WorldWideScience

Sample records for extract multiple scaling

  1. Extract Multiple Scaling in Long-Term Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    interval record (r(s) (sec) vs. s (x10 3 beat)), (b) the power spectral density function of r(s) (in log-log scale). (c) histogram of Ar(t), t = 4 (in...global methods, such as the power spectral density function or DFA, may be obtained. It should be noted that the current methodology is not able to extract

  2. Multi-scale salient feature extraction on mesh models

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method of extracting multi-scale salient features on meshes. It is based on robust estimation of curvature on multiple scales. The coincidence between salient feature and the scale of interest can be established straightforwardly, where detailed feature appears on small scale and feature with more global shape information shows up on large scale. We demonstrate this multi-scale description of features accords with human perception and can be further used for several applications as feature classification and viewpoint selection. Experiments exhibit that our method as a multi-scale analysis tool is very helpful for studying 3D shapes. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  4. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of con

  5. Feature extraction from multiple data sources using genetic programming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, J. J. (John J.); Brumby, Steven P.; Pope, P. A. (Paul A.); Eads, D. R. (Damian R.); Galassi, M. C. (Mark C.); Harvey, N. R. (Neal R.); Perkins, S. J. (Simon J.); Porter, R. B. (Reid B.); Theiler, J. P. (James P.); Young, A. C. (Aaron Cody); Bloch, J. J. (Jeffrey J.); David, N. A. (Nancy A.); Esch-Mosher, D. M. (Diana M.)

    2002-01-01

    Feature extration from imagery is an important and long-standing problem in remote sensing. In this paper, we report on work using genetic programming to perform feature extraction simultaneously from multispectral and digital elevation model (DEM) data. The tool used is the GENetic Imagery Exploitation (GENIE) software, which produces image-processing software that inherently combines spatial and spectral processing. GENIE is particularly useful in exploratory studies of imagery, such as one often does in combining data from multiple sources. The user trains the software by painting the feature of interest with a simple graphical user interface. GENIE then uses genetic programming techniques to produce an image-processing pipeline. Here, we demonstrate evolution of image processing algorithms that extract a range of land-cover features including towns, grasslands, wild fire burn scars, and several types of forest. We use imagery from the DOE/NNSA Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) spacecraft, fused with USGS 1:24000 scale DEM data.

  6. Visualizing Multiple Variables Across Scale and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah; Dykes, Jason; Slingsby, Aidan; Turkay, Cagatay

    2016-01-01

    Comparing multiple variables to select those that effectively characterize complex entities is important in a wide variety of domains - geodemographics for example. Identifying variables that correlate is a common practice to remove redundancy, but correlation varies across space, with scale and over time, and the frequently used global statistics hide potentially important differentiating local variation. For more comprehensive and robust insights into multivariate relations, these local correlations need to be assessed through various means of defining locality. We explore the geography of this issue, and use novel interactive visualization to identify interdependencies in multivariate data sets to support geographically informed multivariate analysis. We offer terminology for considering scale and locality, visual techniques for establishing the effects of scale on correlation and a theoretical framework through which variation in geographic correlation with scale and locality are addressed explicitly. Prototype software demonstrates how these contributions act together. These techniques enable multiple variables and their geographic characteristics to be considered concurrently as we extend visual parameter space analysis (vPSA) to the spatial domain. We find variable correlations to be sensitive to scale and geography to varying degrees in the context of energy-based geodemographics. This sensitivity depends upon the calculation of locality as well as the geographical and statistical structure of the variable.

  7. Land-atmosphere interaction across multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, I. T.; Dazlich, D. A.; Harper, A. B.; Branson, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Denning, A.

    2013-12-01

    New modeling frameworks are bypassing parameterization limitations in Climate models (GCMs) via the inclusion of Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs) within GCM gridcells. The GCM sends advective forcing to the CRM, which provides heating and drying in return. This so-called ';MultiModeling Framework', or MMF, has been shown to have emergent properties, especially in simulations of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. However, to date the representation of land-atmosphere interaction within the MMF has been primitive; multiple cloud-resolving atmospheric columns are generally coupled to a single land; heterogeneity in surface radiation, temperature and moisture is not communicated to the atmosphere. We investigate the influence of spatial scale on surface-atmosphere interaction at a site in Tropical Brazil and at a grassland site in the United States. At the coarsest scale, a single-column GCM gridcell (termed an SCM) using parameterized clouds is coupled to a single land instance, as is done in a traditional GCM. Moving downward in scale, the same SCM is coupled to a CRM, itself coupled to a single land instance, as is done currently in MMFs such as the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Finally, we couple the SCM to a CRM with fully distributed instances of the land model. We find substantial differences across scale representations. Compared to the traditional SCM, both single- and multiple-land SCMs show reduced rainfall. Bowen ratio is increased in both CRM simulations as compared to the SCM, as cloud-free CRM elements result in higher grid-averaged temperature and resultant sensible heat flux. This warmer/drier tendency suppresses the carbon flux. Surface heterogeneity alters seasonal and diurnal cycles in precipitation and carbon flux as well. We find that heterogeneity in the land surface, and its interaction with the CRM, imparts organization to the GCM in a manner that has not previously been possible.

  8. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  9. Accelerated large-scale multiple sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Scott

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sequence alignment (MSA is a fundamental analysis method used in bioinformatics and many comparative genomic applications. Prior MSA acceleration attempts with reconfigurable computing have only addressed the first stage of progressive alignment and consequently exhibit performance limitations according to Amdahl's Law. This work is the first known to accelerate the third stage of progressive alignment on reconfigurable hardware. Results We reduce subgroups of aligned sequences into discrete profiles before they are pairwise aligned on the accelerator. Using an FPGA accelerator, an overall speedup of up to 150 has been demonstrated on a large data set when compared to a 2.4 GHz Core2 processor. Conclusions Our parallel algorithm and architecture accelerates large-scale MSA with reconfigurable computing and allows researchers to solve the larger problems that confront biologists today. Program source is available from http://dna.cs.byu.edu/msa/.

  10. Multiple headspace extraction for gas detection in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D; Fühl, M; Pinkwart, K; Baltes, N

    2014-10-16

    In this study multiple headspace extraction was used for the first time to measure the saturation concentration of carbon monoxide and oxygen in various ionic liquids (ILs). Many processes in ILs involve the reaction of gases so that the reactant solubility is not a mere characteristical parameter, but understanding the solubility of gases in ILs is required for assessing the feasibility of possible applications. Multiple headspace extraction has proofed to be a powerful tool to obtain solubilities in good accordance with literature data. The measured saturation concentration for carbon monoxide and oxygen in ILs based on rarely researched tetracyanoborates and other anions was in the range of 1.5-6.5mmol/L. The great advantage of multiple headspace extraction is that it is a nonexpensive method that can be realised in most analytical laboratories by combination of a simple gas chromatograph and an eligible headspace injector.

  11. Cell assemblies at multiple time scales with arbitrary lag constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Eleonora; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Hebb's idea of a cell assembly as the fundamental unit of neural information processing has dominated neuroscience like no other theoretical concept within the past 60 years. A range of different physiological phenomena, from precisely synchronized spiking to broadly simultaneous rate increases, has been subsumed under this term. Yet progress in this area is hampered by the lack of statistical tools that would enable to extract assemblies with arbitrary constellations of time lags, and at multiple temporal scales, partly due to the severe computational burden. Here we present such a unifying methodological and conceptual framework which detects assembly structure at many different time scales, levels of precision, and with arbitrary internal organization. Applying this methodology to multiple single unit recordings from various cortical areas, we find that there is no universal cortical coding scheme, but that assembly structure and precision significantly depends on the brain area recorded and ongoing task demands. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19428.001 PMID:28074777

  12. Modelling of rate effects at multiple scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, R.R.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    At the macro- and meso-scales a rate dependent constitutive model is used in which visco-elasticity is coupled to visco-plasticity and damage. A viscous length scale effect is introduced to control the size of the fracture process zone. By comparison of the widths of the fracture process zone......, the length scale in the meso-model and the macro-model can be coupled. In this fashion, a bridging of length scales can be established. A computational analysis of  a Split Hopkinson bar test at medium and high impact load is carried out at macro-scale and meso-scale including information from  the micro-scale....

  13. Morphological surface profile extraction with multiple range sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barshan, B; Baskent, D

    2001-01-01

    A novel method is described for surface profile extraction based on morphological processing of multiple range sensor data. The approach taken is extremely flexible and robust, in addition to being simple and straightforward. It can deal with arbitrary numbers and configurations of sensors as well a

  14. Scaling in cognitive performance reflects multiplicative multifractal cascade dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Damian G; Anastas, Jason R; Dixon, James A

    2012-01-01

    Self-organized criticality purports to build multi-scaled structures out of local interactions. Evidence of scaling in various domains of biology may be more generally understood to reflect multiplicative interactions weaving together many disparate scales. The self-similarity of power-law scaling entails homogeneity: fluctuations distribute themselves similarly across many spatial and temporal scales. However, this apparent homogeneity can be misleading, especially as it spans more scales. Reducing biological processes to one power-law relationship neglects rich cascade dynamics. We review recent research into multifractality in executive-function cognitive tasks and propose that scaling reflects not criticality but instead interactions across multiple scales and among fluctuations of multiple sizes.

  15. Scaling in cognitive performance reflects multiplicative multifractal cascade dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian G. Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-organized criticality purports to build multi-scaled structures, such as those supporting life, out of local interactions. Evidence of scaling in various domains of biology may be more generally understood to reflect multiplicative interactions weaving together many disparate scales. The self-similarity of power-law scaling entails homogeneity: fluctuations distribute themselves similarly across many spatial and temporal scales. However, this apparent homogeneity can be misleading, especially as it spans more scales. Reducing biological processes to one power-law relationship neglects rich cascade dynamics. We review recent research into multifractality in executive-function cognitive tasks and propose that scaling reflects not criticality but instead interactions across multiple scales and among fluctuations of multiple sizes.

  16. Laboratory to pilot scale: Microwave extraction for polyphenols lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périno, Sandrine; Pierson, Jean T; Ruiz, Karine; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2016-08-01

    Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) technique has been applied to pilot-scale solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of polyphenols from Lettuce sativa. Following the dictates of green extraction and with the aim to save time and energy, the lab-scale knowledge on SFME was exploited for the development of a pilot-scale process. The investigation entailed the optimization of all main parameters (temperature, time, extracted water volume, etc.) and we showed that the polyphenols composition profile under SFME was similar to the classic methods though a bit lower in total content. The energy consumption in the optimized procedure (30min) was 1W/g of fresh matrix.

  17. Extracting scaling laws from numerical dynamo models

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, Z

    2013-01-01

    Earth's magnetic field is generated by processes in the electrically conducting, liquid outer core, subsumed under the term `geodynamo'. In the last decades, great effort has been put into the numerical simulation of core dynamics following from the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. However, the numerical simulations are far from Earth's core in terms of several control parameters. Different scaling analyses found simple scaling laws for quantities like heat transport, flow velocity, magnetic field strength and magnetic dissipation time. We use an extensive dataset of 116 numerical dynamo models compiled by Christensen and co-workers to analyse these scalings from a rigorous model selection point of view. Our method of choice is leave-one-out cross-validation which rates models according to their predictive abilities. In contrast to earlier results, we find that diffusive processes are not negligible for the flow velocity and magnetic field strength in the numerical dynamos. Also the scaling of the magneti...

  18. SDG and qualitative trend based model multiple scale validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dong; Xu, Xin; Yin, Jianjin; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Beike

    2017-09-01

    Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A) is key technology of simulation and modelling. For the traditional model validation methods, the completeness is weak; it is carried out in one scale; it depends on human experience. The SDG (Signed Directed Graph) and qualitative trend based multiple scale validation is proposed. First the SDG model is built and qualitative trends are added to the model. And then complete testing scenarios are produced by positive inference. The multiple scale validation is carried out by comparing the testing scenarios with outputs of simulation model in different scales. Finally, the effectiveness is proved by carrying out validation for a reactor model.

  19. Medicinal cannabis extracts for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F

    2004-07-01

    Prior to 2002, few clinical data were available to indicate whether cannabis extracts may be beneficial. However, in the last two years, results of several placebo-controlled clinical trials of orally administered compounds have been published, and these cast doubt on the efficacy of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) in objectively reducing spasticity in MS. By contrast, it has been claimed that sublingually administered cannabis extracts that contain approximately equal concentrations of delta9-THC and cannabidiol, a natural cannabinoid that does not act on the CB1 receptor, can produce a statistically and clinically significant reduction in spasticity, although this claim has yet to be thoroughly validated. Nonetheless, results of preclinical trials also lend support to the hypothesis that the endogenous cannabinoid system may be involved in the regulation of spasticity and pain. A better indication of the clinical potential of the different cannabis extracts will have to await the publication of the most recent clinical trial data. This review critically evaluates the most recent evidence available on the potential use of medicinal extracts of cannabis to relieve pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

  20. MULTIPLE SINGLE BUNCH EXTRACTION TO THE AGS SWITCHYARD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,K.A.; AHRENS,L.; GASSNER,D.; GLENN,J.W.; ROSER,T.; SMITH,G.; TSOUPAS,N.; VAN ASSELT,W.; ZENO,K.

    2001-06-18

    In this report we will describe the multiple single bunch extraction system as utilized to deliver beams to the Brookhaven's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) switchyard area. We will describe modifications of the AGS switchyard, necessary to allow it to accept bunched beam, and results of the first commissioning of this system. The AGS Switchyard has for many years been used to simultaneously deliver (unbunched) resonant extracted beam to a set of fixed target experiments. In order to accommodate new fixed target experiments which require bunched beams, a method of sending the bunched beams to the AGS Switchyard was required. In addition, by using the AGS switchyard instead of the upstream section of the Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) injection line the accelerators can be reconfigured quickly and efficiently for filling RHIC. We will present results of the commissioning of this system, which was done in January 2001.

  1. Remote Sensing Image Feature Extracting Based Multiple Ant Colonies Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhi-long

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature extraction method for remote sensing imagery based on the cooperation of multiple ant colonies. First, multiresolution expression of the input remote sensing imagery is created, and two different ant colonies are spread on different resolution images. The ant colony in the low-resolution image uses phase congruency as the inspiration information, whereas that in the high-resolution image uses gradient magnitude. The two ant colonies cooperate to detect features in the image by sharing the same pheromone matrix. Finally, the image features are extracted on the basis of the pheromone matrix threshold. Because a substantial amount of information in the input image is used as inspiration information of the ant colonies, the proposed method shows higher intelligence and acquires more complete and meaningful image features than those of other simple edge detectors.

  2. Cyclotrons with fast variable and/or multiple energy extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility in principle of stripping extraction in combination with reverse bends in isochronous separate-sector cyclotrons (and/or fixed field alternating gradient accelerators. If one uses reverse bends between the sectors (instead of or in combination with drifts and places stripper foils at the sector exit edges, the stripped beam has a reduced bending radius and it should be able to leave the cyclotron within the range of the valley—even if the beam is stripped at less than full energy. We are especially interested in stripping of H_{2}^{+}, as it doubles the charge to mass ratio of the ions. However the method could be applied to other ions or ionized molecules as well. For the production of proton beams by stripping extraction of an H_{2}^{+} beam, we discuss possible designs for three types of machines: First, a low-energy cyclotron for the simultaneous production of several beams at multiple energies—for instance 15, 30, and 70 MeV—thus allowing beam delivery on several isotope production targets. In this case it can be an advantage to have a strong energy dependence of the direction of the extracted beam. Second, we consider a fast variable-energy proton machine for cancer therapy that should allow extraction (of the complete beam at all energies in the range of about 70 MeV to about 250 MeV into the same beam line. Third, we consider a high-intensity high-energy machine, where the main design goals are extraction with low losses, low activation of components, and high reliability. Especially if such a machine is considered for an accelerator driven system (ADS, this extraction mechanism has advantages: Beam trips by the failure of electrostatic elements could be avoided and the turn separation would be less critical, which allows operation at lower main cavity voltages. This would in turn reduce the number of rf trips. The price that has to be paid for these advantages is an increase in size and/or field

  3. Small-scale extraction of recombinant proteins from bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard J

    2010-09-01

    Bacteria are particularly convenient for producing recombinant proteins for purification purposes. To monitor induction as well as the levels of recombinant protein expression, it is important to have a rapid, simple method for estimating bacterial protein expression. This protocol describes the preparation of small-scale bacterial extracts using cell lysis with 0.5% Triton X-100.

  4. A Block-Based Multi-Scale Background Extraction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed H. Davarpanah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To extract the moving objects, vision-based surveillance systems subtract the current image from a predefined background image. The efficiency of these systems mainly depends on accuracy of the extracted background image. It should be able to adapt to the changes continuously. In addition, especially in real-time applications the time complexity of this adaptation is a critical matter. Approach: In this study, to extract an adaptive background, a combination of blocking and multi-scale methods is presented. Because of being less sensitive to local movements, block-based techniques are proper to control the non-stationary objects’ movements, especially in outdoor applications. They can be useful to reduce the effect of these objects on the extracted background. We also used the blocking method to intelligently select the regions which the temporal filtering has to be applied on. In addition, an amended multi-scale algorithm is introduced. This algorithm is a hybrid algorithm, a combination of some nonparametric and parametric filters. It uses a nonparametric filter in the spatial domain to initiate two primary backgrounds. In continue two adapted two-dimensional filters will be used to extract the final background. Results: The qualitative and quantitative results of our experiments certify not only the quality of the final extracted background is acceptable, but also its time consumption is approximately half in compare to the similar methods. Conclusion: Using Multi scaling filtering and applying the filters just to some selected nonoverlapped blocks reduce the time consumption of the extracting background algorithm.

  5. Cluster Spacecraft Observations of Magnetopause Reconnection at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retino, A.; Vaivads, A.; Chasapis, A.; Rossi, C.; Sahraoui, F.; Canu, P.; Nakamura, R.; Mozer, F.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an inherently multi-scale process where the dynamics at small-scales strongly affect the large-scale evolution of the process. The microphysics of reconnection (i.e. the physics at proton scales and below) is particularly important. Key questions are reconnection onset, time evolution (rate) and ion and electron heating/acceleration around reconnection sites. The Earth's magnetopause is an excellent laboratory for studying reconnection, especially at subsolar point where is more steady and easier to study with spacecraft data. Despite of initially being a high-latitude mission, ESA/Cluster spacecraft have crossed the subsolar magnetopause starting from 2008. During such recent orbits two spacecraft were separated by ~10s km (sub-proton/electron scales) while being apart ~ 1000s km (fluid scales) from the others. This special configuration allows studying reconnection at multiple scales. Here we present a few examples of magnetopause reconnection from such recent Cluster multi-scale orbits. For one case of subsolar reconnection, the observation of jet reversals at large scales allows setting the position of the reconnection site in between the spacecraft. Two-point observations at sub-proton/electron scales are then used to identify a very thin rotational discontinuity (having a thickness of about 10 electron gyroradii) and study the microphysics therein. We also show a few other examples of magnetopause reconnection from the Cluster Guest Investigator campaign (2012), for which orbit, spacecraft configuration and instrument modes were tailored to study reconnection at multiple scales. We discuss the relevance of such recent Cluster measurements for the reconnection science of upcoming NASA/MMS and other multi-scale future missions.

  6. Domino: Extracting, Comparing, and Manipulating Subsets across Multiple Tabular Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzl, Samuel; Gehlenborg, Nils; Lex, Alexander; Pfister, Hanspeter; Streit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Answering questions about complex issues often requires analysts to take into account information contained in multiple interconnected datasets. A common strategy in analyzing and visualizing large and heterogeneous data is dividing it into meaningful subsets. Interesting subsets can then be selected and the associated data and the relationships between the subsets visualized. However, neither the extraction and manipulation nor the comparison of subsets is well supported by state-of-the-art techniques. In this paper we present Domino, a novel multiform visualization technique for effectively representing subsets and the relationships between them. By providing comprehensive tools to arrange, combine, and extract subsets, Domino allows users to create both common visualization techniques and advanced visualizations tailored to specific use cases. In addition to the novel technique, we present an implementation that enables analysts to manage the wide range of options that our approach offers. Innovative interactive features such as placeholders and live previews support rapid creation of complex analysis setups. We introduce the technique and the implementation using a simple example and demonstrate scalability and effectiveness in a use case from the field of cancer genomics. PMID:26356916

  7. Cyclotrons with Fast Variable and/or Multiple Energy Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgarten, C

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the principle possibility of stripping extraction in combination with reverse bends in isochronous separate sector cyclotrons (and/or FFAGs). If one uses reverse bends between the sectors (instead of drifts) and places stripper foils at the sector exit edges, the stripped beam has a reduced bending radius and it should be able to leave the cyclotron within the range of the reverse bend - even if the beam is stripped at less than full energy. We are especially interested in $H_2^+$-cyclotrons, which allow to double the charge to mass ratio by stripping. However the principle could be applied to other ions or ionized molecules as well. For the production of proton beams by stripping extraction of an $H_2^+$-beam, we discuss possible designs for three types of machines: First a low-energy cyclotron for the simultaneous production of several beams at multiple energies - for instance 15 MeV, 30 MeV and 70 MeV - thus allowing to have beam on several isotope production targets. In this case it is desired ...

  8. Efficient Selection of Multiple Objects on a Large Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    The task of multiple object selection (MOS) in immersive virtual environments is important and still largely unexplored. The diffi- culty of efficient MOS increases with the number of objects to be selected. E.g. in small-scale MOS, only a few objects need to be simultaneously selected. This may ...

  9. Pregnancy in multiple sclerosis: clinical and self-report scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Neuteboom (Rinze); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); T.A.M. Siepman (Theodora); I.A. Hoppenbrouwers (Ilse); I.A. Ketelslegers (Immy); N. Jafari (Naghmeh); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRelapse rate is decreased during pregnancy in multiple sclerosis (MS). Risk for postpartum relapse is increased in the first 3 months after delivery. We aimed to study clinical course of MS around pregnancy, using clinical as well as self-report scales, including data on quality of life

  10. An improved test for detecting multiplicative homeostatic synaptic scaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimok Kim

    Full Text Available Homeostatic scaling of synaptic strengths is essential for maintenance of network "gain", but also poses a risk of losing the distinctions among relative synaptic weights, which are possibly cellular correlates of memory storage. Multiplicative scaling of all synapses has been proposed as a mechanism that would preserve the relative weights among them, because they would all be proportionately adjusted. It is crucial for this hypothesis that all synapses be affected identically, but whether or not this actually occurs is difficult to determine directly. Mathematical tests for multiplicative synaptic scaling are presently carried out on distributions of miniature synaptic current amplitudes, but the accuracy of the test procedure has not been fully validated. We now show that the existence of an amplitude threshold for empirical detection of miniature synaptic currents limits the use of the most common method for detecting multiplicative changes. Our new method circumvents the problem by discarding the potentially distorting subthreshold values after computational scaling. This new method should be useful in assessing the underlying neurophysiological nature of a homeostatic synaptic scaling transformation, and therefore in evaluating its functional significance.

  11. Extracting multiple layers from data having graph structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ITOKAWA Yuko; UCHIDA Tomoyuki; NAKAMURA Yasuaki

    2004-01-01

    Much data such as geometric image data and drawings have graph structures.Such data are called graph structured data. In order to manage efficiently such graph structured data, we need to analyze and abstract graph structures of such data. The purpose of this paper is to find knowledge representations which indicate plural abstractions of graph structured data. Firstly, we introduce a term graph as a graph pattern having structural variables, and a substitution over term graphs which is graph we also define a multiple layer for S as a pair (D,O) of a set D of term graphs and a list of substitutions. Secondly, for a graph G and a set S of graphs, we present effective algorithms for extracting minimal multiple layers of G and S which give us stratifying abstractions of G and S, respectively. Finally, we report experimental results obtained by applying our algorithms to both artificial data and drawings of power plants which are real world data.

  12. Satellite attitude prediction by multiple time scales method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y. C.; Ramnath, R.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation is made of the problem of predicting the attitude of satellites under the influence of external disturbing torques. The attitude dynamics are first expressed in a perturbation formulation which is then solved by the multiple scales approach. The independent variable, time, is extended into new scales, fast, slow, etc., and the integration is carried out separately in the new variables. The theory is applied to two different satellite configurations, rigid body and dual spin, each of which may have an asymmetric mass distribution. The disturbing torques considered are gravity gradient and geomagnetic. Finally, as multiple time scales approach separates slow and fast behaviors of satellite attitude motion, this property is used for the design of an attitude control device. A nutation damping control loop, using the geomagnetic torque for an earth pointing dual spin satellite, is designed in terms of the slow equation.

  13. HMC algorithm with multiple time scale integration and mass preconditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Urbach, C; Shindler, A; Wenger, U

    2006-01-01

    We present a variant of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning (Hasenbusch acceleration) and multiple time scale integration. We have tested this variant for standard Wilson fermions at beta=5.6 and at pion masses ranging from 380 MeV to 680 MeV. We show that in this situation its performance is comparable to the recently proposed HMC variant with domain decomposition as preconditioner. We give an update of the ``Berlin Wall'' figure, comparing the performance of our variant of the HMC algorithm to other published performance data. Advantages of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning and multiple time scale integration are that it is straightforward to implement and can be used in combination with a wide variety of lattice Dirac operators.

  14. HMC algorithm with multiple time scale integration and mass preconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, C.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wenger, U.

    2006-01-01

    We present a variant of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning (Hasenbusch acceleration) and multiple time scale integration. We have tested this variant for standard Wilson fermions at β=5.6 and at pion masses ranging from 380 to 680 MeV. We show that in this situation its performance is comparable to the recently proposed HMC variant with domain decomposition as preconditioner. We give an update of the "Berlin Wall" figure, comparing the performance of our variant of the HMC algorithm to other published performance data. Advantages of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning and multiple time scale integration are that it is straightforward to implement and can be used in combination with a wide variety of lattice Dirac operators.

  15. Beyond average temperature: distribution of wintering birds at multiple scales

    OpenAIRE

    Villén Pérez, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Ecología. Fecha de lectura: 03-12-2013 To disentangle the subtleties of the relationship between the thermal environment and the distribution of wintering birds, at multiple spatial scales. Specifically, to analyze the relative influence of temperature on species distributions, its interaction with various thermal and non-thermal factors, and the context-dependence of these relationships...

  16. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  17. Sparing land for biodiversity at multiple spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan eEkroos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A common approach to the conservation of farmland biodiversity and the promotion of multifunctional landscapes, particularly in landscapes containing only small remnants of non-crop habitats, has been to maintain landscape heterogeneity and reduce land-use intensity. In contrast, it has recently been shown that devoting specific areas of non-crop habitats to conservation, segregated from high-yielding farmland (‘land sparing’, can more effectively conserve biodiversity than promoting low-yielding, less intensively managed farmland occupying larger areas (‘land sharing’. In the present paper we suggest that the debate over the relative merits of land sparing or land sharing is partly blurred by the differing spatial scales at which it is suggested that land sparing should be applied. We argue that there is no single correct spatial scale for segregating biodiversity protection and commodity production in multifunctional landscapes. Instead we propose an alternative conceptual construct, which we call ‘multiple-scale land sparing’, targeting biodiversity and ecosystem services in transformed landscapes. We discuss how multiple-scale land sparing may overcome the apparent dichotomy between land sharing and land sparing and help to find acceptable compromises that conserve biodiversity and landscape multifunctionality.

  18. Responsiveness of the Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale in comparison with the Expanded Disability Status Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, M; Blinkenberg, M; Sellebjerg, F;

    2005-01-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale (MSIS) is a measure of accumulated deficits assessed by means of a standard neurological examination. We compared the responsiveness of the MSIS with that of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We reviewed 4300 records collected systematically from...... 1995 to 2003 and identified 534 patients who had clinically definite multiple sclerosis and had had at least two clinical assessments with a time interval of 2-5 years. The rate of deterioration was significantly higher on the MSIS than on the EDSS. The annualized change in EDSS exhibited a maximum...

  19. Design and modeling of small scale multiple fracturing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuderman, J F

    1981-12-01

    Recent experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have demonstrated the existence of three distinct fracture regimes. Depending on the pressure rise time in a borehole, one can obtain hydraulic, multiple, or explosive fracturing behavior. The use of propellants rather than explosives in tamped boreholes permits tailoring of the pressure risetime over a wide range since propellants having a wide range of burn rates are available. This technique of using the combustion gases from a full bore propellant charge to produce controlled borehole pressurization is termed High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF). Several series of HEGF, in 0.15 m and 0.2 m diameter boreholes at 12 m depths, have been completed in a tunnel complex at NTS where mineback permitted direct observation of fracturing obtained. Because such large experiments are costly and time consuming, smaller scale experiments are desirable, provided results from small experiments can be used to predict fracture behavior in larger boreholes. In order to design small scale gas fracture experiments, the available data from previous HEGF experiments were carefully reviewed, analytical elastic wave modeling was initiated, and semi-empirical modeling was conducted which combined predictions for statically pressurized boreholes with experimental data. The results of these efforts include (1) the definition of what constitutes small scale experiments for emplacement in a tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site, (2) prediction of average crack radius, in ash fall tuff, as a function of borehole size and energy input per unit length, (3) definition of multiple-hydraulic and multiple-explosive fracture boundaries as a function of boreholes size and surface wave velocity, (4) semi-empirical criteria for estimating stress and acceleration, and (5) a proposal that multiple fracture orientations may be governed by in situ stresses.

  20. Midfrontal theta tracks action monitoring over multiple interactive time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X

    2016-11-01

    Quickly detecting and correcting mistakes is a crucial brain function. EEG studies have identified an idiosyncratic electrophysiological signature of online error correction, termed midfrontal theta. Midfrontal theta has so far been investigated over the fast time-scale of a few hundred milliseconds. But several aspects of behavior and brain activity unfold over multiple time scales, displaying "scale-free" dynamics that have been linked to criticality and optimal flexibility when responding to changing environmental demands. Here we used a novel line-tracking task to demonstrate that midfrontal theta is a transient yet non-phase-locked response that is modulated by task performance over at least three time scales: a few hundred milliseconds at the onset of a mistake, task performance over a fixed window of the previous 5s, and scale-free-like fluctuations over many tens of seconds. These findings provide novel evidence for a role of midfrontal theta in online behavioral adaptation, and suggest new approaches for linking EEG signatures of human executive functioning to its neurobiological underpinnings.

  1. Multiple scales of shock waves in dissipative laminate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Navarro, Pedro; Benson, David J.; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2016-09-01

    The shock waves generated by a plate impact are numerically investigated in Al-W laminates with different mesostructures. The main characteristic time scales (and the corresponding spatial scales) related to the formation of the stationary shock are identified: the duration (width) of the leading front, the time (distance) from the impact required to establish a stationary profile, and the shock front width, identified as a time span (distance) from the initial state to the final quasiequilibrium state. It is demonstrated that the width of the leading front and the maximum strain rates are determined by the dispersive and the nonlinear parameters of the laminate and not by the dissipation, as is the case for uniform solids. The characteristic spatial scale of the leading front is related to the spatial scale observed on solitarylike waves, which are satisfactorily described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) approximation, as well as the speed of the wave and the ratio of maximum to final strain. The dissipation affects the width of the transition distance (shock front width) where multiple loading-unloading cycles bring the laminate into the final quasiequilibrium state. This spatial scale is of the same order of magnitude as the distance to form stationary shock wave. The period of fast decaying oscillations is well described by the KdV approach and scales linearly with the cell size. The rate of the decay of the oscillations in the numerical calculations does not scale with the square of the cell size as expected from the dissipative KdV approach that assumes a constant viscosity. This is due to the different mechanisms of dissipation in high-amplitude compression pulses.

  2. Modeling transcriptional networks in Drosophila development at multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Zeba; DePace, Angela H

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative models of developmental processes can provide insights at multiple scales. Ultimately, models may be particularly informative for key questions about network level behavior during development such as how does the system respond to environmental perturbation, or operate reliably in different genetic backgrounds? The transcriptional networks that pattern the Drosophila embryo have been the subject of numerous quantitative experimental studies coupled to modeling frameworks in recent years. In this review, we describe three studies that consider these networks at different levels of molecular detail and therefore result in different types of insights. We also discuss other developmental transcriptional networks operating in Drosophila, with the goal of highlighting what additional insights they may provide.

  3. Examining the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Shawn M; Li, Jian; Rumrill, Phillip D; Merchant, William; Bishop, Malachy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) to assess its suitability for modeling the impact of MS on a nation-wide sample of individuals from the United States. Investigators completed a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to examine the two-factor structure proposed by Hobart et al. [17]. Although the original MSIS-29 factor structure did not fit the data exactly, the hypothesized two-factor model was partially supported in the current data. Implications for future instrument development and rehabilitation practice are discussed.

  4. Multiple time scale based reduction scheme for nonlinear chemical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D.; Ray, D. S.

    2013-07-01

    A chemical reaction is often characterized by multiple time scales governing the kinetics of reactants, products and intermediates. We eliminate the fast relaxing intermediates in autocatalytic reaction by transforming the original system into a new one in which the linearized part is diagonal. This allows us to reduce the dynamical system by identifying the associated time scales and subsequent adiabatic elimination of the fast modes. It has been shown that the reduced system sustains the robust qualitative signatures of the original system and at times the generic form of the return map for the chaotic system from which complex dynamics stems out in the original system can be identified. We illustrate the scheme for a three-variable cubic autocatalytic reaction and four-variable peroxidase-oxidase reaction.

  5. Large scale study of multiple-molecule queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Ramzi J; Swamidass, S Joshua; Baldi, Pierre F

    2009-06-04

    In ligand-based screening, as well as in other chemoinformatics applications, one seeks to effectively search large repositories of molecules in order to retrieve molecules that are similar typically to a single molecule lead. However, in some case, multiple molecules from the same family are available to seed the query and search for other members of the same family.Multiple-molecule query methods have been less studied than single-molecule query methods. Furthermore, the previous studies have relied on proprietary data and sometimes have not used proper cross-validation methods to assess the results. In contrast, here we develop and compare multiple-molecule query methods using several large publicly available data sets and background. We also create a framework based on a strict cross-validation protocol to allow unbiased benchmarking for direct comparison in future studies across several performance metrics. Fourteen different multiple-molecule query methods were defined and benchmarked using: (1) 41 publicly available data sets of related molecules with similar biological activity; and (2) publicly available background data sets consisting of up to 175,000 molecules randomly extracted from the ChemDB database and other sources. Eight of the fourteen methods were parameter free, and six of them fit one or two free parameters to the data using a careful cross-validation protocol. All the methods were assessed and compared for their ability to retrieve members of the same family against the background data set by using several performance metrics including the Area Under the Accumulation Curve (AUAC), Area Under the Curve (AUC), F1-measure, and BEDROC metrics.Consistent with the previous literature, the best parameter-free methods are the MAX-SIM and MIN-RANK methods, which score a molecule to a family by the maximum similarity, or minimum ranking, obtained across the family. One new parameterized method introduced in this study and two previously defined methods

  6. Large scale study of multiple-molecule queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Ramzi J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In ligand-based screening, as well as in other chemoinformatics applications, one seeks to effectively search large repositories of molecules in order to retrieve molecules that are similar typically to a single molecule lead. However, in some case, multiple molecules from the same family are available to seed the query and search for other members of the same family. Multiple-molecule query methods have been less studied than single-molecule query methods. Furthermore, the previous studies have relied on proprietary data and sometimes have not used proper cross-validation methods to assess the results. In contrast, here we develop and compare multiple-molecule query methods using several large publicly available data sets and background. We also create a framework based on a strict cross-validation protocol to allow unbiased benchmarking for direct comparison in future studies across several performance metrics. Results Fourteen different multiple-molecule query methods were defined and benchmarked using: (1 41 publicly available data sets of related molecules with similar biological activity; and (2 publicly available background data sets consisting of up to 175,000 molecules randomly extracted from the ChemDB database and other sources. Eight of the fourteen methods were parameter free, and six of them fit one or two free parameters to the data using a careful cross-validation protocol. All the methods were assessed and compared for their ability to retrieve members of the same family against the background data set by using several performance metrics including the Area Under the Accumulation Curve (AUAC, Area Under the Curve (AUC, F1-measure, and BEDROC metrics. Consistent with the previous literature, the best parameter-free methods are the MAX-SIM and MIN-RANK methods, which score a molecule to a family by the maximum similarity, or minimum ranking, obtained across the family. One new parameterized method introduced in

  7. Italian Validation of the 12-Item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Solaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Gait impairment is commonly in people with multiple sclerosis (MS. The 12-item MS walking scale (MSWS-12 assesses patients’ measurement of walking quality. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the MSWS-12 for the Italian population with MS. Methods. Six MS out-patient clinics across Italy enrolled subjects between June 2013 and December 2013. Construct validity of MSWS-12 was determined by examining correlations with the Italian version of the EDSS, the timed 25-foot walk (T25FW, and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Results. 321 MS subjects were enrolled. Mean age was 47.55 years and mean disease duration was 13.8 years. Mean EDSS score was 4.46. 185 subjects had a relapsing-remitting course, 92 were secondary progressive, 43 were primary progressive, and 1 had a clinically isolated syndrome. The mean total score of the MSWS-12 was 49.6 (SD: 31 with values ranging between 0 and 100. Correlations between the MSWS-12 with age, disease duration, and disease course were found but not with gender. Values of the MSWS-12/IT were significantly related to EDSS (0.71, to the T25FW (0.65, and to the FSS (0.51. Conclusion. MSWS-12/IT has been adapted and validated, it is a reliable and reproducible scale for Italian patients with MS.

  8. A Multiple-Scale Analysis of Evaporation Induced Marangoni Convection

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, Matthew G.

    2013-04-23

    This paper considers the stability of thin liquid layers of binary mixtures of a volatile (solvent) species and a nonvolatile (polymer) species. Evaporation leads to a depletion of the solvent near the liquid surface. If surface tension increases for lower solvent concentrations, sufficiently strong compositional gradients can lead to Bénard-Marangoni-type convection that is similar to the kind which is observed in films that are heated from below. The onset of the instability is investigated by a linear stability analysis. Due to evaporation, the base state is time dependent, thus leading to a nonautonomous linearized system which impedes the use of normal modes. However, the time scale for the solvent loss due to evaporation is typically long compared to the diffusive time scale, so a systematic multiple scales expansion can be sought for a finite-dimensional approximation of the linearized problem. This is determined to leading and to next order. The corrections indicate that the validity of the expansion does not depend on the magnitude of the individual eigenvalues of the linear operator, but it requires these eigenvalues to be well separated. The approximations are applied to analyze experiments by Bassou and Rharbi with polystyrene/toluene mixtures [Langmuir, 25 (2009), pp. 624-632]. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  9. Responsiveness of the Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale in comparison with the Expanded Disability Status Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, M; Blinkenberg, M; Sellebjerg, F

    2005-01-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale (MSIS) is a measure of accumulated deficits assessed by means of a standard neurological examination. We compared the responsiveness of the MSIS with that of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We reviewed 4300 records collected systematically from...... 1995 to 2003 and identified 534 patients who had clinically definite multiple sclerosis and had had at least two clinical assessments with a time interval of 2-5 years. The rate of deterioration was significantly higher on the MSIS than on the EDSS. The annualized change in EDSS exhibited a maximum...... at baseline EDSS 4 and a subsequent rapid decline at higher baseline EDSS, while the annualized change in MSIS was fairly stable over a wide middle range of baseline MSIS. The variance of the annualized change in EDSS fluctuated markedly between the baseline EDSS categories, being highest at baseline EDSS 2...

  10. Multiple time scale behaviors and network dynamics in liquid methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruchi; Chakravarty, Charusita; Milotti, Edoardo

    2008-07-31

    Canonical ensemble molecular dynamics simulations of liquid methanol, modeled using a rigid-body, pair-additive potential, are used to compute static distributions and temporal correlations of tagged molecule potential energies as a means of characterizing the liquid state dynamics. The static distribution of tagged molecule potential energies shows a clear multimodal structure with three distinct peaks, similar to those observed previously in water and liquid silica. The multimodality is shown to originate from electrostatic effects, but not from local, hydrogen bond interactions. An interesting outcome of this study is the remarkable similarity in the tagged potential energy power spectra of methanol, water, and silica, despite the differences in the underlying interactions and the dimensionality of the network. All three liquids show a distinct multiple time scale (MTS) regime with a 1/ f (alpha) dependence with a clear positive correlation between the scaling exponent alpha and the diffusivity. The low-frequency limit of the MTS regime is determined by the frequency of crossover to white noise behavior which occurs at approximately 0.1 cm (-1) in the case of methanol under standard temperature and pressure conditions. The power spectral regime above 200 cm (-1) in all three systems is dominated by resonances due to localized vibrations, such as librations. The correlation between alpha and the diffusivity in all three liquids appears to be related to the strength of the coupling between the localized motions and the larger length/time scale network reorganizations. Thus, the time scales associated with network reorganization dynamics appear to be qualitatively similar in these systems, despite the fact that water and silica both display diffusional anomalies but methanol does not.

  11. Scaling-up Transformation of Multisensor Images with Multiple Resolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available For scaling up low resolution multispectral images (LRMIs with high resolution panchromatic image (HRPI, intensity-hue-saturation (IHS can produce satisfactory spatial enhancement but usually introduces spectral distortion in the fused high resolution multispectral images (HRMIs. In this paper, to minimize this problem, we present a generalized intensity modulation (GIM by extending the IHS transform to an arbitrary number of LRMIs, which uses the information of the spectral response functions (SRFs of the multispectral and panchromatic sensors. Before modulation, the generalized intensity is enhanced by injecting details extracted from the HRPI by means of empirical mode decomposition. After the enhanced generalized intensity is substituted for the old one, the HRMIs are obtained through the GIM. Quickbird images are used to illustrate the superiority of this proposed method. Extensive comparison results based on visual analysis and Wald’s protocol demonstrate that the proposed method is more encouraging for scaling up the LRMIs with the HRPI spectrally and spatially than the tested fusion methods.

  12. Fission time-scale from the measurement of pre-scission light particles and -ray multiplicities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Ramachandran; A Chatterjee; A Navin; K Mahata; A Shrivastava; V Tripathi; S Kailas; V Nanal; R G Pillay; A Saxena; R G Thomas; D R Chakrabarty; V M Datar; Suresh Kumar; P K Sahu

    2015-08-01

    An overview of the experimental result on simultaneous measurement of pre-scission neutron, proton, -particle and GDR -ray multiplicities for the reaction 28Si+175Lu at 159 MeV using the BARC–TIFR Pelletron–LINAC accelerator facility is given. The data were analysed using deformation-dependent particle transmission coefficients, binding energies and level densities which are incorporated in the code JOANNE2 to extract fission time-scales and mean deformation of the saddle-to-scission emitter. The neutron, light charged particle and GDR -ray multiplicity data could be explained consistently. The emission of neutrons seems to be favoured towards larger deformation as compared to charged particles. The pre-saddle time-scale is deduced as (0–2) × 10−21 s whereas the saddle-to-scission time-scale is (36–39) × 10−21 s. The total fission time-scale is deduced as (36–41) × 10−21 s.

  13. Reusable Launch Vehicle Control In Multiple Time Scale Sliding Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtessel, Yuri; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2000-01-01

    A reusable launch vehicle control problem during ascent is addressed via multiple-time scaled continuous sliding mode control. The proposed sliding mode controller utilizes a two-loop structure and provides robust, de-coupled tracking of both orientation angle command profiles and angular rate command profiles in the presence of bounded external disturbances and plant uncertainties. Sliding mode control causes the angular rate and orientation angle tracking error dynamics to be constrained to linear, de-coupled, homogeneous, and vector valued differential equations with desired eigenvalues placement. Overall stability of a two-loop control system is addressed. An optimal control allocation algorithm is designed that allocates torque commands into end-effector deflection commands, which are executed by the actuators. The dual-time scale sliding mode controller was designed for the X-33 technology demonstration sub-orbital launch vehicle in the launch mode. Simulation results show that the designed controller provides robust, accurate, de-coupled tracking of the orientation angle command profiles in presence of external disturbances and vehicle inertia uncertainties. This is a significant advancement in performance over that achieved with linear, gain scheduled control systems currently being used for launch vehicles.

  14. Scaling statistical multiple sequence alignment to large datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nute

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sequence alignment is an important task in bioinformatics, and alignments of large datasets containing hundreds or thousands of sequences are increasingly of interest. While many alignment methods exist, the most accurate alignments are likely to be based on stochastic models where sequences evolve down a tree with substitutions, insertions, and deletions. While some methods have been developed to estimate alignments under these stochastic models, only the Bayesian method BAli-Phy has been able to run on even moderately large datasets, containing 100 or so sequences. A technique to extend BAli-Phy to enable alignments of thousands of sequences could potentially improve alignment and phylogenetic tree accuracy on large-scale data beyond the best-known methods today. Results We use simulated data with up to 10,000 sequences representing a variety of model conditions, including some that are significantly divergent from the statistical models used in BAli-Phy and elsewhere. We give a method for incorporating BAli-Phy into PASTA and UPP, two strategies for enabling alignment methods to scale to large datasets, and give alignment and tree accuracy results measured against the ground truth from simulations. Comparable results are also given for other methods capable of aligning this many sequences. Conclusions Extensions of BAli-Phy using PASTA and UPP produce significantly more accurate alignments and phylogenetic trees than the current leading methods.

  15. Intramode and Fermi relaxation in CO2, their influence on multiple-pass, short-pulse energy extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooth, R.A.; van der Pol, J.A.; Haselhoff, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    Analytical, experimental and numerical results concerning the influence of intramode and Fermi relaxation on multiple-pass, nanosecond-pulse energy extraction are presented. Multiple-pass energy extraction experiments show satisfactory agreement with the analytical and numerical calculations which

  16. Spontaneous transmission of chirality through multiple length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iski, Erin V; Tierney, Heather L; Jewell, April D; Sykes, E Charles H

    2011-06-20

    naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene molecules adsorbed in the second layer. Given its simplicity, reversibility, and rich degree of order, this system represents an ideal test bed for the investigation of symmetry breaking and the hierarchical transmission of chirality through multiple length scales.

  17. Apoptosis of multiple myeloid cells induced by polysaccharides extracts from Hedyotis diffusa and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林圣云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis effects of polysaccharides extracts from Hedyotis diffusa(PEHD)on multiple myeloma(MM) cell line RPMI 8226 cells in vitro,so as to provide experimental

  18. MULTI-SCALE SEGMENTATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES BY INTEGRATING MULTIPLE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Di

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of multi-scale segmentation algorithms are not aiming at high resolution remote sensing images and have difficulty to communicate and use layers’ information. In view of them, we proposes a method of multi-scale segmentation of high resolution remote sensing images by integrating multiple features. First, Canny operator is used to extract edge information, and then band weighted distance function is built to obtain the edge weight. According to the criterion, the initial segmentation objects of color images can be gained by Kruskal minimum spanning tree algorithm. Finally segmentation images are got by the adaptive rule of Mumford–Shah region merging combination with spectral and texture information. The proposed method is evaluated precisely using analog images and ZY-3 satellite images through quantitative and qualitative analysis. The experimental results show that the multi-scale segmentation of high resolution remote sensing images by integrating multiple features outperformed the software eCognition fractal network evolution algorithm (highest-resolution network evolution that FNEA on the accuracy and slightly inferior to FNEA on the efficiency.

  19. Extracting fingerprint of wireless devices based on phase noise and multiple level wavelet decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weichen; Sun, Zhuo; Kong, Song

    2016-10-01

    Wireless devices can be identified by the fingerprint extracted from the signal transmitted, which is useful in wireless communication security and other fields. This paper presents a method that extracts fingerprint based on phase noise of signal and multiple level wavelet decomposition. The phase of signal will be extracted first and then decomposed by multiple level wavelet decomposition. The statistic value of each wavelet coefficient vector is utilized for constructing fingerprint. Besides, the relationship between wavelet decomposition level and recognition accuracy is simulated. And advertised decomposition level is revealed as well. Compared with previous methods, our method is simpler and the accuracy of recognition remains high when Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) is low.

  20. Nonsymmorphic Phononic Metamaterials: shaping waves over multiple length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Cheongyang; Thomas, Edwin

    2012-02-01

    The vector nature of the phonon makes rational design of phononic metamaterials challenging, despite potential in unique wave propagation behavior, such as negative refraction and hyper-lensing. While most designs to date focus on the ``meta-atom'' (building block) design, their ``spatial arrangement'' (non-locality) is equally instrumental in dispersion engineering. Here, we present a generalized design framework (DF) for PMM design, utilizing both ``global'' and ``local'' symmetry concepts. We demonstrate, utilizing specific properties of nonsymmorphic plane groups, PMMs possessing i) a low-frequency in-plane complete spectral gap (ICSG) of 102% (CSG of 88%), ii) a set of polychromatic ICSGs totaling over 100% in normalized gap size. Within the same DF, we further integrate broken symmetry states (BSS) (edge states, waveguides, etc) with designed polarization, (de)localization and group velocities. In particular, we demonstrate how these BSS may be utilized to elucidate signatures of complex polarization fields through phonon-structure interactions, leading to interesting applications in elastic-wave imaging, as well as information retrieval by probing polarization states of scattering bodies over multiple scales.

  1. Multiple-Scale Interactions Affecting Tropical Cyclone Track Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhexian Luo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical Cyclone (TC track changes associated with Rossby wave energy dispersion are simulated in a shallow water primitive equation model with an initial field where a TC is located south of a subtropical high. An anticyclone east of the TC appears because of Rossby wave energy dispersion. The connection of the anticyclone with the subtropical high leads to a poleward TC track deflection. The TC eventually moves across the axis of the subtropical ridge. The formation of the track may be attributed to the nonlinear interaction between the subtropical high and the TC. This work validates the conceptual model proposed by previous observational research. The scenario of the nonlinear interaction between the TC and the subtropical high may also be modified through the influence of mesoscale vortices. The main modifications are (1 the anticyclone induced by energy dispersion of the TC weakens, (2 the connection between the anticyclone and the subtropical high is delayed, and (3 the TC shifts more westward and does not move across the ridge axis. We propose that some of the mesoscale vortices are axisymmetrized by the TC and results in an increase in TC size which modifies the properties of the energy dispersion. The phase and group speeds decrease and produce a simulated track deflection to the left compared to the simulation without mesoscale vortices. Our numerical results demonstrate that multiple scale nonlinear interactions have an essential role in influencing TC track changes.

  2. Combining Multiple Feature Extraction Techniques for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an OCR for Handwritten Devnagari Characters. Basic symbols are recognized by neural classifier. We have used four feature extraction techniques namely, intersection, shadow feature, chain code histogram and straight line fitting features. Shadow features are computed globally for character image while intersection features, chain code histogram features and line fitting features are computed by dividing the character image into different segments. Weighted majority voting technique is used for combining the classification decision obtained from four Multi Layer Perceptron(MLP) based classifier. On experimentation with a dataset of 4900 samples the overall recognition rate observed is 92.80% as we considered top five choices results. This method is compared with other recent methods for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition and it has been observed that this approach has better success rate than other methods.

  3. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92–99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  4. Technical note: Multiple wavelet coherence for untangling scale-specific and localized multivariate relationships in geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Si, Bing Cheng

    2016-08-01

    The scale-specific and localized bivariate relationships in geosciences can be revealed using bivariate wavelet coherence. The objective of this study was to develop a multiple wavelet coherence method for examining scale-specific and localized multivariate relationships. Stationary and non-stationary artificial data sets, generated with the response variable as the summation of five predictor variables (cosine waves) with different scales, were used to test the new method. Comparisons were also conducted using existing multivariate methods, including multiple spectral coherence and multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD). Results show that multiple spectral coherence is unable to identify localized multivariate relationships, and underestimates the scale-specific multivariate relationships for non-stationary processes. The MEMD method was able to separate all variables into components at the same set of scales, revealing scale-specific relationships when combined with multiple correlation coefficients, but has the same weakness as multiple spectral coherence. However, multiple wavelet coherences are able to identify scale-specific and localized multivariate relationships, as they are close to 1 at multiple scales and locations corresponding to those of predictor variables. Therefore, multiple wavelet coherence outperforms other common multivariate methods. Multiple wavelet coherence was applied to a real data set and revealed the optimal combination of factors for explaining temporal variation of free water evaporation at the Changwu site in China at multiple scale-location domains. Matlab codes for multiple wavelet coherence were developed and are provided in the Supplement.

  5. Multi-scale feature extraction for learning-based classification of coronary artery stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessmann, Matthias; Vega-Higuera, Fernando; Fritz, Dominik; Scheuering, Michael; Greiner, Günther

    2009-02-01

    Assessment of computed tomography coronary angiograms for diagnostic purposes is a mostly manual, timeconsuming task demanding a high degree of clinical experience. In order to support diagnosis, a method for reliable automatic detection of stenotic lesions in computed tomography angiograms is presented. Thereby, lesions are detected by boosting-based classification. Hence, a strong classifier is trained using the AdaBoost algorithm on annotated data. Subsequently, the resulting strong classification function is used in order to detect different types of coronary lesions in previously unseen data. As pattern recognition algorithms require a description of the objects to be classified, a novel approach for feature extraction in computed tomography angiograms is introduced. By generation of cylinder segments that approximate the vessel shape at multiple scales, feature values can be extracted that adequately describe the properties of stenotic lesions. As a result of the multi-scale approach, the algorithm is capable of dealing with the variability of stenotic lesion configuration. Evaluation of the algorithm was performed on a large database containing unseen segmented centerlines from cardiac computed tomography images. Results showed that the method was able to detect stenotic cardiovascular diseases with high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, lesion based evaluation revealed that the majority of stenosis can be reliable identified in terms of position, type and extent.

  6. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  7. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  8. Characterizing Multiple Wireless Sensor Networks for Large-Scale Radio Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    CHARACTERIZING MULTIPLE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS FOR LARGE-SCALE RADIO TOMOGRAPHY THESIS Tan Van, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-057 DEPARTMENT OF...subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-057 CHARACTERIZING MULTIPLE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS FOR LARGE-SCALE RADIO...15-M-057 CHARACTERIZING MULTIPLE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS FOR LARGE-SCALE RADIO TOMOGRAPHY THESIS Tan Van, B.S. Captain, USAF Committee Membership

  9. Extracting α{sub s} from scaling violations in light-hadron fragmentation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2015-11-15

    We review the status of extracting the strong-coupling constant α{sub s} from the scaling violations in fragmentation functions by fitting the latter to experimental data of the inclusive production of single light hadrons in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation. We also discuss the analogous analysis based on the average hadron multiplicities in gluon and quark jets, which correspond to the first Mellin moments of the respective FFs. We then assess the prospects of such α{sub s} determinations at future high-luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders such as the CERN Future Circular Collider operated in the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation mode (FCC-ee).

  10. Multiple scales combined principle component analysis deep learning network for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Fan, Chunxiao; Ming, Yue

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that higher level features can represent the abstract semantics of original data. We propose a multiple scales combined deep learning network to learn a set of high-level feature representations through each stage of convolutional neural network for face recognition, which is named as multiscaled principle component analysis (PCA) Network (MS-PCANet). There are two main differences between our model and the traditional deep learning network. On the one hand, we get the prefixed filter kernels by learning the principal component of images' patches using PCA, nonlinearly process the convolutional results by using simple binary hashing, and pool them using spatial pyramid pooling method. On the other hand, in our model, the output features of several stages are fed to the classifier. The purpose of combining feature representations from multiple stages is to provide multiscaled features to the classifier, since the features in the latter stage are more global and invariant than those in the early stage. Therefore, our MS-PCANet feature compactly encodes both holistic abstract information and local specific information. Extensive experimental results show our MS-PCANet model can efficiently extract high-level feature presentations and outperform state-of-the-art face/expression recognition methods on multiple modalities benchmark face-related datasets.

  11. Ear Detection under Uncontrolled Conditions with Multiple Scale Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ear detection is an important step in ear recognition approaches. Most existing ear detection techniques are based on manually designing features or shallow learning algorithms. However, researchers found that the pose variation, occlusion, and imaging conditions provide a great challenge to the traditional ear detection methods under uncontrolled conditions. This paper proposes an efficient technique involving Multiple Scale Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (Faster R-CNN to detect ears from 2D profile images in natural images automatically. Firstly, three regions of different scales are detected to infer the information about the ear location context within the image. Then an ear region filtering approach is proposed to extract the correct ear region and eliminate the false positives automatically. In an experiment with a test set of 200 web images (with variable photographic conditions, 98% of ears were accurately detected. Experiments were likewise conducted on the Collection J2 of University of Notre Dame Biometrics Database (UND-J2 and University of Beira Interior Ear dataset (UBEAR, which contain large occlusion, scale, and pose variations. Detection rates of 100% and 98.22%, respectively, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, translation, adaptation and validation for the Persian language population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Naghdi, Soofia; Mohammadi, Roghaye; Hasson, Scott

    2015-02-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) is a multi-item rating scale used to assess the perspectives of patients about the impact of MS on their walking ability. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the MSWS-12 in Persian speaking patients with MS. The MSWS-12 questionnaire was translated into Persian language according to internationally adopted standards involving forward-backward translation, reviewed by an expert committee and tested on the pre-final version. In this cross-sectional study, 100 participants (50 patients with MS and 50 healthy subjects) were included. The MSWS-12 was administered twice 7 days apart to 30 patients with MS for test and retest reliability. Internal consistency reliability was Cronbach's α 0.96 for test and 0.97 for retest. There were no significant floor or ceiling effects. Test-retest reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] agreement of 0.98, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99) confirming the reproducibility of the Persian MSWS-12. Construct validity using known group methods was demonstrated through a significant difference in the Persian MSWS-12 total score between the patients with MS and healthy subjects. Factor analysis extracted 2 latent factors (79.24% of the total variance). A second factor analysis suggested the 9-item Persian MSWS as a unidimensional scale for patients with MS. The Persian MSWS-12 was found to be valid and reliable for assessing walking ability in Persian speaking patients with MS.

  13. Stability, structure and scale: improvements in multi-modal vessel extraction for SEEG trajectory planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Maria A; Rodionov, Roman; Nowell, Mark; Achhala, Sufyan; Zombori, Gergely; Mendelson, Alex F; Cardoso, M Jorge; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew W; Duncan, John S; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2015-08-01

    Brain vessels are among the most critical landmarks that need to be assessed for mitigating surgical risks in stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) implantation. Intracranial haemorrhage is the most common complication associated with implantation, carrying significantly associated morbidity. SEEG planning is done pre-operatively to identify avascular trajectories for the electrodes. In current practice, neurosurgeons have no assistance in the planning of electrode trajectories. There is great interest in developing computer-assisted planning systems that can optimise the safety profile of electrode trajectories, maximising the distance to critical structures. This paper presents a method that integrates the concepts of scale, neighbourhood structure and feature stability with the aim of improving robustness and accuracy of vessel extraction within a SEEG planning system. The developed method accounts for scale and vicinity of a voxel by formulating the problem within a multi-scale tensor voting framework. Feature stability is achieved through a similarity measure that evaluates the multi-modal consistency in vesselness responses. The proposed measurement allows the combination of multiple images modalities into a single image that is used within the planning system to visualise critical vessels. Twelve paired data sets from two image modalities available within the planning system were used for evaluation. The mean Dice similarity coefficient was 0.89 ± 0.04, representing a statistically significantly improvement when compared to a semi-automated single human rater, single-modality segmentation protocol used in clinical practice (0.80 ± 0.03). Multi-modal vessel extraction is superior to semi-automated single-modality segmentation, indicating the possibility of safer SEEG planning, with reduced patient morbidity.

  14. Inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea and Nerium oleander on HSV-1 multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Farahani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of HSV-1 infections with the available chemical drugs may have some problems such as drug resistance and virus latency. Therefore, there is a requirement for new antiherpes drugs in today's world. The present study was carried out to analyze the inhibitory effect of Echinacea purpurea and Nerium oleander plants with ethnomedical background on HSV-1 replication. Methods: Plants were extracted by decoction method to obtain aqueous extract. These extracts were screened for their cytotoxicity against Hep-2 cell line by CPE (cytopathic effect assay. Antiviral effect of the plant extracts were determined by the virus cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Results: Nerium oleander extract had the highest toxicity (>0.1 μg/ml on Hep-2 cells and Echinacea purpurea extract exhibited significant antiherpes effect at nontoxic concentrations used on the cell lines. Findings indicated that Echinacea purpurea extract inhibited HSV-1 multiplication at concentrations >400 μg/ml. Conclusion: Echinacea purpurea plant had no any effect on cells at nontoxic concentrations and inhibited HSV-1 multiplication at concentrations >400 μg/ml. Further research is needed to find out the anti herpetic mechanism of this plant.

  15. Reliability and Validity Analysis of the Multiple Intelligence Perception Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, Rustu; Korkmaz, Ozgen

    2010-01-01

    This study mainly aims to develop a scale to determine individual intelligence profiles based on self-perceptions. The study group consists of 925 students studying in various departments of the Faculty of Education at Ahi Evran University. A logical and statistical approach was adopted in scale development. Expert opinion was obtained for the…

  16. Large-scale extraction of recombinant proteins from bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard J

    2010-09-01

    Bacteria are particularly convenient for producing recombinant proteins for purification purposes. Suitable extraction methods for bacterial cells include sonication, glass bead milling, grinding with alumina or sand, high-pressure shearing using the French pressure cell (French Press), and lysozyme treatment. These procedures are applicable for preparing extracts from a variety of gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis. Disruption of bacterial cells by enzymatic means is commonly used because a relatively uniform treatment is obtained when cells are in suspension. This protocol describes the enzymatic disruption of E. coli.

  17. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Padilla, Alexis; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia Estela; Rivero Barrios, Diana Marsela; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments. PMID:28773640

  18. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis López-Padilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry. In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3 and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa and temperatures (313 and 343 K were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3 was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

  19. Collagen Extract from Marine Finfish Scales as a Potential Mosquito Larvicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthumari, K; Anand, M; Maruthupandy, M

    2016-12-01

    Collagen is a peptide being utilized in medical, health care, nutrient and decorative industry. Marine fish scales are one of the good sources of collagen, which is extracted using the advanced enzymatic digestion method. Scales of Sardinella longiceps (Oil Sardine) have a high proportion of collagen. This product is well absorbed with broad adaptive values that encourage the inclusion of nutriments. In this paper, we have performed the isolation and characterization of collagen from S. longiceps fish scales. The unnecessary proteins on the surface of fish scales was removed by demineralization process. The fish scale collagen was extracted in two different methods: acid (acetic acid) and enzymatic (pepsin) technique. The molecular mass of the extracted collagen was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The absorption spectra of the extracted collagen was measured to estimate its amino acid (tyrosine) content. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum showed the existence of bands corresponding to the collagen extracted from S. longiceps fish scale and the crystallinity of extracted collagen was obtained using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The morphological micrograph was also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The anti-larval effect of the collagen extract was determined using mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and the activity was statistically significant.

  20. Multiple-scale prediction of forest loss risk across Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Ewan A. Macdonald; Erin L. Landguth; Yadvinder Malhi; David W. Macdonald

    2017-01-01

    Context: The forests of Borneo have among the highest biodiversity and also the highest forest loss rates on the planet. Objectives: Our objectives were to: (1) compare multiple modelling approaches, (2) evaluate the utility of landscape composition and configuration as predictors, (3) assess the influence of the ratio of forest loss and persistence points in the...

  1. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction time was required for maximum yield at room temperature and a solvent/feed ratio of 1:1 (w/w). For fresh water (FW), nonstressed, nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans, 13.1 wt % of lipid extraction yield (based on dry algae mass) was achieved, which could be improved to 61.3 wt % for FW stressed algae after four extractions, illustrating that a combination of stressing the algae and applying the solvent N-ethylbutylamine in multiple stages of extraction results in almost 5 times higher yield and is very promising for further development of energy-efficient lipid extraction technology targeting nonbroken wet microalgae. PMID:28781427

  2. Multiple time scales of fluvial processes—theory and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fluvial processes comprise water flow,sediment transport and bed evolution,which normally feature distinct time scales.The time scales of sediment transport and bed deformation relative to the flow essentially measure how fast sediment transport adapts to capacity region in line with local flow scenario and the bed deforms in comparison with the flow,which literally dictates if a capacity based and/or decoupled model is justified.This paper synthesizes the recently developed multiscale theory for sediment-l...

  3. Input-output description of linear systems with multiple time-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madriz, R. S.; Sastry, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the study of systems evolving at multiple time-scales is simplified by studying reduced-order models of these systems valid at specific time-scales. The present investigation is concerned with an extension of results on the time-scale decomposition of autonomous systems to that of input-output systems. The results are employed to study conditions under which positive realness of a transfer function is preserved under singular perturbation. Attention is given to the perturbation theory for linear operators, the multiple time-scale structure of autonomous linear systems, the input-output description of two time-scale linear systems, the positive realness of two time-scale systems, and multiple time-scale linear systems.

  4. Gender Effect According to Item Directionality on the Perceived Stress Scale for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitchel, W. Dent; Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is critical to rehabilitation practice and research, and self-reports are a commonly used form of assessment. This study examines a gender effect according to item wording on the "Perceived Stress Scale" for adults with multiple sclerosis. Past studies have demonstrated two-factor solutions on this scale and other scales measuring…

  5. A Comparison of Item-Level and Scale-Level Multiple Imputation for Questionnaire Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Amanda C.; West, Stephen G.; Enders, Craig K.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral science researchers routinely use scale scores that sum or average a set of questionnaire items to address their substantive questions. A researcher applying multiple imputation to incomplete questionnaire data can either impute the incomplete items prior to computing scale scores or impute the scale scores directly from other scale…

  6. Potential effects of large-scale offshore tidal energy extraction in the Pentland Firth on North Sea biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Johan; Ruardij, Piet; Greenwood, Naomi

    2016-04-01

    Final results are presented of a model study to assess the potential wider area effects of large-scale tidal energy extraction in the Pentland Firth on the biogeochemistry. The coupled hydrodynamics-biogeochemistry model GETM-ERSEM-BFM was used in a shelf-wide application with a parameterisation of the effects of power extraction by tidal turbines on fluid momentum. Three secenario runs were carried out: a reference run without turbines, an 800 MW extraction run corresponding to current licenses, and an academic 8 GW extraction run. The changes simulated with the 800 MW extraction were negligible. The academic 8 GW extraction resulted in reductions in tidal elevations along the east coast of the UK that would be measurable (several cm.), and associated reductions in bed-shear stresses. These resulted in reductions in SPM concentrations, increased primary production, and increased biomass of zooplankton and benthic fauna. The effects were most pronounced in the shallow seas surrounding The Wash, with changes of up to 10%. These results indicate that, should tidal power generation substantially beyond the currently licensed amount be planned, either concentrated in one location or spread over multiple locations along the coast, further investigations are advisable.

  7. The theory of gyrokinetic turbulence: A multiple-scales approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunk, Gabriel Galad

    Gyrokinetics is a rich and rewarding playground to study some of the mysteries of modern physics -- such as turbulence, universality, self-organization and dynamic criticality -- which are found in physical systems that are driven far from thermodynamic equilibrium. One such system is of particular importance, as it is central in the development of fusion energy -- this system is the turbulent plasma found in magnetically confined fusion device. In this thesis I present work, motivated by the quest for fusion energy, which seeks to uncover some of the inner workings of turbulence in magnetized plasmas. I present three projects, based on the work of me and my collaborators, which take a tour of different aspects and approaches to the gyrokinetic turbulence problem. I begin with the fundamental theory of gyrokinetics, and a novel formulation of its extension to the equations for mean-scale transport -- the equations which must be solved to determine the performance of Magnetically confined fusion devices. The results of this work include (1) the equations of evolution for the mean scale (equilibrium) density, temperature and magnetic field of the plasma, (2) a detailed Poynting's theorem for the energy balance and (3) the entropy balance equations. The second project presents gyrokinetic secondary instability theory as a mechanism to bring about saturation of the basic instabilities that drive gyrokinetic turbulence. Emphasis is put on the ability for this analytic theory to predict basic properties of the nonlinear state, which can be applied to a mixing length phenomenology of transport. The results of this work include (1) an integral equation for the calculation of the growth rate of the fully gyrokinetic secondary instability with finite Larmor radius (FLR) affects included exactly, (2) the demonstration of the robustness of the secondary instability at fine scales (krhoi for ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence and krhoe ≪ 1 for electron temperature

  8. Multiple-Scale Geomechanical Models for Thermal Spallation Drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomov, I.; Walsh, S. D.; Roberts, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread adoption of geothermal energy will require access to deeply buried geothermal sources in granitic basement rocks at high temperatures and pressures. Exploiting these resources necessitates novel methods for drilling, stimulation, and maintenance, under operating conditions difficult or impossible to test in laboratory settings. Physically rigorous numerical modeling tools are vital to highlight potential risks, guide process optimization and reduce the uncertainties involved in these developing technologies. In this presentation, we discuss a numerical modeling effort investigating the multiscale mechanics of thermal spallation drilling (TSD) - a technique in which rock is fragmented into small flakes by a high temperature fluid jet. This process encompasses interconnected phenomena on several length and time scales: from system-scale fluid dynamics to grain-scale thermomechanics of spallation. Here we describe how these disperate scales are simulated using GEODYN, a parallel Eulerian compressible solid and fluid dynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) capabilities. GEODYN is able to simulate materials under extremely large deformations, resolve details of wave propagation within grains, and uses a continuum damage mechanics approach to represent fracture. We will present results from both system- and grain-scale simulations describing the transfer of heat from the high temperature jet to the rock face, and the effect of grain-scale properties such as incipient flaw distribution, grain size and grain size distribution, heat flux, applied temperature and material heterogeneity on the onset of spallation. Detailed computer modeling helps to address several of the uncertainties surrounding TSD: 1) What rock compositions are drillable with TSD? 2) How do grain size and grain size distribution affect TSD and drilling rates? 3) What combination of macroscopic (Poisson ratio, heat capacity and thermal conductivity) and microscopic (flaw distribution

  9. Multi-Scale Analysis Based Curve Feature Extraction in Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hongjuan; ZHOU Yiqi; CHEN Chengjun; ZHAO Zhengxu

    2006-01-01

    A sectional curve feature extraction algorithm based on multi-scale analysis is proposed for reverse engineering. The algorithm consists of two parts: feature segmentation and feature classification. In the first part, curvature scale space is applied to multi-scale analysis and original feature detection. To obtain the primary and secondary curve primitives, feature fusion is realized by multi-scale feature detection information transmission. In the second part: projection height function is presented based on the area of quadrilateral, which improved criterions of sectional curve feature classification. Results of synthetic curves and practical scanned sectional curves are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm on feature extraction. The consistence between feature extraction based on multi-scale curvature analysis and curve primitives is verified.

  10. Human learning: Power laws or multiple characteristic time scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottfried Mayer-Kress

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The central proposal of A. Newell and Rosenbloom (1981 was that the power law is the ubiquitous law of learning. This proposition is discussed in the context of the key factors that led to the acceptance of the power law as the function of learning. We then outline the principles of an epigenetic landscape framework for considering the role of the characteristic time scales of learning and an approach to system identification of the processes of performance dynamics. In this view, the change of performance over time is the product of a superposition of characteristic exponential time scales that reflect the influence of different processes. This theoretical approach can reproduce the traditional power law of practice – within the experimental resolution of performance data sets - but we hypothesize that this function may prove to be a special and perhaps idealized case of learning.

  11. Microstructural evolution at multiple scales during plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    During plastic deformation metals develop microstructures which may be analysed on several scales, e.g. bulk textures, the scale of individual grains, intragranular phenomena in the form of orientation spreads as well as dislocation patterning by formation of dislocation boundaries in metals....... More specifically the origin of both inter- and intragranular orientation spread is analysed for a specific example from tensile deformed interstitial-free steel [Oddershede et al. 2015]. A universal framework for the patterns consisting of dislocation boundaries is presented for both fcc and bcc...... materials in several deformation modes, demonstrating a clear grain orientation dependence [Huang & Winther, 2007]. This dependence has its origin in a dependence on the slip systems [Winther & Huang, 2007]. This further implies that the dislocations in the boundaries come from the active slip systems...

  12. The theory of gyrokinetic turbulence: A multiple-scales approach

    OpenAIRE

    Plunk, Gabriel G.

    2009-01-01

    Gyrokinetics is a rich and rewarding playground to study some of the mysteries of modern physics. In this thesis I present work, motivated by the quest for fusion energy, which seeks to uncover some of the inner workings of turbulence in magnetized plasmas. I begin with the fundamental theory of gyrokinetics, and a novel formulation of its extension to the equations for mean-scale transport -- the equations which must be solved to determine the performance of magnetically confined fusion devi...

  13. Multimodel Design of Large Scale Systems with Multiple Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    virtue. 5- , Lead me from darkneu to light. - Lead me from death to eternal Life. ( Vedic Payer) p. I, MULTIMODEL DESIGN OF LARGE SCALE SYSTEMS WITH...BFI-S2L) is stable for all e in H. To avoid mathematical complications, the feedback matrices of (2.31) are restricted to be of the form, S(e)= Fli + 0...control values used during all past sampling intervals. This information pattern, though not of ouch practical importance, is mathematically con

  14. Mathematical and computational modeling in biology at multiple scales

    OpenAIRE

    Tuszynski, Jack A; Winter, Philip; White, Diana; Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Sahu, Kamlesh K.; Gentile, Francesco; Spasevska, Ivana; Omar, Sara Ibrahim; Nayebi, Niloofar; Churchill, Cassandra DM; Klobukowski, Mariusz; El-Magd, Rabab M Abou

    2014-01-01

    A variety of topics are reviewed in the area of mathematical and computational modeling in biology, covering the range of scales from populations of organisms to electrons in atoms. The use of maximum entropy as an inference tool in the fields of biology and drug discovery is discussed. Mathematical and computational methods and models in the areas of epidemiology, cell physiology and cancer are surveyed. The technique of molecular dynamics is covered, with special attention to force fields f...

  15. DNA extraction methods and multiple sampling to improve molecular diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräunig, Patrícia; Portella, Luiza Pires; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Libardoni, Felipe; Sangioni, Luis Antonio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias

    2016-10-01

    Molecular detection of Sarcocystis spp. in tissue samples can be useful for experimental and diagnostic purposes. However, the parasite spreads unevenly through tissues, forming tissue cysts, and the cystic wall is an obstacle in DNA extraction protocols. Therefore, adequate sampling and effective disruption of the cysts are essential to improve the accuracy of DNA detection by PCR. The aims of this study were to evaluate the suitability of four protocols for DNA extraction from cysts of Sarcocystis spp. present in bovine myocardium samples or after their harvest in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution as well as determine the effects of single or multiple sampling on the accuracy of molecular diagnosis of sarcocystosis in cattle hearts. Cysts and myocardium samples from nine bovine hearts were randomly distributed to four DNA extraction protocols: kit, kit with modification, DNAzol, and cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Samples were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR as replicates of each heart (simplicate, duplicate, and triplicate), and the probability of a true positive diagnostic was calculated. Among the protocols tested, the kit with modification was determined to be the most suitable for DNA extraction from cysts in PBS solution (92.6 % of DNA detection by PCR); DNAzol resulted in higher DNA detection frequency from bovine myocardium samples (48.1 %). Multiple sampling improved the molecular diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. infection in cattle hearts, increasing at 22.2 % the rate of true positive diagnostic.

  16. Stoichiometric patterns in foliar nutrient resorption across multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Davidson, Eric A.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2012-01-01

    *Nutrient resorption is a fundamental process through which plants withdraw nutrients from leaves before abscission. Nutrient resorption patterns have the potential to reflect gradients in plant nutrient limitation and to affect a suite of terrestrial ecosystem functions. *Here, we used a stoichiometric approach to assess patterns in foliar resorption at a variety of scales, specifically exploring how N : P resorption ratios relate to presumed variation in N and/or P limitation and possible relationships between N : P resorption ratios and soil nutrient availability. *N : P resorption ratios varied significantly at the global scale, increasing with latitude and decreasing with mean annual temperature and precipitation. In general, tropical sites (absolute latitudes resorption ratios of resorption ratios. Resorption ratios also varied with forest age along an Amazonian forest regeneration chronosequence and among species in a diverse Costa Rican rain forest. *These results suggest that variations in N : P resorption stoichiometry offer insight into nutrient cycling and limitation at a variety of spatial scales, complementing other metrics of plant nutrient biogeochemistry. The extent to which the stoichiometric flexibility of resorption will help regulate terrestrial responses to global change merits further investigation.

  17. Reducing topological defects in self-organizing maps using multiple scale neighborhood functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Kazushi; Sato, Yuichi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method of reducing topological defects in self-organizing maps (SOMs) using multiple scale neighborhood functions. The multiple scale neighborhood functions are inspired by multiple scale channels in the human visual system. To evaluate the proposed method, we applied it to the traveling salesman problem (TSP), and examined two indexes: the tour length of the solution and the number of kinks in the solution. Consequently, the two indexes are lower for the proposed method. These results indicate that our proposed method has the ability to reduce topological defects.

  18. Scaling of Superconducting Switches for Extraction of Magnetic Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2010-01-01

    In certain cases it is necessary to extract the energy from a superconducting magnet when it quenches, in order to limit the heat generated by the event and thus prevent irreversible damage. This is usually achieved by opening a contact breaker across a resistor in the circuit feeding the magnet. For the heavy currents used to excite large magnets such switches incorporate sophisticated devices to limit arcing during the operation; besides being quite large and expensive, such switches have a limited lifetime. It is therefore interesting to consider the use of superconducting switches to perform this function, the advantage being that such switches would (i) not require maintenance and (ii) would be housed within the cryogenic environment of the magnet, and thus avoid permanent diversion of the current in and out of that environment to the mechanical switch (which operates at room temperature). However, practical switches for such an application are made up of superconductor in a metal matrix, and it is conve...

  19. Novel approaches to understanding carbon redistribution at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, Jennifer; Beniston, Joshua; Lal, Rattan; Horrocks, Claire; Collins, Adrian; Mariappen, Sankar; Quine, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Established biogeochemical techniques are used to trace organic inputs typically derived directly or indirectly from plants into soils, sediments and water using lipid biomarkers. Recently, advances in bulk and compound specific stable 13C isotope analyses have provided novel ways of exploring the source and residence times of organic matter in soils using the natural abundance stable 13C isotope signature of C3 and C4 plant end member values. However, the application of biogeochemical source tracing technologies at the molecular level at field to catchment scales has been slow to develop because of perceived problems with dilution of molecular-scale signals. This paper describes the results of recent experiments in natural and agricultural environments in the UK (Collins et al., 2013; Dungait et al., 2013) and United States (Beniston et al., submitted) that have successfully applied new tracing techniques using stable 13C isotope and complementary approaches to explore the transport of sediment-bound organic carbon at a range of scales from the small plot (m2) to field (ha) and small catchment (10's ha). References Beniston et al (submitted) The effects of crop residue removal on soil erosion and macronutrient dynamics on soils under no till for 42 years. Biogeosciences Collins et al (2013) Catchment source contributions to the sediment-bound organic matter degrading salmonid spawning gravels in a lowland river, southern England. Science of the Total Environment 456-457, 181-195. Dungait et al (2013) Microbial responses to the erosional redistribution of soil organic carbon in arable fields. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 60, 195-201. Puttock et al (2012) Stable carbon isotope analysis of fluvial sediment fluxes over two contrasting C4-C3 semi-arid vegetation transitions. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 26, 2386-2392.

  20. Transition in multiple-scale-lengths turbulence in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is extended to the state where fluctuations with different scale lengths, micro and semi-micro modes, coexist. Their nonlinear interactions give several states of turbulence: in one state, the micro mode is excited while the semi-micro mode is quenched; in another state, the latter is excited while the micro mode is suppressed. A new turbulence transition with a hard bifurcation was obtained. A phase diagram was obtained. A new insight is given for the physics of internal transport barrier. (author)

  1. Forest visualization at multiple scales for management and planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Song; David J. Mladenoff; Hong S. He; Guang Zhao

    2006-01-01

    In this study forests were visualized at various scales by placing individual trees into a forest with realistic sizes and densities. Tree images were used from two sources: high quality field photos and images created using graphic design software. The terrain, species composition, and tree sizes and density from forest inventory were all represented in GIS data format. In addition, non-tree objects and features that are essential for close-to-reality visualization were combined with the tree images in a 3-D visualization software package. We further portrayed stand level effects by animating a simulated fly-through of a forest. To visualize temporal change, a case study of four different forest patches was animated. The advantages of this approach comparing to other visualization approaches are: (1) it represents the forests with realistic individual tree images; and (2) it maintains both visual and informational realism in a forest viewable from within-stand to landscape scales. Thus, this approach is realistic in two aspects. First, it is almost as realistic as a photograph, and secondly, its information content is actual forest composition, density, and height.

  2. Microfluidic chip for stacking, separation and extraction of multiple DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruige; Seah, Y P; Wang, Zhiping

    2016-03-11

    A disposable integrated microfluidic device was developed for rapid sample stacking, separation and extraction of multiple DNA fragments from a relatively large amount of sample. Isotachophoresis hyphenated gel electrophoresis (ITP-GE) was used to pre-concentrate and separate DNA fragments, followed by extraction of pure DNA fragments with electroelution on-chip. DNA fragments of 200bp, 500bp and 1kbp were successfully separated and collected in the extraction chamber within 25min. The extraction efficiency obtained from the chip was 49.9%, 52.1% and 53.7% for 200bp, 500bp and 1kbp DNA fragments, respectively. The extracted DNA fragments exhibited compatibility with downstream enzymatic reactions, for example PCR. The chip was also used to extract DNA fragments with specific size range from sheared genomic DNA and demonstrated similar performance to that using traditional gel cutting method. The whole assay can finish in 32min, 6 times faster than traditional method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Native Australian species are effective in extracting multiple heavy metals from biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Majumder, Ramaprasad; Laidlaw, W Scott; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Arndt, Stefan K

    2013-01-01

    Selecting native plant species with characteristics suitable for extraction of heavy metals may have multiple advantages over non-native plants. Six Australian perennial woody plant species and one willow were grown in a pot trial in heavy metal-contaminated biosolids and a potting mix. The plants were harvested after fourteen months and above-ground parts were analysed for heavy metal concentrations and total metal contents. All native species were capable of growing in biosolids and extracted heavy metals to varying degrees. No single species was able to accumulate heavy metals at particularly high levels and metal extraction depended upon the bioavailability of the metal in the substrate. Metal extraction efficiency was driven by biomass accumulation, with the species extracting the most metals also having the greatest biomass yield. The study demonstrated that Grevillea robusta, Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus polybractea, and E. cladocalyx have the greatest potential as phytoextractor species in the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated biosolids. Species survival and growth were the main determinants of metal extraction efficiency and these traits will be important for future screening of native species.

  4. A Hybrid Intelligent Diagnosis Approach for Quick Screening of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Multiple Neuropsychological Rating Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological testing is an effective means for the screening of Alzheimer’s disease. Multiple neuropsychological rating scales should be used together to get subjects’ comprehensive cognitive state due to the limitation of a single scale, but it is difficult to operate in primary clinical settings because of the inadequacy of time and qualified clinicians. Aiming at identifying AD’s stages more accurately and conveniently in screening, we proposed a computer-aided diagnosis approach based on critical items extracted from multiple neuropsychological scales. The proposed hybrid intelligent approach combines the strengths of rough sets, genetic algorithm, and Bayesian network. There are two stages: one is attributes reduction technique based on rough sets and genetic algorithm, which can find out the most discriminative items for AD diagnosis in scales; the other is uncertain reasoning technique based on Bayesian network, which can forecast the probability of suffering from AD. The experimental data set consists of 500 cases collected by a top hospital in China and each case is determined by the expert panel. The results showed that the proposed approach could not only reduce items drastically with the same classification precision, but also perform better on identifying different stages of AD comparing with other existing scales.

  5. Intrinsic Fluctuations of the Proton Saturation Momentum Scale in High Multiplicity p+p Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    McLerran, Larry

    2016-01-01

    High multiplicity events in p+p collisions are studied using the theory of the Color Glass Condensate. We show that intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale are needed in addition to the sub-nucleonic color charge fluctuations to explain the very high multiplicity tail of distributions in p+p collisions. The origin of such intrinsic fluctuations are presumably non-perturbative in nature. Classical Yang Mills simulations using the IP-Glasma model are performed to make quantitative estimations. We find that fluctuations as large as $\\cal O$(1) of the average values of the saturation momentum scale can lead to rare high multiplicity events seen in p+p data at RHIC and LHC energies. Using the available data on multiplicity distributions we try to constrain the distribution of the proton saturation momentum scale and make predictions for the multiplicity distribution in 13 TeV p+p collisions.

  6. The theory of gyrokinetic turbulence: A multiple-scales approach

    CERN Document Server

    Plunk, Gabriel G

    2009-01-01

    Gyrokinetics is a rich and rewarding playground to study some of the mysteries of modern physics. In this thesis I present work, motivated by the quest for fusion energy, which seeks to uncover some of the inner workings of turbulence in magnetized plasmas. I begin with the fundamental theory of gyrokinetics, and a novel formulation of its extension to the equations for mean-scale transport -- the equations which must be solved to determine the performance of magnetically confined fusion devices. The second project presents gyrokinetic secondary instability theory as a mechanism to bring about saturation of the basic instabilities that drive gyrokinetic turbulence. Emphasis is put on the ability for this analytic theory to predict basic properties of the nonlinear state, which can be applied to a mixing length phenomenology of transport. The final project is an application of the methods from inertial range understanding of fluid turbulence, to describe the stationary state of fully developed two-dimensional ...

  7. Comparison of near-identity averaging and multiple-scale expansions for sustained-resonance solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怡平

    1995-01-01

    How the averaging near-identity transformations are equivalent to multiple-scale expansions to O(1) is shown in solving strictly nonlinear oscillatory systems with slowly varying parameters in sustained resonance.

  8. Corchorus olitorius (jute) extract induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on human multiple myeloma cells (ARH-77).

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşeri, Özlem Darcansoy; Yurtcu, Erkan; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-06-01

    Corchorus olitorius L. (Malvaceae) has industrial importance in world jute production and is a widely cultivated and consumed crop in Cyprus and in some Arabic countries. The present study investigated cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of leaf extracts (LE) and seed extracts (SE) of the C. olitorius on the multiple myeloma-derived ARH-77 cells. The extracts were also evaluated for their total phenol content (TPC) and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA). C. olitorius was collected from Nicosia, Cyprus. TPC and FRSA were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH free radical methods, respectively. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay (4-2048 µg/mL range), and DNA damage (at IC50 and ½IC50) was measured by the comet assay. The LE had significantly higher total phenol (78 mg GAE/g extract) than the SE (2 mg GAE/g extract) with significantly higher FRSA (IC50 LE: 23 µg/mL and IC50 SE: 10 401 µg/mL). Both LE and SE exerted cytotoxic effects on cells after 48 h. The IC50 of SE (17 µg/mL) was lower than LE (151 µg/mL), which demonstrates its higher cytotoxicity on cells. The extracts were applied at 150 and 75 µg/mL for LE and at 17 and 8.5 µg/mL for SE, and the results of the comet assay revealed that the extracts induced genotoxic damage on ARH-77 cells. In both 48 h leaf and seed extract treatments, genotoxic damage significantly increased with increasing concentrations at relevant cytotoxic concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the high cytotoxic potential of C. olitorius SE and the genotoxic potential of LE and SE.

  9. Large scale extraction of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 using sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Daniel; Madkour, Mohamed H; Al-Ghamdi, Mansour A; Shabbaj, Ibraheem I; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2012-11-19

    Isolation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from bacterial cell matter is a critical step in order to achieve a profitable production of the polymer. Therefore, an extraction method must lead to a high recovery of a pure product at low costs. This study presents a simplified method for large scale poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(3HB), extraction using sodium hypochlorite. Poly(3HB) was extracted from cells of Ralstonia eutropha H16 at almost 96% purity. At different extraction volumes, a maximum recovery rate of 91.32% was obtained. At the largest extraction volume of 50 L, poly(3HB) with an average purity of 93.32% ± 4.62% was extracted with a maximum recovery of 87.03% of the initial poly(3HB) content. This process is easy to handle and requires less efforts than previously described processes.

  10. Ultrasonication--a complementary 'green chemistry' tool to biocatalysis: a laboratory-scale study of lycopene extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Pramanik, Sujata; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata; Karak, Niranjan

    2012-03-01

    Lycopene is bequeathed with multiple bio-protective roles, primarily attributed to its unique molecular structure. The concomitant exploitation of two of the green chemistry tools viz., sonication and biocatalysis is reported here for the laboratory scale extraction of lycopene from tomato peel. The coupled system improved the extraction by 662%, 225% and 150% times over the unaided, only cellulase 'Onozuka R-10' treated and only sonication treated samples respectively. The sonication parameters (duration, cycle and amplitude) during the coupled operation were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Derivative UV-visible spectra (i.e., dA/dλ and d(2)A/dλ(2) against λ), FTIR analysis, and DPPH scavenging test suggested that the reported extraction protocol did not affect the molecular structure and bioactivity of the extracted lycopene. The influence of sonication on the probable structural modulation (through UV-visible spectral analysis) and activity of the enzyme were also analyzed. A plausible mechanism is proposed for the enhanced extraction achieved via the coupled system.

  11. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyben, Florian; Weninger, Felix; Lehment, Nicolas; Schuller, Björn; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP) on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis.

  12. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Eyben

    Full Text Available Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis.

  13. Multiple-scale stochastic processes: Decimation, averaging and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Stefano; Celani, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    The recent experimental progresses in handling microscopic systems have allowed to probe them at levels where fluctuations are prominent, calling for stochastic modeling in a large number of physical, chemical and biological phenomena. This has provided fruitful applications for established stochastic methods and motivated further developments. These systems often involve processes taking place on widely separated time scales. For an efficient modeling one usually focuses on the slower degrees of freedom and it is of great importance to accurately eliminate the fast variables in a controlled fashion, carefully accounting for their net effect on the slower dynamics. This procedure in general requires to perform two different operations: decimation and coarse-graining. We introduce the asymptotic methods that form the basis of this procedure and discuss their application to a series of physical, biological and chemical examples. We then turn our attention to functionals of the stochastic trajectories such as residence times, counting statistics, fluxes, entropy production, etc. which have been increasingly studied in recent years. For such functionals, the elimination of the fast degrees of freedom can present additional difficulties and naive procedures can lead to blatantly inconsistent results. Homogenization techniques for functionals are less covered in the literature and we will pedagogically present them here, as natural extensions of the ones employed for the trajectories. We will also discuss recent applications of these techniques to the thermodynamics of small systems and their interpretation in terms of information-theoretic concepts.

  14. Masticophis flagellum selects florida scrub habitat at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Mushinsky, H.R.; McCoy, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of space by individual animals strongly influences the spatial extent, abundance, and growth rates of their populations. We analyzed the spatial ecology and habitat selection of Masticophis flagellum (the coachwhip) at three different scales to determine which habitats are most important to this species. Home ranges and mean daily displacements of M. flagellum in Florida were large compared to individuals in other populations of this species. Home ranges contained a greater proportion of Florida scrub habitat than did the study site as a whole, and individuals selected Florida scrub habitat within their home ranges. For both selection of the home range within the study site and selection of habitats within the home range, mesic cutthroat and hydric swamp habitats were avoided. Standardized selection ratios of Florida scrub patches were positively correlated with lizard abundance. Several non-mutually exclusive mechanisms, including foraging success (prey abundance, prey vulnerability, and foraging efficiency), abundance of refugia, and thermoregulatory opportunity may underlie the selection of Florida scrub by M. flagellum. Historic rarity and anthropogenic loss and fragmentation of Florida scrub habitat, coupled with the long-distance movements, large home ranges, and selection of Florida scrub by M. flagellum, indicate that large contiguous tracts of land containing Florida scrub will be essential for the persistence of M. flagellum in central Florida. ?? 2009 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  15. Stability of a Cosmetic Multiple Emulsion Loaded with Green Tea Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple emulsions are excellent and exciting potential systems for the delivery of useful cosmetic agents. The work describes stability of a multiple emulsion for cosmetic purpose, loaded with extract of Camellia sinensis L. (Theaceae in concentration of 5%. The formulation constitutes of cetyl dimethicone copolyol and polyoxyethylene (20 cetyl ether as emulsifiers and was characterised and monitored for various physicochemical aspects. Centrifugation has no devastating effect on physical destabilization/phase separation observed for 30 days. Mean globule sizes of multiple droplets were found in the range of 10.29 ± 4.4 μm to 12.77 ± 5.1 μm and of inner droplets were in the range of 0.8 ± 0.4 μm to 1.6 ± 0.8 μm. All samples exhibited shear thinning behavior with increase in shear stress. The results of the present study indicate that multiple emulsions can be used as carrier of 5% Camellia sinensis L. extract to enhance desired effects. The developed physically and chemically stable system is an effective system for targeting skin layers; however, long-term stability at elevated temperatures may be needed with suitable modifications, if required.

  16. Stability of a cosmetic multiple emulsion loaded with green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed

    2013-01-01

    Multiple emulsions are excellent and exciting potential systems for the delivery of useful cosmetic agents. The work describes stability of a multiple emulsion for cosmetic purpose, loaded with extract of Camellia sinensis L. (Theaceae) in concentration of 5%. The formulation constitutes of cetyl dimethicone copolyol and polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl ether as emulsifiers and was characterised and monitored for various physicochemical aspects. Centrifugation has no devastating effect on physical destabilization/phase separation observed for 30 days. Mean globule sizes of multiple droplets were found in the range of 10.29 ± 4.4  μm to 12.77 ± 5.1  μm and of inner droplets were in the range of 0.8 ± 0.4  μm to 1.6 ± 0.8  μm. All samples exhibited shear thinning behavior with increase in shear stress. The results of the present study indicate that multiple emulsions can be used as carrier of 5% Camellia sinensis L. extract to enhance desired effects. The developed physically and chemically stable system is an effective system for targeting skin layers; however, long-term stability at elevated temperatures may be needed with suitable modifications, if required.

  17. An Efficient Method for Automatic Road Extraction Based on Multiple Features from LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Hu, X.; Guan, H.; Liu, P.

    2016-06-01

    The road extraction in urban areas is difficult task due to the complicated patterns and many contextual objects. LiDAR data directly provides three dimensional (3D) points with less occlusions and smaller shadows. The elevation information and surface roughness are distinguishing features to separate roads. However, LiDAR data has some disadvantages are not beneficial to object extraction, such as the irregular distribution of point clouds and lack of clear edges of roads. For these problems, this paper proposes an automatic road centerlines extraction method which has three major steps: (1) road center point detection based on multiple feature spatial clustering for separating road points from ground points, (2) local principal component analysis with least squares fitting for extracting the primitives of road centerlines, and (3) hierarchical grouping for connecting primitives into complete roads network. Compared with MTH (consist of Mean shift algorithm, Tensor voting, and Hough transform) proposed in our previous article, this method greatly reduced the computational cost. To evaluate the proposed method, the Vaihingen data set, a benchmark testing data provided by ISPRS for "Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction" project, was selected. The experimental results show that our method achieve the same performance by less time in road extraction using LiDAR data.

  18. Modeling Group Perceptions Using Stochastic Simulation: Scaling Issues in the Multiplicative AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Robin; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decision support approach for applying stochastic simulation to the multiplicative analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in order to deal with issues concerning the scale parameter. The paper suggests a new approach that captures the influence from the scale parameter by making...... to calculate the probability of overlapping for any given set of pairwise comparisons....

  19. Modeling Group Perceptions Using Stochastic Simulation: Scaling Issues in the Multiplicative AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Robin; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decision support approach for applying stochastic simulation to the multiplicative analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in order to deal with issues concerning the scale parameter. The paper suggests a new approach that captures the influence from the scale parameter by making...

  20. Proton conduction in exchange membranes across multiple length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorn, Ryan; Savage, John; Voth, Gregory A

    2012-11-20

    Concerns over global climate change associated with fossil-fuel consumption continue to drive the development of electrochemical alternatives for energy technology. Proton exchange fuel cells are a particularly promising technology for stationary power generation, mobile electronics, and hybrid engines in automobiles. For these devices to work efficiently, direct electrical contacts between the anode and cathode must be avoided; hence, the separator material must be electronically insulating but highly proton conductive. As a result, researchers have examined a variety of polymer electrolyte materials for use as membranes in these systems. In the optimization of the membrane, researchers are seeking high proton conductivity, low electronic conduction, and mechanical stability with the inclusion of water in the polymer matrix. A considerable number of potential polymer backbone and side chain combinations have been synthesized to meet these requirements, and computational studies can assist in the challenge of designing the next generation of technologically relevant membranes. Such studies can also be integrated in a feedback loop with experiment to improve fuel cell performance. However, to accurately simulate the currently favored class of membranes, perfluorosulfonic acid containing moieties, several difficulties must be addressed including a proper treatment of the proton-hopping mechanism through the membrane and the formation of nanophase-separated water networks. We discuss our recent efforts to address these difficulties using methods that push the limits of computer simulation and expand on previous theoretical developments. We describe recent advances in the multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) method that can probe proton diffusion at the nanometer-length scale and accurately model the so-called Grotthuss shuttling mechanism for proton diffusion in water. Using both classical molecular dynamics and coarse-grained descriptions that replace atomistic

  1. Object detection with DoG scale-space: a multiple kernel learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilufar, Sharmin; Ray, Nilanjan; Zhang, Hong

    2012-08-01

    Difference of Gaussians (DoG) scale-space for an image is a significant way to generate features for object detection and classification. While applying DoG scale-space features for object detection/classification, we face two inevitable issues: dealing with high dimensional data and selecting/weighting of proper scales. The scale selection process is mostly ad-hoc to date. In this paper, we propose a multiple kernel learning (MKL) method for both DoG scale selection/weighting and dealing with high dimensional scale-space data. We design a novel shift invariant kernel function for DoG scale-space. To select only the useful scales in the DoG scale-space, a novel framework of MKL is also proposed. We utilize a 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) in the MKL optimization problem for sparse weighting of scales from DoG scale-space. The optimized data-dependent kernel accommodates only a few scales that are most discriminatory according to the large margin principle. With a 2-norm SVM this learned kernel is applied to a challenging detection problem in oil sand mining: to detect large lumps in oil sand videos. We tested our method on several challenging oil sand data sets. Our method yields encouraging results on these difficult-to-process images and compares favorably against other popular multiple kernel methods.

  2. Optimization and Scale-up of Inulin Extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas; Klemm, Andrea; Ziesse, Patrick; Harms, Karsten; Wach, Wolfgang; Rupp, Steffen; Hirth, Thomas; Zibek, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    The optimization and scale-up of inulin extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin was successfully performed. Evaluating solubility investigations, the extraction temperature was fixed at 85 degrees C. The inulin stability regarding degradation or hydrolysis could be confirmed by extraction in the presence of model inulin. Confirming stability at the given conditions the isolation procedure was transferred from a 1 L- to a 1 m3-reactor. The Reynolds number was selected as the relevant dimensionless number that has to remain constant in both scales. The stirrer speed in the large scale was adjusted to 3.25 rpm regarding a 300 rpm stirrer speed in the 1 L-scale and relevant physical and process engineering parameters. Assumptions were confirmed by approximately homologous extraction kinetics in both scales. Since T. kok-saghyz is in the focus of research due to its rubber content side-product isolation from residual biomass it is of great economic interest. Inulin is one of these additional side-products that can be isolated in high quantity (- 35% of dry mass) and with a high average degree of polymerization (15.5) in large scale with a purity of 77%.

  3. Multiple time scales and the lifetime coefficient of variation: engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordonsky, K B; Gertsbakh, I

    1997-01-01

    We consider linear combinations of "natural" time scales and choose the "best" one which provides the minimum coefficient of variation of the lifetime. Our time scale is in fact a generalized Miner time scale because the latter is based on an appropriate weighting of the times spent on low and high level loadings. The suggested modus operandi for finding the "best" time scale has many features in common with the approach suggested by Farewell and Cox (1979) and Oakes (1995) which is devoted to multiple time scales in survival analysis.

  4. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  5. Validity and reliability of a multiple-group measurement scale for interprofessional collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Scott

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many measurement scales for interprofessional collaboration are developed for one health professional group, typically nurses. Evaluating interprofessional collaborative relationships can benefit from employing a measurement scale suitable for multiple health provider groups, including physicians and other health professionals. To this end, the paper begins development of a new interprofessional collaboration measurement scale designed for use with nurses, physicians, and other professionals practicing in contemporary acute care settings. The paper investigates validity and reliability of data from nurses evaluating interprofessional collaboration of physicians and shows initial results for other rater/target combinations. Methods Items from a published scale originally designed for nurses were adapted to a round robin proxy report format appropriate for multiple health provider groups. Registered nurses, physicians, and allied health professionals practicing in inpatient wards/services of 15 community and academic hospitals in Toronto, Canada completed the adapted scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of responses to the adapted scale examined dimensionality, construct and concurrent validity, and reliability of nurses' response data. Correlations between the adapted scale, the nurse-physician relations subscale of the Nursing Work Index, and the Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams Scale were calculated. Differences of mean scores on the Nursing Work Index and the interprofessional collaboration scale were compared between hospitals. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed 3 factors in the adapted interprofessional collaboration scale - labeled Communication, Accommodation, and Isolation - which were subsequently corroborated by confirmatory factor analysis. Nurses' scale responses about physician collaboration had convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity, and acceptable reliability. Conclusion The

  6. Bayesian Fusion of Multi-Scale Detectors for Road Extraction from SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an innovative road network extraction algorithm using synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery for improving the accuracy of road extraction. The state-of-the-art approaches, such as fraction extraction and road network optimization, failed to obtain continuous road segments in separate successions, since the optimization could not change the parts ignored by the fraction extraction. In this paper, the proposed algorithm integrates the fraction extraction and optimization procedure simultaneously to extract the road network: (1 the Bayesian framework is utilized to transfer the road network extraction to joint reasoning of the likelihood of fraction extraction and the priority of network optimization; (2 the multi-scale linear feature detector (MLFD and the network optimization beamlet are introduced; (3 the conditional random field (CRF is used to reason jointly. The result is the global optimum since the fraction extraction and network optimization are exploited at the same time. The proposed algorithm solves the problem that the fractions are bound to reduce in the process of network optimization and has demonstrated effectiveness in real SAR images applications.

  7. Using Multi-Scale Filtering to Initialize a Background Extraction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Lili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Probability-based methods which usually work based on the saved history of each pixel are utilized severally in extracting a background image for moving detection systems. Probability-based methods suffer from a lack of information when the system first begins to work. The model should be initialized using an alternative accurate method. Approach: The use of a nonparametric filtering to calculate the most probable value for each pixel in the initialization phase can be useful. In this study a complete system to extract an adaptable gray scale background image is presented. It is a probability-based system and especially suitable for outdoor applications. The proposed method is initialized using a multi scale filtering method. Results: The results of the experiments certify that not only the quality of the final extracted background is about 10% more accurate in comparison to four recent re-implemented methods, but also the time consumption of the extraction are acceptable. Conclusion: Using multi-scale filtering to initialize the background model and to extract the background using a probability-based method proposes an accurate and adaptable background extraction method which is able to handle sudden and large illumination changes.

  8. A weighted information criterion for multiple minor components and its adaptive extraction algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingbin; Kong, Xiangyu; Zhang, Huihui; Hou, Li'an

    2017-05-01

    Minor component (MC) plays an important role in signal processing and data analysis, so it is a valuable work to develop MC extraction algorithms. Based on the concepts of weighted subspace and optimum theory, a weighted information criterion is proposed for searching the optimum solution of a linear neural network. This information criterion exhibits a unique global minimum attained if and only if the state matrix is composed of the desired MCs of an autocorrelation matrix of an input signal. By using gradient ascent method and recursive least square (RLS) method, two algorithms are developed for multiple MCs extraction. The global convergences of the proposed algorithms are also analyzed by the Lyapunov method. The proposed algorithms can extract the multiple MCs in parallel and has advantage in dealing with high dimension matrices. Since the weighted matrix does not require an accurate value, it facilitates the system design of the proposed algorithms for practical applications. The speed and computation advantages of the proposed algorithms are verified through simulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinctive Feature Extraction for Indian Sign Language (ISL) Gesture using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep Baburao; Sinha, G. R.

    2016-07-01

    India, having less awareness towards the deaf and dumb peoples leads to increase the communication gap between deaf and hard hearing community. Sign language is commonly developed for deaf and hard hearing peoples to convey their message by generating the different sign pattern. The scale invariant feature transform was introduced by David Lowe to perform reliable matching between different images of the same object. This paper implements the various phases of scale invariant feature transform to extract the distinctive features from Indian sign language gestures. The experimental result shows the time constraint for each phase and the number of features extracted for 26 ISL gestures.

  10. Distinctive Feature Extraction for Indian Sign Language (ISL) Gesture using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep Baburao; Sinha, G. R.

    2017-02-01

    India, having less awareness towards the deaf and dumb peoples leads to increase the communication gap between deaf and hard hearing community. Sign language is commonly developed for deaf and hard hearing peoples to convey their message by generating the different sign pattern. The scale invariant feature transform was introduced by David Lowe to perform reliable matching between different images of the same object. This paper implements the various phases of scale invariant feature transform to extract the distinctive features from Indian sign language gestures. The experimental result shows the time constraint for each phase and the number of features extracted for 26 ISL gestures.

  11. Integrating semantic information into multiple kernels for protein-protein interaction extraction from biomedical literatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishuang Li

    Full Text Available Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI extraction is an important task in the biomedical information extraction. Presently, many machine learning methods for PPI extraction have achieved promising results. However, the performance is still not satisfactory. One reason is that the semantic resources were basically ignored. In this paper, we propose a multiple-kernel learning-based approach to extract PPIs, combining the feature-based kernel, tree kernel and semantic kernel. Particularly, we extend the shortest path-enclosed tree kernel (SPT by a dynamic extended strategy to retrieve the richer syntactic information. Our semantic kernel calculates the protein-protein pair similarity and the context similarity based on two semantic resources: WordNet and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH. We evaluate our method with Support Vector Machine (SVM and achieve an F-score of 69.40% and an AUC of 92.00%, which show that our method outperforms most of the state-of-the-art systems by integrating semantic information.

  12. 4D Emittance Measurements Using Multiple Wire and Waist Scan Methods in the ATF Extraction Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimbault, C.; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; /Orsay, LAL; Alabau, M.; /Valencia U., IFIC; Kuroda, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Scarfe, A.; /Manchester U.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    Emittance measurements performed in the diagnostic section of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) extraction line since 1998 led to vertical emittances three times larger than the expected ones, with a strong dependence on intensity. An experimental program is pursued to investigate potential sources of emittance growth and find possible remedies. This requires efficient and reliable emittance measurement techniques. In the past, several phase-space reconstruction methods developed at SLAC and KEK have been used to estimate the vertical emittance, based on multiple location beam size measurements and dedicated quadrupole scans. These methods have been shown to be very sensitive to measurement errors and other fluctuations in the beam conditions. In this context new emittance measurements have been performed revisiting these methods and newly developed ones with a systematic approach to compare and characterise their performance in the ATF extraction line.

  13. Thiacalix[4]arene derivatives containing multiple aromatic groups: High efficient extractants for organic dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chuang Yang; Zusheng Wang; Hongyu Guo; Ziyu Jiao; Fafu Yang

    2015-08-01

    Click reaction of alkynylthiacalix[4]arene with ethyl 2-azidoacetate, followed by ammonolysis with hydrazine hydrate and Schiff-base condensation with benzaldehyde or salicyic aldehyde, afforded two novel thiacalix[4]arene derivatives containing multiple aromatic groups in yields of 86% and 90%. Their complexation properties for four organic dyes were investigated by liquid-liquid extraction experiments, complexation UV-Vis spectra and mass spectrum. The highest extraction percentage was 97% for Neutral red. The UV- Vis spectra and ESI-MS spectrum indicated the 1:1 complexes in DMSO solution. The association constants were as high as 1∼ 8 × 104 M−1. These complexation experiments showed that thiacalix[4]arene receptors possess excellent complexation capabilities for dyes.

  14. Large scale sex typing of ostriches using DNA extracted from feathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medaglia Adriana

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ostrich (Struthio camelus breeds have been gaining increasing significance around the world. The large-scale sex determination of chicks is an important task in the development of these breeds. To date, two PCR-based methods have been established for ostrich sex typing, neither of them intended for large-scale analyses. Here, we report on a protocol adapted to carry out large-scale gender scoring using DNA obtained from chick feathers. Results The DNA was extracted using a fast and simple alkaline extraction protocol that provided sufficient template for an early diagnosis. Tests with several primer sets enabled us to determine the best internal control primers associated with the sex-specific primers, avoiding spurious bands. Using DNA extracted from a single bulb and the best set of primers, we applied this protocol to simultaneously sex-type 96 individuals accurately. Conclusion We have established a fast, safe, accurate and inexpensive procedure for large-scale sex typing of ostriches using DNA extracted from feathers. This procedure is useful for the gender identification of chicks in the first days of nestling life.

  15. Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Marie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis therapy has been considered an effective treatment for spasticity, although clinical reports of symptom reduction in multiple sclerosis (MS describe mixed outcomes. Recently introduced therapies of combined Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD extracts have potential for symptom relief with the possibility of reducing intoxication and other side effects. Although several past reviews have suggested that cannabinoid therapy provides a therapeutic benefit for symptoms of MS, none have presented a methodical investigation of newer cannabinoid treatments in MS-related spasticity. The purpose of the present review was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of combined THC and CBD extracts on MS-related spasticity in order to increase understanding of the treatment's potential effectiveness, safety and limitations. Methods We reviewed MEDLINE/PubMed, Ovid, and CENTRAL electronic databases for relevant studies using randomized controlled trials. Studies were included only if a combination of THC and CBD extracts was used, and if pre- and post-treatment assessments of spasticity were reported. Results Six studies were systematically reviewed for treatment dosage and duration, objective and subjective measures of spasticity, and reports of adverse events. Although there was variation in the outcome measures reported in these studies, a trend of reduced spasticity in treated patients was noted. Adverse events were reported in each study, however combined TCH and CBD extracts were generally considered to be well-tolerated. Conclusion We found evidence that combined THC and CBD extracts may provide therapeutic benefit for MS spasticity symptoms. Although some objective measures of spasticity noted improvement trends, there were no changes found to be significant in post-treatment assessments. However, subjective assessment of symptom relief did often show significant improvement post-treatment. Differences in

  16. Multiple pixel-scale soil water retention curves quantified by neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Perfect, E.; Cheng, C. L.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Lee, J.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    The soil water retention function is needed for modeling multiphase flow in porous media. Traditional techniques for measuring the soil water retention function, such as the hanging water column or pressure cell methods, yield average water retention data which have to be modeled using inverse procedures to extract relevant point parameters. In this study, we have developed a technique for directly measuring multiple point (pixel-scale) water retention curves for a repacked sand material using 2-D neutron radiography. Neutron radiographic images were obtained under quasi-equilibrium conditions at nine imposed basal matric potentials during monotonic drying of Flint sand at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold Guide (CG) 1D beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. All of the images were normalized with respect to an image of the oven dry sand column. Volumetric water contents were computed on a pixel by pixel basis using an empirical calibration equation after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. Corresponding matric potentials were calculated from the imposed basal matric potential and pixel elevations. Volumetric water content and matric potential data pairs corresponding to 120 selected pixels were used to construct 120 point water retention curves. Each curve was fitted to the Brooks and Corey equation using segmented non-linear regression in SAS. A 98.5% convergence rate was achieved resulting in 115 estimates of the four Brooks and Corey parameters. A single Brooks and Corey point water retention function was constructed for Flint sand using the median values of these parameter estimates. This curve corresponded closely with the point Brooks and Corey function inversely extracted from the average water retention data using TrueCell. Forward numerical simulations performed using HYDRUS 1-D showed that the cumulative outflows predicted using the point Brooks and Corey functions from both the direct (neutron radiography) and

  17. Charged Particles Multiplicity and Scaling Violation of Fragmentation Functions in Electron-Positron Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    In electron positron annihilation, changing quarks into the final hadron states is being described by fragmentation function. Based on the scaling hypothesis, this function will be independent from the center of mass energy. Gluon radiation violates the scaling feature. Transverse momentum distribution plays an important role in scaling violation of fragmentation functions. In this article, by the use of data resulted from the annihilation process of electron positron in AMY detector at 60 GeV center of mass energy, first, charged particles multiplicity distribution will be obtained and it will be fitted with the KNO scaling. Furthermore, momentum spectra of charged particles and momentum distribution respect to the jet axis will be obtained. Then, the results will be compared regarding the different models of QCD; as well, the distribution of fragmentation functions and scaling violations will be studied. It is being expected that the scaling violations of the fragmentation functions of gluon jet are stronge...

  18. Karhunen-Loève (PCA) based detection of multiple oscillations in multiple measurement signals from large-scale process plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, M.V.

    2007-01-01

     In the perspective of optimizing the control and operation of large scale process plants, it is important to detect and to locate oscillations in the plants. This paper presents a scheme for detecting and localizing multiple oscillations in multiple measurements from such a large-scale power pla...

  19. Image Capture with Synchronized Multiple-Cameras for Extraction of Accurate Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, M.; Delacourt, T.; Boutry, C.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a project of recording and modelling tunnels, traffic circles and roads from multiple sensors. The aim is the representation and the accurate 3D modelling of a selection of road infrastructures as dense point clouds in order to extract profiles and metrics from it. Indeed, these models will be used for the sizing of infrastructures in order to simulate exceptional convoy truck routes. The objective is to extract directly from the point clouds the heights, widths and lengths of bridges and tunnels, the diameter of gyrating and to highlight potential obstacles for a convoy. Light, mobile and fast acquisition approaches based on images and videos from a set of synchronized sensors have been tested in order to obtain useable point clouds. The presented solution is based on a combination of multiple low-cost cameras designed on an on-boarded device allowing dynamic captures. The experimental device containing GoPro Hero4 cameras has been set up and used for tests in static or mobile acquisitions. That way, various configurations have been tested by using multiple synchronized cameras. These configurations are discussed in order to highlight the best operational configuration according to the shape of the acquired objects. As the precise calibration of each sensor and its optics are major factors in the process of creation of accurate dense point clouds, and in order to reach the best quality available from such cameras, the estimation of the internal parameters of fisheye lenses of the cameras has been processed. Reference measures were also realized by using a 3D TLS (Faro Focus 3D) to allow the accuracy assessment.

  20. A multiple time-scale model for TCP bandwidth sharing under user heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abendroth, D.; Berg, J.L. van den; Mandjes, M.

    2005-01-01

    Building on the vast body of existing TCP models, we develop a novel versatile model that explicitly captures user heterogeneity, and takes into consideration dynamics at both the packet level and the flow level. It is described how the resulting multiple time-scale model can be numerically evaluate

  1. Optimal Scheduling of Railway Track Possessions in Large-Scale Projects with Multiple Construction Works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Roberti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the railway track possession scheduling problem (RTPSP), where a large-scale railway infrastructure project consisting of multiple construction works is to be planned. The RTPSP is to determine when to perform the construction works and in which track possessions while satisf...

  2. TIME SCALES OF FUSION-FISSION REACTIONS CALCULATED FROM PRESCISSION NEUTRON MULTIPLICITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIWEKWILCZYNSKA, K; WILCZYNSKI, J; SIEMSSEN, RH; WILSCHUT, HW

    1995-01-01

    The time scale of fusion-fission reactions was found to be in the range from tau(f) = 5 . 10(-20) to 5 . 10(-19) s. This result was obtained from the analysis of the prescission neutron multiplicities with a new method combining the time-dependent statistical cascade calculations with the nuclear

  3. The brain as a complex system: plasticity at multiple scales and criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tony; Miller, Paul

    2015-03-01

    As a complex system, a successful organism is one that can react effectively to environmental fluctuations. Not only should its response repertoire be commensurate with the number of independent conditions that it encounters, behavioral and environmental variations need to be matched at the appropriate scales. In the cortex, neuronal clusters, not individual cells, operate at the proper scale that is necessary to generate appropriate responses to external states of the world. Single neurons, however, serve on a finer scale to mediate interactions between neuronal assemblies. The distinction of scales is significant, as plasticity mechanisms can operate on various spatial and temporal scales. The brain has apparently evolved complex-system strategies to calibrate its own dynamics at multiple scales. This makes the joint study of local balance and global homeostasis fundamentally important, where criticality emerges as a signature of a computationally powerful system. We show via simulations how plasticity mechanisms at multiple scales are inextricably tied to spike-based neuronal avalanches, which are microscopic in origin and poorly predictive of animal behavior, and cluster-based avalanches, which are manifest macroscopically and are relevant to cognition and behavior.

  4. Multiple time-space scale atmosphere-ocean interactions and improvement of Zebiak-Cane model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱维宏; 王绍武

    1997-01-01

    In a real climate system there are multiple time-space scale atmosphere-ocean interactions, ranging from the planetary scale and basin scale to local air-sea interactions. The Zebiak-Cane (ZC) model with one-level atmosphere described only local air-sea interaction process. Thus the planetary scale Hadley cell and Walker cell anomalies should be introduced in the model. Including the planetary scale Hadley cell anomaly in the model improved the prediction skill. It showed that the improved model provided satisfactory prediction of the equatorial eastern Pacific SST anomaly with lead time of 9-10 months not only for 1970-1991 but also for 1992-1995.

  5. Measuring floodplain spatial patterns using continuous surface metrics at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray Scown,; Martin Thoms,; DeJager, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between fluvial processes and floodplain ecosystems occur upon a floodplain surface that is often physically complex. Spatial patterns in floodplain topography have only recently been quantified over multiple scales, and discrepancies exist in how floodplain surfaces are perceived to be spatially organised. We measured spatial patterns in floodplain topography for pool 9 of the Upper Mississippi River, USA, using moving window analyses of eight surface metrics applied to a 1 × 1 m2 DEM over multiple scales. The metrics used were Range, SD, Skewness, Kurtosis, CV, SDCURV,Rugosity, and Vol:Area, and window sizes ranged from 10 to 1000 m in radius. Surface metric values were highly variable across the floodplain and revealed a high degree of spatial organisation in floodplain topography. Moran's I correlograms fit to the landscape of each metric at each window size revealed that patchiness existed at nearly all window sizes, but the strength and scale of patchiness changed within window size, suggesting that multiple scales of patchiness and patch structure exist in the topography of this floodplain. Scale thresholds in the spatial patterns were observed, particularly between the 50 and 100 m window sizes for all surface metrics and between the 500 and 750 m window sizes for most metrics. These threshold scales are ~ 15–20% and 150% of the main channel width (1–2% and 10–15% of the floodplain width), respectively. These thresholds may be related to structuring processes operating across distinct scale ranges. By coupling surface metrics, multi-scale analyses, and correlograms, quantifying floodplain topographic complexity is possible in ways that should assist in clarifying how floodplain ecosystems are structured.

  6. Combining MCDA and risk analysis: dealing with scaling issues in the multiplicative AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Rob; Salling, Kim Bang

    This paper proposes a new decision support system (DSS) for applying risk analysis and stochastic simulation to the multiplicative AHP in order to deal with issues concerning the progression factors. The multiplicative AHP makes use of direct rating on a logarithmic scale, and for this purpose...... the progression factor 2 is used for calculating scores of alternatives and √2 for calculation of criteria weights when transforming the verbal judgments stemming from pair wise comparisons. However, depending on the decision context, the decision-makers aversion towards risk, etc., it is most likely...... using a short, natural, and long scale, the proposed paper suggests a new approach in order to capture the influence from the progression factors in terms of including probability distributions. Herein, the uncertainty both with regard to the scale and the inherent randomness from the factor...

  7. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  8. Collective Influence of Multiple Spreaders Evaluated by Tracing Real Information Flow in Large-Scale Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Teng, Xian; Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the most influential spreaders that maximize information flow is a central question in network theory. Recently, a highly scalable method called "Collective Influence (CI)" has been put forward through collective influence maximization. In contrast to previous heuristic methods evaluating nodes' significance separately, CI method inspects the collective influence of multiple spreaders. Despite that CI applies to the influence maximization problem in percolation model, it is still important to examine its efficacy in realistic information spreading. Here, we examine real-world information flow in various social platforms including American Physical Society, Facebook, Twitter and LiveJournal. Since empirical data cannot be directly mapped to ideal multi-source spreading, we leverage the behavioral patterns of users extracted from data to construct "virtual" information spreading processes. Our consistent results demonstrate that the set of spreaders selected by CI indeed can induce larger scale of i...

  9. Multiple DNA Extractions Coupled with Stable-Isotope Probing of Anthracene-Degrading Bacteria in Contaminated Soil▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maiysha D.; Singleton, David R.; Sun, Wei; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    In many of the DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP) studies published to date in which soil communities were investigated, a single DNA extraction was performed on the soil sample, usually using a commercial DNA extraction kit, prior to recovering the 13C-labeled (heavy) DNA by density-gradient ultracentrifugation. Recent evidence suggests, however, that a single extraction of a soil sample may not lead to representative recovery of DNA from all of the organisms in the sample. To determine whether multiple DNA extractions would affect the DNA yield, the eubacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number, or the identification of anthracene-degrading bacteria, we performed seven successive DNA extractions on the same aliquot of contaminated soil either untreated or enriched with [U-13C]anthracene. Multiple extractions were necessary to maximize the DNA yield and 16S rRNA gene copy number from both untreated and anthracene-enriched soil samples. Sequences within the order Sphingomonadales, but unrelated to any previously described genus, dominated the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from 13C-enriched DNA and were designated “anthracene group 1.” Sequences clustering with Variovorax spp., which were also highly represented, and sequences related to the genus Pigmentiphaga were newly associated with anthracene degradation. The bacterial groups collectively identified across all seven extracts were all recovered in the first extract, although quantitative PCR analysis of SIP-identified groups revealed quantitative differences in extraction patterns. These results suggest that performing multiple DNA extractions on soil samples improves the extractable DNA yield and the number of quantifiable eubacterial 16S rRNA gene copies but have little qualitative effect on the identification of the bacterial groups associated with the degradation of a given carbon source by SIP. PMID:21398486

  10. Multiple DNA extractions coupled with stable-isotope probing of anthracene-degrading bacteria in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maiysha D; Singleton, David R; Sun, Wei; Aitken, Michael D

    2011-05-01

    In many of the DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP) studies published to date in which soil communities were investigated, a single DNA extraction was performed on the soil sample, usually using a commercial DNA extraction kit, prior to recovering the (13)C-labeled (heavy) DNA by density-gradient ultracentrifugation. Recent evidence suggests, however, that a single extraction of a soil sample may not lead to representative recovery of DNA from all of the organisms in the sample. To determine whether multiple DNA extractions would affect the DNA yield, the eubacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number, or the identification of anthracene-degrading bacteria, we performed seven successive DNA extractions on the same aliquot of contaminated soil either untreated or enriched with [U-(13)C]anthracene. Multiple extractions were necessary to maximize the DNA yield and 16S rRNA gene copy number from both untreated and anthracene-enriched soil samples. Sequences within the order Sphingomonadales, but unrelated to any previously described genus, dominated the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from (13)C-enriched DNA and were designated "anthracene group 1." Sequences clustering with Variovorax spp., which were also highly represented, and sequences related to the genus Pigmentiphaga were newly associated with anthracene degradation. The bacterial groups collectively identified across all seven extracts were all recovered in the first extract, although quantitative PCR analysis of SIP-identified groups revealed quantitative differences in extraction patterns. These results suggest that performing multiple DNA extractions on soil samples improves the extractable DNA yield and the number of quantifiable eubacterial 16S rRNA gene copies but have little qualitative effect on the identification of the bacterial groups associated with the degradation of a given carbon source by SIP.

  11. Anaesthetic Management of A Child with Multiple Congenital Anomalies Scheduled for Cataract Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Kulkarni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In infants& children variety of conditions and syndromes are associated with difficult Airway. Anaesthetic management becomes a challenge if it remains unrecognized until induction and sometimes results in disaster, leading to oropharyngeal trauma, laryngeal oedema, cardiovascular& neurological complications. A 4-month-old child with multiple congenital anomalies was posted for cataract extraction for early and better development of vision. He had history of post birth respiratory distress, difficulty in feeding, breath holding with delayed mile stones. He was treated as for Juvenile asthma. This child was induced with inhalation anaesthesia. There was difficulty in laryngoscopic intubation and could pass much smaller size of the tube than predicted. He developed post operative stridor and desaturation. The problems which we faced during the anaesthetic management and during postoperative period are discussed with this case.

  12. Rapid determination of moisture content in paper materials by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-04-22

    This paper describes a new method for the rapid determination of the moisture content in paper materials. The method is based on multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) at a temperature above the boiling point of water, from which an integrated water loss from the tested sample due to evaporation can be measured and from which the moisture content in the sample can be determined. The results show that the new method has a good precision (with the relative standard deviation <0.96%), high sensitivity (the limit of quantitation=0.005%) and good accuracy (the relative differences <1.4%). Therefore, the method is quite suitable for many uses in research and industrial applications.

  13. Pattern formation at multiple spatial scales drives the resilience of mussel bed ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Herman, Peter M J; Mooij, Wolf M; Huisman, Jef; Scheffer, Marten; Olff, Han; van de Koppel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Self-organized complexity at multiple spatial scales is a distinctive characteristic of biological systems. Yet, little is known about how different self-organizing processes operating at different spatial scales interact to determine ecosystem functioning. Here we show that the interplay between self-organizing processes at individual and ecosystem level is a key determinant of the functioning and resilience of mussel beds. In mussel beds, self-organization generates spatial patterns at two characteristic spatial scales: small-scale net-shaped patterns due to behavioural aggregation of individuals, and large-scale banded patterns due to the interplay of between-mussel facilitation and resource depletion. Model analysis reveals that the interaction between these behavioural and ecosystem-level mechanisms increases mussel bed resilience, enables persistence under deteriorating conditions and makes them less prone to catastrophic collapse. Our analysis highlights that interactions between different forms of self-organization at multiple spatial scales may enhance the intrinsic ability of ecosystems to withstand both natural and human-induced disturbances.

  14. Multiple Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System with Automatic Features Extraction Algorithm for Cervical Cancer Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Subhi Al-batah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, cancer of uterine cervix is still a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The current methods (i.e., Pap smear and liquid-based cytology (LBC to screen for cervical cancer are time-consuming and dependent on the skill of the cytopathologist and thus are rather subjective. Therefore, this paper presents an intelligent computer vision system to assist pathologists in overcoming these problems and, consequently, produce more accurate results. The developed system consists of two stages. In the first stage, the automatic features extraction (AFE algorithm is performed. In the second stage, a neuro-fuzzy model called multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (MANFIS is proposed for recognition process. The MANFIS contains a set of ANFIS models which are arranged in parallel combination to produce a model with multi-input-multioutput structure. The system is capable of classifying cervical cell image into three groups, namely, normal, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. The experimental results prove the capability of the AFE algorithm to be as effective as the manual extraction by human experts, while the proposed MANFIS produces a good classification performance with 94.2% accuracy.

  15. Microalgae based biorefinery: evaluation of oil extraction methods in terms of efficiency, costs, toxicity and energy in lab-scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Darío González-Delgado; Viatcheslav Kafarov

    2013-01-01

    Several alternatives of microalgal metabolites extraction and transformation are being studied for achieving the total utilization of this energy crop of great interest worldwide. Microalgae oil extraction is a key stage in microalgal biodiesel production chains and their efficiency affects significantly the global process efficiency. In this study, a comparison of five oil extraction methods in lab-scale was made taking as additional parameters, besides extraction efficiency, the costs of me...

  16. Quantification of Treatment Effect Modification on Both an Additive and Multiplicative Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girerd, Nicolas; Rabilloud, Muriel; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Roy, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In both observational and randomized studies, associations with overall survival are by and large assessed on a multiplicative scale using the Cox model. However, clinicians and clinical researchers have an ardent interest in assessing absolute benefit associated with treatments. In older patients, some studies have reported lower relative treatment effect, which might translate into similar or even greater absolute treatment effect given their high baseline hazard for clinical events. The effect of treatment and the effect modification of treatment were respectively assessed using a multiplicative and an additive hazard model in an analysis adjusted for propensity score in the context of coronary surgery. The multiplicative model yielded a lower relative hazard reduction with bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting in older patients (Hazard ratio for interaction/year = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00 to 1.06, p = 0.05) whereas the additive model reported a similar absolute hazard reduction with increasing age (Delta for interaction/year = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.27 to 0.46, p = 0.61). The number needed to treat derived from the propensity score-adjusted multiplicative model was remarkably similar at the end of the follow-up in patients aged 70. The present example demonstrates that a lower treatment effect in older patients on a relative scale can conversely translate into a similar treatment effect on an additive scale due to large baseline hazard differences. Importantly, absolute risk reduction, either crude or adjusted, can be calculated from multiplicative survival models. We advocate for a wider use of the absolute scale, especially using additive hazard models, to assess treatment effect and treatment effect modification.

  17. Quantification of Treatment Effect Modification on Both an Additive and Multiplicative Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Girerd

    Full Text Available In both observational and randomized studies, associations with overall survival are by and large assessed on a multiplicative scale using the Cox model. However, clinicians and clinical researchers have an ardent interest in assessing absolute benefit associated with treatments. In older patients, some studies have reported lower relative treatment effect, which might translate into similar or even greater absolute treatment effect given their high baseline hazard for clinical events.The effect of treatment and the effect modification of treatment were respectively assessed using a multiplicative and an additive hazard model in an analysis adjusted for propensity score in the context of coronary surgery.The multiplicative model yielded a lower relative hazard reduction with bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting in older patients (Hazard ratio for interaction/year = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00 to 1.06, p = 0.05 whereas the additive model reported a similar absolute hazard reduction with increasing age (Delta for interaction/year = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.27 to 0.46, p = 0.61. The number needed to treat derived from the propensity score-adjusted multiplicative model was remarkably similar at the end of the follow-up in patients aged 70.The present example demonstrates that a lower treatment effect in older patients on a relative scale can conversely translate into a similar treatment effect on an additive scale due to large baseline hazard differences. Importantly, absolute risk reduction, either crude or adjusted, can be calculated from multiplicative survival models. We advocate for a wider use of the absolute scale, especially using additive hazard models, to assess treatment effect and treatment effect modification.

  18. Multiple spatio-temporal scale modeling of composites subjected to cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Robert; Oskay, Caglar; Clay, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript presents a multiscale modeling methodology for failure analysis of composites subjected to cyclic loading conditions. Computational homogenization theory with multiple spatial and temporal scales is employed to devise the proposed methodology. Multiple spatial scales address the disparity between the length scale of material heterogeneities and the overall structure, whereas multiple temporal scales with almost periodic fields address the disparity between the load period and overall life under cyclic loading. The computational complexity of the multiscale modeling approach is reduced by employing a meso-mechanical model based on eigendeformation based homogenization with symmetric coefficients in the space domain, and an adaptive time stepping strategy based on a quadratic multistep method with error control in the time domain. The proposed methodology is employed to simulate the response of graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy composites. Model parameters are calibrated using a suite of experiments conducted on unidirectionally reinforced specimens subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading. The calibrated model is employed to predict damage progression in quasi-isotropic specimens. The capabilities of the model are validated using acoustic emission testing.

  19. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lilai, E-mail: llxu@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Gao, Peiqing, E-mail: peiqing15@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China); Cui, Shenghui, E-mail: shcui@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Chun, E-mail: xmhwlc@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  20. Effect of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) crude extract and chromatographic fractions on multiple activities in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S R; Carey, R A; Crofoot, K M; Proteau, P J; Filtz, T M

    2006-11-01

    Extracts of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) have become popular herbal supplements for their well-recognized cardiotonic effects. Many commercial preparations have been used successfully in the treatment of congestive heart failure, although the active principles within these extracts have yet to be conclusively identified. Several hawthorn preparations were studied and found to have negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay using unpaced cells. As compared to conventional cardiac drugs (i.e., epinephrine, milrinone, ouabain, or propranolol), hawthorn extract has a unique activity profile. Hawthorn extract appears to be anti-arrhythmic and capable of inducing rhythmicity in quiescent cardiomyocytes. Hawthorn extract does not cause beta-adrenergic receptor blockade at concentrations which cause negative chronotropic effects. Commercial hawthorn preparations, extracts prepared from dried leaves and those made from dried berries have similar chronotropic activities. When crude extracts are separated using size-exclusion chromatography, several fractions retain multiple cardiac activities. Assays with chromatographic fractions reveal that multiple dissimilar cardioactive components may exist within the extract, making the identification of individual active constituents more challenging.

  1. A Multiphysics Framework to Learn and Predict in Presence of Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomin, P.; Lunati, I.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling complex phenomena in the subsurface remains challenging due to the presence of multiple interacting scales, which can make it impossible to focus on purely macroscopic phenomena (relevant in most applications) and neglect the processes at the micro-scale. We present and discuss a general framework that allows us to deal with the situation in which the lack of scale separation requires the combined use of different descriptions at different scale (for instance, a pore-scale description at the micro-scale and a Darcy-like description at the macro-scale) [1,2]. The method is based on conservation principles and constructs the macro-scale problem by numerical averaging of micro-scale balance equations. By employing spatiotemporal adaptive strategies, this approach can efficiently solve large-scale problems [2,3]. In addition, being based on a numerical volume-averaging paradigm, it offers a tool to illuminate how macroscopic equations emerge from microscopic processes, to better understand the meaning of microscopic quantities, and to investigate the validity of the assumptions routinely used to construct the macro-scale problems. [1] Tomin, P., and I. Lunati, A Hybrid Multiscale Method for Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media, Journal of Computational Physics, 250, 293-307, 2013 [2] Tomin, P., and I. Lunati, Local-global splitting and spatiotemporal-adaptive Multiscale Finite Volume Method, Journal of Computational Physics, 280, 214-231, 2015 [3] Tomin, P., and I. Lunati, Spatiotemporal adaptive multiphysics simulations of drainage-imbibition cycles, Computational Geosciences, 2015 (under review)

  2. The many scales to cosmic homogeneity: Use of multiple tracers from the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prakash; Pandey, Biswajit; Kedia, Atul; Sarkar, Suman

    2016-01-01

    We carry out multifractal analyses of multiple tracers namely the main galaxy sample, the LRG sample and the quasar sample from the SDSS to test the assumption of cosmic homogeneity and identify the scale of transition to homogeneity, if any. We consider the behaviour of the scaled number counts and the scaling relations of different moments of the galaxy number counts in spheres of varying radius $R$ to calculate the spectrum of the Minkowski-Bouligand general dimension $D_{q} (R)$ for $-4 \\leq q \\leq 4$. The present analysis provides us the opportunity to study the spectrum of the generalized dimension $D_{q}(R)$ for multiple tracers of the cosmic density field over a wide range of length scales and allows us to confidently test the validity of the assumption of cosmic homogeneity. Our analysis indicates that the SDSS main galaxy sample is homogeneous on a length scales of $80\\, h^{-1}\\, {\\rm Mpc} $ and beyond whereas the SDSS quasar sample and the SDSS LRG sample show transition to homogeneity on an even l...

  3. Multiple-scale Proximal Sensor and Remote Imagery Technology for Sustaining Agricultural Productivity During Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, D. L.; Scudiero, E.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climatic patterns have had dramatic influence on agricultural areas worldwide, particularly in irrigated arid-zone agricultural areas subjected to recurring drought, such as California's San Joaquin Valley. Climate change has impacted water availability, which subsequently has impacted soil salinity levels in the root zone, especially on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley (WSJV). Inventorying and monitoring the extent of climate change on soil salinity is crucial to evaluate the extent of the problem, to recognize trends, and to formulate state-wide and field-scale irrigation management strategies that will sustain the agricultural productivity of the WSJV. Over the past 3 decades, Corwin and colleagues at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory have developed proximal sensor (i.e., electrical resistivity and electromagnetic induction) and remote imagery (i.e., MODIS and Landsat 7) methodologies for assessing soil salinity at multiple scales: field (0.5 ha to 3 km2), landscape (3 to 10 km2), and regional (10 to 105 km2) scales. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of these scale-dependent salinity assessment technologies. Case studies for the WSJV are presented to demonstrate at multiple scales the utility of these approaches in assessing soil salinity changes due to management-induced changes and to changes in climate patterns, and in providing site-specific irrigation management information for salinity control. Land resource managers, producers, agriculture consultants, extension specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of this information.

  4. Validation of the Serbian Version of Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale 88 (MSSS-88.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindi Z Rodic

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale (MSSS-88 has been developed for self-assessment of spasticity symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The objective of this study was to validate MSSS-88 and evaluate the psychometric properties in patients with MS in Serbia.The study comprised 65 MS patients with spasticity. MSSS-88 consists of 88 items grouped in eight sections. Internal consistency of the MSSS-88SR subscales was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Test/retest reliability with an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC for each MSSS-88SR subscale was performed. Clinical validity of MSSS-88SR was determined by correlations with the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS.The range of Cronbach's alpha for all scales and ICC was 0.91-0.96 and 0.84-0.91, respectively. All ICCs were statistically significant (p<0.05. All evaluated subscales of MSSS-88 were significantly correlated with the NRS scale. The highest correlation coefficients were registered between the WL subscale and the EDSS and MAS, while the strongest relationship was observed between the MSS subscale and the NRS.The Serbian translated version of this instrument may be useful as a clinical measure for spasticity and functionality in patients with MS.

  5. Lead Selenide Nanostructures Self-Assembled across Multiple Length Scales and Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan K. Wujcik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-assembly approach to lead selenide (PbSe structures that have organized across multiple length scales and multiple dimensions has been achieved. These structures consist of angstrom-scale 0D PbSe crystals, synthesized via a hot solution process, which have stacked into 1D nanorods via aligned dipoles. These 1D nanorods have arranged into nanoscale 2D sheets via directional short-ranged attraction. The nanoscale 2D sheets then further aligned into larger 2D microscale planes. In this study, the authors have characterized the PbSe structures via normal and cryo-TEM and EDX showing that this multiscale multidimensional self-assembled alignment is not due to drying effects. These PbSe structures hold promise for applications in advanced materials—particularly electronic technologies, where alignment can aid in device performance.

  6. Stability analysis of nonlinear systems by multiple time scaling. [using perturbation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, L.

    1974-01-01

    The asymptotic solution for the transient analysis of a general nonlinear system in the neighborhood of the stability boundary was obtained by using the multiple-time-scaling asymptotic-expansion method. The nonlinearities are assumed to be of algebraic nature. Terms of order epsilon to the 3rd power (where epsilon is the order of amplitude of the unknown) are included in the solution. The solution indicates that there is always a limit cycle which is stable (unstable) and exists above (below) the stability boundary if the nonlinear terms are stabilizing (destabilizing). Extension of the solution to include fifth order nonlinear terms is also presented. Comparisons with harmonic balance and with multiple-time-scaling solution of panel flutter equations are also included.

  7. Some Phenomena of the Interaction Between Vegetation and a Atmosphere on Multiple Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article studies the response of the distribution pattern and the physiological characteristics of the ecosystem to the spontaneous precipitation and the interaction between vegetation and the atmosphere on multiple scales in arid and semi-arid zones, based on measured data of the ecological physiological parameters in the Ordas Plateau of northern China. The results show that the vegetation biomass and the energy use efficiency of photosynthesis are especially sensitive to the annual precipitation; strong and complex interactions exist between the vegetation and the atmosphere on multiple scales leading to supernormal thermal heterogeneity of the underlying surface, the strong vortex movement and turbulence.This study can facilitate understanding of the land surface processes and the influences of global climate change as well as human activities on the human environment in the arid and semi-arid zones. It also aids in improving the parameterization schemes of turbulent fluxes of a heterogeneous underlying surface for land surface processes in climate models.

  8. A multiple-scale power series method for solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chein-Shan Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The power series solution is a cheap and effective method to solve nonlinear problems, like the Duffing-van der Pol oscillator, the Volterra population model and the nonlinear boundary value problems. A novel power series method by considering the multiple scales $R_k$ in the power term $(t/R_k^k$ is developed, which are derived explicitly to reduce the ill-conditioned behavior in the data interpolation. In the method a huge value times a tiny value is avoided, such that we can decrease the numerical instability and which is the main reason to cause the failure of the conventional power series method. The multiple scales derived from an integral can be used in the power series expansion, which provide very accurate numerical solutions of the problems considered in this paper.

  9. Multiple scales analysis and travelling wave solutions for KdV type nonlinear evolution equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Burcu; Ozer, M. Naci; Bekir, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear evolution equations are the mathematical models of problems that arise in many field of science. These equations has become an important field of study in applied mathematics in recent years. We apply exact solution methods and multiple scale method which is known as a perturbation method to nonlinear evolution equations. Using exact solution methods we get travelling wave solutions expressed by hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions and rational functions. Also we derive Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equations from Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type nonlinear evolution equations and we get approximate solutions for KdV type equations using multiple scale method. The proposed methods are direct and effective and can be used for many nonlinear evolution equations. It is shown that these methods provide a powerful mathematical tool to solve nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  10. Realizing the relaxion from multiple axions and its UV completion with high scale supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Im, Sang Hui

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a scheme to implement the relaxion solution to the hierarchy problem with multiple axions, and present a UV-completed model realizing the scheme. All of the N axions in our model are periodic with a similar decay constant f well below the Planck scale. In the limit N ≫ 1, the relaxion ϕ corresponds to an exponentially long multi-helical flat direction which is shaped by a series of mass mixing between nearby axions in the compact field space of N axions. With the length of flat direction given by Δ ϕ = 2 πf eff ˜ e ξN f for ξ = O(1) , both the scalar potential driving the evolution of φ during the inflationary epoch and the ϕ-dependent Higgs boson mass vary with an exponentially large periodicity of O{f}_{eff}) , while the back reaction potential stabilizing the relaxion has a periodicity of O(f) . A natural UV completion of our scheme can be found in high scale or (mini) split supersymmetry (SUSY) scenario with the axion scales generated by SUSY breaking as f˜ √{m_{SUSY}{M}_{ast }} , where the soft SUSY breaking scalar mass m SUSY can be well above the weak scale, and the fundamental scale M * can be identified as the Planck scale or the GUT scale.

  11. Spatially varying relationships between land-cover change and driving factors at multiple sampling scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shihong; Wang, Qiao; Guo, Luo

    2014-05-01

    Modeling the relationships between environment, human activity, and natural conditions is very important for understanding human-environment interactions. This study aims at examining how these relationships vary over spatial sampling scales and investigating the spatially varying relationships between land-cover changes and driving factors, as well as the variations in the relationships at different sampling scales in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province, P.R. China. Regular sampling methods are used first to generate eight sets of data points at different scales, and then the values for land-cover changes and the factors are extracted for these data points. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) model is applied to analyze the relationships between land-cover changes and the factors at different sampling scales. The results indicate that the influences of the factors (e.g. the signs, significances, and values of coefficients) change greatly over different sampling scales; similarly, for different types of land-cover changes, the contributions of the factors also vary. Generally, roads, rivers, and lakes contribute greatly to land-cover changes, while villages, temples, and elevations contribute less. A possible reason is that the densities of roads, rivers, and lakes is much greater than those of villages and temples, and the populations in temples and villages are too small to have much effect on land-cover changes. The results demonstrate that the sampling scales have an important influence on the relationships between land-cover change and the factors.

  12. Comparative water use of native and invasive plants at multiple scales: a global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Sack, Lawren

    2010-09-01

    Ecohydrology and invasive ecology have become increasingly important in the context of global climate change. This study presents the first in-depth analysis of the water use of invasive and native plants of the same growth form at multiple scales: leaf, plant, and ecosystem. We reanalyzed data for several hundred native and invasive species from over 40 published studies worldwide to glean global trends and to highlight how patterns vary depending on both scale and climate. We analyzed all pairwise combinations of co-occurring native and invasive species for higher comparative resolution of the likelihood of an invasive species using more water than a native species and tested for significance using bootstrap methods. At each scale, we found several-fold differences in water use between specific paired invasive and native species. At the leaf scale, we found a strong tendency for invasive species to have greater stomatal conductance than native species. At the plant scale, however, natives and invasives were equally likely to have the higher sap flow rates. Available data were much fewer for the ecosystem scale; nevertheless, we found that invasive-dominated ecosystems were more likely to have higher sap flow rates per unit ground area than native-dominated ecosystems. Ecosystem-scale evapotranspiration, on the other hand, was equally likely to be greater for systems dominated by invasive and native species of the same growth form. The inherent disconnects in the determination of water use when changing scales from leaf to plant to ecosystem reveal hypotheses for future studies and a critical need for more ecosystem-scale water use measurements in invasive- vs. native-dominated systems. The differences in water use of native and invasive species also depended strongly on climate, with the greater water use of invasives enhanced in hotter, wetter climates at the coarser scales.

  13. Seed harvesting by a generalist consumer is context-dependent: Interactive effects across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Klinger, Rob

    2013-01-01

    multiple scales. Associational effects provide a useful theoretical basis for better understanding harvester ant foraging decisions. These results demonstrate the importance of ecological context for seed removal, which has implications for seed pools, plant populations and communities.

  14. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva D. Bhatter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome, Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf, Piper nigrum L. (seed, and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549 infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity.

  15. Gauge-invariant perturbations at second order: multiple scalar fields on large scales

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, K A

    2005-01-01

    We derive the governing equations for multiple scalar fields minimally coupled to gravity in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background spacetime on large scales. We include scalar perturbations up to second order and write the equations in terms of physically transparent gauge-invariant variables at first and second order. This allows us to write the perturbed Klein-Gordon equation at second order solely in terms of the field fluctuations on flat slices at first and second order.

  16. A multiple-time-scale turbulence model based on variable partitioning of turbulent kinetic energy spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents a multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method. Consideration is given to a class of turbulent boundary layer flows and of separated and/or swirling elliptic turbulent flows. For the separated and/or swirling turbulent flows, the present turbulence model yielded significantly improved computational results over those obtained with the standard k-epsilon turbulence model.

  17. A Computational Program for Multiple Scale Analysis of Failure in Non-Uniform Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    interaction, Ohio Su- percomputer Center on Materials for National Security, Santa FE, New Mexico , May, 2005 4. S. Ghosh Multiple Scale Modeling for...stresses and displacements as: H (u ij, , Aufs,0ui, Aucr) = - j AB(Orij, Arij)dQ - cjAojjdQ ± j (o,, ± Acrij)nf u + AuE)da9Q - j (E, + AUE)( udi 2 2 (±rj

  18. Parametric macromodelling of linear high-frequency systems using multiple frequency scaling and sequential sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Chemmangat Manakkal Cheriya, Krishnan; Ferranti, Francesco; Dhaene, Tom; Knockaert, Luc

    2014-01-01

    An enhanced parametric macromodelling scheme is presented for linear high-frequency systems based on the use of multiple frequency scaling coefficients and a sequential sampling algorithm to fully automate the entire modelling process. The proposed method is applied on a ring resonator bandpass filter example and compared with another state-of-the-art macromodelling method to show its improved modelling capability and reduced setup time.

  19. Acoustic Resonance Classification of Swimbladder-Bearing Fish at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    Multiple Scales Timothy K. Stanton Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Bigelow201,MS#ll Woods ...Water Street Woods Hole, MA 02543 e-mail: michael.jech@noaa.gov Roger C. Gauss Code 7164 Acoustics Division Naval Research Laboratory...NUWC ( Wendy Petersen—2010 cruise participant—and Jenna McKown) in determining the potential impact of bioclutter on Navy automated trackers, and the

  20. Community males show multiple-perpetrator rape proclivity: development and preliminary validation of an interest scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Wood, Jane L

    2014-02-01

    The literature on Multiple Perpetrator Rape (MPR) is scant; however, a significant proportion of sexual offending involves multiple perpetrators. In addition to the need for research with apprehended offenders of MPR, there is also a need to conduct research with members of the general public. Recent advances in the forensic literature have led to the development of self-report proclivity scales. These scales have enabled researchers to conduct evaluative studies sampling from members of the general public who may be perpetrators of sexual offenses and have remained undetected, or at highest risk of engaging in sexual offending. The current study describes the development and preliminary validation of the Multiple-Perpetrator Rape Interest Scale (M-PRIS), a vignette-based measure assessing community males' sexual arousal to MPR, behavioral propensity toward MPR and enjoyment of MPR. The findings show that the M-PRIS is a reliable measure of community males' sexual interest in MPR with high internal reliability and temporal stability. In a sample of university males we found that a large proportion (66%) did not emphatically reject an interest in MPR. We also found that rape-supportive cognitive distortions, antisocial attitudes, and high-risk sexual fantasies were predictors of sexual interest in MPR. We discuss these findings and the implications for further research employing proclivity measures referencing theory development and clinical practice.

  1. Delay-induced multiple stochastic resonances on scale-free neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyun; Perc, Matjaz; Duan, Zhisheng; Chen, Guanrong

    2009-06-01

    We study the effects of periodic subthreshold pacemaker activity and time-delayed coupling on stochastic resonance over scale-free neuronal networks. As the two extreme options, we introduce the pacemaker, respectively, to the neuron with the highest degree and to one of the neurons with the lowest degree within the network, but we also consider the case when all neurons are exposed to the periodic forcing. In the absence of delay, we show that an intermediate intensity of noise is able to optimally assist the pacemaker in imposing its rhythm on the whole ensemble, irrespective to its placing, thus providing evidences for stochastic resonance on the scale-free neuronal networks. Interestingly thereby, if the forcing in form of a periodic pulse train is introduced to all neurons forming the network, the stochastic resonance decreases as compared to the case when only a single neuron is paced. Moreover, we show that finite delays in coupling can significantly affect the stochastic resonance on scale-free neuronal networks. In particular, appropriately tuned delays can induce multiple stochastic resonances independently of the placing of the pacemaker, but they can also altogether destroy stochastic resonance. Delay-induced multiple stochastic resonances manifest as well-expressed maxima of the correlation measure, appearing at every multiple of the pacemaker period. We argue that fine-tuned delays and locally active pacemakers are vital for assuring optimal conditions for stochastic resonance on complex neuronal networks.

  2. Grape skin extract mitigates tissue degeneration, genotoxicity, and oxidative status in multiple organs of rats exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiago Gollucke, Andrea P; Claudio, Samuel R; Yamamura, Hirochi; Morais, Damila R; Bataglion, Giovana A; Eberlin, Marcos N; Aguiar, Odair; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether grape skin extract can mitigate the noxious activities induced by cadmium exposure in multiple organs of rats. For this purpose, histopathological analysis for the liver, genotoxicity, and oxidative status in the blood and liver were investigated in this setting. A total of 20 Wistar rats weighing 250 g, on average, and 8 weeks of age were distributed into four groups (n=5) as follows: control group (nontreated group); cadmium group (Cd); and grape skin extract groups (Cd+GS) at 175 or 350 mg/l. Histopathological analysis in liver showed that animals treated with grape skin extract showed improved tissue degeneration induced by cadmium intoxication. Genetic damage was reduced in blood and hepatocytes as indicated by comet and micronucleus assays in animals treated with grape skin extract. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and cytochrome c gene expression increased in groups treated with grape skin extract in liver cells. Grape skin extract also reduced the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in liver cells compared with the cadmium group. Taken together, our results indicate that grape skin extract can mitigate tissue degeneration, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress induced by cadmium exposure in multiple organs of Wistar rats.

  3. HIV viral load scale-up: multiple interventions to meet the HIV treatment cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Sergio; Peter, Trevor; Berrie, Leigh

    2017-03-01

    In 2015, the WHO urged countries to provide ART to all people living with HIV, irrespective of their CD4 cell count, this new recommendation supports the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS elimination targets. However, to meet these aims, urgent scale-up of viral load testing is critical. The multiple interventions in the healthcare system required to support scale-up of viral load testing are reviewed here. It is estimated that 18.2 million individuals are accessing antiretroviral therapy, consequently this will cause significant demand for viral load monitoring; however, at the current rate of implementation, demand will not meet the required target by 2020. To change this trajectory, multiple stakeholders must be involved, communities and key populations need increased treatment literacy to create demand and greater numbers of healthcare workers will require training. In addition, laboratories and point-of-care testing sites will need to be expanded, and adequate monitoring and evaluation tools will need to be put in place to identify gaps in the system, to institute prompt corrective actions and to direct resources where needed. Sufficient scale-up of viral load may well be possible if innovations in mHealth are used to support healthcare workers and patients with regard to the scale-up and effective use of viral load monitoring; new laboratory technologies are implemented, both at a centralized level and point-of-care, to manage higher volumes and improve coverage; and there is careful coordination between implementing partners and funders.

  4. Multiple time scales in modeling the incidence of infections acquired in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wolkewitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When patients are admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU their risk of getting an infection will be highly depend on the length of stay at-risk in the ICU. In addition, risk of infection is likely to vary over calendar time as a result of fluctuations in the prevalence of the pathogen on the ward. Hence risk of infection is expected to depend on two time scales (time in ICU and calendar time as well as competing events (discharge or death and their spatial location. The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply appropriate statistical models for the risk of ICU-acquired infection accounting for multiple time scales, competing risks and the spatial clustering of the data. Methods A multi-center data base from a Spanish surveillance network was used to study the occurrence of an infection due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The analysis included 84,843 patient admissions between January 2006 and December 2011 from 81 ICUs. Stratified Cox models were used to study multiple time scales while accounting for spatial clustering of the data (patients within ICUs and for death or discharge as competing events for MRSA infection. Results Both time scales, time in ICU and calendar time, are highly associated with the MRSA hazard rate and cumulative risk. When using only one basic time scale, the interpretation and magnitude of several patient-individual risk factors differed. Risk factors concerning the severity of illness were more pronounced when using only calendar time. These differences disappeared when using both time scales simultaneously. Conclusions The time-dependent dynamics of infections is complex and should be studied with models allowing for multiple time scales. For patient individual risk-factors we recommend stratified Cox regression models for competing events with ICU time as the basic time scale and calendar time as a covariate. The inclusion of calendar time and stratification by ICU

  5. Hierarchical approach to optimization of parallel matrix multiplication on large-scale platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hasanov, Khalid

    2014-03-04

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Many state-of-the-art parallel algorithms, which are widely used in scientific applications executed on high-end computing systems, were designed in the twentieth century with relatively small-scale parallelism in mind. Indeed, while in 1990s a system with few hundred cores was considered a powerful supercomputer, modern top supercomputers have millions of cores. In this paper, we present a hierarchical approach to optimization of message-passing parallel algorithms for execution on large-scale distributed-memory systems. The idea is to reduce the communication cost by introducing hierarchy and hence more parallelism in the communication scheme. We apply this approach to SUMMA, the state-of-the-art parallel algorithm for matrix–matrix multiplication, and demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the modified Hierarchical SUMMA significantly improves the communication cost and the overall performance on large-scale platforms.

  6. Novel evidence for within-species leaf economics spectrum at multiple spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kun eHu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf economics spectrum (LES, characterizing covariation among a suite of leaf traits relevant to carbon and nutrient economics, has been examined largely among species but hardly within species. In addition, very little attempt has been made to examine whether the existence of LES depends on spatial scales. To address these questions, we quantified the variation and covariation of four leaf economic traits (specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus contents in a cosmopolitan wetland species (Phragmites australis at three spatial (inter-regional, regional and site scales across most of the species range in China. The species expressed large intraspecific variation in the leaf economic traits at all of the three spatial scales. It also showed strong covariation among the four leaf economic traits across the species range. The coordination among leaf economic traits resulted in LES at all three scales and the environmental variables determining variation in leaf economic traits were different among the spatial scales. Our results provide novel evidence for within-species LES at multiple spatial scales, indicating that resource trade-off could also constrain intraspecific trait variation mainly driven by climatic and/or edaphic differences.

  7. Multiple QTL Determine Dorsal Abdominal Scale Patterns in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akio; Tsuda, Yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro; Higa, Yukiko; Severson, David W

    2016-09-01

    The mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) originated in Sub-Saharan Africa as a dark form sylvan species (A. aegypti formosus). Evolution of A. aegypti aegypti type form as a human commensal facilitated its colonization of most semitropical and tropical areas. We investigated the genetic basis for abdominal white scale presence that represents the diagnostic for sylvan A. aegypti formosus (scales absent), from type form (scales present) and A. aegypti queenslandensis form (dense scaling). We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using 3 criteria for scale patterns among 192 F1 intercross progeny from matings between a queenslandensis type and an aegypti type form. Results identified 3 QTL determining scale patterns and indicated that classification criteria impact robustness of QTL LOD support. Dark- and light-colored forms exist in sympatry, but vary in multiple phenotypic characteristics, including preferences for vertebrate host, oviposition container, house-entering behavior, and dengue vector competence. Markers associated with 2 QTL regions reflected major reductions in recombination frequencies compared with the standard type form linkage map, suggestive of inversion polymorphisms associated with observed linkage disequilibrium between type-specific characteristics. Understanding the genic basis for differences in A. aegypti forms could inform efforts to develop new mosquito and arboviral disease control strategies. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Extracting hand articulations from monocular depth images using curvature scale space descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-fan WANG[1; Chun LI[1; De-hui KONG[1; Bao-cai YIN[2,1,3

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework of hand articulation detection from a monocular depth image using curvature scale space (CSS) descriptors. We extract the hand contour from an input depth image, and obtain the fingertips and finger-valleys of the contour using the local extrema of a modified CSS map of the contour. Then we recover the undetected fingertips according to the local change of depths of points in the interior of the contour. Compared with traditional appearance-based approaches using either angle detectors or convex hull detectors, the modified CSS descriptor extracts the fingertips and finger-valleys more precisely since it is more robust to noisy or corrupted data; moreover, the local extrema of depths recover the fingertips of bending fingers well while traditional appearance-based approaches hardly work without matching models of hands. Experimental results show that our method captures the hand articulations more precisely compared with three state-of-the-art appearance-based approaches.

  9. Extracting hand articulations from monocular depth images using curvature scale space descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-fan WANG; Chun LI; De-hui KONG; Bao-cai YIN

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework of hand articulation detection from a monocular depth image using curvature scale space (CSS) descriptors. We extract the hand contour from an input depth image, and obtain the fingertips and finger-valleys of the contour using the local extrema of a modified CSS map of the contour. Then we recover the undetected fingertips according to the local change of depths of points in the interior of the contour. Compared with traditional appearance-based approaches using either angle detectors or convex hull detectors, the modified CSS descriptor extracts the fingertips and finger-valleys more precisely since it is more robust to noisy or corrupted data;moreover, the local extrema of depths recover the fingertips of bending fingers well while traditional appearance-based approaches hardly work without matching models of hands. Experimental results show that our method captures the hand articulations more precisely compared with three state-of-the-art appearance-based approaches.

  10. Salient Object Extraction Using Multilevel Gray Scale Quantization and Image Smoothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akram Tallha; HaiderAli Sajjad

    2013-01-01

    A novel multi level image segmentation methodology is been proposed with the aim of extracting the salient object,keeping in view,only a small part of the visual scene undergoes attention and reaches the level of awareness while rest of details are futile.Taking advantage of multilevel gray scale quantization,image prominent object is separated from background,keeping in view the fact; salient object is having high contrast as compared to the background.The inutile fragments were removed using morphological operations of opening and closing and making the image smoothened with Gaussian filter.The optimum threshold is selected for the binary conversion and final extrication of the salient object from the image.The experimental data indicates that hybrid approach leads to improved segmentation with the apparent assertion of prime object extraction.

  11. Multiple treatment of propolis extract ameliorates carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Monika; Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2008-08-01

    Propolis, a resinous wax-like beehive product has been used as a traditional remedy for various diseases due to a variety of biological activities of this folk medicine. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to validate hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of propolis (50-400mg/kg, p.o.) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4,) 0.5 ml/kg, p.o.) induced acute liver injury in rats. Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug was used as a positive control. Administration of CCl(4) altered various diagnostically important biochemical variables. Multiple treatment of propolis significantly prevented the release of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, urea and uric acid in serum; improved the activity of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes, i.e., aniline hydroxylase and amidopyrine-N-demethylase; significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation and markedly enhanced glutathione in liver and kidney as well as brought altered carbohydrate contents (blood sugar and tissue glycogen), protein contents (serum, microsomal and tissue protein) and lipid contents (serum and tissue triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total and esterified cholesterol in tissue) towards control. Propolis treatment also reversed CCl(4) induced severe alterations in histoarchitecture of liver and kidney in a dose dependent manner. Hepatoprotective activity of propolis at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was statistically compared to silymarin and found that propolis exhibited better effectiveness than silymarin in certain parameters, concluded its hepatoprotective potential.

  12. Biogeophysical feedbacks trigger shifts in the modelled vegetation-atmosphere system at multiple scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Dekker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial vegetation influences climate by modifying the radiative-, momentum-, and hydrologic-balance. This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on the question whether positive biogeophysical feedbacks between vegetation and climate may lead to multiple equilibria in vegetation and climate and consequent abrupt regime shifts. Several modelling studies argue that vegetation-climate feedbacks at local to regional scales could be strong enough to establish multiple states in the climate system. An Earth Model of Intermediate Complexity, PlaSim, is used to investigate the resilience of the climate system to vegetation disturbance at regional to global scales. We hypothesize that by starting with two extreme initialisations of biomass, positive vegetation-climate feedbacks will keep the vegetation-atmosphere system within different attraction domains. Indeed, model integrations starting from different initial biomass distributions diverged to clearly distinct climate-vegetation states in terms of abiotic (precipitation and temperature and biotic (biomass variables. Moreover, we found that between these states there are several other steady states which depend on the scale of perturbation. From here global susceptibility maps were made showing regions of low and high resilience. The model results suggest that mainly the boreal and monsoon regions have low resiliences, i.e. instable biomass equilibria, with positive vegetation-climate feedbacks in which the biomass induced by a perturbation is further enforced. The perturbation did not only influence single vegetation-climate cell interactions but also caused changes in spatial patterns of atmospheric circulation due to neighbouring cells constituting in spatial vegetation-climate feedbacks. Large perturbations could trigger an abrupt shift of the system towards another steady state. Although the model setup used in our simulation is rather simple, our results stress that the coupling of

  13. Biophysical and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Forest Transitions at Multiple Spatial and Temporal Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. Yackulic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest transitions (FT occur when socioeconomic development leads to a shift from net deforestation to reforestation; these dynamics have been observed in multiple countries across the globe, including the island of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. Starting in the 1950s, Puerto Rico transitioned from an agrarian to a manufacturing and service economy reliant on food imports, leading to extensive reforestation. In recent years, however, net reforestation has leveled off. Here we examine the drivers of forest transition in Puerto Rico from 1977 to 2000 at two subnational, nested spatial scales (municipality and barrio and over two time periods (1977-1991 and 1991-2000. This study builds on previous work by considering the social and biophysical factors that influence both reforestation and deforestation at multiple spatial and temporal scales. By doing so within one analysis, this study offers a comprehensive understanding of the relative importance of various social and biophysical factors for forest transitions and the scales at which they are manifest. Biophysical factors considered in these analyses included slope, soil quality, and land-cover in the surrounding landscape. We also considered per capita income, population density, and the extent of protected areas as potential factors associated with forest change. Our results show that, in the 1977-1991 period, biophysical factors that exhibit variation at municipality scales (~100 km² were more important predictors of forest change than socioeconomic factors. In this period, forest dynamics were driven primarily by abandonment of less productive, steep agricultural land in the western, central part of the island. These factors had less predictive power at the smaller barrio scale (~10 km² relative to the larger municipality scale during this time period. The relative importance of socioeconomic variables for deforestation, however, increased over time as development pressures on available land

  14. Orthodontic Management with Traction and Asymmetric Extraction for Multiple Impacted Permanent Maxillary Teeth – A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qiannan; Zhang, Liang; Dai, Juan; Li, Feifei; Feng, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Multiple impacted teeth are a rare eruption disturbance that increases the case complexity. In this article, we described a 13-year-old boy whose 5 permanent maxillary teeth were not erupted although their root formation was complete. The orthodontic treatment with traction and asymmetric extraction was performed to achieve a significantly improved functional and esthetic result. PMID:27857816

  15. Two novel extraction chromatography resins containing multiple diglycolamide-functionalized ligands: preparations, characterization and actinide uptake properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansari, S.A.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Iqbal, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Two extraction chromatography resins were prepared for the first time by impregnating multiple diglycolamide-functionalized ligands such as diglycolamide-calix[4]arene (C4DGA) and tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) on Chromosorb-W, an inert solid support, for the removal of hazardous actinides like Am(I

  16. Extracting physical properties of arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, Martin, E-mail: mh@nus.edu.sg [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Kluska, Sven [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Hameiri, Ziv; Hoex, Bram [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)

    2013-12-23

    We present a method that allows the extraction of relevant physical properties such as sheet resistance and dopant profile from arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas formed in semiconductors with a focused pulsed laser beam. The key feature of the method is to use large laser-doped areas with an identical average number of laser pulses per area (laser pulse density) as the arbitrarily shaped areas. The method is verified using sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped silicon samples. Furthermore, the method is extended to doping with continuous-wave lasers by using the average number of passes per area or density of passes.

  17. Outcome assessment of stroke convalescence using multiple scales based on different dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingrong Lao; Xinfeng Guo; Shilong Lai; Weixiong Liang; Zehuai Wen; Qi Wang; Peixin Huang; Yan Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Convalescence is an important stage of stroke treatment. A lot of patients have somatic and mental disorders at various degrees. The primary standard can only reflect partial conditions of somatic disorder; in addition, multiple dimensions of patients at the phase of stroke convalescence are further observed by using a lot of standards, such as signs and symptoms of traditional Chinese medicine, daily activity and psychological status.OBJECTTVE: To analyze the outcome assessments of the cases of stroke convalescence measured with different criteria consisting of various dimensions by a cross-sectional investigation of the condition of stroke convalescent patients.DESIGN : Scale evaluation.SETTING: Departments of Clinical Epidemiology Exploratory Development and Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; National Center for Training of Design, Measurement and Evaluation in Clinical Research,Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 194 stroke convalescent patients treated in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from July 26, 2000 to February 28, 2001 were taken as subjects of the study. There were 126 males and 68 females aged from 40 to 89 years, and the illness course ranged from 14 to 181 days. All patients met diagnosis-treatment criteria of stroke (the second version)[DTCS(V2.0)] and various kinds of diagnostic points of cerebrovascular diseases; moreover, all patients provided confirmed consents.METHODS: They were assessed by assessment methods including the following assessment instruments:DTCS(V2.0), self-designed scale of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptoms (28 symptoms and physical signs were scored as 0, 1, 2 marks from none to severity), modified Edinburgh-Scandinavia stroke scale (a total of 45 marks, 0 to 15 marks as mild defect, 16 to 30 as moderate defect, 31 to 45 as severe defect

  18. Effects of ultrasound-assisted α-amylase degradation treatment with multiple modes on the extraction of rice protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Li, Yunliang; Li, Suyun; Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Wang, Yucheng; Huang, Shanfen; Zhou, Cunshan; Ye, Xiaofei; Ma, Haile; Duan, Yuqing

    2018-01-01

    The effects of ultrasound-assisted α-amylase degradation (UAD) treatment with multiple modes on the extraction of rice protein (RP) from rice dreg powder were studied. The results showed that UAD treatment increased protein extraction rate significantly (pextraction rate compared to that of simultaneous or single frequency ultrasound treatment. The highest protein extraction rate was obtained under 20/35kHz of sequential frequency UAD treatment with the protein extraction rate of 89.58% and protein purity of 92.99%. The test and analysis of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, starch content, non-protein nitrogen content, SH and SS content, surface hydrophobicity, amino acids content and proteins characteristics were studied to reveal the mechanism of UAD on the protein extraction effect. After treated with UAD, the starch-protein agglomerates disintegrated completely, moreover, protein advanced structure was changed to some extent and the disulfide bond was partially broken, but the main chain structure (peptide chain), specificity of protein and amino acid composition were not obviously changed. Consequently, the structure modified RP extracted by UAD treatment presented higher solubility, emulsifying activity and foaming capacity, which was beneficial for the application of RP. In conclusion, UAD treatment is an effective method for maximizing extraction rate, purity and modifying properties of extracted protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microalgae based biorefinery: evaluation of oil extraction methods in terms of efficiency, costs, toxicity and energy in lab-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Darío González-Delgado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several alternatives of microalgal metabolites extraction and transformation are being studied for achieving the total utilization of this energy crop of great interest worldwide. Microalgae oil extraction is a key stage in microalgal biodiesel production chains and their efficiency affects significantly the global process efficiency. In this study, a comparison of five oil extraction methods in lab-scale was made taking as additional parameters, besides extraction efficiency, the costs of method performing, energy requirements, and toxicity of solvents used, in order to elucidate the convenience of their incorporation to a microalgae-based topology of biorefinery. Methods analyzed were Solvent extraction assisted with high speed homogenization (SHE, Continuous reflux solvent extraction (CSE, Hexane based extraction (HBE, Cyclohexane based extraction (CBE and Ethanol-hexane extraction (EHE, for this evaluation were used the microalgae strains Nannochloropsis sp., Guinardia sp., Closterium sp., Amphiprora sp. and Navicula sp., obtained from a Colombian microalgae bioprospecting. In addition, morphological response of strains to oil extraction methods was also evaluated by optic microscopy. Results shows that although there is not a unique oil extraction method which excels in all parameters evaluated, CSE, SHE and HBE appears as promising alternatives, while HBE method is shown as the more convenient for using in lab-scale and potentially scalable for implementation in a microalgae based biorefinery

  20. Comparison of three solutions to correct erroneous blocks to extract an image of a multiplicative homomorphic cryptosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, N.; Puech, W.; Brouzet, R.

    2011-02-01

    Multiplicative homomorphic properties of a cryptosystem can be used in various applications requiring security, protection and authentication e.g. digital fingerprinting, electronic voting, on line betting etc. Secret sharing between two or more parties exploiting multiplicative homomorphic property of RSA results into erroneous blocks while extracting the message. The generation of these erroneous blocks limits the capabilities of homomorphic properties of RSA to be used in its full extend. This paper provides three different approaches as solutions to the problem of erroneous blocks in image. These solutions are: mean value approach, shortest distance approach and image preprocessing approach. It has been observed that shortest distance approach results into good PSNR but it is computationally expensive. The best approach with high PSNR is image preprocessing approach before sharing process, which results into no erroneous blocks in the extracted image, thus no extra extraction techniques are required.

  1. Single or multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical or chemical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Yinghang [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Gong, Yubing, E-mail: gongyubing09@hotmail.co [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Wang Li; Ma Xiaoguang; Yang Chuanlu [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Single synchronization transition for gap-junctional coupling. Multiple synchronization transitions for chemical synaptic coupling. Gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on synchronization transition. Chemical synapses may play a dominant role in neurons' information processing. - Abstract: In this paper, we have studied time delay- and coupling strength-induced synchronization transitions in scale-free modified Hodgkin-Huxley (MHH) neuron networks with gap-junctions and chemical synaptic coupling. It is shown that the synchronization transitions are much different for these two coupling types. For gap-junctions, the neurons exhibit a single synchronization transition with time delay and coupling strength, while for chemical synapses, there are multiple synchronization transitions with time delay, and the synchronization transition with coupling strength is dependent on the time delay lengths. For short delays we observe a single synchronization transition, whereas for long delays the neurons exhibit multiple synchronization transitions as the coupling strength is varied. These results show that gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on the pattern formation and synchronization transitions of the scale-free MHH neuronal networks, and chemical synapses, compared to gap junctions, may play a dominant and more active function in the firing activity of the networks. These findings would be helpful for further understanding the roles of gap junctions and chemical synapses in the firing dynamics of neuronal networks.

  2. Skin and scales of teleost fish: Simple structure but high performance and multiple functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernerey, Franck J.; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-08-01

    Natural and man-made structural materials perform similar functions such as structural support or protection. Therefore they rely on the same types of properties: strength, robustness, lightweight. Nature can therefore provide a significant source of inspiration for new and alternative engineering designs. We report here some results regarding a very common, yet largely unknown, type of biological material: fish skin. Within a thin, flexible and lightweight layer, fish skins display a variety of strain stiffening and stabilizing mechanisms which promote multiple functions such as protection, robustness and swimming efficiency. We particularly discuss four important features pertaining to scaled skins: (a) a strongly elastic tensile behavior that is independent from the presence of rigid scales, (b) a compressive response that prevents buckling and wrinkling instabilities, which are usually predominant for thin membranes, (c) a bending response that displays nonlinear stiffening mechanisms arising from geometric constraints between neighboring scales and (d) a robust structure that preserves the above characteristics upon the loss or damage of structural elements. These important properties make fish skin an attractive model for the development of very thin and flexible armors and protective layers, especially when combined with the high penetration resistance of individual scales. Scaled structures inspired by fish skin could find applications in ultra-light and flexible armor systems, flexible electronics or the design of smart and adaptive morphing structures for aerospace vehicles.

  3. The function of communities in protein interaction networks at multiple scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Nick S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If biology is modular then clusters, or communities, of proteins derived using only protein interaction network structure should define protein modules with similar biological roles. We investigate the link between biological modules and network communities in yeast and its relationship to the scale at which we probe the network. Results Our results demonstrate that the functional homogeneity of communities depends on the scale selected, and that almost all proteins lie in a functionally homogeneous community at some scale. We judge functional homogeneity using a novel test and three independent characterizations of protein function, and find a high degree of overlap between these measures. We show that a high mean clustering coefficient of a community can be used to identify those that are functionally homogeneous. By tracing the community membership of a protein through multiple scales we demonstrate how our approach could be useful to biologists focusing on a particular protein. Conclusions We show that there is no one scale of interest in the community structure of the yeast protein interaction network, but we can identify the range of resolution parameters that yield the most functionally coherent communities, and predict which communities are most likely to be functionally homogeneous.

  4. Interplay between multiple length and time scales in complex chemical systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biman Bagchi; Charusita Chakravarty

    2010-07-01

    Processes in complex chemical systems, such as macromolecules, electrolytes, interfaces, micelles and enzymes, can span several orders of magnitude in length and time scales. The length and time scales of processes occurring over this broad time and space window are frequently coupled to give rise to the control necessary to ensure specificity and the uniqueness of the chemical phenomena. A combination of experimental, theoretical and computational techniques that can address a multiplicity of length and time scales is required in order to understand and predict structure and dynamics in such complex systems. This review highlights recent experimental developments that allow one to probe structure and dynamics at increasingly smaller length and time scales. The key theoretical approaches and computational strategies for integrating information across time-scales are discussed. The application of these ideas to understand phenomena in various areas, ranging from materials science to biology, is illustrated in the context of current developments in the areas of liquids and solvation, protein folding and aggregation and phase transitions, nucleation and self-assembly.

  5. Psychometric performance of a generic walking scale (Walk-12G) in multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladh, Stina; Nilsson, Maria H; Hariz, Gun-Marie; Westergren, Albert; Hobart, Jeremy; Hagell, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Walking difficulties are common in neurological and other disorders, as well as among the elderly. There is a need for reliable and valid instruments for measuring walking difficulties in everyday life since existing gait tests are clinician rated and focus on situation specific capacity. The Walk-12G was adapted from the 12-item multiple sclerosis walking scale as a generic patient-reported rating scale for walking difficulties in everyday life. The aim of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Walk-12G in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The Walk-12G was translated into Swedish and evaluated qualitatively among 25 people with and without various neurological and other conditions. Postal survey (MS, n = 199; PD, n = 189) and clinical (PD, n = 36) data were used to test its psychometric properties. Respondents considered the Walk-12G relevant and easy to use. Mean completion time was 3.5 min. Data completeness was good (0.6). Coefficient alpha and test-retest reliabilities were >0.9, and standard errors of measurement were 2.3-2.8. Construct validity was supported by correlations in accordance with a priori expectations. Results are similar to those with previous Walk-12G versions, indicating that scale adaptation was successful. Data suggest that the Walk-12G meets rating scale criteria for clinical trials, making it a valuable complement to available gait tests. Further studies involving other samples and application of modern psychometric methods are warranted to examine the scale in more detail.

  6. A Biophysical Image Compositing Technique for the Global-Scale Extraction and Mapping of Barren Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram C. Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the barren lands play a key role in the interaction between land cover dynamics and climate system, an efficient methodology for the global-scale extraction and mapping of the barren lands is important. The discriminative potential of the existing soil/bareness indexes was assessed by collecting globally distributed reference data belonging to major land cover types. The existing soil/bareness indexes parameterized at the local scale did not work satisfactorily everywhere at the global level. A new technique called the Biophysical Image Composite (BIC is proposed in the research by exploiting time-series of the multi-spectral data to capture global-scale barren land attributes effectively. The BIC is a false color composite image made up of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, short wave infrared reflectance, and green reflectance, which were specially selected from the highest vegetation activity period by avoiding signals from the seasonal snowfall. The drastic contrast between the barren lands and vegetation as exhibited by the BIC provides a robust extraction and mapping of the barren lands, and facilitates its visual interpretation. Random Forests based supervised classification approach was applied on the BIC for the mapping of global barren lands. A new global barren land cover map of year 2013 was produced with high accuracy. The comparison of the resulted map with an existing map of the same year showed a substantial discrepancy between two maps due to methodological variation. To cope with this problem, the BIC based mapping methodology, with a special account of the land surface phenological changes, is suggested to standardize the global-scale estimates and mapping of the barren lands.

  7. Efficiency scale and technological change in credit unions and multiple banks using the COSIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Rocha Bittencourt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The modernization of the financial intermediation process and adapting to new technologies, brought adjustments to operational processes, providing the reduction of information borrowing costs, allowing generate greater customer satisfaction, due to increased competitiveness in addition to making gains with long efficiency period. In this context, this research aims to analyze the evolution in scale and technological efficiency of credit and multiple cooperative banks from 2009 to 2013. We used the method of Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA, which allows to calculate the change in efficiency of institutions through the Malmquist Index. The results indicated that institutions that employ larger volumes of assets in the composition of its resources presented evolution in scale and technological efficiency, influencing the change in total factor productivity. It should be noticed that cooperatives had, in some years, advances in technology and scale efficiency higher than banks. However, this result can be explained by the fact that the average efficiency of credit unions have been lower than that of banks in the analyzed sample, indicating that there is greater need to improve internal processes by cooperatives, compared to multiple banks surveyed.

  8. Reducing uncertainty in calibrating aquifer flow model with multiple scales of heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and calibration of natural aquifers with multiple scales of heterogeneity is a challenging task due to limited subsurface access. While computer modeling plays an essential role in aquifer studies, large uncertainty exists in developing a conceptual model of an aquifer and in calibrating the model for decision making. Due to uncertainties such as a lack of understanding of subsurface processes and a lack of techniques to parameterize the subsurface environment (including hydraulic conductivity, source/sink rate, and aquifer boundary conditions), existing aquifer models often suffer nonuniqueness in calibration, leading to poor predictive capability. A robust calibration methodology is needed that can address the simultaneous estimations of aquifer parameters, source/sink, and boundary conditions. In this paper, we propose a multistage and multiscale approach that addresses subsurface heterogeneity at multiple scales, while reducing uncertainty in estimating the model parameters and model boundary conditions. The key to this approach lies in the appropriate development, verification, and synthesis of existing and new techniques of static and dynamic data integration. In particular, based on a given set of observation data, new inversion techniques can be first used to estimate aquifer large-scale effective parameters and smoothed boundary conditions, based on which parameter and boundary condition estimation can be refined at increasing detail using standard or highly parameterized estimation techniques.

  9. Multiple Time Scale Analysis of River Runoff Using Wavelet Transform for Dagujia River Basin, Yantai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Delin; LIU Xianzhao; LI Bicheng; ZHAO Shiwei; LI Xiguo

    2009-01-01

    Based on monOdy river runoff and meteorological data, a method of Morlet wavelet transform was used to analyze the multiple time scale characteristics of river runoffin the Dagnjia River Basin, Yantai City, Shandong Province. The results showed that the total annual river runoff in the Dagujia River Basin decreased significantly from 1966 to 2004, and the rate of decrease was 48×106m3/10yr, which was higher than the mean value of most rivers in China. Multiple time scale characteristics existed, which accounted for different aspects of the changes in annual river runoff, and the major periods of the runoff time series were identified as about 28 years, 14 years and 4 years with decreasing levels of fluctuation. The river runoff evolution process was controlled by changes in precipitation to a certain extent, but it was also greatly influenced by human activities. Also, for different time periods and scales, the impacts of climate changes and human activities on annual river runoff evolution occurred at the same time. Changes in the annual river runoffwere mainly associated with climate change before the 1980s and with human activities after 1981.

  10. Multiple damage identification and imaging in an aluminum plate using effective Lamb wave response automatic extraction technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qinghua; Zhou, Li; Liu, Xiaotong

    2016-04-01

    In order to identify multiple damage in the structure, a method of multiple damage identification and imaging based on the effective Lamb wave response automatic extraction algorithm is proposed. In this method, the detected key area in the structure is divided into a number of subregions, and then, the effective response signals including the structural damage information are automatically extracted from the entire Lamb wave responses which are received by the piezoelectric sensors. Further, the damage index values of every subregion based on the correlation coefficient are calculated using the effective response signals. Finally, the damage identification and imaging are performed using the reconstruction algorithm for probabilistic inspection of damage (RAPID) technique. The experimental research was conducted using an aluminum plate. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this research can quickly and effectively identify the single damage or multiple damage and image the damages clearly in detected area.

  11. Development of Preverbal Communication Skills Scale for Children with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Ayyıldız

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Communication is crucial for any human being and the children with disabilities are no exception. Due to the number and combination of their disabilities and/or conditions, children with multiple disabilities and visual impairment (MDVI have especially limitations of the ability to communicate the meaningful and functional way with their environment. In order to improve the communication skills of children with MDVI, it is very important to identify unique, individual communication behaviors of these children. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable developmental assessment tool to evaluate preverbal communication skills of Turkish children with MDVI. Sequential explanatory mixed methods were used in the study. In the qualitative phase, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the mothers of 34 children suffering from MDVI to explore the preverbal communication behaviors of the children based on the daily observances of their mothers’ with a descriptive analysis being performed on the data. From the findings of the interviews and the literature review, Preverbal Communication Skills Scale for Children with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment (PCSS-MDVI and the scoring guide were developed. During the quantitative phase, 65 mothers of children with MDVI were given this scale in order to determine the validity and reliability of the scale. For the reliability analysis, 34 mothers of typically developing (TD children age between 1 to 24 months old also were given the scale. The findings of the qualitative phase indicated that children with MDVI were communicating mostly with preverbal behaviors and the analysis on data from the quantitative phase with respect to item analysis, reliability and validity revealed that the scale is valid and reliable. The scale has 17 items and three subscales, which are; regulating behaviors, social interaction and joint attention.  The majority of children with MDVI cannot

  12. Multiple feature extraction and classification of electroencephalograph signal for Alzheimers' with spectrum and bispectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruofan; Wang, Jiang; Li, Shunan; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have combined experimental neurophysiologic recording and statistical analysis to investigate the nonlinear characteristic and the cognitive function of the brain. Spectrum and bispectrum analyses are proposed to extract multiple effective features of electroencephalograph (EEG) signals from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and further applied to distinguish AD patients from the normal controls. Spectral analysis based on autoregressive Burg method is first used to quantify the power distribution of EEG series in the frequency domain. Compared to the control group, the relative power spectral density of AD group is significantly higher in the theta frequency band, while lower in the alpha frequency bands. In addition, median frequency of spectrum is decreased, and spectral entropy ratio of these two frequency bands undergoes drastic changes at the P3 electrode in the central-parietal brain region, implying that the electrophysiological behavior in AD brain is much slower and less irregular. In order to explore the nonlinear high order information, bispectral analysis which measures the complexity of phase-coupling is further applied to P3 electrode in the whole frequency band. It is demonstrated that less bispectral peaks appear and the amplitudes of peaks fall, suggesting a decrease of non-Gaussianity and nonlinearity of EEG in ADs. Notably, the application of this method to five brain regions shows higher concentration of the weighted center of bispectrum and lower complexity reflecting phase-coupling by bispectral entropy. Based on spectrum and bispectrum analyses, six efficient features are extracted and then applied to discriminate AD from the normal in the five brain regions. The classification results indicate that all these features could differentiate AD patients from the normal controls with a maximum accuracy of 90.2%. Particularly, different brain regions are sensitive to different features. Moreover, the optimal combination of

  13. Stroke multiplicity and horizontal scale of negative charge regions in thunderclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Earle R.; Mattos, Enrique V.; Machado, Luiz A. T.

    2016-05-01

    An X-band polarimetric radar and multiple lightning detection systems are used to document the initial cloud-to-ground lightning flash in a large number (46 cases) of incipient thunderstorms, as part of the CHUVA-Vale field campaign during the 2011/2012 spring-summer in southeast Brazil. The results show an exceptionally low stroke multiplicity (87% of flashes with single stroke) in the initial ground flashes, a finding consistent with the limited space available for the positive leader extension into new regions of negative space charge in compact cells. The results here are contrasted with the behavior of ground flashes in mesoscale thunderstorms in previous studies. Additionally, we found evidence for a minimum scale (radar echo >20 dBZ) for lightning initiation (>3 km in radius) and that the peak currents of initial cloud-to-ground flashes in these compact thunderstorms are only half as large as return stroke peak currents in general.

  14. Pedestrian detection in thermal images: An automated scale based region extraction with curvelet space validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, A.; Faheema, A. G. J.; Deodhare, Dipti

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection is a key problem in night vision processing with a dozen of applications that will positively impact the performance of autonomous systems. Despite significant progress, our study shows that performance of state-of-the-art thermal image pedestrian detectors still has much room for improvement. The purpose of this paper is to overcome the challenge faced by the thermal image pedestrian detectors, which employ intensity based Region Of Interest (ROI) extraction followed by feature based validation. The most striking disadvantage faced by the first module, ROI extraction, is the failed detection of cloth insulted parts. To overcome this setback, this paper employs an algorithm and a principle of region growing pursuit tuned to the scale of the pedestrian. The statistics subtended by the pedestrian drastically vary with the scale and deviation from normality approach facilitates scale detection. Further, the paper offers an adaptive mathematical threshold to resolve the problem of subtracting the background while extracting cloth insulated parts as well. The inherent false positives of the ROI extraction module are limited by the choice of good features in pedestrian validation step. One such feature is curvelet feature, which has found its use extensively in optical images, but has as yet no reported results in thermal images. This has been used to arrive at a pedestrian detector with a reduced false positive rate. This work is the first venture made to scrutinize the utility of curvelet for characterizing pedestrians in thermal images. Attempt has also been made to improve the speed of curvelet transform computation. The classification task is realized through the use of the well known methodology of Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The proposed method is substantiated with qualified evaluation methodologies that permits us to carry out probing and informative comparisons across state-of-the-art features, including deep learning methods, with six

  15. Muscles innervated by a single motor neuron exhibit divergent synaptic properties on multiple time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Dawn M; Pritchard, Amy E; Latimer, John K; Wakefield, Andrew T

    2017-01-19

    Adaptive changes in the output of neural circuits underlying rhythmic behaviors are relayed to muscles via motor neuron activity. Pre- and postsynaptic properties of neuromuscular junctions can impact the transformation from motor neuron activity to muscle response. Further, synaptic plasticity occurring on the time scale of inter-spike intervals can differ between multiple muscles innervated by the same motor neuron. In rhythmic behaviors, motor neuron bursts can elicit additional synaptic plasticity. However, it is unknown if plasticity regulated by the longer time scale of inter-burst intervals also differs between synapses from the same neuron, and whether any such distinctions occur across a physiological activity range. To address these issues, we measured electrical responses in muscles innervated by a chewing circuit neuron, the lateral gastric (LG) motor neuron, in a well-characterized small motor system, the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis In vitro and in vivo, sensory, hormonal and modulatory inputs elicit LG bursting consisting of inter-spike intervals of 50-250 ms and inter-burst intervals of 2-24 s. Muscles expressed similar facilitation measured with paired stimuli except at the shortest inter-spike interval. However distinct decay time constants resulted in differences in temporal summation. In response to bursting activity, augmentation occurred to different extents and saturated at different inter-burst intervals in the three muscles. Further, augmentation interacted with facilitation, resulting in distinct intra-burst facilitation between muscles. Thus, responses of multiple target muscles diverge across a physiological activity range due to distinct synaptic properties sensitive to multiple time scales.

  16. Complexity and Information: Measuring Emergence, Self-organization, and Homeostasis at Multiple Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Concepts used in the scientific study of complex systems have become so widespread that their use and abuse has led to ambiguity and confusion in their meaning. In this paper we use information theory to provide abstract and concise measures of complexity, emergence, self-organization, and homeostasis. The purpose is to clarify the meaning of these concepts with the aid of the proposed formal measures. In a simplified version of the measures (focussing on the information produced by a system), emergence becomes the opposite of self-organization, while complexity represents their balance. We use computational experiments on random Boolean networks and elementary cellular automata to illustrate our measures at multiple scales.

  17. Dynamical properties of the growing continuum using multiple-scale method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynčík L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of growth and remodeling is applied to the 1D continuum. This can be mentioned e.g. as a model of the muscle fibre or piezo-electric stack. Hyperelastic material described by free energy potential suggested by Fung is used whereas the change of stiffness is taken into account. Corresponding equations define the dynamical system with two degrees of freedom. Its stability and the properties of bifurcations are studied using multiple-scale method. There are shown the conditions under which the degenerated Hopf's bifurcation is occuring.

  18. Self-assembling of zinc phthalocyanines on ZnO (1010) surface through multiple time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Claudio; Raiteri, Paolo; Colombo, Luciano; Mattoni, Alessandro

    2011-12-27

    We adopt a hierarchic combination of theoretical methods to study the assembling of zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPcs) on a ZnO (1010) surface through multiple time scales. Atomistic simulations, such as model potential molecular dynamics and metadynamics, are used to study the energetics and short time evolution (up to ∼100 ns) of small ZnPc aggregates. The stability and the lifetime of large clusters is then studied by means of an atomistically informed coarse-grained model using classical molecular dynamics. Finally, the macroscopic time scale clustering phenomenon is studied by Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithms as a function of temperature and surface coverage. We provide evidence that at room temperature the aggregation is likely to occur at sufficiently high coverage, and we characterize the nature, morphology, and lifetime of ZnPc's clusters. We identify the molecular stripes oriented along [010] crystallographic directions as the most energetically stable aggregates.

  19. Multiple seesaw mechanisms of neutrino masses at the TeV scale

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    In pursuit of a balance between theoretical naturalness and experimental testability, we propose two classes of multiple seesaw mechanisms at the TeV scale to understand the origin of tiny neutrino masses. They are novel extensions of the canonical and double seesaw mechanisms, respectively, by introducing even and odd numbers of gauge-singlet fermions and scalars. It is thanks to a proper implementation of the global U(1)xZ_2N symmetry that the overall neutrino mass matrix in either class has a suggestive nearest-neighbor-interaction pattern. We briefly discuss possible consequences of these TeV-scale seesaw scenarios, which can hopefully be explored in the upcoming Large Hadron Collider and precision neutrino experiments, and present a simple but instructive example of model building.

  20. Accuracy of Cartosat-1 DEM and its derived attribute at multiple scale representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samadrita Mukherjee; Sandip Mukherjee; A Bhardwaj; Anirban Mukhopadhyay; R D Garg; S Hazra

    2015-04-01

    Digital Elevation Model (DEM) provides basic information about terrain relief and is used for morphological characterisation, hydrological modelling and infrastructural studies. This paper investigates the accuracy of DEM and its derived attributes in multiple scales. This study was carried out for a part of Shiwalik Himalaya using Cartosat-1 stereo pair data. DEM at various cell sizes were generated and information content was compared using mean elevation, variance and entropy statistics. Various post-spacing DEMs were validated to understand variation in vertical accuracy along different scales. The vertical accuracy (3.14–7.24 m) is affected in larger spacing DEM and elevation is underestimated. Slope of terrain also has similar impacts. The DEM and slope accuracy are also affected by the terrain roughness while assessing coarser grid size.

  1. The value of remote sensing techniques in supporting effective extrapolation across multiple marine spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, James Asa; Elliott, Michael

    2017-03-15

    The reporting of ecological phenomena and environmental status routinely required point observations, collected with traditional sampling approaches to be extrapolated to larger reporting scales. This process encompasses difficulties that can quickly entrain significant errors. Remote sensing techniques offer insights and exceptional spatial coverage for observing the marine environment. This review provides guidance on (i) the structures and discontinuities inherent within the extrapolative process, (ii) how to extrapolate effectively across multiple spatial scales, and (iii) remote sensing techniques and data sets that can facilitate this process. This evaluation illustrates that remote sensing techniques are a critical component in extrapolation and likely to underpin the production of high-quality assessments of ecological phenomena and the regional reporting of environmental status. Ultimately, is it hoped that this guidance will aid the production of robust and consistent extrapolations that also make full use of the techniques and data sets that expedite this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Segment-Scale Melt Extraction at Mid-Ocean Ridges: A Play in Three Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, L. G.; Hebert, L. B.; Behn, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    At mid-ocean ridges, the lithosphere is created through a combination of melt extraction, metasomatism, and cooling, and the oceanic crust forms as melt collects near the surface. As the presence of melt also has rheological and geochemical consequences, a better understanding of the mechanisms that control melt migration and extraction at mid-ocean ridges is necessary to constrain the processes that form oceanic lithosphere and plate boundaries. Melt migration is described rigorously by two-phase transport equations in porous or fractured media. However, scaling considerations and geological constraints typically lead to certain simplifications when incorporated into geodynamical models. It is possible to capture the essence of melt migration and extraction by considering three principal stages: Stage 1. Vertical migration: Melt is generated by adiabatic decompression and rises nearly vertically from the zone of melt production to a melt-impermeable boundary, or permeability barrier, at the base of the thermal lithosphere. Stage 2. Focusing: Melt travels along a permeability barrier. The barrier is associated with a crystallization front and is slightly inclined toward the ridge axis following the thermal structure of the plate. At this stage melt focusing occurs toward and along the strike of the ridge. Stage 3. Extraction: Melt enters a melt extraction zone (MEZ) and is extracted to the surface. The MEZ represents the combined effect of faults and/or dikes that promote rapid lateral and vertical melt migration and eventual eruption on the seafloor. Stage 1 is expected based on scaling arguments of buoyancy and permeability [e.g., Zhu et al., Science, 2011]. Stages 2 and 3 are directly influenced by the structure of the lithosphere, which is itself controlled by the segmentation of the ridge axis, spreading rate, and mantle potential temperature. Thus, it is possible to use along-strike variations in melt delivery in well-studied geological settings to constrain

  3. Informing species conservation at multiple scales using data collected for marine mammal stock assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Grech

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conservation planning and the design of marine protected areas (MPAs requires spatially explicit information on the distribution of ecological features. Most species of marine mammals range over large areas and across multiple planning regions. The spatial distributions of marine mammals are difficult to predict using habitat modelling at ecological scales because of insufficient understanding of their habitat needs, however, relevant information may be available from surveys conducted to inform mandatory stock assessments. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We use a 20-year time series of systematic aerial surveys of dugong (Dugong dugong abundance to create spatially-explicit models of dugong distribution and relative density at the scale of the coastal waters of northeast Australia (∼136,000 km(2. We interpolated the corrected data at the scale of 2 km * 2 km planning units using geostatistics. Planning units were classified as low, medium, high and very high dugong density on the basis of the relative density of dugongs estimated from the models and a frequency analysis. Torres Strait was identified as the most significant dugong habitat in northeast Australia and the most globally significant habitat known for any member of the Order Sirenia. The models are used by local, State and Federal agencies to inform management decisions related to the Indigenous harvest of dugongs, gill-net fisheries and Australia's National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this paper we demonstrate that spatially-explicit population models add value to data collected for stock assessments, provide a robust alternative to predictive habitat distribution models, and inform species conservation at multiple scales.

  4. Correlation analysis of visual analogue scale and measures of walking ability in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović Grčić, Petar; Matijaca, Meri; Bilić, Ivica; Džamonja, Gordan; Lušić, Ivo; Čaljkušić, Krešimir; Čapkun, Vesna

    2013-12-01

    Walking limitation assessment in multiple sclerosis patients (MSPs) is a demanding task, especially in the clinical setting. The aim of this study is to correlate the visual analogue scale (VAS), a simple method for measuring subjective experience, with measures of walking ability used in clinical research of MS. The study included 82 ambulatory MSPs who have resided in the local community. The applied measures of walking ability were the following: the single-item and patient-rated Walking Ability Visual Analogue Scale (WA-VAS), the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), the 25-foot walk test (25FWT), the Six Spot Step Test (SSST), the 2 min timed walk (2 min TW), the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12), and step activity monitor accelerometer (SAM) during 7 day period. The SAM analysis included the average daily step count, the average steps/min of the highest 1 min of a day, and the average steps/min of the highest continuous 60 min of a day. The WA-VAS scores significantly and strongly correlated with EDSS (ρ = 0.679, P < 0.001), 25FWT (ρ = 0.606, P < 0.001), SSST (ρ = 0.729, P < 0.001), 2 min TW (ρ = -0.643, P < 0.001), MSWS-12 (ρ = 0.746, P < 0.001), average daily step count (ρ = -0.507, P < 0.001), average steps/min of the highest 1 min of a day (ρ = -0.544, P < 0.001), and average steps/min of the highest continuous 60 min of a day (ρ = -0.473, P < 0.001). Correlations between WA-VAS and measures of walking ability used in clinical research of MS were satisfactory. The results obtained in this research indicate that the WA-VAS could be an instrument for simple measurement of walking limitations in MSPs in the clinical setting.

  5. Scaling filtering and multiplicative cascade information integration techniques for geological, geophysical and geochemical data processing and geological feature recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces several techniques recently developed based on the concepts of multiplicative cascade processes and multifractals for processing exploration geochemical and geophysical data for recognition of geological features and delineation of target areas for undiscovered mineral deposits. From a nonlinear point of view extreme geo-processes such as cloud formation, rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, igneous activities, tectonics and mineralization often show singular property that they may result in anomalous amounts of energy release or mass accumulation that generally are confined to narrow intervals in space or time. The end products of these non-linear processes have in common that they can be modeled as fractals or multifractals. Here we show that the three fundamental concepts of scaling in the context of multifractals: singularity, self-similarity and fractal dimension spectrum, make multifractal theory and methods useful for geochemical and geophysical data processing for general purposes of geological features recognition. These methods include: a local singularity analysis based on a area-density (C-A) multifractal model used as a scaling high-pass filtering technique capable of extracting weak signals caused by buried geological features; a suite of multifractal filtering techniques based on spectrum density - area (S-A) multifractal models implemented in various domain including frequency domain can be used for unmixing geochemical or geophysical fields according to distinct generalized self-similarities characterized in certain domain; and multiplicative cascade processes for integration of diverse evidential layers of information for prediction of point events such as location of mineral deposits. It is demonstrated by several case studies involving Fe, Sn, Mo-Ag and Mo-W mineral deposits that singularity method can be utilized to process stream sediment/soil geochemical data and gravity/aeromagnetic data as high

  6. How does drainage alter the hydrology of shallow degraded peatlands across multiple spatial scales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe, David J.; Anderson, Karen; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Gatis, Naomi; Ashe, Josie; Benaud, Pia; Smith, David; Brazier, Richard E.

    2016-10-01

    Shallow, degraded peatlands differ in both their structure and function from deeper, peatland ecosystems. Previous work has shown that shallow, drained peatlands demonstrate rapid storm runoff that is only minimally controlled by antecedent hydrological conditions. However, such peatlands are also known to exhibit significant variation in ecohydrological organisation and structure across different spatial scales. In addition, predictions of hydrological response using spatially distributed numerical models of rainfall-runoff may be flawed unless they are evaluated with datasets describing the spatial variability of hydrological responses. This paper evaluates to what extent, flow generation and water storage within shallow, degraded peatland catchments may be controlled by the spatial attributes of the contributing area of the peatland, the drainage ditch size, morphology and geometry. Results from an experiment conducted over multiple spatial scales and multi-annual timescales highlights that subtle variations in the local slope and topography account for the long-term spatial patterns of water table depth. Neither the local scale of the drainage feature or the topographic contributing area is shown to be a definitive predictor of runoff in the studied catchments. Results also highlight the importance of using spatially distributed observations to ensure that estimates of water storage and runoff are representative of the fine scale spatial variability that occurs in such damaged and shallow peatlands.

  7. Population genetics of the Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis across multiple spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shem D Unger

    Full Text Available Conservation genetics is a powerful tool to assess the population structure of species and provides a framework for informing management of freshwater ecosystems. As lotic habitats become fragmented, the need to assess gene flow for species of conservation management becomes a priority. The eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis is a large, fully aquatic paedamorphic salamander. Many populations are experiencing declines throughout their geographic range, yet the genetic ramifications of these declines are currently unknown. To this end, we examined levels of genetic variation and genetic structure at both range-wide and drainage (hierarchical scales. We collected 1,203 individuals from 77 rivers throughout nine states from June 2007 to August 2011. Levels of genetic diversity were relatively high among all sampling locations. We detected significant genetic structure across populations (Fst values ranged from 0.001 between rivers within a single watershed to 0.218 between states. We identified two genetically differentiated groups at the range-wide scale: 1 the Ohio River drainage and 2 the Tennessee River drainage. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA based on landscape-scale sampling of basins within the Tennessee River drainage revealed the majority of genetic variation (∼94-98% occurs within rivers. Eastern hellbenders show a strong pattern of isolation by stream distance (IBSD at the drainage level. Understanding levels of genetic variation and differentiation at multiple spatial and biological scales will enable natural resource managers to make more informed decisions and plan effective conservation strategies for cryptic, lotic species.

  8. Seeing the forest through the trees: Considering roost-site selection at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowski, David S.; Rota, Christopher T.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007–2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural

  9. Dandelion root extract affects colorectal cancer proliferation and survival through the activation of multiple death signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadje, Pamela; Ammar, Saleem; Guerrero, Jose-Antonio; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

    2016-11-08

    Dandelion extracts have been studied extensively in recent years for its anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory activity. Recent work from our lab, with in-vitro systems, shows the anti-cancer potential of an aqueous dandelion root extract (DRE) in several cancer cell models, with no toxicity to non-cancer cells. In this study, we examined the cancer cell-killing effectiveness of an aqueous DRE in colon cancer cell models. Aqueous DRE induced programmed cell death (PCD) selectively in > 95% of colon cancer cells, irrespective of their p53 status, by 48 hours of treatment. The anti-cancer efficacy of this extract was confirmed in in-vivo studies, as the oral administration of DRE retarded the growth of human colon xenograft models by more than 90%. We found the activation of multiple death pathways in cancer cells by DRE treatment, as revealed by gene expression analyses showing the expression of genes implicated in programmed cell death. Phytochemical analyses of the extract showed complex multi-component composition of the DRE, including some known bioactive phytochemicals such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and taraxasterol. This suggested that this natural extract could engage and effectively target multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells. Therefore, DRE could be a non-toxic and effective anti-cancer alternative, instrumental for reducing the occurrence of cancer cells drug-resistance.

  10. Multiple heavy metals extraction and recovery from hazardous electroplating sludge waste via ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuncheng; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang; Cai, Tingting; Li, Haiying; Huang, Zhiyuan; Yuan, Gaoqing

    2010-06-15

    An ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching process on extracting and recovering multiple heavy metals from actual electroplating sludge was studied in lab tests. It provided an effective technique for separation of valuable metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) from less valuable metals (Fe and Cr) in electroplating sludge. The efficiency of the process had been measured with the leaching efficiencies and recovery rates of the metals. Enhanced by ultrasonic power, the first-stage acid leaching demonstrated leaching rates of 96.72%, 97.77%, 98.00%, 53.03%, and 0.44% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe respectively, effectively separated half of Cr and almost all of Fe from mixed metals. The subsequent second-stage leaching achieved leaching rates of 75.03%, 81.05%, 81.39%, 1.02%, and 0% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe that further separated Cu, Ni, and Zn from mixed metals. With the stabilized two-stage ultrasonically enhanced leaching, the resulting over all recovery rates of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr and Fe from electroplating sludge could be achieved at 97.42%, 98.46%, 98.63%, 98.32% and 100% respectively, with Cr and Fe in solids and the rest of the metals in an aqueous solution discharged from the leaching system. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and contact time. The results were also confirmed in an industrial pilot-scale test, and same high metal recoveries were performed.

  11. Irresistible ants: exposure to novel toxic prey increases consumption over multiple temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Mark W; Robbins, Travis R; Centi, Alan; Thawley, Christopher J; Langkilde, Tracy

    2016-07-01

    As species become increasingly exposed to novel challenges, it is critical to understand how evolutionary (i.e., generational) and plastic (i.e., within lifetime) responses work together to determine a species' fate or predict its distribution. The introduction of non-native species imposes novel pressures on the native species that they encounter. Understanding how native species exposed to toxic or distasteful invaders change their feeding behavior can provide insight into their ability to cope with these novel threats as well as broader questions about the evolution of this behavior. We demonstrated that native eastern fence lizards do not avoid consuming invasive fire ants following repeated exposure to this toxic prey. Rather fence lizards increased their consumption of these ants following exposure on three different temporal scales. Lizards ate more fire ants when they were exposed to this toxic prey over successive days. Lizards consumed more fire ants if they had been exposed to fire ants as juveniles 6 months earlier. Finally, lizards from populations exposed to fire ants over multiple generations consumed more fire ants than those from fire ant-free areas. These results suggest that the potentially lethal consumption of fire ants may carry benefits resulting in selection for this behavior, and learning that persists long after initial exposure. Future research on the response of native predators to venomous prey over multiple temporal scales will be valuable in determining the long-term effects of invasion by these novel threats.

  12. Managing multiple roles: development of the Work-Family Conciliation Strategies Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Marisa; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2014-07-17

    Juggling the demands of work and family is becoming increasingly difficult in today's world. As dual-earners are now a majority and men and women's roles in both the workplace and at home have changed, questions have been raised regarding how individuals and couples can balance family and work. Nevertheless, research addressing work-family conciliation strategies is limited to a conflict-driven approach and context-specific instruments are scarce. This study develops an instrument for assessing how dual-earners manage their multiple roles detaching from a conflict point of view highlighting the work-family conciliation strategies put forward by these couples. Through qualitative and quantitative procedures the Work-Family Conciliation Strategies Scales was developed and is composed by 5 factors: Couple Coping; Positive Attitude Towards Multiple Roles, Planning and Management Skills, Professional Adjustments and Institutional Support; with good adjustment [χ2/df = 1.22; CFI = .90, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .08.] and good reliability coefficients [from .67 to .87]. The developed scale contributes to research because of its specificity to the work-family framework and its focus on the proactive nature of balancing work and family roles. The results support further use of this instrument.

  13. Optimizing multiple reliable forward contracts for reservoir allocation using multitime scale streamflow forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengqian; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.; Cook, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Streamflow forecasts at multiple time scales provide a new opportunity for reservoir management to address competing objectives. Market instruments such as forward contracts with specified reliability are considered as a tool that may help address the perceived risk associated with the use of such forecasts in lieu of traditional operation and allocation strategies. A water allocation process that enables multiple contracts for water supply and hydropower production with different durations, while maintaining a prescribed level of flood risk reduction, is presented. The allocation process is supported by an optimization model that considers multitime scale ensemble forecasts of monthly streamflow and flood volume over the upcoming season and year, the desired reliability and pricing of proposed contracts for hydropower and water supply. It solves for the size of contracts at each reliability level that can be allocated for each future period, while meeting target end of period reservoir storage with a prescribed reliability. The contracts may be insurable, given that their reliability is verified through retrospective modeling. The process can allow reservoir operators to overcome their concerns as to the appropriate skill of probabilistic forecasts, while providing water users with short-term and long-term guarantees as to how much water or energy they may be allocated. An application of the optimization model to the Bhakra Dam, India, provides an illustration of the process. The issues of forecast skill and contract performance are examined. A field engagement of the idea is useful to develop a real-world perspective and needs a suitable institutional environment.

  14. Efficient Term Extraction and Indexing Approach in Small-Scale Web Search of Uyghur Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turdi Tohti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid the frequently read-write of hard disk and to speed up the search, the index should be saving in the memory in the small-scale web search. But, to express the original information by fewer memory spaces, also needs for index compression, and this would increases the computation expenses or brings certain harm to the original information in a way. In this research of Uyghur small-scale web search, in order to speed up the retrieval and query speed, inverted index has established uses Hash table data structure and entirely stay resident in memory. In the aspect of index compression, have not uses any compression technique, but proposed a word grouping approach based on simplified N-gram statistical model ,and extracting semantic words that structurally stable, semantically complete and independent ,and greatly reduces the scale of indexing item list. Thereby, not only served the purpose of index compression, but also solved the ambiguity problem certain extent and improved the search precision obviously. The experimental result indicated that, our method is feasible and effective

  15. A simple multi-scale Gaussian smoothing-based strategy for automatic chromatographic peak extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai-Yan; Guo, Jun-Wei; Yu, Yong-Jie; Li, He-Dong; Cui, Hua-Peng; Liu, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing; Wang, Sheng; Lu, Peng

    2016-06-24

    Peak detection is a critical step in chromatographic data analysis. In the present work, we developed a multi-scale Gaussian smoothing-based strategy for accurate peak extraction. The strategy consisted of three stages: background drift correction, peak detection, and peak filtration. Background drift correction was implemented using a moving window strategy. The new peak detection method is a variant of the system used by the well-known MassSpecWavelet, i.e., chromatographic peaks are found at local maximum values under various smoothing window scales. Therefore, peaks can be detected through the ridge lines of maximum values under these window scales, and signals that are monotonously increased/decreased around the peak position could be treated as part of the peak. Instrumental noise was estimated after peak elimination, and a peak filtration strategy was performed to remove peaks with signal-to-noise ratios smaller than 3. The performance of our method was evaluated using two complex datasets. These datasets include essential oil samples for quality control obtained from gas chromatography and tobacco plant samples for metabolic profiling analysis obtained from gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Results confirmed the reasonability of the developed method.

  16. EXISTENCE AND MULTIPLE EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE SOLUTIONS TO SECOND-ORDER m-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM ON TIME SCALES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By different fixed point theorems in cones, sufficient conditions for the existence and multiple existence of positive solutions to a class of second-order multi-point boundary value problem for dynamic equation on time scales are obtained.

  17. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of mitigation methods for multiple pollutants at farm scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooday, R D; Anthony, S G; Chadwick, D R; Newell-Price, P; Harris, D; Duethmann, D; Fish, R; Collins, A L; Winter, M

    2014-01-15

    Reductions in agricultural pollution are essential for meeting nationally and internationally agreed policy targets for losses to both air and water. Numerous studies quantify the impact of relevant mitigation methods by field experimentation or computer modelling. The majority of these studies have addressed individual methods and frequently also individual pollutants. This paper presents a conceptual model for the synthesis of the evidence base to calculate the impact of multiple methods addressing multiple pollutants in order to identify least cost solutions for multiple policy objectives. The model is implemented as a farm scale decision support tool that quantifies baseline pollutant losses for identifiable sources, areas and pathways and incorporates a genetic algorithm based multi-objective procedure for determining optimal suites of mitigation methods. The tool is generic as baseline losses can be replaced with measured data and the default library of mitigation methods can be edited and expanded. The tool is demonstrated through application to two contrasting farm systems, using survey data on agricultural practices typical of England and Wales. These examples show how the tool could be used to help target the adoption of mitigation options for the control of diffuse pollution from agriculture. The feedback from workshops where Farmscoper was demonstrated is included to highlight the potential role of Farmscoper as part of the farm advisory process.

  18. Diffusion-coupled molecular assembly: structuring of coordination polymers across multiple length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kenji; Reboul, Julien; Morone, Nobuhiro; Heuser, John E; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-10-22

    Porous coordination polymers (PCPs) are an intriguing class of molecular-based materials because of the designability of framework scaffolds, pore sizes and pore surface functionalities. Besides the structural designability at the molecular scale, the structuring of PCPs into mesoscopic/macroscopic morphologies has attracted much attention due to the significance for the practical applications. The structuring of PCPs at the mesoscopic/macroscopic scale has been so far demonstrated by the spatial localization of coordination reactions on the surface of templates or at the phase boundaries. However, these methodologies have never been applied to the fabrication of solid-solution or multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), in which multiple components are homogeneously mixed. Herein, we demonstrate the structuring of a box-type superstructure comprising of a solid-solution PCP by integrating a bidirectional diffusion of multiple organic ligands into molecular assembly. The parent crystals of [Zn2(ndc)2(bpy)]n were placed in the DMF solution of additional organic component of H2bdc, and the temperature was rapidly elevated up to 80 °C (ndc = 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridyl, bdc = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate). The dissolution of the parent crystals induced the outward diffusion of components; contrariwise, the accumulation of the other organic ligand of H2bdc induced the inward diffusion toward the surface of the parent crystals. This bidirectional diffusion of multiple components spatially localized the recrystallization at the surface of cuboid parent crystals; therefore, the nanocrystals of a solid-solution PCP ([Zn2(bdc)1.5(ndc)0.5(bpy)]n) were organized into a mesoscopic box superstructure. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the box superstructures enhanced the mass transfer kinetics for the separation of hydrocarbons.

  19. Micro-scale Abrasion and Medium Load Multiple Scratch Tests of PVD Coatings.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Poulat; H.Sun; D.GTeer

    2004-01-01

    Micro-scale abrasion testing is widely used to determine the abrasion resistance of thin film coatings; it is a simple technique that can easily be used as part of a quality control procedure, but it has got the disadvantage of not allowing an easy study of the wear mechanisms involved: it is difficult to estimate the load applied on each abrasive particles in the contact between the loaded ball and the specimen. The possibility of using progressive loading scratch testing, a method widely used to assess the adhesion of thin film coatings, to model the abrasive wear of coatings has been studied in the past; the use of multiple scratch tests to study the wear mechanisms corresponding to a single abrasion scratch event has also been studied in the case of bulk materials (ceramics and hard metals). Two coatings, deposited by Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating (CFUBMSIP) on ASP23 powder metallurgy steel substrate are chosen to be representative of the use of protective coatings in industry: titanium nitride, which is widely used to prevent tool wear, and TCL Graphit-iCTM, which is widely used as a wear resistant solid lubricant coating. The two coatings are first characterised by using a standard quality control procedure: their thickness is determined by the cap grinding method, their adhesion by progressive loading scratch. Then micro-scale abrasion tests performed with a slurry at a concentration which promotes grooving wear, and medium load multiple scratch tests performed with diamond indenters are completed; the results of these tests are analysed and compared to determine if there is any correlation between the two sets of results; the multiple scratch tests wear tracks are also observed to determine the wear mechanisms involved.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds from Aromatic Plants by Means of Dynamic Headspace Extraction and Multiple Headspace Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Jone; Olivares, Maitane; Alonso, Ibone; Vallejo, Asier; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-04-01

    Seven monoterpenes in 4 aromatic plants (sage, cardamom, lavender, and rosemary) were quantified in liquid extracts and directly in solid samples by means of dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DHS-GC-MS) and multiple headspace extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MHSE), respectively. The monoterpenes were 1st extracted by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by an optimized DHS-GC-MS. The optimization of the dynamic extraction step and the desorption/cryo-focusing step were tackled independently by experimental design assays. The best working conditions were set at 30 °C for the incubation temperature, 5 min of incubation time, and 40 mL of purge volume for the dynamic extraction step of these bioactive molecules. The conditions of the desorption/cryo-trapping step from the Tenax TA trap were set at follows: the temperature was increased from 30 to 300 °C at 150 °C/min, although the cryo-trapping was maintained at -70 °C. In order to estimate the efficiency of the SFE process, the analysis of monoterpenes in the 4 aromatic plants was directly carried out by means of MHSE because it did not require any sample preparation. Good linearity (r2) > 0.99) and reproducibility (relative standard deviation % <12) was obtained for solid and liquid quantification approaches, in the ranges of 0.5 to 200 ng and 10 to 500 ng/mL, respectively. The developed methods were applied to analyze the concentration of 7 monoterpenes in aromatic plants obtaining concentrations in the range of 2 to 6000 ng/g and 0.25 to 110 μg/mg, respectively.

  1. Classification of Suicide Attempts through a Machine Learning Algorithm Based on Multiple Systemic Psychiatric Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihoon Oh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification and prediction of suicide attempts in high-risk groups is important for preventing suicide. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the information from multiple clinical scales has classification power for identifying actual suicide attempts. Patients with depression and anxiety disorders (N = 573 were included, and each participant completed 31 self-report psychiatric scales and questionnaires about their history of suicide attempts. We then trained an artificial neural network classifier with 41 variables (31 psychiatric scales and 10 sociodemographic elements and ranked the contribution of each variable for the classification of suicide attempts. To evaluate the clinical applicability of our model, we measured classification performance with top-ranked predictors. Our model had an overall accuracy of 93.7% in 1-month, 90.8% in 1-year, and 87.4% in lifetime suicide attempts detection. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC was the highest for 1-month suicide attempts detection (0.93, followed by lifetime (0.89, and 1-year detection (0.87. Among all variables, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire had the highest contribution, and the positive and negative characteristics of the scales similarly contributed to classification performance. Performance on suicide attempts classification was largely maintained when we only used the top five ranked variables for training (AUROC; 1-month, 0.75, 1-year, 0.85, lifetime suicide attempts detection, 0.87. Our findings indicate that information from self-report clinical scales can be useful for the classification of suicide attempts. Based on the reliable performance of the top five predictors alone, this machine learning approach could help clinicians identify high-risk patients in clinical settings.

  2. Community functional responses to soil and climate at multiple spatial scales: when does intraspecific variation matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Siefert

    Full Text Available Despite increasing evidence of the importance of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities, its role in community trait responses to environmental variation, particularly along broad-scale climatic gradients, is poorly understood. We analyzed functional trait variation among early-successional herbaceous plant communities (old fields across a 1200-km latitudinal extent in eastern North America, focusing on four traits: vegetative height, leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA, and leaf dry matter content (LDMC. We determined the contributions of species turnover and intraspecific variation to between-site functional dissimilarity at multiple spatial scales and community trait responses to edaphic and climatic factors. Among-site variation in community mean trait values and community trait responses to the environment were generated by a combination of species turnover and intraspecific variation, with species turnover making a greater contribution for all traits. The relative importance of intraspecific variation decreased with increasing geographic and environmental distance between sites for SLA and leaf area. Intraspecific variation was most important for responses of vegetative height and responses to edaphic compared to climatic factors. Individual species displayed strong trait responses to environmental factors in many cases, but these responses were highly variable among species and did not usually scale up to the community level. These findings provide new insights into the role of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities and the factors controlling its relative importance. The contribution of intraspecific variation to community trait responses was greatest at fine spatial scales and along edaphic gradients, while species turnover dominated at broad spatial scales and along climatic gradients.

  3. Community functional responses to soil and climate at multiple spatial scales: when does intraspecific variation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Andrew; Fridley, Jason D; Ritchie, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence of the importance of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities, its role in community trait responses to environmental variation, particularly along broad-scale climatic gradients, is poorly understood. We analyzed functional trait variation among early-successional herbaceous plant communities (old fields) across a 1200-km latitudinal extent in eastern North America, focusing on four traits: vegetative height, leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). We determined the contributions of species turnover and intraspecific variation to between-site functional dissimilarity at multiple spatial scales and community trait responses to edaphic and climatic factors. Among-site variation in community mean trait values and community trait responses to the environment were generated by a combination of species turnover and intraspecific variation, with species turnover making a greater contribution for all traits. The relative importance of intraspecific variation decreased with increasing geographic and environmental distance between sites for SLA and leaf area. Intraspecific variation was most important for responses of vegetative height and responses to edaphic compared to climatic factors. Individual species displayed strong trait responses to environmental factors in many cases, but these responses were highly variable among species and did not usually scale up to the community level. These findings provide new insights into the role of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities and the factors controlling its relative importance. The contribution of intraspecific variation to community trait responses was greatest at fine spatial scales and along edaphic gradients, while species turnover dominated at broad spatial scales and along climatic gradients.

  4. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Avitabile

    Full Text Available Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter. Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood, they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales.

  5. Large-scale recovery of an endangered amphibian despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Roland A.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Briggs, Cheryl J.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, with 32% of species at risk for extinction. Given this imperiled status, is the disappearance of a large fraction of the Earth’s amphibians inevitable, or are some declining species more resilient than is generally assumed? We address this question in a species that is emblematic of many declining amphibians, the endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae). Based on >7,000 frog surveys conducted across Yosemite National Park over a 20-y period, we show that, after decades of decline and despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors, including introduced fish, the recently emerged disease chytridiomycosis, and pesticides, R. sierrae abundance increased sevenfold during the study and at a rate of 11% per year. These increases occurred in hundreds of populations throughout Yosemite, providing a rare example of amphibian recovery at an ecologically relevant spatial scale. Results from a laboratory experiment indicate that these increases may be in part because of reduced frog susceptibility to chytridiomycosis. The disappearance of nonnative fish from numerous water bodies after cessation of stocking also contributed to the recovery. The large-scale increases in R. sierrae abundance that we document suggest that, when habitats are relatively intact and stressors are reduced in their importance by active management or species’ adaptive responses, declines of some amphibians may be partially reversible, at least at a regional scale. Other studies conducted over similarly large temporal and spatial scales are critically needed to provide insight and generality about the reversibility of amphibian declines at a global scale. PMID:27698128

  6. Color, Scale, and Rotation Independent Multiple License Plates Detection in Videos and Still Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Reddy Soora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing license plate (LP detection systems have shown significant development in the processing of the images, with restrictions related to environmental conditions and plate variations. With increased mobility and internationalization, there is a need to develop a universal LP detection system, which can handle multiple LPs of many countries and any vehicle, in an open environment and all weather conditions, having different plate variations. This paper presents a novel LP detection method using different clustering techniques based on geometrical properties of the LP characters and proposed a new character extraction method, for noisy/missed character components of the LP due to the presence of noise between LP characters and LP border. The proposed method detects multiple LPs from an input image or video, having different plate variations, under different environmental and weather conditions because of the geometrical properties of the set of characters in the LP. The proposed method is tested using standard media-lab and Application Oriented License Plate (AOLP benchmark LP recognition databases and achieved the success rates of 97.3% and 93.7%, respectively. Results clearly indicate that the proposed approach is comparable to the previously published papers, which evaluated their performance on publicly available benchmark LP databases.

  7. COMPUTER COMPUTATION OF THE METHOD OF MULTIPLE SCALES-DIRICHLET PROBLEM FOR A CLASS OF SYSTEM OF NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢腊兵; 江福汝

    2003-01-01

    The method of boundary layer with multiple scales and computer algebra were applied to study the asymptotic behavior of solution of boundary value problems for a class of system of nonlinear differential equations. The asymptotic expansions of solution were constructed. The remainders were estimated. And an example was analysed. It provides a new foreground for the application of the method of boundary layer with multiple scales.

  8. The validity and reliability study of Turkish version of the multiple intelligences developmental assessment scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten İflazoğlu Saban

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to adapt Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS to Turkish. After examining and confirming equivalency between English and Turkish versions the scale was administered to a sample (1466 participant including undergraduate, graduate students at the Cukurova University and adult in Adana, Turkey. In addition, test-retest reliability was assessed using a sample of undergraduate, graduate and adults in Adana,Turkey (N=100. In order to examine the validity and reliability properties of the scale, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach Alpha correlation coefficients, corrected item-total correlations and t-tests between items’ means of upper 27%-lower 27% points were used. The final analysis accounted for 41.93 % of the variance under 93 items and 7 factors. The internal consistency coefficient (α = .87 was within ideal ranges. Also results of confirmatory factor analysis show that the model fitness indicator indexes meet the statistical standards [χ2=16558.65 (sd=4164, p<.001, (χ2/sd=3.98, NNFI= 0.95, NFI=0.93, CFI=0.95, IFI= 0.95, RMSEA=0.052, and SRMR= 0.062].

  9. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition performance in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Kreiner, David S; Tree, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) completed the 10 core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests. Means for age and education were 42.05 years (SD = 9.94) and 14.33 years (SD = 2.40). For all participants, the native language was English. The mean duration of MS diagnosis was 8.17 years (SD = 7.75), and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; Kurtzke, 1983 ) score was 3.73 (SD = 1.41) with a range from 2.0 to 6.5. A control group of healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics also completed the WAIS-IV and were provided by the test publisher. Compared to controls, patients with MS earned significantly lower subtest and composite scores. The patients' mean scores were consistently in the low-average to average range, and the patterns of performance across groups did not differ significantly, although there was a trend towards higher scores on the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and lower scores on the Processing Speed Index (PSI). Approximately 78% of patients had actual Full Scale IQs that were significantly lower than preillness, demographically based IQ estimates.

  10. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H Campbell; Miller, David A W; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Adams, Michael J; Amburgey, Staci M; Chambert, Thierry; Cruickshank, Sam S; Fisher, Robert N; Green, David M; Hossack, Blake R; Johnson, Pieter T J; Joseph, Maxwell B; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Ryan, Maureen E; Waddle, J Hardin; Walls, Susan C; Bailey, Larissa L; Fellers, Gary M; Gorman, Thomas A; Ray, Andrew M; Pilliod, David S; Price, Steven J; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin

    2016-05-23

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a "smoking gun" was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed.

  11. Mesozoic Large-scale Mineralization and Multiple Lithospheric Extensions in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    South China is the most important polymetallic (tungsten, tin, bismuth, copper, silver,antimony, mercury, rare metals, heavy rare earth elements, gold and lead-zinc) province in China. This paper describes the basic characteristics of Mesozoic large-scale mineralization in South China. The large-scale mineralization mainly took place in three intervals: 170-150 Ma, 140-126 Ma and 110-80Ma. Among these the first stage is mainly marked by copper, lead-zinc and tungsten mineralization and the third stage is mainly characterized by tin, gold, silver and uranium mineralization. The stage of 140-126 Ma mainly characterized by tungsten and tin mineralization is a transitional interval from the first to the third stage. In light of the current research results of the regional tectonic evolution it is proposed that the large-scale mineralization in the three stages is related to post-collision between the South China block and the North China block, transfer of the principal stress-field of tectonic regimes from N-S to E-W direction, and multiple back-arc lithospheric extensions caused by subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.

  12. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A. W.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Adams, Michael J.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Chambert, Thierry A; Cruickshank, Sam S.; Fisher, Robert N.; Green, David M.; Hossack, Blake R.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Rittenhouse, Tracy A. G.; Ryan, Maureen E.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Walls, Susan C.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Gorman, Thomas A.; Ray, Andrew M.; Pilliod, David S.; Price, Steven J.; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a “smoking gun” was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed.

  13. Mathematical modelling of fluid transport and its regulation at multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chara, Osvaldo; Brusch, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    Living matter equals water, to a first approximation, and water transport across barriers such as membranes and epithelia is vital. Water serves two competing functions. On the one hand, it is the fundamental solvent enabling random mobility of solutes and therefore biochemical reactions and intracellular signal propagation. Homeostasis of the intracellular water volume is required such that messenger concentration encodes the stimulus and not inverse volume fluctuations. On the other hand, water flow is needed for transport of solutes to and away from cells in a directed manner, threatening volume homeostasis and signal transduction fidelity of cells. Feedback regulation of fluid transport reconciles these competing objectives. The regulatory mechanisms often span across multiple spatial scales from cellular interactions up to the architecture of organs. Open questions relate to the dependency of water fluxes and steady state volumes on control parameters and stimuli. We here review selected mathematical models of feedback regulation of fluid transport at the cell scale and identify a general "core-shell" structure of such models. We propose that fluid transport models at other spatial scales can be constructed in a generalised core-shell framework, in which the core accounts for the biophysical effects of fluid transport whilst the shell reflects the regulatory mechanisms. We demonstrate the applicability of this framework for tissue lumen growth and suggest future experiments in zebrafish to test lumen size regulation mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Disability weight for each level of the Expanded Disability Status Scale in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Joong-Yang; Hong, Keun-Sik; Kim, Ho Jin; Kim, Su-Hyun; Min, Ju-Hong; Kim, Nam-Hee; Ahn, Suk-Won; Park, Min Su; An, Jae-Young; Kim, Byung-Jo; Kim, Woojun

    2014-08-01

    The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is the most widely employed ordinal disability scale in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, how far apart the individual EDSS levels are along the disability spectrum has not been formally quantified. The objective of this paper is to generate refined disability weights (DWs) for each of the ordinal EDSS levels. We performed the person trade-off (PTO) procedure to derive DWs of five representative EDSS categories (2, 4, 6, 7 and 9), and DWs of the remaining EDSS categories were assigned by linear interpolation. The modified Delphi process was used to achieve consensus among raters. DWs were 0.021 for EDSS 2, 0.199 for EDSS 4, 0.313 for EDSS 6, 0.617 for EDSS 7, and 0.926 for EDSS 9. Panel members achieved a high degree of consensus for each DW, as indicated by low coefficients of variation. Our DWs confirmed that EDSS is an ordinal scale with highly variable intervals. The availability of DW for each EDSS level allows direct comparison of each MS outcome state with other health states and provides a foundation for the estimation of the disability-adjusted life-years lost of individual patients. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Shear strength of chromia across multiple length scales: An LDA + U study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, Nicholas J. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Carter, Emily A., E-mail: eac@princeton.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    A method for predicting the shear strength of materials over multiple length scales is developed and tested. The method is based on renormalizing the energies and shear displacements obtained through electronic structure calculations of nanoscale models of the material of interest. All material- and size-dependent quantities are incorporated into the renormalization factors, yielding a universal model that can be applied to many materials and length scales. The model is used to predict the shear strength of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} along three relevant slip planes and slip directions. The results demonstrate that the shear strengths of the nanoscale systems used in the calculations range from 19.4 to 29.4 GPa. These data are then renormalized to predict the shear strength of a grain that is 10 {mu}m thick, yielding shear strengths ranging from 189 to 342 MPa. The large decrease in the shear strength with increasing grain size is consistent with the behavior of many materials. The ability to capture this change using electronic structure calculations that do not require experimental input may be useful in developing cohesive laws of novel materials for use in large-scale mechanical engineering simulations of materials failure.

  16. Bitumen recovery from oil-sand extraction tailings: Part One: Bench-scale tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y. H.; Mikhail, M. W.; Salama, A. I. A. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology Western Research Centre, Devon, AB (Canada); Burns, B. [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Residual bitumen from extraction plant tailings were recovered in bench-scale tests using conventional froth flotation, flotation columns, air-sparged hydrocyclones, and various combinations of these techniques. A flowsheet combining the use of mechanically agitated flotation cells with a stationary separator was developed. Results indicate that this process is effective in recovering bitumen from tailings with low bitumen content. Investigation of the flotation kinetics in a batch flotation cell provided information on the relationship between retention and froth quality. The effect of operating parameters on bitumen flotation and the dispersion of bubbles and bitumen was also examined. Results suggests that properly increasing the turbulence energy level in flotation units will improve the recovery of bitumen by flotation. It is believed that that this is due to the interaction between bitumen droplets and bubbles and the increase in of liquid/air interfacial area. 3 refs., 13 figs.

  17. DL-sQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Service Quality of Online Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Naj; Lowe, Sue; Pinegar, Kem

    2006-01-01

    Education is a service with multiplicity of student interactions over time and across multiple touch points. Quality teaching needs to be supplemented by consistent quality supporting services for programs to succeed under the competitive distance learning landscape. ServQual and e-SQ scales have been proposed for measuring quality of traditional…

  18. Ramp forecasting performance from improved short-term wind power forecasting over multiple spatial and temporal scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Cui, Mingjian; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Florita, Anthony; Freedman, Jeffrey

    2017-03-01

    The large variability and uncertainty in wind power generation present a concern to power system operators, especially given the increasing amounts of wind power being integrated into the electric power system. Large ramps, one of the biggest concerns, can significantly influence system economics and reliability. The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP) was to improve the accuracy of forecasts and to evaluate the economic benefits of these improvements to grid operators. This paper evaluates the ramp forecasting accuracy gained by improving the performance of short-term wind power forecasting. This study focuses on the WFIP southern study region, which encompasses most of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) territory, to compare the experimental WFIP forecasts to the existing short-term wind power forecasts (used at ERCOT) at multiple spatial and temporal scales. The study employs four significant wind power ramping definitions according to the power change magnitude, direction, and duration. The optimized swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract ramp events from actual and forecasted wind power time series. The results show that the experimental WFIP forecasts improve the accuracy of the wind power ramp forecasting. This improvement can result in substantial costs savings and power system reliability enhancements.

  19. Collective Influence of Multiple Spreaders Evaluated by Tracing Real Information Flow in Large-Scale Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xian; Pei, Sen; Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A.

    2016-10-01

    Identifying the most influential spreaders that maximize information flow is a central question in network theory. Recently, a scalable method called “Collective Influence (CI)” has been put forward through collective influence maximization. In contrast to heuristic methods evaluating nodes’ significance separately, CI method inspects the collective influence of multiple spreaders. Despite that CI applies to the influence maximization problem in percolation model, it is still important to examine its efficacy in realistic information spreading. Here, we examine real-world information flow in various social and scientific platforms including American Physical Society, Facebook, Twitter and LiveJournal. Since empirical data cannot be directly mapped to ideal multi-source spreading, we leverage the behavioral patterns of users extracted from data to construct “virtual” information spreading processes. Our results demonstrate that the set of spreaders selected by CI can induce larger scale of information propagation. Moreover, local measures as the number of connections or citations are not necessarily the deterministic factors of nodes’ importance in realistic information spreading. This result has significance for rankings scientists in scientific networks like the APS, where the commonly used number of citations can be a poor indicator of the collective influence of authors in the community.

  20. Collective Influence of Multiple Spreaders Evaluated by Tracing Real Information Flow in Large-Scale Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xian; Pei, Sen; Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the most influential spreaders that maximize information flow is a central question in network theory. Recently, a scalable method called “Collective Influence (CI)” has been put forward through collective influence maximization. In contrast to heuristic methods evaluating nodes’ significance separately, CI method inspects the collective influence of multiple spreaders. Despite that CI applies to the influence maximization problem in percolation model, it is still important to examine its efficacy in realistic information spreading. Here, we examine real-world information flow in various social and scientific platforms including American Physical Society, Facebook, Twitter and LiveJournal. Since empirical data cannot be directly mapped to ideal multi-source spreading, we leverage the behavioral patterns of users extracted from data to construct “virtual” information spreading processes. Our results demonstrate that the set of spreaders selected by CI can induce larger scale of information propagation. Moreover, local measures as the number of connections or citations are not necessarily the deterministic factors of nodes’ importance in realistic information spreading. This result has significance for rankings scientists in scientific networks like the APS, where the commonly used number of citations can be a poor indicator of the collective influence of authors in the community. PMID:27782207

  1. Extraction of bioactives from Orthosiphon stamineus using microwave and ultrasound-assisted techniques: Process optimization and scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung-Hung; See, Tiam-You; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng; Kow, Kien-Woh

    2017-04-15

    This work demonstrated the optimization and scale up of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive compounds from Orthosiphon stamineus using energy-based parameters such as absorbed power density and absorbed energy density (APD-AED) and response surface methodology (RSM). The intensive optimum conditions of MAE obtained at 80% EtOH, 50mL/g, APD of 0.35W/mL, AED of 250J/mL can be used to determine the optimum conditions of the scale-dependent parameters i.e. microwave power and treatment time at various extraction scales (100-300mL solvent loading). The yields of the up scaled conditions were consistent with less than 8% discrepancy and they were about 91-98% of the Soxhlet extraction yield. By adapting APD-AED method in the case of UAE, the intensive optimum conditions of the extraction, i.e. 70% EtOH, 30mL/g, APD of 0.22W/mL, AED of 450J/mL are able to achieve similar scale up results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement with multiple indicators and psychophysical scaling in the context of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Saris, W.E.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to test the theory of reasoned action of Fishbein and Ajzen. The measurements were done using two category scales and two psychophysical scales. No consistent difference in results was found between the four modalities. However, if the latter were used as multiple in

  3. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Considering Roost-Site Selection at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Jachowski

    Full Text Available Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007-2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand

  4. Schooling behaviour and environmental forcing in relation to anchoveta distribution: An analysis across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Gerlotto, François; Bertrand, Sophie; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Alza, Luis; Chipollini, Andres; Díaz, Erich; Espinoza, Pepe; Ledesma, Jesús; Quesquén, Roberto; Peraltilla, Salvador; Chavez, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    models presented in this paper may provide the final links needed to develop accurate forecasts of the spatial distribution of anchoveta over multiple scales.

  5. Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Coordinated Approach to Channel Estimation in Large-scale Multiple-antenna Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Haifan; Filippou, Miltiades; Liu, Yingzhuang

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of channel estimation in multi-cell interference-limited cellular networks. We consider systems employing multiple antennas and are interested in both the finite and large-scale antenna number regimes (so-called "Massive MIMO"). Such systems deal with the multi-cell interference by way of per-cell beamforming applied at each base station. Channel estimation in such networks, which is known to be hampered by the pilot contamination effect, constitute a major bottleneck for overall performance. We present a novel approach which tackles this problem by enabling a low-rate coordination between cells during the channel estimation phase itself. The coordination makes use of the additional second-order statistical information about the user channels, which are shown to offer a powerful way of discriminating across interfering users with even strongly correlated pilot sequences. Importantly, we demonstrate analytically that in the large number of antennas regime the pilot contaminatio...

  7. The mechanism of bursting phenomena in Belousov-Zhabotinsky(BZ) chemical reaction with multiple time scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of a typical Belousov-Zhabotinsky(BZ)reaction with multiple time scales is investigated in this paper.Different forms of periodic bursting phenomena,and specially,three types of chaotic bursters with different structures can be obtained,which are in common with the behaviors observed in experiments.The bifurcations connecting the quiescent state and the repetitive spikes are presented to account for the occurrence of the NKoscillations as well as the different forms of chaotic bursters.The mechanism of the period-adding bifurcation sequences is explored to reveal why the length of the periods in the sequences does not change continuously with the continuous variation of the parameters.

  8. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation Analysis of an Epidemic Model by Using the Method of Multiple Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A delayed epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate which depends on the ratio of the numbers of susceptible and infectious individuals is considered. By analyzing the corresponding characteristic equations, the effects of time delay on the stability of the equilibria are studied. By choosing time delay as bifurcation parameter, the critical value of time delay at which a Hopf bifurcation occurs is obtained. In order to derive the normal form of the Hopf bifurcation, an extended method of multiple scales is developed and used. Then, the amplitude of bifurcating periodic solution and the conditions which determine the stability of the bifurcating periodic solution are obtained. The validity of analytical results is shown by their consistency with numerical simulations.

  9. h-ADAPTIVITY ANALYSIS BASED ON MULTIPLE SCALE REPRODUCING KERNEL PARTICLE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-qian; ZHOU Jin-xiong; WANG Xue-ming; ZHANG Yan-fen; ZHANG Ling

    2005-01-01

    An h-adaptivity analysis scheme based on multiple scale reproducing kernel particle method was proposed, and two node refinement strategies were constructed using searching-neighbor-nodes(SNN) and local-Delaunay-triangulation(LDT) techniques, which were suitable and effective for h-adaptivity analysis on 2-D problems with the regular or irregular distribution of the nodes. The results of multiresolution and hadaptivity analyses on 2-D linear elastostatics and bending plate problems demonstrate that the improper high-gradient indicator will reduce the convergence property of the hadaptivity analysis, and that the efficiency of the LDT node refinement strategy is better than SNN, and that the presented h-adaptivity analysis scheme is provided with the validity, stability and good convergence property.

  10. On simulating flow with multiple time scales using a method of averages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, L.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author presents a new computational method based on averaging to efficiently simulate certain systems with multiple time scales. He first develops the method in a simple one-dimensional setting and employs linear stability analysis to demonstrate numerical stability. He then extends the method to multidimensional fluid flow. His method of averages does not depend on explicit splitting of the equations nor on modal decomposition. Rather he combines low order and high order algorithms in a generalized predictor-corrector framework. He illustrates the methodology in the context of a shallow fluid approximation to an ocean basin circulation. He finds that his new method reproduces the accuracy of a fully explicit second-order accurate scheme, while costing less than a first-order accurate scheme.

  11. Multiple antibiotic resistance genes distribution in ten large-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanmei; Shen, Yue-Xiao; Liang, Peng; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng; Huang, Xia

    2016-12-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are thought to be potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, GeoChip was used for analyzing multiple antibiotic resistance genes, including four multidrug efflux system gene groups and three β-lactamase genes in ten large-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment. Results revealed that the diversity of antibiotic genes varied a lot among MBRs, but about 40% common antibiotic resistance genes were existent. The average signal intensity of each antibiotic resistance group was similar among MBRs, nevertheless the total abundance of each group varied remarkably and the dominant resistance gene groups were different in individual MBR. The antibiotic resistance genes majorly derived from Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Further study indicated that TN, TP and COD of influent, temperature and conductivity of mixed liquor were significant (Pantibiotic resistance genes distribution in MBRs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of patient determined disease steps (PDDS) scale scores in persons with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) is a promising patient-reported outcome (PRO) of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, there is limited evidence regarding the validity of PDDS scores, despite its sound conceptual development and broad inclusion in MS research. This study examined the validity of the PDDS based on (1) the association with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores and (2) the pattern of associations between PDDS and EDSS scores with Functional System (FS) scores as well as ambulatory and other outcomes. Methods 96 persons with MS provided demographic/clinical information, completed the PDDS and other PROs including the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12), and underwent a neurological examination for generating FS and EDSS scores. Participants completed assessments of cognition, ambulation including the 6-minute walk (6 MW), and wore an accelerometer during waking hours over seven days. Results There was a strong correlation between EDSS and PDDS scores (ρ = .783). PDDS and EDSS scores were strongly correlated with Pyramidal (ρ = .578 &ρ = .647, respectively) and Cerebellar (ρ = .501 &ρ = .528, respectively) FS scores as well as 6 MW distance (ρ = .704 &ρ = .805, respectively), MSWS-12 scores (ρ = .801 &ρ = .729, respectively), and accelerometer steps/day (ρ = -.740 &ρ = -.717, respectively). Conclusion This study provides novel evidence supporting the PDDS as valid PRO of disability in MS. PMID:23617555

  13. Multiple harmonic frequencies resonant cavity design and half-scale prototype measurements for a fast kicker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan

    2016-12-01

    Quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities with the capability of supporting multiple odd-harmonic modes have been developed for an ultrafast periodic kicker system in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, formerly MEIC). Previous work on the kicking pulse synthesis and the transverse beam dynamics tracking simulations show that a flat-top kicking pulse can be generated with minimal emittance growth during injection and circulation of the cooling electron bunches. This flat-top kicking pulse can be obtained when a DC component and 10 harmonic modes with appropriate amplitude and phase are combined together. To support 10 such harmonic modes, four QWR cavities are used with 5, 3, 1, and 1 modes, respectively. In the multiple-mode cavities, several slightly tapered segments of the inner conductor are introduced to tune the higher order deflecting modes to be harmonic, and stub tuners are used to fine tune each frequency to compensate for potential errors. In this paper, we summarize the electromagnetic design of the five-mode cavity, including the geometry optimization to get high transverse shunt impedance, the frequency tuning and sensitivity analysis, and the single loop coupler design for coupling to all of the harmonic modes. In particular we report on the design and fabrication of a half-scale copper prototype of this proof-of-principle five-odd-mode cavity, as well as the rf bench measurements. Finally, we demonstrate mode superposition in this cavity experimentally, which illustrates the kicking pulse generation concept.

  14. Distributed cerebellar plasticity implements generalized multiple-scale memory components in real-robot sensorimotor tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCasellato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum plays a crucial role in motor learning and it acts as a predictive controller. Modeling it and embedding it into sensorimotor tasks allows us to create functional links between plasticity mechanisms, neural circuits and behavioral learning. Moreover, if applied to real-time control of a neurorobot, the cerebellar model has to deal with a real noisy and changing environment, thus showing its robustness and effectiveness in learning. A biologically inspired cerebellar model with distributed plasticity, both at cortical and nuclear sites, has been used. Two cerebellum-mediated paradigms have been designed: an associative Pavlovian task and a vestibulo-ocular reflex, with multiple sessions of acquisition and extinction and with different stimuli and perturbation patterns. The cerebellar controller succeeded to generate conditioned responses and finely tuned eye movement compensation, thus reproducing human-like behaviors. Through a productive plasticity transfer from cortical to nuclear sites, the distributed cerebellar controller showed in both tasks the capability to optimize learning on multiple time-scales, to store motor memory and to effectively adapt to dynamic ranges of stimuli.

  15. Validation of the Social Provisions Scale in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; Motl, Robert W.; Ditchman, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the factorial and construct validity of the Social Provisions Scale (SPS) in a sample of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Method Participants included 292 individuals with MS (83.9% women) recruited from the Greater Illinois, Gateway, and Indiana chapters of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Participants completed the SPS and pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, MS self-efficacy, quality of life and satisfaction with life measures. Factorial validity was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and construct validity was examined based on the strength of bivariate correlations with scores on related measures. Results Findings from the CFA indicated that a first-order, six-factor measurement model provided a good fit for the 24 items of the SPS (CFI = .94, TLI= .93, RMSEA = 0.07) and that the six factors could be described by a single, second-order factor of the overall social provisions (CFI = .93, TLI= .92, RMSEA = 0.08). Cronbach’s alpha was .89 for the global score and between .66 and .81 for the six subscales. The SPS global and subscale scores correlated significantly with satisfaction with life, depression, anxiety, MS self-efficacy, and quality of life measures. Conclusions Findings from this study support the factorial validity, construct validity, and reliability of the SPS as a measure of social provisions for use with people with MS. PMID:27088267

  16. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  17. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  18. Improved detection of multiple environmental antibiotics through an optimized sample extraction strategy in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinzhu; Bayen, Stéphane; Kelly, Barry C; Li, Xu; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    A solid-phase extraction/liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was optimized in this study for sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple antibiotics in urban surface waters and soils. Among the seven classes of tested antibiotics, extraction efficiencies of macrolides, lincosamide, chloramphenicol, and polyether antibiotics were significantly improved under optimized sample extraction pH. Instead of only using acidic extraction in many existing studies, the results indicated that antibiotics with low pK a values (antibiotics with high pK a values (>7) were extracted more efficiently under neutral conditions. The effects of pH were more obvious on polar compounds than those on non-polar compounds. Optimization of extraction pH resulted in significantly improved sample recovery and better detection limits. Compared with reported values in the literature, the average reduction of minimal detection limits obtained in this study was 87.6% in surface waters (0.06-2.28 ng/L) and 67.1% in soils (0.01-18.16 ng/g dry wt). This method was subsequently applied to detect antibiotics in environmental samples in a heavily populated urban city, and macrolides, sulfonamides, and lincomycin were frequently detected. Antibiotics with highest detected concentrations were sulfamethazine (82.5 ng/L) in surface waters and erythromycin (6.6 ng/g dry wt) in soils. The optimized sample extraction strategy can be used to improve the detection of a variety of antibiotics in environmental surface waters and soils.

  19. Characterization of halogenated DBPs and identification of new DBPs trihalomethanols in chlorine dioxide treated drinking water with multiple extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiarui; Zhang, Xiangru; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhu, Xiaohu; Gong, Tingting

    2017-08-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used alternative disinfectant due to its high biocidal efficiency and low-level formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. A major portion of total organic halogen (TOX), a collective parameter for all halogenated DBPs, formed in ClO2-treated drinking water is still unknown. A commonly used pretreatment method for analyzing halogenated DBPs in drinking water is one-time liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which may lead to a substantial loss of DBPs prior to analysis. In this study, characterization and identification of polar halogenated DBPs in a ClO2-treated drinking water sample were conducted by pretreating the sample with multiple extractions. Compared to one-time LLE, the combined four-time LLEs improved the recovery of TOX by 2.3 times. The developmental toxicity of the drinking water sample pretreated with the combined four-time LLEs was 1.67 times higher than that pretreated with one-time LLE. With the aid of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, a new group of polar halogenated DBPs, trihalomethanols, were detected in the drinking water sample pretreated with multiple extractions; two of them, trichloromethanol and bromodichloromethanol, were identified with synthesized standard compounds. Moreover, these trihalomethanols were found to be the transformation products of trihalomethanes formed during ClO2 disinfection. The results indicate that multiple LLEs can significantly improve extraction efficiencies of polar halogenated DBPs and is a better pretreatment method for characterizing and identifying new polar halogenated DBPs in drinking water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Evaluation of an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) modeling strategy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hua; Peyrodie, Laurent; Agnani, Olivier; Cavillon, Fabrice; Hautecoeur, Patrick; Donzé, Cécile

    2015-11-01

    The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is the most widely used scale to evaluate the degree of neurological impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this paper, we report on the evaluation of an EDSS modeling strategy based on recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) of posturographic data (i.e., center of pressure, COP). A total of 133 volunteers with EDSS ranging from 0 to 4.5 participated in this study, with eyes closed. After selection of time delay (τ), embedding dimension (m) as well as threshold (radius, r) to identify recurrent points, several RQA measures were calculated for each COP's position and velocity data in the mono- and multi-dimensional RQAs. Estimation results lead to the selection of the recurrence rate (RR) of the COP's position as the most pertinent RQA measure. The performance of the models versus raw and noisy data was higher in the mono-dimensional analysis than in the multi-dimensional. This study suggests that the posturographic signal's mono-dimensional RQA is a more pertinent method to quantify disability in MS than the multi-dimensional RQA.

  1. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) estimation in multiple sclerosis from posturographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hua; Peyrodie, Laurent; Boudet, Samuel; Cavillon, Fabrice; Agnani, Olivier; Hautecoeur, Patrick; Donzé, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is the most widely used clinical scale to evaluate levels of multiple sclerosis (MS). As MS can lead to disruptions in the regulation of balance and the disability can be evaluated by force platform posturography, we have developed in this study a new strategy to estimate EDSS from posturographic data. 118 volunteers with EDSS ranging from 0 to 4.5 participated in this study, with eyes closed. By using second-order polynomial regression models, EDSS was estimated from two postural sway parameters, respectively, the length and the surface and four recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) parameters: percentage of recurrence (%Rec), Shannon entropy (Ent), mean diagonal line length (LL) and trapping time (TT). In addition, all four RQA parameters were calculated for position, instantaneous velocity and acceleration of the center of pressure. In order to select the most accurate method for estimating EDSS, four statistical indices (percentage of agreement, underestimation and overestimation, as well as Mean error) were calculated comparing clinical and estimated EDSS scores. The results demonstrate that estimations of EDSS from surface, %Rec and LL of position, best agreed with clinical scores. This study emphasizes the possibility of distinguishing EDSS scores using postural sway and RQA parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Network structure at multiple scales via a new network statistic: the onion decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new network statistic that measures diverse structural properties at the micro-, meso-, and macroscopic scales, while still being easy to compute and easy to interpret at a glance. Our statistic, the onion spectrum, is based on the onion decomposition, which refines the k-core decomposition, a standard network fingerprinting method. The onion spectrum is exactly as easy to compute as the k-cores: it is based on the stages at which each vertex gets removed from a graph in the standard algorithm for computing the k-cores. But the onion spectrum reveals much more information about a network, and at multiple scales; for example, it can be used to quantify node heterogeneity, degree correlations, centrality, and tree- or lattice-likeness of the whole network as well as of each k-core. Furthermore, unlike the k-core decomposition, the combined onion-degree spectrum immediately gives a clear local picture of the network around each node which allows the detection of interesting subgraphs whose topolog...

  3. Realizing the relaxion from multiple axions and its UV completion with high scale supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Kiwoon

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a scheme to implement the relaxion solution to the hierarchy problem with multiple axions, and present a UV-completed model realizing the scheme. All of the $N$ axions in our model are periodic with a similar decay constant $f$ well below the Planck scale. In the limit $N\\gg 1$, the relaxion $\\phi$ corresponds to an exponentially long multi-helical flat direction which is shaped by a series of mass mixing between nearby axions in the compact field space of $N$ axions. With the length of flat direction given by $\\Delta \\phi =2\\pi f_{\\rm eff} \\sim e^{\\xi N} f$ for $\\xi={\\cal O}(1)$, both the scalar potential driving the evolution of $\\phi$ during the inflationary epoch and the $\\phi$-dependent Higgs boson mass vary with an exponentially large periodicity of ${\\cal O}(f_{\\rm eff})$, while the back reaction potential stabilizing the relaxion has a periodicity of ${\\cal O}( f)$. A natural UV completion of our scheme can be found in high scale or (mini) split supersymmetry (SUSY) scenario with the axion ...

  4. Mapping Compound Cosmic Telescopes Containing Multiple, Projected Cluster-Scale Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Ammons, S Mark; Zabludoff, Ann I; Keeton, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Lines of sight with multiple, projected, cluster-scale halos have high total masses and complex lens plane interactions that can boost the area of magnification, or etendue, making detection of faint background sources more likely than elsewhere. To identify these new "compound" cosmic telescopes, we have found lines-of-sight with the highest integrated mass densities, as traced by the projected concentrations of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). We use 1151 MMT Hectospec spectra to derive preliminary magnification maps for two such lines of sight with total mass exceeding ~ 3 x 10$^{15}$ Msun -- J0850+3604 (0850) and J1306+4632 (1306). We identify 2-3 group- and cluster-scale halos in each beam over 0.1 10 for a source plane of $z_s$ = 10 to [1.8, 4.2] square arcminutes, comparable to that of MACS 0717+3745 and El Gordo, two of the most powerful known single cluster lenses. The 68% confidence intervals on the lens plane area with mu > 10 for 1306 are [2.3, 6.7] square arcminutes. The significant lensing power o...

  5. Nanostructure surface patterning of GaN thin films and application to AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells: A way towards light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride based light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wei, E-mail: wguo2@ncsu.edu; Kirste, Ronny; Bryan, Zachary; Bryan, Isaac; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States); Gerhold, Michael [Engineering Science Directorate, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27703 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    Enhanced light extraction efficiency was demonstrated on nanostructure patterned GaN and AlGaN/AlN Multiple-Quantum-Well (MQW) structures using mass production techniques including natural lithography and interference lithography with feature size as small as 100 nm. Periodic nanostructures showed higher light extraction efficiency and modified emission profile compared to non-periodic structures based on integral reflection and angular-resolved transmission measurement. Light extraction mechanism of macroscopic and microscopic nanopatterning is discussed, and the advantage of using periodic nanostructure patterning is provided. An enhanced photoluminescence emission intensity was observed on nanostructure patterned AlGaN/AlN MQW compared to as-grown structure, demonstrating a large-scale and mass-producible pathway to higher light extraction efficiency in deep-ultra-violet light-emitting diodes.

  6. Nanostructure surface patterning of GaN thin films and application to AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells: A way towards light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride based light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Kirste, Ronny; Bryan, Zachary; Bryan, Isaac; Gerhold, Michael; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko

    2015-03-01

    Enhanced light extraction efficiency was demonstrated on nanostructure patterned GaN and AlGaN/AlN Multiple-Quantum-Well (MQW) structures using mass production techniques including natural lithography and interference lithography with feature size as small as 100 nm. Periodic nanostructures showed higher light extraction efficiency and modified emission profile compared to non-periodic structures based on integral reflection and angular-resolved transmission measurement. Light extraction mechanism of macroscopic and microscopic nanopatterning is discussed, and the advantage of using periodic nanostructure patterning is provided. An enhanced photoluminescence emission intensity was observed on nanostructure patterned AlGaN/AlN MQW compared to as-grown structure, demonstrating a large-scale and mass-producible pathway to higher light extraction efficiency in deep-ultra-violet light-emitting diodes.

  7. GOSIM: A multi-scale iterative multiple-point statistics algorithm with global optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Hou, Weisheng; Cui, Chanjie; Cui, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Most current multiple-point statistics (MPS) algorithms are based on a sequential simulation procedure, during which grid values are updated according to the local data events. Because the realization is updated only once during the sequential process, errors that occur while updating data events cannot be corrected. Error accumulation during simulations decreases the realization quality. Aimed at improving simulation quality, this study presents an MPS algorithm based on global optimization, called GOSIM. An objective function is defined for representing the dissimilarity between a realization and the TI in GOSIM, which is minimized by a multi-scale EM-like iterative method that contains an E-step and M-step in each iteration. The E-step searches for TI patterns that are most similar to the realization and match the conditioning data. A modified PatchMatch algorithm is used to accelerate the search process in E-step. M-step updates the realization based on the most similar patterns found in E-step and matches the global statistics of TI. During categorical data simulation, k-means clustering is used for transforming the obtained continuous realization into a categorical realization. The qualitative and quantitative comparison results of GOSIM, MS-CCSIM and SNESIM suggest that GOSIM has a better pattern reproduction ability for both unconditional and conditional simulations. A sensitivity analysis illustrates that pattern size significantly impacts the time costs and simulation quality. In conditional simulations, the weights of conditioning data should be as small as possible to maintain a good simulation quality. The study shows that big iteration numbers at coarser scales increase simulation quality and small iteration numbers at finer scales significantly save simulation time.

  8. Evidence of self-affne multiplicity scaling of charged-particle multiplicity distribution in hadron–nucleus interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipak Ghosh; Argha Deb; Sitaram Pal; Swarnapratim Bhattacharyya

    2007-05-01

    A self-affne analysis of charged-particle multiplicity distribution (protons + pions) in − –AgBr interaction at 350 GeV/c is performed according to the two-dimensional factorial moment methodology using the concept of Hurst exponent in $X_{\\cos\\theta^{-}}$ phase space. Comparing with the results obtained from self-similar analysis, the self affine analysis shows a better power-law behaviour. Corresponding results are compared with shower multiplicity distribution (pions). Multifractal behaviour is observed for both types of distributions.

  9. A new breast cancer risk analysis approach using features extracted from multiple sub-regions on bilateral mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqing; Tseng, Tzu-Liang B.; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2015-03-01

    A novel breast cancer risk analysis approach is proposed for enhancing performance of computerized breast cancer risk analysis using bilateral mammograms. Based on the intensity of breast area, five different sub-regions were acquired from one mammogram, and bilateral features were extracted from every sub-region. Our dataset includes 180 bilateral mammograms from 180 women who underwent routine screening examinations, all interpreted as negative and not recalled by the radiologists during the original screening procedures. A computerized breast cancer risk analysis scheme using four image processing modules, including sub-region segmentation, bilateral feature extraction, feature selection, and classification was designed to detect and compute image feature asymmetry between the left and right breasts imaged on the mammograms. The highest computed area under the curve (AUC) is 0.763 ± 0.021 when applying the multiple sub-region features to our testing dataset. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 0.60 and 0.73, respectively. The study demonstrates that (1) features extracted from multiple sub-regions can improve the performance of our scheme compared to using features from whole breast area only; (2) a classifier using asymmetry bilateral features can effectively predict breast cancer risk; (3) incorporating texture and morphological features with density features can boost the classification accuracy.

  10. Towards high power output of scaled-up benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs) using multiple electron collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingchuan; Williams, Isaiah; Li, Yan; Wang, Lei; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios; McCutcheon, Jeffrey; Li, Baikun

    2016-05-15

    This study aimed at achieving high power output of benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs) with novel geometric anode setups (inverted tube granular activated charcoal (IT-GAC) and carbon cloth roll (CCR)) and multiple anodes/electron collectors. The lab-scale tests showed the power density of IT-GAC and CCR anodes achieved at 2.92 and 2.55 W m(-2), the highest value ever reported in BMFCs. The power density of BMFCs substantially increased with electron collector number (titanium rods) in anodes. The connection of multiple electron collectors with multiple cathodes had much higher total voltage/current output than that with single cathode. The possibility of maintaining high power density at scaled-up BMFCs was explored by arranging multiple anodes in sediment. The compact configuration of multiple CCR anodes contacting each other did not deteriorate the performance of individual anodes, showing the feasibility of maximizing anode numbers per sediment footprint and achieving high power output. Multiple IT-GAC and CCR anodes with multiple collectors effectively utilized sediment at both horizontal and vertical directions and enhanced electron collection efficiency. This study demonstrated that bacterial adhesion and electron collection should be optimized on small anodes in order to maintain high power density and achieve high power output in the scaled-up BMFCs.

  11. Multiple satellite estimates of urban fractions and climate effects at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, G.; Xu, R.; He, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Regional climate is controlled by large scale forcing at lateral boundary and physical processes within the region. Landuse in East Asia has been changed substantially in the last three decades, featured with expansion of urban built-up at unprecedented scale and speed. The fast expansion of urban areas could contribute to local even regional climate change. However, current spatial datasets of urban fractions do not well represent extend and expansion of urban areas in the regions, and the best available satellite data and remote sensing techniques have not been well applied to serve regional modeling of urbanization impacts on near surface temperature and other climate variables. Better estimates of localized urban fractions and urban climate effects are badly needed. Here we use high and mid resolution satellite data to estimate urban fractions and to assess effects of urban heat islands at local and regional scales. With our fractional cover, data fusion, and differentiated threshold approaches, estimated urban extent was greater than previously reported in many global datasets. Many city clusters were merging into each other, with gradual blurring boundaries and disappearing of gaps among member cities. Cities and towns were more connected with roads and commercial corridors, while wildland and urban greens became more isolated as patches among built-up areas. Those new estimates are expected to effectively improve climate simulation at local and regional scales in East Asia. There were significant positive relations between urban fraction and urban heat island effects as demonstrated by VNIR and TIR data from multiple satellites. Stronger warming was detected at the meteorological stations that experienced greater urbanization, i.e., those with a higher urbanization rate. While the total urban area affects the absolute temperature values, the change of the urban area (urbanization rate) likely affects the temperature trend. Increases of approximately 10% in

  12. A multi-scale method for automatically extracting the dominant features of cervical vertebrae in CT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ying Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Localization of the dominant points of cervical spines in medical images is important for improving the medical automation in clinical head and neck applications. In order to automatically identify the dominant points of cervical vertebrae in neck CT images with precision, we propose a method based on multi-scale contour analysis to analyzing the deformable shape of spines. To extract the spine contour, we introduce a method to automatically generate the initial contour of the spine shape, and the distance field for level set active contour iterations can also be deduced. In the shape analysis stage, we at first coarsely segment the extracted contour with zero-crossing points of the curvature based on the analysis with curvature scale space, and the spine shape is modeled with the analysis of curvature scale space. Then, each segmented curve is analyzed geometrically based on the turning angle property at different scales, and the local extreme points are extracted and verified as the dominant feature points. The vertices of the shape contour are approximately derived with the analysis at coarse scale, and then adjusted precisely at fine scale. Consequently, the results of experiment show that we approach a success rate of 93.4% and accuracy of 0.37mm by comparing with the manual results.

  13. Self adaptive multi-scale morphology AVG-Hat filter and its application to fault feature extraction for wheel bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feiyue; Yang, Shaopu; Tang, Guiji; Hao, Rujiang; Zhang, Mingliang

    2017-04-01

    Wheel bearings are essential mechanical components of trains, and fault detection of the wheel bearing is of great significant to avoid economic loss and casualty effectively. However, considering the operating conditions, detection and extraction of the fault features hidden in the heavy noise of the vibration signal have become a challenging task. Therefore, a novel method called adaptive multi-scale AVG-Hat morphology filter (MF) is proposed to solve it. The morphology AVG-Hat operator not only can suppress the interference of the strong background noise greatly, but also enhance the ability of extracting fault features. The improved envelope spectrum sparsity (IESS), as a new evaluation index, is proposed to select the optimal filtering signal processed by the multi-scale AVG-Hat MF. It can present a comprehensive evaluation about the intensity of fault impulse to the background noise. The weighted coefficients of the different scale structural elements (SEs) in the multi-scale MF are adaptively determined by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The effectiveness of the method is validated by analyzing the real wheel bearing fault vibration signal (e.g. outer race fault, inner race fault and rolling element fault). The results show that the proposed method could improve the performance in the extraction of fault features effectively compared with the multi-scale combined morphological filter (CMF) and multi-scale morphology gradient filter (MGF) methods.

  14. Grape extracts inhibit multiple events in the cell biology of cholera intoxication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikar Reddy

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae produces cholera toxin (CT, an AB5 protein toxin that is primarily responsible for the profuse watery diarrhea of cholera. CT is secreted into the extracellular milieu, but the toxin attacks its Gsα target within the cytosol of a host cell. Thus, CT must cross a cellular membrane barrier in order to function. This event only occurs after the toxin travels by retrograde vesicular transport from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The catalytic A1 polypeptide then dissociates from the rest of the toxin and assumes an unfolded conformation that facilitates its transfer to the cytosol by a process involving the quality control system of ER-associated degradation. Productive intoxication is blocked by alterations to the vesicular transport of CT and/or the ER-to-cytosol translocation of CTA1. Various plant compounds have been reported to inhibit the cytopathic activity of CT, so in this work we evaluated the potential anti-CT properties of grape extract. Two grape extracts currently sold as nutritional supplements inhibited CT and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin activity against cultured cells and intestinal loops. CT intoxication was blocked even when the extracts were added an hour after the initial toxin exposure. A specific subset of host-toxin interactions involving both the catalytic CTA1 subunit and the cell-binding CTB pentamer were affected. The extracts blocked toxin binding to the cell surface, prevented unfolding of the isolated CTA1 subunit, inhibited CTA1 translocation to the cytosol, and disrupted the catalytic activity of CTA1. Grape extract could thus potentially serve as a novel therapeutic to prevent or possibly treat cholera.

  15. Unsupervised Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Images Segmentation and Multiple Sclerosis Lesions Extraction based on Edge and Texture Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannaz AKBARPOUR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis (MS lesions is a crucial part of MS diagnosis and therapy. Segmentation of lesions is usually performed manually, exposing this process to human errors. Thus, exploiting automatic and semi-automatic methods is of interest. In this paper, a new method is proposed to segment MS lesions from multichannel MRI data (T1-W and T2-W. For this purpose, statistical features of spatial domain and wavelet coefficients of frequency domain are extracted for each pixel of skull-stripped images to form a feature vector. An unsupervised clustering algorithm is applied to group pixels and extracts lesions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is better than other state of art and contemporary methods of segmentation in terms of Dice metric, specificity, false-positive-rate, and Jaccard metric.

  16. Quantitative determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in milk by multiple dynamic headspace extraction and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccioli, Paolo; Brancaleoni, Enzo; Frattoni, Massimiliano; Fedele, Vincenzo; Claps, Salvatore; Signorelli, Federica

    2004-01-01

    A method for the accurate determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in milk samples has been developed and tested. It combines multiple dynamic headspace extraction with GC-MS. Absolute amounts of VOC in the liquid phase are obtained by determining the first order kinetic dependence of the stepwise extraction of the analytes and internal standards from the liquid matrix. Compounds released from milk were collected on a train of traps filled with different solid sorbents to cover all components having a number of carbon atoms ranging from 4 to 15. They were analysed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of VOC from the collecting traps. Quantification of VOC in milk was performed using deuterated compounds as internal standards. The method was used to follow seasonal variations of monoterpenes in goat milk and to detect the impact of air pollution on the quality of milk.

  17. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Arndt,1–3 Ethan Sahker,1,4 Suzy Hedden1 1Iowa Consortium for Substance Abuse Research and Evaluation, 2Department of Psychiatry, Carver College of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, 4Department of Psychological and Quantitative Foundations, Counseling Psychology Program College of Education, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Methods: Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores. Multiple group factor analysis provided a quasi-confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The solution accounted for 75.24% of the total variance, suggesting that 10 factors provide a reasonably good fit. However, Tucker’s congruence coefficients between the factor structure and defining weights (0.41–0.52 suggested a poor fit to the hypothesized 10-domain structure. Principal components of the 10-domain scores yielded one factor whose eigenvalue was greater than one (5.93, accounting for 75.8% of the common variance. A few domains had perceptible but small unique variance components suggesting that a few of the domains may warrant enrichment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is one general factor, with a caveat. Using the 10 measures inflates the chance for Type I errors. Using one general measure avoids this issue, is simple to interpret, and could reduce the number of items. However, those seeking to maximally predict later recovery success may need to use the full instrument and all 10 domains. Keywords: social support, psychometrics, quality of life

  18. Spatial heterogeneity regulates plant-pollinator networks across multiple landscape scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Eduardo Freitas; Boscolo, Danilo; Viana, Blandina Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Mutualistic plant-pollinator interactions play a key role in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning. In a community, the combination of these interactions can generate emergent properties, e.g., robustness and resilience to disturbances such as fluctuations in populations and extinctions. Given that these systems are hierarchical and complex, environmental changes must have multiple levels of influence. In addition, changes in habitat quality and in the landscape structure are important threats to plants, pollinators and their interactions. However, despite the importance of these phenomena for the understanding of biological systems, as well as for conservation and management strategies, few studies have empirically evaluated these effects at the network level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of local conditions and landscape structure at multiple scales on the characteristics of plant-pollinator networks. This study was conducted in agri-natural lands in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. Pollinators were collected in 27 sampling units distributed orthogonally along a gradient of proportion of agriculture and landscape diversity. The Akaike information criterion was used to select models that best fit the metrics for network characteristics, comparing four hypotheses represented by a set of a priori candidate models with specific combinations of the proportion of agriculture, the average shape of the landscape elements, the diversity of the landscape and the structure of local vegetation. The results indicate that a reduction of habitat quality and landscape heterogeneity can cause species loss and decrease of networks nestedness. These structural changes can reduce robustness and resilience of plant-pollinator networks what compromises the reproductive success of plants, the maintenance of biodiversity and the pollination service stability. We also discuss the possible explanations for these relationships and

  19. Optimal extraction of small-scale surface water storage in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendrarajah, S.; Warr, P. G.; Jakeman, A. J.

    1992-05-01

    This paper analyzes the optimization of water storage of small-scale dams (tanks) found in the semiarid regions of Asia. The focus is on monsoonal water storage in small tank systems in Sri Lanka, and in particular on optimal extraction for supplementary irrigation under double cropping, also allowing for nonirrigation uses of storage. The problem of intraseasonal allocation of storage for irrigation is solved by deterministic dynamic programming (DP) using simulated crop response functions. An approach to solving the optimal interseasonal allocation problem is demonstrated by operating in sequence the DP models for the two seasons. An important feature is the generation and use of seasonal water response functions with respect to each cropping season ensuring optimality in both crop area and intraseasonal distribution of irrigation. The determination of the scarcity value of water in this framework is also illustrated. Our results show that in most years both the optimal conservation of storage from the wet season and the optimal area of irrigation in the dry season are much higher than the current practice.

  20. Two-dimensional Length Extraction of Ballistic Target from ISAR Images Using a New Scaling Method by Affine Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Guanghu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The length of ballistic target is one of the most important features for target recognition. It can be extracted from ISAR Images. Unlike from the optical image, the length extraction from ISAR image has two difficulties. The first one is that it is hard to get the actual position of scattering centres by the traditional target extraction method. The second one is that the ISAR image’s cross scale is not known because of the target’s complex rotation. Here we propose two methods to solve these problems. Firstly, we use clustering method to get scattering centers. Secondly we propose to get cross scale of the ISAR images by affine registration. Experiments verified that our approach is realisable and has good performance.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5, September 2014, pp.458-463, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.5001

  1. The multiple sclerosis rating scale, revised (MSRS-R): Development, refinement, and psychometric validation using an online community

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In developing the PatientsLikeMe online platform for patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), we required a patient-reported assessment of functional status that was easy to complete and identified disability in domains other than walking. Existing measures of functional status were inadequate, clinician-reported, focused on walking, and burdensome to complete. In response, we developed the Multiple Sclerosis Rating Scale (MSRS). Methods We adapted a clinician-rated measure,...

  2. Extraction of Channel Length Independent Series Resistance for Deeply Scaled Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Juan; Ji, Xiao-Li; Chen, Yuan-Cong; Xia, Hao-Guang; Zhu, Chen-Xin; Guo, Qiang; Yan, Feng

    2014-09-01

    The recently developed four Rsd extraction methods from a single device, involving the constant-mobility method, the direct Id—Vgs method, the conductance method and the Y-function method, are evaluated on 32 nm n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (nMOSFETs). It is found that Rsd achieved from the constant-mobility method exhibits the channel length independent characteristics. The L-dependent Rsd extracted from the other three methods is proven to be associated with the gate-voltage-induced mobility degradation in the extraction procedures. Based on L-dependent behaviors of Rsd, a new method is proposed for accurate series resistance extraction on deeply scaled MOSFETs.

  3. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: from laboratory to pilot and industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filly, Aurore; Fernandez, Xavier; Minuti, Matteo; Visinoni, Francesco; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2014-05-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been proposed as a green method for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs that are extensively used in the food industry. This technique is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation performed at atmospheric pressure without any added solvent or water. The isolation and concentration of volatile compounds is performed in a single stage. In this work, SFME and a conventional technique, hydro-distillation HD (Clevenger apparatus), are used for the extraction of essential oil from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and are compared. This preliminary laboratory study shows that essential oils extracted by SFME in 30min were quantitatively (yield and kinetics profile) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained using conventional hydro-distillation in 2h. Experiments performed in a 75L pilot microwave reactor prove the feasibility of SFME up scaling and potential industrial applications.

  4. A Greener, Quick and Comprehensive Extraction Approach for LC-MS of Multiple Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Breidbach

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In food/feed control, mycotoxin analysis is often still performed “one analyte at a time”. Here a method is presented which aims at making mycotoxin analysis environmentally friendlier through replacing acetonitrile by ethyl acetate and reducing chemical waste production by analyzing four mycotoxins together, forgoing sample extract clean-up, and minimizing solvent consumption. For this, 2 g of test material were suspended in 8 mL water and 16 mL ethyl acetate were added. Extraction was accelerated through sonication for 30 min and subsequent addition of 8 g sodium sulfate. After centrifugation, 500 µL supernatant were spiked with isotopologues, dried down, reconstituted in mobile phase, and measured with LC-MS. The method was validated in-house and through a collaborative study and the performance was fit-for-purpose. Repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDs between 16% at low and 4% at higher contaminations were obtained. The reproducibility RSDs were mostly between 12% and 32%. The trueness of results for T-2 toxin and Zearalenone were not different from 100%, for Deoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin they were larger than 89%. The extraction was also adapted to a quick screening of Aflatoxin B1 in maize by flow-injection–mass spectrometry. Semi-quantitative results were obtained through standard addition and scan-based ion ratio calculations. The method proved to be a viable greener and quicker alternative to existing methods.

  5. Road Extraction from High-resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Multiple Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiao-feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Road extraction from high-resolution remote sensing images has been considered to be a significant but very difficult task.Especially the spectrum of some buildings is similar with that of roads,which makes the surfaces being connect with each other after classification and difficult to be distinguished.Based on the cooperation between road surfaces and edges,this paper presents an approach to purify roads from high-resolution remote sensing images.Firstly,we try to improve the extraction accuracy of road surfaces and edges respectively.The logic cooperation between these two binary images is used to separate road and non-road objects.Then the road objects are confirmed by the cooperation between surfaces and edges.And the effective shape indices(e.g.polar moment of inertia and narrow extent index are applied to eliminate non-road objects.So the road information is refined.The experiments indicate that the proposed approach is efficient for eliminating non-road information and extracting road information from high-resolution remote sensing image.

  6. Transfer learning based clinical concept extraction on data from multiple sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xinbo; Guan, Yi; Deng, Benyang

    2014-12-01

    Machine learning methods usually assume that training data and test data are drawn from the same distribution. However, this assumption often cannot be satisfied in the task of clinical concept extraction. The main aim of this paper was to use training data from one institution to build a concept extraction model for data from another institution with a different distribution. An instance-based transfer learning method, TrAdaBoost, was applied in this work. To prevent the occurrence of a negative transfer phenomenon with TrAdaBoost, we integrated it with Bagging, which provides a "softer" weights update mechanism with only a tiny amount of training data from the target domain. Two data sets named BETH and PARTNERS from the 2010 i2b2/VA challenge as well as BETHBIO, a data set we constructed ourselves, were employed to show the effectiveness of our work's transfer ability. Our method outperforms the baseline model by 2.3% and 4.4% when the baseline model is trained by training data that are combined from the source domain and the target domain in two experiments of BETH vs. PARTNERS and BETHBIO vs. PARTNERS, respectively. Additionally, confidence intervals for the performance metrics suggest that our method's results have statistical significance. Moreover, we explore the applicability of our method for further experiments. With our method, only a tiny amount of labeled data from the target domain is required to build a concept extraction model that produces better performance.

  7. Baseflow physical characteristics differ at multiple spatial scales in stream networks across diverse biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janine Ruegg; Walter K. Dodds; Melinda D. Daniels; Ken R. Sheehan; Christina L. Baker; William B. Bowden; Kaitlin J. Farrell; Michael B. Flinn; Tamara K. Harms; Jeremy B. Jones; Lauren E. Koenig; John S. Kominoski; William H. McDowell; Samuel P. Parker; Amy D. Rosemond; Matt T. Trentman; Matt Whiles; Wilfred M. Wollheim

    2016-01-01

    ContextSpatial scaling of ecological processes is facilitated by quantifying underlying habitat attributes. Physical and ecological patterns are often measured at disparate spatial scales limiting our ability to quantify ecological processes at broader spatial scales using physical attributes.

  8. Any material becomes superhydrophobic, if you can make it rough enough at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, Daniel; Frankiewicz, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material, either as the base material or as a coating on technically relevant base materials. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple scales of roughness on wettability and repellency. These superrepellent surfaces made of hydrophilic materials are also able to switch between a metastable Cassie-Baxter state and a hydrophilic wetting state. Related opportunities for controlling phase change heat transfer will be discussed. Financial support from the US National Science Foundation, CEBET Grant 1235867, is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Multiple-Choice Items in Science Technology and Society: Item Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vázquez Alonso

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The scarce attention to assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for Science-Technology-Society (STS education, due to the dialectic, tentative, value-laden, and controversial nature of most STS topics. To overcome the methodological pitfalls of the STS assessment instruments used in the past, an empirically developed instrument (VOSTS, Views on Science-Technology-Society have been suggested. Some methodological proposals, namely the multiple response models and the computing of a global attitudinal index, were suggested to improve the item implementation. The final step of these methodological proposals requires the categorization of STS statements. This paper describes the process of categorization through a scaling procedure ruled by a panel of experts, acting as judges, according to the body of knowledge from history, epistemology, and sociology of science. The statement categorization allows for the sound foundation of STS items, which is useful in educational assessment and science education research, and may also increase teachers’ self-confidence in the development of the STS curriculum for science classrooms.

  10. Cross-scale Efficient Tensor Contractions for Coupled Cluster Computations Through Multiple Programming Model Backends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Khaled Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Epifanovsky, Evgeny [Q-Chem, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Krylov, Anna I. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-07-26

    Coupled-cluster methods provide highly accurate models of molecular structure by explicit numerical calculation of tensors representing the correlation between electrons. These calculations are dominated by a sequence of tensor contractions, motivating the development of numerical libraries for such operations. While based on matrix-matrix multiplication, these libraries are specialized to exploit symmetries in the molecular structure and in electronic interactions, and thus reduce the size of the tensor representation and the complexity of contractions. The resulting algorithms are irregular and their parallelization has been previously achieved via the use of dynamic scheduling or specialized data decompositions. We introduce our efforts to extend the Libtensor framework to work in the distributed memory environment in a scalable and energy efficient manner. We achieve up to 240 speedup compared with the best optimized shared memory implementation. We attain scalability to hundreds of thousands of compute cores on three distributed-memory architectures, (Cray XC30&XC40, BlueGene/Q), and on a heterogeneous GPU-CPU system (Cray XK7). As the bottlenecks shift from being compute-bound DGEMM's to communication-bound collectives as the size of the molecular system scales, we adopt two radically different parallelization approaches for handling load-imbalance. Nevertheless, we preserve a uni ed interface to both programming models to maintain the productivity of computational quantum chemists.

  11. Transient heat conduction in a solid slab using multiple-scale analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista, O.; Campos, I. [ITESM, Division de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Mendez, F. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we study the unsteady heat conduction due to a sudden temperature step in the external surfaces of a solid slab. In order to estimate the temperature profile in the solid, we applied the multiple-scale perturbation technique by identifying the ''early'' and ''late'' transient regimes for small values of the Biot number, Bi. In this sense, we have re-visited the classical lumped method, incorporating this particular case as an asymptotic limit, which is fully described by the ''late'' regime for small values of Bi. Once the temperature distribution is analytically predicted, this solution is compared against the exact solution and with other analytical results obtained by using regular perturbation techniques, for different values of the Biot number Bi. Observing a good agreement between the corresponding comparisons, we obtain a very simple and useful formula to predict the nondimensional temperature of the solid slab. (orig.)

  12. Validating Neuro-QoL short forms and targeted scales with people who have multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Deborah M; Bethoux, Francois; Victorson, David; Nowinski, Cindy J; Buono, Sarah; Lai, Jin-Shei; Wortman, Katy; Burns, James L; Moy, Claudia; Cella, David

    2016-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive, and disabling disease of the central nervous system with dramatic variations in the combination and severity of symptoms it can produce. The lack of reliable disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures for use in clinical trials prompted the development of the Neurology Quality of Life (Neuro-QOL) instrument, which includes 13 scales that assess physical, emotional, cognitive, and social domains, for use in a variety of neurological illnesses. The objective of this research paper is to conduct an initial assessment of the reliability and validation of the Neuro-QOL short forms (SFs) in MS. We assessed reliability, concurrent validity, known groups validity, and responsiveness between cross-sectional and longitudinal data in 161 recruited MS patients. Internal consistency was high for all measures (α = 0.81-0.95) and ICCs were within the acceptable range (0.76-0.91); concurrent and known groups validity were highest with the Global HRQL question. Longitudinal assessment was limited by the lack of disease progression in the group. The Neuro-QOL SFs demonstrate good internal consistency, test-re-test reliability, and concurrent and known groups validity in this MS population, supporting the validity of Neuro-QOL in adults with MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  13. Validating Neuro-QoL Short Forms and Targeted Scales with Persons who have Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Deborah M.; Bethoux, Francois; Victorson, David; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Buono, Sarah; Lai, Jin-Shei; Wortman, Katy; Burns, James L.; Moy, Claudia; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive and disabling disease of the central nervous system with dramatic variations in the combination and severity of symptoms it can produce. The lack of reliable disease specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures for use in clinical trials prompted the development of the Neurology Quality of Life (Neuro-QOL) instrument, which includes 13 scales that assess physical, emotional, cognitive, and social domains, for use in a variety of neurological illnesses. Objective Initial assessment of the reliability and validation of the Neuro-QOL short forms (SFs) in MS. Methods We assessed reliability, concurrent validity, known groups validity, and responsiveness between cross-sectional and longitudinal data in 161 recruited MS subjects. Results Internal consistency was high for all measures (α = 0.81 - 0.95) and ICCs were within acceptable range (0.76 - 0.91), concurrent and known groups validity were highest with the Global HRQL question. Longitudinal assessment was limited by the lack of disease progression in the group. Conclusions The Neuro-QOL SFs demonstrate good internal consistency, test-re-test reliability, and concurrent and know groups validity in this MS population, supporting the validity of Neuro-QOL in adults with MS PMID:26238464

  14. Fault detection and isolation for a full-scale railway vehicle suspension with multiple Kalman filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesussek, Mathias; Ellermann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Reliability and dependability in complex mechanical systems can be improved by fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods. These techniques are key elements for maintenance on demand, which could decrease service cost and time significantly. This paper addresses FDI for a railway vehicle: the mechanical model is described as a multibody system, which is excited randomly due to track irregularities. Various parameters, like masses, spring- and damper-characteristics, influence the dynamics of the vehicle. Often, the exact values of the parameters are unknown and might even change over time. Some of these changes are considered critical with respect to the operation of the system and they require immediate maintenance. The aim of this work is to detect faults in the suspension system of the vehicle. A Kalman filter is used in order to estimate the states. To detect and isolate faults the detection error is minimised with multiple Kalman filters. A full-scale train model with nonlinear wheel/rail contact serves as an example for the described techniques. Numerical results for different test cases are presented. The analysis shows that for the given system it is possible not only to detect a failure of the suspension system from the system's dynamic response, but also to distinguish clearly between different possible causes for the changes in the dynamical behaviour.

  15. Demonstration Plant Equipment Design and Scale-Up from Pilot Plant of a Leaching and Solvent Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Arroyo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Germanium recovery from coal fly ash by hydrometallurgical procedures was studied at the pilot scale (5 kg of fly ash/h. Results were used to design the equipment of a demonstration-sized plant (200 kg of fly ash/h. The process is based on hydrometallurgical operations: firstly a germanium extraction from fly ash by leaching and a consequent Ge separation from the other elements present in the solution by solvent extraction procedures. Based on the experimental results, mass balances and McCabe-Thiele diagrams were applied to determine the number of steps of the solvent extraction stage. Different arrangements have been studied and a countercurrent process with three steps in extraction and six steps in elution was defined. A residence time of 5 min was fixed in both the extraction and elution stages. Volumetric ratios in extraction and stripping were: aqueous phase/organic phase = 5 and organic phase/stripping phase = 5, so a concentration factor of 25 is achieved. Mixers and decanters were completely defined. The maximum extracted and eluted germanium was estimated and a global efficiency of 94% was achieved. The cost-effectiveness of the equipment was estimated using the Lang factors.

  16. A Comparison of Different Versions of the Method of Multiple Scales for an Arbitrary Model of Odd Nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    Pakdemirli, Mehmet; Boyacı, Hakan

    1999-01-01

    A general model of cubic and fifth order nonlinearities is considered. The linear part as well as the nonlinearities are expressed in terms of arbitrary operators. Two different versions of the method of multiple scales are used in constructing the general transient and steady-state solutions of the model: Modified Rahman-Burton method and the Reconstitution method. It is found that the usual ordering of reconstitution can be used, if at higher orders of approximation, the time scale correspo...

  17. Development of supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography purification methods using rapid solubility screening with multiple solubility chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahm, Kyung H; Huang, Ke; Barnhart, Wesley W; Goetzinger, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Rapid solubility screening in diverse supercritical fluids (SCFs) was carried out via multiple solubility chambers with a trapping device and online ultraviolet (UV) detection. With this device, it was possible to rapidly study the solubility variations of multiple components in a mixture. Results from solubility studies have been used to develop efficient supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) methods. After the investigation of solubilities of theophylline and caffeine in several neat organic solvents and SCFs, advantages of SFE over conventional organic solvent extraction were demonstrated with a model mixture of theophylline and caffeine. The highest solubility ratio of 1:40 (theophylline:caffeine) was observed in the SCF with 20% acetonitrile (MeCN), where a ratio of 1:11 was the highest in the neat organic solvents. A model mixture of theophylline:caffeine (85:15 w/w, caffeine as an impurity) was successfully purified by SFE by leveraging the highest solubility difference. The SCF with 20% MeCN selectively removed caffeine and left theophylline largely intact. Rapid SCF solubility screening was applied to development of SFE and SFC methods in a drug discovery environment. Two successful applications were demonstrated with proprietary Amgen compounds to either remove an achiral impurity before chiral purification or enhance chiral chromatographic throughput.

  18. A Waterline Extraction Method from Remote Sensing Image Based on Quad-tree and Multiple Active Contour Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Jintao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After the characteristics of geodesic active contour model (GAC, Chan-Vese model(CV and local binary fitting model(LBF are analyzed, and the active contour model based on regions and edges is combined with image segmentation method based on quad-tree, a waterline extraction method based on quad-tree and multiple active contour model is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the method provides an initial contour according to quad-tree segmentation. Secondly, a new signed pressure force(SPF function based on global image statistics information of CV model and local image statistics information of LBF model has been defined, and then ,the edge stopping function(ESF is replaced by the proposed SPF function, which solves the problem such as evolution stopped in advance and excessive evolution. Finally, the selective binary and Gaussian filtering level set method is used to avoid reinitializing and regularization to improve the evolution efficiency. The experimental results show that this method can effectively extract the weak edges and serious concave edges, and owns some properties such as sub-pixel accuracy, high efficiency and reliability for waterline extraction.

  19. Operational GPS Imaging System at Multiple Scales for Earth Science and Monitoring of Geohazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Hammond, William; Kreemer, Corné

    2016-04-01

    Toward scientific targets that range from slow deep Earth processes to geohazard rapid response, our operational GPS data analysis system produces smooth, yet detailed maps of 3-dimensional land motion with respect to our Earth's center of mass at multiple spatio-temporal scales with various latencies. "GPS Imaging" is implemented operationally as a back-end processor to our GPS data processing facility, which uses JPL's GIPSY OASIS II software to produce positions from 14,000 GPS stations in ITRF every 5 minutes, with coordinate precision that gradually improves as latency increases upward from 1 hour to 2 weeks. Our GPS Imaging system then applies sophisticated signal processing and image filtering techniques to generate images of land motion covering our Earth's continents with high levels of robustness, accuracy, spatial resolution, and temporal resolution. Techniques employed by our GPS Imaging system include: (1) similarity transformation of polyhedron coordinates to ITRF with optional common-mode filtering to enhance local transient signal to noise ratio, (2) a comprehensive database of ~100,000 potential step events based on earthquake catalogs and equipment logs, (3) an automatic, robust, and accurate non-parametric estimator of station velocity that is insensitive to prevalent step discontinuities, outliers, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity; (4) a realistic estimator of velocity error bars based on subsampling statistics; (5) image processing to create a map of land motion that is based on median spatial filtering on the Delauney triangulation, which is effective at despeckling the data while faithfully preserving edge features; (6) a velocity time series estimator to assist identification of transient behavior, such as unloading caused by drought, and (7) a method of integrating InSAR and GPS for fine-scale seamless imaging in ITRF. Our system is being used to address three main scientific focus areas, including (1) deep Earth processes, (2

  20. Evaluating habitat associations of a fish assemblages at multiple scales in a minimally disturbed stream on the Edwards Plateau, Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Brandon D.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Bean, Preston T.; Groeschel, Jillian R.; Magnelia, Stephan J.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity at multiple scales is a major factor affecting fish assemblage structure. However, assessments that examine these relationships at multiple scales concurrently are lacking. The lack of assessments at these scales is a critical gap in understanding as conservation and restoration efforts typically work at these levels.

  1. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base. PMID:26306271

  2. Modeling hydrologic responses to deforestation/forestation and climate change at multiple scales in the Southern US and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven McNulty; Jianbiao Lu; James Vose; Devendra Amayta; Guoyi Zhou; Zhiqiang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Watershed management and restoration practices require a clear understanding of the basic eco-hydrologic processes and ecosystem responses to disturbances at multiple scales (Bruijnzeel, 2004; Scott et al., 2005). Worldwide century-long forest hydrologic research has documented that deforestation and forestation (i.e. reforestation and afforestation) can have variable...

  3. Multiple linear regression to develop strength scaled equations for knee and elbow joints based on age, gender and segment mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Souza, Sonia; Rasmussen, John; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    and valuable ergonomic tool. Objective: To investigate age and gender effects on the torque-producing ability in the knee and elbow in older adults. To create strength scaled equations based on age, gender, upper/lower limb lengths and masses using multiple linear regression. To reduce the number of dependent...

  4. Preliminary validation study of the Spanish version of the satisfaction with life scale in persons with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Galan, Ingrid; Den Oudsten, Brenda L.; Power, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess Life Satisfaction, using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and to analyze its psychometric properties in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Method: Persons with MS (n = 84) recruited at the MS Centre of Catalonia (Spain) completed a battery of subjective assessments including the

  5. The 7-Item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale as a Tool for Measuring Generalized Anxiety in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Terrill, Alexandra L.; Hartoonian, Narineh; Beier, Meghan; Salem, Rana; Alschuler, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) but understudied. Reliable and valid measures are needed to advance clinical care and expand research in this area. The objectives of this study were to examine the psychometric properties of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) in individuals with MS and to analyze correlates of GAD.

  6. Quantifying the heterogeneity of soil compaction, physical soil properties and soil moisture across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian; Sander, Graham

    2016-04-01

    England's rural landscape is dominated by pastoral agriculture, with 40% of land cover classified as either improved or semi-natural grassland according to the Land Cover Map 2007. Since the Second World War the intensification of agriculture has resulted in greater levels of soil compaction, associated with higher stocking densities in fields. Locally compaction has led to loss of soil storage and an increased in levels of ponding in fields. At the catchment scale soil compaction has been hypothesised to contribute to increased flood risk. Previous research (Pattison, 2011) on a 40km2 catchment (Dacre Beck, Lake District, UK) has shown that when soil characteristics are homogeneously parameterised in a hydrological model, downstream peak discharges can be 65% higher for a heavy compacted soil than for a lightly compacted soil. However, at the catchment scale there is likely to be a significant amount of variability in compaction levels within and between fields, due to multiple controlling factors. This research focusses in on one specific type of land use (permanent pasture with cattle grazing) and areas of activity within the field (feeding area, field gate, tree shelter, open field area). The aim was to determine if the soil characteristics and soil compaction levels are homogeneous in the four areas of the field. Also, to determine if these levels stayed the same over the course of the year, or if there were differences at the end of the dry (October) and wet (April) periods. Field experiments were conducted in the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK, which has an area of 120km2. The dynamic cone penetrometer was used to determine the structural properties of the soil, soil samples were collected to assess the bulk density, organic matter content and permeability in the laboratory and the Hydrosense II was used to determine the soil moisture content in the topsoil. Penetration results show that the tree shelter is the most compacted and the open field area

  7. Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

  8. A global review on hydrological responses to forest change across multiple spatial scales: Importance of scale, climate, forest type and hydrological regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingfang; Liu, Ning; Harper, Richard; Li, Qiang; Liu, Kuan; Wei, Xiaohua; Ning, Dingyuan; Hou, Yiping; Liu, Shirong

    2017-03-01

    Despite extensive studies on hydrological responses to forest cover change in small watersheds, the hydrological responses to forest change and associated mechanisms across multiple spatial scales have not been fully understood. This review thus examined about 312 watersheds worldwide to provide a generalized framework to evaluate hydrological responses to forest cover change and to identify the contribution of spatial scale, climate, forest type and hydrological regime in determining the intensity of forest change related hydrological responses in small (<1000 km2) and large watersheds (⩾1000 km2). Key findings include: (1) the increase in annual runoff associated with forest cover loss is statistically significant at multiple spatial scales whereas the effect of forest cover gain is statistically inconsistent; (2) the sensitivity of annual runoff to forest cover change tends to attenuate as watershed size increases only in large watersheds; (3) annual runoff is more sensitive to forest cover change in water-limited watersheds than in energy-limited watersheds across all spatial scales; and (4) small mixed forest-dominated watersheds or large snow-dominated watersheds are more hydrologically resilient to forest cover change. These findings improve the understanding of hydrological response to forest cover change at different spatial scales and provide a scientific underpinning to future watershed management in the context of climate change and increasing anthropogenic disturbances.

  9. Urbanisation at multiple scales is associated with larger size and higher fecundity of an orb-weaving spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Elizabeth C; Wilder, Shawn M; Hochuli, Dieter F

    2014-01-01

    Urbanisation modifies landscapes at multiple scales, impacting the local climate and changing the extent and quality of natural habitats. These habitat modifications significantly alter species distributions and can result in increased abundance of select species which are able to exploit novel ecosystems. We examined the effect of urbanisation at local and landscape scales on the body size, lipid reserves and ovary weight of Nephila plumipes, an orb weaving spider commonly found in both urban and natural landscapes. Habitat variables at landscape, local and microhabitat scales were integrated to create a series of indexes that quantified the degree of urbanisation at each site. Spider size was negatively associated with vegetation cover at a landscape scale, and positively associated with hard surfaces and anthropogenic disturbance on a local and microhabitat scale. Ovary weight increased in higher socioeconomic areas and was positively associated with hard surfaces and leaf litter at a local scale. The larger size and increased reproductive capacity of N.plumipes in urban areas show that some species benefit from the habitat changes associated with urbanisation. Our results also highlight the importance of incorporating environmental variables from multiple scales when quantifying species responses to landscape modification.

  10. Urbanisation at multiple scales is associated with larger size and higher fecundity of an orb-weaving spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Lowe

    Full Text Available Urbanisation modifies landscapes at multiple scales, impacting the local climate and changing the extent and quality of natural habitats. These habitat modifications significantly alter species distributions and can result in increased abundance of select species which are able to exploit novel ecosystems. We examined the effect of urbanisation at local and landscape scales on the body size, lipid reserves and ovary weight of Nephila plumipes, an orb weaving spider commonly found in both urban and natural landscapes. Habitat variables at landscape, local and microhabitat scales were integrated to create a series of indexes that quantified the degree of urbanisation at each site. Spider size was negatively associated with vegetation cover at a landscape scale, and positively associated with hard surfaces and anthropogenic disturbance on a local and microhabitat scale. Ovary weight increased in higher socioeconomic areas and was positively associated with hard surfaces and leaf litter at a local scale. The larger size and increased reproductive capacity of N.plumipes in urban areas show that some species benefit from the habitat changes associated with urbanisation. Our results also highlight the importance of incorporating environmental variables from multiple scales when quantifying species responses to landscape modification.

  11. Effect of EDTA, HCl, and citric acid on Ca salt removal from Asian (silver) carp scales prior to gelatin extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2009-08-01

    Pretreatments with different chemicals at different concentrations to remove Ca compounds were studied to determine their effects on gelatin extraction from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) scales. During Ca removal with HCl, citric acid, and EDTA, all 3 chemicals were able to decalcify (>90%) scales; however, protein losses with EDTA were lower than with HCl and citric acid (P < 0.05), and protein losses with citric acid were lower than with HCl (P < 0.05). Ca removal with HCl yielded a solution where 4% to 5% of the protein was Hyp, with estimated gelatin losses from 0.9% to 2.5%. After 0.20 mol/L HCl was used for Ca removal, the extracted gelatin solution was 15.4% of the initial scales weight and gave a gel strength of 128 g. After using 1.2 g/L citric acid for Ca removal, the extracted gelatin solution was only 9% of the scales and the gel strength was 97 g. Using 0.20 mol/L EDTA for Ca removal gave a yield of 22% and a gel strength of 152 g. These data suggest that EDTA at 0.20 mol/L provides the best Ca removal with minimal collagen/gelatin removal (estimated gelatin loss was less than 0.013%) during the Ca removal step, and subsequently gave a high gelatin yield and gel strength. Fish gelatin has generally been extracted from fish skins and occasionally fish bones. This article focuses on removing the Ca compounds in fish scales and then producing fish gelatin with a good gel strength and yield. With further studies, this study may help the fish industry to have a new source of fish gelatin for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  12. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities.

    We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy, for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate.

    Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%.

    The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss. This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  13. Strong and nonlinear effects of fragmentation on ecosystem service provision at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G. E.; Bennett, Elena M.; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Human actions, such as converting natural land cover to agricultural or urban land, result in the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, with important consequences for the provision of ecosystem services. Such habitat loss is especially important for services that are supplied by fragments of natural land cover and that depend on flows of organisms, matter, or people across the landscape to produce benefits, such as pollination, pest regulation, recreation and cultural services. However, our quantitative knowledge about precisely how different patterns of landscape fragmentation might affect the provision of these types of services is limited. We used a simple, spatially explicit model to evaluate the potential impact of natural land cover loss and fragmentation on the provision of hypothetical ecosystem services. Based on current literature, we assumed that fragments of natural land cover provide ecosystem services to the area surrounding them in a distance-dependent manner such that ecosystem service flow depended on proximity to fragments. We modeled seven different patterns of natural land cover loss across landscapes that varied in the overall level of landscape fragmentation. Our model predicts that natural land cover loss will have strong and unimodal effects on ecosystem service provision, with clear thresholds indicating rapid loss of service provision beyond critical levels of natural land cover loss. It also predicts the presence of a tradeoff between maximizing ecosystem service provision and conserving natural land cover, and a mismatch between ecosystem service provision at landscape versus finer spatial scales. Importantly, the pattern of landscape fragmentation mitigated or intensified these tradeoffs and mismatches. Our model suggests that managing patterns of natural land cover loss and fragmentation could help influence the provision of multiple ecosystem services and manage tradeoffs and synergies between services across different human

  14. Statistical theory and transition in multiple-scale-lengths turbulence in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    The statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed for the cases where fluctuations with different scale-lengths coexist. Nonlinear interactions in the same kind of fluctuations as well as nonlinear interplay between different classes of fluctuations are kept in the analysis. Nonlinear interactions are modelled as turbulent drag, nonlinear noise and nonlinear drive, and a set of Langevin equations is formulated. With the help of an Ansatz of a large number of degrees of freedom with positive Lyapunov number, Langevin equations are solved and the fluctuation dissipation theorem in the presence of strong plasma turbulence has been derived. A case where two driving mechanisms (one for micro mode and the other for semi-micro mode) coexist is investigated. It is found that there are several states of fluctuations: in one state, the micro mode is excited and the semi-micro mode is quenched; in the other state, the semi-micro mode is excited, and the micro mode remains at finite but suppressed level. New type of turbulence transition is obtained, and a cusp type catastrophe is revealed. A phase diagram is drawn for turbulence which is composed of multiple classes of fluctuations. Influence of the inhomogeneous global radial electric field is discussed. A new insight is given for the physics of internal transport barrier. Finally, the nonlocal heat transport due to the long-wave-length fluctuations, which are noise-pumped by shorter-wave-length ones, is analyzed and the impact on transient transport problems is discussed. (author)

  15. Statistical theory and transition in multiple-scale-length turbulence in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Sanae-I [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    The statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed for the cases where fluctuations with different scale lengths coexist. Nonlinear interactions in the same kind of fluctuations as well as nonlinear interplay between different classes of fluctuations are kept in the analysis. Nonlinear interactions are modelled as turbulent drag, nonlinear noise and nonlinear drive, and a set of Langevin equations is formulated. With the help of an Ansatz of a large number of degrees of freedom with positive Lyapunov number, Langevin equations are solved and the fluctuation dissipation theorem in the presence of strong plasma turbulence has been derived. A case where two driving mechanisms (one for the micro mode and the other for semi-micro mode) coexist is investigated. It is found that there are several states of fluctuations: in one state, the micro mode is excited and the semi-micro mode is quenched; in the other state, the semi-micro mode is excited, and the micro mode remains at finite but at a suppressed level. A new type of turbulence transition is obtained, and a cusp-type catastrophe is revealed. A phase diagram is drawn for turbulence which is composed of multiple classes of fluctuations. The influence of the inhomogeneous global radial electric field is discussed. A new insight is given for the physics of the internal transport barrier. Finally, the non-local heat transport due to the long-wavelength fluctuations, which are noise-pumped by shorter-wavelength fluctuations, is analysed and its impact on transient transport problems is discussed. (author)

  16. Extraction of fetal heart rate from maternal surface ECG with provisions for multiple pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, A; Signorini, M G; Heldt, T

    2012-01-01

    Twin pregnancies carry an inherently higher risk than singleton pregnancies due to the increased chances of uterine growth restriction. It is thus desirable to monitor the wellbeing of the fetuses during gestation to detect potentially harmful conditions. The detection of fetal heart rate from the maternal abdominal ECG represents one possible approach for noninvasive and continuous fetal monitoring. Here, we propose a new algorithm for the extraction of twin fetal heart rate signals from maternal abdominal ECG recordings. The algorithm detects the fetal QRS complexes and converts the QRS onset series into a binary signal that is then recursively scanned to separate the contributions from the two fetuses. The algorithm was tested on synthetic singleton and twin abdominal recordings. It achieved an average sensitivity and accuracy for QRS complex detection of 97.5% and 93.6%, respectively.

  17. Minimally invasive surgical technique integrating multiple procedures with large specimen extraction via inguinal hernia orifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Vishnu R.; Ahmed, Leaque

    2015-01-01

    While laparoscopic surgery can be performed using small skin incisions, any resected specimen must still be able to fit through these opening. For procedures, such as cholecystectomies and appendectomies, this is not usually a problem; however, for large specimens such as bowel or large tumors, this becomes problematic. Currently, the standard technique is to attempt piecemeal removal of the specimen or enlarge one of the laparoscopic incisions, effectively creating a mini laparotomy. Creating a larger incision adds many of the drawbacks of open laparotomy and should be avoided whenever possible. In this article, we present a new technique of combining the repair of an inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia with a duodenal tumor resection in order to extract the specimen through the inguinal hernia orifice. PMID:26703927

  18. Validation of the fatigue scale for motor and cognitive functions in a danish multiple sclerosis cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oervik, M. S.; Sejbaek, T.; Penner, I. K.

    2017-01-01

    ) and a healthy control cohort (n = 147). The Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) was used as reference scale and Becks Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) for confounding factors. We assessed internal consistencies; convergent, divergent, and predictive validity...... positive correlations between the two fatigue scales implied high convergent validity (total scores: r = 0.851, p EDSS score; age; gender). Correcting for depression did not result in any significant adjustments of the correlations...

  19. Impact on demersal fish of a large-scale and deep sand extraction site with ecosystem-based landscaped sandbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Baptist, Martin J.; van Hal, Ralf; de Boois, Ingeborg J.; Lindeboom, Han J.; Hoekstra, Piet

    2014-06-01

    For the seaward harbour extension of the Port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, approximately 220 million m3 sand was extracted between 2009 and 2013. In order to decrease the surface area of direct impact, the authorities permitted deep sand extraction, down to 20 m below the seabed. Biological and physical impacts of large-scale and deep sand extraction are still being investigated and largely unknown. For this reason, we investigated the colonization of demersal fish in a deep sand extraction site. Two sandbars were artificially created by selective dredging, copying naturally occurring meso-scale bedforms to increase habitat heterogeneity and increasing post-dredging benthic and demersal fish species richness and biomass. Significant differences in demersal fish species assemblages in the sand extraction site were associated with variables such as water depth, median grain size, fraction of very fine sand, biomass of white furrow shell (Abra alba) and time after the cessation of sand extraction. Large quantities of undigested crushed white furrow shell fragments were found in all stomachs and intestines of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), indicating that it is an important prey item. One and two years after cessation, a significant 20-fold increase in demersal fish biomass was observed in deep parts of the extraction site. In the troughs of a landscaped sandbar however, a significant drop in biomass down to reference levels and a significant change in species assemblage was observed two years after cessation. The fish assemblage at the crests of the sandbars differed significantly from the troughs with tub gurnard (Chelidonichthys lucerna) being a Dufrêne-Legendre indicator species of the crests. This is a first indication of the applicability of landscaping techniques to induce heterogeneity of the seabed although it remains difficult to draw a strong conclusion due the lack of replication in the experiment. A new ecological equilibrium is not reached after 2

  20. Bitter melon extracts enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic agents through the modulation of multiple drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatra, Deep; Venugopal, Anand; Standing, David; Ponnurangam, Sivapriya; Dhar, Animesh; Mitra, Ashim; Anant, Shrikant

    2013-12-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that extracts of bitter melon (BME) can be used as a preventive/therapeutic agent in colon cancers. Here, we determined BME effects on anticancer activity and bioavailability of doxorubicin (DOX) in colon cancer cells. BME enhanced the effect of DOX on cell proliferation and sensitized the cells toward DOX upon pretreatment. Furthermore, there was both increased drug uptake and reduced drug efflux. We also observed a reduction in the expression of multidrug resistance conferring proteins (MDRCP) P-glycoprotein, MRP-2, and BCRP. Further BME suppressed DOX efflux in MDCK cells overexpressing the three efflux proteins individually, suggesting that BME is a potent inhibitor of MDR function. Next, we determined the effect of BME on PXR, a xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptor and a transcription factor that controls the expression of the three MDR genes. BME suppressed PXR promoter activity thereby suppressing its expression. Finally, we determined the effect of AMPK pathway on drug efflux because we have previously demonstrated that BME affects the pathway. However, inhibiting AMPK did not affect drug resistance, suggesting that BME may use different pathways for the anticancer and MDR modulating activities. Together, these results suggest that BME can enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of conventional chemotherapy.

  1. A Online NIR Sensor for the Pilot-Scale Extraction Process in Fructus Aurantii Coupled with Single and Ensemble Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Model performance of the partial least squares method (PLS) alone and bagging-PLS was investigated in online near-infrared (NIR) sensor monitoring of pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to identify the active pharmaceutical ingredients: naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. Several preprocessing methods and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) and moving window partial least squares (MWP...

  2. Geometrical Scaling and the Dependence of the Average Transverse Momentum on the Multiplicity and Energy for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    McLerran, Larry

    2014-01-01

    We review the recent ALICE data on charged particle multiplicity in p-p collisions, and show that it exhibits Geometrical Scaling (GS) with energy dependence given with characteristic exponent $\\lambda=0.22$. Next, starting from the GS hypothesis and using results of the Color Glass Condensate effective theory, we calculate $\\left\\langle p_{\\text{T}}\\right\\rangle$ as a function $N_{\\rm ch}$ including dependence on the scattering energy $W$. We show that $\\left\\langle p_{\\text{T}}\\right\\rangle$ both in p-p and p-Pb collisions scales in terms of scaling variable $(W/W_{0})^{\\lambda/(2+\\lambda)}% \\sqrt{N_{\\mathrm{ch}}/S_{\\bot}}$ where $S_{\\bot}$ is multiplicity dependent interaction area in the transverse plane. Furthermore, we discuss how the behavior of the interaction radius $R$ at large multiplicities affects the mean $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ dependence on $N_{\\rm ch}$, and make a prediction that $\\left\\langle p_{\\text{T}}\\right\\rangle$ at high multiplicity should reach an energy independent limit.

  3. Application on small incision extracapsular cataract extraction in large-scale vision recovery action in Shaanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the characteristics of scale cataract operations and the effects and experiences of small incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens(IOLimplantation in large-scale vision recovery action. METHODS: Four thousand eight hundred ninety-two cases(4 892 eyesof cataract were treated by small incision non-phacoemulcification cataract extraction from March 2010 to November 2011 in our hospital(Fuming No.1 surgery car of Shaanxi Provincewhich were retrospectively analyzed. Visual acuity, intraoperative and postoperative complications, the recovery of postoperative inflammation were observed. RESULTS: Visual acuity reached 0.3 or more in 4 521 eyes(92.42%at 1d after the operation, at 3d after the operation in 4 571 eyes(93.44%, there were 4 887 eyes with IOL implantation, implantation rate was 99.90%. All the cases had lesser intraoperative and postoperative complications, and the postoperative inflammation recovered quickly. CONCLUSION: Small incision extracapsular cataract extraction with IOL implantation is simple, effective, economical, safe and adapting for large-scale vision recovery action.

  4. Static posturography across the EDSS scale in people with multiple sclerosis: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Nitzani, Dalia; Achiron, Anat

    2016-05-20

    Posturography is considered the gold standard objective measure of standing postural control in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). This reliable tool provides quantitative data related to risk of falling and white and gray matter brain damage due to MS. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether and to what extent, postural control declines throughout the disease process. We therefore examined the impact of disability on posturography measures in PwMS. In this cross-sectional study, the data pool was divided into seven levels of disability based on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. The study group comprised 464 PwMS, mean disease duration was 6.2 (SD = 7.5) years and mean age 42.6 (SD = 14.1). Static postural control parameters were obtained from the Zebris FDM-T instrumented Treadmill (Medical GmbH, Germany). A significant positive correlation between the EDSS and posturography parameters was found. Scores for the ellipse area, center of pressure (CoP) path length and sway rate with eyes open were Spearman's rho =0.512, 0.527, 0.528; (P-value EDSS subgroups at the lower end of the spectrum (EDSS 0-2.5) in all posturography parameters. In contrast, MS patients with an EDSS score of 3.0-3.5 demonstrated a significant increase in the ellipse area with eyes open (~108 %) and closed (~169 %), CoP path length with eyes open (~83 %) and closed (~88 %) and sway rate with eyes open (~39 %) and closed (~148 %), compared with those who scored within the range of 0-2.5 in the EDSS. Non-significant differences were observed between MS patients with an EDSS score of 3.0-5.5. MS patients with an EDSS score of 6.0-6.5 were significantly poorer in 4 (out of 6) balance measures compared to other disability subgroups. Posturography CoP trajectories are appropriate outcome measures indicating disability deterioration in PwMS.

  5. Efficient charge-carrier extraction from Ag2S quantum dots prepared by the SILAR method for utilization of multiple exciton generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jianhua; Johansson, Erik M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the results suggest that the threshold energy (hνth) for MEG is 2.41Eg. The results reveal that Ag2S QD is a promising material for efficient extraction of charges from MEG and that QDs prepared by SILAR have an advantageous electrical contact facilitating charge separation and extraction.The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the

  6. Advances of wogonin, an extract from Scutellaria baicalensis, for the treatment of multiple tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu X

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Xue Wu,1 Haijun Zhang,2 Jumah Masoud Mohammad Salmani,1 Rong Fu,3 Baoan Chen1 1Department of Hematology, 2Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, 3Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: As the major bioactive compound of Scutellaria baicalensis that has been approved to be effective as an anti-inflammatory and antiviral inhibitor in cardiovascular diseases, wogonin (WG showed potent and promising antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. It has been proved that WG has the ability to inhibit the growth of tumor cells, induce apoptosis, and suppress angiogenesis. The molecular mechanisms involve reactive oxygen species, Ca2+, NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of WG with 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, and adriamycin to enhance chemotherapy and reverse drug resistance has also been confirmed. In this review, we summarize the advances in recent years on the antitumor effect of WG on multiple tumors; in addition, we also present information regarding the synergistic and chemosensitizing effects of WG with other drugs to illustrate its potential use in the clinic. Keywords: antitumor effect, drug resistance, mechanisms, synergistic effect

  7. Mastering Uncertainty and Risk at Multiple Time Scales in the Future Electrical Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, Russell W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    Today's electrical grids enjoy a relatively clean separation of spatio-temporal scales yielding a compartmentalization of grid design, optimization, control and risk assessment allowing for the use of conventional mathematical tools within each area. In contrast, the future grid will incorporate time-intermittent renewable generation, operate via faster electrical markets, and tap the latent control capability at finer grid modeling scales; creating a fundamentally new set of couplings across spatiotemporal scales and requiring revolutionary advances in mathematics techniques to bridge these scales. One example is found in decade-scale grid expansion planning in which today's algorithms assume accurate load forecasts and well-controlled generation. Incorporating intermittent renewable generation creates fluctuating network flows at the hourly time scale, inherently linking the ability of a transmission line to deliver electrical power to hourly operational decisions. New operations-based planning algorithms are required, creating new mathematical challenges. Spatio-temporal scales are also crossed when the future grid's minute-scale fluctuations in network flows (due to intermittent generation) create a disordered state upon which second-scale transient grid dynamics propagate effectively invalidating today's on-line dynamic stability analyses. Addressing this challenge requires new on-line algorithms that use large data streams from new grid sensing technologies to physically aggregate across many spatial scales to create responsive, data-driven dynamic models. Here, we sketch the mathematical foundations of these problems and potential solutions.

  8. A novel method for rapid determination of total solid content in viscous liquids by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Li-Ping; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Hu, Hui-Chao; Barnes, Donald G

    2014-09-05

    This work demonstrates a novel method for rapid determination of total solid content in viscous liquid (polymer-enriched) samples. The method is based multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) on a headspace vial at a temperature above boiling point of water. Thus, the trend of water loss from the tested liquid due to evaporation can be followed. With the limited MHE-GC testing (e.g., 5 extractions) and a one-point calibration procedure (i.e., recording the weight difference before and after analysis), the total amount of water in the sample can be determined, from which the total solid contents in the liquid can be calculated. A number of black liquors were analyzed by the new method which yielded results that closely matched those of the reference method; i.e., the results of these two methods differed by no more than 2.3%. Compared with the reference method, the MHE-GC method is much simpler and more practical. Therefore, it is suitable for the rapid determination of the solid content in many polymer-containing liquid samples.

  9. Evaluation of TNF-α serum level in patients with recalcitrant multiple common warts, treated by lipid garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenawy, Soha; Mohammed, Ghada Farouk; Younes, Soha; Elakhras, Atef Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    No universal consensus about optimal modality for treating the recalcitrant multiple common warts (RMCW). The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunological mechanisms and clinical therapeutic effect of using lipid garlic extract (LGE) in the treatment of RMCW. The study included 50 patients with RMCW. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group (25 patients) received LGE, and the second group (25 patients) received saline as a control group. In both groups, treatments were made to single lesions, or largest wart in case of multiple lesions, until complete clearance of lesions or for a maximum of 4 weeks. Blood serum was taken at pre-study and at the fourth week to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. A significant difference was found between the therapeutic responses of RMCW to LGE antigen and saline control group (p < 0.001). In the LGE group, complete response was achieved in 96% of patients presenting with RMCW. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in TNF-α of LGE group versus saline group. No recurrence was observed in the LGE group. LGE as an immunotherapy is an inexpensive, effective, and safe modality with good cure rates for treatment of RMCWs, when other topical or physical therapies have failed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Selective solid-phase extraction of artificial chemicals from milk samples using multiple-template surface molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Ni, Yan-li; Wang, Ling-ling; Ma, Jin-qin; Zhang, Zhi-qi

    2015-08-01

    A novel multiple-template surface molecularly imprinted polymer (MTMIP) was synthesized using ofloxacin and 17β-estradiol as templates and modified monodispersed poly(glycidylmethacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (PGMA/EDMA ) beads as the support material. Static adsorption, solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography were performed to investigate the adsorption properties and selective recognition characteristics of the polymer templates and their structural analogs. The maximum binding capacities of ofloxacin and 17β-estradiol on the MTMIP were 9.0 and 6.6 mg/g, respectively. Compared with the corresponding nonimprinted polymer, the MTMIP exhibited a much higher adsorption performance and selectivity toward three quinolones and three estrogens, which are common drug residues in food. The MTMIP served as a simple and effective pretreatment method and could be successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of multiple target components in complex samples. Furthermore, the MTMIP may find useful applications as a solid-phase absorbent in the simultaneous determination of trace quinolones and estrogens in milk samples, as the recoveries were in the range 77.6-98.0%.

  11. Assessment of drainage network extractions in a low-relief area of the Cuvelai Basin (Namibia) from multiple sources: LiDAR, topographic maps, and digital aerial orthophotographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persendt, F. C.; Gomez, C.

    2016-05-01

    Accurate delineation of drainage networks (DNs) is crucial for hydrological or hydraulic modelling, and the comprehension of fluvial processes. This task presents challenging aspects in complex lowland terrains with subtle relief and particularly for data poor-areas like the Cuvelai river basin (CRB), Namibia, where the present study takes place. In the CRB standard methods of drainage network extraction from low resolution gridded digital elevation models (DEMs) are unsuitable, hence airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) solutions have been utilized. However, LiDAR also presents challenges to large areal applications, especially with a surface roughness exceeding the capacity of numerous algorithms. Indeed, LiDAR-based DEMs (2 and 50 m resolutions) need to be hydrologically corrected and smoothed to enable the extraction of scale-relevant geomorphologic features such as DNs. In the present contribution, channels from topographic maps (blue lines) were compared to those from hydrologically corrected and uncorrected LiDAR DEMs, heads-up digitized channels from high-resolution digital aerial orthophotographs, field-mapped channels and auxiliary data. The 'maximum gradient deterministic eight (D8)' GIS algorithm was applied to the corrected and uncorrected LiDAR DEMs using two network extraction methods: area threshold support and curvature/drop analysis. Different progressive flow accumulation threshold values (12) were used to delineate channels with these methods. Validation was performed between the field-mapped channels, the modelled channels and those derived from multiple sources. Additionally, spatial and quantitative analyses were performed on geomorphologic parameters and indices. The results have shown that hydrologically corrected LiDAR DEMs offer useful details for identifying low order stream segments in headwaters, while blue lines derived from the national hydrography datasets for watersheds, located in elevated and low-lying areas of the study

  12. Personality factors in recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients: a preliminary investigation with the NEO-FFI scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Braz de Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes some prevalent personality dimensions of recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients. A sample of 33 female recently diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS was assessed with the NEO-FFI personality scale. Beck depression (BDI and anxiety (BAI scales were also used. No significant levels of anxiety or depression were identified in this group. As for personality factors, conscientiousness was the most common factor found, whereas openness to experience was the least observed. Literature on the relationship between personality and MS is scarce and there are no Brazilian studies on this subject. Some personality traits might complicate or facilitate the experience of living with a chronic, disabling and uncertain neurological condition such as MS.

  13. Analysis of characteristics of multiple time scale drought based on SPEI in the east of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilan; Li, Yaohui; Wang, Suping

    2017-04-01

    From characteristics of multiple time scale of drought, the Standardized Precipitation Evaportranspiration Index (SPEI) considering precipitation and temperature are calculated using CRU update data, and the characteristics of drought at different time scales from 1901 to 2012 in the east of northwest China have been investigated. In this paper, reliability for hundred years of the CRU data has been tested, and the adaptability of SPEI in study area has been discussed. The result shows that, the SPEI is confirmed to be applicable to analyze the drought in the east of northwest China from drought intensity and range. The time scale of SPEI is shorter, the fluctuation is more frequent, and the change is more significantly. The amplitude, period and phase of SPEI curve with different time scales are not the same. Short time scale mainly shows seasonal characteristics, and long time scale shows interannual and decadal characteristics. The study area is divided into the eastern of the Plateau area and the southern of Shaanxi area. There are three times extreme drought events in 48 months time scale of the SPEI index of less than -2.0 in the eastern of the Plateau area from 1901 to 2012, and only one time in the southern of Shaanxi area. Finally, the contribution of temperature anomaly to the drought is analyzed. The result indicates that high temperature contribution cannot be neglected by comparison with the SPI index.

  14. Landscape effects on mallard habitat selection at multiple spatial scales during the non-breeding period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies that evaluated effects of landscape-scale habitat heterogeneity on migratory waterbird distributions were spatially limited and temporally restricted to one major life-history phase. However, effects of landscape-scale habitat heterogeneity on long-distance migratory waterbirds can be studied across the annual cycle using new technologies, including global positioning system satellite transmitters. We used Bayesian discrete choice models to examine the influence of local habitats and landscape composition on habitat selection by a generalist dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), in the midcontinent of North America during the non-breeding period. Using a previously published empirical movement metric, we separated the non-breeding period into three seasons, including autumn migration, winter, and spring migration. We defined spatial scales based on movement patterns such that movements >0.25 and 30.00 km were classified as relocation scale. Habitat selection at the local scale was generally influenced by local and landscape-level variables across all seasons. Variables in top models at the local scale included proximities to cropland, emergent wetland, open water, and woody wetland. Similarly, variables associated with area of cropland, emergent wetland, open water, and woody wetland were also included at the local scale. At the relocation scale, mallards selected resource units based on more generalized variables, including proximity to wetlands and total wetland area. Our results emphasize the role of landscape composition in waterbird habitat selection and provide further support for local wetland landscapes to be considered functional units of waterbird conservation and management.

  15. An Evaluation of Multiple Single-Case Outcome Indicators Using Convergent Evidence Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Busse, R. T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the consistency of five single-case outcome indicators, used to assess response-to-intervention data from a pilot Tier 2 reading intervention that was implemented at an elementary school. Using convergent evidence scaling, the indicators were converted onto a common interpretive scale for each case…

  16. On the damage and fracture of nuclear graphite at multiple length-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Mingard, Ken; Lord, Oliver T.; Flewitt, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Gilsocarbon graphite, as a neutron moderator and load-bearing component in the core of the UK fleet of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors, possesses complex microstructural features including defects/pores over a range of length-scales from nanometres to millimetres in size. As a consequence, this material exhibits different characteristics when specimens of different length-scale are deformed. In this work, the deformation and fracture of this material have been characterised using in situ methods for specimens of micrometre size (meso-scale) and the results are then compared with those measured one length-scale smaller, and those at the macro-scale. At the micro-scale, sampling a volume of material (2 × 2 × 10 μm) excludes micro- and macro-size pores, the strength was measured to be as high as 1000 MPa (an elastic modulus of about 67 GPa). When the specimen size is increased by one order of magnitude to the meso-scale, the strength is reduced to about 100 MPa (an elastic modulus of about 20 GPa) due to the inclusion of micro-size pores. For larger engineering-size specimens that include millimetre-size pores, the strength of the material averages about 20 MPa (an elastic modulus of about 11 GPa). This trend in the data is discussed and considered in the context of selecting the appropriate data for relevant multi-scale modelling.

  17. Large-scale parameter extraction in electrocardiology models through Born approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Keyes, David E.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main objectives in electrocardiology is to extract physical properties of cardiac tissues from measured information on electrical activity of the heart. Mathematically, this is an inverse problem for reconstructing coefficients in electrocardiology models from partial knowledge of the solutions of the models. In this work, we consider such parameter extraction problems for two well-studied electrocardiology models: the bidomain model and the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We propose a systematic reconstruction method based on the Born approximation of the original nonlinear inverse problem. We describe a two-step procedure that allows us to reconstruct not only perturbations of the unknowns, but also the backgrounds around which the linearization is performed. We show some numerical simulations under various conditions to demonstrate the performance of our method. We also introduce a parameterization strategy using eigenfunctions of the Laplacian operator to reduce the number of unknowns in the parameter extraction problem.

  18. Large-scale parameter extraction in electrocardiology models through Born approximation

    KAUST Repository

    He, Yuan

    2012-12-04

    One of the main objectives in electrocardiology is to extract physical properties of cardiac tissues from measured information on electrical activity of the heart. Mathematically, this is an inverse problem for reconstructing coefficients in electrocardiology models from partial knowledge of the solutions of the models. In this work, we consider such parameter extraction problems for two well-studied electrocardiology models: the bidomain model and the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We propose a systematic reconstruction method based on the Born approximation of the original nonlinear inverse problem. We describe a two-step procedure that allows us to reconstruct not only perturbations of the unknowns, but also the backgrounds around which the linearization is performed. We show some numerical simulations under various conditions to demonstrate the performance of our method. We also introduce a parameterization strategy using eigenfunctions of the Laplacian operator to reduce the number of unknowns in the parameter extraction problem. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Micron-scale laser-wire scanner for the KEK Accelerator Test Facility extraction line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogert, Stewart T.; Blair, Grahame A.; Boorman, Gary; Bosco, Alessio; Deacon, Lawrence C.; Karataev, Pavel; Aryshev, Alexander; Fukuda, Masafumi; Terunuma, Nobihiro; Urakawa, Junji; Corner, Laura; Delerue, Nicolas; Foster, Brian; Howell, David; Newman, Myriam; Senanayake, Rohan; Walczak, Roman; Ganaway, Fred

    2010-12-01

    A laser-wire transverse electron beam size measurement system has been constructed and operated at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) extraction line at KEK. The construction of the system is described in detail along with the environment of the ATF related to the laser wire. A special set of electron beam optics was developed to generate an approximately 1μm vertical focus at the laser-wire location. The results of our operation at the ATF extraction line are presented, where a minimum rms electron beam size of 4.8±0.3μm was measured, and smaller electron beam sizes can be measured by developing the method further. The beam size at the laser-wire location was changed using quadrupoles and the resulting electron beam size measured, and vertical emittance extracted.

  20. Micron-scale laser-wire scanner for the KEK Accelerator Test Facility extraction line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart T. Boogert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A laser-wire transverse electron beam size measurement system has been constructed and operated at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF extraction line at KEK. The construction of the system is described in detail along with the environment of the ATF related to the laser wire. A special set of electron beam optics was developed to generate an approximately 1  μm vertical focus at the laser-wire location. The results of our operation at the ATF extraction line are presented, where a minimum rms electron beam size of 4.8±0.3  μm was measured, and smaller electron beam sizes can be measured by developing the method further. The beam size at the laser-wire location was changed using quadrupoles and the resulting electron beam size measured, and vertical emittance extracted.

  1. Release of a single neurotransmitter from an identified interneuron coherently affects motor output on multiple time scales

    OpenAIRE

    Dacks, Andrew M.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitters can have diverse effects that occur over multiple time scales often making the consequences of neurotransmission difficult to predict. To explore the consequences of this diversity, we used the buccal ganglion of Aplysia to examine the effects of GABA release by a single interneuron, B40, on the intrinsic properties and motor output of the radula closure neuron B8. B40 induces a picrotoxin-sensitive fast IPSP lasting milliseconds in B8 and a slow EPSP lasting seconds. We fou...

  2. A new approach to sparse decomposition of nonstationary signals with multiple scale structures using self-consistent nonlinear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hsu-Wen Vincent; Hsu, Ke-Hsin; Pham, Van-Truong; Tran, Thi-Thao; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2017-09-01

    A new method for signal decomposition is proposed and tested. Based on self-consistent nonlinear wave equations with self-sustaining physical mechanisms in mind, the new method is adaptive and particularly effective for dealing with synthetic signals consisting of components of multiple time scales. By formulating the method into an optimization problem and developing the corresponding algorithm and tool, we have proved its usefulness not only for analyzing simulated signals, but, more importantly, also for real clinical data.

  3. Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research across Multiple Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Bryan P.; Andrew D DiMatteo; Brendan J Hurley; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; F. Alberto Abreu-Grobois; Diego Amorocho; Karen A Bjorndal; Jerome Bourjea; Bowen, Brian W; Raquel Briseño Dueñas; Paolo Casale; Choudhury, B. C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques - including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry - can f...

  4. A High-Transmission, Multiple Antireflective Surface Inspired from Bilayer 3D Ultrafine Hierarchical Structures in Butterfly Wing Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Mu, Zhengzhi; Li, Bo; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2016-02-10

    A high-transmission, multiple antireflective surface inspired by bilayer 3D ultrafine hierarchical structures in butterfly wing scales is fabricated on a glass substrate using wet chemical biomimetic fabrication. Interestingly, the biomimetic antireflective surface exhibits excellent antireflective properties and high transmission, which provides better characteristics than the butterfly wings and can significantly reduce reflection without losing transparency. These findings offer a new path for generating nanostructured antireflectors with high transmission properties.

  5. Assessing forest mortality patterns using climate and FIA data at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Xingang Fan; Theodor D. Leininger; Martin A. Spetich

    2012-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and PRISM climate data from 1991-2000 were obtained for 10 states in the southeastern United States. Mortality was calculated for each plot, and annual values for precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature were extracted from the PRISM data. Data were then stratified by upland/bottomland for red oak species, and classification...

  6. Studying time of flight imaging through scattering media across multiple size scales (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Light scattering is a primary obstacle to optical imaging in a variety of different environments and across many size and time scales. Scattering complicates imaging on large scales when imaging through the atmosphere when imaging from airborne or space borne platforms, through marine fog, or through fog and dust in vehicle navigation, for example in self driving cars. On smaller scales, scattering is the major obstacle when imaging through human tissue in biomedical applications. Despite the large variety of participating materials and size scales, light transport in all these environments is usually described with very similar scattering models that are defined by the same small set of parameters, including scattering and absorption length and phase function. We attempt a study of scattering and methods of imaging through scattering across different scales and media, particularly with respect to the use of time of flight information. We can show that using time of flight, in addition to spatial information, provides distinct advantages in scattering environments. By performing a comparative study of scattering across scales and media, we are able to suggest scale models for scattering environments to aid lab research. We also can transfer knowledge and methodology between different fields.

  7. Large-Scale Membrane- and Lignin-Modified Adsorbent-Assisted Extraction and Preconcentration of Triazine Analogs and Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shun-Wei; Chen, Shushi

    2017-04-11

    The large-scale simultaneous extraction and concentration of aqueous solutions of triazine analogs, and aflatoxins, through a hydrocarbon-based membrane (e.g., polyethylene, polyethylene/polypropylene copolymer) under ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure is reported. The subsequent adsorption of analyte in the extraction chamber over the lignin-modified silica gel facilitates the process by reducing the operating time. The maximum adsorption capacity values for triazine analogs and aflatoxins are mainly adsorption mechanism-dependent and were calculated to be 0.432 and 0.297 mg/10 mg, respectively. The permeation, and therefore the percentage of analyte extracted, ranges from 1% to almost 100%, and varies among the solvents examined. It is considered to be vapor pressure- and chemical polarity-dependent, and is thus highly affected by the nature and thickness of the membrane, the discrepancy in the solubility values of the analyte between the two liquid phases, and the amount of adsorbent used in the process. A dependence on the size of the analyte was observed in the adsorption capacity measurement, but not in the extraction process. The theoretical interaction simulation and FTIR data show that the planar aflatoxin molecule releases much more energy when facing toward the membrane molecule when approaching it, and the mechanism leading to the adsorption.

  8. Optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE of β-d-glucan polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum for prospective scale-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Alzorqi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three levels of three ultrasonic independent variables were optimized to obtain the maximum yield of water-soluble polysaccharides (PS extracted from Ganoderma lucidum using response surface methodology (RSM. Box–Behnken design (BBD was employed to evaluate the effects of ultrasonic variables on the yield of PS. The parameters that were considered for the optimization are ultrasound power (500–700 W, ultrasonic irradiation time (45–65 min and temperature (70–90 °C. The analysis of variance suggested that the response dependent variable of yield of PS could be expressed by a quadratic polynomial model. The optimal theoretical extraction conditions were found to be an ultrasonic power of 590 W, an irradiation time of 58 min and a temperature of 81 °C. Under these conditions the predicted optimal yield was 52.33 mg. Whereas by following the optimized conditions, the yield of PS by experiments was found to be 52.28 mg which is in a very good agreement with the theoretically predicted one. These outcomes indicate the adequacy of quadratic polynomial model to represent the ultrasonic extraction variables within the ranges of investigation for a volume of 0.25 L; and any prospective scale-up may require modifications in the geometry of the extracting vessel due to the non-linear effects of power ultrasound.

  9. Suprathermal Ion Acceleration in Multiple Contracting and Reconnecting Inertial-scale Flux Ropes in the Supersonic Solar Wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, J. A.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    3D and 2D MHD turbulence simulations with a strong large-scale magnetic field show that the turbulence is filled with quasi-2D inertial-scale flux ropes that intermittently reconnect, while test particle simulations stress how suprathermal particles can be efficiently accelerated to produce power law spectra (kappa distributions) when traversing multiple flux ropes. Solar wind observations indicate that the statistical properties of the turbulence agree well with the MHD turbulence simulation. In addition, recent observations show the presence of different size inertial-scale magnetic islands in the slow solar wind near the heliospheric current sheet, evidence of island merging, and of heating of ions and electrons in their vicinity. At the same time, observations in the supersonic solar wind suggest the existence of suprathermal ion spectra in the solar wind frame where the distribution function is a power law in momentum with a -5 exponent. We present a new statistical transport theory to model the acceleration of superthermal ions traversing multiple contracting and reconnecting inertial-scale quasi-2D flux ropes in the supersonic solar wind. Steady-state analytical solutions for the accelerated suprathermal particle spectrum in a radially expanding solar wind will be explored to show under what conditions one can reproduce the observed superthermal power-law slope.

  10. Superthermal Ion Transport and Acceleration in Multiple Contracting and Reconnecting Inertial-scale Flux Ropes in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Jakobus; Zank, Gary; Webb, Gary

    2014-10-01

    MHD turbulence simulations with a strong large-scale magnetic field show that the turbulence is filled with quasi-2D inertial-scale flux ropes that intermittently reconnect. Solar wind observations indicate that the statistical properties of the turbulence agree well with the MHD turbulence simulations, while particle simulations stress how ions can be efficiently accelerated to produce power law spectra when traversing multiple flux ropes. Recent observations show the presence of different size inertial-scale magnetic islands in the slow solar wind near the heliospheric current sheet, evidence of island merging, and of heating of ions and electrons in the vicinity. We will present a new statistical transport theory designed to model the acceleration and transport of superthermal ions traversing multiple contracting and reconnecting inertial-scale quasi-2D flux ropes in the supersonic slow solar wind. A steady-state solution for the accelerated particle spectrum in a radially expanding solar wind will discussed, showing that the theory potentially can explain naturally the existence of superthermal power-law spectra observed during quiet solar wind conditions.

  11. Scale-Up Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide from H2/O2 with Multiple Parallel DBD Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianli; ZHOU Juncheng; SU Ji; GUO Hongchen; WANG Xiangsheng; GONG Weimin

    2009-01-01

    The scale-up synthesis of H202 from H2/O2 via a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)under ambient conditions was studied. A plasma reactor consisting of multiple parallel DBD tubes was designed to scale up the H2O2 synthesis. The number of tubes had no significant effect on the discharge mode, and no decay occurred in H2O2 selectivity during the scale-up process.These advantages made this technology more stable and efficient. The reactor's energy efficiency increased with the number of tubes and reached 136 g H2O2/kWh in the four-tube reaction. The total energy efficiency was limited by the extremely low energy transfer efficiency of power supply,and might be enhanced by optimizing the impedance matching between the power supply and the reactor load. As a result, an assembly of multiple DBD tubes may provide a viable route for the scale-up synthesis of H2O2 by a non-equilibrium plasma.

  12. Static posturography across the EDSS scale in people with multiple sclerosis: a cross sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalron, Alon; Nitzani, Dalia; Achiron, Anat

    2016-01-01

    .... We therefore examined the impact of disability on posturography measures in PwMS. In this cross-sectional study, the data pool was divided into seven levels of disability based on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score...

  13. Investigations of grain size dependent sediment transport phenomena on multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Sediment transport processes in coastal and fluvial environments resulting from disturbances such as urbanization, mining, agriculture, military operations, and climatic change have significant impact on local, regional, and global environments. Primarily, these impacts include the erosion and deposition of sediment, channel network modification, reduction in downstream water quality, and the delivery of chemical contaminants. The scale and spatial distribution of these effects are largely attributable to the size distribution of the sediment grains that become eligible for transport. An improved understanding of advective and diffusive grain-size dependent sediment transport phenomena will lead to the development of more accurate predictive models and more effective control measures. To this end, three studies were performed that investigated grain-size dependent sediment transport on three different scales. Discrete particle computer simulations of sheet flow bedload transport on the scale of 0.1--100 millimeters were performed on a heterogeneous population of grains of various grain sizes. The relative transport rates and diffusivities of grains under both oscillatory and uniform, steady flow conditions were quantified. These findings suggest that boundary layer formalisms should describe surface roughness through a representative grain size that is functionally dependent on the applied flow parameters. On the scale of 1--10m, experiments were performed to quantify the hydrodynamics and sediment capture efficiency of various baffles installed in a sediment retention pond, a commonly used sedimentation control measure in watershed applications. Analysis indicates that an optimum sediment capture effectiveness may be achieved based on baffle permeability, pond geometry and flow rate. Finally, on the scale of 10--1,000m, a distributed, bivariate watershed terain evolution module was developed within GRASS GIS. Simulation results for variable grain sizes and for

  14. Genetic differentiation across multiple spatial scales of the Red Sea of the corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa

    KAUST Repository

    Monroe, Alison

    2015-12-01

    Observing populations at different spatial scales gives greater insight into the specific processes driving genetic differentiation and population structure. Here we determined population connectivity across multiple spatial scales in the Red Sea to determine the population structures of two reef building corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa. The Red sea is a 2,250 km long body of water with extremely variable latitudinal environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and microsatellite markers were used to determine distinct lineages and to look for genetic differentiation among sampling sites. No distinctive population structure across the latitudinal gradient was discovered within this study suggesting a phenotypic plasticity of both these species to various environments. Stylophora pistillata displayed a heterogeneous distribution of three distinct genetic populations on both a fine and large scale. Fst, Gst, and Dest were all significant (p-value<0.05) and showed moderate genetic differentiation between all sampling sites. However this seems to be byproduct of the heterogeneous distribution, as no distinct genetic population breaks were found. Stylophora pistillata showed greater population structure on a fine scale suggesting genetic selection based on fine scale environmental variations. However, further environmental and oceanographic data is needed to make more inferences on this structure at small spatial scales. This study highlights the deficits of knowledge of both the Red Sea and coral plasticity in regards to local environmental conditions.

  15. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Elberry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion scales (ROS contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  16. Micropolitics in Resistance: The Micropolitics of Large-Scale Natural Resource Extraction in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, E.D.; Kohne, F.M.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes Southeast Asian local communities’ resistance against the globalizing large-scale exploitation of natural resources using a micropolitical ecology approach. It focuses on how communities struggle for livelihoods, both resisting and appropriating globalized practices and narrati

  17. Distributed Model Predictive Control over Multiple Groups of Vehicles in Highway Intelligent Space for Large Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the three time warning distances for solving the large scale system of multiple groups of vehicles safety driving characteristics towards highway tunnel environment based on distributed model prediction control approach. Generally speaking, the system includes two parts. First, multiple vehicles are divided into multiple groups. Meanwhile, the distributed model predictive control approach is proposed to calculate the information framework of each group. Each group of optimization performance considers the local optimization and the neighboring subgroup of optimization characteristics, which could ensure the global optimization performance. Second, the three time warning distances are studied based on the basic principles used for highway intelligent space (HIS and the information framework concept is proposed according to the multiple groups of vehicles. The math model is built to avoid the chain avoidance of vehicles. The results demonstrate that the proposed highway intelligent space method could effectively ensure driving safety of multiple groups of vehicles under the environment of fog, rain, or snow.

  18. Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length-scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Bale, Hrishikesh; Barth, Holly D.; Tang, Simon Y.; Reichert, Peter; Busse, Bjoern; Alliston, Tamara; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2011-08-10

    The structure of human cortical bone evolves over multiple length-scales from its basic constituents of collagen and hydroxyapatite at the nanoscale to osteonal structures at nearmillimeter dimensions, which all provide the basis for its mechanical properties. To resist fracture, bone’s toughness is derived intrinsically through plasticity (e.g., fibrillar sliding) at structural-scales typically below a micron and extrinsically (i.e., during crack growth) through mechanisms (e.g., crack deflection/bridging) generated at larger structural-scales. Biological factors such as aging lead to a markedly increased fracture risk, which is often associated with an age-related loss in bone mass (bone quantity). However, we find that age-related structural changes can significantly degrade the fracture resistance (bone quality) over multiple lengthscales. Using in situ small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction to characterize sub-micron structural changes and synchrotron x-ray computed tomography and in situ fracture-toughness measurements in the scanning electron microscope to characterize effects at micron-scales, we show how these age-related structural changes at differing size-scales degrade both the intrinsic and extrinsic toughness of bone. Specifically, we attribute the loss in toughness to increased non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking which suppresses plasticity at nanoscale dimensions and to an increased osteonal density which limits the potency of crack-bridging mechanisms at micron-scales. The link between these processes is that the increased stiffness of the cross-linked collagen requires energy to be absorbed by “plastic” deformation at higher structural levels, which occurs by the process of microcracking.

  19. Reach-scale channel sensitivity to multiple human activities and natural events: Lower Santa Clara River, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Peter W.; Dusterhoff, Scott R.; Sears, William A.

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the cumulative impact of natural and human influences on the sensitivity of channel morphodynamics, a relative measure between the drivers for change and the magnitude of channel response, requires an approach that accommodates spatial and temporal variability in the suite of primary stressors. Multiple historical data sources were assembled to provide a reach-scale analysis of the lower Santa Clara River (LSCR) in Ventura County, California, USA. Sediment supply is naturally high due to tectonic activity, earthquake-generated landslides, wildfires, and high magnitude flow events during El Niño years. Somewhat typically for the region, the catchment has been subject to four reasonably distinct land use and resource management combinations since European-American settlement. When combined with analysis of channel morphological response (quantifiable since ca. 1930), reach-scale and temporal differences in channel sensitivity become apparent. Downstream reaches have incised on average 2.4 m and become narrower by almost 50% with changes focused in a period of highly sensitive response after about 1950 followed by forced insensitivity caused by structural flood embankments and a significant grade control structure. In contrast, the middle reaches have been responsive but are morphologically resilient, and the upstream reaches show a mildly sensitive aggradational trend. Superimposing the natural and human drivers for change reveals that large scale stressors (related to ranching and irrigation) have been replaced over time by a suite of stressors operating at multiple spatial scales. Lower reaches have been sensitive primarily to 'local' scale impacts (urban growth, flood control, and aggregate mining) whereas, upstream, catchment-scale influences still prevail (including flow regulation and climate-driven sediment supply factors). These factors illustrate the complexity inherent to cumulative impact assessment in fluvial systems, provide evidence for a

  20. Efficient charge-carrier extraction from Ag₂S quantum dots prepared by the SILAR method for utilization of multiple exciton generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jianhua; Johansson, Erik M J

    2015-01-28

    The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the results suggest that the threshold energy (hνth) for MEG is 2.41Eg. The results reveal that Ag2S QD is a promising material for efficient extraction of charges from MEG and that QDs prepared by SILAR have an advantageous electrical contact facilitating charge separation and extraction.

  1. Real Time Multiplicative Memory Amplification Mediated by Whole-Cell Scaling of Synaptic Response in Key Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Iris; Ghosh, Sourav; Barkai, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Intense spiking response of a memory-pattern is believed to play a crucial role both in normal learning and pathology, where it can create biased behavior. We recently proposed a novel model for memory amplification where the simultaneous two-fold increase of all excitatory (AMPAR-mediated) and inhibitory (GABAAR-mediated) synapses in a sub-group of cells that constitutes a memory-pattern selectively amplifies this memory. Here we confirm the cellular basis of this model by validating its major predictions in four sets of experiments, and demonstrate its induction via a whole-cell transduction mechanism. Subsequently, using theory and simulations, we show that this whole-cell two-fold increase of all inhibitory and excitatory synapses functions as an instantaneous and multiplicative amplifier of the neurons’ spiking. The amplification mechanism acts through multiplication of the net synaptic current, where it scales both the average and the standard deviation of the current. In the excitation-inhibition balance regime, this scaling creates a linear multiplicative amplifier of the cell’s spiking response. Moreover, the direct scaling of the synaptic input enables the amplification of the spiking response to be synchronized with rapid changes in synaptic input, and to be independent of previous spiking activity. These traits enable instantaneous real-time amplification during brief elevations of excitatory synaptic input. Furthermore, the multiplicative nature of the amplifier ensures that the net effect of the amplification is large mainly when the synaptic input is mostly excitatory. When induced on all cells that comprise a memory-pattern, these whole-cell modifications enable a substantial instantaneous amplification of the memory-pattern when the memory is activated. The amplification mechanism is induced by CaMKII dependent phosphorylation that doubles the conductance of all GABAA and AMPA receptors in a subset of neurons. This whole-cell transduction

  2. Hierarchical Parallel Matrix Multiplication on Large-Scale Distributed Memory Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Quintin, Jean-Noel

    2013-10-01

    Matrix multiplication is a very important computation kernel both in its own right as a building block of many scientific applications and as a popular representative for other scientific applications. Cannon\\'s algorithm which dates back to 1969 was the first efficient algorithm for parallel matrix multiplication providing theoretically optimal communication cost. However this algorithm requires a square number of processors. In the mid-1990s, the SUMMA algorithm was introduced. SUMMA overcomes the shortcomings of Cannon\\'s algorithm as it can be used on a nonsquare number of processors as well. Since then the number of processors in HPC platforms has increased by two orders of magnitude making the contribution of communication in the overall execution time more significant. Therefore, the state of the art parallel matrix multiplication algorithms should be revisited to reduce the communication cost further. This paper introduces a new parallel matrix multiplication algorithm, Hierarchical SUMMA (HSUMMA), which is a redesign of SUMMA. Our algorithm reduces the communication cost of SUMMA by introducing a two-level virtual hierarchy into the two-dimensional arrangement of processors. Experiments on an IBM BlueGene/P demonstrate the reduction of communication cost up to 2.08 times on 2048 cores and up to 5.89 times on 16384 cores. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Development and Field Test of the Multiple Intelligences Learning Instruction Congruency Impact Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the academic discussion regarding the validity of Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory through focusing on the validity of an important construct embedded in the theory, that of congruence between instructional style and preferred MI style for optimal learning. Currently there is insufficient empirical…

  4. Application of Item Response Theory to Modeling of Expanded Disability Status Scale in Multiple Sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, A.M.; Krekels, E.H.; Munafo, A.; Ueckert, S.; Karlsson, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the development of the first item response theory (IRT) model within a pharmacometrics framework to characterize the disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS), as measured by Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS). Data were collected quarterly from a 96-week phase III

  5. Diabetes Attitude Scale: validation in type-2 diabetes patients in multiple centers in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Lou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper is to report the development and psychometric testing of Diabetes Attitude Scale. METHOD: A prospective study was performed. The cultural equivalency and content validity of the Diabetes Attitude Scale were determined by panels of endocrinologists, physiologists, nurses and dieticians. An accurate and usable translation was obtained for each of five subscales examining attitudes on need for special training, the seriousness of type-2 diabetes, the need for controlling the condition, its psychosocial impact and the degree of autonomy given to patients in decision making. The validation was derived from 5961 patients with type-2 diabetes, recruited from 50 centers in 29 provinces throughout China between March 1st and September 30th, 2010. RESULTS: The modified Diabetes Attitude Scale showed an acceptable level of internal consistency. The strength of the inter-correlations among the domains of five subscales suggests that the instrument measures related but separate domains of patients' attitudes toward diabetes. Moreover, the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients were high enough to support the stability of the Chinese version of the third version of the scale. CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Diabetes Attitude Scale demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability and appeared to effectively evaluate attitudes toward diabetes in patients with type-2 diabetes.

  6. Diabetes Attitude Scale: validation in type-2 diabetes patients in multiple centers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qingqing; Chen, Yufeng; Guo, Xiaohui; Yuan, Li; Chen, Tao; Wang, Chun; Shen, Li; Sun, Zilin; Zhao, Fang; Dai, Xia; Huang, Jin; Yang, Huiying

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to report the development and psychometric testing of Diabetes Attitude Scale. A prospective study was performed. The cultural equivalency and content validity of the Diabetes Attitude Scale were determined by panels of endocrinologists, physiologists, nurses and dieticians. An accurate and usable translation was obtained for each of five subscales examining attitudes on need for special training, the seriousness of type-2 diabetes, the need for controlling the condition, its psychosocial impact and the degree of autonomy given to patients in decision making. The validation was derived from 5961 patients with type-2 diabetes, recruited from 50 centers in 29 provinces throughout China between March 1st and September 30th, 2010. The modified Diabetes Attitude Scale showed an acceptable level of internal consistency. The strength of the inter-correlations among the domains of five subscales suggests that the instrument measures related but separate domains of patients' attitudes toward diabetes. Moreover, the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients were high enough to support the stability of the Chinese version of the third version of the scale. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Diabetes Attitude Scale demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability and appeared to effectively evaluate attitudes toward diabetes in patients with type-2 diabetes.

  7. Tracking multiple sediment cascades at the river network scale identifies controls and emerging patterns of sediment connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Rafael J. P.; Bizzi, Simone; Castelletti, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Sediment connectivity in fluvial networks results from the transfer of sediment between multiple sources and sinks. Connectivity scales differently between all sources and sinks as a function of distance, source grain size and sediment supply, network topology and topography, and hydrologic forcing. In this paper, we address the challenge of quantifying sediment connectivity and its controls at the network scale. We expand the concept of a single, catchment-scale sediment cascade toward representing sediment transport from each source as a suite of individual cascading processes. We implement this approach in the herein presented CAtchment Sediment Connectivity And DElivery (CASCADE) modeling framework. In CASCADE, each sediment cascade establishes connectivity between a specific source and its multiple sinks. From a source perspective, the fate of sediment is controlled by its detachment and downstream transport capacity, resulting in a specific trajectory of transfer and deposition. From a sink perspective, the assemblage of incoming cascades defines provenance, sorting, and magnitude of sediment deliveries. At the network scale, this information reveals emerging patterns of connectivity and the location of bottlenecks, where disconnectivity occurs. In this paper, we apply CASCADE to quantitatively analyze the sediment connectivity of a major river system in SE Asia. The approach provides a screening model that can support analyses of large, poorly monitored river systems. We test the sensitivity of CASCADE to various parameters and identify the distribution of energy between the multiple, simultaneously active sediment cascades as key control behind network sediment connectivity. To conclude, CASCADE enables a quantitative, spatially explicit analysis of network sediment connectivity with potential applications in both river science and management.

  8. Multiple atomic scale solid surface interconnects for atom circuits and molecule logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, C; Martrou, D; Rezeq, M; Troadec, C; Jie, Deng; Chandrasekhar, N; Gauthier, S

    2010-03-05

    The scientific and technical challenges involved in building the planar electrical connection of an atomic scale circuit to N electrodes (N > 2) are discussed. The practical, laboratory scale approach explored today to assemble a multi-access atomic scale precision interconnection machine is presented. Depending on the surface electronic properties of the targeted substrates, two types of machines are considered: on moderate surface band gap materials, scanning tunneling microscopy can be combined with scanning electron microscopy to provide an efficient navigation system, while on wide surface band gap materials, atomic force microscopy can be used in conjunction with optical microscopy. The size of the planar part of the circuit should be minimized on moderate band gap surfaces to avoid current leakage, while this requirement does not apply to wide band gap surfaces. These constraints impose different methods of connection, which are thoroughly discussed, in particular regarding the recent progress in single atom and molecule manipulations on a surface.

  9. Multiple dynamical time-scales in networks with hierarchically nested modular organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sitabhra Sinha; Swarup Poria

    2011-11-01

    Many natural and engineered complex networks have intricate mesoscopic organization, e.g., the clustering of the constituent nodes into several communities or modules. Often, such modularity is manifested at several different hierarchical levels, where the clusters defined at one level appear as elementary entities at the next higher level. Using a simple model of a hierarchical modular network, we show that such a topological structure gives rise to characteristic time-scale separation between dynamics occurring at different levels of the hierarchy. This generalizes our earlier result for simple modular networks, where fast intramodular and slow intermodular processes were clearly distinguished. Investigating the process of synchronization of oscillators in a hierarchical modular network, we show the existence of as many distinct time-scales as there are hierarchical levels in the system. This suggests a possible functional role of such mesoscopic organization principle in natural systems, viz., in the dynamical separation of events occurring at different spatial scales.

  10. In situ spatial patterns of soil bacterial populations, mapped at multiple scales, in an arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, N; Wu, K; Young, I M; Crawford, J W; Ritz, K

    2002-11-01

    Very little is known about the spatial organization of soil microbes across scales that are relevant both to microbial function and to field-based processes. The spatial distributions of microbes and microbially mediated activity have a high intrinsic variability. This can present problems when trying to quantify the effects of disturbance, management practices, or climate change on soil microbial systems and attendant function. A spatial sampling regime was implemented in an arable field. Cores of undisturbed soil were sampled from a 3 x 3 x 0.9 m volume of soil (topsoil and subsoil) and a biological thin section, in which the in situ distribution of bacteria could be quantified, prepared from each core. Geostatistical analysis was used to quantify the nature of spatial structure from micrometers to meters and spatial point pattern analysis to test for deviations from complete spatial randomness of mapped bacteria. Spatial structure in the topsoil was only found at the microscale (micrometers), whereas evidence for nested scales of spatial structure was found in the subsoil (at the microscale, and at the centimeter to meter scale). Geostatistical ranges of spatial structure at the micro scale were greater in the topsoil and tended to decrease with depth in the subsoil. Evidence for spatial aggregation in bacteria was stronger in the topsoil and also decreased with depth in the subsoil, though extremely high degrees of aggregation were found at very short distances in the deep subsoil. The data suggest that factors that regulate the distribution of bacteria in the subsoil operate at two scales, in contrast to one scale in the topsoil, and that bacterial patches are larger and more prevalent in the topsoil.

  11. Analysis of Resource and Emission Impacts: An Emergy-Based Multiple Spatial Scale Framework for Urban Ecological and Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the complex and multi-dimensional urban socio-economic system creates impacts on natural capital and human capital, which range from a local to a global scale. An emergy-based multiple spatial scale analysis framework and a rigorous accounting method that can quantify the values of human-made and natural capital losses were proposed in this study. With the intent of comparing the trajectory of Beijing over time, the characteristics of the interface between different scales are considered to explain the resource trade and the impacts of emissions. In addition, our improved determination of emergy analysis and acceptable management options that are in agreement with Beijing’s overall sustainability strategy were examined. The results showed that Beijing’s economy was closely correlated with the consumption of nonrenewable resources and exerted rising pressure on the environment. Of the total emergy use by the economic system, the imported nonrenewable resources from other provinces contribute the most, and the multi‑scale environmental impacts of waterborne and airborne pollution continued to increase from 1999 to 2006. Given the inputs structure, Beijing was chiefly making greater profits by shifting resources from other provinces in China and transferring the emissions outside. The results of our study should enable urban policy planners to better understand the multi-scale policy planning and development design of an urban ecological economic system.

  12. A catchment scale evaluation of multiple stressor effects in headwater streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J. J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Loinaz, Maria Christina;

    2013-01-01

    of hydromorphological, chemical, and ecological conditions due to multiple anthropogenic impacts. However, they are generally disregarded as water bodies for mitigation activities in the European Water Framework Directive despite their importance for supporting a higher ecological quality in higher order streams. We...... quality in these streams. The SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) index explained most of the variability in the macroinvertebrate community structure, and notably, SPEAR index scores were often very low (

  13. Universal scaling functions for bond percolation on planar random and square lattices with multiple percolating clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Lin, Simon C.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2001-01-01

    Percolation models with multiple percolating clusters have attracted much attention in recent years. Here we use Monte Carlo simulations to study bond percolation on $L_{1}\\times L_{2}$ planar random lattices, duals of random lattices, and square lattices with free and periodic boundary conditions, in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, and with various aspect ratio $L_{1}/L_{2}$. We calculate the probability for the appearance of $n$ percolating clusters, $W_{n},$ the percolati...

  14. Neocortical dynamics at multiple scales: EEG standing waves, statistical mechanics, and physical analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Lester; Nunez, Paul L

    2011-02-01

    The dynamic behavior of scalp potentials (EEG) is apparently due to some combination of global and local processes with important top-down and bottom-up interactions across spatial scales. In treating global mechanisms, we stress the importance of myelinated axon propagation delays and periodic boundary conditions in the cortical-white matter system, which is topologically close to a spherical shell. By contrast, the proposed local mechanisms are multiscale interactions between cortical columns via short-ranged non-myelinated fibers. A mechanical model consisting of a stretched string with attached nonlinear springs demonstrates the general idea. The string produces standing waves analogous to large-scale coherent EEG observed in some brain states. The attached springs are analogous to the smaller (mesoscopic) scale columnar dynamics. Generally, we expect string displacement and EEG at all scales to result from both global and local phenomena. A statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI) calculates oscillatory behavior consistent with typical EEG, within columns, between neighboring columns via short-ranged non-myelinated fibers, across cortical regions via myelinated fibers, and also derives a string equation consistent with the global EEG model.

  15. Nitrate-Nitrogen, Landuse/Landcover, and Soil Drainage Associations at Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing non–point-source pollution of water requires knowledge of land use/land cover (LULC) influences at altering watershed scales. To gain improved understanding of relationships among LULC, soil drainage, and dissolved nitrate-N dynamics within the Calapooia River Basin in w...

  16. Managing landscapes at multiple scales for sustainability of ecosystem functions (Preface)

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Birdsey; R. Lucas; Y. Pan; G. Sun; E.J. Gustafson; A.H.  Perera

    2010-01-01

    The science of landscape ecology is a rapidly evolving academic field with an emphasis on studying large-scale spatial heterogeneity created by natural influences and human activities. These advances have important implications for managing and conserving natural resources. At a September 2008 IUFRO conference in Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R. China, we highlighted both the...

  17. Early College for All: Efforts to Scale up Early Colleges in Multiple Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the positive impacts of the small, stand-alone early college model and the desire to provide those benefits to more students, organizations have begun efforts to scale up the early college model in a variety of settings. These efforts have been supported by the federal government, particularly by the Investing in Innovation (i3) program.…

  18. A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuefeind, J.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Daniels, J. E.;

    2016-01-01

    Conventionally, the stretching of rubber is modeled exclusively by rotations of segments of the embedded polymer chains; i.e. changes in entropy. However models have not been tested on all relevant length scales due to a lack of appropriate probes. Here we present a universal X-ray based method...

  19. Impact of mega-scale sand extraction on tidal dynamics in semi-enclosed basins: an idealized model study with application to the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Wiebe P.; Roos, Pieter C.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Stolk, Ad

    2011-01-01

    Long-term considerations of repeated and increasing sand extraction on the Netherlands Continental Shelf (North Sea) may lead to the creation of a mega-scale extraction trench in front of the Dutch coast (length hundreds of km, width over 10 km, depth several m). We investigate the impact of such a

  20. Multiple microbial cell-free extracts improve the microbiological, biochemical and sensory features of ewes' milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasso, Maria; Mancini, Leonardo; De Angelis, Maria; Conte, Amalia; Costa, Cristina; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-09-01

    This study used cell-free enzyme (CFE) extracts from Lactobacillus casei, Hafnia alvei, Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to condition or accelerate Pecorino-type cheese ripening. Compositional, microbiological, and biochemical analyses were performed, and volatile and sensory profiles were obtained. Lactobacilli and cocci increased during ripening, especially in cheeses containing CFE from L. casei, H. alvei and D. hansenii (LHD-C) and L. casei, H. alvei and S. cerevisiae (LHS-C). Compared to control cheese (CC), several enzymatic activities were higher (P CFE-supplemented cheeses. Compared to the CC (1907 mg kg(-1) of cheese), the free amino acid level increased (P CFE-supplemented cheeses, ranging from approximately 2575 (LHS-C) to 5720 (LHD-C) mg kg(-1) of cheese after 60 days of CFE-supplemented ripening. As shown by GC/MS analysis, the levels of several volatile organic compounds were significantly (P CFE-supplemented cheeses. All cheeses manufactured by adding multiple CFEs exhibited higher scores (P < 0.05) for internal structure, acid taste and juiciness than CC samples. This study shows the possibility of producing ewes' milk cheese with standardized characteristics and improved flavor intensity in a relatively short time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple time scale evaluation of the energy balance during the maize growing season, and a new reason for energy imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO JianXia; BIAN LinGen; DAI YongJiu

    2009-01-01

    Energy imbalance is a common problem associated with the measurement of surface energy using the eddy covariance method. In the evaluation of the energy balance, people usually pay more attention to the statistical result that the effective energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat) is systematically lower than the available energy (the difference of net radiation and ground heat flux). However, little attention has been paid to the existence of the reversed situation when the effective energy is larger than the available energy or their contribution to the overall energy closure rate. In this paper, based on the analysis of the energy balance on multiple time scales across the maize growth season, we con clude that the non-synchronization of energy components is the main reason for the existence of the reversed case. By shifting the phase of the effective energy components half an hour ahead, the rates of energy closure over all time scales are improved and dramatically reduce the number of the half-hourly samples when the energy ratio exceeds 1 or is below 0.5. According to the characteristics of the energy distribution and transformation over multiple time scales, latent heat is always the main type of energy cost, and the residual of the energy balance increases with the growth of the maize plant surpassing the sensible heat for seventy days. It is suggested that the heat storage and photosynthetic energy play an important role in the energy balance during the growing period of maize.

  2. Non-native salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Hossack, Blake R.; Bahls, Peter F.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hokit, Grant; Maxell, Bryce A.; Munger, James C.; Wyrick, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    Aim The introduction of non-native species into aquatic environments has been linked with local extinctions and altered distributions of native species. We investigated the effect of non-native salmonids on the occupancy of two native amphibians, the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), across three spatial scales: water bodies, small catchments and large catchments. Location Mountain lakes at ≥ 1500 m elevation were surveyed across the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Methods We surveyed 2267 water bodies for amphibian occupancy (based on evidence of reproduction) and fish presence between 1986 and 2002 and modelled the probability of amphibian occupancy at each spatial scale in relation to habitat availability and quality and fish presence. Results After accounting for habitat features, we estimated that A. macrodactylum was 2.3 times more likely to breed in fishless water bodies than in water bodies with fish. Ambystoma macrodactylum also was more likely to occupy small catchments where none of the water bodies contained fish than in catchments where at least one water body contained fish. However, the probability of salamander occupancy in small catchments was also influenced by habitat availability (i.e. the number of water bodies within a catchment) and suitability of remaining fishless water bodies. We found no relationship between fish presence and salamander occupancy at the large-catchment scale, probably because of increased habitat availability. In contrast to A. macrodactylum, we found no relationship between fish presence and R. luteiventris occupancy at any scale. Main conclusions Our results suggest that the negative effects of non-native salmonids can extend beyond the boundaries of individual water bodies and increase A. macrodactylum extinction risk at landscape scales. We suspect that niche overlap between non-native fish and A. macrodactylum at higher elevations in the northern Rocky

  3. The Design and Scale-Up of Multiple-Impeller Fermenters for Liquid Film Controlled Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labík, L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically agitated gas-liquid contactors are frequently used in the chemical, food and biochemical industries as fermenters and as hydrogenation or chlorination reactors. However wide is the usage of such vessels, their design is not based on chemical engineering data, but is still rather empirical. Thus, it is highly desirable to have a tool for the rational design of agitated gas-liquid contactors that is based on fundamental chemical engineering parameters that are transferable to other systems and operating conditions. Focusing on liquid film-controlled processes and using the data from fermenters of different scales, we develop kLa correlations that are suitable for scale-up. First, we discuss how to determine the proper experimental kLa values, which are not distorted by other equipment parameters as is the gas residence time. We demonstrate the possible kLa distortion on the pilot-plant experimental data by comparing the results obtained by two different experimental techniques. Further, we present physically correct kLa data for fully non-coalescent (sodium sulphate solution batch. The data are presented both for laboratory and pilot-plant fermenters. We identify the process parameters, the values of which are dependent on the vessel scale when operated under the same power input per volume, and, using these parameters, we develop common kLa correlations suitable to describe the data for various scales of the vessel. The correlations developed reduce the uncertainty in predicting the volume of industrial scale fermenters from almost 1/2 to 1/4 of their total volume, thereby enabling significant reductions in both the initial costs, and operating costs.

  4. An alternative to scale-space representation for extracting local features in image recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Nguyen, Phuong Giang

    2012-01-01

    with sizes dependent on the content of the image, at the location of each triangle. In this paper, we will demonstrate that by rotation of the interest regions at the triangles it is possible in grey scale images to achieve a recognition precision comparable with that of MOPS. The test of the proposed method...

  5. Extracting Noun Phrases from Large-Scale Texts A Hybrid Approach and Its Automatic Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, K; Chen, Kuang-hua; Chen, Hsin-Hsi

    1994-01-01

    To acquire noun phrases from running texts is useful for many applications, such as word grouping,terminology indexing, etc. The reported literatures adopt pure probabilistic approach, or pure rule-based noun phrases grammar to tackle this problem. In this paper, we apply a probabilistic chunker to deciding the implicit boundaries of constituents and utilize the linguistic knowledge to extract the noun phrases by a finite state mechanism. The test texts are SUSANNE Corpus and the results are evaluated by comparing the parse field of SUSANNE Corpus automatically. The results of this preliminary experiment are encouraging.

  6. Note: fast and reliable fracture strain extraction technique applied to silicon at nanometer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Vikram; Bhaskar, Umesh; Pardoen, Thomas; Sodervall, Ulf; Nilsson, Bengt; Petersson, Goran; Hagberg, Mats; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-11-01

    Simple fabrication process and extraction procedure to determine the fracture strain of monocrystalline silicon are demonstrated. Nanowires/nanoribbons in silicon are fabricated and subjected to uniaxial tensile stress along the complete length of the beams. Large strains up to 5% are measured for nanowires presenting a cross section of 50 nm × 50 nm and a length of 2.5 μm. An increase in fracture strain for silicon nanowires (NWs) with the downscaling of their volume is observed, highlighting the reduction of the defects probability as volume is decreased.

  7. A small-scale, portable method for extracting microplastics from marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Rachel L; Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Penelope K; Queirós, Ana M; Galloway, Tamara S

    2017-07-19

    Microplastics (plastic particles, 0.1 μm-5 mm in size) are widespread marine pollutants, accumulating in benthic sediments and shorelines the world over. To gain a clearer understanding of microplastic availability to marine life, and the risks they pose to the health of benthic communities, ecological processes and food security, it is important to obtain accurate measures of microplastic abundance in marine sediments. To date, methods for extracting microplastics from marine sediments have been disadvantaged by complexity, expense, low extraction efficiencies and incompatibility with very fine sediments. Here we present a new, portable method to separate microplastics from sediments of differing types, using the principle of density floatation. The Sediment-Microplastic Isolation (SMI) unit is a custom-built apparatus which consistently extracted microplastics from sediments in a single step, with a mean efficiency of 95.8% (±SE 1.6%; min 70%, max 100%). Zinc chloride, at a density of 1.5 g cm(-3), was deemed an effective and relatively inexpensive floatation media, allowing fine sediment to settle whilst simultaneously enabling floatation of dense polymers. The method was validated by artificially spiking sediment with low and high density microplastics, and its environmental relevance was further tested by extracting plastics present in natural sediment samples from sites ranging in sediment type; fine silt/clay (mean size 10.25 ± SD 3.02 μm) to coarse sand (mean size 149.3 ± SD 49.9 μm). The method presented here is cheap, reproducible and is easily portable, lending itself for use in the laboratory and in the field, eg. on board research vessels. By employing this method, accurate estimates of microplastic type, distribution and abundance in natural sediments can be achieved, with the potential to further our understanding of the availability of microplastics to benthic organisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  8. Effects of Post-Fire Salvage Logging on Erosion Rates at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Brown, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Forest managers sometimes harvest burned trees after wildfires to realize economic value, reduce fuel loads, or achieve other operational goals. This logging can be controversial because some ecosystem effects are negative, yet the potential impacts on erosion rates have not been clearly identified. Our objectives were to quantify hillslope-scale erosion rates and compare the hillslope erosion rates to rates from larger (swale) and smaller (rill) scales. Soil characteristics, vegetative regrowth, and erosion rates were measured in logged areas and unlogged controls at seven severely burned sites in the western US. One site had replicated measurements at all three scales, five sites had only hillslope or swale scale measurements, and one site had only rill measurements. Erosion rates from hillslopes (70-170 m2) and swales (0.1-2.6 ha) were measured with sediment fences. Rill erosion rates were measured with rill experiments, where water was applied to a hillslope at five flow rates for 12 min each; water samples were collected at a point 9 m downslope. At the hillslope scale the passage of heavy logging equipment reduced soil water repellency, compacted the soil, reduced vegetative regrowth rates, and generally increased erosion rates by one or two orders of magnitude relative to the controls. The rill experiments also showed greater rates of rill incision and erosion from the areas disturbed by heavy logging equipment relative to the controls. At the swale scale erosion rates were higher in the logged areas than the controls when measurements were replicated and simultaneous but there was no detectable change in the other study areas. Overall, the absolute erosion rates from both logged and unlogged areas tended to decline over time while the relative difference in erosion tended to increase due to the slower vegetative recovery in the more heavily disturbed areas. The potential adverse effects of salvage logging can be minimized by reducing compaction and

  9. Biogenic nano-scale silver particles by Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract and their inborn antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitha, B.; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Reddy, P. Sreedhara

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract. The biomolecules present in the leaf extract are responsible for the formation of Ag NPs and they found to play dual role of both reducing as well as capping agents. The high crystallinity of Ag NPs is evident from bright circular spot array of SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile. The synthesized Ag NPs are found to be nearly spherical ones with size approximately ∼20 nm. FTIR spectrum evidences the presence of different functional groups of biomolecules participated in encapsulating Ag NPs and the possible mechanism of Ag NPs formation was also suggested. Appearance of yellow color and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 425 nm confirms the Ag NPs formation. PL spectra showed decrement in luminescence intensity at higher excitation wavelengths. Antimicrobial activity of Ag NPs showed better inhibitory activity towards Pseudomonas spp. and Penicillium spp. compared to other test pathogens using standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay.

  10. BLINKER: Automated Extraction of Ocular Indices from EEG Enabling Large-Scale Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleifges, Kelly; Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Kerick, Scott E.; Robbins, Kay A.

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) offers a platform for studying the relationships between behavioral measures, such as blink rate and duration, with neural correlates of fatigue and attention, such as theta and alpha band power. Further, the existence of EEG studies covering a variety of subjects and tasks provides opportunities for the community to better characterize variability of these measures across tasks and subjects. We have implemented an automated pipeline (BLINKER) for extracting ocular indices such as blink rate, blink duration, and blink velocity-amplitude ratios from EEG channels, EOG channels, and/or independent components (ICs). To illustrate the use of our approach, we have applied the pipeline to a large corpus of EEG data (comprising more than 2000 datasets acquired at eight different laboratories) in order to characterize variability of certain ocular indicators across subjects. We also investigate dependence of ocular indices on task in a shooter study. We have implemented our algorithms in a freely available MATLAB toolbox called BLINKER. The toolbox, which is easy to use and can be applied to collections of data without user intervention, can automatically discover which channels or ICs capture blinks. The tools extract blinks, calculate common ocular indices, generate a report for each dataset, dump labeled images of the individual blinks, and provide summary statistics across collections. Users can run BLINKER as a script or as a plugin for EEGLAB. The toolbox is available at https://github.com/VisLab/EEG-Blinks. User documentation and examples appear at http://vislab.github.io/EEG-Blinks/.

  11. BLINKER: Automated Extraction of Ocular Indices from EEG Enabling Large-Scale Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleifges, Kelly; Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Kerick, Scott E; Robbins, Kay A

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) offers a platform for studying the relationships between behavioral measures, such as blink rate and duration, with neural correlates of fatigue and attention, such as theta and alpha band power. Further, the existence of EEG studies covering a variety of subjects and tasks provides opportunities for the community to better characterize variability of these measures across tasks and subjects. We have implemented an automated pipeline (BLINKER) for extracting ocular indices such as blink rate, blink duration, and blink velocity-amplitude ratios from EEG channels, EOG channels, and/or independent components (ICs). To illustrate the use of our approach, we have applied the pipeline to a large corpus of EEG data (comprising more than 2000 datasets acquired at eight different laboratories) in order to characterize variability of certain ocular indicators across subjects. We also investigate dependence of ocular indices on task in a shooter study. We have implemented our algorithms in a freely available MATLAB toolbox called BLINKER. The toolbox, which is easy to use and can be applied to collections of data without user intervention, can automatically discover which channels or ICs capture blinks. The tools extract blinks, calculate common ocular indices, generate a report for each dataset, dump labeled images of the individual blinks, and provide summary statistics across collections. Users can run BLINKER as a script or as a plugin for EEGLAB. The toolbox is available at https://github.com/VisLab/EEG-Blinks. User documentation and examples appear at http://vislab.github.io/EEG-Blinks/.

  12. A online NIR sensor for the pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii coupled with single and ensemble methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoning; Li, Yang; Wu, Zhisheng; Zhang, Qiao; Zheng, Zhou; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-04-14

    Model performance of the partial least squares method (PLS) alone and bagging-PLS was investigated in online near-infrared (NIR) sensor monitoring of pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to identify the active pharmaceutical ingredients: naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. Several preprocessing methods and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) and moving window partial least squares (MWPLS) variable selection methods were compared. Single quantification models (PLS) and ensemble methods combined with partial least squares (bagging-PLS) were developed for quantitative analysis of naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. SiPLS was compared to SiPLS combined with bagging-PLS. Final results showed the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of bagging-PLS to be lower than that of PLS regression alone. For this reason, an ensemble method of online NIR sensor is here proposed as a means of monitoring the pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii, which may also constitute a suitable strategy for online NIR monitoring of CHM.

  13. A Online NIR Sensor for the Pilot-Scale Extraction Process in Fructus Aurantii Coupled with Single and Ensemble Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Model performance of the partial least squares method (PLS alone and bagging-PLS was investigated in online near-infrared (NIR sensor monitoring of pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used as a reference method to identify the active pharmaceutical ingredients: naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. Several preprocessing methods and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS and moving window partial least squares (MWPLS variable selection methods were compared. Single quantification models (PLS and ensemble methods combined with partial least squares (bagging-PLS were developed for quantitative analysis of naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. SiPLS was compared to SiPLS combined with bagging-PLS. Final results showed the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of bagging-PLS to be lower than that of PLS regression alone. For this reason, an ensemble method of online NIR sensor is here proposed as a means of monitoring the pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii, which may also constitute a suitable strategy for online NIR monitoring of CHM.

  14. Large-scale data analysis of power grid resilience across multiple US service regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chuanyi; Wei, Yun; Mei, Henry; Calzada, Jorge; Carey, Matthew; Church, Steve; Hayes, Timothy; Nugent, Brian; Stella, Gregory; Wallace, Matthew; White, Joe; Wilcox, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Severe weather events frequently result in large-scale power failures, affecting millions of people for extended durations. However, the lack of comprehensive, detailed failure and recovery data has impeded large-scale resilience studies. Here, we analyse data from four major service regions representing Upstate New York during Super Storm Sandy and daily operations. Using non-stationary spatiotemporal random processes that relate infrastructural failures to recoveries and cost, our data analysis shows that local power failures have a disproportionally large non-local impact on people (that is, the top 20% of failures interrupted 84% of services to customers). A large number (89%) of small failures, represented by the bottom 34% of customers and commonplace devices, resulted in 56% of the total cost of 28 million customer interruption hours. Our study shows that extreme weather does not cause, but rather exacerbates, existing vulnerabilities, which are obscured in daily operations.

  15. Evaluation of the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite as clinical endpoints in multiple sclerosis clinical trials: quantitative meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Sawad, Aseel; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Turkistani, Fatema

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) as clinical endpoints in multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical trials. Medline (1946 through 12 September 2014) and Embase (1974 through 12 September 2014) databases searches were conducted using keywords and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms related to MS, EDSS, and MSFC. Only studies that used the EDSS and MSFC as endpoints were assessed. All statistical analyses were conducted using comprehensive meta-analysis (CMA). The percentages of the overall changes in EDSS and MSFC were compared. The relative risks were calculated in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). A total of 123 studies were identified. There were nine studies (6 case series and 3 RCTs) included in the analysis. In the case series, the EDSS change rate in MS patients was 33.5% (95% CI: 12.9-63.2%) and the MSFC change rate was 30.3% (95% CI: 9.2-65.2%). In RCTs, patients who take the drug would be 22.9 times as likely as patients who did not take the drug to experience a change in the EDSS scale (RR = 22.9, 95% CI = 0.996-1.517, p = 0.055). Patients who take the drug would be 48.9 times as likely as patients who did not take the drug to experience a change in the MSFC scale (RR = 48.9, 95% CI = CI = 0.916-2.419, p = 0.108). This study focused only on MS patient improvement (positive changes) on the EDSS and MSFC. More studies are needed to include patient deterioration (negative changes) on EDSS and MSFC. There is controversy about the sensitivity of the EDSS and MSFC in detecting the progression of MS disease. The EDSS and MSFC are effective tools to assess the clinical severity and progression of MS disease. MSFC is more sensitive than EDSS in detecting the progression of MS disease.

  16. Release of a single neurotransmitter from an identified interneuron coherently affects motor output on multiple time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacks, Andrew M; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2013-05-01

    Neurotransmitters can have diverse effects that occur over multiple time scales often making the consequences of neurotransmission difficult to predict. To explore the consequences of this diversity, we used the buccal ganglion of Aplysia to examine the effects of GABA release by a single interneuron, B40, on the intrinsic properties and motor output of the radula closure neuron B8. B40 induces a picrotoxin-sensitive fast IPSP lasting milliseconds in B8 and a slow EPSP lasting seconds. We found that the excitatory effects of this slow EPSP are also mediated by GABA. Together, these two GABAergic actions structure B8 firing in a pattern characteristic of ingestive programs. Furthermore, we found that repeated B40 stimulation induces a persistent increase in B8 excitability that was occluded in the presence of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen, suggesting that GABA affects B8 excitability over multiple time scales. The phasing of B8 activity during the feeding motor programs determines the nature of the behavior elicited during that motor program. The persistent increase in B8 excitability induced by B40 biased the activity of B8 during feeding motor programs causing the motor programs to become more ingestive in nature. Thus, a single transmitter released from a single interneuron can have consequences for motor output that are expressed over multiple time scales. Importantly, despite the differences in their signs and temporal characteristics, the three actions of B40 are coherent in that they promote B8 firing patterns that are characteristic of ingestive motor outputs.

  17. Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research across Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Hurley, Brendan J.; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W.; Dueñas, Raquel Briseño; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H.; Hamann, Mark; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques — including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry — can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. Conclusions/Significance The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition

  18. Regional management units for marine turtles: a novel framework for prioritizing conservation and research across multiple scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P Wallace

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques--including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry--can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs, for marine turtles globally. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities

  19. Multiplicity results for a generalized Sturm-Liouville dynamical system on time scales

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Youwei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract By applying the fixed point theorem in cones, some new and general results on the existence of positive solution to second order generalized Sturm-Liouville dynamical system on time scale T u 1 Δ Δ ( t ) + h 1 ( t ) f 1 ( t , u 1 ( t ) , u 2 ( t ) , u 1 Δ ( t ) , u 2 Δ ( t ) ) = 0 , u 2 Δ Δ ( t ) + h 2 ( t ) f 2 ( t , u 1 ( ...

  20. Development of a Service Quality Scale for Multiple Technology Interfaces in Commercial Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAYA SANGEETHA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a service quality scale by identifying the dimensions affecting the service quality across various technology interfaces in retail banking. The paper examines the literature involving the various technology interfaces and aims to propose a conceptual model involving dimensions that affect the perceptions of service quality of the technology interfaces used in banks. The paper also seeks to establish the psychometric properties of the scale thus arrived. The literature review reveals that the models currently available to measure the service quality of the technology interfaces are limited in their focus, encompassing mostly one electronic channel – the internet – and few others studying the ATM and telephone banking cha nnels. However, there is a gap with regard to the study of other technology interfaces like call centers and queue systems used in the branches. In this study, an attempt is being made to explore the influence of the various technology interfaces on banks’ service quality like the ATM, telephone banking, call center services, queue systems in the branches etc. which the customers use in combination and thereby to develop a scale to measure technology interface service quality (TISQ.

  1. Consumer preference for seeds and seedlings of rare species impacts tree diversity at multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Guevara, Roger; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-07-01

    Positive density-dependent seed and seedling predation, where herbivores selectively eat seeds or seedlings of common species, is thought to play a major role in creating and maintaining plant community diversity. However, many herbivores and seed predators are known to exhibit preferences for rare foods, which could lead to negative density-dependent predation. In this study, we first demonstrate the occurrence of increased predation of locally rare tree species by a widespread group of insular seed and seedling predators, land crabs. We then build computer simulations based on these empirical data to examine the effects of such predation on diversity patterns. Simulations show that herbivore preferences for locally rare species are likely to drive scale-dependent effects on plant community diversity: at small scales these foraging patterns decrease plant community diversity via the selective consumption of rare plant species, while at the landscape level they should increase diversity, at least for short periods, by promoting clustered local dominance of a variety of species. Finally, we compared observed patterns of plant diversity at the site to those obtained via computer simulations, and found that diversity patterns generated under simulations were highly consistent with observed diversity patterns. We posit that preference for rare species by herbivores may be prevalent in low- or moderate-diversity systems, and that these effects may help explain diversity patterns across different spatial scales in such ecosystems.

  2. Decentralized H∞ state feedback control for large-scale interconnected uncertain systems with multiple delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁; 桂卫华; 谢永芳

    2004-01-01

    Decentralized H∞ control was studied for a class of interconnected uncertain systems with multiple delays in the state and control and time varying but norm-bounded parametric uncertainties. A sufficient condition which makes the closed--loop system decentralized asymptotically stable with H∞ performance was derived based on Lyapunov stability theorem. This condition is expressed as the solvability problem of linear matrix inequalities. The method overcomes the limitations of the existing algebraic Riccati equation method. Finally, a numerical example was given to demonstrate the design procedure for the decentralized H∞ state feedback controller.

  3. Method of Multiple Scales and Travelling Wave Solutions for (2+1)-Dimensional KdV Type Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Burcu; Özer, M. Naci; Bekir, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we applied the method of multiple scales for Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type equations and we derived nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equations. So we get a relation between KdV type equations and NLS type equations. In addition, exact solutions were found for KdV type equations. The ( G'} over G )-expansion methods and the ( {G'} over G, {1 over G}} )-expansion methods were proposed to establish new exact solutions for KdV type differential equations. We obtained periodic and hyperbolic function solutions for these equations. These methods are very effective for getting travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs).

  4. Measuring Probabilistic Dependences at Multiple Scales Between Soil Type and Surface Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatton, K. C.; Krekeler, C.; Cohen, M.; McKee, K. A.

    2005-12-01

    Accurate prediction of basin-scale hydrologic behavior is constrained by uncertainty in estimating soil hydraulic behavior. Extreme variability in hydraulic conductivity has been observed (>5 orders of magnitude) over relatively small areas, and studies that have examined the effects of heterogeneity on integrated hydrologic responses have observed substantial errors when structural variability is ignored. This has prompted spatially explicit representations of soil attributes in hydrologic and water quality models (e.g. TOPMODEL) that present significant parameterization constraints at high resolution. Our hypothesis is that elevation data (coarse and fine grain) can serve as a proximate predictor of soil hydraulic properties. We present an information-theoretic method to systematically rank the information contributions, with respect to soil properties (primarily texture), of several surficial and landcover structure features obtained from data at both coarse (~30m) and fine (~1m) spatial scales using a probabilistic measure known as mutual information. The method makes no a priori assumptions about the relative importance of features, thus allowing feature ranking to respond to variations in terrain and landcover. The study site is located in the riparian corridor of an urban watershed (Hogtown Creek) in the city of Gainesville, Florida. It is a surficially closed basin in the St. John's River Water Management District in Northeastern Florida. The area is low-relief and contains mixed land use (natural forested areas and urban development). Topographic data from the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) and the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), along with approximate stream locations from the USGS National Hydrography Dataset, are used to generate spatially distributed coarse-scale features regarding surface morphology and drainage. Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) data are also used to generate features relating to under-canopy topography and

  5. Crest lines extraction in volume 3D medical images : a multi-scale approach

    OpenAIRE

    Monga, Olivier; Lengagne, Richard; Deriche, Rachid

    1994-01-01

    Projet SYNTIM; Recently, we have shown that the differential properties of the surfaces represented by 3D volumic images can be recovered using their partial derivatives. For instance, the crest lines can be characterized by the first, second and third partial derivatives of the grey level function $I(x,y,z)$. In this paper, we show that~: - the computation of the partial derivatives of an image can be improved using recursive filters which approximate the Gaussian filter, - a multi-scale app...

  6. Optimizing investments in national-scale forest landscape restoration in Uganda to maximize multiple benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourevitch, Jesse D.; Hawthorne, Peter L.; Keeler, Bonnie L.; Beatty, Craig R.; Greve, Michelle; Verdone, Michael A.

    2016-11-01

    Forest loss and degradation globally has resulted in declines in multiple ecosystem services and reduced habitat for biodiversity. Forest landscape restoration offers an opportunity to mitigate these losses, conserve biodiversity, and improve human well-being. As part of the Bonn Challenge, a global effort to restore 350 million hectares of deforested and degraded land by 2030, over 30 countries have recently made commitments to national forest landscape restoration. In order to achieve these goals, decision-makers require information on the potential benefits and costs of forest landscape restoration to efficiently target investments. In response to this need, we developed an approach using a suite of ecosystem service mapping tools and a multi-objective spatial optimization technique that enables decision-makers to estimate the potential benefits and opportunity costs of restoration, visualize tradeoffs associated with meeting multiple objectives, and prioritize where restoration could deliver the greatest benefits. We demonstrate the potential of this approach in Uganda, one of the nations committed to the Bonn Challenge. Using maps of the potential benefits and costs of restoration and efficiency frontiers for optimal restoration scenarios, we were able to communicate how ecosystem services benefits vary spatially across the country and how different weights on ecosystem services objectives can affect the allocation of restoration across Uganda. This work provides a generalizable approach to improve investments in forest landscape restoration and illuminates the tradeoffs associated with alternative restoration strategies.

  7. Intermittent counter-current extraction-Equilibrium cell model, scaling and an improved bobbin design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, Peter; Sutherland, Ian; Kostanyan, Artak E; Voshkin, Andrei A; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2013-08-16

    This paper describes an equilibrium cell model for intermittent counter-current extraction that is analytically solved for the first time for continuous sample injection between a pair of columns. The model is compared with practice for injections of a model mixture of compounds on a standard high-performance counter-current chromatography instrument giving good agreement for compound elution order and the times to maximum concentration for the eluted components. An improved design of end fittings for the counter-current chromatography bobbins is described which permits on-column switching of the mobile and stationary phases. This on-column switching successfully eliminates the displaced stationary phase seen in fractions when operating ICcE with standard flying leads and gives a 6% reduction in the retention time of compounds and improved resolution due to the elimination of the time delay required to pump the previous mobile phase from standard flying leads.

  8. Coarse-scaling adjustment of fine-group neutron spectra for epithermal neutron beams in BNCT using multiple activation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Hao; Nievaart, Sander; Tsai, Pi-En; Liu, Hong-Ming; Moss, Ray; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide an improved and reliable neutron source description for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a spectrum adjustment procedure named coarse-scaling adjustment has been developed and applied to the neutron spectrum measurements of both the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) epithermal neutron beam in Taiwan and the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in The Netherlands, using multiple activation detectors. The coarse-scaling adjustment utilizes a similar idea as the well-known two-foil method, which adjusts the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes according to the Maxwellian distribution for thermal neutrons and 1/ E distribution over the epithermal neutron energy region. The coarse-scaling adjustment can effectively suppress the number of oscillations appearing in the adjusted spectrum and provide better smoothness. This paper also presents a sophisticated 9-step process utilizing twice the coarse-scaling adjustment which can adjust a given coarse-group spectrum into a fine-group structure, i.e. 640 groups, with satisfactory continuity and excellently matched reaction rates between measurements and calculation. The spectrum adjustment algorithm applied in this study is the same as the well-known SAND-II.

  9. Impacts of nomad sedentarization on social and ecological systems at multiple scales in Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingming; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Lanhai

    2014-09-01

    China's government is now promoting the Nomad Sedentarization Project (NSP) in large areas of grassland as a solution for ecological restoration and poverty alleviation. To examine the effects of this policy, we conducted in-depth interviews at two of the project's sites and examined the social and ecological systems at village, county, and catchment scales in Jinghe County of Xinjiang. We found that (1) the NSP in one village greatly improved the household standard of living and changed their resource utilization modes; (2) the success in this village can be attributed to resources imported from the social and ecological systems at larger scales, and could not be repeated in a second nearby village with different constraints; and (3) the NSP is poorly adapted to local ecosystem characteristics, and may therefore have negative impacts at larger scales. To avoid these problems, holistic assessments are necessary to judge the NSP's impacts on social and ecological systems at multiple scales, and the program must be implemented cautiously to account for the potential risks in ecologically vulnerable areas.

  10. Preparation of Nano-Scale Biopolymer Extracted from Coconut Residue and Its Performance as Drag Reducing Agent (DRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Muhammad Luqman Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag or frictional force is defined as force that acts opposite to the object’s relative motion through a fluid which then will cause frictional pressure loss in the pipeline. Drag Reducing Agent (DRA is used to solve this issue and most of the DRAs are synthetic polymers but has some environmental issues. Therefore for this study, biopolymer known as Coconut Residue (CR is selected as the candidate to replace synthetic polymers DRA. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Nano-scale biopolymer DRA on the application of water injection system. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is extracted by synthesizing the cellulose extracted from CR under the alkali-catalyzed reaction using monochloroacetic acid. The synthesize process is held in controlled condition whereby the concentration of NaOH is kept at 60%wt, 60 °C temperature and the reaction time is 4 hours. For every 25 g of dried CR used, the mass of synthesized CMC yield is at an average of 23.8 g. The synthesized CMC is then grinded in controlled parameters using the ball milling machine to get the Nano-scale size. The particle size obtained from this is 43.32 Nm which is in range of Nano size. This study proved that Nano-size CMC has higher percentage of drag reduction (%DR and flow increase (%FI if compared to normal-size CMC when tested in high and low flow rate; 44% to 48% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in low flow rate, and 16% to 18% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in high flow rate. The success of this research shows that Nano-scale DRA can be considered to be used to have better performance in reducing drag.

  11. A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuefeind, J.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Daniels, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Conventionally, the stretching of rubber is modeled exclusively by rotations of segments of the embedded polymer chains; i.e. changes in entropy. However models have not been tested on all relevant length scales due to a lack of appropriate probes. Here we present a universal X-ray based method...... within the individual monomers, but among the contributions is also an elastic strain, acting between chains, which is 3-4 orders of magnitude smaller than the macroscopic strain, and of the opposite sign, i.e. extension of polymer chains in the direction perpendicular to the stretch. This may be due...

  12. Cloud detection in all-sky images via multi-scale neighborhood features and multiple supervised learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsu-Yung; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2017-01-01

    Cloud detection is important for providing necessary information such as cloud cover in many applications. Existing cloud detection methods include red-to-blue ratio thresholding and other classification-based techniques. In this paper, we propose to perform cloud detection using supervised learning techniques with multi-resolution features. One of the major contributions of this work is that the features are extracted from local image patches with different sizes to include local structure and multi-resolution information. The cloud models are learned through the training process. We consider classifiers including random forest, support vector machine, and Bayesian classifier. To take advantage of the clues provided by multiple classifiers and various levels of patch sizes, we employ a voting scheme to combine the results to further increase the detection accuracy. In the experiments, we have shown that the proposed method can distinguish cloud and non-cloud pixels more accurately compared with existing works.

  13. Simultaneous Microwave Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds of Boldo Leaves. From Lab to Industrial Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Petigny

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction and separation has been used to increase the concentration of the extract compared to the conventional method with the same solid/liquid ratio, reducing extraction time and separate at the same time Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC from non-Volatile Organic Compounds (NVOC of boldo leaves. As preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material and the separation of VOC from the plant in laboratory scale. The results from the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: microwave power 200 W, extraction time 56 min and solid liquid ratio of 7.5% of plants in water. Lab scale optimized microwave method is compared to conventional distillation, and requires a power/mass ratio of 0.4 W/g of water engaged. This power/mass ratio is kept in order to upscale from lab to pilot plant.

  14. Fine-scaling mapping of the gene responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Minoru; Nakamura, Yusuke (Cancer Institute, Tokyo (Japan)); Wells, S.A. (Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The authors have constructed a high-resolution genetic linkage map in the vicinity of the gene responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). The mutation causing this disease, inherited as an autosomal dominant, predisposes carriers to development of neoplastic tumors in the parathyroid, the endocrine pancreas, and the anterior lobe of the pituitary. The 12 markers on the genetic linkage map reported here span nearly 20 cM, and linkage analysis of MEN1 pedigrees has placed the MEN1 locus within the 8-cM region between D11S480 and D11S546. The markers on this map will be useful for prenatal or presymptomatic diagnosis of individuals in families that segregate a mutant allele of the MEN1 gene.

  15. Reconciling multiple data sources to improve accuracy of large-scale prediction of forest disease incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, E.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Baker, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Ecological spatial data often come from multiple sources, varying in extent and accuracy. We describe a general approach to reconciling such data sets through the use of the Bayesian hierarchical framework. This approach provides a way for the data sets to borrow strength from one another while allowing for inference on the underlying ecological process. We apply this approach to study the incidence of eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) in Minnesota black spruce (Picea mariana). A Minnesota Department of Natural Resources operational inventory of black spruce stands in northern Minnesota found mistletoe in 11% of surveyed stands, while a small, specific-pest survey found mistletoe in 56% of the surveyed stands. We reconcile these two surveys within a Bayesian hierarchical framework and predict that 35-59% of black spruce stands in northern Minnesota are infested with dwarf mistletoe. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Quantifying ground water recharge at multiple scales using PRMS and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S

    2004-01-01

    Management of ground water resources requires a method to calculate demonstrably accurate recharge rates at local to regional scales using readily available information bases. Many methods are available to calculate recharge, but most are unable to satisfy all these conditions. A distributed parameter model is shown to meet the stated needs. Such models are input intensive, however, so a procedure to define most inputs from GIS and hydrogeological sources is presented. It simplifies the PRMS calibration observed streamflow hydrographs by reducing degrees of freedom from dozens to four. For seven watersheds (60 to 500 km2), the GIS-aided calibrations have average errors of 5% on recharge and 2% on total streamflow, verifying the accuracy of the process. Recharge is also calculated for 63 local-scale subwatersheds (average size 37 km2). For the study area, calculated recharges average 11 cm/yr. Soil and rock conductivity, porosity, and depth to the water table are shown to be the physical properties which dominate the spatial variability of recharge. The model has been extended to uncalibrated watersheds where GIS and climatic information are known. It reproduces total annual discharge and recharge to within 9% and 10%, respectively, indicating the process can also be used to calculate recharge in ungauged watersheds. It has not been tested outside the study area, however.

  17. Measuring multiple minority stress: the LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Molina, Yamile; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane; Walters, Karina

    2011-04-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals who are also racial/ethnic minorities (LGBT-POC) are a multiply marginalized population subject to microaggressions associated with both racism and heterosexism. To date, research on this population has been hampered by the lack of a measurement tool to assess the unique experiences associated with the intersection of these oppressions. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a three-phase, mixed method empirical study to assess microaggressions among LGBT-POC. The LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale is an 18-item self-report scale assessing the unique types of microaggressions experienced by ethnic minority LGBT adults. The measure includes three subscales: (a) Racism in LGBT communities, (b) Heterosexism in Racial/Ethnic Minority Communities, and (c) Racism in Dating and Close Relationships, that are theoretically consistent with prior literature on racial/ethnic minority LGBTs and have strong psychometric properties including internal consistency and construct validity in terms of correlations with measures of psychological distress and LGBT-identity variables. Men scored higher on the LGBT-PCMS than women, lesbians and gay men scored higher than bisexual women and men, and Asian Americans scored higher than African Americans and Latina/os.

  18. Measuring Multiple Minority Stress: The LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Molina, Yamile; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane; Walters, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals who are also racial/ethnic minorities (LGBT-POC) are a multiply marginalized population subject to microaggressions associated with both racism and heterosexism. To date, research on this population has been hampered by the lack of a measurement tool to assess the unique experiences associated with the intersection of these oppressions. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a three-phase, mixed method empirical study to assess microaggressions among LGBT-POC. The LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale is an 18-item self-report scale assessing the unique types of microaggressions experienced by ethnic minority LGBT adults. The measure includes three subscales: (a) Racism in LGBT communities, (b) Heterosexism in Racial/Ethnic Minority Communities, and (c) Racism in Dating and Close Relationships, that are theoretically consistent with prior literature on racial/ethnic minority LGBTs and have strong psychometric properties including internal consistency and construct validity in terms of correlations with measures of psychological distress and LGBT-identity variables. Men scored higher on the LGBT-PCMS than women, lesbians and gay men scored higher than bisexual women and men, and Asian Americans scored higher than African Americans and Latina/os. PMID:21604840

  19. Fibrin Networks Support Recurring Mechanical Loads by Adapting their Structure across Multiple Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Vos, Bart E; Biebricher, Andreas; Wuite, Gijs J L; Peterman, Erwin J G; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2016-09-06

    Tissues and cells sustain recurring mechanical loads that span a wide range of loading amplitudes and timescales as a consequence of exposure to blood flow, muscle activity, and external impact. Both tissues and cells derive their mechanical strength from fibrous protein scaffolds, which typically have a complex hierarchical structure. In this study, we focus on a prototypical hierarchical biomaterial, fibrin, which is one of the most resilient naturally occurring biopolymers and forms the structural scaffold of blood clots. We show how fibrous networks composed of fibrin utilize irreversible changes in their hierarchical structure at different scales to maintain reversible stress stiffening up to large strains. To trace the origin of this paradoxical resilience, we systematically tuned the microstructural parameters of fibrin and used a combination of optical tweezers and fluorescence microscopy to measure the interactions of single fibrin fibers for the first time, to our knowledge. We demonstrate that fibrin networks adapt to moderate strains by remodeling at the network scale through the spontaneous formation of new bonds between fibers, whereas they adapt to high strains by plastic remodeling of the fibers themselves. This multiscale adaptation mechanism endows fibrin gels with the remarkable ability to sustain recurring loads due to shear flows and wound stretching. Our findings therefore reveal a microscopic mechanism by which tissues and cells can balance elastic nonlinearity and plasticity, and thus can provide microstructural insights into cell-driven remodeling of tissues.

  20. Practice-oriented optical thin film growth simulation via multiple scale approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turowski, Marcus, E-mail: m.turowski@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, Hannover 30419 (Germany); Jupé, Marco [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, Hannover 30419 (Germany); QUEST: Centre of Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany); Melzig, Thomas [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films IST, Bienroder Weg 54e, Braunschweig 30108 (Germany); Moskovkin, Pavel [Research Centre for Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 rue de Bruxelles, Namur 5000 (Belgium); Daniel, Alain [Centre for Research in Metallurgy, CRM, 21 Avenue du bois Saint Jean, Liège 4000 (Belgium); Pflug, Andreas [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films IST, Bienroder Weg 54e, Braunschweig 30108 (Germany); Lucas, Stéphane [Research Centre for Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 rue de Bruxelles, Namur 5000 (Belgium); Ristau, Detlev [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, Hannover 30419 (Germany); QUEST: Centre of Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Simulation of the coating process is a very promising approach for the understanding of thin film formation. Nevertheless, this complex matter cannot be covered by a single simulation technique. To consider all mechanisms and processes influencing the optical properties of the growing thin films, various common theoretical methods have been combined to a multi-scale model approach. The simulation techniques have been selected in order to describe all processes in the coating chamber, especially the various mechanisms of thin film growth, and to enable the analysis of the resulting structural as well as optical and electronic layer properties. All methods are merged with adapted communication interfaces to achieve optimum compatibility of the different approaches and to generate physically meaningful results. The present contribution offers an approach for the full simulation of an Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) coating process combining direct simulation Monte Carlo, classical molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo, and density functional theory. The simulation is performed exemplary for an existing IBS-coating plant to achieve a validation of the developed multi-scale approach. Finally, the modeled results are compared to experimental data. - Highlights: • A model approach for simulating an Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) process is presented. • In order to combine the different techniques, optimized interfaces are developed. • The transport of atomic species in the coating chamber is calculated. • We modeled structural and optical film properties based on simulated IBS parameter. • The modeled and the experimental refractive index data fit very well.

  1. A phenomenological description of BslA assemblies across multiple length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ryan J; Bromley, Keith M; Stanley-Wall, Nicola; MacPhee, Cait E

    2016-07-28

    Intrinsically interfacially active proteins have garnered considerable interest recently owing to their potential use in a range of materials applications. Notably, the fungal hydrophobins are known to form robust and well-organized surface layers with high mechanical strength. Recently, it was shown that the bacterial biofilm protein BslA also forms highly elastic surface layers at interfaces. Here we describe several self-assembled structures formed by BslA, both at interfaces and in bulk solution, over a range of length scales spanning from nanometres to millimetres. First, we observe transiently stable and highly elongated air bubbles formed in agitated BslA samples. We study their behaviour in a range of solution conditions and hypothesize that their dissipation is a consequence of the slow adsorption kinetics of BslA to an air-water interface. Second, we describe elongated tubules formed by BslA interfacial films when shear stresses are applied in both a Langmuir trough and a rheometer. These structures bear a striking resemblance, although much larger in scale, to the elongated air bubbles formed during agitation. Taken together, this knowledge will better inform the conditions and applications of how BslA can be used in the stabilization of multi-phase materials.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'.

  2. Mixed-mode oscillations in a multiple time scale phantom bursting system

    CERN Document Server

    Krupa, Maciej; Desroches, Mathieu; Clément, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    In this work we study mixed mode oscillations in a model of secretion of GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone). The model is a phantom burster consisting of two feedforward coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo systems, with three time scales. The forcing system (Regulator) evolves on the slowest scale and acts by moving the slow nullcline of the forced system (Secretor). There are three modes of dynamics: pulsatility (transient relaxation oscillation), surge (quasi steady state) and small oscillations related to the passage of the slow nullcline through a fold point of the fast nullcline. We derive a variety of reductions, taking advantage of the mentioned features of the system. We obtain two results; one on the local dynamics near the fold in the parameter regime corresponding to the presence of small oscillations and the other on the global dynamics, more specifically on the existence of an attracting limit cycle. Our local result is a rigorous characterization of small canards and sectors of rotation in the case of fo...

  3. Autonomous management of a recursive area hierarchy for large scale wireless sensor networks using multiple parents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan Vee [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Delgado-Frias, Jose [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Large scale wireless sensor networks have been proposed for applications ranging from anomaly detection in an environment to vehicle tracking. Many of these applications require the networks to be distributed across a large geographic area while supporting three to five year network lifetimes. In order to support these requirements large scale wireless sensor networks of duty-cycled devices need a method of efficient and effective autonomous configuration/maintenance. This method should gracefully handle the synchronization tasks duty-cycled networks. Further, an effective configuration solution needs to recognize that in-network data aggregation and analysis presents significant benefits to wireless sensor network and should configure the network in a way such that said higher level functions benefit from the logically imposed structure. NOA, the proposed configuration and maintenance protocol, provides a multi-parent hierarchical logical structure for the network that reduces the synchronization workload. It also provides higher level functions with significant inherent benefits such as but not limited to: removing network divisions that are created by single-parent hierarchies, guarantees for when data will be compared in the hierarchy, and redundancies for communication as well as in-network data aggregation/analysis/storage.

  4. Extraction of orientation-and-scale-dependent information from GPR B-scans with tunable two-dimensional wavelet filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanis, A.

    2012-04-01

    GPR is an invaluable tool for civil and geotechnical engineering applications. One of the most significant objectives of such applications is the detection of fractures, inclined interfaces, empty or filled cavities frequently associated with jointing/faulting and a host of other oriented features. These types of target, especially fractures, are usually not good reflectors and are spatially localized. Their scale is therefore a factor significantly affecting their detectability. Quite frequently, systemic or extraneous noise, or other significant structural characteristics swamp the data with information which blurs, or even masks reflections from such targets, rendering their recognition difficult. This paper reports a method of extracting information (isolating) oriented and scale-dependent structural characteristics, based on oriented two-dimensional B-spline wavelet filters and Gabor wavelet filters. In addition to their advantageous properties (e.g. compact support, orthogonality etc), B-spline wavelets comprise a family with a broad spectrum of frequency localization properties and frequency responses that mimic, more or less, the shape of the radar source wavelet. For instance, the Ricker wavelet is also approximated by derivatives of Cardinal B-splines. An oriented two-dimensional B-spline filter is built by sidewise arranging a number of identical one-dimensional wavelets to create a matrix, tapering the edge-parallel direction with an orthogonal window function and rotating the resulting matrix to the desired orientation. The length of the one-dimensional wavelet (edge-normal direction) determines the width of the topographic features to be isolated. The number of parallel wavelets (edge-parallel direction) determines the feature length over which to smooth. The Gabor wavelets were produced by a Gabor kernel that is a product of an elliptical Gaussian and a complex plane wave: it is two-dimensional by definition. Their applications have hitherto focused

  5. Item response theory-based measure of global disability in multiple sclerosis derived from the Performance Scales and related items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Eric; Kister, Ilya; Cutter, Gary R

    2014-10-03

    The eight Performance Scales and three assimilated scales (PS) used in North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry surveys cover a broad range of neurologic domains commonly affected by multiple sclerosis (mobility, hand function, vision, fatigue, cognition, bladder/bowel, sensory, spasticity, pain, depression, and tremor/coordination). Each scale consists of a single 6-to-7-point Likert item with response categories ranging from "normal" to "total disability". Relatively little is known about the performances of the summary index of disability derived from these scales (the Performance Scales Sum or PSS). In this study, we demonstrate the value of a combination of classical and modern methods recently proposed by the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) network to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PSS and derive an improved measure of global disability from the PS. The study sample included 7,851adults with MS who completed a NARCOMS intake questionnaire between 2003 and 2011. Factor analysis, bifactor modeling, and item response theory (IRT) analysis were used to evaluate the dimension(s) of disability underlying the PS; calibrate the 11 scales; and generate three alternative summary scores of global disability corresponding to different model assumptions and practical priorities. The construct validity of the three scores was compared by examining the magnitude of their associations with participant's background characteristics, including unemployment. We derived structurally valid measures of global disability from the PS through the proposed methodology that were superior to the PSS. The measure most applicable to clinical practice gives similar weight to physical and mental disability. Overall reliability of the new measure is acceptable for individual comparisons (0.87). Higher scores of global disability were significantly associated with older age at assessment, longer disease duration

  6. Limonene, a citrus extract, for control of mealybugs and scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Robert G

    2005-06-01

    In a series of bioassays with mealybugs, aqueous solutions of 1% limonene were tested that used from 0.50 to 1.50% all purpose spray adjuvant (APSA)-80 as an emulsifier/surfactant. The two ingredients were added to water or to 0.1% Silwet L-77, an agricultural surfactant. Using 1% limonene, 0.75% APSA-80 and 0.1% Silwet L-77, a semitransparent mixture (primarily a microemulsion) was obtained that was safe for most plants and provided good control of mealybugs when sprayed or used in 1-min dips. Used at half strength, this mixture controlled > or =99% of whiteflies, whereas the full-strength mixture controlled from 69 to 100% of mealybugs and scales, including > or =93% control of root mealybugs. In side-by-side greenhouse tests, this mixture was superior to a 2% solution of insecticidal soap or a 2% solution of horticultural spray oil. Mortality of green scales on potted gardenia plants averaged 95, 89, and 88% on plants sprayed with limonene, insecticidal soap, or horticultural oil, respectively. In a related test, these same sprays killed 44.1, 22.7, or 12.5% of third and fourth instar clustering mealybugs, respectively. Limonene has promise as a safe, natural pesticide for insect pests on tolerant plants. Although 1% limonene solutions damaged certain species of ferns, gingers and delicate flowers, they caused no damage to ornamentals with thick, waxy leaves, such as palms, cycads, and orchids.

  7. A neuromorphic implementation of multiple spike-timing synaptic plasticity rules for large-scale neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runchun M.; Hamilton, Tara J.; Tapson, Jonathan C.; van Schaik, André

    2015-01-01

    We present a neuromorphic implementation of multiple synaptic plasticity learning rules, which include both Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) and Spike Timing Dependent Delay Plasticity (STDDP). We present a fully digital implementation as well as a mixed-signal implementation, both of which use a novel dynamic-assignment time-multiplexing approach and support up to 226 (64M) synaptic plasticity elements. Rather than implementing dedicated synapses for particular types of synaptic plasticity, we implemented a more generic synaptic plasticity adaptor array that is separate from the neurons in the neural network. Each adaptor performs synaptic plasticity according to the arrival times of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes assigned to it, and sends out a weighted or delayed pre-synaptic spike to the post-synaptic neuron in the neural network. This strategy provides great flexibility for building complex large-scale neural networks, as a neural network can be configured for multiple synaptic plasticity rules without changing its structure. We validate the proposed neuromorphic implementations with measurement results and illustrate that the circuits are capable of performing both STDP and STDDP. We argue that it is practical to scale the work presented here up to 236 (64G) synaptic adaptors on a current high-end FPGA platform. PMID:26041985

  8. A multiple-time-scale turbulence model based on variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.

    1989-01-01

    A multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method is presented. In the model, the effect of the ratio of the production rate to the dissipation rate on eddy viscosity is modeled by use of the multiple-time-scales and a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. The concept of a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum and the rest of the model details are based on the previously reported algebraic stress turbulence model. Example problems considered include: a fully developed channel flow, a plane jet exhausting into a moving stream, a wall jet flow, and a weakly coupled wake-boundary layer interaction flow. The computational results compared favorably with those obtained by using the algebraic stress turbulence model as well as experimental data. The present turbulence model, as well as the algebraic stress turbulence model, yielded significantly improved computational results for the complex turbulent boundary layer flows, such as the wall jet flow and the wake boundary layer interaction flow, compared with available computational results obtained by using the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model.

  9. Disability status and quality of life in multiple sclerosis: non-linearity of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twork, Sabine; Wiesmeth, Susanne; Spindler, Milena; Wirtz, Markus; Schipper, Sabine; Pöhlau, Dieter; Klewer, Jörg; Kugler, Joachim

    2010-06-07

    Progression in disability as measured by increase in the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is commonly used as outcome variable in clinical trials concerning multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we addressed the question, whether there is a linear relationship between disability status and health related quality of life (HRQOL) in MS. 7305 MS patients were sent a questionnaire containing a German version of the "Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life (MSQOL)-54" and an assessment of self-reported disability status analogous to the EDSS. 3157 patients participated in the study. Patients were allocated to three groups according to disability status. Regarding the physical health composite and the mental health composite as well as most MSQOL-54 subscales, the differences between EDSS 4.5-6.5 and EDSS > or = 7 were clearly smaller than the differences between EDSS EDSS 4.5-6.5. These results indicate a non-linear relationship between disability status and HRQOL in MS. The EDSS does not seem to be interval scaled as is commonly assumed. Consequently, absolute increase in EDSS does not seem to be a suitable outcome variable in MS studies.

  10. Evaluation of the treatment efficacy of patients with multiple sclerosis using Barthel index and Expanded Disability Status Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Tanovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, autoimmune and progressive multifocal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis using BI (Barthel index and EDDS (Expanded Disability Status Scale.Methods: A clinical observational study was made at the clinic for physical medicine and rehabilitation in Sarajevo. We analyzed 49 patients with MS in relation of gender, age and level of disability at admission and discharge, patient disability were estimated using EDDS scale. The ability of patients in their activities of daily living were also analyzed according to the BI at admission and discharge.Results: Of the total number of patients (n=49 there were 15 men and 34 women. The average age of female patient was 42.38±13.48 and male patient 46.06±9.56. EDDS values were significantly different at the beginning and at the end of the therapy (p=0.001 as was the value of BI (p=0.001.Conclusion: MS patients, after the rehabilitation in hospital conditions show significant recovery and a reduced level of disability; they show higher independence in activities but rehabilitation demands individual approach and adjustment with what patients are currently capable of achieving.

  11. A neuromorphic implementation of multiple spike-timing synaptic plasticity rules for large-scale neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runchun M; Hamilton, Tara J; Tapson, Jonathan C; van Schaik, André

    2015-01-01

    We present a neuromorphic implementation of multiple synaptic plasticity learning rules, which include both Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) and Spike Timing Dependent Delay Plasticity (STDDP). We present a fully digital implementation as well as a mixed-signal implementation, both of which use a novel dynamic-assignment time-multiplexing approach and support up to 2(26) (64M) synaptic plasticity elements. Rather than implementing dedicated synapses for particular types of synaptic plasticity, we implemented a more generic synaptic plasticity adaptor array that is separate from the neurons in the neural network. Each adaptor performs synaptic plasticity according to the arrival times of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes assigned to it, and sends out a weighted or delayed pre-synaptic spike to the post-synaptic neuron in the neural network. This strategy provides great flexibility for building complex large-scale neural networks, as a neural network can be configured for multiple synaptic plasticity rules without changing its structure. We validate the proposed neuromorphic implementations with measurement results and illustrate that the circuits are capable of performing both STDP and STDDP. We argue that it is practical to scale the work presented here up to 2(36) (64G) synaptic adaptors on a current high-end FPGA platform.

  12. A neuromorphic implementation of multiple spike-timing synaptic plasticity rules for large-scale neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runchun Mark Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a neuromorphic implementation of multiple synaptic plasticity learning rules, which include both Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP and Spike Timing Dependent Delay Plasticity (STDDP. We present a fully digital implementation as well as a mixed-signal implementation, both of which use a novel dynamic-assignment time-multiplexing approach and support up to 2^26 (64M synaptic plasticity elements. Rather than implementing dedicated synapses for particular types of synaptic plasticity, we implemented a more generic synaptic plasticity adaptor array that is separate from the neurons in the neural network. Each adaptor performs synaptic plasticity according to the arrival times of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes assigned to it, and sends out a weighted and/or delayed pre-synaptic spike to the target synapse in the neural network. This strategy provides great flexibility for building complex large-scale neural networks, as a neural network can be configured for multiple synaptic plasticity rules without changing its structure. We validate the proposed neuromorphic implementations with measurement results and illustrate that the circuits are capable of performing both STDP and STDDP. We argue that it is practical to scale the work presented here up to 2^36 (64G synaptic adaptors on a current high-end FPGA platform.

  13. Variability in soil micronutrients extracted by DTPA and Mehlich-3 at the plot scale in an acidic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Lado, Marcos; de Abreu, Cleide A.

    2014-05-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on micronutrient extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study was to analyse long-term effects of land use on the concentration, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients. To this end, neighboring forest and cultivated stands were compared. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with a surface of 100 m2 were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land, microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg kg-1), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg kg-1), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg kg-1). In forest land, these ranges were: Fe (62 and 309 mg kg-1), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg kg-1), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg kg-1). With the exception of Fe-DTPA, microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the studied scale, nutrient management was the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions were probably responsible for the higher variation within the forest site. Patterns of spatial variability of the studied nutrients at the small plot scale also were assessed by geostatistical techniques. Results were discussed in the frame of sustainable land use and organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use

  14. Fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropins.5: Small scale chromatographic fractionation of pituitary extracts into components with different steroidogenic activities using homologous bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrino Teresa R

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fractionation and characterization of gonadotropins (GtH from Fundulus heteroclitus pituitary extracts were carried out using a biocompatible liquid chromatographic procedure (Pharmacia FPLC system. Chromatographic fractions were monitored for gonadotropic activities (induction of oocyte maturation and steroid production using homologous follicle bioassays in vitro. Size-exclusion chromatography eluted gonadotropic activity in one major protein peak (Mr ~ 30,000. Anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC yielded two distinct peaks of 17beta-estradiol (E2- and 17alpha-hydroxy,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography (chromatofocusing followed by HIC resolved pituitary extracts into two active fractions; both induced E2 synthesis, but one was relatively poor in eliciting DHP and testosterone production. Thus, using homologous bioassays, at least two quantitatively different gonadotropic (steroidogenic activities: an E2-promoting gonadotropin (GtH I-like and a DHP-promoting gonadotropin (GtH II-like, which has a lower isoelectric point but greater hydrophobicity than the former, can be distinguished from F. heteroclitus pituitaries by a variety of chromatographic procedures. This study complements previous biochemical and molecular data in F. heteroclitus and substantiates the duality of GtH function in a multiple-spawning teleost.

  15. Fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropins.5: Small scale chromatographic fractionation of pituitary extracts into components with different steroidogenic activities using homologous bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wai Peter; Petrino, Teresa R; Wallace, Robin A

    2004-01-01

    Fractionation and characterization of gonadotropins (GtH) from Fundulus heteroclitus pituitary extracts were carried out using a biocompatible liquid chromatographic procedure (Pharmacia FPLC system). Chromatographic fractions were monitored for gonadotropic activities (induction of oocyte maturation and steroid production) using homologous follicle bioassays in vitro. Size-exclusion chromatography eluted gonadotropic activity in one major protein peak (Mr ~ 30,000). Anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC) yielded two distinct peaks of 17beta-estradiol (E2)- and 17alpha-hydroxy,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP)-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography (chromatofocusing followed by HIC) resolved pituitary extracts into two active fractions; both induced E2 synthesis, but one was relatively poor in eliciting DHP and testosterone production. Thus, using homologous bioassays, at least two quantitatively different gonadotropic (steroidogenic) activities: an E2-promoting gonadotropin (GtH I-like) and a DHP-promoting gonadotropin (GtH II-like), which has a lower isoelectric point but greater hydrophobicity than the former, can be distinguished from F. heteroclitus pituitaries by a variety of chromatographic procedures. This study complements previous biochemical and molecular data in F. heteroclitus and substantiates the duality of GtH function in a multiple-spawning teleost. PMID:15040801

  16. Mixed-Mode Oscillations in a piecewise linear system with multiple time scale coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, S.; Krupa, M.; Clément, F.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we analyze a four dimensional slow-fast piecewise linear system with three time scales presenting Mixed-Mode Oscillations. The system possesses an attractive limit cycle along which oscillations of three different amplitudes and frequencies can appear, namely, small oscillations, pulses (medium amplitude) and one surge (largest amplitude). In addition to proving the existence and attractiveness of the limit cycle, we focus our attention on the canard phenomena underlying the changes in the number of small oscillations and pulses. We analyze locally the existence of secondary canards leading to the addition or subtraction of one small oscillation and describe how this change is globally compensated for or not with the addition or subtraction of one pulse.

  17. Characterization of multiple topological scales in multiplex networks through supra-Laplacian eigengaps

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzo, E

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer networks have been the subject of intense research during the last few years, as they represent better the interdependent nature of many real world systems. Here, we address the question of describing the three different structural phases in which a multiplex network might exist. We show that each phase can be characterized by the presence of gaps in the spectrum of the supra-Laplacian of the multiplex network. We therefore unveil the existence of different topological scales in the system, whose relation characterizes each phase. Moreover, by capitalizing on the coarse-grained representation that is given in terms of quotient graphs, we explain the mechanisms that produce those gaps as well as their dynamical consequences.

  18. The carbon copy of human activities : how long-term land use explains spatial variability of soil organic carbon stocks at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, C.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Invloed van landgebruik, landgebruik-geschiedenis en management op de koolstofvoorraad in de bodem in Nederland.The carbon copy of human activities - how long-term land use explains spatial variability of soil organic carbon stocks at multiple scales.

  19. Relations between common geographic descriptors and discharge nutrient concentrations across regions and at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juston, John; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Most river basins and coastal regions worldwide are not monitored adequately to support direct data based nutrient load computations to receiving waters. Therefore, there is continued need to investigate basic relationships between upstream conditions and downstream nutrient discharges. Much work has been done in the past to identify land use based nutrient yield coefficients, however yield coefficients disconnect load estimation from the hydrological cycle and thus expected changes. Here, we investigate relationships between recent multi-year flow-averaged riverine total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) concentrations as a function of upstream population density, percent crop and total agricultural cover, and fertilisation load over a wide range of scale (5E0-1.8E6 km2) and characteristics (e.g., 0-95% crop cover). We developed two new and utilised four previously published datasets (n=150 basins in total) to bridge understanding across three major drainage areas: the Baltic Sea, the Mississippi River basin and eastern seaboard, U.S.A. Significant positive correlations were observed in most cases between TN and TP concentrations and the geographic variables. Most noteworthy were strong and consistent relationships across the six datasets and three regions for TN concentration as a function of both percent crop cover and basin fertilisation load. In comparison, TP relationships indicated scale and region dependence. Simple empirical models for TN and TP prediction were calibrated and tested against independent data (n=113). These results are relevant to understanding how nutrient export functions across regions, and can also be useful for first order load estimation (provided complimentary flow data) in other less-well monitored non-arid regions.

  20. MRI in multiple sclerosis: correlation with expanded disability status scale (EDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhof, F

    1999-08-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is very sensitive in showing disseminated MS lesions. Subclinical MR progression occurs frequently, explaining why MR is now used to monitor treatment, even without measurable consequences, of new MR lesions to the patient at this moment. In the light of this clinico-radiological paradox, the significance of MR in MS is discussed, particularly in relation with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Gadolinium-enhancing lesions correlate with the occurrence of relapses, CSF myelin breakdown products and, in patients with relapsing-remitting disease, with higher EDSS. However, the predictive value of the frequency of enhancement for changes in EDSS is only weak. For conventional T2-weighted MR imaging, the cross-sectional correlation with EDSS varies between 0.15 and 0.60, and is limited mainly by the inherent lack of tissues specificity of T2-weighted images. Both T1 black holes and magnetisation transfer (MT) parameters show a better correlation with EDSS; it should be noted that lesions in which those abnormalities are found go through an initial phase of enhancement as well. For T1 black holes, a correlation up to 0.81 has been reported for SP patients. Post-mortem studies show that black holes and low MT ratios are in vivo markers of axonal loss. Preliminary data indicate that progressive atrophy also correlates with progression on the EDSS scale. More should be learned about the fate of new MR lesion with regards to development of axonal loss, which at present is difficult to predict in the enhancing stage. The existence of escape mechanisms, including remyelination, make a simple correlation with EDSS extremely unlikely, and perhaps not even desirable. Nevertheless, while the clinical effect of a given new lesion may be difficult to ascertain, the absence of (new) MR lesions is prognostically favourable, as will be the degree to which new lesions are prevented by treatment.

  1. Parallel evolution and vicariance in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) over multiple spatial and temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Heather J; Taylor, John S; Wu, Sampson Sze-Tsun; Breden, Felix

    2006-11-01

    Well-studied model systems present ideal opportunities to understand the relative roles of contemporary selection versus historical processes in determining population differentiation and speciation. Although guppy populations in Trinidad have been a model for studies of evolutionary ecology and sexual selection for more than 50 years, this work has been conducted with little understanding of the phylogenetic history of this species. We used variation in nuclear (X-src) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences to examine the phylogeographic history of Poecilia reticulata Peters (the guppy) across its entire natural range, and to test whether patterns of morphological divergence are a consequence of parallel evolution. Phylogenetic, nested clade, population genetic, and demographic analyses were conducted to investigate patterns of genetic structure at several temporal scales and are discussed in relation to vicariant events, such as tectonic activity and glacial cycles, shaping northeast South American river drainages. The mtDNA phylogeny defined five major lineages, each associated with one or more river drainages, and analysis of molecular variance also detected geographic structuring among these river drainages in an evolutionarily conserved nuclear (X-src) locus. Nested clade and other demographic analyses suggest that the eastern Venezuela/ western Trinidad region is likely the center of origin of P. reticulata. Mantel tests show that the divergence of morphological characters, known to differentiate on a local scale in response to natural and sexual selection pressures, is not associated with mtDNA genetic distance; however, TreeScan analysis identified several significant associations of these characters with the haplotype tree. Parallel upstream/downstream patterns of morphological adaptation in response to selection pressures reported in P. reticulata within Trinidad rivers appears to persist across the natural range. Our results together with previous

  2. Numerical and Experimental Pore-scale Analyses of Inert and Reactive Multiple Colloidal Particles in Complex Flow Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaoglu, H.; Succi, S.; Melchionna, S.; Allwein, S.; Dixon, H.

    2008-12-01

    A fluctuating lattice-Boltzmann model was developed to simulate pore-scale flow and transport of multiple particles in geometrically complex porous and fractured domains. The model is based on the original work of Ladd [J. Fluid Mech., 271, 285, 1994] and the modeling approach based on the virtual intraparticle fluid nodes as proposed by Ding and Aidun [J. Stat. Phys., 112, 685, 2003]. The model has been improved by introducing two-body electrostatic and van der Waals potentials. Moreover, the commonly used bounce-back algorithm to simulate no-slip conditions has been replaced by an immersed boundary condition to simulate softer particle-wall interactions. The simulation results captured the wall and inertial effects on trajectories of a single particle in different Reynolds number flows in smooth-walled channels, consistent with earlier numerical simulation results. Multiple-particle simulations in porous and fractured domains captured trains of particles crossing multiple streamlines in fast-flow paths and lagged particles in slow-flow paths as has been observed in our experiments and reported in the literature. Experimental studies are focused on two-dimensional flow for three microflow cell geometries and use monodispersed particles in dense and dilute concentrations. The average particle sizes are 2, 10 and 30 microns, and the interaction between particle surfaces is controlled by the use of surfactants. Three two- dimensional flow cells with a 50 to 500 micron width have been manufactured to evaluate scale effects. Preliminary results are available for the flow of 2 micron poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] microspheres dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol solution (PVA) in a 500-micron tube with inline flow obstruction with dilute and concentrated solutions. These results demonstrate particle streamlines and show particle-particle and particle-wall interactions. The experimental findings are compared with simulation results.

  3. Fabrication, physicochemical characterization and preliminary efficacy evaluation of a W/O/W multiple emulsion loaded with 5% green tea extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Mahmood

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex multiple emulsions have an excellent ability to fill large volumes of functional cosmetic agents. This study was aimed to encapsulate large volume of green tea in classical multiple emulsion and to compare its stability with a multiple emulsion without green tea extract. Multiple emulsions were developed using Cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and classic polysorbate-80 as hydrophilic emulsifier. Multiple emulsions were evaluated for various physicochemical aspects like conductivity, pH, microscopic analysis, rheology and these characteristics were followed for a period of 30 days in different storage conditions. In vitro and in vivo skin protection tests were also performed for both kinds of multiple emulsions i.e. with active (MeA and without active (MeB. Both formulations showed comparable characteristics regarding various physicochemical characteristics in different storage conditions. Rheological analysis showed that formulations showed pseudo plastic behavior upon continuous shear stress. Results of in vitro and in vivo skin protection data have revealed that the active formulation has comparable skin protection effects to that of control formulation. It was presumed that stable multiple emulsions could be a promising choice for topical application of green tea but multiple emulsions presented in this study need improvement in the formula, concluded on the basis of pH, conductivity and apparent viscosity data.

  4. To fish or not to fish: factors at multiple scales affecting artisanal fishers' readiness to exit a declining fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M Daw

    Full Text Available Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and

  5. Large-scale design of robust genetic circuits with multiple inputs and outputs for mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Benjamin H; Pham, N T Hang; Caraballo, Leidy D; Lozanoski, Thomas; Engel, Adrien; Bhatia, Swapnil; Wong, Wilson W

    2017-05-01

    Engineered genetic circuits for mammalian cells often require extensive fine-tuning to perform as intended. We present a robust, general, scalable system, called 'Boolean logic and arithmetic through DNA excision' (BLADE), to engineer genetic circuits with multiple inputs and outputs in mammalian cells with minimal optimization. The reliability of BLADE arises from its reliance on recombinases under the control of a single promoter, which integrates circuit signals on a single transcriptional layer. We used BLADE to build 113 circuits in human embryonic kidney and Jurkat T cells and devised a quantitative, vector-proximity metric to evaluate their performance. Of 113 circuits analyzed, 109 functioned (96.5%) as intended without optimization. The circuits, which are available through Addgene, include a 3-input, two-output full adder; a 6-input, one-output Boolean logic look-up table; circuits with small-molecule-inducible control; and circuits that incorporate CRISPR-Cas9 to regulate endogenous genes. BLADE enables execution of sophisticated cellular computation in mammalian cells, with applications in cell and tissue engineering.

  6. Scale-estimation of quantum coherent energy transport in multiple-minima systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farrow, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    A generic and intuitive model for coherent energy transport in multiple minima systems coupled to a quantum mechanical bath is shown. Using a simple spin-boson system, we illustrate how a generic donor-acceptor system can be brought into resonance using a narrow band of vibrational modes, such that the transfer efficiency of an electron-hole pair (exciton) is made arbitrarily high. Coherent transport phenomena in nature are of renewed interest since the discovery that a photon captured by the light-harvesting complex (LHC) in photosynthetic organisms can be conveyed to a chemical reaction centre with near-perfect efficiency. Classical explanations of the transfer use stochastic diffusion to model the hopping motion of a photo-excited exciton. This accounts inadequately for the speed and efficiency of the energy transfer measured in a series of recent landmark experiments. Taking a quantum mechanical perspective can help capture the salient features of the efficient part of that transfer. To show the versatili...

  7. Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for Large-Scale 5G Networks: Interference Aware Design

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2017-09-18

    Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is promoted as a key component of 5G cellular networks. As the name implies, NOMA operation introduces intracell interference (i.e., interference arising within the cell) to the cellular operation. The intracell interference is managed by careful NOMA design (e.g., user clustering and resource allocation) along with successive interference cancellation. However, most of the proposed NOMA designs are agnostic to intercell interference (i.e., interference from outside the cell), which is a major performance limiting parameter in 5G networks. This article sheds light on the drastic negative-impact of intercell interference on the NOMA performance and advocates interference-aware NOMA design that jointly accounts for both intracell and intercell interference. To this end, a case study for fair NOMA operation is presented and intercell interference mitigation techniques for NOMA networks are discussed. This article also investigates the potential of integrating NOMA with two important 5G transmission schemes, namely, full duplex and device-to-device communication. This is important since the ambitious performance defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for 5G is foreseen to be realized via seamless integration of several new technologies and transmission techniques.

  8. Rehabilitation-triggered cortical plasticity after stroke: in vivo imaging at multiple scales (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Conti, Emilia; Lai, Stefano; Spalletti, Cristina; Di Giovanna, Antonino Paolo; Alia, Claudia; Panarese, Alessandro; Sacconi, Leonardo; Micera, Silvestro; Caleo, Matteo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2017-02-01

    Neurorehabilitation protocols based on the use of robotic devices provide a highly repeatable therapy and have recently shown promising clinical results. Little is known about how rehabilitation molds the brain to promote motor recovery of the affected limb. We used a custom-made robotic platform that provides quantitative assessment of forelimb function in a retraction test. Complementary imaging techniques allowed us to access to the multiple facets of robotic rehabilitation-induced cortical plasticity after unilateral photothrombotic stroke in mice Primary Motor Cortex (Caudal Forelimb Area - CFA). First, we analyzed structural features of vasculature and dendritic reshaping in the peri-infarct area with two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Longitudinal analysis of dendritic branches and spines of pyramidal neurons suggests that robotic rehabilitation promotes the stabilization of peri-infarct cortical excitatory circuits, which is not accompanied by consistent vascular reorganization towards pre-stroke conditions. To investigate if this structural stabilization was linked to functional remapping, we performed mesoscale wide-field imaging on GCaMP6 mice while performing the motor task on the robotic platform. We revealed temporal and spatial features of the motor-triggered cortical activation, shining new light on rehabilitation-induced functional remapping of the ipsilesional cortex. Finally, by using an all-optical approach that combines optogenetic activation of the contralesional hemisphere and wide-field functional imaging of peri-infarct area, we dissected the effect of robotic rehabilitation on inter-hemispheric cortico-cortical connectivity.

  9. Climate change, livelihoods and the multiple determinants of water adequacy: two approaches at regional to global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Tabea; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Inadequate access to water is already a problem in many regions of the world and processes of global change are expected to further exacerbate the situation. Many aspects determine the adequacy of water resources: beside actual physical water stress, where the resource itself is limited, economic and social water stress can be experienced if access to resource is limited by inadequate infrastructure, political or financial constraints. To assess the adequacy of water availability for human use, integrated approaches are needed that allow to view the multiple determinants in conjunction and provide sound results as a basis for informed decisions. This contribution proposes two parts of an integrated approach to look at the multiple dimensions of water scarcity at regional to global scale. These were developed in a joint project with the German Development Agency (GIZ). It first outlines the AHEAD approach to measure Adequate Human livelihood conditions for wEll-being And Development, implemented at global scale and at national resolution. This first approach allows viewing impacts of climate change, e.g. changes in water availability, within the wider context of AHEAD conditions. A specific focus lies on the uncertainties in projections of climate change and future water availability. As adequate water access is not determined by water availability alone, in a second step we develop an approach to assess the water requirements for different sectors in more detail, including aspects of quantity, quality as well as access, in an integrated way. This more detailed approach is exemplified at region-scale in Indonesia and South Africa. Our results show that in many regions of the world, water scarcity is a limitation to AHEAD conditions in many countries, regardless of differing modelling output. The more detailed assessments highlight the relevance of additional aspects to assess the adequacy of water for human use, showing that in many regions, quality and

  10. Preliminary validation study of the Spanish version of the satisfaction with life scale in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Galán, Ingrid; Den Oudsten, Brenda L; Power, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    To assess Life Satisfaction, using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and to analyze its psychometric properties in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Persons with MS (n = 84) recruited at the MS Centre of Catalonia (Spain) completed a battery of subjective assessments including the SWLS, the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument and disability module (WHOQOL-BREF, WHOQOL-DIS) and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale-Depression (HADS-D); sociodemographic and disability status data were also gathered. Psychometric properties of the SWLS were investigated using standard psychometric methods. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient) was 0.84. A factor analysis using a principal components method showed a one factor structure accounting for 62.6% of the variance. Statistically significant correlations were confirmed between SWLS with WHOQOL-BREF, WHOQOL-DIS and HADS-D. SWLS scores were significantly different between a priori defined groups: probable depressed versus nondepressed and participants perceiving a mild versus severe impact of disability on their lives. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the psychometrics properties of the SWLS in persons with MS. It might be a valuable tool to use in appraising persons with MS through the continuum of care. The Spanish version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) is a reliable and valid instrument in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The SWLS is able to discriminate between participants with low or high scores on depressive symptoms or disability impact on life. SWLS might be useful through the continuum of care in persons with MS, including Rehabilitation Services.

  11. Determination of small dialkyl organophosphonates at microgram/l concentrations in contaminated groundwaters using multiple extraction membrane disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, B.A.; Griest, W.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hearle, D.R. [Parkdale High School, Riverdale, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) are byproducts and surrogates for Sarin (GB) and VX; they are readily quantitated at {mu}g/L concentrations in groundwaters. Liter aqueous samples are fortified with triethylphosphate, then passed through a sandwich of 3 preconditioned extraction disks: glass fiber filter to remove particulates, C{sub 18}-based extraction disk to collect DIMP, and carbon-based extraction disk to collect DMMP. The two extraction disks are dried and extracted with MeOH. After the extract is fortified with with diethyl ethylphosphonate internal standard, it is analyzed using a gas chromatograph with a nitrogen- phosphorus detector. When the pump and treat criterion is used, detection limits for DMMP and DIMP are 2 {mu}g/L. Method recovery is 40-50%, based on synthetic groundwaters containing 0.2-50 {mu}g/L of each analyte. DIMP and DMMP are cleanly resolved.

  12. Model-simulated and Satellite-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) Comparisons Across Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Cooter, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important parameter in assessing vegetation structure for characterizing forest canopies over large areas at broad spatial scales using satellite remote sensing data. However, satellite-derived LAI products can be limited by obstructed atmospheric conditions yielding sub-optimal values, or complete non-returns. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Exposure Methods and Measurements and Computational Exposure Divisions are investigating the viability of supplemental modelled LAI inputs into satellite-derived data streams to support various regional and local scale air quality models for retrospective and future climate assessments. In this present study, one-year (2002) of plot level stand characteristics at four study sites located in Virginia and North Carolina (USA) are used to calibrate species-specific plant parameters in a semi-empirical biogeochemical model. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was designed primarily for managed agricultural field crop ecosystems, but also includes managed woody species that span both xeric and mesic sites (e.g., mesquite, pine, oak, etc.). LAI was simulated using EPIC at a 4 km2 and 12 km2 grid coincident with the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) grid. LAI comparisons were made between model-simulated and MODIS-derived LAI. Field/satellite-upscaled LAI was also compared to the corresponding MODIS LAI value. Preliminary results show field/satellite-upscaled LAI (1 km2) was 1.5 to 3 times smaller than that with the corresponding 1 km2 MODIS LAI for all four sites across all dates, with the largest discrepancies occurring at leaf-out and leaf senescence periods. Simulated LAI/MODIS LAI comparison results will be presented at the conference. Disclaimer: This work is done in support of EPA's Sustainable Healthy Communities Research Program. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded and conducted the research described in this paper. Although

  13. The multiple sclerosis rating scale, revised (MSRS-R: Development, refinement, and psychometric validation using an online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wicks Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing the PatientsLikeMe online platform for patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS, we required a patient-reported assessment of functional status that was easy to complete and identified disability in domains other than walking. Existing measures of functional status were inadequate, clinician-reported, focused on walking, and burdensome to complete. In response, we developed the Multiple Sclerosis Rating Scale (MSRS. Methods We adapted a clinician-rated measure, the Guy’s Neurological Disability Scale, to a self-report scale and deployed it to an online community. As part of our validation process we reviewed discussions between patients, conducted patient cognitive debriefing, and made minor improvements to form a revised scale (MSRS-R before deploying a cross-sectional survey to patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS on the PatientsLikeMe platform. The survey included MSRS-R and comparator measures: MSIS-29, PDDS, NARCOMS Performance Scales, PRIMUS, and MSWS-12. Results In total, 816 RRMS patients responded (19% response rate. The MSRS-R exhibited high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .86. The MSRS-R walking item was highly correlated with alternative walking measures (PDDS, ρ = .84; MSWS-12, ρ = .83; NARCOMS mobility question, ρ = .86. MSRS-R correlated well with comparison instruments and differentiated between known groups by PDDS disease stage and relapse burden in the past two years. Factor analysis suggested a single factor accounting for 51.5% of variance. Conclusions The MSRS-R is a concise measure of MS-related functional disability, and may have advantages for disease measurement over longer and more burdensome instruments that are restricted to a smaller number of domains or measure quality of life. Studies are underway describing the use of the instrument in contexts outside our online platform such as clinical practice or trials. The MSRS-R is released for use under

  14. Multiple spatial scale analyses provide new clues on patterns and drivers of deep-sea nematode diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Carugati, Laura; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Gambi, Cristina; Guilini, Katja; Pusceddu, Antonio; Vanreusel, Ann

    2013-08-01

    The deep sea is the largest biome of the biosphere. The knowledge of the spatial variability of deep-sea biodiversity is one of the main challenges of marine ecology and evolutionary biology. The choice of the observational spatial scale is assumed to play a key role for understanding processes structuring the deep-sea benthic communities and one of the most typical features of marine biodiversity distribution is the existence of bathymetric gradients. However, the analysis of biodiversity bathymetric gradients and the associated changes in species composition (beta diversity) typically compared large depth ranges (with intervals of 500 to 1000 or even 2000 m depth among sites). To test whether significant changes in alpha and beta diversity occur also at fine-scale bathymetric gradients (i.e., within few hundred-meter depth intervals) the variability of deep-sea nematode biodiversity and assemblage composition along a bathymetric transect (200-1200 m depth) with intervals of 200 m among sampling depths, was investigated. A hierarchical sampling strategy for the analysis of nematode species richness, beta diversity, functional (trophic) diversity, and related environmental variables, was used. The results indicate the lack of significant differences in taxonomic and functional diversity across sampling depths, but the presence of high beta diversity at all spatial scales investigated: between cores collected from the same box corer (on average 56%), among deployments at the same depth (58%), and between all sampling depths (62%). Such high beta diversity is influenced by the presence of small-scale patchiness in the deep sea and is also related to the large number of rare or very rare species (typically accounting for >80% of total species richness). Moreover, the number of ubiquitous nematode species across all sampling depths is quite low (ca. 15%). Multiple regression analyses provide evidence that such patterns could be related to the different availability

  15. Extracting body image symptom dimensions among eating disorder patients: the Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Kim, Se-Kang; Wall, David

    2015-09-01

    The present study employs Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS), a procedure for extracting dimensions, in order to identify core eating disorder symptoms in a clinical sample. A large sample of patients with eating disorders (N=5193) presenting for treatment completed the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2; Garner, 1991), and PAMS was then employed to estimate individual profile weights that reflect the degree to which an individual's observed symptom profile approximates the pattern of the dimensions. The findings revealed three symptom dimensions: Body Thinness, Body Perfectionism, and Body Awareness. Subsequent analysis using individual level data illustrate that the PAMS profiles properly operate as prototypical profiles that encapsulate all individuals' response patterns. The implications of these dimensional findings for the assessment and diagnosis of eating disorders are discussed.

  16. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: Analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Maguas, C. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal (CEBV), 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Recursos Naturais e Ambiente (CERENA) Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Branquinho, C. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal (CEBV), 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors. - The interpretation of lichen-biodiversity data was improved by using analysis at different scales.

  17. Spatial variation in adult sex ratio across multiple scales in the invasive golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Fang, Miao; Yang, Yexin; Dick, Jaimie T A; Song, Hongmei; Luo, Du; Mu, Xidong; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-04-01

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) has critical effects on behavior and life history and has implications for population demography, including the invasiveness of introduced species. ASR exhibits immense variation in nature, yet the scale dependence of this variation is rarely analyzed. In this study, using the generalized multilevel models, we investigated the variation in ASR across multiple nested spatial scales and analyzed the underlying causes for an invasive species, the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata. We partitioned the variance in ASR to describe the variations at different scales and then included the explanatory variables at the individual and group levels to analyze the potential causes driving the variation in ASR. We firstly determined there is a significant female-biased ASR for this species when accounting for the spatial and temporal autocorrelations of sampling. We found that, counter to nearly equal distributed variation at plot, habitat and region levels, ASR showed little variation at the town level. Temperature and precipitation at the region level were significantly positively associated with ASR, whereas the individual weight, the density characteristic, and sampling time were not significant factors influencing ASR. Our study suggests that offspring sex ratio of this species may shape the general pattern of ASR in the population level while the environmental variables at the region level translate the unbiased offspring sex ratio to the female-biased ASR. Future research should consider the implications of climate warming on the female-biased ASR of this invasive species and thus on invasion pattern.

  18. Modeling peripheral visual acuity enables discovery of gaze strategies at multiple time scales during natural scene search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Pavan; Fernandes, Hugo; Kording, Konrad; Segraves, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Like humans, monkeys make saccades nearly three times a second. To understand the factors guiding this frequent decision, computational models of vision attempt to predict fixation locations using bottom-up visual features and top-down goals. How do the relative influences of these factors evolve over multiple time scales? Here we analyzed visual features at fixations using a retinal transform that provides realistic visual acuity by suitably degrading visual information in the periphery. In a task in which monkeys searched for a Gabor target in natural scenes, we characterized the relative importance of bottom-up and task-relevant influences by decoding fixated from nonfixated image patches based on visual features. At fast time scales, we found that search strategies can vary over the course of a single trial, with locations of higher saliency, target-similarity, edge–energy, and orientedness looked at later on in the trial. At slow time scales, we found that search strategies can be refined over several weeks of practice, and the influence of target orientation was significant only in the latter of two search tasks. Critically, these results were not observed without applying the retinal transform. Our results suggest that saccade-guidance strategies become apparent only when models take into account degraded visual representation in the periphery. PMID:25814545

  19. Arithmetic on Your Phone: A Large Scale Investigation of Simple Additions and Multiplications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Federico; Shalom, Diego; Gonzalez, Pablo A.; Garrido, Juan Manuel; Alvarez Heduan, Facundo; Dehaene, Stanislas; Sigman, Mariano; Rieznik, Andres

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a gamified mobile device arithmetic application which allowed us to collect vast amount of data in simple arithmetic operations. Our results confirm and replicate, on a large sample, six of the main principles derived in a long tradition of investigation: size effect, tie effect, size-tie interaction effect, five-effect, RTs and error rates correlation effect, and most common error effect. Our dataset allowed us to perform a robust analysis of order effects for each individual problem, for which there is controversy both in experimental findings and in the predictions of theoretical models. For addition problems, the order effect was dominated by a max-then-min structure (i.e 7+4 is easier than 4+7). This result is predicted by models in which additions are performed as a translation starting from the first addend, with a distance given by the second addend. In multiplication, we observed a dominance of two effects: (1) a max-then-min pattern that can be accounted by the fact that it is easier to perform fewer additions of the largest number (i.e. 8x3 is easier to compute as 8+8+8 than as 3+3+…+3) and (2) a phonological effect by which problems for which there is a rhyme (i.e. "seis por cuatro es veinticuatro") are performed faster. Above and beyond these results, our study bares an important practical conclusion, as proof of concept, that participants can be motivated to perform substantial arithmetic training simply by presenting it in a gamified format. PMID:28033357

  20. Priming of pop-out on multiple time scales during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brascamp, Jan W; Pels, Elmar; Kristjánsson, Arni

    2011-09-01

    When target-color repeats in pop-out visual search performance is faster than otherwise. While various characteristics of such priming of pop-out (PoP) are well known, relatively little is known about the temporal character of the memory traces underlying the effect. Recent findings on the perception of ambiguous stimuli show that the percept at any given moment is affected by perception over a long period, as well as by immediately preceding percepts. Intrigued by the existence of various parallels between this perceptual priming phenomenon and PoP, we here investigate whether similar multiplicity in timescales is seen for PoP. We contrasted long-term PoP build-up of a particular target color against shorter-term build-up for a different color. The priming effects from the two colors indeed reflect memory traces at different timescales: long-term priming build-up results in a more gradual decay than brief buildup, which is followed by faster decay. This is clearly demonstrated in Experiment 2 where sustained repetition of one target color is followed by a few repetitions of a second color. Following such a sequence, priming is initially stronger for the second target color, which was primed most recently; however, as more time passes longer-term priming starts to dominate, resulting in better search performance for the first color later on. Our results suggest that priming effects in visual search contain both transient and more sustained components. Similarities between the time courses of attentional priming and perception of ambiguous stimuli are striking and suggest compelling avenues of further research into the relation between the two effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Item Response Theory to Modeling of Expanded Disability Status Scale in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, A M; Krekels, E H J; Munafo, A; Ueckert, S; Karlsson, M O

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the development of the first item response theory (IRT) model within a pharmacometrics framework to characterize the disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS), as measured by Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS). Data were collected quarterly from a 96-week phase III clinical study by a blinder rater, involving 104,206 item-level observations from 1319 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), treated with placebo or cladribine. Observed scores for each EDSS item were modeled describing the probability of a given score as a function of patients' (unobserved) disability using a logistic model. Longitudinal data from placebo arms were used to describe the disease progression over time, and the model was then extended to cladribine arms to characterize the drug effect. Sensitivity with respect to patient disability was calculated as Fisher information for each EDSS item, which were ranked according to the amount of information they contained. The IRT model was able to describe baseline and longitudinal EDSS data on item and total level. The final model suggested that cladribine treatment significantly slows disease-progression rate, with a 20% decrease in disease-progression rate compared to placebo, irrespective of exposure, and effects an additional exposure-dependent reduction in disability progression. Four out of eight items contained 80% of information for the given range of disabilities. This study has illustrated that IRT modeling is specifically suitable for accurate quantification of disease status and description and prediction of disease progression in phase 3 studies on RRMS, by integrating EDSS item-level data in a meaningful manner.

  2. On the multiple time scales of variability in the Northeast Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tokmakian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal sea surface height energy distribution of the Northeast Pacific Ocean is described and discussed. Using an altimetric data set covering 15 years (1993–2007, the energy within the 3–9 month band is primarily located within 10° of the coast. In the Gulf of Alaska, this energy signal is on the shelf, while further south, west of the California/Oregon coast, the significant energy in this band is west of the shelf break. In both cases, it is primarily forced by the local wind. Within the 2–3 year band, the signal reflects energy generated by local changes to the wind stress from large atmospheric shifts indicated by the Pacific North American Index and by advective or propagating processes related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Over the two 4–6 year periods within this data set, the change is primarily due to the large scale shift in atmospheric systems north of about 30° N which also affect changes in current strengths. Based on the distribution of the energy signal and its variability, a set of three winter-time indexes are suggested to characterize the distinct differences in the SSH anomalies in these areas.

  3. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A.; Ferreira, Joice; Barlow, Jos; Lees, Alexander C.; Parry, Luke; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Berenguer, Erika; Abramovay, Ricardo; Aleixo, Alexandre; Andretti, Christian; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Araújo, Ivanei; de Ávila, Williams Souza; Bardgett, Richard D.; Batistella, Mateus; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Beldini, Troy; de Blas, Driss Ezzine; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Braga, Danielle de Lima; de Brito, Janaína Gomes; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Campos dos Santos, Fabiane; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Cordeiro, Amanda Cardoso Nunes; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Carvalho, Déborah Reis; Castelani, Sergio André; Chaul, Júlio Cézar Mário; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Costa, Francisco de Assis; da Costa, Carla Daniele Furtado; Coudel, Emilie; Coutinho, Alexandre Camargo; Cunha, Dênis; D'Antona, Álvaro; Dezincourt, Joelma; Dias-Silva, Karina; Durigan, Mariana; Esquerdo, Júlio César Dalla Mora; Feres, José; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Ferreira, Amanda Estefânia de Melo; Fiorini, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Lenise Vargas Flores; Frazão, Fábio Soares; Garrett, Rachel; Gomes, Alessandra dos Santos; Gonçalves, Karoline da Silva; Guerrero, José Benito; Hamada, Neusa; Hughes, Robert M.; Igliori, Danilo Carmago; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Juen, Leandro; Junior, Miércio; Junior, José Max Barbosa de Oliveira; Junior, Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Junior, Carlos Souza; Kaufmann, Phil; Korasaki, Vanesca; Leal, Cecília Gontijo; Leitão, Rafael; Lima, Natália; Almeida, Maria de Fátima Lopes; Lourival, Reinaldo; Louzada, Júlio; Nally, Ralph Mac; Marchand, Sébastien; Maués, Márcia Motta; Moreira, Fátima M. S.; Morsello, Carla; Moura, Nárgila; Nessimian, Jorge; Nunes, Sâmia; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Pardini, Renata; Pereira, Heloisa Correia; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Rossetti, Felipe; Schmidt, Fernando Augusto; da Silva, Rodrigo; da Silva, Regina Célia Viana Martins; da Silva, Thiago Fonseca Morello Ramalho; Silveira, Juliana; Siqueira, João Victor; de Carvalho, Teotônio Soares; Solar, Ricardo R. C.; Tancredi, Nicola Savério Holanda; Thomson, James R.; Torres, Patrícia Carignano; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Zagury; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Viana, Cecília; Weinhold, Diana; Zanetti, Ronald; Zuanon, Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here, we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multidisciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organizations working to assess both social and ecological dimensions of land-use sustainability in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The research approach adopted by RAS offers three advantages for addressing land-use sustainability problems: (i) the collection of synchronized and co-located ecological and socioeconomic data across broad gradients of past and present human use; (ii) a nested sampling design to aid comparison of ecological and socioeconomic conditions associated with different land uses across local, landscape and regional scales; and (iii) a strong engagement with a wide variety of actors and non-research institutions. Here, we elaborate on these key features, and identify the ways in which RAS can help in highlighting those problems in most urgent need of attention, and in guiding improvements in land-use sustainability in Amazonia and elsewhere in the tropics. We also discuss some of the practical lessons, limitations and realities faced during the development of the RAS initiative so far. PMID:23610172

  4. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A; Ferreira, Joice; Barlow, Jos; Lees, Alexander C; Parry, Luke; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Berenguer, Erika; Abramovay, Ricardo; Aleixo, Alexandre; Andretti, Christian; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Araújo, Ivanei; de Ávila, Williams Souza; Bardgett, Richard D; Batistella, Mateus; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Beldini, Troy; de Blas, Driss Ezzine; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Braga, Danielle de Lima; de Brito, Janaína Gomes; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Campos dos Santos, Fabiane; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Cordeiro, Amanda Cardoso Nunes; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Carvalho, Déborah Reis; Castelani, Sergio André; Chaul, Júlio Cézar Mário; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Costa, Francisco de Assis; da Costa, Carla Daniele Furtado; Coudel, Emilie; Coutinho, Alexandre Camargo; Cunha, Dênis; D'Antona, Álvaro; Dezincourt, Joelma; Dias-Silva, Karina; Durigan, Mariana; Esquerdo, Júlio César Dalla Mora; Feres, José; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Ferreira, Amanda Estefânia de Melo; Fiorini, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Lenise Vargas Flores; Frazão, Fábio Soares; Garrett, Rachel; Gomes, Alessandra dos Santos; Gonçalves, Karoline da Silva; Guerrero, José Benito; Hamada, Neusa; Hughes, Robert M; Igliori, Danilo Carmago; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Juen, Leandro; Junior, Miércio; de Oliveira Junior, José Max Barbosa; de Oliveira Junior, Raimundo Cosme; Souza Junior, Carlos; Kaufmann, Phil; Korasaki, Vanesca; Leal, Cecília Gontijo; Leitão, Rafael; Lima, Natália; Almeida, Maria de Fátima Lopes; Lourival, Reinaldo; Louzada, Júlio; Mac Nally, Ralph; Marchand, Sébastien; Maués, Márcia Motta; Moreira, Fátima M S; Morsello, Carla; Moura, Nárgila; Nessimian, Jorge; Nunes, Sâmia; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Pardini, Renata; Pereira, Heloisa Correia; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Rossetti, Felipe; Schmidt, Fernando Augusto; da Silva, Rodrigo; da Silva, Regina Célia Viana Martins; da Silva, Thiago Fonseca Morello Ramalho; Silveira, Juliana; Siqueira, João Victor; de Carvalho, Teotônio Soares; Solar, Ricardo R C; Tancredi, Nicola Savério Holanda; Thomson, James R; Torres, Patrícia Carignano; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Zagury; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Viana, Cecília; Weinhold, Diana; Zanetti, Ronald; Zuanon, Jansen

    2013-06-05

    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here, we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multidisciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organizations working to assess both social and ecological dimensions of land-use sustainability in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The research approach adopted by RAS offers three advantages for addressing land-use sustainability problems: (i) the collection of synchronized and co-located ecological and socioeconomic data across broad gradients of past and present human use; (ii) a nested sampling design to aid comparison of ecological and socioeconomic conditions associated with different land uses across local, landscape and regional scales; and (iii) a strong engagement with a wide variety of actors and non-research institutions. Here, we elaborate on these key features, and identify the ways in which RAS can help in highlighting those problems in most urgent need of attention, and in guiding improvements in land-use sustainability in Amazonia and elsewhere in the tropics. We also discuss some of the practical lessons, limitations and realities faced during the development of the RAS initiative so far.

  5. Multiple phenotypic changes associated with large-scale horizontal gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Dougherty

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer often leads to phenotypic changes within recipient organisms independent of any immediate evolutionary benefits. While secondary phenotypic effects of horizontal transfer (i.e., changes in growth rates have been demonstrated and studied across a variety of systems using relatively small plasmids and phage, little is known about the magnitude or number of such costs after the transfer of larger regions. Here we describe numerous phenotypic changes that occur after a large-scale horizontal transfer event (∼1 Mb megaplasmid within Pseudomonas stutzeri including sensitization to various stresses as well as changes in bacterial behavior. These results highlight the power of horizontal transfer to shift pleiotropic relationships and cellular networks within bacterial genomes. They also provide an important context for how secondary effects of transfer can bias evolutionary trajectories and interactions between species. Lastly, these results and system provide a foundation to investigate evolutionary consequences in real time as newly acquired regions are ameliorated and integrated into new genomic contexts.

  6. Multiple-scale neuroendocrine signals connect brain and pituitary hormone rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Nicola; Guillou, Anne; Martin, Agnès O; Mollard, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Small assemblies of hypothalamic “parvocellular” neurons release their neuroendocrine signals at the median eminence (ME) to control long-lasting pituitary hormone rhythms essential for homeostasis. How such rapid hypothalamic neurotransmission leads to slowly evolving hormonal signals remains unknown. Here, we show that the temporal organization of dopamine (DA) release events in freely behaving animals relies on a set of characteristic features that are adapted to the dynamic dopaminergic control of pituitary prolactin secretion, a key reproductive hormone. First, locally generated DA release signals are organized over more than four orders of magnitude (0.001 Hz–10 Hz). Second, these DA events are finely tuned within and between frequency domains as building blocks that recur over days to weeks. Third, an integration time window is detected across the ME and consists of high-frequency DA discharges that are coordinated within the minutes range. Thus, a hierarchical combination of time-scaled neuroendocrine signals displays local–global integration to connect brain–pituitary rhythms and pace hormone secretion. PMID:28193889

  7. Multiplicity results for a generalized Sturm-Liouville dynamical system on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Youwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By applying the fixed point theorem in cones, some new and general results on the existence of positive solution to second order generalized Sturm-Liouville dynamical system on time scale T u 1 Δ Δ ( t + h 1 ( t f 1 ( t , u 1 ( t , u 2 ( t , u 1 Δ ( t , u 2 Δ ( t = 0 , u 2 Δ Δ ( t + h 2 ( t f 2 ( t , u 1 ( t , u 2 ( t , u 1 Δ ( t , u 2 Δ ( t = 0 , t ∈ [ t 1 , t 2 ] T , a u i ( t 1 - b u i Δ ( t 1 = ∑ k = 1 m - 2 a k u i ( ξ k , c u i ( σ ( t 2 + d u i Δ ( σ ( t 2 = ∑ k = 1 m - 2 b k u i ( ξ k , ( i = 1 , 2 , are obtained. The first-order Δ-derivatives are involved in the nonlinear terms explicitly. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000 39A10

  8. Experimental and Measurement Uncertainty Associated with Characterizing Slurry Mixing Performance of Pulsating Jets at Multiple Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2015-09-10

    Understanding how uncertainty manifests itself in complex experiments is important for developing the testing protocol and interpreting the experimental results. This paper describes experimental and measurement uncertainties, and how they can depend on the order of performing experimental tests. Experiments with pulse-jet mixers in tanks at three scales were conducted to characterize the performance of transient-developing periodic flows in Newtonian slurries. Other test parameters included the simulant, solids concentration, and nozzle exit velocity. Critical suspension velocity and cloud height were the metrics used to characterize Newtonian slurry flow associated with mobilization and mixing. During testing, near-replicate and near-repeat tests were conducted. The experimental results were used to quantify the combined experimental and measurement uncertainties using standard deviations and percent relative standard deviations (%RSD) The uncertainties in critical suspension velocity and cloud height tend to increase with the values of these responses. Hence, the %RSD values are the more appropriate summary measure of near-replicate testing and measurement uncertainty.

  9. Multiple time scales in cataclysmic binaries. The low-field magnetic dwarf nova DO Draconis

    CERN Document Server

    Andronov, I L; Han, W; Kim, Y; Yoon, J -N

    2008-01-01

    We study the variability of the cataclysmic variable DO Dra, on time-scales of between minutes and decades. The characteristic decay time dt/dm=0.902(3) days/mag was estimated from our 3 nights of CCD R observations. The quiescent data show a photometric wave with a cycle about 303(15)d. We analyzed the profile of the composite (or mean) outburst. We discovered however, that a variety of different outburst heights and durations had occurred, contrary to theoretical predictions. With increasing maximum brightness, we find that the decay time also increases; this is in contrast to the model predictions, which indicate that outbursts should have a constant shape. This is interpreted as representing the presence of outburst-to-outburst variability of the magnetospheric radius. A presence of a number of missed weak narrow outbursts is predicted from this statistical relationship. A new type of variability is detected, during 3 subsequent nights in 2007: periodic (during one nightly run) oscillations with rapidly-d...

  10. Estimating sediment sources by multiple scale field measurements and fingerprinting using radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Y.; Mizugaki, S.; Nanko, K.; Asai, H.

    2006-12-01

    To study the fluvial sediment sources in forested watershed in Shikoku Island, Japan, field measurements and radionuclide analysis were conducted. The observation of erosion and runoff processes were conducted in variable scale in an unmanaged Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantation catchment with splash cup, runoff plot, Parshall flumes and integrated suspended sediment samplers for 5 months. For fingerprinting of suspended sediment, Cs-137 and Pb-210ex were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry for the potential sources as the surface soil of forest floor, stream bank and skid trail, eroded sediment by splash and runoff, and fluvial sediment. The concentrations of 1 Cs-137 and Pb-210ex of fluvial sediment are found to be varied in each sampling period. Therefore, there is temporal variation of suspended sediment sources in the watershed. The contribution of forest floor as suspended sediment source was estimated as high as -77 % by 137Cs. The results suggest that forest floor should be recognized as important source of fluvial sediment in this watershed. Based on the field measurements, splash detachment and overland flow occurred during rainfall event on the hillslope, eroded the surface soil on the forest floor, and transported fine particle downslope. Overland flow on the skid trails networks can transport the forest floor sediment into the stream channel, and can result in high contribution of forest floor soil to fluvial sediment in Japanese cypress catchment.

  11. A comparison of predictive soil-carbon models across multiple spatio-temporal catchment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Kunkel, V.; Wells, T.

    2014-12-01

    Soil's potential as a carbon sink for atmospheric CO2 has been widely discussed. Studies of soil organic carbon (SOC) controls, and the subsequent models derived from their findings, have focussed mainly on North American and European regions, and more recently, in regions such as China. In Australia, agricultural practices have led to losses in SOC. This implies that Australian soils have a large potential for increases in SOC. Building on previous work, here we examine the spatial and temporal variation in soil organic carbon (SOC) and its controlling factors controls across a large catchment of approximately 600 km2 in the Upper Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia, using data collected from two sampling campaigns, (April 2006 and June-July 2014). Remote sensing using Landsat (30m) and MODIS (250m) NDVI was used to determine if catchment SOC could be predicted using both low