickness of the phase object can be achieved from the phase image, which is related to the synthetic beat wavelength. The feasibility of this method is verified by the simulated experiments of the optically transparent objects.

  13. No significant effect of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredie, S.J.H.; Jong, M.C.J. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medicinal treatment of vasospastic Raynaud phenomenon is limited to primarily vasodilator medicines. OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible beneficial effects and tolerability of 120 mg two times a day of Ginkgo Biloba special extract EGb 761 in patients suffering from Raynaud disease (RD) (

  14. Combination between Taxol-Encapsulated Liposomes and Eruca sativa Seed Extract Suppresses Mammary Tumors in Female Rats Induced by 7,12 Dimethylbenz(α)anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Nadia; Abdel-Rahman, Salah; Haggag, Amany; Awad, Doaa; Bassiouny, Ahmad; Talaat, Iman

    2016-01-01

    Taxol (paclitaxel) is a powerful anti-cancer drug widely used against several types of malignant tumors. Because Taxol may exert several side effects, a variety of formulations have been developed. One of these features liposomes, regarded as one of the most promising drug carriers, biocompatible and best able to reduce drug toxicity without changing efficacy against tumor cells. Eruca sativa seed extract (SE) is considered a promising natural product from cruciferous vegetables against breast cancer, increasing chemotherapeutic and eliminating harmful side effects. The effects of Taxol-encapsulated liposomes (T) alone and in combination between Eruca sativa seed extract on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) gene expression levels were investigated in rat mammary gland carcinogenesis induced by 7,12 dimethylbenz(α) anthracene (DMBA) using qRT-PCR. The results showed that DMBA increased NF-κB, COX-2 and Bcl-2 gene expression levels and lipid peroxidation (LP), while decreasing glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total antioxidant concentration (TAC) compared to the control group. T and T-SE treatment reduced NF-κB, COX-2 and Bcl-2 gene expression levels and LP. Hence, T and T-SE treatment appeared to reduce inflammation and cell proliferation, while increasing apoptosis, GST and SOD activities and TAC.

  15. Arsenic Speciation and Extraction and the Significance of Biodegradable Acid on Arsenic Removal—An Approach for Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinh Nguyen Van

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of arsenic remediation tests were conducted using a washing method with biodegradable organic acids, including oxalic, citric and ascorbic acids. Approximately 80% of the arsenic in one sample was removed under the effect of the ascorbic and oxalic acid combination, which was roughly twice higher than the effectiveness of the ascorbic and citric acid combination under the same conditions. The soils treated using biodegradable acids had low remaining concentrations of arsenic that are primarily contained in the crystalline iron oxides and organic matter fractions. The close correlation between extracted arsenic and extracted iron/aluminum suggested that arsenic was removed via the dissolution of Fe/Al oxides in soils. The fractionation of arsenic in four contaminated soils was investigated using a modified sequential extraction method. Regarding fractionation, we found that most of the soil contained high proportions of arsenic (As in exchangeable fractions with phosphorus, amorphous oxides, and crystalline iron oxides, while a small amount of the arsenic fraction was organic matter-bound. This study indicated that biodegradable organic acids can be considered as a means for arsenic-contaminated soil remediation.

  16. Arsenic Speciation and Extraction and the Significance of Biodegradable Acid on Arsenic Removal—An Approach for Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van, Thinh; Osanai, Yasuhito; Do Nguyen, Hai; Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A series of arsenic remediation tests were conducted using a washing method with biodegradable organic acids, including oxalic, citric and ascorbic acids. Approximately 80% of the arsenic in one sample was removed under the effect of the ascorbic and oxalic acid combination, which was roughly twice higher than the effectiveness of the ascorbic and citric acid combination under the same conditions. The soils treated using biodegradable acids had low remaining concentrations of arsenic that are primarily contained in the crystalline iron oxides and organic matter fractions. The close correlation between extracted arsenic and extracted iron/aluminum suggested that arsenic was removed via the dissolution of Fe/Al oxides in soils. The fractionation of arsenic in four contaminated soils was investigated using a modified sequential extraction method. Regarding fractionation, we found that most of the soil contained high proportions of arsenic (As) in exchangeable fractions with phosphorus, amorphous oxides, and crystalline iron oxides, while a small amount of the arsenic fraction was organic matter-bound. This study indicated that biodegradable organic acids can be considered as a means for arsenic-contaminated soil remediation.

  17. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE NOVEL HYPERPLASIC SUPPRESS GENE IN THE PROCESS OF BREAST CANCER%HSG、MMP-2和MMP-9在乳腺癌组织中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏庆安; 付玉环; 姜广建

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨新的增殖抑制基因(hyperplasic suppressor gene,HSG)和基质金属蛋白酶-2、9(matrix metalloproteinase-2,-9 MMP-2,9)在乳腺癌组织中的表达及意义.[方法]应用免疫组化方法检测唐山市工人医院52例乳腺癌标本和18例乳腺纤维腺瘤标本中HSG、MMP-2和MMP-9表达.[结果]52例乳腺癌组织中HSG、MMP-2和MMP-9的表达分别为46.2% (24/52)、73.1% (38/52)和63.5% (33/52),在乳腺纤维腺瘤中,MMP-2和MMP-9着色很少,HSG的着色很深,表明三者与肿瘤的发生有关;MMP-2的表达与肿瘤的TNM分期、淋巴结转移和预后复发有关(P<005);乳腺癌组HSG低表达和MMP-9高表达,与淋巴结转移有关(P<005),且HSG和MMP-2、MMP-9呈负相关(r=-0.27,P< 0.05).[结论]乳腺癌组织中MMP-2高表达预示着病人预后更差,比MMP-9对乳腺癌与后的判断更有价值.综合检测HSG、MMP-2和MMP-9的表达更有利于了解乳腺癌转移的作用机制,更好地判断乳腺癌的进展及预后.%[Objective] To determine the expression and significance of the novel hyperplasic suppress gene (HSG) and matrix metaUoproteinase-2, -9 (MMP-2, -9) in the process of breast cancer. [Methods] Iramunohistochemistry method was used to measure the expression of HSG and raetalIoproteinase-2, -9, in which 52 cases were breast cancer samples, 18 cases were breast Cbroadenoma samples. All these cases were collected by the Department of pathology of the Tangshan Worker/s Hospital. [Resufts] The positive rate of HSG, MMP-2, -9 was 46.2% (24/52), 73.1% (38/52) and 65.3% (33/52) in breast cancer tissues, respectively- A very weak Btaining of MMP-2, -9 was observed in only a few epidielia in surrounding background breast tissue and flbrooadenoma tissue, but observed a very strong staining of HSG. The presence of HSG, MMP-2, -9 was significantly greater in breast cancer tissues compared with all other breast tissues; The high leve of MMP-2 was associated with the tumor grade, lymph

  18. Marsdenia tenacissima extract suppresses A549 cell migration through regulation of CCR5-CCL5 axis, Rho C, and phosphorylated FAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen-Sen; Li, Fang-Fang; Sun, Li; Fan, Wei; Gu, Ming; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Qin, Song; Yuan, Sheng-Tao

    2016-03-01

    Marsdenia tenacissima, a traditional Chinese medicine, is long been used to treat various diseases including asthma, cancer, trachitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, cystitis, and pneumonia. Although Marsdenia tenacissima has been demonstrated to have strong anti-tumor effects against primary tumors, its effect on cancer metastasis remains to be defined, and the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-metastatic effect is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of XAP (an extract of Marsdenia tenacissima) on A549 lung cancer cell migration and explored the role of CCR5-CCL5 axis in the anti-metastatic effects of XAP. Our resutls showed that XAP inhibited A549 lung cancer cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The protein levels of CCR5, but not CCR9 and CXCR4, were decreased by XAP. The secretion of CCL5, the ligand of CCR5, was reduced by XAP. XAP down-regulated Rho C expression and FAK phosphorylation. In conclusion, XAP inhibited A549 cell migration and invasion through down-regulation of CCR5-CCL5 axis, Rho C, and FAK.

  19. The anti-angiogenic herbal extracts Ob-X from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeonhee; Kim, Min-Young; Yoon, Michung

    2011-08-01

    Growing adipose tissue is thought to require adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Close examination of developing adipose tissue microvasculature reveals that angiogenesis often precedes adipogenesis. Since our previous study demonstrated that Ob-X, the anti-angiogenic herbal composition composed of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae), reduced adipose tissue mass in obese mice, we hypothesized that adipogenesis can be inhibited by Ob-X. To investigate the effects of the anti-angiogenic herbal extracts Ob-X on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. After differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with Ob-X, we studied the effects of Ob-X on triglyceride accumulation and expression of genes involved in adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and ECM remodeling. Treatment of cells with Ob-X inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression caused by troglitazone or monocyte differentiation-inducing (MDI) mix. Ob-X reduced mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor-A, -B, -C, -D, and fibroblast growth factor-2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; MMP-2 and MMP-9), whereas it increased mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors [(thrombospondin-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-2)] in differentiated cells. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were also decreased in Ob-X-treated cells. These results suggest that the anti-angiogenic herbal composition Ob-X inhibits differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. These events may be mediated by changes in the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, angiogenesis, and the MMP system. Thus, by reducing adipogenesis, anti-angiogenic Ob-X provides a possible therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of human obesity and its related disorders.

  20. Strangeness suppression in the unquenched quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, Roelof; Santopinto, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the strangeness suppression in the proton in the framework of the unquenched quark model. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the values extracted from CERN and JLab experiments.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of Sanguisorbae Radix water extract on the suppression of mast cell degranulation and STAT-1/Jak-2 activation in BMMCs and HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-09-06

    Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is a well-known herbal medicine used to treat inflammatory disease and skin burns in Asia. In addition, it is used to treat many types of allergic skin diseases, including urticaria, eczema, and allergic dermatitis. SR has been reported to exhibit anti-wrinkle, anti-oxidant, and anti-contact dermatitis bioactivities. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of SR water extract (WSR) using human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and BALB/c mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Viability assays were used to evaluate non-cytotoxic concentrations of WSR in both BMMCs and HaCaT cells. To investigate the effect of WSR treatment on the degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs, we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX). We determined the production of pro-inflammatory chemokines including thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC; CCL17), regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES; CCL5), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC; CCL22), and interleukin 8 (IL-8; CXCL8) in stimulated human keratinocytes. The ability of WSR to reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory marker proteins was evaluated by Western blotting in HaCaT cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/interferon (IFN)-γ. WSR inhibited IgE/Ag-activated mast cell degranulation in BMMCs. Treatment with various concentrations of WSR decreased β-HEX release in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 27.5 μg/mL. In keratinocytes, WSR suppressed TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced chemokine production and pro-inflammatory molecules via a blockade STAT-1, Jak-2, p38, and JNK activation. This results demonstrate that WSR inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells and inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory chemokines by suppressing the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK in HaCaT cells.

  2. Effects of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract on the acquisition, retrieval and extinction of conditioned suppression: Evidence that short-term memory and long-term memory are differentially modulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberlam, C R; Vendrasco, N C; Oliveira, D R; Gaiardo, R B; Cerutti, S M

    2016-10-15

    Studies in our laboratory have characterized the putative neuromodulatory effects of a standardized extract of the green leaves of Ginkgo biloba (EGb), which comprises a formulation of 24% ginkgo-flavoglycosides and 6% ginkgo-terpenoid lactones, on conditioned suppression. This model comprises a suitable animal model for investigating the behavioral changes and pharmacological mechanisms that underlie fear memory and anxiety. The characterization of the effects on distinct stages of fear memory or fear extinction will help illustrate both the beneficial and harmful effects. Three hundred adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 30 groups according to the treatment as follows: i-ii) control groups (CS-US and CSno-US); iii) vehicle group (12% Tween®80); and iv-vi) EGb groups (250, 500 and 1000mgkg(-1)); or experimental procedures designed to assess the effects of EGb treatment prior to the acquisition (n=20 per group) and retrieval of conditioned fear (n=10 per group) or prior to the extinction training (n=10 per group) and extinction retention test (n=10 per group). Furthermore, to better understand the effects of acute EGb treatment on fear memory, we conducted two additional analyses: the acquisition of within- and between-session extinction of fear memory (short- and long-term memory, respectively). No difference was identified between the control and treatment groups during the retention test (P>0.05), with the exception of the CSno-US group in relation to all groups (Pmemory, which was verified by the suppression ration in the first trial of extinction training (SR=0.39) and the extinction retention test session (SR=0.53, Pmemory acquisition, which were evaluated during the retention test (SR=0.79). Moreover, EGb administered at 1000mgkg(-1) prior to conditioning did not enhance the long-term extinction memory, i.e., it did not prevent the return of extinguished fear memory in the extinction retention test, in which the spontaneous recovery of fear was

  3. The anti-angiogenic herbal extract from Melissa officinalis inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Hong, Yeonhee; Kim, Min-Young; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2016-02-03

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) has been used traditionally and contemporarily as an anti-stress herb. Current hypotheses suggest that not only chronic stress promotes angiogenesis, but angiogenesis also modulates adipogenesis and obesity. Because the herbal extract ALS-L1023 from M. officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) has an anti-angiogenic activity, we hypothesized that ALS-L1023 could inhibit adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy. ALS-L1023 was prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from M. officinalis. The effects of ALS-L1023 on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice were measured using in vivo and in vitro approaches. ALS-L1023 inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner in the HUVEC tube formation assay in vitro. Treatment of cells with ALS-L1023 inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression caused by troglitazone or MDI differentiation mix. ALS-L1023 reduced mRNA expression of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in differentiated cells. In contrast, mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) increased. Protease activity, as measured by zymography, showed that activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 decreased in ALS-L1023-treated cells. ALS-L1023 also inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 reporter gene expression in the presence of the MMP inducer phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. An in vivo study showed that ALS-L1023 not only decreased adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size, but also reduced mRNA levels of adipose tissue angiogenic factors and MMPs in HFD-fed obese mice. These results suggest that the anti-angiogenic herbal extract ALS-L1023 suppresses adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy, and this effect may be mediated by inhibiting angiogenesis and MMP activities. Thus, by curbing adipogenesis, anti-angiogenic ALS-L1023 yields a possible therapeutic choice for the prevention and treatment of human obesity and

  4. What's Worth Teaching? Extracting Significant Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    A model which secondary social studies teachers could apply to their content area suggests an interplay between the inductive and the deductive--where students first identify a proposition from an examination of evidence and then test the proposition to assess its power in helping students understand the complex nature of social reality.…

  5. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbofung Carl MF

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2 randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts body weight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the

  6. Malva sylvestris L. extract suppresses desferrioxamine-induced PGE₂ and PGD₂ release in differentiated U937 cells: the development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for prostaglandin quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cleverson Antonio Ferreira; Weffort-Santos, Almeriane Maria; Gasparetto, João Cleverson; Trindade, Angela Cristina Leal Badaró; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    Malva sylvestris is a species used worldwide as an alternative to anti-inflammatory therapies; however, its mechanism of action remains unknown. In this paper, the anti-inflammatory effects of M. sylvestris alcoholic extracts were evaluated by measuring the pro-inflammatory mediators PGE₂ and PGD₂ in desferrioxamine-stimulated phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated U937 cells. An HPLC-DAD fingerprint of the M. sylvestris extract was performed and caffeic acid, ferulic acid and scopoletin were identified and quantified. An HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to separate and measure the prostaglandins. The lower limits of detection (~0.5 ng/mL for PGE₂ and PGD₂) and quantification (1.0 ng/mL for PGE₂ and PGD₂) indicated that the method is highly sensitive. The calibration curves showed excellent coefficients of correlation (r > 0.99) over the range of 1.0-500.0 ng/mL, and at different levels, the accuracy ranged from 96.4 to 106.4% with an RSD method was successfully applied using U937-d cells. A significant dose-dependent reduction of PGE2 and PGD2 levels occurred using 10 µg/mL (10.74 ± 2.86 and 9.60 ± 6.89%) and 50 µg/mL of extract (48.37 ± 3.24 and 53.06 ± 6.15%), suggesting that the anti-inflammatory mechanisms evoked by M. sylvestris may be related to modulation of these mediators.

  7. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human nutrition, particularly in developing ... studied the effect of NaCl on the extractability of ... significant influence on the functional properties ..... Malaka, S. L. O. and Amund, O. O. Studies on the Life Cycle and Morphometrics of Honeybees,.

  8. Fungal community structure in disease suppressive soils assessed by 28S LSU gene sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ryan Penton

    Full Text Available Natural biological suppression of soil-borne diseases is a function of the activity and composition of soil microbial communities. Soil microbe and phytopathogen interactions can occur prior to crop sowing and/or in the rhizosphere, subsequently influencing both plant growth and productivity. Research on suppressive microbial communities has concentrated on bacteria although fungi can also influence soil-borne disease. Fungi were analyzed in co-located soils 'suppressive' or 'non-suppressive' for disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 at two sites in South Australia using 454 pyrosequencing targeting the fungal 28S LSU rRNA gene. DNA was extracted from a minimum of 125 g of soil per replicate to reduce the micro-scale community variability, and from soil samples taken at sowing and from the rhizosphere at 7 weeks to cover the peak Rhizoctonia infection period. A total of ∼ 994,000 reads were classified into 917 genera covering 54% of the RDP Fungal Classifier database, a high diversity for an alkaline, low organic matter soil. Statistical analyses and community ordinations revealed significant differences in fungal community composition between suppressive and non-suppressive soil and between soil type/location. The majority of differences associated with suppressive soils were attributed to less than 40 genera including a number of endophytic species with plant pathogen suppression potentials and mycoparasites such as Xylaria spp. Non-suppressive soils were dominated by Alternaria, Gibberella and Penicillum. Pyrosequencing generated a detailed description of fungal community structure and identified candidate taxa that may influence pathogen-plant interactions in stable disease suppression.

  9. Artifact suppression and analysis of brain activities with electroencephalography signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Rashed-Al-Mahfuz; Md. Rabiul Islam; Keikichi Hirose; Md. Khademul Islam Molla

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interface is a communication system that connects the brain with computer (or other devices) but is not dependent on the normal output of the brain (i.e., peripheral nerve and muscle). Electro-oculogram is a dominant artifact which has a significant negative influence on further analysis of real electroencephalography data. This paper presented a data adaptive technique for artifact suppression and brain wave extraction from electroencephalography signals to detect regional brain activities. Empirical mode decomposition based adaptive thresholding approach was employed here to suppress the electro-oculogram artifact. Fractional Gaussian noise was used to determine the threshold level derived from the analysis data without any training. The purified electroencephalography signal was composed of the brain waves also called rhythmic components which represent the brain activities. The rhythmic components were extracted from each electroencephalography channel using adaptive wiener filter with the original scale. The regional brain activities were mapped on the basis of the spatial distribution of rhythmic components, and the results showed that different regions of the brain are activated in response to different stimuli. This research analyzed the activities of a single rhythmic component, alpha with respect to different motor imaginations. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is very efficient in artifact suppression and identifying individual motor imagery based on the activities of alpha component.

  10. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea.

  11. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production ...

  12. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  13. Suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two RNA populations that differ from the effects of a single independent variable, such as a drug treatment or a specific genetic defect, can establish differences in the abundance of specific transcripts that vary in a population dependent manner. There are different methods for identifying differentially expressed genes. These methods include microarray, Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Herein, the protocol describes an easy and cost-effective alternative that does not require prior knowledge of the transcriptomes under examination. It is specifically relevant when low levels of RNA starting material are available. This protocol describes the use of Switching Mechanism At RNA Termini Polymerase Chain Reaction (SMART-PCR) to amplify cDNA from small amounts of RNA. The amplified cDNA populations under comparison are then subjected to Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-PCR). SSH-PCR is a technique that couples subtractive hybridization with suppression PCR to selectively amplify fragments of differentially expressed genes. The resulting products are cDNA populations enriched for significantly overrepresented transcripts in either of the two input RNAs. These cDNA populations can then be cloned to generate subtracted cDNA library. Microarrays made with clones from the subtracted forward and reverse cDNA libraries are then screened for differentially expressed genes using targets generated from tester and driver total RNAs.

  14. The Effect of Cultivated Wild Ginseng Extract on Preadipocyte Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Woo Kim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cultivated wild ginseng extract on primary cultured preadipocyte and adipocytes. Methods : Diminish preadipocyte proliferation does primary role to reduce obesity. So, preadipocytes and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures with using Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with 0.01-1mg/㎖ cultivated wild ginseng extract. Result : At all concentrations, cultivated wild ginseng extract wasn't show the suppress proliferation of preadipocytes significantly and failed to show effects on decomposition of adipocytes except high dosage. Conclusion : Based on these findings, cultivated wild ginseng is not a suitable choice for the treatment of localized obesity.

  15. In vitro inhibition of angiogenesis by heat and low pH stable hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds via inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of VEGF secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yavari, Niloofar; Emamian, Farnoosh; Yarani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    extract of P. harmala seeds on endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation and VEGF secretion. Materials and methods: Dried Peganum seeds were purchased from Kermanshah Traditional Bazar in 2011. Hydroalcoholic extract of dried seeds (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 150 μg/ml) was used for in vitro...... that hydroalcoholic extract of P. harmala seeds contains a potent anti-angiogenic component, which exerts its inhibitory effect mainly through down-regulation of essential mediators such as VEGF....

  16. Salvia plebeia suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Salvia plebeia R. Br. (Lamiaceae) has been used for folk medicines in Asian countries, including Korea and China, to treat skin inflammatory diseases and asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract (SPE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions and defined underlying mechanisms of action. We established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like skin lesions. The oral administration of SPE decreased AD symptoms based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE and IgG2a levels. SPE suppressed mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. SPE inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4(+) T lymphocytes expansion in the lymph node and the expression of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the ear tissue. To define the underlying mechanisms of action, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model was used. SPE significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, and STAT1 in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SPE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  17. Soft substrates suppress droplet splashing

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Christopher J; Style, Robert W; Castrejón-Pita, A A

    2015-01-01

    Droplets splash when they impact dry, flat substrates above a critical velocity that depends on parameters such as droplet size, viscosity and air pressure. We show that substrate stiffness also impacts the splashing threshold by imaging ethanol drops impacting silicone gels of different stiffnesses. Splashing is significantly suppressed: droplets on the softest substrates need over 70% more kinetic energy to splash than they do on rigid substrates. We show that splash suppression is likely to be due to energy losses caused by deformations of soft substrates during the first few microseconds of impact. We find that solids with Youngs modulus $\\lesssim O(10^5)$Pa suppress splashing, in agreement with simple scaling arguments. Thus materials like soft gels and elastomers can be used as simple coatings for effective splash prevention.

  18. Ion Suppression Study for Tetracyclines in Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Chico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion suppression in analysis of tetracyclines in feed was studied. The conventional analysis consists of a liquid extraction followed by a clean-up step using solid phase extraction (SPE technique and analysis of the tetracyclines by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric detection. Various strategies for extraction and cleanup were tested in the present work, and the effectiveness to decrease the ion suppression on the MS/MS signals was evaluated. Four sample treatment methods were tested with five different feed samples. Extraction solvents tested were McIlvaine buffer and a mixture of McIlvaine buffer dichloromethane (3 : 1. SPE cartridges for cleanup were Oasis HLB, Oasis MCX, and Oasis MAX. The effectiveness of the methods was evaluated in terms of decreasing the ion suppression effect but also of decreasing the variability of ion suppression between samples. The method that provided the most satisfactory results involved a clean-up step based on SPE using mixed-mode cation exchange cartridges (Oasis MCX.

  19. Global spill control in RF-knockout slow-extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, T.; Noda, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Uesugi, T.; Shibuya, S.; Kawai, H.; Takada, E.; Yamada, S.

    2004-04-01

    The time structure of extracted beams has been improved in synchrotron rings with resonant slow-extraction including RF-knockout extraction. In order to control the global spill structure in the RF-knockout slow-extraction method, it is necessary to improve the amplitude modulation (AM) function of the transverse RF-field. For this purpose, a scheme with a simple model of the extraction process has been proposed. Using this simple model, an analysis was carried out for determining the parameter relevant to the diffusion process in the separatrix. With this parameter, the new AM function obtained by the analytical approach could provide a flat spill within ±23% in both a simulation and an experiment at the HIMAC synchrotron. Cooperating with the feedback system, the global spill structure was significantly suppressed to be less than ±5%.

  20. A phytosterol enriched refined extract of Brassica campestris L. pollen significantly improves benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a rat model as compared to the classical TCM pollen preparation Qianlie Kang Pule'an Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruwei; Kobayashi, Yuta; Lin, Yu; Rauwald, Hans Wilhelm; Fang, Ling; Qiao, Hongxiang; Kuchta, Kenny

    2015-01-15

    In Qinghai Province, the Brassica campestris L. pollen preparation Qianlie Kang Pule'an Tablet (QKPT) is traditionally used for BPH therapy. However, in QKPT the content of supposedly active phytosterols is relatively low at 2.59%, necessitating high doses for successful therapy. Therefore, a phytosterol enriched (4.54%) refined extract of B. campestris pollen (PE) was developed and compared with QKPT in a BPH rat model. Six groups of rats (n=8 each), namely sham-operated distilled water control, castrated distilled water control, castrated QKPT 2.0g/kg, castrated PE 0.1g/kg, castrated PE 0.2g/kg, and castrated PE 0.4g/kg, were intragastrically treated with the respective daily doses. Testosterone propionate (0.3mg/day) was administered to all castrated rats, while the sham-operated group received placebo injections. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and prostates as well as seminal vesicles excised and weighted in order to calculate prostate volume index (PVI) as well as prostate index (PI) and seminal vesicle index (SVI), defined as organ weight in g per 100g body weight. Compared with sham-operated controls, PI (p<0.01), PVI (p<0.01), and SVI (p<0.01) were all significantly increased in all castrated, testosterone treated rats. After treatment with PE at 0.4 and 0.2g/kg or QKPT at 2.0g/kg per day, both indices were significantly reduced (p<0.01) as compared to the castrated distilled water control. For PE at 0.1g/kg per day only PI was significantly reduced (p<0.05). At the highest PE concentration of 0.4g/kg per day both PI and SVI were also significantly reduced when compared to the QKPT group (p<0.05). Both PE and QKPT demonstrated curative effects against BPH in the applied animal model. In its highest dose at 0.4g/kg per day, PE was clearly superior to QKPT.

  1. The suppressive effects of Saposhnikovia divaricata (Fangfeng) chromone extract on rheumatoid arthritis via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen activated proteinkinases activation on collagen-induced arthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangying; Liu, Chunfang; Zhang, Cun; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Jianzhu; Wan, Hongye; Zhu, Hongwei; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Weiheng; Xiao, Yongqing; Lin, Na

    2013-07-30

    Saposhnikovia divaricata (SD), called "Fangfeng" in China, is commonly used in clinical compound prescription for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but its actions on RA have not been clarified. The present study aims to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of SD chromone extract (SCE), the major bioactive component of SD, on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats, and elucidate its underlying mechanisms with regards to its molecular basis of action on human fibroblast-like synoviocytes derived from RA patients (HFLS-RA). CIA model on rats was constructed by injection of bovine type II collagen. Rats were pre-treated with different dosages of SCE from 3 days before till 35 days after model building. The progression of CIA was evaluated by macroscopic scoring, X-ray observation and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining of paws. HFLS-RA were pre-treated with different concentrations of SCE prior to stimulation with 10 ng/ml of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α. By radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, TNFα and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were quantified respectively. Nuclear factor (NF-κB) p65 expression and DNA-binding activity were tested by immunohistochemisty and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) respectively. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPKs were examined by immunohistochemisty staining and western blot analysis. Histological examination and radiological observation demonstrated that SCE significantly reduced the inflammatory responses in the joints of CIA rats. SCE inhibited the production of TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the joint tissues and sera. The level of PGE2 in sera was also decreased by SCE. Moreover, SCE treatment in vivo was able to reduce protein level of NF-κB, the transcriptional factor closely related to the inflammatory process, in articular synovium and cartilage of CIA rats. In addition, SCE

  2. Effects of tic suppression: ability to suppress, rebound, negative reinforcement, and habituation to the premonitory urge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Matt W; Woods, Douglas W; Nicotra, Cassandra M; Kelly, Laura M; Ricketts, Emily J; Conelea, Christine A; Grados, Marco A; Ostrander, Rick S; Walkup, John T

    2013-01-01

    The comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) represents a safe, effective non-pharmacological treatment for Tourette's disorder that remains underutilized as a treatment option. Contributing factors include the perceived negative consequences of tic suppression and the lack of a means through which suppression results in symptom improvement. Participants (n = 12) included youth ages 10-17 years with moderate-to-marked tic severity and noticeable premonitory urges who met Tourette's or chronic tic disorder criteria. Tic frequency and urge rating data were collected during an alternating sequence of tic freely or reinforced tic suppression periods. Even without specific instructions regarding how to suppress tics, youth experienced a significant, robust (72%), stable reduction in tic frequency under extended periods (40 min) of contingently reinforced tic suppression in contrast to periods of time when tics were ignored. Following periods of prolonged suppression, tic frequency returned to pre-suppression levels. Urge ratings did not show the expected increase during the initial periods of tic suppression, nor a subsequent decline in urge ratings during prolonged, effective tic suppression. Results suggest that environments conducive to tic suppression result in reduced tic frequency without adverse consequences. Additionally, premonitory urges, underrepresented in the literature, may represent an important enduring etiological consideration in the development and maintenance of tic disorders.

  3. Phytotoxicity analysis of extracts from compost and their ability to inhibit soil-borne pathogenic fungi and reduce root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dabing; Raza, Waseem; Yu, Guanghui; Zhao, Qingyun; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2012-03-01

    Compost extracts are novel organic amendments, typically applied to suppress soil-borne diseases. This research evaluated the phytotoxicity of compost extracts and analyzed their ability to inhibit pathogenic fungal growth and reduce root-knot nematodes. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of extracts from a pig manure and straw compost were analyzed. Three types of extracts were tested: direct extracts of compost (DEC), aerated fermentation extracts of compost (AFEC) and non-aerated fermentation extracts of compost (NAFEC). All compost extracts showed low phytotoxicity against lettuce and cress, but AFEC and NAFEC were more phytotoxic than DEC. All compost extracts significantly inhibited pathogenic fungal growth except for the fungus Rhizoctonia solania AG4. For two seasons, tomato root biomass of three compost extracts was 1.25-5.67 times greater than CK (water control), and AFEC and NAFEC showed the best tomato root growth promotion. The reduction ratio of root egg mass and density of soil nematodes were 34.51-87.77% and 30.92-51.37%, when applied with three compost extracts. The microbial population in compost extracts was considered to be the most significant factor of inhibition pathogenic fungal growth. No markedly correlations among bacterial community diversity, the inhibition of pathogenic fungal growth and the reduction of root-knot nematodes were observed. This information adds to the understanding of the growth-promoting and suppression effects of compost extracts and will help to enhance crop production.

  4. Relationship between potassium chloride suppression of corn stalk rot and soil microorganism characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoyan; JIN Jiyun; HE Ping; LIU Hailong; LI Wenjuan

    2007-01-01

    Observations from a site-fixed field trial of 12 years in Jilin Province show that potassium chloride (KC1)application has a significant positive influence on corn stalk rot incidence.Incubation experiments were conducted to study the effects of KC1 and soil extracts on the growth of Fusarium graminearum,the most common stalk rot fungi in this area,and the population changes in rhizosphere fungi,bacteria and actinomyces at different growth stages of corn.The results show that KC1 addition to the potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium could not directly suppress Fusarium graminearum development.Soil extracts from soil samples taken from the field plots with and without KC1 application affected Fusarium graminearum development,with soil extracts with KC1 treatments suppressing Fusarium graminearum development more significantly,compared with that from the KC1-free treatment.These results indicate that soil extracts play a role in the interaction between corn and Fusarium graminearum.Long-term KC1 application may increase the populations of rhizosphere fungi and actinomyces in the early growth stages,while there is no significant difference in the number of bacteria in rhizosphere among the treatments.Also,the populations of rhizosphere fungi are negatively correlated with the incidence of stalk rot in the early growth stages of corn.The sensitive infection stages of pathogen to corn consist of the stages when there is significant difference in the populations of rhizosphere fungi and actinomyces.The change of microorganism populations (especially fungi) in soil may be associated with the incidence decrease and is one of the mechanisms of KC1 suppressing corn stalk rot.

  5. α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibition by Brown Seaweed (Sargassum sp Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firdaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to control post-prandial hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus. In vitro inhibitory effects of crude extracts of seaweed against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were studied. Crude ethyl acetate extracts of Sargassum aquifolium were the stronger inhibitor to α-amylase and α-glucosidase than others. Furthermore, Sargassum aquifolium ethyl acetate extract significantly suppressed the rise in postprandial glucose level after oral administration of glucose in normal rats. The results of this study suggest that the crude Sargassum aquifolium extract may suppress the rise in postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo in part, through inhibition of alpha amylase and glucosidase

  6. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  7. Daidzin and daidzein suppress free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1993-11-01

    Syrian Golden hamsters prefer and consume large and remarkably constant amounts of ethanol in a simple two-bottle free-choice regimen. Ethanol intake is significantly suppressed by zimelidine, bromocriptine, buspirone, and lithium carbonate, pharmacological agents that have been shown to be beneficial in controlling ethanol intake in alcohol-dependent humans. These results suggest that this ethanol-drinking animal model has high "predictive validity" and can be used effectively in the search for and identification of new agents for the treatment of alcohol abuse. The model has enabled us to confirm the putative antidipsotropic effect of Radix puerariae (RP), an herb long used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of patients who abuse alcohol. A crude extract of RP at a dose of 1.5 g.kg-1 x day-1 significantly suppresses (> 50%) the free-choice ethanol intake of Golden hamsters. Moreover, two major constituents of RP, daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and daidzin (the 7-glucoside of daidzein), were also shown to suppress free-choice ethanol intake. Daidzin and daidzein, at doses of 150 and 230 mg.kg-1 x day-1, respectively, suppress ethanol intake by > 50%. RP, daidzein, and daidzin treatment do not significantly affect the body weight and water or food intake of the hamsters. These findings identify a class of compounds that offer promise as safe and effective therapeutic agents for alcohol abuse.

  8. Explosion suppression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  9. Comment on "Dual-wavelength in-line phase-shifting interferometry based on two dc-term-suppressed intensities with a special phase shift for quantitative phase extraction"

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Minmin; Zhou, Canlin; Zhang, Chaorui; Si, Shuchun; Li, Hui; Lei, Zhenkun; Li, YanJie

    2016-01-01

    We comment on the recent Letter by Xu and Wang et al. [Opt. Lett. 41, 2430 (2016)] in which an approach of quantitative phase extraction in dual-wavelength in-line phase-shifting interferometry (DWILPSI) was proposed. It is noted that a special phase shift is used, which more or less embarrasses its practical operation. We wish to show that the same result can also be reached by combining the generalized phase-shifting algorithm and the least-square algorithm, in which the phase shift can be chosen randomly. In addition to maintaining high accuracy and rapid processing speed of the DWILPSI method, the proposed method greatly facilitates its application in actual measurement.

  10. The extract of Cordyceps sinensis inhibited airway inflammation by blocking NF-κB activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Ya-Ling; Lin, Ching-Yuang

    2012-06-01

    Aiming the extract of Cordyceps sinensis significantly inhibits airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and the infiltration of eosinophils in the airway of rats and may be related to the modulation of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cells functions. The mechanisms of C. sinensis involved in modulation of suppression inflammation are not yet determined. In this study, the mechanism involved in the extract of C. sinensis-C.S.3-modulated suppression of inflammation was investigated in vivo and in vitro systems. The results showed that C.S.3 reduced airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice. Furthermore, we found C.S.3 could decrease extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway to suppress activity of nuclear factor-κB in lung cells and cultured airway smooth muscle cells. Conclusion C.S.3 may provide clinical applications for asthma in the future.

  11. Cinnamon and its Components Suppress Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Up-Regulating Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeeun; Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Gu, Min Jung; Lee, Kwang Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum cassia bark has been used in traditional herbal medicine to treat a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the antiproliferative effect of cinnamon extract on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the corresponding restenosis has not been explored. Hence, after examining the effect of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation, we investigated the possible involvement of signal transduction pathways associated with early signal and cell cycle analysis, including regulatory proteins. Besides, to identify the active components, we investigated the components of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation. Cinnamon extract inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and suppressed the PDGF-stimulated early signal transduction. In addition, cinnamon extract arrested the cell cycle and inhibited positive regulatory proteins. Correspondingly, the protein levels of p21 and p27 not only were increased in the presence of cinnamon extract, also the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was inhibited by cinnamon extract. Besides, among the components of cinnamon extract, cinnamic acid (CA), eugenol (EG) and cinnamyl alcohol significantly inhibited the VSMC proliferation. Overall, the present study demonstrates that cinnamon extract inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs through a G0/G1 arrest, which down-regulated the expression of cell cycle positive regulatory proteins by up-regulating p21 and p27 expression.

  12. Noise suppression in surface microseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Batzle, Mike; Behura, Jyoti; Willis, Mark; Haines, Seth S.; Davidson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a passive noise suppression technique, based on the τ − p transform. In the τ − p domain, one can separate microseismic events from surface noise based on distinct characteristics that are not visible in the time-offset domain. By applying the inverse τ − p transform to the separated microseismic event, we suppress the surface noise in the data. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and is superior to existing techniques for passive noise suppression in the sense that it preserves the waveform. We introduce a passive noise suppression technique, based on the τ − p transform. In the τ − p domain, one can separate microseismic events from surface noise based on distinct characteristics that are not visible in the time-offset domain. By applying the inverse τ − p transform to the separated microseismic event, we suppress the surface noise in the data. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and is superior to existing techniques for passive noise suppression in the sense that it preserves the waveform.

  13. Morinda citrifolia edible leaf extract enhanced immune response against lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Swee-Ling; Goh, Yong-Meng; Noordin, M Mustapha; Rahman, Heshu S; Othman, Hemn H; Abu Bakar, Nurul Ain; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer causes 1.4 million deaths annually. In the search for functional foods as complementary therapies against lung cancer, the immuno-stimulatory properties of the vegetable Morinda citrifolia leaves were investigated and compared with the anti-cancer drug erlotinib. Lung tumour-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 mg kg(-1) or 300 mg kg(-1) body weight of the leaf extract, or erlotinib (50 mg kg(-1) body-weight) for 21 days. The 300 mg kg(-1) body weight extract significantly (and dose-dependently) suppressed lung tumour growth; the extract worked more effectively than the 50 mg kg(-1) body weight erlotinib treatment. The extract significantly increased blood lymphocyte counts, and spleen tissue B cells, T cells and natural killer cells, and reduced the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which is a lung adenocarcinoma biomarker. The extract also suppressed the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) inflammatory markers, and enhanced the tumour suppressor gene (phosphatase and tensin homolog, PTEN). It inhibited tumour growth cellular gene (transformed mouse 3T3 cell double minute 2 (MDM2), V-raf-leukemia viral oncogene 1 (RAF1), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR)) mRNA expression in the tumours. The extract is rich in scopoletin and epicatechin, which are the main phenolic compounds. The 300 mg kg(-1)Morinda citrifolia leaf 50% ethanolic extract showed promising potential as a complementary therapeutic dietary supplement which was more effective than the 50 mg kg(-1) erlotinib in suppressing lung adenocarcinoma. Part of the mechanisms involved enhancing immune responses, suppressing proliferation and interfering with various tumour growth signalling pathways.

  14. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Stephen M; Wiese, Thomas E; Nehls, Suzanne; Burow, Matthew E; Elliott, Steven; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Shih, Betty Y; McLachlan, John A; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2003-04-09

    Seven legume extracts containing phytoestrogens were analyzed for estrogenic activity. Methanol extracts were prepared from soybean (Glycine max L.), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), kudzu root (Pueraria lobata L.), and red clover blossom and red clover sprout (Trifolium pratense L.). Extracts of kudzu root and red clover blossom showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Estrogenic activity was determined using an estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Kudzu root, red clover blossom and sprout, mung bean sprout, and alfalfa sprout extracts displayed increased cell proliferation above levels observed with estradiol. The pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780, suppressed cell proliferation induced by the extracts, suggesting an ER-related signaling pathway was involved. The ER subtype-selective activities of legume extracts were examined using transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. All seven of the extracts exhibited preferential agonist activity toward ERbeta. Using HPLC to collect fractions and MCF-7 cell proliferation, the active components in kudzu root extract were determined to be the isoflavones puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein. These results show that several legumes are a source of phytoestrogens with high levels of estrogenic activity.

  15. Research on the suppression on Aβ42 aggregation activity of extracts of food and drug Chinese medicine%小茴香等药食两用中药提取物抑制Aβ42聚集活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海强; 张嫽; 张昉; 蒙诺亚; 贺震旦; A.Tunnacliffe; 郑易之

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究几种药食两用中药提取物的A β42多肽聚集抑制活性.方法:选择小茴香、花椒、薄荷、玫瑰等10种药食两用中药为研究对象,分别用索氏提取法、溶剂浸取法制备石油醚、乙酸乙酯和甲醇提取物;用体外ThT荧光光谱法和E.coli细胞模型对各提取物进行A β42聚集抑制活性研究.结果:各中药石油醚和甲醇提取物在体外ThT试验和E.coli细胞模型中均没有明显活性;小茴香和玫瑰花乙酸乙酯提取物则可以显著降低样品作用体系ThT相对荧光强度,分别为0.64和0.59;同时对E.coli细胞具有显著的生长促进作用,相对生长率分别为56.88%和44.59%(200μ g/mL),超过阳性对照表没食子儿茶素没食子酸脂(EGCG)( 41.87%).结论:小茴香、玫瑰花等中药乙酸乙酯提取物在体外和E.coli模型中具有A β 42聚集抑制活性.%Objective: To research the suppression on A β 42 aggregation activity of extracts of some kinds of food and drug plants. Methods: Ten kinds edible herbals, such as: fennel, pepper, menthea haplocalyx, rose, etal, were selected as research objects. Soxhlet's and solvent extraction methods were used to get petroleum ether extracts, ethyl acetate extracts and methanol extracts; ThT fluorescence spectrum assay in vitro and an E.coli model were used to study A β 42 aggregation activity from extracts. Results: Petroleum ether and methanol extracts were found no activity in ThT fluorescence spectrum assay in vitro and an E.coli model. Fennel and rose ethyl acetate extracts were found to lower THT fluorescence intensity, respectively 0.64 and 0.59. Meanwhile, they also had obviously growth promoting action to E.coli cell, respectively 56.88% and 44.59%. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extracts from Anethum graveolens Linn and Rosa rugosa and so on, could inhibit the aggregation of A β 42 in vitro and in E.coli cells.

  16. EEMD和Cohen类联合抑制交叉项的时频特征提取方法%Time-frequency Feature Extraction Method Based on EEMD and Cohen Class to Suppress Cross Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝慧艳; 李晓峰; 刘明杰; 张峰

    2012-01-01

    There are cross term interference problems in multi-component signal analysis on Wigner-Ville distribution, which is a kind of bilinear time-frequency distribution. A time-frequency joint algorithm based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition ( EEMD) and Cohen class was proposed. EEMD algorithm was adopted to decompose the signal into a collection of Intrinsic Mode Functions ( IMF). Cohen class time-frequency transform and superposition on each component except the pseudo one were carried out. The signal time-frequency distribution was obtained and the cross terms among IMF in internal signals were eliminated. The simulation study of time-frequency on EEMD and Cohen class was conducted. Simulation results of wavelet decomposition, Cohen class joint time-frequency algorithm and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD)and Cohen class joint algorithm were compared. It turned out that the EEMD and Cohen class joint algorithm has the best effect on suppressing the cross term form, diminishing the reconstruction error and restraining interference of time-frequency characteristics caused by noise.%Wigner-Ville分布是一种双线性时频分布,对多分量信号分析存在交叉项干扰.本文提出了一种基于EEMD和Cohen类时频融合算法,该算法采用EEMD算法将信号从频域上分离为若干个固有模态函数之和,再对伪分量之外的各分量进行Cohen类时频变换并叠加,得到信号的时频分布,消除了信号内部各模态函数之间时频分布的交叉项.通过对EEMD和Cohen类时频融合算法进行仿真,与小波分解和Cohen类联合时频算法、EMD和Cohen类联合时频算法的仿真进行比较,结果表明,该算法抑制交叉项效果最好,重构误差最小,同时抑制了噪声对时频特征的干扰.

  17. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  18. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system.

  19. Antimalarial Properties of Aqueous Crude Extracts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Moringa oleifera Leaves in Combination with Artesunate in Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Borkaew, Preeyanuch; Klubsri, Chokdee; Dondee, Kittiyaporn; Bootprom, Panatda; Saiphet, Butsarat

    2016-01-01

    Due to the emergence and spread of malaria parasite with resistance to antimalarial drugs, discovery and development of new, safe, and affordable antimalarial are urgently needed. In this respect, medicinal plant extracts are targets to optimize antimalarial actions and restore efficacy of standard antimalarial drugs. The present study was aimed at determining the antimalarial activities of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Moringa oleifera leaf extracts in combination with artesunate against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. P. berghei ANKA maintained by serial passage in ICR mice were used based on intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes and subsequent development of parasitemia. These infected mice were used to investigate the antimalarial activity of artesunate (6 mg/kg) in combination with 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg of G. pentaphyllum and M. oleifera leaf extracts using 4-day suppressive test. It was found that these extracts showed significant (P pentaphyllum leaf extract and 35, 40, and 50% for M. oleifera leaf extract. Additionally, artesunate combined with these extracts presented higher antimalarial activity, compared to extract treated alone with percentage of suppression of 78, 91, and 96% for G. pentaphyllum leaf extract and 73, 82, and 91% for M. oleifera leaf extract. The results indicated that combination treatment of G. pentaphyllum or M. oleifera leaf extracts with artesunate was able to increase the antimalarial activity by using low dose of artesunate. Hence, these results justified the combination of these extracts and artesunate in antimalarial herbal remedies.

  20. Cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M-K; Wang, S

    2011-09-01

    Cold therapy is frequently used to reduce pain and edema following acute injury or surgery such as tooth extraction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cold therapy are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and pathological pain under conditions of inflammation or injury. Although capsaicin-induced nociception, neuropeptide release, and ionic currents are suppressed by cold, it is not known if cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of recombinant TRPV1. We demonstrate that cold strongly suppressed the activation of recombinant TRPV1 by multiple agonists and capsaicin-evoked currents in trigeminal ganglia neurons under normal and phosphorylated conditions. Cold-induced suppression was partially impaired in a TRPV1 mutant that lacked heat-mediated activation and potentiation. These results suggest that cold-induced suppression of TRPV1 may share a common molecular basis with heat-induced potentiation, and that allosteric inhibition may contribute, in part, to the cold-induced suppression. We also show that combination of cold and a specific antagonist of TRPV1 can produce an additive suppression. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for cold therapy and may enhance anti-nociceptive approaches that target TRPV1 for managing pain under inflammation and tissue injury, including that from tooth extraction.

  1. Huaier aqueous extract induces apoptosis of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells through the mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yang; Meng, Hongmei; Liu, Weidong; Wang, Huan; Liu, Qingpeng

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, aqueous extract of Trametes robiniophila Murr. (Huaier), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been frequently used in China for complementary cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects have yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of Huaier extract to inhibit proliferation, promote apoptosis and suppress mobility in the fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line in vitro. The cells were treated with gradient doses of Huaier extract at concentrations of 0, 4, 8 or 16 mg/ml for 24, 48 or 72 h. The cell viability and motility were measured in vitro using MTT, invasive, migration and scratch assays. The distribution of the cell cycle and the extent of cellular apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The apoptotic pathways were detected using a mitochondrial membrane potential transition assay and western blotting. The results revealed that the cellular viability decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of Huaier extract. In addition, cell invasiveness and migration were also suppressed significantly. It was demonstrated that Huaier extract induced G2 cell-cycle arrest and cellular apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 and pro-caspase-3, and upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 suggested that Huaier extract induced the apoptosis of HT1080 cells through the mitochondrial pathway. The results of the present study indicate that Huaier extract is a potential complementary agent for the treatment of fibrosarcoma.

  2. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Extracts Improve Colon Microflora and Exert Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Chou, Ming-Chih; Ko, Chien-Hui; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal microflora and inflammation are associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) has various bioactivities, but its effect on colon health remains unknown. This study focused on the effects of fermented noni fruit extracts on colon microflora and inflammation of colon epithelial cells. The anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts on Caco-2 cells were evaluated including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was promoted by ethanol extract. Ethyl acetate extract decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and significantly suppressed COX-2, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 production and neutrophil chemotaxis by suppressing the translocation of the p65 subunit. Quercetin was the main contributor to the anti-inflammatory activity. The fermented noni fruit promoted probiotic growths and downregulated the intracellular oxidation and inflammation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that fermented noni fruit might protect against inflammatory diseases of the colon.

  3. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  4. Dandelion Extracts Protect Human Skin Fibroblasts from UVB Damage and Cellular Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yafan; Li, Shuangshuang

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes damage in skin by generating excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), leading to skin photoageing. Dandelion extracts have long been used for traditional Chinese medicine and native American medicine to treat cancers, hepatitis, and digestive diseases; however, less is known on the effects of dandelion extracts in skin photoageing. Here we found that dandelion leaf and flower extracts significantly protect UVB irradiation-inhibited cell viability when added before UVB irradiation or promptly after irradiation. Dandelion leaf and flower extracts inhibited UVB irradiation-stimulated MMP activity and ROS generation. Dandelion root extracts showed less action on protecting HDFs from UVB irradiation-induced MMP activity, ROS generation, and cell death. Furthermore, dandelion leaf and flower but not root extracts stimulated glutathione generation and glutathione reductase mRNA expression in the presence or absence of UVB irradiation. We also found that dandelion leaf and flower extracts help absorb UVB irradiation. In addition, dandelion extracts significantly protected HDFs from H2O2-induced cellular senescence. In conclusion, dandelion extracts especially leaf and flower extracts are potent protective agents against UVB damage and H2O2-induced cellular senescence in HDFs by suppressing ROS generation and MMP activities and helping UVB absorption.

  5. Dandelion Extracts Protect Human Skin Fibroblasts from UVB Damage and Cellular Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV irradiation causes damage in skin by generating excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS and induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, leading to skin photoageing. Dandelion extracts have long been used for traditional Chinese medicine and native American medicine to treat cancers, hepatitis, and digestive diseases; however, less is known on the effects of dandelion extracts in skin photoageing. Here we found that dandelion leaf and flower extracts significantly protect UVB irradiation-inhibited cell viability when added before UVB irradiation or promptly after irradiation. Dandelion leaf and flower extracts inhibited UVB irradiation-stimulated MMP activity and ROS generation. Dandelion root extracts showed less action on protecting HDFs from UVB irradiation-induced MMP activity, ROS generation, and cell death. Furthermore, dandelion leaf and flower but not root extracts stimulated glutathione generation and glutathione reductase mRNA expression in the presence or absence of UVB irradiation. We also found that dandelion leaf and flower extracts help absorb UVB irradiation. In addition, dandelion extracts significantly protected HDFs from H2O2-induced cellular senescence. In conclusion, dandelion extracts especially leaf and flower extracts are potent protective agents against UVB damage and H2O2-induced cellular senescence in HDFs by suppressing ROS generation and MMP activities and helping UVB absorption.

  6. Dandelion Extracts Protect Human Skin Fibroblasts from UVB Damage and Cellular Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yafan; Li, Shuangshuang

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes damage in skin by generating excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), leading to skin photoageing. Dandelion extracts have long been used for traditional Chinese medicine and native American medicine to treat cancers, hepatitis, and digestive diseases; however, less is known on the effects of dandelion extracts in skin photoageing. Here we found that dandelion leaf and flower extracts significantly protect UVB irradiation-inhibited cell viability when added before UVB irradiation or promptly after irradiation. Dandelion leaf and flower extracts inhibited UVB irradiation-stimulated MMP activity and ROS generation. Dandelion root extracts showed less action on protecting HDFs from UVB irradiation-induced MMP activity, ROS generation, and cell death. Furthermore, dandelion leaf and flower but not root extracts stimulated glutathione generation and glutathione reductase mRNA expression in the presence or absence of UVB irradiation. We also found that dandelion leaf and flower extracts help absorb UVB irradiation. In addition, dandelion extracts significantly protected HDFs from H2O2-induced cellular senescence. In conclusion, dandelion extracts especially leaf and flower extracts are potent protective agents against UVB damage and H2O2-induced cellular senescence in HDFs by suppressing ROS generation and MMP activities and helping UVB absorption. PMID:26576225

  7. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  8. Suppression of benign prostate hyperplasia by Kaempferia parviflora rhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Murata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kaempferia parviflora rhizome is used as a folk medicine in Thailand for the treatment of various symptoms. In the present study, the inhibitory activities of extract from K. parviflora rhizome against 5a-reductase (5aR were subjected. Furthermore, the effects of the extract from K. parviflorar hizome in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH were studied using the model mice. Materials and Methods: Preparations of extracts from the rhizomes of K. parviflora, Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber officinale, and methoxyflavones isolated from K. parviflora was used for 5aR inhibition assay. The effects of K. parviflora extract on growth suppression for the prostates and seminal vesicles were performed based on the Hershberger′s method. The K. parviflora extract was administered to castrated mice for 14 days. Results: K. parviflora extract showed more potent inhibitory activity on 5aR than C. zedoaria and Z. officinale extracts. The active principles were identified as 3,5,7,3′,4′-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,7,3′,4′-tetramethoxyflavone by activity guided fractionation. Furthermore, K. parviflora extract suppressed the weights of prostates and seminal vesicles in BPH model rats by daily administration for 14 days. Conclusion: These results indicate that K. parviflora extract can be a promising agent for the treatment of BPH.

  9. Suppression of benign prostate hyperplasia by Kaempferia parviflora rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Hayashi, Hirotaka; Matsumura, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-10-01

    Kaempferia parviflora rhizome is used as a folk medicine in Thailand for the treatment of various symptoms. In the present study, the inhibitory activities of extract from K. parviflora rhizome against 5α-reductase (5αR) were subjected. Furthermore, the effects of the extract from K. parviflorar hizome in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were studied using the model mice. Preparations of extracts from the rhizomes of K. parviflora, Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber officinale, and methoxyflavones isolated from K. parviflora was used for 5αR inhibition assay. The effects of K. parviflora extract on growth suppression for the prostates and seminal vesicles were performed based on the Hershberger's method. The K. parviflora extract was administered to castrated mice for 14 days. K. parviflora extract showed more potent inhibitory activity on 5αR than C. zedoaria and Z. officinale extracts. The active principles were identified as 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone by activity guided fractionation. Furthermore, K. parviflora extract suppressed the weights of prostates and seminal vesicles in BPH model rats by daily administration for 14 days. These results indicate that K. parviflora extract can be a promising agent for the treatment of BPH.

  10. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  11. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de S. Dardengo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases.

  12. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Yanbo Cheng; Jiale Yin; Qian Lu; Xingshun Xu; Xiaoxing Yin

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzed the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PC12 cell apoptosis in a model of Parkinson's disease. The results showed that Ginkgo biloba extract had a potent cytoprotective action and inhibited apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. Ginkgo biloba extract decreased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 and markedly inhibited the activation of p53 and caspase-3. These experimental findings indicate that Ginkgo biloba extract may significantly reduce the effects of oxidative stress induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in PC12 cells and suppress cell apoptosis. The potential effects of Ginkgo biloba extract might be greater than those of levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  13. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  14. The effects of diesel oil-based drilling mud extracts on immune responses of rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, A; Secombes, C J

    1995-07-01

    The potential suppressive effect of oil-pollution in the aquatic environment on fish immune responses was investigated by injecting rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) with an extract obtained from diesel oil-based drilling mud. To investigate the effect of the extract dose, 4 groups of 6 fish were exposed to 0, 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mL extract/Kg body weight (B.W.). To keep the injection volume constant, each extract dose was made up 2.4 mL/Kg B.W. with olive oil. Six weeks later the fish were sacrificed and a number of immmune parameters monitored. In a second experiment, the effect of exposure times was investigated. Fish wee exposed to 2.4 mL extract/Kg B.W., 2.4 mL olive oil/Kg B.W., or 2.4 mL saline/Kg B.W. and immune parameters were monitored 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-injection. In the dose response experiment, there was no significant effect of the extract on serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels and haemolytic complement (CH50) activity, but a suppressive effect on serum lysozyme level was found using the 0.6 mL/Kg dose. This dose also elevated proliferative activity of head kidney lymphocytes in response to the mitogen PHA. In the second experiment, investigating exposure time, again no significant overall effect on serum Ig or lysozyme level and CH50 activity was observed, although Ig levels were significantly lower at week two relative to the other groups. However, both extract- and olive oil-injected fish showed significantly lower lysozyme levels compared with the saline-injected (control) fish throughout the experiment. In contrast, at week six post-exposure, head kidney lymphocyte proliferation was significantly elevated in both the extract- and olive oil-exposed fish relative to the control fish.

  15. How to suppress undesired synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, V H P; Araújo, N A M; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2012-01-01

    Examples of synchronization can be found in a wide range of phenomena such as neurons firing, lasers cascades, chemical reactions, and opinion formation. However, in many situations the formation of a coherent state is not pleasant and should be mitigated. For example, the onset of synchronization can be the root of epileptic seizures, traffic congestion in networks, and the collapse of constructions. Here we propose the use of contrarians to suppress undesired synchronization. We perform a comparative study of different strategies, either requiring local or total knowledge, and show that the most efficient one solely requires local information. Our results also reveal that, even when the distribution of neighboring interactions is narrow, significant improvement is observed when contrarians sit at the highly connected elements. The same qualitative results are obtained for artificially generated networks and two real ones, namely, the Routers of the Internet and a neuronal network.

  16. How to suppress undesired synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, V H P; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2012-01-01

    It is delightful to observe the emergence of synchronization in the blinking of fireflies to attract partners and preys. Other charming examples of synchronization can also be found in a wide range of phenomena such as, e.g., neurons firing, lasers cascades, chemical reactions, and opinion formation. However, in many situations the formation of a coherent state is not pleasant and should be mitigated. For example, the onset of synchronization can be the root of epileptic seizures, traffic congestion in communication networks, and the collapse of constructions. Here we propose the use of contrarians to suppress undesired synchronization. We perform a comparative study of different strategies, either requiring local or total knowledge of the system, and show that the most efficient one solely requires local information. Our results also reveal that, even when the distribution of neighboring interactions is narrow, significant improvement in mitigation is observed when contrarians sit at the highly connected ele...

  17. 法国海岸松树皮提取物碧萝芷对长链游离脂肪酸诱导的巨噬细胞perilipin2基因表达的影响%Pycnogenol, an Extract from French Martime Pine, Suppresses Oleic Acid-induced perilipin2 Expression in Macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范斌; 杜强; 谷剑秋; 张锦

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of Pycnogenol on oleic acid-induced perilipin2 expression in macrophages. Methods Realtime PCR and Western blot were performed to detect perilipin2 expression. Transient transfection and luciferase assay were employed to measure perilipin2 promoter activity. Results Oleic acid significantly induced perilipiti2 expression in a dose-and time-dependent manner in macrophages; oleic acid markedly enhanced perilipin2 promoter activity; Pycnogenol significantly suppressed oleic acid-induced perihpin2 expression and promoter activity. Conclusion For the first time,we demonstrated that Pycnogenol significantly suppressed oleic acid-induced perilipin2 expression and promoter activity.%目的 研究碧萝芷(PYC)对油酸诱导的巨噬细胞perilipin2表达的影响及其相关分子机制.方法 应用Real-time PCR 和Western blot测定油酸及PYC对perilipin2 mRNA和蛋白水平表达影响.应用荧光素酶活性分析方法检测油酸及PYC时perilipin2启动子活性的影响.结果油酸以剂量和浓度依赖方式上调perilipin2 mRNA和蛋白水平表达,并促进perilipin2启动子活性.PYC以剂量依赖方式抑制了油酸诱导的perilipin2表达及启动子活性.结论PYC抑制了巨噬细胞中油酸诱导的perilipin2的表达.PYC通过抑制perilipin2启动子活性,从而直接抑制perilipin2的表达.

  18. Suppressive effects of Calendula micrantha essential oil and gibberelic acid (PGR) on repro ductive potential of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Karam T

    2005-08-01

    The volatile oil of Calendula micrtantha plant was extracted and the components were identified by Gc/Ms. Adulticidal efficiency of the volatile oil and gibberelic acid "plant growth promoting hormone" as well as their mixture was assessed against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. The result showed that the two compounds capable have characteristic resembling to insect juvenile hormones and have suppressive effect on reproductive potential. They induced the significant disturbances in the ovarian protein fraction and the amino acids patterns.

  19. Effect of Alendronate on Bone Formation during Tooth Extraction Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, R; Koi, K; Yamashita, J

    2015-09-01

    Alendronate (ALN) is an antiresorptive agent widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Its suppressive effect on osteoclasts has been extensively studied. However, the effect of ALN on bone formation is not as clear as its effect on resorption. The objective was to determine the effect of short-term ALN on bone formation and tooth extraction wound healing. Molar tooth extractions were performed in mice. ALN, parathyroid hormone (PTH), or saline (vehicle control) was administered. PTH was used as the bone anabolic control. Mice were euthanized at 3, 5, 7, 10, and 21 d after extractions. Hard tissue healing was determined histomorphometrically. Neutrophils and lymphatic and blood vessels were quantified to evaluate soft tissue healing. Gene expression in the wounds was assessed at the RNA level. Furthermore, the vossicle bone transplant system was used to verify findings from extraction wound analysis. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was visualized in the vossicles to assess osteoblast activity. ALN exhibited no negative effect on bone formation. In intact tibiae, ALN increased bone mass significantly more than PTH did. Consistently, significantly elevated osteoblast numbers were noted. In the extraction sockets, bone fill in the ALN-treated mice was equivalent to the control. Genes associated with bone morphogenetic protein signaling, such as bmp2, nog, and dlx5, were activated in the extraction wounds of the ALN-treated animals. Bone formation in vossicles was significantly enhanced in the ALN versus PTH group. In agreement with this, ALN upregulated ALP activity considerably in vossicles. Neutrophil aggregation and suppressed lymphangiogenesis were evident in the soft tissue at 21 d after extraction, although gross healing of extraction wounds was uneventful. Bone formation was not impeded by short-term ALN treatment. Rather, short-term ALN treatment enhanced bone formation. ALN did not alter bone fill in extraction sockets.

  20. μ波抑制的界定、功能及其应用*--揭示镜像神经元活动的机制和意义%Definition, Function and Application ofμSuppression---To Reveal the Mechanism and Significance of Mirror Neuron System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官群; 姚茹; 孟万金

    2014-01-01

    近年来人们十分热衷对镜像神经元系统的研究,最新研究趋势是探究μ节律与镜像神经元系统活动功能的关联,文章从四个方面阐述了μ波抑制是代表高级神经活动标记的重要指标。文章首先介绍了μ波抑制机理,强调了μ波抑制功能概念的飞跃,综述了μ波抑制在三个方面(动作、语言认知、以及高级社会功能)作为镜像神经元活动的证据,最后总结与展望μ波抑制对心理与行为困难的矫正的应用。%In recent years, researchers are very keen on studies of mirror neuron system.The latest trend of research is to explore the association between the μrhythm and the function of the mirror neuron system activities.The paper claims for the argument that μrhythm is a crucial indicator of higher-level neural system activities.It first intro-duces the definition ofμsuppression in contrast to the alpha rhythm, emphasizes the functional concept of μsup-pression, reviews the major evidence of μsuppression as signposts of mirror neuron system activities in three as-pects ( i.e., action, language cognition, and advanced social function) , finally pinpoints its application of adoptingμsuppression training and intervention to deal with behavioral and psychological disabilities.

  1. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007630.htm Tooth extraction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from ...

  2. Suppression of bovine lymphocyte function by treatment with physiologic concentrations of cortisone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo-Amaize, E.A.; Paape, M.J.; Guidry, A.J.; Mayer, H.K.

    1986-03-01

    The blastogenic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) (8 cows) to capsular antigen extract of Staphylococcus aureus, PHA and LPS was measured in vitro using /sup 5/H-thymidine pulse labelling. isolated PBL were treated in vitro for 6-8 days with 10, 25 and 45 ng/ml cortisone. These concentrations simulate serum corticosteroid levels during environmental stress, acute clinical mastitis and ACTH therapy, respectively. To determine the minimal concentration of cortisone that would induce suppression, PBL were also incubated with increasing concentrations of cortisone starting at 10 pg/ml. All concentrations of cortisone caused a significant (P<0.01) depression of lymphocyte blastogenic response to S. aureus, PHA and LPS. Macrophage depletion experiments showed no macrophage suppressor effects. Both the blastogenic response of untreated peripheral blood lymphocytes to S. aureus, PHA and LPS and the degree to which that response was suppressed by cortisone differed significantly among cows. Results indicate that cortisone levels found during physiological stress and after therapeutic administration of ACTH can suppress lymphocyte function.

  3. Anti-Endometriotic Effects of Pueraria Flower Extract in Human Endometriotic Cells and Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ji‐Hyun Kim; Jeong‐Hwa Woo; Hye Mi Kim; Myung Sook Oh; Dae Sik Jang; Jung‐Hye Choi

    2017-01-01

    Pueraria flowers have been used as a vegetable and an ingredient for tea and jelly. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pueraria flower extract (PFE) on endometriosis, a common gynaecological disease characterised by local sterile inflammation of peritoneal cavity. PFE suppressed the adhesion of human endometriotic cells 11Z and 12Z to human mesothelial Met5A cells. In addition, PFE significantly inhibited the migration of 11Z and 12Z cells as shown by woundhealing and transwel...

  4. Antimalarial Properties of Aqueous Crude Extracts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Moringa oleifera Leaves in Combination with Artesunate in Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkaew, Preeyanuch; Klubsri, Chokdee; Dondee, Kittiyaporn; Bootprom, Panatda; Saiphet, Butsarat

    2016-01-01

    Due to the emergence and spread of malaria parasite with resistance to antimalarial drugs, discovery and development of new, safe, and affordable antimalarial are urgently needed. In this respect, medicinal plant extracts are targets to optimize antimalarial actions and restore efficacy of standard antimalarial drugs. The present study was aimed at determining the antimalarial activities of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Moringa oleifera leaf extracts in combination with artesunate against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. P. berghei ANKA maintained by serial passage in ICR mice were used based on intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes and subsequent development of parasitemia. These infected mice were used to investigate the antimalarial activity of artesunate (6 mg/kg) in combination with 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg of G. pentaphyllum and M. oleifera leaf extracts using 4-day suppressive test. It was found that these extracts showed significant (P < 0.05) antimalarial activity in dose-dependent manner with percentage of suppression of 45, 50, and 55% for G. pentaphyllum leaf extract and 35, 40, and 50% for M. oleifera leaf extract. Additionally, artesunate combined with these extracts presented higher antimalarial activity, compared to extract treated alone with percentage of suppression of 78, 91, and 96% for G. pentaphyllum leaf extract and 73, 82, and 91% for M. oleifera leaf extract. The results indicated that combination treatment of G. pentaphyllum or M. oleifera leaf extracts with artesunate was able to increase the antimalarial activity by using low dose of artesunate. Hence, these results justified the combination of these extracts and artesunate in antimalarial herbal remedies. PMID:27872647

  5. Antimalarial Properties of Aqueous Crude Extracts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Moringa oleifera Leaves in Combination with Artesunate in Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voravuth Somsak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the emergence and spread of malaria parasite with resistance to antimalarial drugs, discovery and development of new, safe, and affordable antimalarial are urgently needed. In this respect, medicinal plant extracts are targets to optimize antimalarial actions and restore efficacy of standard antimalarial drugs. The present study was aimed at determining the antimalarial activities of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Moringa oleifera leaf extracts in combination with artesunate against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. P. berghei ANKA maintained by serial passage in ICR mice were used based on intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes and subsequent development of parasitemia. These infected mice were used to investigate the antimalarial activity of artesunate (6 mg/kg in combination with 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg of G. pentaphyllum and M. oleifera leaf extracts using 4-day suppressive test. It was found that these extracts showed significant (P<0.05 antimalarial activity in dose-dependent manner with percentage of suppression of 45, 50, and 55% for G. pentaphyllum leaf extract and 35, 40, and 50% for M. oleifera leaf extract. Additionally, artesunate combined with these extracts presented higher antimalarial activity, compared to extract treated alone with percentage of suppression of 78, 91, and 96% for G. pentaphyllum leaf extract and 73, 82, and 91% for M. oleifera leaf extract. The results indicated that combination treatment of G. pentaphyllum or M. oleifera leaf extracts with artesunate was able to increase the antimalarial activity by using low dose of artesunate. Hence, these results justified the combination of these extracts and artesunate in antimalarial herbal remedies.

  6. Propolis suppresses CdCl₂-induced cytotoxicity of COS7 cells through the prevention of intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tetsuro; Izumi, Misato; Hara, Hirokazu; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product made by honeybees and contains various compounds, including flavonoids, amino acids and fatty acids. These compounds are considered to have antiviral, antibacterial and antioxidative properties. On the other hand, cadmium (Cd), an industrial and environmental pollutant, preferentially accumulates in the kidney and induces kidney injury. We previously reported that exposure to CdCl₂ induced cell death though intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in kidney tubule epithelial COS7 cells. Here, we investigated whether propolis extracts suppress CdCl₂-induced cytotoxicity. Predictably, pretreatment with propolis extracts significantly suppressed CdCl₂-induced cytotoxicity and intracellular ROS generation. Propolis extracts not only showed superoxide dismutase and antioxidative activities, but also increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidative enzyme. Moreover, we determined the involvement of hypoxia inducible factor-1α in propolis extract-derived HO-1 induction. We demonstrate for the first time the utility of propolis for Cd-related COS7 cytotoxicity, and these novel findings are considered to contribute to the control of ROS-derived disorders.

  7. Antiproliferative crude soy saponin extract modulates the expression of IkappaBalpha, protein kinase C, and cyclooxygenase-2 in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Yu, Rina; Kim, Jeong-Sang; Kim, Young-Kyoon; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2004-07-08

    Frequent consumption of soy and soy-based products is associated with reduced cancer incidence particularly for breast, colon, and prostate cancer. In this study, we examined the effect of crude soy saponin extract on PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)-induced inflammatory responses. Human adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) were treated with various concentrations of saponin extract for 72 h. Cell growth was measured at 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, and the PMA-induced expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), protein kinase C (PKC), and IkappaBalpha were determined. The results indicate that crude saponin extract decreased cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Crude soy saponin extract suppressed the degradation of IkappaBalpha in PMA-stimulated cells, while COX-2 and PKC expressions were significantly down-regulated. These findings support the hypothesis that the soy saponins reduce the risk of colon tumorigenesis possibly by suppressing inflammatory responses.

  8. Effects of natto extract on endothelial injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang,Chin-Hsien

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial damage has been found to be associated with thrombus formation, which is considered to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A diet of natto leads to a low prevalence of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of natto extract on vascular endothelia damage with exposure to laser irradiation. Endothelial damage both in vitro and in vivo was induced by irradiation of rose bengal using a DPSS green laser. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay, and the intimal thickening was verified by a histological approach. The antioxidant content of natto extract was determined for the free radical scavenging activity. Endothelial cells were injured in the presence of rose bengal irradiated in a dose-dependent manner. Natto extract exhibits high levels of antioxidant activity compared with purified natto kinase. Apoptosis of laser-injured endothelial cells was significantly reduced in the presence of natto extract. Both the natto extract and natto kinase suppressed intimal thickening in rats with endothelial injury. The present findings suggest that natto extract suppresses vessel thickening as a synergic effect attributed to its antioxidant and anti-apoptosis properties.

  9. Cardioprotective properties of Crataegus oxycantha extract against ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Jayachandran Kesavan; Khan, Mahmood; Mohan, Iyappu K; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Devaraj, S. Niranjali; Rivera, Brian K.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect and mechanism of Crataegus oxycantha (COC) extract, a well-known natural antioxidant-based cardiotonic, against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies showed that COC extract was capable of scavenging superoxide, hydroxyl, and peroxyl radicals, in vitro. The cardioprotective efficacy of the extract was studied in a crystalloid perfused heart model of I/R injury. Hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 45 min of reperfusion. During reperfusion, COC extract was infused at a dose rate of 1 mg/ml/min for 10 min. Hearts treated with COC extract showed a significant recovery in cardiac contractile function, reduction in infarct size, and decrease in creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. The expressions of xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase were significantly reduced in the treated group. A significant upregulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Hsp70 with simultaneous downregulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 was observed. The molecular signaling cascade including phospho-Akt (ser-473) and HIF-1α that lead to the activation or suppression of apoptotic pathway also showed a significant protective role in the treatment group. No significant change in phospho-p38 levels was observed. The results suggested that the COC extract may reduce the oxidative stress in the reperfused myocardium, and play a significant role in the inhibition of apoptotic pathways leading to cardioprotection. PMID:20171068

  10. Accentuation-suppression and scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    a scaling mechanism modulating the decision bias of the observer and also through an accentuation-suppression mechanism that modulates the degree of subjective relevance of objects, contracting attention around fewer, highly relevant objects while suppressing less relevant objects. These mechanisms may...

  11. Senna singueana: Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Antiapoptotic Properties and Phytochemical Profiling of a Methanol Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Sobeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are considered as an important source for the discovery of new drugs to treat aging-related degenerative diseases and liver injury. The present study profiled the chemical constituents of a methanol extract from Senna singueana bark using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS and 36 secondary metabolites were identified. Proanthocyanidins dominated the extract. Monomers, dimers, trimers of (epicatechin, (epigallocatechin, (epiguibourtinidol, (entcassiaflavan, and (epiafzelechin represented the major constituents. The extract demonstrated notable antioxidant activities in vitro: In DPPH (EC50 of 20.8 µg/mL, FRAP (18.16 mM FeSO4/mg extract assays, and total phenolic content amounted 474 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Also, in an in vivo model, the extract increased the survival rate of Caenorhabditis elegans worms pretreated with the pro-oxidant juglone from 43 to 64%, decreased intracellular ROS inside the wild-type nematodes by 47.90%, and induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factor DAF-16 in the transgenic strain TJ356. Additionally, the extract showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against d-galactosamine (d-GalN induced hepatic injury in rats. It significantly reduced elevated AST (aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin. Moreover, the extract induced a strong cytoplasmic Bcl-2 expression indicating suppression of apoptosis. In conclusion, the bark extract of S. sengueana represents an interesting candidate for further research in antioxidants and liver protection.

  12. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  13. Comparison of the outcomes of the lower incisor extraction, premolar extraction and non-extraction treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan; Malkoc, Siddik; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of lower incisor extraction and to compare it with premolar extraction and non-extraction treatment. The sample consisted of 60 subjects with Class I malocclusion and moderate crowding. The sample was separated into three groups: extraction of a lower incisor group, extraction of a four first premolar group and a non-extraction group. All groups involved 13 girls and 7 boys with a total of 20 patients. The Peer assessment rating (PAR) index was applied to a patient's pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) dental casts. T1 dental casts were also used for determining Bolton discrepancy. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. For the mean percentage PAR score reduction for each group, there was one significant difference seen between the lower incisor extraction group and the non-extraction group (P = 0.047). For the mean anterior ratios, there were significant differences among premolar extraction group versus non-extraction group (P = 0.042) and non-extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.000). For the mean overall ratios, there were significant differences among the premolar extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.048) and the non-extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.001). Orthodontic treatment without extraction has a better treatment outcome than the four-first premolar extraction and single lower incisor extraction protocols in Class I cases with moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding.

  14. Glare suppression by coherence gated negation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Edward Haojiang; Brake, Joshua; Ruan, Haowen; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of a weak target hidden behind a scattering medium can be significantly confounded by glare. We report a method, termed coherence gated negation (CGN), that uses destructive optical interference to suppress glare and allow improved imaging of a weak target. As a demonstration, we show that by permuting through a set range of amplitude and phase values for a reference beam interfering with the optical field from the glare and target reflection, we can suppress glare by an order of magnitude, even when the optical wavefront is highly disordered. This strategy significantly departs from conventional coherence gating methods in that CGN actively 'gates out' the unwanted optical contributions while conventional methods 'gate in' the target optical signal. We further show that the CGN method can outperform conventional coherence gating image quality in certain scenarios by more effectively rejecting unwanted optical contributions.

  15. Procyanidins Mitigate Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis by, at Least in Part, Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Angela; Leong, Daniel J.; He, Zhiyong; Xu, Lin; Liu, Lidi; Kim, Sun Jin; Hirsh, David M.; Hardin, John A.; Cobelli, Neil J.; Sun, Hui B.

    2016-01-01

    Procyanidins are a family of plant metabolites that have been suggested to mitigate osteoarthritis pathogenesis in mice. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether procyanidins mitigate traumatic injury-induced osteoarthritis (OA) disease progression, and whether procyanidins exert a chondroprotective effect by, at least in part, suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. Procyanidins (extracts from pine bark), orally administered to mice subjected to surgery for destabilization of the medial meniscus, significantly slowed OA disease progression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that procyanidin treatment reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and effectors in OA pathogenesis that are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor. Procyanidin-suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor expression was correlated with reduced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in human OA primary chondrocytes. Moreover, components of procyanidins, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin B3 exerted effects similar to those of total procyanidins in mitigating the OA-related gene expression profile in the primary culture of human OA chondrocytes in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. Together, these findings suggest procyanidins mitigate OA pathogenesis, which is mediated, at least in part, by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. PMID:27941690

  16. Secondary Metabolites from Fungal Endophytes of Echinacea purpurea Suppress Cytokine Secretion by Macrophage-Type Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amninder; Oberhofer, Martina; Juzumaite, Monika; Raja, Huzefa A; Gulledge, Travis V; Kao, Diana; Faeth, Stanley H; Laster, Scott M; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-01-01

    Botanical extracts of Echinacea purpurea have been widely used for the treatment of upper respiratory infections. We sought to chemically examine fungal endophytes inhabiting E. purpurea, and to identify compounds produced by these endophytes with in vitro cytokine-suppressive activity. Twelve isolates from surface sterilized seeds of E. purpurea were subjected to fractionation and major components were isolated. Sixteen secondary metabolites belonging to different structural classes were identified from these isolates based on NMR and mass spectrometry data. The compounds were tested for their influence on cytokine secretion by murine macrophage-type cells. Alternariol (1), O-prenylporriolide (4), porritoxin (10) β-zearalenol (13), and (S)-zearalenone (14) inhibited production of TNF-α from RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS in the absence of any significant cytotoxicity. This is the first report of a cytokine-suppressive effect for 4. The results of this study are particularly interesting given that they show the presence of compounds with cytokine-suppressive activity in endophytes from a botanical used to treat inflammation. Future investigations into the role of fungal endophytes in the biological activity of E. purpurea dietary supplements may be warranted.

  17. Procyanidins Mitigate Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis by, at Least in Part, Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Procyanidins are a family of plant metabolites that have been suggested to mitigate osteoarthritis pathogenesis in mice. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether procyanidins mitigate traumatic injury-induced osteoarthritis (OA disease progression, and whether procyanidins exert a chondroprotective effect by, at least in part, suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. Procyanidins (extracts from pine bark, orally administered to mice subjected to surgery for destabilization of the medial meniscus, significantly slowed OA disease progression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that procyanidin treatment reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and effectors in OA pathogenesis that are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor. Procyanidin-suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor expression was correlated with reduced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in human OA primary chondrocytes. Moreover, components of procyanidins, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin B3 exerted effects similar to those of total procyanidins in mitigating the OA-related gene expression profile in the primary culture of human OA chondrocytes in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. Together, these findings suggest procyanidins mitigate OA pathogenesis, which is mediated, at least in part, by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.

  18. Antidiabetic effect of an active fraction extracted from dragon's blood (Dracaena Cochinchinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hui-Juan; Lv, Jing-Ci; Yong, Ke-Lan; Chen, Xu; Liu, Pei-Pei; Zhang, Xia-Bing

    2009-02-01

    The active fraction extracted from dragon's blood displayed an inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase activity with an IC50 of 0.152 microg/mL, which is nearly half of the crude material. Its inhibition on alpha-glucosidase was noncompetitive. In addition, when this fraction was orally administered to mice dosed with Acarbose (20 mg/kg), the active fraction (100, 300, 500 mg/kg) significantly suppressed increase of blood glucose levels after sucrose loading in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that this extract from dragon's blood exerts an anti-diabetic effect by suppressing intestinal carbohydrate absorption and thereby reducing the postprandial increase of blood glucose.

  19. Hypoglycemic Effect of Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus) Extract on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Joo; Han, Ji-Sook

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the inhibitory effect of jicama extract on α-glucosidase activity, α-amylase activity, and postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Jicama extract showed prominent inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The IC50 values of jicama extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were 0.083±0.004 and 0.091±0.017 mg/mL, respectively. The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly suppressed in the jicama extract-administered group than in the control group of both STZ-induced diabetic and normal mice. Blood glucose levels of the control group increased to 383.75±11.54 and 402.50±15.32 mg/dL at 30 and 60 min after a meal and decreased to 349.67±11.62 mg/dL at 120 min. However, postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly decreased, when diabetic mice were fed with jicama extract (342.00±15.73, 367.00±13.00, and 329.67±12.43 mg/dL at 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively). Furthermore, the area under the curve was significantly decreased with jicama extract administration in diabetic mice (Pjicama extract may help decrease postprandial blood glucose level by inhibiting α-glucosidase.

  20. The potentiation of Mangifera casturi bark extract on interleukin- 1β and bone morphogenic protein-2 expressions during bone remodeling after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Indra Sukmana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main oral health problem in Indonesia is the high number of tooth decay. Tooth extraction is the treatment often received by patients who experience tooth decay and the wound caused by alveolar bone resorption. Bark of Mangifera casturi has been studied and proven to contain secondary metabolite which has the ability to increase osteoblast’s activity and suppress osteoclast’s activity. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2 activities during bone remodeling after Mangifera casturi’s bark extract treatment. Method: This study was laboratory experimental research with randomized post-test only control group design. The Mangifera casturi bark was extracted using 96% ethanol maceration and n-hexane fractionation. This study used 40 male Wistar rats which are divided into 4 groups and the tooth extraction was performed on the rats’ right mandible incisive tooth. The four groups consisted of 6.35%, 12.7%, 25.4% extract treatment group, and a control group. Wistar’s mandibles were decapitated on the 7th and 14th day after extraction. Antibody staining on preparations for the examination of IL-1β and BMP-2 expressions was done using immunohistochemistry. Result: There was a significant difference of IL-1β and BMP-2 expressions in 6,35%, 12,7%, and 25,4% treatment groups compared to control group with p<0.05. Conclusion: Mangifera casturi’s bark extract was able to suppress the IL-1β expression and increase the BMP-2 expression during bone remodeling after tooth extraction.

  1. Breviscapine reduces neuronal injury caused by traumatic brain injury insult: partly associated with suppression of interleukin-6 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breviscapine, extracted from the herb Erigeron breviscapus, is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cerebral infarct, and stroke, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. This study established a rat model of traumatic brain injury induced by controlled cortical impact, and injected 75 μg breviscapine via the right lateral ventricle. We found that breviscapine significantly improved neurobehavioral dysfunction at 6 and 9 days after injection. Meanwhile, interleukin-6 expression was markedly down-regulated following breviscapine treatment. Our results suggest that breviscapine is effective in promoting neurological behavior after traumatic brain injury and the underlying molecular mechanism may be associated with the suppression of interleukin-6.

  2. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  3. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  4. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  5. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will explore and test the feasibility and effectiveness of using a cryogenic fluid (liquid nitrogen) to facilitate acoustic suppression in a...

  6. Immunostimulation-Mediated Anti-Tumor Activity of Bamboo (Sasa senanensis Leaf Extracts Obtained under ‘Vigorous’ Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Seki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Japanese medicine uses the leaves of Kumaizasa bamboo extracted in hot water at 100°C. For this study, we developed a new, ‘vigorous’ extraction method involving steps at 100, 121 and 196°C. This procedure not only yielded greater amounts of extract but also with significant increase in immunostimulating activity, which induces activation of human natural killer (NK cells, macrophages and potent induction of IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-γ in tumor bearing mice. The efficacy of the extract to facilitate phagocytosis and nitric oxide production by mouse peritoneal macrophages was determined and compared with that of 1,3-β-glucan. Anti-tumor activity was evaluated in vivo in several mouse tumor models (S-180, C38 and Meth-A. Oral administration of the extracts was carried out when tumor reached size of approximately 6 mm at concentrations of 0.05% or higher. The extracts significantly suppressed tumor growth in S-180 and C38 tumor models. Overall survival was significantly prolonged in the treatment group than that of control. Activation of macrophages and NK cells by the extracts suggests that the anti-tumor efficacy of the extract is mediated by immunopotentiation. The extracts resolved into three major fractions (F-I, F-II and F-III in Sephadex gel chromatography. Fraction F-I consists of 1,3-β-glucan and stimulated both macrophages and NK cells suggesting that it may be the primary immunopotentiating factor in suppressing cancer. Fraction F-III has potent free radical scavenging effects and may play an important role in cancer prevention. These results warrant further translation and clinical investigations.

  7. Simple suppression of radiation damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitrin, A K; Jerschow, Alexej

    2012-12-01

    Radiation damping is known to cause line-broadening and frequency shifts of strong resonances in NMR spectra. While several techniques exist for the suppression of these effects, many require specialized hardware, or are only compatible with the presence of few strong resonances. We describe a simple pulse sequence for radiation damping suppression in spectra with many strong resonances. The sequence can be used as-is to generate simple spectra or as a signal excitation part in more advanced experiments.

  8. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chan Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  9. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

  10. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kang Min; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK) extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  11. Ion energy recovery experiment based on magnetic electro suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.; Stirling, W.L.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Barber, G.C.; Ponte, N.S.

    1980-05-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment on direct recovery of residual hydrogen ions based on a magnetic electron suppression scheme is described. Ions extracted from a source plasma a few kilovolts above the ground potential (approx. 20 A) are accelerated to 40 keV by a negative potential maintained on a neutralizer gas cell. As the residual ions exit the gas cell, they are deflected from the neutral beam by a magnetic field that also suppresses gas cell electrons and then recovered on a ground-potential surface. Under optimum conditions, a recovery efficiency (the ratio of the net recovered current to the available full-energy ion current) of 80% +- 20% has been obtained. Magnetic suppression of the beam plasma electrons was rather easily achieved; however, handling the fractional-energy ions originating from molecular species (H/sub 2//sup +/ and H/sub 3//sup +/) proved to be extremely important to recovery efficiency.

  12. Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane extracts of three Chenopodium species against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Arshad; Amin, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane leaf, stem, root and inflorescence extracts (1, 2, 3 and 4% w/v) of three Chenopodium species (family Chenopodiaceae) namely Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium murale L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was investigated against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) G. Goid., a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen that has a broad host range and wide geographical distribution. All the extracts of the three Chenopodium species significantly suppressed the test fungal growth. However, there was marked variation among the various extract treatments. Methanol inflorescence extract of C. album exhibited highest antifungal activity resulting in up to 96% reduction in fungal biomass production. By contrast, methanol leaf extract of the same species exhibited least antifungal activity where 21-44% reduction in fungal biomass was recorded due to various employed extract concentrations. The various methanol extracts of C. murale and C. ambrosioides decreased fungal biomass by 62-90 and 50-84%, respectively. Similarly, various n-hexane extracts of C. album, C. murale and C. ambrosioides reduced fungal biomass by 60-94, 43-90 and 49-86%, respectively.

  13. fMRI repetition suppression: neuronal adaptation or stimulus expectation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jonas; Smith, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Measurements of repetition suppression with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI adaptation) have been used widely to probe neuronal population response properties in human cerebral cortex. fMRI adaptation techniques assume that fMRI repetition suppression reflects neuronal adaptation, an assumption that has been challenged on the basis of evidence that repetition-related response changes may reflect unrelated factors, such as attention and stimulus expectation. Specifically, Summerfield et al. (Summerfield C, Trittschuh EH, Monti JM, Mesulam MM, Egner T. 2008. Neural repetition suppression reflects fulfilled perceptual expectations. Nat Neurosci. 11:1004-1006) reported that the relative frequency of stimulus repetitions and non-repetitions influenced the magnitude of repetition suppression in the fusiform face area, suggesting that stimulus expectation accounted for most of the effect of repetition. We confirm that stimulus expectation can significantly influence fMRI repetition suppression throughout visual cortex and show that it occurs with long as well as short adaptation durations. However, the effect was attention dependent: When attention was diverted away from the stimuli, the effects of stimulus expectation completely disappeared. Nonetheless, robust and significant repetition suppression was still evident. These results suggest that fMRI repetition suppression reflects a combination of neuronal adaptation and attention-dependent expectation effects that can be experimentally dissociated. This implies that with an appropriate experimental design, fMRI adaptation can provide valid measures of neuronal adaptation and hence response specificity.

  14. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  15. Immersion diuresis without expected suppression of vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Silver, J. E.; Wong, N.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kravik, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a shift of blood from the lower parts of the body to the thoracic circulation during bed rest, water immersion, and presumably during weightlessness. On earth, this central fluid shift is associated with a profound diuresis. However, the mechanism involved is not yet well understood. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the plasma vasopressin, fluid, electrolyte, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses in subjects with normal preimmersion plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration. In the conducted experiments, PRA was suppressed significantly at 30 min of immersion and had declined by 74 percent by the end of the experiment. On the basis of previously obtained results, it appears that sodium excretion during immersion may be independent of aldosterone action. Experimental results indicate that PVP is not suppressed by water immersion in normally hydrated subjects and that other factors may be responsible for the diuresis.

  16. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic study of Gynura procumbens leaf extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Algariri; Kuong Y Meng; Item J Atangwho; Mohd Z Asmawi; Amirin Sadikun; Vikneswaran Murugaiyah; Norhyati Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic activity of Gynura procumbens (G. procumbens) used in the traditional management of diabetes in Southern Asia. Methods: G. procumbens leaves were extracted sequentially with graded percentage of ethanol in water (95%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0%), and the extracts were tested for antidiabetic activity using acute (7 h), subcutaneous glucose tolerance test and sub-chronic (14 d) test in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The extracts were further subjected to phytochemical studies. Results: In acute dose (1 g/kg), the extracts significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (P<0.05). However, the FBG-lowering effect of the 25% extract compared to the other extracts, was rapid (47% after 2 h) and the highest: 53%, 53% and 60% in the 3rd, 5th, and 7th h, respectively (P<0.05), comparable only to the effect of metformin. Furthermore, the extracts suppressed peak FBG in subcutaneous glucose tolerance test, but only the 0% and 25% extracts, and metformin sustained the decrease until the 90th min (P<0.05). Moreover, in the 14 days study, the 25% extract exerted the highest FBG-lowering effect, namely 49.38% and 65.43% on days 7 and 14, respectively (P<0.05), similar to the effect of metformin (46.26% and 65.42%). Total flavanoid and phenolic contents in the extracts were found to decrease with increase in polarity of extraction solvents. The composition of reference compounds (chlorogenic acid, rutin, astragalin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside) followed a similar trend. Conclusions: G. procumbens contains antidiabetic principles, most extracted in 25% ethanol. Interaction among active components appears to determine the antidiabetic efficacy, achieved likely by a metformin-like mechanism.

  17. Potentiation of the bioavailability of daidzin by an extract of Radix puerariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1996-04-30

    The dose effect of pure daidzin on the suppression of ethanol intake in Syrian golden hamsters was compared with that of crude daidzin contained in a methanol extract of Radix puerariae (RP). EC50 values estimated from the graded dose-response curves for pure daidzin and RP extract daidzin are 23 and 2.3 mg per hamster per day, respectively. Apparently the antidipsotropic activity of the RP extract cannot be accounted for solely by its daidzin content (22 mg/g). In addition to daidzin, six other isoflavones were identified in the RP extract and quantified--namely, puerarin (160 mg per g of extract), genistin (3.7 mg/g), daidzein (2.6 mg/g), daidzein-4',7-diglucoside (1.2 mg/g), genistein (0.2 mg/g), and formononetin (0.16 mg/g). None of these, administered either alone or combined, contributes in any significant way to the antidipsotropic activity of the extract. Plasma daidzin concentration-time curves determined in hamsters administered various doses of pure daidzin or RP extract by i.p.injection indicate that the crude extract daidzin has approximately 10 times greater bioavailability than the pure compound. Reconstruction of the dose-response effects for pure and crude daidzin using bioavailable daidzin rather than administered dose gives a single curve. Synthetic daidzin added to the RP extract acquires the bioavailability of the endogenous daidzin that exists naturally in the extract. These results show that (i) daidzin is the major active principle in methanol extracts of RP, and (ii) additional constituents in the methanol extract of RP assist uptake of daidzin in golden hamsters.

  18. Effects of anti-IgM suppression on polyclonally activated murine B cells: analysis of immunoglobulin mRNA, gene specific nuclear factors and cell cycle distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, A; Van Ness, B; Rouse, T; Lafrenz, D

    1989-01-01

    Polyclonal activation of murine B cells with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dextran sulfate (DxS) results in cell proliferation as well as increased immunoglobulin gene transcription and antibody secretion. When added to B cell cultures during mitogen activation, anti-mu antibody suppresses the rate of proliferation and immunoglobulin gene expression. Using this model system we show that co-cultures of B cells with LPS/DxS and anti-mu resulted in a decrease of both mu and kappa chain mRNA. Suppression did not prevent B cell entry into cycle nor a significant alteration in the distribution of cells in phases of cell cycle, although it did prolong the cycle transit time in a dose dependent fashion as determined by bromodeoxyuridine pulse labelling. Analysis of B cell specific nuclear binding factors, which previously have been shown to be important in regulating immunoglobulin gene transcription were examined. Results show that the kappa-specific enhancer binding activity of NF-kappa B was induced in activated as well as suppressed cultures. The lymphoid specific factor NF-A2, which recognizes the octamer sequence motif in the promoters of immunoglobulin genes, was induced by the polyclonal activation but was selectively lost in extracts from suppressed cells. Thus, specific regulation of the nuclear factor which plays a critical role in both heavy and light chain immunoglobulin gene expression may contribute to the transcriptional suppression observed in anti-mu treated B cells. Images PMID:2481271

  19. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumurugan Kavitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt. significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52

  20. Application of ultrasound in extractive metallurgy: Sonochemical extraction of nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesic, Batric; Zhou, Taili

    1992-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound in solvent extraction was examined by studying solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70 extractants. The studied parameters were ultrasonic energy and frequency, pH, temperature, and organic and aqueous solution composition. The stability of extractants under the influence of ultrasound was also examined. It was found that ultrasound had a significant importance, because it increased the extraction rates four- to sevenfold. The effect of ultrasound was physical, i.e., to increase the surface area. Ultrasonic energy consumption was also evaluated. The consumption was high, but it can be significantly reduced by the appropriate method of application. A novel solvent extraction method, extraction-in-pipe, was also proposed.

  1. Otostegia persica extraction on healing process of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ganjali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if the methanolic extract of the Otostegia persica can accelerating healing process of burn wound because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. METHODS:Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomized into three study groups of 16 rats each. Burn wounds were created on dorsal part of shaved rats using a metal rod. In group I the burn wound was left without any treatment. Group was treated with topical silver sulfadiazine pomade. In group III, ointment containing the OP extract was administered. Skin biopsies were harvested from burn area on the 3rd, 5th, 14th and 21st days after burn and examined histologically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization in the control group and in group II was lower than in group III. Re-epithelialization in groups II and III was significantly different from that in the control group. On the 5th day of the experiment, we assessed lower inflammation in the burn area compared to control group. This means that the inflammation was suppressed by methanolic extract of OP. From day 5 to 14; the fibroblast proliferation peaked and was associated with increased collagen accumulation. It was obvious that angiogenesis improved more in the groups II and III, which facilitated re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSION:Methanolic extract of Otostegia persica exhibited significant healing activity when topically applied on rats. OP is an effective treatment for saving the burn site.

  2. Cold Suppresses Agonist-induced Activation of TRPV1

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Cold therapy is frequently used to reduce pain and edema following acute injury or surgery such as tooth extraction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cold therapy are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and pathological pain under conditions of inflammation or injury. Although capsaicin-induced nociception, neuropeptide release, and ionic currents are suppress...

  3. Puerarin Suppress Apoptosis of Human Osteoblasts via ERK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-juan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Puerarin, the main isoflavone glycoside extracted from Radix Puerariae, is an isoflavone traditional Chinese herb. Previous studies have demonstrated that puerarin could regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation to promote bone formation. However, the effect of puerarin on the process of human osteoblasts (hOBs apoptosis is still unclear. In this study, we detected the function of puerarin on serum-free-induced cell apoptosis using ELISA and TUNEL arrays and then found that the mortality of hOBs was significantly decreased after exposure to 10−10–10−6 M puerarin and reached the maximal antiapoptotic effect at the concentration of 10−8 M. In addition, compared with the control group, puerarin notably increased the Bcl-2 protein levels while it decreased the Bax protein levels in the hOBs in a dose-dependent way. 10−7 M puerarin decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio with a maximal decrease to 0.08. Moreover, puerarin activated ERK signaling pathways in hOBs, and the antiapoptotic effect induced by puerarin was abolished by incubation of ERK inhibitor PD98059. Similarly, the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182780 also suppressed the inhibitory effect of puerarin on hOBs apoptosis. In conclusion, puerarin could prevent hOBs apoptosis via ERK signaling pathway, which might be effective in providing protection against bone loss and bone remolding associated with osteoporosis.

  4. Bevalac extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

  5. Citrus limon extract: possible inhibitory mechanisms affecting testicular functions and fertility in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of 50% ethanolic leaf extract of Citrus limon (500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day) for 35 days on fertility and various male reproductive endpoints was evaluated in Parkes strain of mice. Testicular indices such as histology, 3β- and 17β-HSD enzymes activity, immunoblot expression of StAR and P450scc, and germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL and CASP- 3 expression were assessed. Motility, viability, and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, level of serum testosterone, fertility indices, and toxicological parameters were also evaluated. Histologically, testes in extract-treated mice showed nonuniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules. Treatment had adverse effects on steroidogenic markers in the testis and induced germ cell apoptosis. Significant reductions were noted in epididymal sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in Citrus-treated mice compared to controls. Fertility of the extract-treated males was also suppressed, but libido remained unaffected. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, alterations induced in the above parameters returned to control levels suggesting that Citrus treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Suppression of spermatogenesis may result from germ cell apoptosis because of decreased production of testosterone. The present work indicated that Citrus leaves can affect male reproduction.

  6. Bioactive Extract from Moringa oleifera Inhibits the Pro-inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Masoumeh Tangestani; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of M. oleifera extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory effect of M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extracts was evaluated by assessing the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production during Griess reaction and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Results: Interestingly, we found that M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract significantly inhibited the secretion of NO production and other inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. Meanwhile, the bioactive extract has induced the production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract effectively suppressed the protein expression of inflammatory markers inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells p65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These findings support the traditional use of M. oleifera plant as an effective treatment for inflammation associated diseases/disorders. SUMMARY Hydroethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera effectively inhibit the NO production in LPS induced inflammatory model.M. oleifera crude extracts successfully modulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages.M. oleifera extracts suppressed the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages. PMID:27013794

  7. Bioactive Extract from Moringa oleifera Inhibits the Pro-inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Masoumeh Tangestani; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of M. oleifera extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect of M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extracts was evaluated by assessing the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production during Griess reaction and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Interestingly, we found that M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract significantly inhibited the secretion of NO production and other inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. Meanwhile, the bioactive extract has induced the production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract effectively suppressed the protein expression of inflammatory markers inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells p65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. These findings support the traditional use of M. oleifera plant as an effective treatment for inflammation associated diseases/disorders. Hydroethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera effectively inhibit the NO production in LPS induced inflammatory model.M. oleifera crude extracts successfully modulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages.M. oleifera extracts suppressed the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages.

  8. Perilla leaf extract prevents atopic dermatitis induced by an extract of Dermatophagoides farinae in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Ken-Ichi; Takanari, Jun; Maeda, Takahiro; Kitadate, Kentaro; Sato, Takashi; Mihara, Yoshihiro; Uehara, Kaori; Wakame, Koji

    2016-12-01

    Perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) leaf comprises many types of active components, mainly flavonoids, and acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in in vitro and in vivo atopic dermatitis (AD) models. We investigated the effects of orally administered perilla leaf extract (PLE) on the symptoms of AD induced by Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE) in NC/Nga AD model mice. The mice were allowed free intake of 0.5% PLE. Skin lesions were assessed, and blood was sampled from the caudal vein on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 31. On day 31, all mice were sacrificed to obtain blood, skin, spleen, and intestinal tissue samples. The assessment scores of the skin lesions and total serum IgE levels of PLE-treated mice (PLE group) were significantly lower than DFE-treated mice (DFE group) on days 7, 14, and 21. On day 31, the serum periostin and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) levels in the PLE group were significantly lower than those in the DFE group. Histological analysis of the skin revealed that hyperplasia of the epidermal and dermal layers and infiltration of inflammatory cells (cell infiltration in corium tissues) were suppressed by PLE. Periostin deposition was observed in the skin tissue obtained from the DFE group. Moreover, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of splenic T cells was suppressed in the PLE group but not in the DFE group.

  9. Anticancer Effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Alcohol Extract on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hung Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have reported significant effects from Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza in terms of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinomas, promyelocytic leukemia, and clear cell ovary carcinomas. Here we report our data indicating that Danshen extracts, especially alcohol extract, significantly inhibited the proliferation of the human oral squamous carcinoma (OSCC cell lines HSC-3 and OC-2. We also observed that Danshen alcohol extract activated the caspase-3 apoptosis executor by impeding members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP family, but not by regulating the Bcl-2-triggered mitochondrial pathway in OSCC cells. Our data also indicate that the extract exerted promising effects in vivo, with HSC-3 tumor xenograft growth being suppressed by 40% and 69% following treatment with Danshen alcohol extract at 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, for 34 days. Combined, our results indicate appreciable anticancer activity and significant potential for Danshen alcohol extract as a natural antioxidant and herbal human oral cancer chemopreventive drug.

  10. Rhizosphere ecology and phytoprotection in soils naturally suppressive to Thielaviopsis black root rot of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, Juliana; Muller, Daniel; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2014-07-01

    Soil suppressiveness to disease is an intriguing emerging property in agroecosystems, with important implications because it enables significant protection of susceptible plants from soil-borne pathogens. Unlike many soils where disease suppressiveness requires crop monoculture to establish, certain soils are naturally suppressive to disease, and this type of specific disease suppressiveness is maintained despite crop rotation. Soils naturally suppressive to Thielaviopsis basicola-mediated black root rot of tobacco and other crops occur in Morens region (Switzerland) and have been studied for over 30 years. In Morens, vermiculite-rich suppressive soils formed on morainic deposits while illite-rich conducive soils developed on sandstone, but suppressiveness is of microbial origin. Antagonistic pseudomonads play a role in black root rot suppressiveness, including Pseudomonas protegens (formerly P. fluorescens) CHA0, a major model strain for research. However, other types of rhizobacterial taxa may differ in prevalence between suppressive and conducive soils, suggesting that the microbial basis of black root rot suppressiveness could be far more complex than solely a Pseudomonas property. This first review on black root rot suppressive soils covers early findings on these soils, the significance of recent results, and compares them with other types of suppressive soils in terms of rhizosphere ecology and plant protection mechanisms.

  11. Biochemical effects of the flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract on the melanin biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kazuya; Okura, Masae; Sumikawa, Yasuyuki; Hida, Tokimasa; Kuno, Atsushi; Horio, Yoshiyuki; Yamashita, Toshiharu

    2016-10-01

    An ingredient of fruit polyphenol, resveratrol, is known to have an inhibitory effect on melanogenesis. In order to examine the functional differences between resveratrol and other fruit polyphenols, we compared biochemical effects of a resveratrol-free polyphenol, flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract (FRLFE), with other phenolic compounds including resveratrol. FRLFE as well as hydroquinone and resveratrol suppressed growth of B16F1 melanoma cells more significantly than rhododendrol or arbutin. Resveratrol suppressed mushroom tyrosinase at the lowest concentration (23.0 μmol/L) among the compounds tested. FRLFE and hydroquinone suppressed tyrosinase at almost the same concentration (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50 ], 83.5 and 94.6 μmol/L, respectively), which was higher than rhododendrol, ascorbic acid and arbutin (IC50 , 245, 345 and 421 μmol/L, respectively). Western blot analysis revealed that although resveratrol decreased expressions of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1, FRLFE did not affect their expressions. Both FRLFE and resveratrol suppressed antimycin A-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanocytic cells. Resveratrol-mediated ROS suppression was inhibited by nicotinamide, a SIRT1 inhibitor. However, FRLFE-mediated suppression was not affected by nicotinamide. Moreover, FRLFE directly decreased superoxide in vitro, as detected by superoxide dismutase-like scavenging activity assay. These results suggest that FRLFE can protect melanocytes from cytotoxicity caused by an excess amount of melanin and ROS in a different manner from resveratrol.

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Evaluations of Myrtle Extract, a Plant Traditionally Used for Treatment of Parasitic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Naghibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the collected ethnobotanical data from the Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center (TMRC, Iran, Myrtus communis L. (myrtle was selected for the assessment of in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and cytotoxic activities. Methanolic extract of myrtle was prepared from the aerial parts and assessed for antiplasmodial activity, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH assay against chloroquine-resistant (K1 and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The 4-day suppressive test was employed to determine the parasitemia suppression of the myrtle extract against P. berghei  in vivo. The IC50 values of myrtle extract were 35.44 µg/ml against K1 and 0.87 µg/ml against 3D7. Myrtle extract showed a significant suppression of parasitaemia (84.8 ± 1.1% at 10 mg/kg/day in mice infected with P. berghei after 4 days of treatment. Cytotoxic activity was carried out against mammalian cell lines using methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay. No cytotoxic effect on mammalian cell lines up to 100 µg/mL was shown. The results support the traditional use of myrtle in malaria. Phytochemical investigation and understanding the mechanism of action would be in our upcoming project.

  13. Potential anti-inflammatory effect of lemon and hot pepper extracts on adjuvant-induced arthritis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hend M. Tag

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis and related disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA, are common diseases affecting millions of people. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of lemon and hot pepper extracts on adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA in mice. Arthritis was induced by injection of complete Freund adjuvant (CFA subcutaneously at the planter surface of hind paw, the lemon and hot pepper extracts were administered subcutaneously at the same site twice weekly (100 mg/kg, for 2 weeks starting 2 days after CFA injection. Arthritic scores, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C reactive protein (CRP, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and paw histopathology were assessed at the end of the experiment. The extract treatments reduced the severity of arthritic scores in the following order: lemon fruit peel (LFP > lemon leaf (LL > hot pepper leaf (HL during the experimental period as compared with positive control (RA. LFP, LL and HL extracts significantly suppressed ESR, ANA, CRP and TNF-α as compared with RA group. HL, LFP and LL reduced the IL-1β by 63.02%, 47.22%, 44.92%, while IL-6 cytokine production significantly decreased by 29.74%, 28.96%, and 23.93% for IL 6 as compared with RA. Hot pepper fruit (HF extract treated-group showed a significant decrease for ESR on the other hand there was non-significant difference for TNF-α, IL-6, IL1β, CRP and ANA as compared with RA. Histopathological examination indicated that LFP, LL and HL extracts alleviated infiltration of inflammatory cells and synovial hyperplasia as well as protected joint destruction. The data showed that all extracts except HF have significant anti-arthritic and anti-inflammation effects and suggest that these effects may be mediated via the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  14. Cough suppression therapy: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Sarah; Garrod, Rachel; Birring, Surinder S

    2013-10-01

    Cough suppression therapy (CST), also known as cough suppression physiotherapy and speech pathology management is a promising non-pharmacological therapeutic option for patients with refractory chronic cough. CST may consist of education, improving laryngeal hygiene and hydration, cough suppression techniques, breathing exercises and counselling. It is an out-patient therapy delivered in 2-4 sessions. There is evidence to support the efficacy of CST: a randomised controlled trial reported a significant reduction in cough symptoms and other studies have reported improved cough related quality of life, reduced cough reflex hypersensitivity and cough frequency. The mechanism of action of CST is not clear, but it has been shown to reduce cough reflex sensitivity, paradoxical vocal fold movement (PVFM) and extrathoracic hyperresponsiveness. Further research is needed to determine the optimal components of CST, the characteristics of patients in whom it is most effective and to increase the understanding of its mechanisms of action. The effectiveness of CST in other respiratory conditions such as asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sarcoidosis should also be investigated.

  15. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  16. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  17. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  18. Vibration suppression using smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ephrahim; Inman, Daniel J.; Dosch, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    The control of structures for vibration suppression is discussed in the context of using smart materials and structures. Here the use of smart structures refers to using embedded piezoelectric devices as both control actuators and sensors. Using embedded sensors and actuators allows great improvements in performance over traditional structures (both passive and active) for vibration suppression. The application of smart structures to three experimental flexible structures is presented. The first is a flexible beam, the second is a flexible beam undergoing slewing motion, the third is a ribbed antenna. A simple model of a piezoelectric actuator/sensor is presented. The equations of motion for each structure is presented. The control issues considered as those associated with multi-input, multi-output control, PID control and LQR control implementation. A modern control analysis illustrates the usefulness of smart structures for vibration suppression.

  19. Conformational transition and mass transfer in extraction of proteins by AOT--alcohol--isooctane reverse micellar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, D P; Lee, S S; Kuboi, R

    2000-06-23

    We examined quantitatively the effect of alcohols on protein and reverse micellar structure. We used circular dichroism (CD) to compare the effects of various alcohols on the protein structure, and percolation phenomena to evaluate the effects of various alcohols on reverse micellar structure. Upon the addition of alcohols to the bulk aqueous phase, proteins were denatured significantly, depending on the alcohol species and concentration, suggesting that use of alcohol directly to the stripping solution is not effective in back-extraction processes of proteins. In the present study, a new method, a small amount of alcohol is added to the surfactant-organic solution to improve the back-extraction behaviors of proteins. Practically, in the back-extraction process, the alcohols suppressing the cluster formation of reverse micelles (high value of beta1), remarkably improved the back-extraction behavior of proteins. In addition, the same alcohol molecules showed a positive effect on the rate and fraction of protein back-extraction. From a result of the CD measurement of the back-extracted proteins, it was known that the alcohols added to reverse micellar solution allowed the proteins to back-extract safely without causing structural changes. These results show that the values of beta(t), defined by the variation of percolation processes, and the back-extraction behaviors of proteins have a good relationship, suggesting that the back-extraction processes were controlled by the micellar-micellar and protein-micellar interactions.

  20. Selection of BW 5147 subclones devoid of non-specific suppressive activity for use in cell hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouat, G; Liacopoulos-Briot, M; Couderc, J; Parlebas, J; Perrodon, Y; Briffaut, O; Liacopoulos, P

    1985-02-01

    Culture supernatants of BW 5147 cells widely used for T-cell hybridization often manifest non-MHC-restricted, non-antigen-specific regulatory activities on the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) of mouse cells. This report demonstrates that, whereas supernatants of BW 5147 cells grown at low concentrations (2 X 10(5)/ml) enhanced MLR, high cell concentration (2 X 10(6)/ml) supernatants markedly inhibited this reaction. BW 5147 cell-free extracts significantly inhibited MLR and in vitro antibody production (PFC), as well as the mitogenic response to lipopolysaccharide E. coli (LPS) of mouse spleen cells, but did not affect the response to an optimal dose of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Both supernatant and cell-free extract inhibitory activities were located in 60,000 MW fraction. Inhibitory material of low MW (less than 12,000) was also found in high cell concentration supernatants. A similar suppressive activity was exerted by cell-free extracts of P3 X 63 NS cells used for B-cell hybridization. The suppressive activity seemed to stem from some kind of interaction between BW 5147 cells and the fetal calf serum (FCS) of the culture medium. Supernatants from subclones of BW 5147 cells obtained in selected batches of FCS and maintained in the same serum, even at high cell concentrations, did not affect MLR, whereas the supernatants from the same subclones maintained in other batches definitely suppressed this reaction. Thus, provided that culture conditions are chosen carefully, subclones of BW 5147 devoid of effect on in vitro immune reactions can be obtained.

  1. Choosing Outcomes of Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Outcomes are high-quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context. The High Success Network uses the "Demonstration Mountain" to differentiate among three major "learning zones" and six different forms of learning demonstrations that increase in complexity, generalizability, and significance, along with…

  2. Mulberry fruit prevents LPS-induced NF-κB/pERK/MAPK signals in macrophages and suppresses acute colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengjiang; Wu, Zhiqin; Huang, Lian; Qiu, Huiling; Wang, Liyan; Li, Li; Yao, Lijun; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Wu, Yonghou; Luo, Jun; Liu, Johnson J; Yang, Yi; Yang, Wancai; Gou, Deming

    2015-11-30

    Here, we investigated the impact of mulberry fruit (MBF) extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the therapeutic efficacy of MBF diet in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis and MUC2(-/-) mice with colorectal cancer. In vitro, LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly inhibited by MBF extracts via suppressing the expression of proinflammatory molecules, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-β) and IL-6. Particularly, a dose-dependent inhibition on LPS-induced inflammatory responses was observed following treatment with MBF dichloromethane extract (MBF-DE), in which linoleic acid and ethyl linolenate were identified as two active compounds. Moreover, we elucidated that MBF-DE attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking activation of both NF-κB/p65 and pERK/MAPK pathways. In vivo, DSS-induced acute colitis was significantly ameliorated in MBF-fed mice as gauged by weight loss, colon morphology and histological damage. In addition, MBF-fed MUC2(-/-) mice displayed significant decrease in intestinal tumor and inflammation incidence compared to control diet-fed group. Overall, our results demonstrated that MBF suppressed the development of intestinal inflammation and tumorgenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and supports the potential of MBF as a therapeutic functional food for testing in human clinical trials.

  3. Fucoidan Suppresses Hypoxia-Induced Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphatic Metastasis in Mouse Hepatocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hongming; Yang, Yazong; Wei, Hengyun; Liu, Zundong; Liu, Zhichao; Ma, Yanhong; Gao, Zixiang; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2015-06-03

    Metastasis, the greatest clinical challenge associated with cancer, is closely connected to multiple biological processes, including invasion and adhesion. The hypoxic environment in tumors is an important factor that causes tumor metastasis by activating HIF-1α. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a sulfated polysaccharide and, as a novel marine biological material, has been used to treat various disorders in China, Korea, Japan and other countries. In the present study, we demonstrated that fucoidan derived from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls significantly inhibits the hypoxia-induced expression, nuclear translocation and activity of HIF-1α, the synthesis and secretion of VEGF-C and HGF, cell invasion and lymphatic metastasis in a mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line. Fucoidan also suppressed lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, accompanied by a reduction in the HIF-1α nuclear translocation and activity, fucoidan significantly reduced the levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-ERK, NF-κB, MMP-2 and MMP-9, but increased TIMP-1 levels. These results indicate strongly that the anti-metastasis and anti-lymphangiogenesis activities of fucoidan are mediated by suppressing HIF-1α/VEGF-C, which attenuates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways.

  4. Fucoidan Suppresses Hypoxia-Induced Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphatic Metastasis in Mouse Hepatocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Teng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis, the greatest clinical challenge associated with cancer, is closely connected to multiple biological processes, including invasion and adhesion. The hypoxic environment in tumors is an important factor that causes tumor metastasis by activating HIF-1α. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a sulfated polysaccharide and, as a novel marine biological material, has been used to treat various disorders in China, Korea, Japan and other countries. In the present study, we demonstrated that fucoidan derived from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls significantly inhibits the hypoxia-induced expression, nuclear translocation and activity of HIF-1α, the synthesis and secretion of VEGF-C and HGF, cell invasion and lymphatic metastasis in a mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line. Fucoidan also suppressed lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, accompanied by a reduction in the HIF-1α nuclear translocation and activity, fucoidan significantly reduced the levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-ERK, NF-κB, MMP-2 and MMP-9, but increased TIMP-1 levels. These results indicate strongly that the anti-metastasis and anti-lymphangiogenesis activities of fucoidan are mediated by suppressing HIF-1α/VEGF-C, which attenuates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways.

  5. Compost made of organic wastes suppresses fusariosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryntseva, Polina; Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Selivanovkaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Fungal plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Usually, pesticides are used for soil sanitation, and it results in practically pest-free soils, although pesticides cause a biological vacuum, which present many horticultural disadvantages. Suppressive composts, which possess both fertilizing properties for plants and inhibiting properties for plant pathogens, represent an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional pesticides. In this study, composts obtained from agricultural organic wastes were applied to suppress Fusarium oxysporum of tomato plants in model experiments. Composts were made of mixtures of the widespread organic wastes sampled in Tatarstan (Russia): straw (SW), corn wastes (CW), chicken manure (ChM), cattle manure (CM) and swine manure (SM). 11 two- and three-component mixtures were prepared to obtain the optimal carbon-nitrogen, moisture and pH balances, and composted for 210 days. It was found that the thermophilic phase of composting in all the mixtures lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. from 27°C to 59°C. In the initial mixtures, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg CO2-C g-1 day-1). After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (SW+SM) to 100% (CW+ChM+SM, CW+ChM); however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (Trichoderma asperellum, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and

  6. Role of phyto-stabilised silver nanoparticles in suppressing adjuvant induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Aparna; Vasanthi, C; Gopal, V; Chellathai, Darling

    2016-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic effects of silver nanoparticles synthesised using Piper nigrum extract and to further establish its mechanism of action in a rat model of adjuvant induced arthritis (AA). Adjuvant arthritis was induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1mL) into the left hind paw of 36 albino Wistar rats (n=6). Silver nanoparticles stabilised with Piper nigrum extract (25 and 50mg/kg). Commercial silver nanoparticles (50mg/kg) and methotrexate (0.1mg/kg) were administered by intraperitoneal route from day 11 to day 22 on alternate days. It was found that treatment with silver nanoparticles stabilised with Piper nigrum (S-AgNPs) significantly reduced the paw edema and alleviated the histopathological changes of cell infiltration, synovial hyperplasia, bone and cartilage destruction. Furthermore, the phytostabilised silver nanoparticles (S-AgNPs) inhibited the protein expression of NF-kβ p65 and TNF-α as evidenced by immunohistochemistry analysis. Our current findings suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilised with Piper nigrum extract (S-AgNPs) have potent anti-arthritic activity which is mediated by inhibition of TNF-α and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are secreted in response to activated transcription factors of NF-kβ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Attention-dependent early cortical suppression contributes to crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; He, Yingchen; Zhu, Ziyun; Zhou, Tiangang; Peng, Yujia; Zhang, Xilin; Fang, Fang

    2014-08-01

    Crowding, the identification difficulty for a target in the presence of nearby flankers, is ubiquitous in spatial vision and is considered a bottleneck of object recognition and visual awareness. Despite its significance, the neural mechanisms of crowding are still unclear. Here, we performed event-related potential and fMRI experiments to measure the cortical interaction between the target and flankers in human subjects. We found that the magnitude of the crowding effect was closely associated with an early suppressive cortical interaction. The cortical suppression was reflected in the earliest event-related potential component (C1), which originated in V1, and in the BOLD signal in V1, but not other higher cortical areas. Intriguingly, spatial attention played a critical role in the manifestation of the suppression. These findings provide direct and converging evidence that attention-dependent V1 suppression contributes to crowding at a very early stage of visual processing.

  8. Exploring dielectric elastomers as actuators for hand tremor suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Christopher R.; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.

    2017-04-01

    Pathological tremor results in undesired motion of body parts, with the greatest effect typically occurring in the hands. Since common treatment methods are ineffective in some patients or have risks associated with surgery or side effects, researchers are investigating mechanical means of tremor suppression. This work explores the viability of dielectric elastomers as the actuators in a tremor suppression control system. Dielectric elastomers have many properties similar to human muscle, making them a natural fit for integration into the human biomechanical system. This investigation develops a model of the integrated wrist-actuator system to determine actuator parameters that produce the necessary control authority without significantly affecting voluntary motion. Furthermore, this paper develops a control law for the actuator voltage to increase the effective viscous damping of the system. Simulations show excellent theoretical tremor suppression, demonstrating the potential for dielectric elastomers to suppress tremor while maximizing compatibility between the actuator and the human body.

  9. Acetonitrile Ion Suppression in Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizza, Kevin; Mahoney, Keira E.; Yevdokimov, Alexander V.; Smith, James L.; Oxley, Jimmie C.

    2016-11-01

    Efforts to analyze trace levels of cyclic peroxides by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry gave evidence that acetonitrile suppressed ion formation. Further investigations extended this discovery to ketones, linear peroxides, esters, and possibly many other types of compounds, including triazole and menadione. Direct ionization suppression caused by acetonitrile was observed for multiple adduct types in both electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The addition of only 2% acetonitrile significantly decreased the sensitivity of analyte response. Efforts to identify the mechanism were made using various nitriles. The ion suppression was reduced by substitution of an acetonitrile hydrogen with an electron-withdrawing group, but was exacerbated by electron-donating or steric groups adjacent to the nitrile. Although current theory does not explain this phenomenon, we propose that polar interactions between the various functionalities and the nitrile may be forming neutral aggregates that manifest as ionization suppression.

  10. Hypoglycemic activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: Underlying mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Kanti Saha, Md. Nurul Huda Bhuiyan, Kishor Mazumder and K.M. Formuzul Haque

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic effect of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaves hot water extract on chemically induced diabetes in rat was investigated. Experimental result showed that, streptozotocin significantly (p<0.001 elevated the normal blood sugar level whereas treatment with hot water extract depressed the streptozotocin-induced high blood sugar level about 43.20% as compare to diabetic controls. Treatment with hot water extract increased the activity of shunt enzyme glucose–6-phosphate dehydrogenase (33.81% and glutathione level (31.25% and depression of the activity of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phasphatase (31.63% and fructose–1,6-bisphosphatase (27.40%. These studies thus strongly suggest that the hot water extract of L. speciosa leave attributed its prominent hypoglycemic activity on experimental diabetic rats through suppression of gluconeogenesis and stimulation of glucose oxidation using the pentose phosphate pathway.

  11. Protection against atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by oral administration of humus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Denso; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2007-04-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection. Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry feeding pellets. The median surviving days was also greater in fish treated with 10% or 5% humus extract than in untreated fish. Atypical A. salmonicida was isolated from ulcerative lesions of part of dead fish, but Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. were also isolated from these fish, verifying bacterial population changes during the progression of skin lesions. These results clearly show that treatment of fish with humus extract is effective in preventing A. salmonicida disease.

  12. Significance Testing Without Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ICES REPORT 12-34 August 2012 Significance testing without truth by William Perkins, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward The Institute for Computational...testing without truth , ICES REPORT 12-34, The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, August 2012...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance testing without truth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  13. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  14. B cells exposed to enterobacterial components suppress development of experimental colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Esben Gjerløff Wedebye; Larsen, Hjalte List; Kristensen, Nanna Ny

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: B cells positively contribute to immunity by antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells, cytokine production, and differentiation into antibody secreting plasma cells. Accumulating evidence implies that B cells also possess immunoregulatory functions closely linked to their capability of IL......-10 secretion. METHODS: Colitis development was followed in CD4(+) CD25(-) T cell transplanted SCID mice co-transferred with B cells exposed to an enterobacterial extract (ebx-B cells). B and T cell cytokine expression was measured by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA......). RESULTS: We demonstrate that splenic B cells exposed to ebx produce large amounts of IL-10 in vitro and express CD1d and CD5 previously known to be associated with regulatory B cells. In SCID mice transplanted with colitogenic CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells, co-transfer of ebx-B cells significantly suppressed...

  15. Intercropping leeks to suppress weeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, D.T.; Kropff, M.J.; Bastiaans, L.

    2000-01-01

    Many field vegetables such as leek are weak competitors against weeds, causing high costs for weed management practice. Using celery as a companion cash crop was suggested to improve the weed suppression of leek. Three field experiments were carried out to study the intra- and interspecific competit

  16. Wasabi leaf extracts attenuate adipocyte hypertrophy through PPARγ and AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oowatari, Yasuo; Ogawa, Tetsuro; Katsube, Takuya; Iinuma, Kiyohisa; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Gao, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Hypertrophy of adipocytes in obese adipose tissues causes metabolic abnormality by adipocytokine dysregulation, which promotes type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum) leaf extracts on metabolic abnormalities in SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr rats (SHRSP/ZF), which are a model of metabolic syndrome. Male SHRSP/ZF rats aged 7 weeks were divided into two groups: control and wasabi leaf extract (WLE) groups, which received water or oral treatment with 4 g/kg/day WLE for 6 weeks. WLE improved the body weight gain and high blood pressure in SHRSP/ZF rats, and the plasma triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the WLE group. Adipocyte hypertrophy was markedly prevented in adipose tissue. The expression of PPARγ and subsequent downstream genes was suppressed in the WLE group adipose tissues. Our data suggest that WLE inhibits adipose hypertrophy by suppressing PPARγ expression in adipose tissue and stimulating the AMPK activity by increased adiponectin.

  17. Investigation of in vivo neuropharmacological effect of Alpinia nigra leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farjana Sharmen; Adnan Mannan; Md Mominur Rahman; Md Ashraf Uddin Chowdhury; Muhammad Erfan Uddin; A M Abu Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze in vivo neuro-pharmacological effects of Alpinia nigra as anxiety is a particular form of behavioral inhibition that occurs in response to novel environmental events.Methods:In present study, the extract of Alpinia nigra was evaluated for its central nervous system depressant effect using mice behavioral models, such as hole cross, open field and thiopental sodium induced sleeping time tests for its sedative properties and an elevated plus-maze test for its anxiolytic potential, respectively.Results:In anxiolytic study, the extract displayed increased percentage of entry into open arm at the dose of 400 and 200 mg/kg. The extract produced a significant (P<0.01) increase in sleeping duration and reduction of onset of sleep compared to sodium thiopental at both doses (200 and 400 mg/kg). The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) also showed a dose-dependent suppression of motor activity and exploratory activity of the mice in both open field and hole cross test.Conclusion:This study demonstrates that the treated extract has significant central nervous system depressant effect. Further studies on active constituent of the extract can provide approaches for therapeutic intervention.

  18. Information extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lei; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to extract relevant information by knowledge graphs from natural language text. We give a multiple level model based on knowledge graphs for describing template information, and investigate the concept of partial structural parsing. Moreover, we point out that

  19. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the phenomeno

  20. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  1. High temperature suppression of dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Chen, Tong; Fu, Jian-Ying; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2016-03-01

    Combined Sulphur-Nitrogen inhibitors, such as sewage sludge decomposition gases (SDG), thiourea and amidosulphonic acid have been observed to suppress the de novo synthesis of dioxins effectively. In this study, the inhibition of PCDD/Fs formation from model fly ash was investigated at unusually high temperatures (650 °C and 850 °C), well above the usual range of de novo tests (250-400 °C). At 650 °C it was found that SDG evolving from dried sewage sludge could suppress the formation of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs with high efficiency (90%), both in weight units and in I-TEQ units. Additionally, at 850 °C, three kinds of sulphur-amine or sulphur-ammonium compounds were tested to inhibit dioxins formation during laboratory-scale tests, simulating municipal solid waste incineration. The suppression efficiencies of PCDD/Fs formed through homogeneous gas phase reactions were all above 85% when 3 wt. % of thiourea (98.7%), aminosulphonic acid (96.0%) or ammonium thiosulphate (87.3%) was added. Differences in the ratio of PCDFs/PCDDs, in weight average chlorination level and in the congener distribution of the 17 toxic PCDD/Fs indicated that the three inhibitors tested followed distinct suppression pathways, possibly in relation to their different functional groups of nitrogen. Furthermore, thiourea reduced the (weight) average chlorinated level. In addition, the thermal decomposition of TUA was studied by means of thermogravimetry-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and the presence of SO2, SO3, NH3 and nitriles (N≡C bonds) was shown in the decomposition gases; these gaseous inhibitors might be the primary dioxins suppressants.

  2. Control of tomato early blight and wilt using aqueous extract of neem leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naziha M. HASSANEIN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of neem (Azadiracta indica leaf extract against Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agents of early blight and wilt of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. respectively, was studied. Concentrations (5, 10 and 20% of aqueous neem extract suppressed mycelial growth of both pathogenic fungi and the degree of suppression gradually increased with increasing concentration. A concentration of 20% aqueous neem leaf extract sprayed on tomato plants lowered the incidence of Alternaria early blight from 53.2 to 42.5% after two weeks and from 100 to 79.2% after 4 weeks. Spraying plus irrigation with the same extract lowered the severity of Alternaria early blight from 26.8 to 11.4% after 2 weeks and from 61.7 to 17.9% after 4 weeks (control ratio of 43.71% after 4 weeks. For F. oxysporum wilt, germination of tomato seeds was highest in pots containing the negative control (soil free of pathogen and in pots irrigated with the aqueous neem extract. The lowest disease incidence (19.04% was obtained in pots treated with the pathogen and irrigated with aqueous neem extract, where an 81% control of Fusarium wilt was achieved. Growth parameters of tomato (shoot and root length, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were studied 4, 6 and 8 weeks after sowing in the presence of the pathogens. There was a significant gradual increase in growth parameters when the plants were sprayed and irrigated with aqueous neem extract with the greatest improvement recorded 8 weeks after sowing.

  3. Anti-diabetic property of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Fan ZHANG; Benny Kwong-Huat TAN

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-diabetic effect of a crude ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in normal and streptozotocin ( STZ )-induced diabetic rats.METHODS & RESULTS: Oral administration of the extract at different doses (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 g/body weight) significantly reduced the fasting serum glucose level in STZ-diabetic rats compared to the vehicle ( distilled water), but not in normal rots. This effect was dose-dependent. A similar result was seen with metfomnin (0.5 g/body weight). In the glucose tolerance test, an oral administration of the extract at the same doses suppressed the elevated glucose level in normal and diabetic rots, as did mefformin. The effects were also dose-respondent. In the long-term experiment, the extract ( 0.4 g/body weight ), mefformin ( 0.5 gz/body weight), and vehicle were given twice daily to diabetic rats for 14 d. On d 15, fasting serum glucose levels were found to be significantly lower in the extract-and mefformin-treated groups ( P<0.001 ) than in the vehicle-treated group. The mean food and water intakes over 14 days were significantly lower in the extract-treated group ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively) and also in the mefformin-treated group (both P < 0.001 ) when compared to the vehicle-treated group. No significant change in insulin level was observed among the 3 groups of diabetic rats. The extract, like mefformin, maintained the leptin levels after 14-d treatment, whereas this level was significantly decreased ( P < 0.05) in the vehicle-treated group. The activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) was significantly reduced by the extract as well as by mefformin (both P < 0.05). No significant difference in hepatic glycogen stores was noted among the 3 groups. The extract caused 49.8 % reduction of fasting serum triglyceride levels, compared to 27.7 % with metformin. However, neither the extract nor mefformin significantly affected serum cholesterol level. CONCLUSION: The ethanolic

  4. Antifertility activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji F Ajayi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complementary medicine has grown over time with more botanicals emerging and remaining integral parts of medicare. Such botanicals include Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. AIM: This study investigated the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract on male reproductive system using rat model. Materials and Methods: Control and treated rats were maintained on control diet. Treated rats also received graded doses of the extract. RESULTS: When compared with the controls, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta treatment led to significant testosterone suppression associated with consequent significant rise in luteinizing hormone (LH and decrease in sperm count. Treatment with Cryptolepis sanguinolenta did not result in significant attenuation of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH levels and testicular morphometry. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also comparable in all groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity.

  5. Leuprolide acetate suppresses pedophilic urges and arousability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Kuhn, Phyllis J; Kovacs, Paul G; Earle, James H; Byrne, Peter M; Fries, Ruth A

    2005-12-01

    Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA) for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36-58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months. Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile Plethysmography, PPG), as well as strong sexual urges toward children and masturbatory frequency involving thoughts of children (polygraph), were measured every 3 months. On LA, testosterone decreased to castrate levels. Penile tumescence was significantly suppressed compared with baseline, but sufficient response remained to detect pedophilic interest. Pedophilic interest was also detected by visual reaction times. When asked about having pedophilic urges and masturbating to thoughts of children, all subjects self-reported a decrease. Polygraph responses indicated subjects were not deceptive. On placebo, testosterone and physiologic arousal eventually rose to baseline. As noted by polygraph, at baseline and on placebo, subjects were deceptive regarding increased pedophilic urges and masturbatory frequency. Interest preference, as measured by Abel Assessment and Monarch PPG, was generally unchanged throughout the study. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented with LA significantly reduced pedophilic fantasies, urges, and masturbation; however, pedophilic interest did not change during 1 year of therapy. Deceptive responses by polygraph suggested that self-report was unreliable. Follow-up utilizing objective measures is essential for monitoring efficacy of treatment in pedophilia. Our study supports the premise that suppression of pedophilic behavior is possible. LA may augment cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and help break the sequence leading to a re-offense.

  6. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  7. Coffee extract inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocyes by interrupting insulin signaling through the downregulation of IRS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Chihiro; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Aoyagi, Ryohei; Ueda, Fumihito; Kimura, Masaki; Kobata, Kenji; Tago, Kenji; Tamura, Hiroomi

    2017-01-01

    Although epidemiological data have indicated that a strong negative association exists between coffee consumption and the prevalence of obesity-associated diseases, the molecular mechanisms by which coffee intake prevents obesity-associated diseases has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we found that coffee intake significantly suppressed high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic alternations such as increases in body weight and the accumulation of adipose tissue, and up-regulation of glucose, free fatty acid, total cholesterol and insulin levels in the blood. We also found that coffee extract significantly inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In the early phase of adipogenesis, 3T3-L1 cells treated with coffee extract displayed the retardation of cell cycle entry into the G2/M phase called as mitotic clonal expansion (MCE). Coffee extract also inhibited the activation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) by preventing its phosphorylation by ERK. Furthermore, the coffee extract suppressed the adipogenesis-related events such as MCE and C/EBPβ activation through the down-regulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). The stability of the IRS1 protein was markedly decreased by the treatment with coffee extract due to proteasomal degradation. These results have revealed an anti-adipogenic function for coffee intake and identified IRS1 as a novel target for coffee extract in adipogenesis.

  8. Melissa officinalis extract inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun Beom; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (Pofficinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, Pofficinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. Inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9 via anti-oxidative activity may underlie this effect.

  9. The osteoprotective effect of Herba epimedii (HEP extract in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Herba epimedii (HEP is one of the most frequently used herbs prescribed for treatment of osteoporosis in China. In the present study, the in vivo effects of HEP extract on bone metabolism were evaluated using 4-month-old ovariectomized (OVX or sham-operated (Sham female Sprague-Dawley rats orally administered with HEP extract (110 mg kg−1d−1, 17ß-estrogen (2 mg kg−1d−1 or its vehicle for 3 months. HEP extract significantly decreased urinary calcium excretion, suppressed serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels in OVX rats (P < 0.05 versus vehicle-treated OVX rats. Histomorphometric analysis indicated that HEP extract could prevent OVX-induced bone loss by increasing tibial trabecular bone area and decreasing trabecular separation in OVX rats (P < 0.05 versus vehicle-treated OVX group. The in vitro effects of HEP extract were also studied using rat osteoblast-like UMR 106 cells. HEP extract significantly stimulated cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01 versus vehicle-treated and increased ALP activity at 200 μgml−1 (P < 0.01 versus vehicle-treated in UMR 106 cells. It modulated osteoclastogenesis by increasing osteoprotegrin (OPG mRNA and decreasing receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL mRNA expression, resulting in a dose-dependent increase in OPG/RANKL mRNA ratio (P < 0.01 versus vehicle-treated. Taken together, HEP treatment can effectively suppress the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover possibly by both an increase in osteoblastic activities and a decrease in osteoclastogenesis. The present study provides the evidence that HEP can be considered as a complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  10. Metastasized lung cancer suppression by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaf compared to Erlotinib via anti-inflammatory, endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Swee-Ling; Mustapha, Noordin M; Goh, Yong-Meng; Bakar, Nurul Ain Abu; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-05-01

    Metastasized lung and liver cancers cause over 2 million deaths annually, and are amongst the top killer cancers worldwide. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves are traditionally consumed as vegetables in the tropics. The macro and micro effects of M. citrifolia (Noni) leaves on metastasized lung cancer development in vitro and in vivo were compared with the FDA-approved anti-cancer drug Erlotinib. The extract inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells (IC50 = 23.47 μg/mL) and mouse Lewis (LL2) lung carcinoma cells (IC50 = 5.50 μg/mL) in vitro, arrested cancer cell cycle at G0/G1 phases and significantly increased caspase-3/-8 without changing caspase-9 levels. The extract showed no toxicity on normal MRC5 lung cells. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 and 300 mg/kg M. citrifolia leaf extract and compared with Erlotinib (50 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. It significantly increased the pro-apoptotic TRP53 genes, downregulated the pro-tumourigenesis genes (BIRC5, JAK2/STAT3/STAT5A) in the mice tumours, significantly increased the anti-inflammatory IL4, IL10 and NR3C1 expression in the metastasized lung and hepatic cancer tissues and enhanced the NFE2L2-dependent antioxidant responses against oxidative injuries. The extract elevated serum neutrophils and reduced the red blood cells, haemoglobin, corpuscular volume and cell haemoglobin concentration in the lung cancer-induced mammal. It suppressed inflammation and oedema, and upregulated the endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic genes to suppress the cancer. The 300 mg/kg extract was more effective than the 50 mg/kg Erlotinib for most of the parameters measured.

  11. Effects of an acetone extract of Boswellia carterii Birdw. (Burseraceae) gum resin on adjuvant-induced arthritis in lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, A Y; Lao, L; Zhang, R X; Zhou, A N; Wang, L B; Moudgil, K D; Lee, D Y W; Ma, Z Z; Zhang, W Y; Berman, B M

    2005-10-03

    Ruxiang (Gummi olibanum), the dried gum resin of Boswellia carterii (BC), has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate pain and inflammation for thousands of years. In this random, blinded study, the anti-arthritic effects of a BC extract were observed and compared to vehicle control in a Lewis rat adjuvant arthritis model (n=8/group). Arthritis was induced by injecting CFA subcutaneously into the base of the tail, and the extract was administered orally (i.g.) for 10 consecutive days beginning on day 16 after the injection. Arthritic scores, paw edema, and the local tissue pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) were assessed. Toxicity and adverse effects of the extract were evaluated. At 0.90 g/kg per day, BC significantly decreased arthritic scores between days 20 and 25 (p<0.05) and reduced paw edema on days 18, 20 and 22 compared to control (p<0.05). It also significantly suppressed local tissue TNF-alpha and IL-1beta (p<0.05). No major adverse effects were observed in animals during the repeated-dose treatment profile although mild fur discoloration was noted. The data show that BC extract has significant anti-arthritic and anti-inflammation effects and suggest that these effects may be mediated via the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  12. Burst Suppression: A Review and New Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dillon Kenny

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Burst suppression is a pattern of brain electrical activity characterized by alternating periods of high-amplitude bursts and electrical silence. Burst suppression can arise from several different pathological conditions, as well as from general anesthesia. Here we review current algorithms that are used to quantify burst suppression, its various etiologies, and possible underlying mechanisms. We then review clinical applications of anesthetic-induced burst suppression. Finally, we report the results of our new study showing clear electrophysiological differences in burst suppression patterns induced by two common general anesthetics, sevoflurane and propofol. Our data suggest that the circuit mechanisms that generate burst suppression activity may differ between different general anesthetics.

  13. GNOSIS: the first instrument to use fibre Bragg gratings for OH suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Trinh, Christopher Q; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Lawrence, Jon S; Horton, Anthony J; Leon-Saval, Sergio G; Shortridge, Keith; Bryant, Julia; Case, Scott; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warick; Freeman, Kenneth; Loehmannsroeben, Hans-Gerd; Gers, Luke; Glazebrook, Karl; Haynes, Roger; Lee, Steve; O'Byrne, John; Miziarski, Stan; Roth, Martin M; Schmidt, Brian; Tinney, Christopher G; Zheng, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    GNOSIS is a prototype astrophotonic instrument that utilizes OH suppression fibres consisting of fibre Bragg gratings and photonic lanterns to suppress the 103 brightest atmospheric emission doublets between 1.47-1.7 microns. GNOSIS was commissioned at the 3.9-meter Anglo-Australian Telescope with the IRIS2 spectrograph to demonstrate the potential of OH suppression fibres, but may be potentially used with any telescope and spectrograph combination. Unlike previous atmospheric suppression techniques GNOSIS suppresses the lines before dispersion and in a manner that depends purely on wavelength. We present the instrument design and report the results of laboratory and on-sky tests from commissioning. While these tests demonstrated high throughput and excellent suppression of the skylines by the OH suppression fibres, surprisingly GNOSIS produced no significant reduction in the interline background and the sensitivity of GNOSIS and IRIS2 is about the same as IRIS2. It is unclear whether the lack of reduction in...

  14. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  15. Osteoprotective effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi aqueous extract in aged ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Kwok

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL is a commonly used herb for treating bone disorders in Chinese medicine. The present study investigates the anti-osteoporotic activity of FLL aqueous extract in the model of postmenopausal bone loss in aged ovariectomized (OVX female rats. Methods After eight weeks of treatment of FLL or water, the lumbar spine was scanned by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Effects of FLL water extract on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations in rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were assessed by biochemical methods and staining. Results FLL aqueous extract significantly inhibited bone mineral density (BMD loss in total, trabecular and cortical bones without affecting body weight and uterus wet weight. FLL extract significantly promoted osteogenesis and suppressed adipogenesis in MSCs as indicated by the elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition levels and decreased adipocyte number in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxic effects. Real-time PCR analysis revealed significant increase of osteoprotegerin (OPG-to-receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL mRNA, indicating a decrease in osteoclastogenesis. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the osteoprotective effects of FLL aqueous extract on aged OVX rats, stimulation of osteogenesis, inhibition of adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis in MSCs.

  16. Voluntary driven elbow orthosis with speed controlled tremor suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eHerrnstadt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technology is gradually becoming commonplace in the medical sector and in the service of patients. Medical conditions that have benefited from significant technological development include stroke, for which rehabilitation with robotic devices is administered, and surgery assisted by robots. Robotic devices have also been proposed for assistance of movement disorders. Pathological tremor, among the most common movement disorders, is such one example. In practice, the dissemination and availability of tremor suppression robotic systems has been limited. Devices in the marketplace tend to either be non-ambulatory or to target specific functions such as eating and drinking.We have developed a one degree-of-freedom (DOF elbow orthosis that could be worn by an individual with tremor. A speed controlled voluntary driven suppression approach is implemented with the orthosis. Typically tremor suppression methods estimate the tremor component of the signal and produce a canceling counterpart signal. The suggested approach, instead estimates the voluntary component of the motion. A controller then actuates the orthosis based on the voluntary signal while simultaneously rejecting the tremorous motion.In this work, we tested the suppressive orthosis using a 1 DOF robotic system that simulates the human arm. The suggested suppression approach does not require a model of the human arm. Moreover, the human input along with the orthosis forearm gravitational forces, of nonlinear nature, are considered as part of the disturbance to the suppression system. Therefore, the suppression system can be modeled linearly. Nevertheless, the orthosis forearm gravitational forces can be compensated by the suppression system.The electromechanical design of the orthosis is presented, and data from an Essential Tremor patient is used as the human input. Velocity tracking results demonstrate an RMS error of 0.31 rad/s, and a power spectral density shows a reduction of

  17. Triterpenes from Poria cocos suppress growth and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through the downregulation of MMP-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHENG, SHUJIE; ELIAZ, ISAAC; LIN, JUNFANG; SLIVA, DANIEL

    2013-01-01

    Poria cocos is a medicinal mushroom that is widely used in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we show that a characterized mixture of triterpenes extracted from P. cocos (PTE) and three purified triterpenes: pachymic acid (PA), dehydropachymic acid (DPA) and polyporenic acid C (PPAC) suppress the proliferation of the human pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1, MiaPaca-2, AsPc-1 and BxPc-3. Moreover, the most effective compound, PA, only slightly affects the proliferation of HPDE-6 normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells. The anti-proliferative effects of PTE on BxPc-3 cells are mediated by the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that PTE significantly downregulates the expression of KRAS and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) in BxPc-3 cells. In addition, PTE and PA suppress the invasive behavior of BxPc-3 cells. The inhibition of invasiveness by PTE and PA was associated with the reduction of MMP-7 at the protein level and the role of MMP-7 further confirmed by the gene silencing of MMP-7 which also suppressed the invasiveness of BxPc-3 cells. In conclusion, triterpenes from P. cocos demonstrate anticancer and anti-invasive effects on human pancreatic cancer cells and can be considered as new therapeutic agents in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23588713

  18. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tokyo Univ., Miyagi (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Yamada, Masaki [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; DESY Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 10{sup 12} GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  19. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 1012GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei–Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  20. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  1. Ethanol extract of Brazilian red propolis induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tetsuro; Nishihara, Hiroko; Hara, Hirokazu; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2012-11-07

    Propolis, a natural product collected from plants by honey bees, is commonly used in folk medicines. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to induce apoptosis through the induction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Here, we investigated whether ethanol extracts of propolis and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) induce apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and human fibroblasts. Among several ethanol extracts of propolis and CAPE, Brazilian red propolis (BRP) significantly reduced MCF-7 cell viability through the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation but did not affect those of fibroblasts. Moreover, treatment with BRP significantly induced CHOP expression in MCF-7 cells compared to fibroblasts. Further, pretreatment with a chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid, suppressed BRP-triggered MCF-7 cell death. Overall, we revealed that an ethanol extract of BRP induces MCF-7 cell apoptosis through, at least in part, ER stress-related signaling.

  2. A Significant Step Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  3. EMP and HPM Suppression Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    power lines from external sources. Lightning is in the induced category. It is unlikely that any transient suppression device will survive or protect...from a direct lightning hit; however, direct hits are extremely rare. Most damage to electronic circuits caused by lightning is the result of the...tested by Littelfuse, Inc. in accordance with IEC 801-2 ESD test specifications. Taking into account the relative energies associated with ESD and

  4. Chk1 suppressed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuth Mark

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of Chk1 in the cellular response to DNA replication stress is well established. However recent work indicates a novel role for Chk1 in the suppression of apoptosis following the disruption of DNA replication or DNA damage. This review will consider these findings in the context of known pathways of Chk1 signalling and potential applications of therapies that target Chk1.

  5. Suppression of Listeria monocytogenes by the Native Micro-Flora in Teewurst Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michline Brice

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in teewurst, the optimal microbial growing conditions of teewurst coupled with the ubiquity of L. monocytogenes in nature, makes the possibility of contamination of products very possible. This pilot study was conducted to examine teewurst’s native micro-flora’s ability to suppress the outgrowth of L. monocytogenes at 10 °C using standard plate counts and PCR-DGGE. Traditional plating methods showed L. monocytogenes growth significantly decreased when in competition with the teewurst’s native micro-flora (p < 0.05. The native micro-flora of the teewurst suppressed the overall growth of L. monocytogenes by an average of two logs, under these conditions. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE amplicons with unique banding patterns were extracted from DGGE gel for identification. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus curvatus were identified as a part of the teewurst’s native micro-flora. Although the native micro-flora did not decrease L. monocytogenes to below limits of detection, it was enough of a decrease to warrant further investigation.

  6. Topical application of Scutellaria baicalensis suppresses 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Won; Choi, Jae-Mook; Kim, Myoung-Seok; Son, Hwa-Young; Lim, Jong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a prototypic T-cell-mediated cutaneous inflammatory response. In the present study we describe the anti-allergic effect of topically applied Scutellaria bacalensis aqueous extract (WSBE) in suppressing 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced ACD in BALB/c mice. Topically applied WSBE attenuated the epidermal thickness and mast cell infiltration into the skin in DNCB-induced contact dermatitis. Furthermore, WSBE suppressed DNCB-induced production of serum IgE as well as IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the skin. Topical application of WSBE also ameliorated the significant decrease in dermal glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels. Moreover, present results demonstrated that the baicalin, bioactive compound of WSBE, was able to penetrate into the skin following topical application, which was confirmed by the HPLC analysis using rat model. Taken together, topical application of WSBE exerts beneficial effects in contact dermatitis model, suggesting that WSBE might be a candidate for the treatment of contact dermatitis.

  7. Salidroside protects against kainic acid-induced status epilepticus via suppressing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Pei-Pei; Zhen, Jun-Li; Cai, Yun-Lei; Wang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Wei-Ping

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous mechanisms by which the brain generates seizures. It is well known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE). Salidroside (SDS) extracted from Rhodiola rosea L. shows multiple bioactive properties, such as neuroprotection and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. This study explored the role of SDS in kainic acid (KA)-induced SE and investigated the underlying mechanism. Latency to SE increased in the SDS-pretreated mice compared to the KA group, while the percentage of incidence of SE was significantly reduced. These results suggested that pretreatment with SDS not only delayed SE, but it also decreased the incidence of SE induced by KA. KA increased MDA level and reduced the production of SOD and GSH at multiple timepoints after KA administration. SDS inhibited the change of MDA, SOD and GSH induced by KA prior to SE onset, indicating that SDS protects against KA-induced SE via suppressing oxidative stress. Based on these results, we investigated the possible molecular mechanism of SDS. Pretreatment with SDS reversed the KA-induced decrease in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); increased the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity in KA-treated mice, which had no demonstrable effect on SIRT1 mRNA and protein; and suppressed the KA-induced increase in Ace-FoxO1. These results showed that AMPK/SIRT1/FoxO1 signaling is possibly the molecular mechanism of neuroprotection by SDS.

  8. Jet Suppression Measured in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Citron, Zvi Hirsh; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced, and jets propagating through this medium are known to suffer energy loss. This results in a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects, and thus modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. Parton showers initiated by quarks tend to have fewer fragments carrying a larger fraction of the total jet energy than those resulting from gluons. In this talk, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression will be presented. Measurements of the nuclear modification factor, RAA, for fully reconstructed jets are shown. The rapidity dependence of jet suppression is discussed, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets. New measurements of single hadron suppression out to pT~150 GeV ...

  9. FLUTTER SUPPRESSION USING DISTRIBUTEDPIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A piezoelectric actuator has the benefits of flexibility of its position, without time lag and wide bandpass characteristics. The early results of the wind tunnel flutter suppression test using the piezoeletric actuator were presented in Ref.[1]. A rigid rectangular wing model is constrained by a plunge spring and a pitch spring, and a pair of piezoelectric actuators is bonded on both sides of the plunge spring so as to carry out the active control. Refs.[2,3] reported two flutter suppression wind tunnel tests where the distributed piezoelectric actuators were used. In Ref.[2] low speed wind tunnel tests were conducted with aluminum and composite plate-like rectangular models fully covered by piezoelectric actuators. Flutter speed is increased by 11%. In Ref.[3] a composite plate-like swept back model with piezoceramic actuators bonded on the inboard surface was tested in a transonic wind tunnel and a 12% increment of flutter dynamic pressure was achieved.  In the present investigation, an aluminum plate-like rectangular model with inboard bonded piezoceramic actuators is adopted. Active flutter suppression control law has been designed. A series of analyses and ground tests and, finally, low-speed wind tunnel tests with the active control system opened and closed are conducted. Reasonable results have been obtained.

  10. The antiplasmodial effect of the extracts and formulated capsules of Phyllanthus amarus onPlasmodium yoelii infection in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tolulope O Ajala; Cecilia I Igwilo; Ibrahim A Oreagba; Oluwatoyin A Odeku

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antiplasmodial activity of the extracts ofPhyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) onPlasmodium yoelii (P. yoelii) (a resistant malaria parasite strain used in animal studies) infection in mice.Methods: The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the whole plant of Phyllanthus amarus was administered to Swiss albino mice at doses of200 mg/kg/day,400 mg/kg/day,800 mg/kg/day and1 600 mg/kg/day and the prophylactic and chemotherapeutic effect of the extracts againstP. yoelii infection in mice was investigated and compared with those of standard antimalaria drugs used in the treatment of malaria parasite infection. Acute toxicity test was carried out in mice to determine the safety of the plant extract when administered orally. Results: The results showed that the extracts demonstrated a dose-dependent prophylactic and chemotherapeutic activity with the aqueous extracts showing slightly higher effect than the ethanol extract. The antiplasmodial effects of the extracts were comparable to the standard prophylactic and chemotherapeutic drugs used in chloroquine resistantPlasmodium infection although the activity depended on the dose of the extract administered. The extracts showed prophylactic effect by significantly delaying the onset of infection with the suppression of79%at a dose of 1 600mg/kg/day.Conclusions: The results obtained indicate that the extracts of the whole plant ofP. amaruspossess repository and chemotherapeutic effects against resistant strains ofP. yoelii in Swiss albino mice. The findings justify the use of the extract ofP. amarus in traditional medicine practice, for the treatment of malaria infections.

  11. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORINGA PEREGRINA LEAVES EXTRACT ON ACETAMINOPHEN -INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Samy Abdelfatah Abdel; Abdelrahem, Mohamed Taha; Said, Mostafa Mohamed; Khattab, Alshaimaa

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a common antipyretic drug but at overdose can cause severe hepatotoxicity that may further develop into liver failure and hepatic centrilobular necrosis in experimental animals and humans. This study was undertaken to assess the ameliorative role of Moringa peregrina leaves extract against acetaminophen toxicity in rats. Induction of hepatotoxicity was done by chronic oral administration of acetaminophen (750 mg/kg bwt) for 4 weeks. To study the possible hepatoprotective effect, Moringa peregrina leaves extract (200 mg/kg bwt) or Silymarin (50 mg/kg bwt) was administered orally, for 4 weeks, along with acetaminophen. acetaminophen significantly increased serum liver enzymes and caused oxidative stress, evidenced by significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, hepatic DNA fragmentation, and significant decrease of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes in liver, blood and brain. On the other hand, administration of Moringa peregrina leaves extract reversed acetaminophen-related toxic effects through: powerful malondialdehyde suppression, glutathione peroxidase normalization and stimulation of the cellular antioxidants synthesis represented by significant increase of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in liver, blood and brain, besides, DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased in the liver tissue. acetaminophen induced oxidative damage can be improved by Moringa peregrina leaves extract-treatment, due to its antioxidant potential.

  12. Examining the relationship between food thought suppression and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-10-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating.

  13. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  14. Adaptive Filtering for Aeroservoelastic Response Suppression Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CSA Engineering proposes the design of an adaptive aeroelastic mode suppression for advanced fly-by-wire aircraft, which will partition the modal suppression...

  15. Chaos suppression in gas-solid fluidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Deborah V.; Beasley, Donald E.

    1998-06-01

    Fluidization in granular materials occurs primarily as a result of a dynamic balance between gravitational forces and forces resulting from the flow of a fluid through a bed of discrete particles. For systems where the fluidizing medium and the particles have significantly different densities, density wave instabilities create local pockets of very high void fraction termed bubbles. The fluidization regime is termed the bubbling regime. Such a system is appropriately termed a self-excited nonlinear system. The present study examines chaos suppression resulting from an opposing oscillatory flow in gas-solid fluidization. Time series data representing local, instantaneous pressure were acquired at the surface of a horizontal cylinder submerged in a bubbling fluidized bed. The particles had a weight mean diameter of 345 &mgr;m and a narrow size distribution. The state of fluidization corresponded to the bubbling regime and total air flow rates employed in the present study ranged from 10% to 40% greater than that required for minimum fluidization. The behavior of time-varying local pressure in fluidized beds in the absence of a secondary flow is consistent with deterministic chaos. Kolmogorov entropy estimates from local, instantaneous pressure suggest that the degree of chaotic behavior can be substantially suppressed by the presence of an opposing, oscillatory secondary flow. Pressure signals clearly show a "phase-locking" phenomenon coincident with the imposed frequency. In the present study, the greatest degree of suppression occurred for operating conditions with low primary and secondary flow rates, and a secondary flow oscillation frequency of 15 Hz. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Clinical significance of application of calcium sulfate prevention of oral anticoagulation in patients with alveolar hemorrhage after tooth extraction%应用硫酸钙预防口服抗凝药患者拔牙后牙槽内出血的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小红

    2015-01-01

    intraoperative and postoperative bleeding,postoper-ative complications were observed in two groups. Results The number of tooth,the time needed for tooth extraction were similar in two groups of patients( P > 0. 05). The patients showed significant improvement at each consecutive visit. The hemostatic effect and intertion status between the two groups were statistically significant difference( P < 0. 05). Moreover,the occurrence rate of postoperative complications in experimental group was significant lower than control group( P < 0. 05). Conclusion The use of CaS helped to control the bleeding from inside the socket, producing instantly a very good hemostasis. Further studies are needed to confirm the simplicity,possibilities and limits of the hemostatic therapy, in order to be better applied to clinical.

  17. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  18. Arctigenin Suppress Th17 Cells and Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Through AMPK and PPAR-γ/ROR-γt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Zhihui; Zhang, Kai; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Zimu; Zhang, Lijuan; Gu, Chao; Zhang, Qi; Hao, Junwei; Da, Yurong; Yao, Zhi; Kong, Ying; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-10-01

    Arctigenin is a herb compound extract from Arctium lappa and is reported to exhibit pharmacological properties, including neuronal protection and antidiabetic, antitumor, and antioxidant properties. However, the effects of arctigenin on autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the CNS, multiple sclerosis (MS), and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that arctigenin-treated mice are resistant to EAE; the clinical scores of arctigenin-treated mice are significantly reduced. Histochemical assays of spinal cord sections also showed that arctigenin reduces inflammation and demyelination in mice with EAE. Furthermore, the Th1 and Th17 cells in peripheral immune organs are inhibited by arctigenin in vivo. In addition, the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and transcription factor T-bet, as well as the Th17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, and transcription factor ROR-γt are significantly suppressed upon arctigenin treatment in vitro and in vivo. Interestedly, Th17 cells are obviously inhibited in CNS of mice with EAE, while Th1 cells do not significantly change. Besides, arctigenin significantly restrains the differentiation of Th17 cells. We further demonstrate that arctigenin activates AMPK and inhibits phosphorylated p38, in addition, upregulates PPAR-γ, and finally suppresses ROR-γt. These findings suggest that arctigenin may have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties via inhibiting Th17 cells, indicating that it could be a potential therapeutic drug for multiple sclerosis or other autoimmune inflammatory diseases.

  19. Naringenin suppresses Edwardsiella tarda infection in GAKS cells by NanA sialidase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinyoshi, Sayaka; Kamada, Yuko; Matsusaki, Koki; Chigwechokha, Petros Kingstone; Tepparin, Supawan; Araki, Kyosuke; Komatsu, Masaharu; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) is a gram-negative bacterium, which causes Edwardsiellosis in aquaculture. Previous studies indicate that E. tarda NanA sialidase plays crucial roles in infection through the desialylation of glycoproteins in fish cells. On the other hand, 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid, classic sialidase inhibitor, negatively regulates E. tarda infection of goldfish scale GAKS cells. Here, to development the suppression model of E. tarda infection for aquaculture application, the possibility of NanA inhibitory activities in citrus phytochemicals was evaluated as citrus extracts have widely been used as a supplement in fish diets for the improvement of meat quality. Some flavanones such as naringenin, hesperetin, hesperidin and naringin showed sialidase inhibitory activity toward recombinant NanA in vitro. Among them, naringenin showed the most potent inhibitory activity and its inhibitory pattern was non-competitive. Naringenin significantly suppressed E. tarda infection in GAKS cells at 200 and 400 μM without bactericidal effect on E. tarda. On the other hand, naringin, glycosylation form of naringenin, showed slight suppression of E. tarda infection toward GAKS cells, suggesting the glycosides on flavanone could be important for NanA inhibition. Fluorescence microscopy analysis verified that number of invading E. tarda in GAKS cells was declined by naringenin treatment. The present study exhibited the possibility of naringenin as an effective ingredient in fish diet for the inhibition of E. tarda infection.

  20. Crystal extraction at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

  1. Suppression of puerperal lactation using jasmine flowers (Jasminum sambac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastav, P; George, K; Balasubramaniam, N; Jasper, M P; Thomas, M; Kanagasabhapathy, A S

    1988-02-01

    The efficacy of jasmine flowers (Jasminum Sambac) applied to the breasts to suppress puerperal lactation was compared that of Bromocriptine. Effectiveness of both regimens was monitored by serum prolactin levels, clinical evaluation of the degree of breast engorgement and milk production and the analgesic intake. While both bromocriptine and jasmine flowers brought about a significant reduction in serum prolactin, the decrease was significantly greater with bromocriptine. However, clinical parameters such as breast engorgement, milk production and analgesic intake showed the 2 modes of therapy to be equally effective. The failure rates of the 2 regimens to suppress lactation were similar; however, rebound lactation occurred in a small proportion of women treated with bromocriptine. Jasmine flowers seem to be an effective and inexpensive method of suppressing puerperal lactation and can be used as an alternative in situations where cost and nonavailability restrict the use of bromocriptine.

  2. Axionic suppression of plasma wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, D. A.; Noble, A.; Walton, T. J.

    2016-09-01

    Contemporary attempts to explain the existence of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using plasma-based wakefield acceleration deliberately avoid non-standard model particle physics. However, such proposals exploit some of the most extreme environments in the Universe and it is conceivable that hypothetical particles outside the standard model have significant implications for the effectiveness of the acceleration process. Axions solve the strong CP problem and provide one of the most important candidates for cold dark matter, and their potential significance in the present context should not be overlooked. Our analysis of the field equations describing a plasma augmented with axions uncovers a dramatic axion-induced suppression of the energy gained by a test particle in the wakefield driven by a particle bunch, or an intense pulse of electromagnetic radiation, propagating at ultra-relativistic speeds within the strongest magnetic fields in the Universe.

  3. Photonic crystal enhancement of auger-suppressed infrared photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurić, Zoran; Jakšić, Zoran; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Andreas; Matić, Milan; Popović, Mirjana

    2001-04-01

    We examine theoretically and experimentally the possibilities to reach room-temperature background-limited operation of narrow-bandgap compound semiconductor photodetectors in (3-14) micrometer infrared wavelength range. To this purpose we consider the combination of non-equilibrium Auger suppression with photonic crystal enhancement (PCE). This means that Auger generation-recombination processes are suppressed utilizing exclusion, extraction or magnetoconcentration effects or their combination. The residual radiative recombination is removed by immersing the detector active area into a photonic crystal and using the benefits of re-absorption (photon recycling) to effectively increase the radiative lifetime. In this manner the total generation-recombination noise is strongly quenched in sufficiently defect-free device materials. It is concluded that the operation of thus enhanced photonic detectors could even approach signal fluctuation limit.

  4. Antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of ethanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina del. Leaf in Swiss mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehimwenma Omoregie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vernonia amygdalina (V.  amygdalina leaf is locally employed in the Southern region of Nigeria in the treatment of malari a infection. This study evaluated the in vivo antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effect of ethanol extract of V.  amygdalina leaf. Materials and Methods: The active principles of the dried leaf were extracted with ethanol. For quality validation, chemical finger-print of the extract was performed through high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. The extract was assessed for antiplasmodial activity by the standard four-day suppressive test on Plasmodium berghei (ANKA infected male Swiss mice (six weeks old placed into five groups of six animals each. Result: The absorption spectra from the HPTLC revealed several peaks suggesting presence of some bioactive compounds. Results from the in vivo study showed that the ethanol extract of the plant leaf was significantly active against P. berghei in a dose-dependent manner with the minimum and maximum activity observed in the mice treated orally with 100mg/kg (% inhibition of 23.7% and 1000 mg/kg (% inhibition of 82.3 % of the extract, respectively, on day four of the study. There was also a dose-dependent decrease (p

  5. Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet P.-C. Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500 μg/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223 μg/mL of pravastatin (control showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate : methanol (95 : 5, gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A. Fraction 7A at 150 μg/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s, working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase.

  6. Effect of Ganoderma applanatum mycelium extract on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Sung-Jin; Yu, Mi-Hee; Lee, Sam-Pin

    2014-10-01

    Ganoderma applanatum (GA) and related fungal species have been used for over 2000 years in China to prevent and treat various human diseases. However, there is no critical research evaluating the functionality of GA grown using submerged culture technology. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of submerged culture GA mycelium (GAM) and its active components (protocatechualdehyde [PCA]) on preadipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Mouse-derived preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells were treated with differentiation inducers in the presence or absence of GAM extracts. We determined triglyceride accumulations, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activities, and differentiation makers. PCA, the active component of GAM extract, was also used to treat 3T3-L1 cells. The MTT assay showed that the GAM extract (0.01-1 mg/mL) was not toxic to 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. Treatment of cells with GAM extracts and its active components significantly decreased the GPDH activity and lipid accumulation, a marker of adipogenesis, in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis results showed that the protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) were inhibited by the GAM extract. In addition, adipogenic-specific genes such as perilipin, fatty acid synthase (FAS), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the GAM extract contained 1.14 mg/g PCA. GAM extracts suppressed differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, in part, through altered regulation of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1. These results suggest that GAM extracts and PCA may suppress adipogenesis by inhibiting differentiation of preadipocytes.

  7. [Quality control of plant extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yun-dong; Gao, Wen-yuan; Liu, Dan; Jia, Wei; Duan, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2003-10-01

    The current situation of plant extract in domestic and international market was analyzed in the paper. The quality control of 20 plant extracts which have reasonably good sales in USA market was compared and analyzed. The analysis of the quality control of six plant extracts indicated that there were two main reasons leading to the varied quality specifications among different suppliers. One reason was that the plant species utilized by different companies were different. The other reason was that the extraction processes were different among different production plants. Comparing with the significant international suppliers of plant extracts, the product quality of Chinese companies were not satisfactory. It was suggested that chromatography and chromatographic fingerprint techniques should be applied to improve the quality control standard of plant extract in our country.

  8. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  9. Central administration of neuromedin U suppresses food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Sugahara, Kunio; Hasegawa, Shin

    2007-06-08

    The appetite-suppressive action of brain-gut peptides is similar in both chickens and mammals. In mammals, the brain-gut peptide neuromedin U (NMU) suppresses food intake via hypothalamic neuropeptides, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin. In chickens, central administration of CRF, oxytocin, or arginine-vasotocin (AVT, a nonmammalian equivalent of arginine-vasopressin) suppresses food intake. However, the anorexigenic action of NMU in chickens has not yet been identified. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of the central administration of NMU on food intake and hypothalamic mRNA levels of CRF, AVT and mesotocin (a nonmammalian equivalent of oxytocin) in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of NMU in chicks significantly suppressed food intake and induced wing-flapping behavior. NMU also significantly upregulated mRNA expression of CRF and AVT, but did not influence mRNA expression of mesotocin in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that NMU functions as an appetite-suppressive peptide via CRF and AVT in the central nervous system in chicks.

  10. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  11. Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare L. on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Soraya, Hamid; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Khorrami, Arash; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Garjani, Alireza

    2013-08-01

    Isoproterenol injection (100 mg/kg; sc) produced changes in ECG pattern including ST-segment elevation and suppressed R-amplitude. The methanolic extract of M. vulgare at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg significantly amended the ECG changes. A severe myocardial necrosis and edematous along with a sharp reduction in the arterial blood pressure, left ventricular contractility (LVdP/dt(max or min)), but a marked increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were seen in the isoproterenol group. All parameters were significantly improved by the extract treatment. The extract (10 mg/kg) strongly increased LVdP/dt(max). Similarly, treatment with 40 mg/kg of M. vulgare lowered the elevated LVEDP and the heart to body weight ratio. In addition to in vitro antioxidant activity, the extract suppressed markedly the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in serum and in myocardium. The results demonstrate that M. vulgare protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and suggest that the effects could be related to antioxidant activities.

  12. Heavy quarkonium suppression in a fireball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo, Miguel Ángel [Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching, Germany Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-01-22

    The dissociation of heavy quarkonium seen in heavy-ion collisions is a phenomena that allows to extract information of the produced thermal medium. This was believed to be due to the screening of the static potential but recently perturbative computations and some lattice studies have pointed out the possibility of having an imaginary part of the potential that would also contribute to dissociation. In recent years a program to study heavy quarkonium with the use of non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs) has been started, this allows to make the computations in a more systematic way by defining a more suitable power counting and making it more difficult to miss necessary resummations. However until now these studies have been done assuming thermal equilibrium. In this work we will discuss what happens in the EFT formalism when heavy quarkonium is in a medium that is not in thermal equilibrium and what is the expected suppression when a medium with a time dependent effective temperature that follows Bjorken evolution is considered. This will be done adapting previous results from different temperature regimes.

  13. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Prunus yedoensis Bark Extract on Adipose Tissue in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic, low-grade inflammatory responses occur in obese adipose tissue and play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. Macrophages exposed to high glucose upregulate the expression of SRA, a macrophage-specific scavenger receptor. The present study investigated whether Prunus yedoensis (PY bark extract affects the inflammatory response and scavenger receptor gene expression observed in a diet-induced obesity model in vivo. Oral administration of PY extract significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels without a change in body weight in mice fed a high fat diet for 17 weeks. PY extract significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory and macrophage genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and F4/80 in epididymal adipose tissue. Among scavenger receptor genes, SRA expression was significantly reduced. The inhibitory responses of PY extract and its fractions were determined through evaluation of scavenger receptor expression in THP-1 cells. PY extract and its ethyl acetate fraction decreased the levels of SRA mRNA and phospho-ERK1/2 during monocyte differentiation. Our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of PY extract and its downregulation of SRA seem to account for its hypoglycemic effects.

  14. Mechanism and physiologic significance of the suppression of cholesterol esterification in human interstitial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Eric Miller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol esterification in high density lipoproteins (HDLs by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT promotes unesterified cholesterol (UC transfer from red cell membranes to plasma in vitro. However, it does not explain the transfer of UC from most peripheral cells to interstitial fluid in vivo, as HDLs in afferent peripheral lymph are enriched in UC. Having already reported that the endogenous cholesterol esterification rate (ECER in lymph is only five per cent of that in plasma, we have now explored the underlying mechanism. In peripheral lymph from 20 healthy men, LCAT concentration, LCAT activity (assayed using an optimized substrate, and LCAT specific activity averaged respectively 11.8, 10.3, and 84.9 per cent of plasma values. When recombinant human LCAT was added to lymph, the increments in enzyme activity were similar to those when LCAT was added to plasma. Addition of apolipoprotein AI (apo AI, fatty acid-free albumin, Intralipid, or the d<1.006 g/ml plasma fraction had no effect on ECER. During incubation of lymph plus plasma, the ECER was similar to that observed with buffer plus plasma. When lymph was added to heat-inactivated plasma, the ECER was 11-fold greater than with lymph plus buffer. Addition of discoidal proteoliposomes of apo AI and phosphatidycholine (PC to lymph increased ECER ten-fold, while addition of apo AI/PC/UC discs did so by only six-fold. We conclude that the low ECER in lymph is due to a property of the HDLs, seemingly substrate inhibition of LCAT by excess cell-derived UC. This is reversed when lymph enters plasma, consequent upon redistribution of UC from lymph HDLs to plasma lipoproteins.

  15. Protective effects of Pogostemon cablin Bentham water extract on inflammatory cytokine expression in TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Young; Neupane, Ganesh Prasad; Lee, Sung Ok; Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Sun Yeou; Park, Byung Chul; Park, Young-Joon; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2014-02-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colon epithelial cells express a variety of inflammatory mediators, including chemokines, which perpetuate inflammatory response. In the current study, we report that water extract of Pogostemon cablin Bentham aerial parts (PCW), which has traditionally been used for treatment of the common cold and infectious disease, suppressed colon inflammation. Treatment with PCW resulted in effective inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced adhesion of monocytes to HT-29 human colonic epithelial cells. In a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat model of IBD, PCW suppressed clinical signs of colitis, including weight loss, colon tissue myeloperoxidase activity, a marker for inflammatory cell infiltration, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PCW suppressed TNBS-induced mRNA expression of IL-8, MCP-1, and IL-6 in rat colon. The nuclear level of NF-κB in TNBS-treated rat colon and NF-κB luciferase reporter gene activity in TNF-α-treated HT-29 cells were significantly inhibited by PCW. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that PCW suppressed colon inflammation via suppression of NF-κB-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  16. Effects of Thai Medicinal Herb Extracts with Anti-Psoriatic Activity on the Expression on NF-κB Signaling Biomarkers in HaCaT Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewin Tencomnao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by rapid proliferation of keratinocytes and incomplete keratinization. Discovery of safer and more effective anti-psoriatic drugs remains an area of active research at the present time. Using a HaCaT keratinocyte cell line as an in vitro model, we had previously found that ethanolic extracts from three Thai medicinal herbs, namely Alpinia galanga, Curcuma longa and Annona squamosa, possessed anti-psoriatic activity. In the current study, we aimed at investigating if these Thai medicinal herb extracts played a molecular role in suppressing psoriasis via regulation of NF-κB signaling biomarkers. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and report gene assays, we analyzed the effects of these potential herbal extracts on 10 different genes of the NF-κB signaling network in HaCaT cells. In accordance with our hypothesis, we found that the extract derived from Alpinia galanga significantly increased the expression of TNFAIP3 and significantly reduced the expression of CSF-1 and NF-kB2. Curcuma longa extract significantly decreased the expression of CSF-1, IL-8, NF-kB2, NF-kB1 and RelA, while Annona squamosa extract significantly lowered the expression of CD40 and NF-kB1. Therefore, this in vitro study suggested that these herbal extracts capable of functioning against psoriasis, might exert their activity by controlling the expression of NF-κB signaling biomarkers.

  17. Inhibition of SIRT2 suppresses hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Maribel; Shang, Na; Ding, Xianzhong; Yong, Sherri; Cotler, Scott J; Denning, Mitchell F; Shimamura, Takashi; Breslin, Peter; Lüscher, Bernhard; Qiu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis and result in serious complications of liver disease. The pathogenesis of liver fibrosis involves the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the underlying mechanisms of which are not fully known. Emerging evidence suggests that the classic histone deacetylases play a role in liver fibrosis, but the role of another subfamily of histone deacetylases, the sirtuins, in the development of hepatic fibrosis remains unknown. In this study, we found that blocking the activity of sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) by using inhibitors or shRNAs significantly suppressed fibrogenic gene expression in HSCs. We further demonstrated that inhibition of SIRT2 results in the degradation of c-MYC, which is important for HSC activation. In addition, we discovered that inhibition of SIRT2 suppresses the phosphorylation of ERK, which is critical for the stabilization of c-MYC. Moreover, we found that Sirt2 deficiency attenuates the hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide (TAA). Furthermore, we showed that SIRT2, p-ERK, and c-MYC proteins are all overexpressed in human hepatic fibrotic tissues. These data suggest a critical role for the SIRT2/ERK/c-MYC axis in promoting hepatic fibrogenesis. Inhibition of the SIRT2/ERK/c-MYC axis represents a novel strategy to prevent and to potentially treat liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  18. Phase noise suppression through parametric filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassella, Cristian; Strachan, Scott; Shaw, Steven W.; Piazza, Gianluca

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a parametric phase noise suppression technique, which we call "parametric phase noise filtering." This technique is based on the use of a solid-state parametric amplifier operating in its instability region and included in a non-autonomous feedback loop connected at the output of a noisy oscillator. We demonstrate that such a system behaves as a parametrically driven Duffing resonator and can operate at special points where it becomes largely immune to the phase fluctuations that affect the oscillator output signal. A prototype of a parametric phase noise filter (PFIL) was designed and fabricated to operate in the very-high-frequency range. The PFIL prototype allowed us to significantly reduce the phase noise at the output of a commercial signal generator operating around 220 MHz. Noise reduction of 16 dB (40×) and 13 dB (20×) were obtained, respectively, at 1 and 10 kHz offsets from the carrier frequency. The demonstration of this phase noise suppression technique opens up scenarios in the development of passive and low-cost phase noise cancellation circuits for any application demanding high quality frequency generation.

  19. Extraction of Significant Wave Height and Its Accuracy Analysis Based on HY-2 Altimeter Calibration Flight Data%基于HY-2卫星高度计机载校飞数据的有效波高信息提取及初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀仲; 张有广; 孟俊敏

    2012-01-01

    利用HY-2卫星雷达高度计校飞数据,开展了有效波高信息提取及精度比对研究.首先对其进行波形筛选、1 s平均和去噪,然后基于Hayne海面回波模型进行波形拟合,提取出波高均方根并得到有效波高,并与浮标和同轨迹的Jason-1卫星高度计有效波高进行了比较.结果表明,本次校飞其高度计测波精度存在系统偏差,初步分析可能是其数据未经仪器校正等原因导致.%Based on the HY-2 calibration flight data, the significant wave height (SWH) is retrieved and its accuracy is compared with those from buoys and Jason-1 altimeter. For the extraction of the root mean square (RMS) of the wave heights and hence to obtain the SWH, first is to carry out waveform screening, averaging over 1 second and destriping, and then to make waveform fitting according to the Hayne echo model. The significant wave heights thus obtained are compared with those from the buoys and the Jason-1 altimeter which runs along the same track as that of the HY-2 calibration flight. The results indicate that a systematic bias is present for the accuracy of the SWH resulted from the HY-2 altimeter. This bias is mainly due to the absence of instrumental correction.

  20. A hexane fraction of American ginseng suppresses mouse colitis and associated colon cancer: anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Deepak; Le, Phuong Mai; Davis, Tia; Hofseth, Anne B; Chumanevich, Alena; Chumanevich, Alexander A; Wargovich, Michael J; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Windust, Anthony; Hofseth, Lorne J

    2012-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition associated with a high colon cancer risk. We have previously reported that American ginseng extract significantly reduced the inflammatory parameters of chemically induced colitis. The aim of this study was to further delineate the components of American ginseng that suppress colitis and prevent colon cancer. Among five different fractions of American ginseng (butanol, hexane, ethylacetate, dichloromethane, and water), a hexane fraction has particularly potent antioxidant and proapoptotic properties. The effects of this fraction were shown in a mouse macrophage cell line (ANA-1 cells), in a human lymphoblastoid cell line (TK6), and in an ex vivo model (CD4(+)/CD25(-) primary effector T cells). A key in vivo finding was that compared with the whole American ginseng extract, the hexane fraction of American ginseng was more potent in treating colitis in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse model, as well as suppressing azoxymethane/DSS-induced colon cancer. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) labeling of inflammatory cells within the colonic mesenteric lymph nodes was elevated in mice consuming DSS + the hexane fraction of American ginseng. Results are consistent with our in vitro data and with the hypothesis that the hexane fraction of American ginseng has anti-inflammatory properties and drives inflammatory cell apoptosis in vivo, providing a mechanism by which this fraction protects from colitis in this DSS mouse model. This study moves us closer to understanding the molecular components of American ginseng that suppress colitis and prevent colon cancer associated with colitis.

  1. Oral grape seed extract inhibits prostate tumor growth and progression in TRAMP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Komal; Singh, Rana P; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2007-06-15

    Prostate cancer chemoprevention is an alternative and potential strategy to control this malignancy. Herein, we evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) against prostate cancer in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice where animals were fed with GSE by oral gavage at 200 mg/kg body weight dose during 4 to 28 weeks of age. Our results showed a significant reduction (46%, P cancer growth and progression in TRAMP mice, which could be mediated via a strong suppression of cell cycle progression and cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis.

  2. Menstrual suppression in special circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Yolanda A; Ornstein, Melanie P; Aggarwal, Anjali; McQuillan, Sarah; Allen, Lisa; Millar, Debra; Dalziel, Nancy; Gascon, Suzy; Hakim, Julie; Ryckman, Julie; Spitzer, Rachel; Van Eyk, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Objectif : Offrir, aux fournisseurs de soins de santé, un document de consensus canadien comptant des recommandations pour ce qui est de la suppression menstruelle chez les patientes qui font face à des obstacles physiques et/ou cognitifs ou chez les patientes qui font l’objet d’un traitement contre le cancer et pour lesquelles les règles pourraient exercer un effet délétère sur la santé. Options : Le présent document analyse les options disponibles aux fins de la suppression menstruelle, les indications, les contre-indications et les effets indésirables (tant immédiats qu’à long terme) propres à cette dernière, et les explorations et le monitorage nécessaires tout au long de la suppression. Issues : Les cliniciens seront mieux renseignés au sujet des options et des indications propres à la suppression menstruelle chez les patientes qui présentent des déficiences cognitives et/ou physiques et chez les patientes qui font l’objet d’une chimiothérapie, d’une radiothérapie ou d’autres traitements contre le cancer. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans Medline, EMBASE, OVID et The Cochrane Library au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « heavy menstrual bleeding », « menstrual suppression », « chemotherapy/radiation », « cognitive disability », « physical disability », « learning disability »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés, aux études observationnelles et aux études pilotes. Aucune restriction n’a été imposée en matière de langue ou de date. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et du nouveau matériel a été intégré à la directive clinique jusqu’en septembre 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d

  3. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  4. Analysis of antioxidants extracted from polypropylene by supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, J A; Catalá, R; Gavara, R

    1998-01-01

    Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which the samples were exposed to the fluid without flux, the introduction of hexane and methanol as fluid modifiers significantly improved the extraction. Hexane appears to facilitate polymer swelling while methanol solvates the antioxidants. In the dynamic step (in which the extraction actually occurs) time is the key parameter. Extraction for 90 min results in an efficiency of around 75%. The introduction of modifiers during this step (by an HPLC-SFE procedure) did not produce any significant improvement. When SFE was carried out on all samples, extraction efficiency was around 75% except for Irganox 1010 and Hostanox O3. The large molecular volume of these antioxidants may be responsible for the considerable reduction of extraction efficiency. Particle size and shape of polymer sample were also important. The greater the surface to volume ratio the greater the extraction efficiency.

  5. Suppression of antibiotic resistance acquisition by combined use of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Horinouchi, Takaaki; Furusawa, Chikara

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed the effect of combinatorial use of antibiotics with a trade-off relationship of resistance, i.e., resistance acquisition to one drug causes susceptibility to the other drug, and vice versa, on the evolution of antibiotic resistance. We demonstrated that this combinatorial use of antibiotics significantly suppressed the acquisition of resistance.

  6. Studies onPaecilomyces marquandii from nematode suppressive chinampa soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marban-Mendoza, N; Garcia-E, R; Dicklow, M B; Zuckerman, B M

    1992-05-01

    Two applications of isolates ofPaecilomyces marquandii from suppressive chinampa soils or P. lilacinus from Peru, fungi that parasitize nematode eggs, generally gave better control of tomato root-knot due toMeloidogyne incognita than did a single application. The effects on root galling by each of thePaecilomyces isolates varied between experiments; however, the ovicidal potential of the three isolates did not differ significantly. Proteins specific for each of the isolates were demonstrated by SDS gel electrophoresis. The results indicate thatP. marquandii is one of the natural soil organisms that contribute to nematode suppression in the chinampa agricultural soils.

  7. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  8. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  9. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract modulates CHOP/GADD153 to promote androgen receptor degradation and decreases xenograft tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakina M Petiwala

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two different patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with standardized rosemary extract and evaluated by flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU, Western blot and fluorescent microscopy. A significant modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins was observed in cancer cells while normal prostate epithelial cells did not undergo endoplasmic reticulum stress. This biphasic response suggests that standardized rosemary extract may preferentially target cancer cells as opposed to "normal" cells. Furthermore, we observed standardized rosemary extract to decrease androgen receptor expression that appears to be regulated by the expression of CHOP/GADD153. Using a xenograft tumor model we observed standardized rosemary extract when given orally to significantly suppress tumor growth by 46% compared to mice not receiving standardized rosemary extract. In the last several years regulatory governing bodies (e.g. European Union have approved standardized rosemary extracts as food preservatives. These results are especially significant as it is becoming more likely that individuals will be receiving standardized rosemary extracts that are a part of a natural preservative system in various food preparations. Taken a step further, it is possible that the potential benefits that are often associated with a "Mediterranean Diet" in the future may begin to extend beyond the Mediterranean diet as more of the population is consuming standardized rosemary

  10. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract modulates CHOP/GADD153 to promote androgen receptor degradation and decreases xenograft tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Berhe, Saba; Li, Gongbo; Puthenveetil, Angela G; Rahman, Ozair; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two different patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with standardized rosemary extract and evaluated by flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU, Western blot and fluorescent microscopy. A significant modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins was observed in cancer cells while normal prostate epithelial cells did not undergo endoplasmic reticulum stress. This biphasic response suggests that standardized rosemary extract may preferentially target cancer cells as opposed to "normal" cells. Furthermore, we observed standardized rosemary extract to decrease androgen receptor expression that appears to be regulated by the expression of CHOP/GADD153. Using a xenograft tumor model we observed standardized rosemary extract when given orally to significantly suppress tumor growth by 46% compared to mice not receiving standardized rosemary extract. In the last several years regulatory governing bodies (e.g. European Union) have approved standardized rosemary extracts as food preservatives. These results are especially significant as it is becoming more likely that individuals will be receiving standardized rosemary extracts that are a part of a natural preservative system in various food preparations. Taken a step further, it is possible that the potential benefits that are often associated with a "Mediterranean Diet" in the future may begin to extend beyond the Mediterranean diet as more of the population is consuming standardized rosemary extracts.

  11. Parton Rescatterings in Large-x Nuclear Suppression at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Nemchik, J

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that strong suppression of the relative production rate (d+Au)/(p+p) of inclusive high-pT hadrons at forward rapidities observed at RHIC is due to parton multiple rescatterings in nuclear matter. The light-cone dipole approach-based calculations are in a good agreement with BRAHMS and STAR data. They also indicate a significant nuclear suppression at midrapidities with a weak onset of the coherence effects. This prediction is supported by the preliminary d+Au data from the PHENIX Collaboration. Moreover, since similar suppression pattern is also expected to show up at lower energies where effects of parton saturation are not expected, we are able to exclude from the interpretation of observed phenomena models based on the Color Glass Condensate.

  12. Functional imaging correlates of impaired distractor suppression following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Danyang; Soon, Chun Siong; Chee, Michael W L

    2012-05-15

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been shown to affect selective attention but it is not known how two of its component processes: target enhancement and distractor suppression, are affected. To investigate, young volunteers either attended to houses or were obliged to ignore them (when attending to faces) while viewing superimposed face-house pictures. MR signal enhancement and suppression in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) were determined relative to a passive viewing control condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with lower PPA activation across conditions. Critically SD specifically impaired distractor suppression in selective attention, leaving target enhancement relatively preserved. These findings parallel some observations in cognitive aging. Additionally, following SD, attended houses were not significantly better recognized than ignored houses in a post-experiment test of recognition memory contrasting with the finding of superior recognition of attended houses in the well-rested state. These results provide evidence for co-encoding of distracting information with targets into memory when one is sleep deprived.

  13. Suppression of autophagy exacerbates Mefloquine-mediated cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji Hyun; Park, So Jung; Jo, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Eun Sung; Kang, Hee; Park, Ji-Ho; Lee, Eunjoo H; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2012-05-02

    Mefloquine is an effective treatment drug for malaria. However, it can cause several adverse side effects, and the precise mechanism associated with the adverse neurological effects of Mefloquine is not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Mefloquine on autophagy in neuroblastoma cells. Mefloquine treatment highly induced the formation of autophagosomes and the conversion of LC3I into LC3II. Moreover, Mefloquine-induced autophagy was efficiently suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor and by down regulation of ATG6. The autophagy was also completely blocked in ATG5 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Moreover, suppression of autophagy significantly intensified Mefloquine-mediated cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings suggest that suppression of autophagy may exacerbate Mefloquine toxicity in neuroblastoma cells.

  14. Suppressing Electron Cloud in Future Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Pivi, M T F; Le Pimpec, Frederic; Raubenheimer, Tor O

    2005-01-01

    Any accelerator circulating positively charged beams can suffer from a build-up of an electron cloud in the beam pipe. The cloud develops through ionization of residual gases, synchrotron radiation and secondary electron emission and, when severe, can cause instability, emittance blow-up or loss of the circulating beam. The electron cloud is potentially a limiting effect for both the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). For the ILC positron damping ring, the development of the electron cloud must be suppressed. This paper presents the various effects of the electron cloud and evaluates their significance. It also discusses the state-of-the-art of the ongoing international R&D program to study potential remedies to reduce the secondary electron yield to acceptably low levels.

  15. Estimating and suppressing background in Raman spectra with an artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Larsen, Jan; Philipsen, Peter Alshede;

    2003-01-01

    In this report we address the problem of skin fluorescence in feature extraction from Raman spectra of skin lesions. We apply a highly automated neural network method for suppressing skin fluorescence from Raman spectrum of skin lesions before dimension reduction with principal components analysi...

  16. Suppression of electron spin-echo envelope modulation peaks in double quantum coherence electron spin resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, Marco; Becker, James; Saxena, Sunil

    2004-10-01

    We show the use of the observer blind spots effect for the elimination of electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) peaks in double quantum coherence (DQC) electron spin resonance (ESR). The suppression of ESEEM facilitates the routine and unambiguous extraction of distances from DQC-ESR spectra. This is also the first demonstration of this challenging methodology on commercial instrumentation.

  17. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  18. Out of mind, out of sight: perceptual consequences of memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Yi, Do-Joon

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the effect of memory suppression on subsequent perceptual processing of visual objects was examined within a modified think/no-think paradigm. Suppressing memories of visual objects significantly impaired subsequent perceptual identification of those objects when they were briefly encountered (Experiment 1) and when they were presented in noise (Experiment 2), relative to performance on baseline items for which participants did not undergo suppression training. However, in Experiment 3, when perceptual identification was performed on mirror-reversed images of to-be-suppressed objects, no impairment was observed. These findings, analogous to those showing forgetting of suppressed words in long-term memory, suggest that suppressing memories of visual objects might be mediated by direct inhibition of perceptual representations, which, in turn, impairs later perception of them. This study provides strong support for the role of inhibitory mechanisms in memory control and suggests a tight link between higher-order cognitive operations and perceptual processing.

  19. Auditory-model-based Feature Extraction Method for Mechanical Faults Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yungong; ZHANG Jinping; DAI Li; ZHANG Zhanyi; LIU Jie

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the human auditory system possesses remarkable capabilities to analyze and identify signals. Therefore, it would be significant to build an auditory model based on the mechanism of human auditory systems, which may improve the effects of mechanical signal analysis and enrich the methods of mechanical faults features extraction. However the existing methods are all based on explicit senses of mathematics or physics, and have some shortages on distinguishing different faults, stability, and suppressing the disturbance noise, etc. For the purpose of improving the performances of the work of feature extraction, an auditory model, early auditory(EA) model, is introduced for the first time. This auditory model transforms time domain signal into auditory spectrum via bandpass filtering, nonlinear compressing, and lateral inhibiting by simulating the principle of the human auditory system. The EA model is developed with the Gammatone filterbank as the basilar membrane. According to the characteristics of vibration signals, a method is proposed for determining the parameter of inner hair cells model of EA model. The performance of EA model is evaluated through experiments on four rotor faults, including misalignment, rotor-to-stator rubbing, oil film whirl, and pedestal looseness. The results show that the auditory spectrum, output of EA model, can effectively distinguish different faults with satisfactory stability and has the ability to suppress the disturbance noise. Then, it is feasible to apply auditory model, as a new method, to the feature extraction for mechanical faults diagnosis with effect.

  20. COMPARISON OF FILTERS DEDICATED TO SPECKLE SUPPRESSION IN SAR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kupidura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on the effectiveness of different filtering methods dedicated to speckle suppression in SAR images. The tests were performed on RadarSat-2 images and on an artificial image treated with simulated speckle noise. The research analysed the performance of particular filters related to the effectiveness of speckle suppression and to the ability to preserve image details and edges. Speckle is a phenomenon inherent to radar images – a deterministic noise connected with land cover type, but also causing significant changes in digital numbers of pixels. As a result, it may affect interpretation, classification and other processes concerning radar images. Speckle, resembling “salt and pepper” noise, has the form of a set of relatively small groups of pixels of values markedly different from values of other pixels representing the same type of land cover. Suppression of this noise may also cause suppression of small image details, therefore the ability to preserve the important parts of an image, was analysed as well. In the present study, selected filters were tested, and methods dedicated particularly to speckle noise suppression: Frost, Gamma-MAP, Lee, Lee-Sigma, Local Region, general filtering methods which might be effective in this respect: Mean, Median, in addition to morphological filters (alternate sequential filters with multiple structuring element and by reconstruction. The analysis presented in this paper compared the effectiveness of different filtering methods. It proved that some of the dedicated radar filters are efficient tools for speckle suppression, but also demonstrated a significant efficiency of the morphological approach, especially its ability to preserve image details.

  1. CDK2 and mTOR are direct molecular targets of isoangustone A in the suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunjung; Son, Joe Eun; Byun, Sanguine; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Yeong A [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Kangdong [The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Avenue NE, Austin, MN 55912 (United States); Kim, Jiyoung [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soon Sung; Park, Jung Han Yoon [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Natural Science, Hallym University, Chuncheon, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Zigang [The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Avenue NE, Austin, MN 55912 (United States); Lee, Ki Won, E-mail: kiwon@snu.ac.kr [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyong Joo, E-mail: leehyjo@snu.ac.kr [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Licorice extract which is used as a natural sweetener has been shown to possess inhibitory effects against prostate cancer, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we report a compound, isoangustone A (IAA) in licorice that potently suppresses the growth of aggressive prostate cancer and sought to clarify its mechanism of action. We analyzed its inhibitory effects on the growth of PTEN-deleted human prostate cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. Administration of IAA significantly attenuated the growth of prostate cancer cell cultures and xenograft tumors. These effects were found to be attributable to inhibition of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition and the accumulation of p27{sup kip1}. The elevated p27{sup kip1} expression levels were concurrent with the decrease of its phosphorylation at threonine 187 through suppression of CDK2 kinase activity and the reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Serine 473 by diminishing the kinase activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Further analysis using recombinant proteins and immunoprecipitated cell lysates determined that IAA exerts suppressive effects against CDK2 and mTOR kinase activity by direct binding with both proteins. These findings suggested that the licorice compound IAA is a potent molecular inhibitor of CDK2 and mTOR, with strong implications for the treatment of prostate cancer. Thus, licorice-derived extracts with high IAA content warrant further clinical investigation for nutritional sources for prostate cancer patients. - Highlights: • Isoangustone A suppresses growth of PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. • Administration of isoangustone A inhibits tumor growth in mice. • Treatment of isoangustone A induces cell cycle arrest and accumulation of p27{sup kip1}. • Isoangustone A inhibits CDK2 and mTOR activity. • Isoangustone A directly binds with CDK2 and mTOR complex in prostate cancer cells.

  2. Ethanol Extract of Sarcodon asparatus Mitigates Inflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Mice and Murine Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Yu; Jung, Sung Keun; Lee, Hye-Jin; Shon, Dong Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Ku

    2015-11-01

    A number of compounds isolated from mushrooms have exhibited disease-modifying effects. We sought to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of an extract from the mushroom species Sarcodon asparatus (SAE). Male BALB/c mice (N=42; 6 weeks old) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups. Intraperitoneal administration of SAE significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated increases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. LPS also increased serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, which were dose-dependently and significantly attenuated by SAE. Correlative relationships between serum ALT activity and proinflammatory cytokines suggested that SAE-mediated suppression of liver injury was partly attributable to the attenuation of serum inflammatory responses. SAE significantly decreased hepatic NO(•) production and subsequent 3-nitrotyrosine formation, and the hepatic NO(•) production significantly correlated with serum ALT and cytokine levels, suggesting that SAE mitigates liver injury in association with inflammatory processes, likely by suppressing NO(•) production. Anti-inflammatory activity and further mechanisms of SAE were evaluated using RAW264.7 with LPS challenge. Noncytotoxic levels of SAE significantly attenuated NO(•) production in RAW264.7 cells and also markedly suppressed the expression of iNOS and other proinflammatory mediators, including COX-2 and IL-6, which were upregulated in the presence of LPS. SAE inhibited the phosphorylation of p65, an observation that occurred independently of IKKαβ-mediated IκBα phosphorylation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that SAE suppressed NO(•)-mediated inflammation by inhibiting p65 transcriptional activation without affecting IKKαβ-mediated IκBα phosphorylation. Further studies are warranted to examine the major compounds responsible for these effects and the mechanisms responsible for the p65

  3. Weed-Suppressing Effect and Mechanism of Allelopathic Rice Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Fei; KONG Chui-hua; XU Xiao-hua; ZHANG Chao-xian; CHEN Xiong-hui

    2004-01-01

    Two allelopathic rice accessions, PI312777 and Allelopathyl, significantly suppressedthe growth of associated weeds in the field. Moreover, their weed-suppressing effectswere correlated with the cultivation patterns. The weed-suppressing effects of throwingand transplanting were more effective than that of direct seeding. Furthermore, theamounts of allelochemicals (resorcinols, flavones and hydroxamic acids) produced andreleased from two allelopathic rice accessions were much higher than that from a non-allelopathic rice variety Hua-Jing-Xian 1, and reached the maximum concentration at the6th leaf stage. Differences in the weed-suppressing effects of rice accessions appear toresult from the accessions producing and releasing different amounts of allelochemicalsin the field. Further research confirmed that in PI312777 plants, allelochemicals weresynthesized by the above-ground parts, and then secreted through the root tissues. Roottissues of PI312777 plants never produced the allelochemicals. Root exudates fromPI312777 could significantly inhibit the growth of E. crus-galli surrounding rice plantsin water culture. However, when activated carbon was added to the culture solution, whichcould absorb allelochemicals from root exudates, the growth of E. crus-galli was nolonger significantly inhibited. Weed-suppressing effects of rice accessions depended onallelopathy, cultivation patterns and other factors in rice fields, while allelopathywas one of important factors. Interestingly, the amounts of allelochemicals produced andreleased from allelopathic rice plants may be induced by the presence of E. crus-galli.This suggests that there is a possible chemical recognition between rice and E. crus-galli.

  4. The effect of yeast extract addition on quality of fermented sausages at low NaCl content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Wagner, Roger; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Fermented sausages with 25% or 50% of their NaCl replaced by KCl and supplemented with 1% or 2% concentrations of yeast extract were produced. The sausage production process was monitored with physical, chemical and microbiological analyses. After production, the sausage samples were submitted to a consumer study and their volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The replacement of NaCl by KCl did not significantly influence the physical, chemical or microbiological characteristics. The sensory quality of the fermented sausages with a 50% replacement was poor compared with the full-salt control samples. The use of yeast extract at a 2% concentration increased volatile compounds that arose from amino acids and carbohydrate catabolism. These compounds contributed to the suppression of the sensory-quality defects caused by the KCl introduction, thus enabling the production of safe fermented sausages that have acceptable sensory qualities with half as much sodium content.

  5. Wireless Inductive Power Device Suppresses Blade Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Min, James B.; Stefko, George L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Fougers, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    possible to moderate vibration on or in turbomachinery blades by providing 100 W of wireless electrical power and actuation control to thin, lightweight vibration-suppressing piezoelectric patches (eight actuation and eight sensor patches in this prototype, for a total of 16 channels) positioned strategically on the surface of, or within, titanium fan blades, or embedded in composite fan blades. This approach moves significantly closer to the ultimate integration of "active" vibration suppression technology into jet engines and other turbomachinery devices such as turbine electrical generators used in the power industry. The novel feature of this device is in its utilization of wireless technology to simultaneously sense and actively control vibration in rotating or stationary turbomachinery blades using piezoelectric patches. In the past, wireless technology was used solely for sensing and diagnostics. This technology, however, will accomplish much more, in terms of simultaneously sensing, suppressing blade vibration, and making it possible for detailed study of vibration impact in turbomachinery blades.

  6. Food thought suppression: a matched comparison of obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2011-12-01

    Preliminary studies of non-clinical samples suggest that purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, referred to as food thought suppression, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in obese individuals. Despite possible implications for the treatment of obesity and eating disorders, little research has examined food thought suppression in obese individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). This study compared food thought suppression in 60 obese patients with BED to an age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched group of 59 obese persons who do not binge eat (NBO). In addition, this study examined the associations between food thought suppression and eating disorder psychopathology within the BED and NBO groups and separately by gender. Participants with BED and women endorsed the highest levels of food thought suppression. Food thought suppression was significantly and positively associated with many features of ED psychopathology in NBO women and with eating concerns in men with BED. Among women with BED, higher levels of food thought suppression were associated with higher frequency of binge eating, whereas among men with BED, higher levels of food thought suppression were associated with lower frequency of binge eating. Our findings suggest gender differences in the potential significance of food thought suppression in obese groups with and without co-existing binge eating problems.

  7. The effect of newspaper coverage and political pressure on wildfire suppression costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H Donovan; Jeffrey P Prestemon; Krista Gebert

    2011-01-01

    Controlling wildfire suppression expenditures has become a major public policy concern in the United States. However, most policy remedies have focused on the biophysical determinants of suppression costs: fuel loads and weather, for example. We show that two non-biophysical variables—newspaper coverage and political pressure—have a significant effect on wildfire...

  8. Combined gene overexpression of neuropeptide Y and its receptor Y5 in the hippocampus suppresses seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Casper René; Nikitidou, Litsa; Sørensen, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    on kainate-induced motor seizures in rats. However, combined overexpression of Y5 receptors and neuropeptide Y exerted prominent suppression of seizures. This seizure-suppressant effect of combination gene therapy with Y5 receptors and neuropeptide Y was significantly stronger as compared to neuropeptide Y...

  9. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa, U.; Rao, J. Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A.M.; Shanmukhappa, S.

    2007-01-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  10. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-10-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  11. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  12. Antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous ethanolic seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Mishra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana is a fruit tree used traditionally since long back for wound healing, immunepotentiator, asthma, sedative, stomachic, styptic, as tonic etc. The present study determines the antiplasmodial effect of aqueous ethanolic seed extract against Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei nk65 infection in Swiss albino mice. Based upon the acute toxicity data three different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight of the plant extract was chosen to study the blood schizonticidal activity in early infection and in established infection and was compared with chloroquine. The Prophylactic activity was also assessed and compared with pyrimethamine. No mortality was observed in acute toxicity study however, above the dose of 1000 mg/kg animals showed the lethargic behaviour. In early infection, and in established infection the doses (100-400 mg/kg b.wt was found to cause significant (P<0.001 suppression of infection in a dose dependent manner as compared to control. Although, the activity was lower than standard chloroquine. Similarly, the extract at all the doses caused the suppression in repository activity but was lower than pyrimethamine. The mean survival time was also increased in mice by 14 and 17 days at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, whereas the control group sustained only for 7 days. Thus, the seed extract showed the effectiveness against plasmodium infection.

  13. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  14. Tactile stimulation can suppress visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Masakazu; Hidaka, Souta

    2013-12-13

    An input (e.g., airplane takeoff sound) to a sensory modality can suppress the percept of another input (e.g., talking voices of neighbors) of the same modality. This perceptual suppression effect is evidence that neural responses to different inputs closely interact with each other in the brain. While recent studies suggest that close interactions also occur across sensory modalities, crossmodal perceptual suppression effect has not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that tactile stimulation can suppress the percept of visual stimuli: Visual orientation discrimination performance was degraded when a tactile vibration was applied to the observer's index finger of hands. We also demonstrated that this tactile suppression effect on visual perception occurred primarily when the tactile and visual information were spatially and temporally consistent. The current findings would indicate that neural signals could closely and directly interact with each other, sufficient to induce the perceptual suppression effect, even across sensory modalities.

  15. Antimalarial and hepatoprotective effects of crude ethanolic extract of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.)P.Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluba, Olarewaju M; Olusola, Augustine O; Fagbohunka, Bamidele S; Onyeneke, E

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the in vivo antimalarial activity (using some biochemical indices) of crude aqueous extracts of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, a mushroom with well-established medicinal properties. A rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei (1 × 107), was inoculated intraperitoneally into Swiss albino mice. The test groups were administered G. lucidum extract and chloroquine (CQ, as standard drug), while the control groups were administered the same amount of distilled water by an intragastric tube once daily. The antimalarial activity of the extract was investigated from the suppressive, curative, and prophylactic effects of the extract on parasite growth. Serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamine transpeptidase (γ-GT) levels monitored following the 4-day suppressive test were significantly reduced, with a corresponding significant increase in the livers of mice treated with the extract compared with infected untreated mice. The results obtained from this study provide scientific justification in an animal model of malaria that an ethanolic extract of G. lucidum possesses potent antimalarial activity and also could help ameliorate the attendant Plasmodium-induced liver damage due to malarial infection.

  16. Electron-suppression experiments in a small multicusp H sup minus source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N.; Hauck, C.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Walther, S.R. (Accelerator Research Division Fusion Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (US))

    1990-03-01

    Several techniques for suppressing the electrons before they form part of the extracted beam have been studied in a small multicusp H{sup {minus}} source. It is found that some schemes reduce both the electron and the H{sup {minus}} output currents. Other approaches, such as the installation of a collar at the extraction aperture, the addition of xenon or cesium to the hydrogen discharge, or the reduction of the source plasma potential, not only can reduce the electron current substantially, but bring about an enhancement in the extracted H{sup {minus}} current.

  17. Eruca sativa and its flavonoid components, quercetin and isorhamnetin, improve skin barrier function by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and suppression of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Choi, Yoon-E; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2014-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis, which is related to dermatologic disorders and is associated with skin barrier dysfunction, represents an epidemic problem demanding effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we showed that the treatment with Eruca sativa extract resulted in a significant increase in the transactivation activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element such as PPAR-α and suppression in the expression of inflammatory cytokine and antimicrobial peptides. In addition, E. sativa extract promotes the expression of filaggrin related to skin barrier protection. Quercetin and isorhamnetin, flavonoids' constituents of E. sativa, also promoted PPAR-α activity. These results indicate that E. sativa extract may be an appropriate material for improving skin barrier function as a skin therapeutic agent for atopic dermatitis.

  18. The research of road and vehicle information extraction algorithm based on high resolution remote sensing image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tingting; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Cao, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid development of remote sensing technology, the spatial resolution and temporal resolution of satellite imagery also have a huge increase. Meanwhile, High-spatial-resolution images are becoming increasingly popular for commercial applications. The remote sensing image technology has broad application prospects in intelligent traffic. Compared with traditional traffic information collection methods, vehicle information extraction using high-resolution remote sensing image has the advantages of high resolution and wide coverage. This has great guiding significance to urban planning, transportation management, travel route choice and so on. Firstly, this paper preprocessed the acquired high-resolution multi-spectral and panchromatic remote sensing images. After that, on the one hand, in order to get the optimal thresholding for image segmentation, histogram equalization and linear enhancement technologies were applied into the preprocessing results. On the other hand, considering distribution characteristics of road, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference water index (NDWI) were used to suppress water and vegetation information of preprocessing results. Then, the above two processing result were combined. Finally, the geometric characteristics were used to completed road information extraction. The road vector extracted was used to limit the target vehicle area. Target vehicle extraction was divided into bright vehicles extraction and dark vehicles extraction. Eventually, the extraction results of the two kinds of vehicles were combined to get the final results. The experiment results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has a high precision for the vehicle information extraction for different high resolution remote sensing images. Among these results, the average fault detection rate was about 5.36%, the average residual rate was about 13.60% and the average accuracy was approximately 91.26%.

  19. In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Annona muricata Leaf Extract in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Polwiang, Natsuda; Chachiyo, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. The choice for the treatment is highly limited due to drug resistance. Hence, finding the new compounds to treat malaria is urgently needed. The present study was attempted to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the Annona muricata aqueous leaf extract in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata was prepared and tested for acute toxicity in mice. For efficacy test in vivo, standard 4-day suppressive test was carried out. ICR mice were inoculated with 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection. The extracts (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) were then given orally by gavage once a day for 4 consecutive days. Parasitemia, percentage of inhibition, and packed cell volume were subsequently calculated. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg) was given to infected mice as positive control while untreated control was given only distilled water. It was found that A. muricata aqueous leaf extract at doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg resulted in dose dependent parasitemia inhibition of 38.03%, 75.25%, and 85.61%, respectively. Survival time was prolonged in infected mice treated with the extract. Moreover, no mortality to mice was observed with this extract up to a dose of 4000 mg/kg. In conclusion, the A. muricata aqueous leaf extract exerted significant antimalarial activity with no toxicity and prolonged survival time. Therefore, this extract might contain potential lead molecule for the development of a new drug for malaria treatment.

  20. Tactile stimulation can suppress visual perception

    OpenAIRE

    Masakazu Ide; Souta Hidaka

    2013-01-01

    An input (e.g., airplane takeoff sound) to a sensory modality can suppress the percept of another input (e.g., talking voices of neighbors) of the same modality. This perceptual suppression effect is evidence that neural responses to different inputs closely interact with each other in the brain. While recent studies suggest that close interactions also occur across sensory modalities, crossmodal perceptual suppression effect has not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that tactile stimul...

  1. Shot noise suppression in avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Wang, Shuling; Campbell, Joe C

    2005-10-21

    We identify a new shot noise suppression mechanism in a thin (approximately 100 nm) heterostructure avalanche photodiode. In the low-gain regime the shot noise is suppressed due to temporal correlations within amplified current pulses. We demonstrate in a Monte Carlo simulation that the effective excess noise factors can be < 1, and reconcile the apparent conflict between theory and experiments. This shot noise suppression mechanism is independent of known mechanisms such as Coulomb interaction, or reflection at heterojunction interfaces.

  2. Folate deficiency and an abnormal lymphocyte deoxyuridine suppression test in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenen, S W; Hwang, S M; Blocker, D E; Meadows, C A

    1991-01-01

    Cebus albifrons were fed folate-deficient diets in order to assess folate status at the cellular level with the deoxyuridine suppression test. Plasma and red blood cell folates were significantly lower at 2 months, compared to control values. Hematologic signs of megaloblastic anemia occurred after 6 months, with significantly lower hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cell number values and increased polymorphonuclear leukocyte lobe counts. Urinary formiminoglutamic acid excretion also was elevated significantly. Whole blood lymphocyte cultures exhibited abnormal deoxyuridine suppression of [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA with folate deficiency. Thus this deoxyuridine suppression test can be used in isolated whole blood lymphocytes of these nonhuman primates to document folate deficiency.

  3. Catalytic Therapy of Cancer with Ascorbate and Extracts of Medicinal Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Rozanova (Torshina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic therapy (CT is a cancer treatment modality based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS using a combination of substrate molecules and a catalyst. The most frequently used substrate/catalyst pair is ascorbate/Co phthalocyanine (PcCo. In the present work, herb extracts containing pigments have been studied as a catalyst in place of PcCo. Extracts from herbs are expected to have efficiency comparable with that of phthalocyanines but as natural products, to exhibit fewer side effects. The present studies demonstrate that a combined use of ascorbate and herbal extracts results in ROS production and a significant decrease in the number of cancer cells after a single in vitro treatment. Treatment with ascorbate in conjunction with extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs stimulated apoptosis and disrupted the cell cycle. The number of cells accumulating in the sub-G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle was increased 2- to 7-fold, and cells in G2/M increased 1.5- to 20-fold, indicating that the treatment protocol was highly effective in suppressing DNA synthesis and potentially reflecting DNA damage in the tumor cells. In addition, 20–40% of the cells underwent apoptosis within 24 h of completing treatment. Our results suggest that herbal extracts can function as CT catalysts in the treatment of cancer.

  4. Bioactive extract from moringa oleifera inhibits the pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages

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    Masoumeh Tangestani Fard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of M. oleifera extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS - stimulated macrophages. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory effect of M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extracts was evaluated by assessing the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production during Griess reaction and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Results: Interestingly, we found that M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract significantly inhibited the secretion of NO production and other inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin E 2 , tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-1b. Meanwhile, the bioactive extract has induced the production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract effectively suppressed the protein expression of inflammatory markers inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells p65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These findings support the traditional use of M. oleifera plant as an effective treatment for inflammation associated diseases/disorders.

  5. Dietary uptake of Wedelia chinensis extract attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

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    Yuh-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available SCOPE: Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12 revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight was not toxic to mice. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Modulation of function of multidrug resistance associated-proteins by Kaempferia parviflora extracts and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanasethanont, Denpong; Nagai, Junya; Matsuura, Chie; Fukui, Kyoko; Sutthanut, Khaetthareeya; Sripanidkulchai, Bung-orn; Yumoto, Ryoko; Takano, Mikihisa

    2007-07-02

    In this study, the effects of extracts and flavone derivatives from the rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora on multidrug resistance associated-proteins (MRP)-mediated transport in A549 cells were examined. The cells employed express MRP1 and MRP2, but not P-glycoprotein. The cellular accumulation of calcein, an MRP substrate, was significantly increased by various MRP inhibitors without being affected by verapamil, a typical P-glycoprotein inhibitor. Ethanol and aqueous extracts from K. parviflora rhizome increased the accumulation of calcein and doxorubicin in A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory potency of the ethanol extract for MRP function was greater than that of the aqueous extract. Among six flavone derivatives isolated from K. parviflora rhizome, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone exhibited a maximal stimulatory effect on the accumulation of doxorubicin in A549 cells. The accumulation of doxorubicin was increased by four flavone derivatives without 5-hydroxy group, but not by the other two flavone derivatives with 5-hydroxy group. In addition, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone decreased resistance to doxorubicin in A549 cells. These findings indicate that extracts and flavone derivatives from the rhizome of K. parviflora suppress MRP function, and therefore may be useful as modulators of multidrug resistance in cancer cells.

  7. Antimalarial and analgesic activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Panicum maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JudeEOkokon; PaulANwafor; UkemeEAndrew

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antiplasmodial and analgesic activities of ethanolic leaf extract/fractions of Panicum maximum. Methods:The crude leaf extract (47-190 mg/kg) and fractions (chloroform, ethyl acqeous and methanol; 96 mg/kg) of Panicum maximum were investigated for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei infections in mice and for analgesic activity against chemical and heat-induced pains. The antiplasmodial activity during early and established infections as well as prophylactic were investigated. Artesunate at 5 mg/kg and pyrimethamine at 1.2 mg/kg were used as positive controls. Analgesic activity of the crude extract/fractions was also evaluated against acetic acid, formalin and heat-induced pains. Results:The extract and its fractions dose-dependently reduced parasitaemia induced by chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei infection in prophylactic, suppressive and curative models in mice. These reductions were statistically significant (P<0.001). They also improved the mean survival time from 13 to 28 days compared with control (P<0.001).The activities of extract/fractions were incomparable to that of the standard drugs (Artesunate and pyrimethamine). On chemically and thermally-induced pains,the extract inhibited acetic acid and formalin-induced inflammation as well as hot plate-induced pain in mice. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P<0.001) and in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions:Panicum maximum leaf extract has antiplasmodial and analgesic activities which may in part be mediated through the chemical constituents of the plant.

  8. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

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    Hsin-Hung Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression, the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  9. Issues in Numerical Simulation of Fire Suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieszen, S.R.; Lopez, A.R.

    1999-04-12

    This paper outlines general physical and computational issues associated with performing numerical simulation of fire suppression. Fire suppression encompasses a broad range of chemistry and physics over a large range of time and length scales. The authors discuss the dominant physical/chemical processes important to fire suppression that must be captured by a fire suppression model to be of engineering usefulness. First-principles solutions are not possible due to computational limitations, even with the new generation of tera-flop computers. A basic strategy combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques with sub-grid model approximations for processes that have length scales unresolvable by gridding is presented.

  10. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  11. Comparison of the therapeutic effects of extracts from Spirulina platensis and amnion membrane on inflammation-associated corneal neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Qing-Jun; Wang, Yao; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    AIM To compare the therapeutic effects of polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis (PSP) and extract from amnion membrane (AME) on alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CorNV). METHODS PSP and AME were extracted from dry powder of Spirulina platensis and human aminion membrane respectively. Murine CorNV was induced by applying 1N sodiumhydroxide (NaOH) solution directly on the mice corneas. PSP and AME extracts were administered topically on the corneas 4 times daily for 7 days. The therapy effects of PSP and AME extracts were evaluated daily using slit-lamp. At the end of the therapy, corneas were harvested for H&E staining, masson trichrome staining, immunohistochemical study, and semi-quantification reverse transcriptive PCR (RT-PCR) was utilized for measurement of inflammation-related molecules. RESULTS Topical application of PSP extract had significant therapeutic effects on CorNV that could be shown in various assays of the corneas. Compared with AME extract, PSP extract treatment was more effective in suppressing CorNV in terms of vessel length and levels of cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) proteins or the angiogenesis related genes like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). PSP also inhibited inflammation more markedly by more effectively inhibiting mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells infiltration into the corneal stroma and reducing levels of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3 (MIP3a). In additon, corneas of PSP group had a more regular and compact architecture of collagen with thinner corneal thickness than in the AME group. CONCLUSION Polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis inhibited alkali burn-induced inflammation and CorNV more effectively than AME extract at the studied doses, thus may be used for the therapy of corneal diseases involving neovascularization and

  12. Protection of renal function by four selected plant extracts during Plasmodium berghei infection

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    Adewale Adetutu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weakening of renal function from reactive oxygen species generated during malaria infection is one of the prominent causes of death in prevalent regions. The potential toxicity of free radical generated by malaria parasites are counteracted by a large number of cytoprotective phytochemicals. Therefore, this study examined the influence of extracts of five selected antimalarial plants (Azadirachta indica, Parquetina nigrescens, Citrus paradisi, and Khaya senigalensis on reduction of inflammation in renal tissue, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels during malaria infection using Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss albino mice. For in vivo assay, mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes and plant extracts were subsequently administered orally at 100 mg/kg body weight once a day for 17 consecutive days. The chemo-suppressive and prophylaxis effects of the plant extracts against P. berghei were investigated and compared with those of standard antimalarial drug, chloroquine. Tail bleeding was performed to check the percentage parasitaemia by making a thin film smear on a slide, stained in Giemsa. The numbers of parasited cells against the unparasitised cells were counted using a microscope. The effect of malaria infection on renal tissue was assessed by histological analysis and measurement of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in plasma. At 100 mg/kg per body weight, aqueous extract of K. senegalensis, A. indica, C. paradisi and P. nigrescens exhibited significant (p<0.05 percentage inhibition and chemo-suppressive effects in comparison with the chloroquine treated mice. The result of the untreated group showed that there was a significant (p<0.05 increase in the level of plasma urea while the level of the groups treated with plants extract stabilized the level of urea and creatinine in the blood. Also there was a pathological lesion on the kidney tissue of untreated group whereas the group treated with

  13. Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colorectal Carcinoma by Litchi Seed Extract

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    Chih-Ping Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Litchi (Litchi chinensis fruit products possess rich amounts of flavanoids and proanthocyanidins. Its pericarp has been shown to inhibit breast and liver cancer cell growth. However, the anticolorectal cancer effect of Litchi seed extract has not yet been reported. In this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich Litchi seed ethanol extract (LCSP on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two colorectal cancer cell lines Colo320DM and SW480 were examined. The results demonstrated that LCSP significantly induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle in G2/M in colorectal carcinoma cells. LCSP also suppressed cyclins and elevated the Bax : Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activity. This study provides in vitro evidence that LCSP serves as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer.

  14. Neuropharmacological profile of an ethanol extract of Ruta chalepensis L. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Trujano, M E; Carrera, D; Ventura-Martinez, R; Cedillo-Portugal, E; Navarrete, A

    2006-06-15

    The effects of an ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis on the central nervous system (CNS) and LD(50) determination were studied in mice. A crude extract was given systemically and its effects were tested on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, exploratory activity, anxiety and nociception. Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1) a delay in the onset of seizures and a dose-dependent suppression in the tonic phase and mortality induced by PTZ; (2) a prolongation of the time of sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis; (3) a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response and (4) a reduction in the licking time and shaking behavior in the formalin-induced nociception test. The sedative-hypnotic potentiation, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects suggest that Ruta chalepensis induces a depressant activity on the CNS.

  15. Extract of ginkgo biloba EGb761 inhibits cell apoptosis following spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiejun Jiao; Jiannong Jiang; Bin Du; Yuan Mo; Ming Zhou; Hongquan Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of ginkgo biloba extract have been shown in rats following spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the precise protective mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, low-acid water-soluble extract of ginkgo biloba EGb761 was used to treat rats with SCI. Xanthin oxidase, thiobarbituric acid, terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling assay, and immunohistochemistry were utilized to detect lipid peroxidation, neural cell apoptosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in rats with SCI. Results revealed significantly increased superoxide dismutase activity, decreased malondialdehyde content, apoptotic index, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in SCI rats following EGb761 treatment. Therefore, EGb761 suppressed lipid peroxidation following SCI, relieved neural cell apoptosis, inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and ultimately exerted protective effects on SCI.

  16. The absolute lymphocyte count accurately estimates CD4 counts in HIV-infected adults with virologic suppression and immune reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaby Young

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical value of monitoring CD4 counts in immune reconstituted, virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients is limited. We investigated if absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC from an automated blood counting machine could accurately estimate CD4 counts. Materials and Methods: CD4 counts, ALC and HIV viral load (VL were extracted from an electronic laboratory database for all patients in HIV care at the Communicable Diseases Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (2008–13. Virologic suppression was defined as consecutive HIV VLs 300 cells/mm3. CD4 counts were estimated using the CD4% from the first value >300 and an ALC 181–540 days later. Results: A total of 1215 periods of virologic suppression were identified from 1183 patients, with 2227 paired CD4-ALCs available for analysis. 98.3% of CD4 estimates were within 50% of the actual value. 83.3% within 25% and 40.5% within 10%. The error pattern was approximately symmetrically distributed around a mean of −6.5%, but significant peaked and with mild positive skew (kurtosis 4.45, skewness 1.07. Causes for these errors were explored. Variability between lymphocyte counts measured by ALC and flow cytometry did not follow an apparent pattern, and contributed to 32% of the total error (median absolute error 5.5%, IQR 2.6–9.3. The CD4% estimate was significantly lower than the actual value (t-test, p<0.0001. The magnitude of this difference was greater for lower values, and above 25%, there was no significant difference. Precision of the CD4 estimate was similar as baseline CD4% increased, however accuracy improved significantly: from a median 16% underestimation to 0% as baseline CD4% increased from 12 to 30. Above a CD4% baseline of 25, estimates of CD4 were within 25% of the actual value 90.2% of the time with a median 2% underestimation. A robust (bisqaure linear regression model was developed to correct for the rise in CD4% with time, when baseline was 14–24

  17. Bioactive Compound Rich Indian Spices Suppresses the Growth of β-lactamase Produced Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

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    Eadlapalli Siddhartha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug Resistance (MDR among bacteria become a global concern due to failure of antibiotics, is drawn attention for best antimicrobials from the spices which have been using ancient days in Indian culinary and traditional medicine. Aim and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the bioactive compounds and their antibacterial activity in routinely used culinary Indian spices against β-lactamase produced MDR bacteria. Material and Methods: Ethanolic extracts prepared from twenty spices and were evaluated for total phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, antioxidant properties, and also assayed their antibacterial activities against β-lactamase producing MDR bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. β-Lactamase and cell viability assays were performed in MDR bacteria. Results: Among twenty spices, cinnamon and clove exhibited highest levels of phenolics and terpenoids with elevated antioxidant potential and also showing greater reducing potential at lower concentrations of extract (2.3 and 4.06 µg GAE/gm, respectively. Further, the spices extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against β-lactamase produced tested MDR bacteria and observed higher antimicrobial activity with cinnamon, garlic, tamarind and clove at lowest concentrations of MIC and MBC at 16 - 32 µg GAE/ml, as compared to standard drug, amoxiclav (16/8 µg/ml. Spices significantly inhibited the β-lactamase activity (80–94% and also cell viability in tested MDR bacteria. Conclusion: Indian spices consist of rich bioactive profile and antioxidant activity inhibited the bacterial growth effectively by suppressing β-lactamase production in MDR bacteria. Results indicating the spices as functional foods and could be used in prevention of antibiotic resistance.

  18. Effect of Selected Plant Extracts and D- and L-Lysine on the Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lurling, M; Van Oosterhout, F

    2014-01-01

    We tested extracts from Fructus mume, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Moringa oleifera as well as L-lysine and D-Lysine as curative measures to rapidly suppress the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIVA-CYA 43...

  19. Weed-Suppressing Effect and Mechanism of Allelopathic Rice Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUFei; KONGChui-hua; XUXiao-hua; ZHANGChao-xian; CHENXiong-hui

    2004-01-01

    Two allelopathic rice accessions, PI312777 and Allelopathy i, significantly suppressed the growth of associated weeds in the field. Moreover, their weed-suppressing effects were correlated with the cultivation patterns. The weed-suppressing effects of throwing and transplanting were more effective than that of direct seeding. Furthermore, the amounts of allelochemicals (resorcinols, flavones and hydroxamic acids) produced and released from two allelopathic rice accessions were much higher than that from a nonallelopathic rice variety Hua-Jing-Xian i, and reached the maximum concentration at the 6th leaf stage. Differences in the weed-suppressing effects of rice accessions appear to result from the accessions producing and releasing different amounts of allelochemicals in the field. Further research confirmed that in PI312777 plants, allelochemicals were synthesized by the above-ground parts, and then secreted through the root tissues. Root tissues of PI312777 plants never produced the allelochemicals. Root exudates from PI312777 could significantly inhibit the growth of E. crus-galli surrounding rice plants in water culture. However, when activated carbon was added to the culture solution, which could absorb allelochemicals from root exudates, the growth of E. crus-galli was no longer significantly inhibited. Weed-suppressing effects of rice accessions depended on allelopathy, cultivation patterns and other factors in rice fields, while allelopathy was one of important factors. Interestingly, the amounts of allelochemicals produced and released from allelopathic rice plants may be induced by the presence of E. crus-galli.This suggests that there is a possible chemical recognition between rice and E. crus-galli.

  20. Further antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous extract of cym-bopogon citratus stapf (lemon grass) against plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DV Dapper; IMSiminialayi; OO Ebong

    2008-01-01

    Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf)is a popular alternative to western medicines for a number of condi-tions,including fevers,muscle soreness and superficial infections in Nigeria.In addition to its already reported suppressive effects against P.berghei infection,this study sought to determine its repository and blood schizon-ticidal activities in established P.berghei infection using Swiss albino mice as models.Mice weighing on aver-age,between 15 and 25g were given 103mg/kg,155mg/kg and 310mg/kg/day of the crude aqueous extract of cymbopogon citratus stapf,in the 4-day test,24-hour Rane test and 72-hour Rane test.The effects of these do-ses of the extract were then compared with chloroquine (5mg/kg/day)and sulphadoxine /pyrimethamine (3mg/kg/day).We report an average percentage suppressive repository activity of 65.8% for the extract at a dose of 310mg/kg and a blood schizonticidal activity that increased from 68.33% in the 24-hour Rane test to 92% in the 72-hour Rane test for the same dose of extract.The crude aqueous extract of C.citratus stapf thus has significant repository and blood schizonticidal activities against established P.berghei infection in Swiss al-bino mice compare to that of pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine /pyrimethamine respectively.

  1. Effect of Neem Leaf Extract (Azadirachta indica on c-MycOncogene Expression in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells of BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Pei Pei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women both worldwide and in Malaysia. Azadirachta indica (A. Juss, commonly known as neem, is one of the most versatile medicinal plants that has gained worldwide prominence due to its medicinal properties. However, the anticancer effect of ethanolic neem leaf extract against breast cancer has not been documented. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of neem leaf extract on c-Myc oncogene expression in 4T1 breast cancer BALB/c mice.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, A total of 48 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into four groups of 12 mice per group: i.cancer control (CC treated with 0.5% Tween 20 in PBS, ii. 0.5 μg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT, iii. 250 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C250, and iv. 500 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C500. In situ reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-PCR was applied to evaluate suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression in breast cancer tissue.Results: The C500 group showed significant (p<0.05 suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression compared to the CC group.Conclusion: c-Myc was found to be down regulated under the effect of 500 mg/kg ethanolicneem leaf extract.

  2. Measuring natural pest suppression at different spatial scales affects the importance of local variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A B; Gratton, C

    2012-10-01

    The role biodiversity plays in the provision of ecosystem services is widely recognized, yet few ecological studies have identified characteristics of natural systems that support and maintain ecosystem services. The purpose of this study was to identify landscape variables correlated with natural pest suppression carried out by arthropod natural enemies, predators and parasitoids. We conducted two field experiments, one observational and one experimental, where landscape variables at broad and local scales were measured and related to natural pest suppression. The first experiment measured natural pest suppression at 16 sites across an urban to rural landscape gradient in south central Wisconsin. We found natural enemy diversity positively affected natural pest suppression, whereas flower diversity negatively affected pest suppression. No relationship was found between natural pest suppression and broad scale variables, which measured the percentage of different land cover classes in the surrounding landscape. In the second experiment, we established small (2- by 3-m) replicated plots that experimentally varied flower diversity (0, 1, or 7 species) within a plot. We found no significant relationship between natural pest suppression and the different levels of flower diversity. The fact that we only found differences in natural pest suppression in our first experiment, which measured natural pest suppression at sites separated by larger distances than our second experiment, suggests the more appropriate scale for measuring ecosystem services performed by mobile organisms like insects, is across broad spatial scales where variation in natural enemies communities and the factors that affect them become more apparent.

  3. Emotion suppression affects cardiovascular responses to initial and subsequent laboratory stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartana, Phillip J; Burns, John W

    2010-09-01

    The study of anger suppression and risk for cardiovascular disease has relied predominately on inspection of correlations between trait anger-in and cardiovascular risk factors and disease. This approach tells us little about whether inhibitory processes have anything to do with outcomes, and cannot speak to whether suppression of anger per se affects cardiovascular parameters. Drawing on the broader emotion regulation literature, we examined the effects of experimentally induced anger and general negative emotion in the context of expressive and experiential suppression on cardiovascular responses to initial and subsequent laboratory stressors. Of all participants, 201 healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions formed by crossing emotion (anxiety, anger) and suppression (experiential, expressive, control) conditions. Participants completed a mental arithmetic task with anxiety or anger induction under their respective suppression manipulation instructions, and subsequently were exposed to a cold pressor task. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate values were obtained for each experimental epoch. More robust SBP responses to the initial stressor were evidenced for those in the expressive versus the control condition. In response to the subsequent stressor, those in the experiential suppression condition showed the most pronounced SBP responses, suggesting pronounced delayed effects of this type of suppression. Effects of suppression on SBP reactivity were indistinguishable across anxiety and anger conditions. Effortful suppression of negative emotion has immediate and delayed consequences for stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity. Theoretical and clinical significance of these findings are discussed.

  4. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  5. Moringa oleifera extract enhances sexual performance in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Somsapt, Pichet; Sritragool, Opass; Thukhummee, Wipawee; Muchimapura, Supaporn

    2015-03-01

    Aphrodisiacs are required to improve male sexual function under stressful conditions. Due to the effects of oxidative stress and dopamine on male sexual function, we hypothesized that Moringa oleifera leaves might improve male sexual dysfunction induced by stress. Therefore, the effects on various factors playing important roles in male sexual behavior, such as antioxidant effects, the suppression of monoamine and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) activities, serum testosterone and corticosterone levels, and histomorphological changes in the testes, of a hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves were investigated. Various doses of extract including 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg body weight (BW) were given orally to male Wistar rats before exposure to 12 h-immobilization stress for 7 d. The results demonstrated that the extract showed both antioxidant and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) suppression activities. At 7 d of treatment, the low dose of extract improved sexual performance in stress-exposed rats by decreasing intromission latency and increasing intromission frequency. It also suppressed PDE-5 activity, decreased serum corticosterone level, but increased serum testosterone, numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa. The increased numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa might have been due to the antioxidant effect of the extract. The increased sexual performance during the intromission phase might have been due to the suppression of MAO-B and PDE-5 activities and increased testosterone. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential aphrodisiac, but further research concerning the precise underlying mechanisms is still needed.

  6. Moringa oleifera extract enhances sexual performance in stressed rats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Somsapt, Pichet; Sritragool, Opass; Thukhummee, Wipawee; Muchimapura, Supaporn

    2015-01-01

    Aphrodisiacs are required to improve male sexual function under stressful conditions. Due to the effects of oxidative stress and dopamine on male sexual function, we hypothesized that Moringa oleifera leaves might improve male sexual dysfunction induced by stress. Therefore, the effects on various factors playing important roles in male sexual behavior, such as antioxidant effects, the suppression of monoamine and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) activities, serum testosterone and corticosterone levels, and histomorphological changes in the testes, of a hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves were investigated. Various doses of extract including 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg body weight (BW) were given orally to male Wistar rats before exposure to 12 h-immobilization stress for 7 d. The results demonstrated that the extract showed both antioxidant and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) suppression activities. At 7 d of treatment, the low dose of extract improved sexual performance in stress-exposed rats by decreasing intromission latency and increasing intromission frequency. It also suppressed PDE-5 activity, decreased serum corticosterone level, but increased serum testosterone, numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa. The increased numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa might have been due to the antioxidant effect of the extract. The increased sexual performance during the intromission phase might have been due to the suppression of MAO-B and PDE-5 activities and increased testosterone. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential aphrodisiac, but further research concerning the precise underlying mechanisms is still needed. PMID:25743119

  7. Suppression of phagocytic and bactericidal functions of rat alveolar macrophages by the organic component of diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xuejun J; Dong, Caroline C; Ma, Jane Y C; Roberts, Jenny R; Antonini, James M; Ma, Joseph K H

    2007-05-15

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) was shown to increase the susceptibility of the lung to bacterial infection in rats. In this study, the effects of DEP on alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytic and bactericidal functions and cytokine secretion by AM and lymphocytes in response to Listeria monocytogenes infection were investigated in vitro and the roles of different DEP components in these processes were compared. Exposure to DEP or the organic extracts of DEP (eDEP) significantly decreased the phagocytosis and killing of L. monocytogenes by AM obtained from normal rats. Washed DEP (wDEP) also decreased AM phagocytosis and bacterial killing to a lesser extent, whereas carbon black (CB) reduced AM phagocytosis but had no significant effect on AM bactericidal activity. DEP or eDEP concentration-dependently suppressed L. monocytogenes-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-12 by AM and of IL-2 and interferon-gamma by lymphocytes obtained from L. monocytogenes-infected rats, but augmented the AM secretion of IL-10. wDEP or CB, however, exerted little or no effect on these L. monocytogenes-induced cytokines. These results provide direct evidence that DEP, through the actions of organic components, suppresses AM phagocytic and bactericidal functions in vitro. Inhibition of AM phagocytic function and alterations of AM and lymphocyte cytokine secretion by DEP and DEP organic compounds may be implicated in the diminished AM bactericidal activity and the lymphatic arm of the host immune system, thus resulting in an suppressed pulmonary clearance of L. monocytogenes and an increased susceptibility of the lung to bacterial infection.

  8. Attentional selection by distractor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, G; Guerra, S

    1998-03-01

    Selective attention was studied in displays containing singletons popping out for their odd form or color. The target was defined as the form-singleton, the distractor as the color-singleton. The task was to discriminate the length of a longer line inside the target. Target-distractor similarity was controlled using a threshold measurement as dependent variable in experiments in which distractor presence vs absence, bottom-up vs top-down selection (through knowledge of target features), and target-distractor distance were manipulated. The results in the bottom-up condition showed that length threshold was elevated when a distractor was present and that this elevation progressively increased as the number of distractors was increased from one to two. This set-size effect was not accounted by the hypothesis that selective attention intervenes only at the stage of decision before response. Selective attention produced a suppressive surround in which discriminability of neighboring objects was strongly reduced, and a larger surround in which discriminability was reduced by an approximately constant amount. Different results were found in the top-down condition in which target discriminability was unaffected by distractor presence and no effect of target-distractor distance was found. On the other hand, response times in both bottom-up and top-down conditions were slower the shorter the target-distractor distance was. On the basis of the experimental results, selective attention is a parallel process of spatial filtering at an intermediate processing level operating after objects have been segmented. This filtering stage explores high level interactions between objects taking control on combinatorial explosion by operating over only a limited spatial extent: it picks out a selected object and inhibits the neighboring objects; then, non-selected objects are suppressed across the overall image. When no feature-based selection is available in the current behavior, this

  9. Anticarcinogenic efficacy of phytic acid extracted from rice bran on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazalina, S; Norhaizan, M E; Hairuszah, I; Norashareena, M S

    2010-05-01

    This study is carried out to determine the potential of phytic acid extracted from rice bran in the suppression of colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in rats. Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups with 12 rats in each group. The intended rats for cancer treatment received two intraperitoneal injections of AOM in saline (15mg/kg bodyweight) over a 2-week period. The treatments of phytic acid were given in two concentrations: 0.2% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) during the post-initiation phase of carcinogenesis phase via drinking water. The colons of the animals were analyzed for detection and quantification of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) after 8 weeks of treatment. The finding showed treatment with 0.2% (w/v) extract phytic acid (EPA) gave the greatest reduction in the formation of ACF. In addition, phytic acid significantly suppressed the number of ACF in the distal, middle and proximal colon as compared to AOM alone (pphytic acid (CPA) had the highest percentage (71%) of non-dysplastic ACF followed by treatment with 0.2% (w/v) EPA (61%). Administration of phytic acid also reduced the incidence and multiplicity of total tumors even though there were no significant differences between groups. In conclusion, this study found the potential value of phytic acid extracted from rice bran in reducing colon cancer risk in rats.

  10. Effect of leukaemic sera & cell-extracts on splenic colony counts (CFU-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Rusia, U; Agarwal, S; Sood, S K

    1991-08-01

    Sera and leukaemic cell extracts from patients of acute leukaemia were evaluated for their effect on the repopulating ability of the pluripotent stem cells and erythroid differentiation by an in vivo splenic colony count (CFU-S) technique. Normal donor marrow cells of mice were treated with sera and cell extracts from patients of acute leukaemic and healthy controls and injected in the recipient mice. The CFU-S performed on the seventh day to assess repopulating ability of the stem cell showed consistently lower CFU-S counts in the test groups, with leukaemic sera (P less than 0.01) as well as leukaemic cell-extracts (P less than 0.001). The erythroid differentiation assessed by 59Fe uptake by the spleens also showed significantly reduced counts in the two test groups (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.001 respectively). The results indicate that both leukaemic sera and cell-extracts exert a significant suppressive effect on the repopulating ability of the stem cells and on their erythroid differentiation.

  11. Effect of Hypericum perforatum Extract in an Experimental Model of Binge Eating in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Vitale, Giovanni; Massi, Maurizio; Cifani, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The present study evaluated the effect of Hypericum perforatum dry extract in an experimental model of binge eating (BE). Methods. BE for highly palatable food (HPF) was evoked in female rats by three 8-day cycles of food restriction/re-feeding and acute stress on the test day (day 25). Stress was induced by preventing access to HPF for 15 min, while rats were able to see and smell it. Hypericum perforatum dry extract was given by gavage. Results. Only rats exposed to both food restrictions and stress exhibited BE. The doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum extract significantly reduced the BE episode, while 125 mg/kg was ineffective. The same doses did not affect HPF intake in the absence of BE. The dose of 250 mg/kg did not significantly modify stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels, suggesting that the effect on BE is not due to suppression of the stress response The combined administration of 125 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum together with Salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea, produced a synergic effect on BE. Conclusions. The present results indicate for the first time that Hypericum perforatum extracts may have therapeutic properties in bingeing-related eating disorders.

  12. Effect of Hypericum perforatum Extract in an Experimental Model of Binge Eating in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study evaluated the effect of Hypericum perforatum dry extract in an experimental model of binge eating (BE. Methods. BE for highly palatable food (HPF was evoked in female rats by three 8-day cycles of food restriction/re-feeding and acute stress on the test day (day 25. Stress was induced by preventing access to HPF for 15 min, while rats were able to see and smell it. Hypericum perforatum dry extract was given by gavage. Results. Only rats exposed to both food restrictions and stress exhibited BE. The doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum extract significantly reduced the BE episode, while 125 mg/kg was ineffective. The same doses did not affect HPF intake in the absence of BE. The dose of 250 mg/kg did not significantly modify stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels, suggesting that the effect on BE is not due to suppression of the stress response The combined administration of 125 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum together with Salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea, produced a synergic effect on BE. Conclusions. The present results indicate for the first time that Hypericum perforatum extracts may have therapeutic properties in bingeing-related eating disorders.

  13. Hypocholesterolemic and Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Basella alba Leaf Extract in Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran Baskaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is the major risk factor that leads to atherosclerosis. Nowadays, alternative treatment using medicinal plants gained much attention since the usage of statins leads to adverse health effects, especially liver and muscle toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of Basella alba (B. alba using hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbits. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed with varying diets: normal diet, 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD, 2% HCD + 10 mg/kg simvastatin, 2% HCD + 100 mg/kg B. alba extract, and 2% HCD + 200 mg/kg B. alba extract, respectively. The treatment with B. alba extract significantly lowered the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides and increased HDL and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx levels. The elevated levels of liver enzymes (AST and ALT and creatine kinase were noted in hypercholesterolemic and statin treated groups indicating liver and muscle injuries. Treatment with B. alba extract also significantly suppressed the aortic plaque formation and reduced the intima: media ratio as observed in simvastatin-treated group. This is the first in vivo study on B. alba that suggests its potential as an alternative therapeutic agent for hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  14. Comparison of different cover crop mulches and extracts on inhibition of crop and weed growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturm, Domonic Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Weed suppression of cover crops is a result of competition for light, space, water and nutrients and the release of allelochemicals in the soil. Two laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to analyse biochemical effects of extracts and mulches of Fa