WorldWideScience

Sample records for extract multiple scaling

  1. Accurate scaling on multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    The commonly used formula of KNO scaling P n =Ψ(n/ ) for descrete distributions (multiplicity distributions) is shown to contradict mathematically the condition ΣP n =1. The effect is essential even at ISR energies. A consistent generalization of the concept of similarity for multiplicity distributions is obtained. The multiplicity distributions of negative particles in PP and also e + e - inelastic interactions are similar over the whole studied energy range. Collider data are discussed. 14 refs.; 8 figs

  2. Multiple time scale dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to dynamical systems with multiple time scales. The approach it takes is to provide an overview of key areas, particularly topics that are less available in the introductory form.  The broad range of topics included makes it accessible for students and researchers new to the field to gain a quick and thorough overview. The first of its kind, this book merges a wide variety of different mathematical techniques into a more unified framework. The book is highly illustrated with many examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography. The target audience of this  book are senior undergraduates, graduate students as well as researchers interested in using the multiple time scale dynamics theory in nonlinear science, either from a theoretical or a mathematical modeling perspective. 

  3. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  4. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  5. Multi-scale salient feature extraction on mesh models

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang; Shen, ChaoHui

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method of extracting multi-scale salient features on meshes. It is based on robust estimation of curvature on multiple scales. The coincidence between salient feature and the scale of interest can be established straightforwardly, where detailed feature appears on small scale and feature with more global shape information shows up on large scale. We demonstrate this multi-scale description of features accords with human perception and can be further used for several applications as feature classification and viewpoint selection. Experiments exhibit that our method as a multi-scale analysis tool is very helpful for studying 3D shapes. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Beyond KNO multiplicative cascades and novel multiplicity scaling laws

    CERN Document Server

    Hegyi, S

    1999-01-01

    The collapse of multiplicity distributions P/sub n/ onto a universal scaling curve arises when P/sub n/ is expressed as a function of the standardized multiplicity (n-c)/ lambda with c and lambda being location and scale parameters governed by leading particle effects and the growth of average multiplicity. It is demonstrated that self- similar multiplicative cascade processes such as QCD parton branching naturally lead to a novel type of scaling behavior of P/sub n/ which manifests itself in Mellin space through a location change controlled by the degree of multifractality and a scale change governed by the depth of the cascade. Applying the new scaling rule it is shown how to restore data collapsing behavior of P/sub n/ measured in hh collisions at ISR and SPS energies. (21 refs).

  7. Feature extraction from multiple data sources using genetic programming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, J. J. (John J.); Brumby, Steven P.; Pope, P. A. (Paul A.); Eads, D. R. (Damian R.); Galassi, M. C. (Mark C.); Harvey, N. R. (Neal R.); Perkins, S. J. (Simon J.); Porter, R. B. (Reid B.); Theiler, J. P. (James P.); Young, A. C. (Aaron Cody); Bloch, J. J. (Jeffrey J.); David, N. A. (Nancy A.); Esch-Mosher, D. M. (Diana M.)

    2002-01-01

    Feature extration from imagery is an important and long-standing problem in remote sensing. In this paper, we report on work using genetic programming to perform feature extraction simultaneously from multispectral and digital elevation model (DEM) data. The tool used is the GENetic Imagery Exploitation (GENIE) software, which produces image-processing software that inherently combines spatial and spectral processing. GENIE is particularly useful in exploratory studies of imagery, such as one often does in combining data from multiple sources. The user trains the software by painting the feature of interest with a simple graphical user interface. GENIE then uses genetic programming techniques to produce an image-processing pipeline. Here, we demonstrate evolution of image processing algorithms that extract a range of land-cover features including towns, grasslands, wild fire burn scars, and several types of forest. We use imagery from the DOE/NNSA Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) spacecraft, fused with USGS 1:24000 scale DEM data.

  8. Accurate multiplicity scaling in isotopically conjugate reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of accurate scaling of mutiplicity distributions is presented. The distributions of π - mesons (negative particles) and π + mesons in different nucleon-nucleon interactions (PP, NP and NN) are described by the same universal function Ψ(z) and the same energy dependence of the scale parameter which determines the stretching factor for the unit function Ψ(z) to obtain the desired multiplicity distribution. 29 refs.; 6 figs

  9. Full scale solvent extraction remedial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Sevenson Extraction Technology, Inc. has completed the development of the Soil Restoration Unit (initially developed by Terra-Kleen Corporation), a mobile, totally enclosed solvent extraction treatment facility for the removal of organic contaminated media is greater by a closed loop, counter current process that recycles all solvents. The solvents used are selected for the individual site dependant upon the contaminants, such as PCB's, oil, etc. and the soil conditions. A mixture of up to fourteen non-toxic solvents can be used for complicated sites. The full scale unit has been used to treat one superfund site, the Traband Site in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and is currently treating another superfund site, the Pinette's Salvage Yard Site in Washburn, Maine. The full scale Soil Restoration Unit has also been used at a non-superfund site, as part of a TSCA Research and Development permit. The results from these sites will be discussed in brief herein, and in more detail in the full paper

  10. Estimating scaled treatment effects with multiple outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward H; Kangovi, Shreya; Mitra, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    In classical study designs, the aim is often to learn about the effects of a treatment or intervention on a single outcome; in many modern studies, however, data on multiple outcomes are collected and it is of interest to explore effects on multiple outcomes simultaneously. Such designs can be particularly useful in patient-centered research, where different outcomes might be more or less important to different patients. In this paper, we propose scaled effect measures (via potential outcomes) that translate effects on multiple outcomes to a common scale, using mean-variance and median-interquartile range based standardizations. We present efficient, nonparametric, doubly robust methods for estimating these scaled effects (and weighted average summary measures), and for testing the null hypothesis that treatment affects all outcomes equally. We also discuss methods for exploring how treatment effects depend on covariates (i.e., effect modification). In addition to describing efficiency theory for our estimands and the asymptotic behavior of our estimators, we illustrate the methods in a simulation study and a data analysis. Importantly, and in contrast to much of the literature concerning effects on multiple outcomes, our methods are nonparametric and can be used not only in randomized trials to yield increased efficiency, but also in observational studies with high-dimensional covariates to reduce confounding bias.

  11. Modelling of rate effects at multiple scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, R.R.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    , the length scale in the meso-model and the macro-model can be coupled. In this fashion, a bridging of length scales can be established. A computational analysis of  a Split Hopkinson bar test at medium and high impact load is carried out at macro-scale and meso-scale including information from  the micro-scale.......At the macro- and meso-scales a rate dependent constitutive model is used in which visco-elasticity is coupled to visco-plasticity and damage. A viscous length scale effect is introduced to control the size of the fracture process zone. By comparison of the widths of the fracture process zone...

  12. Multiple time scale methods in tokamak magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods are discussed for integrating the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in tokamak systems on other than the fastest time scale. The dynamical grid method for simulating ideal MHD instabilities utilizes a natural nonorthogonal time-dependent coordinate transformation based on the magnetic field lines. The coordinate transformation is chosen to be free of the fast time scale motion itself, and to yield a relatively simple scalar equation for the total pressure, P = p + B 2 /2μ 0 , which can be integrated implicitly to average over the fast time scale oscillations. Two methods are described for the resistive time scale. The zero-mass method uses a reduced set of two-fluid transport equations obtained by expanding in the inverse magnetic Reynolds number, and in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities. The momentum equation becomes a constraint equation that forces the pressure and magnetic fields and currents to remain in force balance equilibrium as they evolve. The large mass method artificially scales up the ion mass and viscosity, thereby reducing the severe time scale disparity between wavelike and diffusionlike phenomena, but not changing the resistive time scale behavior. Other methods addressing the intermediate time scales are discussed

  13. Centrifugal contractors for laboratory-scale solvent extraction tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.

    1995-01-01

    A 2-cm contactor (minicontactor) was developed and used at Argonne National Laboratory for laboratory-scale testing of solvent extraction flowsheets. This new contactor requires only 1 L of simulated waste feed, which is significantly less than the 10 L required for the 4-cm unit that had previously been used. In addition, the volume requirements for the other aqueous and organic feeds are reduced correspondingly. This paper (1) discusses the design of the minicontactor, (2) describes results from having applied the minicontactor to testing various solvent extraction flowsheets, and (3) compares the minicontactor with the 4-cm contactor as a device for testing solvent extraction flowsheets on a laboratory scale

  14. SDG and qualitative trend based model multiple scale validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dong; Xu, Xin; Yin, Jianjin; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Beike

    2017-09-01

    Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A) is key technology of simulation and modelling. For the traditional model validation methods, the completeness is weak; it is carried out in one scale; it depends on human experience. The SDG (Signed Directed Graph) and qualitative trend based multiple scale validation is proposed. First the SDG model is built and qualitative trends are added to the model. And then complete testing scenarios are produced by positive inference. The multiple scale validation is carried out by comparing the testing scenarios with outputs of simulation model in different scales. Finally, the effectiveness is proved by carrying out validation for a reactor model.

  15. Cyclotrons with fast variable and/or multiple energy extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility in principle of stripping extraction in combination with reverse bends in isochronous separate-sector cyclotrons (and/or fixed field alternating gradient accelerators. If one uses reverse bends between the sectors (instead of or in combination with drifts and places stripper foils at the sector exit edges, the stripped beam has a reduced bending radius and it should be able to leave the cyclotron within the range of the valley—even if the beam is stripped at less than full energy. We are especially interested in stripping of H_{2}^{+}, as it doubles the charge to mass ratio of the ions. However the method could be applied to other ions or ionized molecules as well. For the production of proton beams by stripping extraction of an H_{2}^{+} beam, we discuss possible designs for three types of machines: First, a low-energy cyclotron for the simultaneous production of several beams at multiple energies—for instance 15, 30, and 70 MeV—thus allowing beam delivery on several isotope production targets. In this case it can be an advantage to have a strong energy dependence of the direction of the extracted beam. Second, we consider a fast variable-energy proton machine for cancer therapy that should allow extraction (of the complete beam at all energies in the range of about 70 MeV to about 250 MeV into the same beam line. Third, we consider a high-intensity high-energy machine, where the main design goals are extraction with low losses, low activation of components, and high reliability. Especially if such a machine is considered for an accelerator driven system (ADS, this extraction mechanism has advantages: Beam trips by the failure of electrostatic elements could be avoided and the turn separation would be less critical, which allows operation at lower main cavity voltages. This would in turn reduce the number of rf trips. The price that has to be paid for these advantages is an increase in size and/or field

  16. Multiple scaling power in liquid gallium under pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Renfeng; Wang, Luhong; Li, Liangliang; Yu, Tony; Zhao, Haiyan; Chapman, Karena W.; Rivers, Mark L.; Chupas, Peter J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Liu, Haozhe

    2017-06-01

    Generally, a single scaling exponent, Df, can characterize the fractal structures of metallic glasses according to the scaling power law. However, when the scaling power law is applied to liquid gallium upon compression, the results show multiple scaling exponents and the values are beyond 3 within the first four coordination spheres in real space, indicating that the power law fails to describe the fractal feature in liquid gallium. The increase in the first coordination number with pressure leads to the fact that first coordination spheres at different pressures are not similar to each other in a geometrical sense. This multiple scaling power behavior is confined within a correlation length of ξ ≈ 14–15 Å at applied pressure according to decay of G(r) in liquid gallium. Beyond this length the liquid gallium system could roughly be viewed as homogeneous, as indicated by the scaling exponent, Ds, which is close to 3 beyond the first four coordination spheres.

  17. Scaling and mean normalized multiplicity in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Q.R.; Ahmad, M.S.; Hasan, R.

    1987-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that the dependence of the mean normalized multiplicity, R A , in hadron-nucleus collisions upon the effective number of projectile encounters, , is projectile independent. We report the failure of this kind of scaling using the world data at accelerator and cosmic ray energies. Infact, we have found that the dependence of R A upon the number of projectile encounters hA is projectile independent. This leads to a new kind of scaling. Further, the scaled multiplicity distributions are found independent on the nature and energy of the incident hadron in the energy range ≅ (17.2-300) GeV. (orig.)

  18. Scale-up of mixer-settler for uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, A.O. de.

    1990-05-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain scale-up relations for a box type mixer-settler used in uranium extraction process for chloridric leaches. Three box type units with different sizes and with the same geometry were used for scale-up of the mixer. The correlation between extraction rate and specific power input, D/T ratio (stirrer diameter/mixer length) and residence time were experimentally obtained. The results showed that the extraction increases with power input for a constant value of D/T equal to 1/3, remaining however independent from mixer sizes for a specific value of power input. This behavior was observed for power input values ranging from 100 to 750 w/m 9 . (author). 23 refs, 22 figs, 23 tabs

  19. Scaling of charged particle multiplicity distributions in relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamd, N.; Hushnud; Azmi, M.D.; Zafar, M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, M.M.; Tufail, A.

    2011-01-01

    Validity of KNO scaling in hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions has been tested by several workers. Multiplicity distributions for p-emulsion interactions are found to be consistent with the KNO scaling hypothesis for pp collisions. The applicability of the scaling law was extended to FNAL energies by earlier workers. Slattery has shown that KNO scaling hypothesis is in fine agreement with the data for pp interactions over a wide range of incident energies. An attempt, is, therefore, made to examine the scaling hypothesis using multiplicity distributions of particles produced in 3.7A GeV/c 16 O-, 4.5A GeV/c and 14.5A GeV/c 28 Si - nucleus interactions

  20. Extraction Chromatography for Am and Cm Recovery in Engineering Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koma, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Sano, Y.; Asakura, T.; Morita, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the extraction chromatography for Am and Cm (An(III)) recovery from HLLW aiming at an engineering scale application. For process development, we started to assess the characteristics of adsorbents with some extractants by laboratory scale experiments. The experimental results with HDEHP/SiO 2 -P adsorbent suggested that An(III) is separated from other fission products by adjusting the pH of a feed solution and/or an eluent containing DTPA to be an appropriate value. The durability of CMPO/SiO 2 -P and HDEHP/SiO 2 -P adsorbents for gamma-ray irradiation were estimated to be 1 and 0.5 MGy, respectively. In the system development, system experiments for fluid flow, safety and durability using engineering scale column as well as studies on remote control/maintenance are now under progress. (authors)

  1. Rasch analysis of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramp, Melina; Khan, Fary; Misajon, Rose Anne; Pallant, Julie F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative neurological disease that causes impairments, including spasticity, pain, fatigue, and bladder dysfunction, which negatively impact on quality of life. The Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) is a disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, developed using the patient's perspective on disease impact. It consists of two subscales assessing the physical (MSIS-29-PHYS) and psychological (MSIS-29-PSYCH) im...

  2. Multiple scales in metapopulations of public goods producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Marianne; Frey, Erwin

    2018-04-01

    Multiple scales in metapopulations can give rise to paradoxical behavior: in a conceptual model for a public goods game, the species associated with a fitness cost due to the public good production can be stabilized in the well-mixed limit due to the mere existence of these scales. The scales in this model involve a length scale corresponding to separate patches, coupled by mobility, and separate time scales for reproduction and interaction with a local environment. Contrary to the well-mixed high mobility limit, we find that for low mobilities, the interaction rate progressively stabilizes this species due to stochastic effects, and that the formation of spatial patterns is not crucial for this stabilization.

  3. Multiple Solvent Extraction System with Flow Injection Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    encounters a back extraction step where the direction of the extraction is from organic to aqueous solvent. Thus it is advantageous to incorporate both...stainless steel ( Alltech Associates, Arlington Heights, IQ) and prepared from a single section of 180 cmn in length. The Section 2 mixing and extraction

  4. Rotation, scale, and translation invariant pattern recognition using feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Donald; Doucet, Michel; Bergeron, Alain; Veilleux, Luc; Chevrette, Paul C.; Gingras, Denis J.

    1997-03-01

    A rotation, scale and translation invariant pattern recognition technique is proposed.It is based on Fourier- Mellin Descriptors (FMD). Each FMD is taken as an independent feature of the object, and a set of those features forms a signature. FMDs are naturally rotation invariant. Translation invariance is achieved through pre- processing. A proper normalization of the FMDs gives the scale invariance property. This approach offers the double advantage of providing invariant signatures of the objects, and a dramatic reduction of the amount of data to process. The compressed invariant feature signature is next presented to a multi-layered perceptron neural network. This final step provides some robustness to the classification of the signatures, enabling good recognition behavior under anamorphically scaled distortion. We also present an original feature extraction technique, adapted to optical calculation of the FMDs. A prototype optical set-up was built, and experimental results are presented.

  5. HMC algorithm with multiple time scale integration and mass preconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, C.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wenger, U.

    2006-01-01

    We present a variant of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning (Hasenbusch acceleration) and multiple time scale integration. We have tested this variant for standard Wilson fermions at β=5.6 and at pion masses ranging from 380 to 680 MeV. We show that in this situation its performance is comparable to the recently proposed HMC variant with domain decomposition as preconditioner. We give an update of the "Berlin Wall" figure, comparing the performance of our variant of the HMC algorithm to other published performance data. Advantages of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning and multiple time scale integration are that it is straightforward to implement and can be used in combination with a wide variety of lattice Dirac operators.

  6. Sparing land for biodiversity at multiple spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan eEkroos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A common approach to the conservation of farmland biodiversity and the promotion of multifunctional landscapes, particularly in landscapes containing only small remnants of non-crop habitats, has been to maintain landscape heterogeneity and reduce land-use intensity. In contrast, it has recently been shown that devoting specific areas of non-crop habitats to conservation, segregated from high-yielding farmland (‘land sparing’, can more effectively conserve biodiversity than promoting low-yielding, less intensively managed farmland occupying larger areas (‘land sharing’. In the present paper we suggest that the debate over the relative merits of land sparing or land sharing is partly blurred by the differing spatial scales at which it is suggested that land sparing should be applied. We argue that there is no single correct spatial scale for segregating biodiversity protection and commodity production in multifunctional landscapes. Instead we propose an alternative conceptual construct, which we call ‘multiple-scale land sparing’, targeting biodiversity and ecosystem services in transformed landscapes. We discuss how multiple-scale land sparing may overcome the apparent dichotomy between land sharing and land sparing and help to find acceptable compromises that conserve biodiversity and landscape multifunctionality.

  7. Rasch analysis of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misajon Rose

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a degenerative neurological disease that causes impairments, including spasticity, pain, fatigue, and bladder dysfunction, which negatively impact on quality of life. The Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29 is a disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL instrument, developed using the patient's perspective on disease impact. It consists of two subscales assessing the physical (MSIS-29-PHYS and psychological (MSIS-29-PSYCH impact of MS. Although previous studies have found support for the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29 using traditional methods of scale evaluation, the scale has not been subjected to a detailed Rasch analysis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the internal validity of the scale, and its response format, item fit, targeting, internal consistency and dimensionality. Methods Ninety-two persons with definite MS residing in the community were recruited from a tertiary hospital database. Patients completed the MSIS-29 as part of a larger study. Rasch analysis was undertaken to assess the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29. Results Rasch analysis showed overall support for the psychometric properties of the two MSIS-29 subscales, however it was necessary to reduce the response format of the MSIS-29-PHYS to a 3-point response scale. Both subscales were unidimensional, had good internal consistency, and were free from item bias for sex and age. Dimensionality testing indicated it was not appropriate to combine the two subscales to form a total MSIS score. Conclusion In this first study to use Rasch analysis to fully assess the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29 support was found for the two subscales but not for the use of the total scale. Further use of Rasch analysis on the MSIS-29 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm these findings.

  8. Rasch analysis of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramp, Melina; Khan, Fary; Misajon, Rose Anne; Pallant, Julie F

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative neurological disease that causes impairments, including spasticity, pain, fatigue, and bladder dysfunction, which negatively impact on quality of life. The Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) is a disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, developed using the patient's perspective on disease impact. It consists of two subscales assessing the physical (MSIS-29-PHYS) and psychological (MSIS-29-PSYCH) impact of MS. Although previous studies have found support for the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29 using traditional methods of scale evaluation, the scale has not been subjected to a detailed Rasch analysis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the internal validity of the scale, and its response format, item fit, targeting, internal consistency and dimensionality. Methods Ninety-two persons with definite MS residing in the community were recruited from a tertiary hospital database. Patients completed the MSIS-29 as part of a larger study. Rasch analysis was undertaken to assess the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29. Results Rasch analysis showed overall support for the psychometric properties of the two MSIS-29 subscales, however it was necessary to reduce the response format of the MSIS-29-PHYS to a 3-point response scale. Both subscales were unidimensional, had good internal consistency, and were free from item bias for sex and age. Dimensionality testing indicated it was not appropriate to combine the two subscales to form a total MSIS score. Conclusion In this first study to use Rasch analysis to fully assess the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29 support was found for the two subscales but not for the use of the total scale. Further use of Rasch analysis on the MSIS-29 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm these findings. PMID:19545445

  9. Multi-scale Analysis of High Resolution Topography: Feature Extraction and Identification of Landscape Characteristic Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Sangireddy, H.; Stark, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of digital terrain data, detailed information on terrain characteristics and on scale and location of geomorphic features is available over extended areas. Our ability to observe landscapes and quantify topographic patterns has greatly improved, including the estimation of fluxes of mass and energy across landscapes. Challenges still remain in the analysis of high resolution topography data; the presence of features such as roads, for example, challenges classic methods for feature extraction and large data volumes require computationally efficient extraction and analysis methods. Moreover, opportunities exist to define new robust metrics of landscape characterization for landscape comparison and model validation. In this presentation we cover recent research in multi-scale and objective analysis of high resolution topography data. We show how the analysis of the probability density function of topographic attributes such as slope, curvature, and topographic index contains useful information for feature localization and extraction. The analysis of how the distributions change across scales, quantified by the behavior of modal values and interquartile range, allows the identification of landscape characteristic scales, such as terrain roughness. The methods are introduced on synthetic signals in one and two dimensions and then applied to a variety of landscapes of different characteristics. Validation of the methods includes the analysis of modeled landscapes where the noise distribution is known and features of interest easily measured.

  10. Multiple-scale approach for the expansion scaling of superfluid quantum gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egusquiza, I. L.; Valle Basagoiti, M. A.; Modugno, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a general method, based on a multiple-scale approach, for deriving the perturbative solutions of the scaling equations governing the expansion of superfluid ultracold quantum gases released from elongated harmonic traps. We discuss how to treat the secular terms appearing in the usual naive expansion in the trap asymmetry parameter ε and calculate the next-to-leading correction for the asymptotic aspect ratio, with significant improvement over the previous proposals.

  11. Multiple time-scale methods in particle simulations of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper surveys recent advances in the application of multiple time-scale methods to particle simulation of collective phenomena in plasmas. These methods dramatically improve the efficiency of simulating low-frequency kinetic behavior by allowing the use of a large timestep, while retaining accuracy. The numerical schemes surveyed provide selective damping of unwanted high-frequency waves and preserve numerical stability in a variety of physics models: electrostatic, magneto-inductive, Darwin and fully electromagnetic. The paper reviews hybrid simulation models, the implicitmoment-equation method, the direct implicit method, orbit averaging, and subcycling

  12. Efficient Selection of Multiple Objects on a Large Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    The task of multiple object selection (MOS) in immersive virtual environments is important and still largely unexplored. The diffi- culty of efficient MOS increases with the number of objects to be selected. E.g. in small-scale MOS, only a few objects need to be simultaneously selected. This may...... consuming. Instead, we have implemented and tested two of the existing approaches to 3-D MOS, a brush and a lasso, as well as a new technique, a magic wand, which automati- cally selects objects based on local proximity to other objects. In a formal user evaluation, we have studied how the performance...

  13. Curvaton paradigm can accommodate multiple low inflation scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2004-01-01

    Recent arguments show that some curvaton field may generate the cosmological curvature perturbation. As the curvaton is independent of the inflaton field, there is a hope that the fine tunings of inflation models can be cured by the curvaton scenario. More recently, however, Lyth discussed that there is a strong bound for the Hubble parameter during inflation even if one assumes the curvaton scenario. Although the most serious constraint was evaded, the bound seems rather crucial for many models of a low inflation scale. In this paper we try to remove the constraint. We show that the bound is drastically modified if there were multiple stages of inflation. (letter to the editor)

  14. Rank Dynamics of Word Usage at Multiple Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Morales

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent dramatic increase in online data availability has allowed researchers to explore human culture with unprecedented detail, such as the growth and diversification of language. In particular, it provides statistical tools to explore whether word use is similar across languages, and if so, whether these generic features appear at different scales of language structure. Here we use the Google Books N-grams dataset to analyze the temporal evolution of word usage in several languages. We apply measures proposed recently to study rank dynamics, such as the diversity of N-grams in a given rank, the probability that an N-gram changes rank between successive time intervals, the rank entropy, and the rank complexity. Using different methods, results show that there are generic properties for different languages at different scales, such as a core of words necessary to minimally understand a language. We also propose a null model to explore the relevance of linguistic structure across multiple scales, concluding that N-gram statistics cannot be reduced to word statistics. We expect our results to be useful in improving text prediction algorithms, as well as in shedding light on the large-scale features of language use, beyond linguistic and cultural differences across human populations.

  15. Multiple time scales of adaptation in auditory cortex neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanovsky, Nachum; Las, Liora; Farkas, Dina; Nelken, Israel

    2004-11-17

    Neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) of cats show strong stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). In probabilistic settings, in which one stimulus is common and another is rare, responses to common sounds adapt more strongly than responses to rare sounds. This SSA could be a correlate of auditory sensory memory at the level of single A1 neurons. Here we studied adaptation in A1 neurons, using three different probabilistic designs. We showed that SSA has several time scales concurrently, spanning many orders of magnitude, from hundreds of milliseconds to tens of seconds. Similar time scales are known for the auditory memory span of humans, as measured both psychophysically and using evoked potentials. A simple model, with linear dependence on both short-term and long-term stimulus history, provided a good fit to A1 responses. Auditory thalamus neurons did not show SSA, and their responses were poorly fitted by the same model. In addition, SSA increased the proportion of failures in the responses of A1 neurons to the adapting stimulus. Finally, SSA caused a bias in the neuronal responses to unbiased stimuli, enhancing the responses to eccentric stimuli. Therefore, we propose that a major function of SSA in A1 neurons is to encode auditory sensory memory on multiple time scales. This SSA might play a role in stream segregation and in binding of auditory objects over many time scales, a property that is crucial for processing of natural auditory scenes in cats and of speech and music in humans.

  16. Classification of Farmland Landscape Structure in Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P.; Cheng, Q.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    Farmland is one of the basic terrestrial resources that support the development and survival of human beings and thus plays a crucial role in the national security of every country. Pattern change is the intuitively spatial representation of the scale and quality variation of farmland. Through the characteristic development of spatial shapes as well as through changes in system structures, functions and so on, farmland landscape patterns may indicate the landscape health level. Currently, it is still difficult to perform positioning analyses of landscape pattern changes that reflect the landscape structure variations of farmland with an index model. Depending on a number of spatial properties such as locations and adjacency relations, distance decay, fringe effect, and on the model of patch-corridor-matrix that is applied, this study defines a type system of farmland landscape structure on the national, provincial, and city levels. According to such a definition, the classification model of farmland landscape-structure type at the pixel scale is developed and validated based on mathematical-morphology concepts and on spatial-analysis methods. Then, the laws that govern farmland landscape-pattern change in multiple scales are analyzed from the perspectives of spatial heterogeneity, spatio-temporal evolution, and function transformation. The result shows that the classification model of farmland landscape-structure type can reflect farmland landscape-pattern change and its effects on farmland production function. Moreover, farmland landscape change in different scales displayed significant disparity in zonality, both within specific regions and in urban-rural areas.

  17. Capacity limitations to extract the mean emotion from multiple facial expressions depend on emotion variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Luyan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2018-04-20

    We examined the processing capacity and the role of emotion variance in ensemble representation for multiple facial expressions shown concurrently. A standard set size manipulation was used, whereby the sets consisted of 4, 8, or 16 morphed faces each uniquely varying along a happy-angry continuum (Experiment 1) or a neutral-happy/angry continuum (Experiments 2 & 3). Across the three experiments, we reduced the amount of emotion variance in the sets to explore the boundaries of this process. Participants judged the perceived average emotion from each set on a continuous scale. We computed and compared objective and subjective difference scores, using the morph units and post-experiment ratings, respectively. Results of the subjective scores were more consistent than the objective ones across the first two experiments where the variance was relatively large, and revealed each time that increasing set size led to a poorer averaging ability, suggesting capacity limitations in establishing ensemble representations for multiple facial expressions. However, when the emotion variance in the sets was reduced in Experiment 3, both subjective and objective scores remained unaffected by set size, suggesting that the emotion averaging process was unlimited in these conditions. Collectively, these results suggest that extracting mean emotion from a set composed of multiple faces depends on both structural (attentional) and stimulus-related effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Multiple-Scale Analysis of Evaporation Induced Marangoni Convection

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, Matthew G.

    2013-04-23

    This paper considers the stability of thin liquid layers of binary mixtures of a volatile (solvent) species and a nonvolatile (polymer) species. Evaporation leads to a depletion of the solvent near the liquid surface. If surface tension increases for lower solvent concentrations, sufficiently strong compositional gradients can lead to Bénard-Marangoni-type convection that is similar to the kind which is observed in films that are heated from below. The onset of the instability is investigated by a linear stability analysis. Due to evaporation, the base state is time dependent, thus leading to a nonautonomous linearized system which impedes the use of normal modes. However, the time scale for the solvent loss due to evaporation is typically long compared to the diffusive time scale, so a systematic multiple scales expansion can be sought for a finite-dimensional approximation of the linearized problem. This is determined to leading and to next order. The corrections indicate that the validity of the expansion does not depend on the magnitude of the individual eigenvalues of the linear operator, but it requires these eigenvalues to be well separated. The approximations are applied to analyze experiments by Bassou and Rharbi with polystyrene/toluene mixtures [Langmuir, 25 (2009), pp. 624-632]. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  19. A Multiple-Scale Analysis of Evaporation Induced Marangoni Convection

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, Matthew G.; Mü nch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the stability of thin liquid layers of binary mixtures of a volatile (solvent) species and a nonvolatile (polymer) species. Evaporation leads to a depletion of the solvent near the liquid surface. If surface tension increases for lower solvent concentrations, sufficiently strong compositional gradients can lead to Bénard-Marangoni-type convection that is similar to the kind which is observed in films that are heated from below. The onset of the instability is investigated by a linear stability analysis. Due to evaporation, the base state is time dependent, thus leading to a nonautonomous linearized system which impedes the use of normal modes. However, the time scale for the solvent loss due to evaporation is typically long compared to the diffusive time scale, so a systematic multiple scales expansion can be sought for a finite-dimensional approximation of the linearized problem. This is determined to leading and to next order. The corrections indicate that the validity of the expansion does not depend on the magnitude of the individual eigenvalues of the linear operator, but it requires these eigenvalues to be well separated. The approximations are applied to analyze experiments by Bassou and Rharbi with polystyrene/toluene mixtures [Langmuir, 25 (2009), pp. 624-632]. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  20. Comparison of two methods of surface profile extraction from multiple ultrasonic range measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barshan, B; Baskent, D

    Two novel methods for surface profile extraction based on multiple ultrasonic range measurements are described and compared. One of the methods employs morphological processing techniques, whereas the other employs a spatial voting scheme followed by simple thresholding. Morphological processing

  1. 3D Power Line Extraction from Multiple Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehong Oh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Power lines are cables that carry electrical power from a power plant to an electrical substation. They must be connected between the tower structures in such a way that ensures minimum tension and sufficient clearance from the ground. Power lines can stretch and sag with the changing weather, eventually exceeding the planned tolerances. The excessive sags can then cause serious accidents, while hindering the durability of the power lines. We used photogrammetric techniques with a low-cost drone to achieve efficient 3D mapping of power lines that are often difficult to approach. Unlike the conventional image-to-object space approach, we used the object-to-image space approach using cubic grid points. We processed four strips of aerial images to automatically extract the power line points in the object space. Experimental results showed that the approach could successfully extract the positions of the power line points for power line generation and sag measurement with the elevation accuracy of a few centimeters.

  2. Integral criteria for large-scale multiple fingerprint solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushmaev, Oleg S.; Novikov, Sergey O.

    2004-08-01

    We propose the definition and analysis of the optimal integral similarity score criterion for large scale multmodal civil ID systems. Firstly, the general properties of score distributions for genuine and impostor matches for different systems and input devices are investigated. The empirical statistics was taken from the real biometric tests. Then we carry out the analysis of simultaneous score distributions for a number of combined biometric tests and primary for ultiple fingerprint solutions. The explicit and approximate relations for optimal integral score, which provides the least value of the FRR while the FAR is predefined, have been obtained. The results of real multiple fingerprint test show good correspondence with the theoretical results in the wide range of the False Acceptance and the False Rejection Rates.

  3. Receptivity to Kinetic Fluctuations: A Multiple Scales Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Luke; Tumin, Anatoli

    2017-11-01

    The receptivity of high-speed compressible boundary layers to kinetic fluctuations (KF) is considered within the framework of fluctuating hydrodynamics. The formulation is based on the idea that KF-induced dissipative fluxes may lead to the generation of unstable modes in the boundary layer. Fedorov and Tumin solved the receptivity problem using an asymptotic matching approach which utilized a resonant inner solution in the vicinity of the generation point of the second Mack mode. Here we take a slightly more general approach based on a multiple scales WKB ansatz which requires fewer assumptions about the behavior of the stability spectrum. The approach is modeled after the one taken by Luchini to study low speed incompressible boundary layers over a swept wing. The new framework is used to study examples of high-enthalpy, flat plate boundary layers whose spectra exhibit nuanced behavior near the generation point, such as first mode instabilities and near-neutral evolution over moderate length scales. The configurations considered exhibit supersonic unstable second Mack modes despite the temperature ratio Tw /Te > 1 , contrary to prior expectations. Supported by AFOSR and ONR.

  4. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Ying; Schuur, Boelo; Brilman, Derk W.F.

    2017-01-01

    (Graph Presented) The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction

  5. On Distance Scale Bias due to Stellar Multiplicity and Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard I.; Riess, Adam

    2018-01-01

    The Cepheid Period-luminosity relation (Leavitt Law) provides the most accurate footing for the cosmic distance scale (CDS). Recently, evidence has been presented that the value of the Hubble constant H0 measured via the cosmic distance scale differs by 3.4σ from the value inferred using Planck data assuming ΛCDM cosmology (Riess et al. 2016). This exciting result may point to missing physics in the cosmological model; however, before such a claim can be made, careful analyses must address possible systematics involved in the calibration of the CDS.A frequently made claim in the literature is that companion stars or cluster membership of Cepheids may bias the calibration of the CDS. To evaluate this claim, we have carried out the first detailed study of the impact of Cepheid multiplicity and cluster membership on the determination of H0. Using deep HST imaging of M31 we directly measured the mean photometric bias due to cluster companions on Cepheid-based distances. Together with the empirical determination of the frequency with which Cepheids appear in clusters we quantify the combined H0 bias from close associations to be approximately 0.3% (0.20 km s-1 Mpc-1) for the passbands commonly used. Thus, we demonstrate that stellar associations cannot explain the aforementioned discrepancy observed in H0 and do not prevent achieving the community goal of measuring H0 with an accuracy of 1%. We emphasize the subtle, but important, difference between systematics relevant for calibrating the Leavitt Law (achieving a better understanding of stellar physics) and for accurately calibrating the CDS (measuring H0).

  6. MULTI-SCALE SEGMENTATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES BY INTEGRATING MULTIPLE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Di

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of multi-scale segmentation algorithms are not aiming at high resolution remote sensing images and have difficulty to communicate and use layers’ information. In view of them, we proposes a method of multi-scale segmentation of high resolution remote sensing images by integrating multiple features. First, Canny operator is used to extract edge information, and then band weighted distance function is built to obtain the edge weight. According to the criterion, the initial segmentation objects of color images can be gained by Kruskal minimum spanning tree algorithm. Finally segmentation images are got by the adaptive rule of Mumford–Shah region merging combination with spectral and texture information. The proposed method is evaluated precisely using analog images and ZY-3 satellite images through quantitative and qualitative analysis. The experimental results show that the multi-scale segmentation of high resolution remote sensing images by integrating multiple features outperformed the software eCognition fractal network evolution algorithm (highest-resolution network evolution that FNEA on the accuracy and slightly inferior to FNEA on the efficiency.

  7. Optimal Information Extraction of Laser Scanning Dataset by Scale-Adaptive Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Y.; Yang, B.

    2018-04-01

    3D laser technology is widely used to collocate the surface information of object. For various applications, we need to extract a good perceptual quality point cloud from the scanned points. To solve the problem, most of existing methods extract important points based on a fixed scale. However, geometric features of 3D object come from various geometric scales. We propose a multi-scale construction method based on radial basis function. For each scale, important points are extracted from the point cloud based on their importance. We apply a perception metric Just-Noticeable-Difference to measure degradation of each geometric scale. Finally, scale-adaptive optimal information extraction is realized. Experiments are undertaken to evaluate the effective of the proposed method, suggesting a reliable solution for optimal information extraction of object.

  8. OPTIMAL INFORMATION EXTRACTION OF LASER SCANNING DATASET BY SCALE-ADAPTIVE REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available 3D laser technology is widely used to collocate the surface information of object. For various applications, we need to extract a good perceptual quality point cloud from the scanned points. To solve the problem, most of existing methods extract important points based on a fixed scale. However, geometric features of 3D object come from various geometric scales. We propose a multi-scale construction method based on radial basis function. For each scale, important points are extracted from the point cloud based on their importance. We apply a perception metric Just-Noticeable-Difference to measure degradation of each geometric scale. Finally, scale-adaptive optimal information extraction is realized. Experiments are undertaken to evaluate the effective of the proposed method, suggesting a reliable solution for optimal information extraction of object.

  9. Neural Computations in a Dynamical System with Multiple Time Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yuanyuan; Lin, Xiaohan; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    Neural systems display rich short-term dynamics at various levels, e.g., spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) at the single-neuron level, and short-term facilitation (STF) and depression (STD) at the synapse level. These dynamical features typically cover a broad range of time scales and exhibit large diversity in different brain regions. It remains unclear what is the computational benefit for the brain to have such variability in short-term dynamics. In this study, we propose that the brain can exploit such dynamical features to implement multiple seemingly contradictory computations in a single neural circuit. To demonstrate this idea, we use continuous attractor neural network (CANN) as a working model and include STF, SFA and STD with increasing time constants in its dynamics. Three computational tasks are considered, which are persistent activity, adaptation, and anticipative tracking. These tasks require conflicting neural mechanisms, and hence cannot be implemented by a single dynamical feature or any combination with similar time constants. However, with properly coordinated STF, SFA and STD, we show that the network is able to implement the three computational tasks concurrently. We hope this study will shed light on the understanding of how the brain orchestrates its rich dynamics at various levels to realize diverse cognitive functions.

  10. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  11. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  12. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties

  13. IRIS Arrays: Observing Wavefields at Multiple Scales and Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumy, D. F.; Woodward, R.; Frassetto, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) provides instruments for creating and operating seismic arrays at a wide range of scales. As an example, for over thirty years the IRIS PASSCAL program has provided instruments to individual Principal Investigators to deploy arrays of all shapes and sizes on every continent. These arrays have ranged from just a few sensors to hundreds or even thousands of sensors, covering areas with dimensions of meters to thousands of kilometers. IRIS also operates arrays directly, such as the USArray Transportable Array (TA) as part of the EarthScope program. Since 2004, the TA has rolled across North America, at any given time spanning a swath of approximately 800 km by 2,500 km, and thus far sampling 2% of the Earth's surface. This achievement includes all of the lower-48 U.S., southernmost Canada, and now parts of Alaska. IRIS has also facilitated specialized arrays in polar environments and on the seafloor. In all cases, the data from these arrays are freely available to the scientific community. As the community of scientists who use IRIS facilities and data look to the future they have identified a clear need for new array capabilities. In particular, as part of its Wavefields Initiative, IRIS is exploring new technologies that can enable large, dense array deployments to record unaliased wavefields at a wide range of frequencies. Large-scale arrays might utilize multiple sensor technologies to best achieve observing objectives and optimize equipment and logistical costs. Improvements in packaging and power systems can provide equipment with reduced size, weight, and power that will reduce logistical constraints for large experiments, and can make a critical difference for deployments in harsh environments or other situations where rapid deployment is required. We will review the range of existing IRIS array capabilities with an overview of previous and current deployments and examples of data and results. We

  14. Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction in parallel microbore tubes using MDIMJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darekar, Mayur; Singh, K.K.; Joshi, J.M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction of U(VI) from simulated lean streams is explored using micro-scale contactor comprising of a MDIMJ (Monoblock Distributor with Integrated Microfluidic Junction) and PTFE microbore tubes. 30% (v/v) TBP in dodecane has been used as the extracting phase. The objective of the study is to demonstrate numbering up approach for scale-up of micro-scale extraction using indigenously conceptualized and fabricated MDIMJ. First the performance of MIDIMJ for equal flow distribution is tested. Then the effects of inlet flow rate and O/A ratio on stage efficiency and percentage extraction are studied. The experiments show that it is easy to scale-up single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction by using MDIMJ for numbering up approach. Maximum capacity tested is 4.8 LPH. With O/A = 2/1, more than 90% extraction is achieved in a very short contact time of less than 3s. The study thus demonstrates possibility of process intensification and easy scale-up of micro-scale solvent extraction

  15. Bulk velocity extraction for nano-scale Newtonian flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenfei, E-mail: zwenfei@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Mechanical Reliability for Heavy Equipments and Large Structures of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Sun, Hongyu [Key Laboratory of Mechanical Reliability for Heavy Equipments and Large Structures of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2012-04-16

    The conventional velocity extraction algorithm in MDS method has difficulty to determine the small flow velocity. This study proposes a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. Based on the Newton's law of viscosity, according to the calculated viscosities and shear stresses, the flow velocity can be obtained by numerical integration. This new method can overcome the difficulty existed in the conventional MDS method and improve the stability of the computational process. Numerical results show that this method is effective for the extraction of bulk velocity, no matter the bulk velocity is large or small. -- Highlights: ► Proposed a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. ► It is effective for the extraction of small bulk velocity. ► The accuracy, convergence and stability of the new method is good.

  16. Bulk velocity extraction for nano-scale Newtonian flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenfei; Sun, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The conventional velocity extraction algorithm in MDS method has difficulty to determine the small flow velocity. This study proposes a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. Based on the Newton's law of viscosity, according to the calculated viscosities and shear stresses, the flow velocity can be obtained by numerical integration. This new method can overcome the difficulty existed in the conventional MDS method and improve the stability of the computational process. Numerical results show that this method is effective for the extraction of bulk velocity, no matter the bulk velocity is large or small. -- Highlights: ► Proposed a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. ► It is effective for the extraction of small bulk velocity. ► The accuracy, convergence and stability of the new method is good.

  17. Stability, structure and scale: improvements in multi-modal vessel extraction for SEEG trajectory planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Maria A; Rodionov, Roman; Nowell, Mark; Achhala, Sufyan; Zombori, Gergely; Mendelson, Alex F; Cardoso, M Jorge; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew W; Duncan, John S; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2015-08-01

    Brain vessels are among the most critical landmarks that need to be assessed for mitigating surgical risks in stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) implantation. Intracranial haemorrhage is the most common complication associated with implantation, carrying significantly associated morbidity. SEEG planning is done pre-operatively to identify avascular trajectories for the electrodes. In current practice, neurosurgeons have no assistance in the planning of electrode trajectories. There is great interest in developing computer-assisted planning systems that can optimise the safety profile of electrode trajectories, maximising the distance to critical structures. This paper presents a method that integrates the concepts of scale, neighbourhood structure and feature stability with the aim of improving robustness and accuracy of vessel extraction within a SEEG planning system. The developed method accounts for scale and vicinity of a voxel by formulating the problem within a multi-scale tensor voting framework. Feature stability is achieved through a similarity measure that evaluates the multi-modal consistency in vesselness responses. The proposed measurement allows the combination of multiple images modalities into a single image that is used within the planning system to visualise critical vessels. Twelve paired data sets from two image modalities available within the planning system were used for evaluation. The mean Dice similarity coefficient was 0.89 ± 0.04, representing a statistically significantly improvement when compared to a semi-automated single human rater, single-modality segmentation protocol used in clinical practice (0.80 ± 0.03). Multi-modal vessel extraction is superior to semi-automated single-modality segmentation, indicating the possibility of safer SEEG planning, with reduced patient morbidity.

  18. Orthodontic Management with Traction and Asymmetric Extraction for Multiple Impacted Permanent Maxillary Teeth - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qiannan; Zhang, Liang; Dai, Juan; Li, Feifei; Feng, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Multiple impacted teeth are a rare eruption disturbance that increases the case complexity. In this article, we described a 13-year-old boy whose 5 permanent maxillary teeth were not erupted although their root formation was complete. The orthodontic treatment with traction and asymmetric extraction was performed to achieve a significantly improved functional and esthetic result.

  19. Antibacterial activity of combined medicinal plants extract against multiple drug resistant strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the combined antibacterial efficacy of Aegle marmelos, Aphanamixis polystachya, Cuscuta reflexa and Aesclynomene indica against bacterial pathogens. Methods: Antibacterial potency of combined plant extracts has been tested against Bacillus subtilis IFO 3026, Sarcina lutea IFO 3232, Xanthomonas campestris IAM 1671, Escherichia coli IFO 3007, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATTC 10031, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 321 and Pseudomonas denitrificans KACC 32026 by disc diffusion assay. Commercially available standard antibiotic discs were also used to find out antibiotic resistance pattern of test organisms. Results: Among the test organisms, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus denitrificans showed resistance against multiple commercially available antibiotics. On the other hand, these multiple drug resistant organisms showed susceptibility against combined plant extracts. Conclusions: These combined plants extracts showed synergistic antibacterial activity and could lead to new antibacterial drug designing.

  20. Novel scaling of the multiplicity distributions in the sequential fragmentation process and in the percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.

    1996-01-01

    A novel scaling of the multiplicity distributions is found in the shattering phase of the sequential fragmentation process with inhibition. The same scaling law is shown to hold in the percolation process. (author)

  1. Ear Detection under Uncontrolled Conditions with Multiple Scale Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ear detection is an important step in ear recognition approaches. Most existing ear detection techniques are based on manually designing features or shallow learning algorithms. However, researchers found that the pose variation, occlusion, and imaging conditions provide a great challenge to the traditional ear detection methods under uncontrolled conditions. This paper proposes an efficient technique involving Multiple Scale Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (Faster R-CNN to detect ears from 2D profile images in natural images automatically. Firstly, three regions of different scales are detected to infer the information about the ear location context within the image. Then an ear region filtering approach is proposed to extract the correct ear region and eliminate the false positives automatically. In an experiment with a test set of 200 web images (with variable photographic conditions, 98% of ears were accurately detected. Experiments were likewise conducted on the Collection J2 of University of Notre Dame Biometrics Database (UND-J2 and University of Beira Interior Ear dataset (UBEAR, which contain large occlusion, scale, and pose variations. Detection rates of 100% and 98.22%, respectively, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction time was required for maximum yield at room temperature and a solvent/feed ratio of 1:1 (w/w). For fresh water (FW), nonstressed, nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans, 13.1 wt % of lipid extraction yield (based on dry algae mass) was achieved, which could be improved to 61.3 wt % for FW stressed algae after four extractions, illustrating that a combination of stressing the algae and applying the solvent N-ethylbutylamine in multiple stages of extraction results in almost 5 times higher yield and is very promising for further development of energy-efficient lipid extraction technology targeting nonbroken wet microalgae. PMID:28781427

  3. Interplay between multiple length and time scales in complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Processes in complex chemical systems, such as macromolecules, electrolytes, interfaces, ... by processes operating on a multiplicity of length .... real time. The design and interpretation of femto- second experiments has required considerable ...

  4. A prototype study with solvent extraction on industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The need for uranium purification has generated the study of different methods in order for purification to be achieved, having had excellent results in the laboratory with ionic exchange methods, extraction by means of solvents and chromatography. Pilot experiments of the ionic exchange method have been performed, using as experimentation equipment the columns of ionic exchange, attaining some results without concreting the objectives. Likewise several experiments in mixer-settlers have been performed for the purification of uranium by the solvent extraction method, where there were serious problems with the formation of a third incontrollable phase, and also, due to the later, low purification of the uranium when distributing from one phase to the other. Knowing these problems brought on by the performed experiments in mixer-setters by groups of researchers interested in this part of the nuclear fuel, the task of designing a prototype of extraction with solvents of the mixer-settler type was undertaken in the project 'Models and simulation of equipment and processes of the refinement and conversion department'. The purification of uranium as uranyl nitrate [UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ] was developed, establishing the conditions for the equipment operation, concluding that, with some relatively simple adjustements, it is possible to apply in different areas, taking note of the specific needs of mining, cosmetics, perfume and pharmaceutical areas. (Author)

  5. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis López-Padilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry. In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3 and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa and temperatures (313 and 343 K were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3 was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

  6. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Padilla, Alexis; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia Estela; Rivero Barrios, Diana Marsela; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments. PMID:28773640

  7. Scaled multiple holes suction tip for microneurosurgery; Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkarim Rahmanian, Associate Professor of Neurosurgery

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The new suction tip permits easy and precise adjustment of suction power in microneurosirgical operations. Our scaled 3 and 4-hole suction tip is a simple and useful device for controlling the suction power during the microneurosurgeical procedures.

  8. Multiple dynamical time-scales in networks with hierarchically

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modular networks; hierarchical organization; synchronization. ... we show that such a topological structure gives rise to characteristic time-scale separation ... This suggests a possible functional role of such mesoscopic organization principle in ...

  9. The Great Chains of Computing: Informatics at Multiple Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Kirby

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The perspective from which information processing is pervasive in the universe has proven to be an increasingly productive one. Phenomena from the quantum level to social networks have commonalities that can be usefully explicated using principles of informatics. We argue that the notion of scale is particularly salient here. An appreciation of what is invariant and what is emergent across scales, and of the variety of different types of scales, establishes a useful foundation for the transdiscipline of informatics. We survey the notion of scale and use it to explore the characteristic features of information statics (data, kinematics (communication, and dynamics (processing. We then explore the analogy to the principles of plenitude and continuity that feature in Western thought, under the name of the "great chain of being", from Plato through Leibniz and beyond, and show that the pancomputational turn is a modern counterpart of this ruling idea. We conclude by arguing that this broader perspective can enhance informatics pedagogy.

  10. Microstructural evolution at multiple scales during plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    During plastic deformation metals develop microstructures which may be analysed on several scales, e.g. bulk textures, the scale of individual grains, intragranular phenomena in the form of orientation spreads as well as dislocation patterning by formation of dislocation boundaries in metals of m......, which is backed up by experimental data [McCabe et al. 2004; Wei et al., 2011; Hong, Huang, & Winther, 2013]. The current state of understanding as well as the major challenges are discusse....

  11. Recovery of NORM from scales generated by oil extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul; Al Abdulah, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Scales, containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), are a major problem in oil production that lead to costly remediation and disposal programmes. In view of environmental protection, radio and chemical characterisation is an essential step prior to waste treatment. This study focuses on developing of a protocol to recover "2"2"6Ra and "2"1"0Pb from scales produced by petroleum industry. X-ray diffractograms of the scales indicated the presence of barite–strontium (Ba_0_._7_5Sr_0_._2_5SO_4) and hokutolite (Ba_0_._6_9Pb_0_._3_1SO_4) as main minerals. Quartz, galena and Ca_2Al_2SiO_6(OH)_2 or sphalerite and iron oxide were found in minor quantities. Incineration to 600°C followed by enclosed-digestion and acid-treatment gave complete digestion. Using "1"3"3Ba and "2"1"0Pb tracers as internal standards gave recovery ranged 87–91% for "2"2"6Ra and ca. 100% for "2"1"0Pb. Radium was finally dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, while "2"1"0Pb dissolved in the former solution as well as in 8 M nitric acid. Dissolving the scales would provide better estimation of their radionuclides contents, facilitate the determination of their chemical composition, and make it possible to recycle NORM wastes in terms of radionuclides production. - Highlights: • Recovery of "2"2"6Ra and "2"1"0Pb radionuclides from scales generated from oil industry. • XRD indicated the existence of Ba_0_._7_5Sr_0_._2_5SO_4 and Ba_0_._6_9Pb_0_._3_1SO_4 as main minerals. • Radio-recovery ranged 87–91% for "2"2"6Ra and ca. 100% for "2"1"0Pb. • The dissolving protocol complies with various composition of scale samples.

  12. National Earthquake Information Center Seismic Event Detections on Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J.; Yeck, W. L.; Benz, H.; Earle, P. S.; Soto-Cordero, L.; Johnson, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) monitors seismicity on local, regional, and global scales using automatic picks from more than 2,000 near-real time seismic stations. This presents unique challenges in automated event detection due to the high variability in data quality, network geometries and density, and distance-dependent variability in observed seismic signals. To lower the overall detection threshold while minimizing false detection rates, NEIC has begun to test the incorporation of new detection and picking algorithms, including multiband (Lomax et al., 2012) and kurtosis (Baillard et al., 2014) pickers, and a new bayesian associator (Glass 3.0). The Glass 3.0 associator allows for simultaneous processing of variably scaled detection grids, each with a unique set of nucleation criteria (e.g., nucleation threshold, minimum associated picks, nucleation phases) to meet specific monitoring goals. We test the efficacy of these new tools on event detection in networks of various scales and geometries, compare our results with previous catalogs, and discuss lessons learned. For example, we find that on local and regional scales, rapid nucleation of small events may require event nucleation with both P and higher-amplitude secondary phases (e.g., S or Lg). We provide examples of the implementation of a scale-independent associator for an induced seismicity sequence (local-scale), a large aftershock sequence (regional-scale), and for monitoring global seismicity. Baillard, C., Crawford, W. C., Ballu, V., Hibert, C., & Mangeney, A. (2014). An automatic kurtosis-based P-and S-phase picker designed for local seismic networks. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 104(1), 394-409. Lomax, A., Satriano, C., & Vassallo, M. (2012). Automatic picker developments and optimization: FilterPicker - a robust, broadband picker for real-time seismic monitoring and earthquake early-warning, Seism. Res. Lett. , 83, 531-540, doi: 10

  13. Multiple Scale Analysis of the Dynamic State Index (DSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A.; Névir, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Dynamic State Index (DSI) is a novel parameter that indicates local deviations of the atmospheric flow field from a stationary, inviscid and adiabatic solution of the primitive equations of fluid mechanics. This is in contrast to classical methods, which often diagnose deviations from temporal or spatial mean states. We show some applications of the DSI to atmospheric flow phenomena on different scales. The DSI is derived from the Energy-Vorticity-Theory (EVT) which is based on two global conserved quantities, the total energy and Ertel's potential enstrophy. Locally, these global quantities lead to the Bernoulli function and the PV building together with the potential temperature the DSI.If the Bernoulli function and the PV are balanced, the DSI vanishes and the basic state is obtained. Deviations from the basic state provide an indication of diabatic and non-stationary weather events. Therefore, the DSI offers a tool to diagnose and even prognose different atmospheric events on different scales.On synoptic scale, the DSI can help to diagnose storms and hurricanes, where also the dipole structure of the DSI plays an important role. In the scope of the collaborative research center "Scaling Cascades in Complex Systems" we show high correlations between the DSI and precipitation on convective scale. Moreover, we compare the results with reduced models and different spatial resolutions.

  14. Regularization methods for ill-posed problems in multiple Hilbert scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzieri, Gisela L; Spies, Ruben D

    2012-01-01

    Several convergence results in Hilbert scales under different source conditions are proved and orders of convergence and optimal orders of convergence are derived. Also, relations between those source conditions are proved. The concept of a multiple Hilbert scale on a product space is introduced, and regularization methods on these scales are defined, both for the case of a single observation and for the case of multiple observations. In the latter case, it is shown how vector-valued regularization functions in these multiple Hilbert scales can be used. In all cases, convergence is proved and orders and optimal orders of convergence are shown. Finally, some potential applications and open problems are discussed. (paper)

  15. A Novel Multiple-Time Scale Integrator for the Hybrid Monte Carlo Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamleh, Waseem

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Monte Carlo simulations that implement the fermion action using multiple terms are commonly used. By the nature of their formulation they involve multiple integration time scales in the evolution of the system through simulation time. These different scales are usually dealt with by the Sexton-Weingarten nested leapfrog integrator. In this scheme the choice of time scales is somewhat restricted as each time step must be an exact multiple of the next smallest scale in the sequence. A novel generalisation of the nested leapfrog integrator is introduced which allows for far greater flexibility in the choice of time scales, as each scale now must only be an exact multiple of the smallest step size.

  16. Data-Driven Approach for Analyzing Hydrogeology and Groundwater Quality Across Multiple Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Zachary K; Li, Shu-Guang; Liao, Hua-Sheng; Lusch, David

    2017-08-29

    Recent trends of assimilating water well records into statewide databases provide a new opportunity for evaluating spatial dynamics of groundwater quality and quantity. However, these datasets are scarcely rigorously analyzed to address larger scientific problems because they are of lower quality and massive. We develop an approach for utilizing well databases to analyze physical and geochemical aspects of groundwater systems, and apply it to a multiscale investigation of the sources and dynamics of chloride (Cl - ) in the near-surface groundwater of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Nearly 500,000 static water levels (SWLs) were critically evaluated, extracted, and analyzed to delineate long-term, average groundwater flow patterns using a nonstationary kriging technique at the basin-scale (i.e., across the entire peninsula). Two regions identified as major basin-scale discharge zones-the Michigan and Saginaw Lowlands-were further analyzed with regional- and local-scale SWL models. Groundwater valleys ("discharge" zones) and mounds ("recharge" zones) were identified for all models, and the proportions of wells with elevated Cl - concentrations in each zone were calculated, visualized, and compared. Concentrations in discharge zones, where groundwater is expected to flow primarily upwards, are consistently and significantly higher than those in recharge zones. A synoptic sampling campaign in the Michigan Lowlands revealed concentrations generally increase with depth, a trend noted in previous studies of the Saginaw Lowlands. These strong, consistent SWL and Cl - distribution patterns across multiple scales suggest that a deep source (i.e., Michigan brines) is the primary cause for the elevated chloride concentrations observed in discharge areas across the peninsula. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Extraction of airway trees using multiple hypothesis tracking and template matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavendra, Selvan; Petersen, Jens; Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst

    2016-01-01

    used in constructing a multiple hypothesis tree, which is then traversed to reach decisions. The proposed modifications remove the need for local thresholding of hypotheses as decisions are made entirely based on statistical comparisons involving the hypothesis tree. The results show improvements......Knowledge of airway tree morphology has important clinical applications in diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We present an automatic tree extraction method based on multiple hypothesis tracking and template matching for this purpose and evaluate its performance on chest CT images...

  18. Modeling and optimization of a utility system containing multiple extractions steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xianglong; Zhang, Bingjian; Chen, Ying; Mo, Songping

    2011-01-01

    Complex turbines with multiple controlled and/or uncontrolled extractions are popularly used in the processing industry and cogeneration plants to provide steam of different levels, electric power, and driving power. To characterize thermodynamic behavior under varying conditions, nonlinear mathematical models are developed based on energy balance, thermodynamic principles, and semi-empirical equations. First, the complex turbine is decomposed into several simple turbines from the controlled extraction stages and modeled in series. THM (The turbine hardware model) developing concept is applied to predict the isentropic efficiency of the decomposed simple turbines. Stodola's formulation is also used to simulate the uncontrolled extraction steam parameters. The thermodynamic properties of steam and water are regressed through linearization or piece-wise linearization. Second, comparison between the simulated results using the proposed model and the data in the working condition diagram provided by the manufacturer is conducted over a wide range of operations. The simulation results yield small deviation from the data in the working condition diagram where the maximum modeling error is 0.87% among the compared seven operation conditions. Last, the optimization model of a utility system containing multiple extraction turbines is established and a detailed case is analyzed. Compared with the conventional operation strategy, a maximum of 5.47% of the total operation cost is saved using the proposed optimization model. -- Highlights: → We develop a complete simulation model for steam turbine with multiple extractions. → We test the simulation model using the performance data of commercial turbines. → The simulation error of electric power generation is no more than 0.87%. → We establish a utility system operational optimization model. → The optimal industrial operation scheme featured with 5.47% of cost saving.

  19. Multiple hypothesis tracking based extraction of airway trees from CT data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavendra, Selvan; Petersen, Jens; de Bruijne, Marleen

    Segmentation of airway trees from CT scans of lungs has important clinical applications, in relation to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here we present a method based on multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) and template matching, originally devised for vessel...... segmentation, to extract airway trees. Idealized tubular templates are constructed and ranked using scores assigned based on the image data. Several such regularly spaced hypotheses are used in constructing a hypothesis tree, which is then traversed to obtain improved segmentation results....

  20. New ISR and SPS collider multiplicity data and the Golokhvastov generalization of the KNO scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szwed, R.; Wrochna, G.

    1985-01-01

    The generalization of KNO scaling proposed by Golokhvastov (KNO-G scaling) is tested using pp multiplicity data, in particular results of the new high precision ISR measurements. Since the data obey KNO-G scaling over the full energy range √s=2.51-62.2 GeV with the scaling function psi(z), having only one free parameter, the superiority of the KNO-G over the standard approach is clearly demonstrated. The extrapolation within KNO-G scaling to the SPS Collider energy range and a comparison with the recent UA5 multiplicity results is presented. (orig.)

  1. Nonlinear MHD dynamics of tokamak plasmas on multiple time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.; Schnack, D.D.; Brennan, D.P.; Gianakon, T.A.; Sovinec, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Two types of numerical, nonlinear simulations using the NIMROD code are presented. In the first simulation, we model the disruption occurring in DIII-D discharge 87009 as an ideal MHD instability driven unstable by neutral-beam heating. The mode grows faster than exponential, but on a time scale that is a hybrid of the heating rate and the ideal MHD growth rate as predicted by analytic theory. The second type of simulations, which occur on a much longer time scale, focus on the seeding of tearing modes by sawteeth. Pressure effects play a role both in the exterior region solutions and in the neoclassical drive terms. The results of both simulations are reviewed and their implications for experimental analysis is discussed. (author)

  2. Human learning: Power laws or multiple characteristic time scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottfried Mayer-Kress

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The central proposal of A. Newell and Rosenbloom (1981 was that the power law is the ubiquitous law of learning. This proposition is discussed in the context of the key factors that led to the acceptance of the power law as the function of learning. We then outline the principles of an epigenetic landscape framework for considering the role of the characteristic time scales of learning and an approach to system identification of the processes of performance dynamics. In this view, the change of performance over time is the product of a superposition of characteristic exponential time scales that reflect the influence of different processes. This theoretical approach can reproduce the traditional power law of practice – within the experimental resolution of performance data sets - but we hypothesize that this function may prove to be a special and perhaps idealized case of learning.

  3. Gender Effect According to Item Directionality on the Perceived Stress Scale for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitchel, W. Dent; Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is critical to rehabilitation practice and research, and self-reports are a commonly used form of assessment. This study examines a gender effect according to item wording on the "Perceived Stress Scale" for adults with multiple sclerosis. Past studies have demonstrated two-factor solutions on this scale and other scales measuring…

  4. Transition in multiple-scale-lengths turbulence in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Kitazawa, A. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed for the cases where fluctuations with different scale-lengths coexist. Statistical nonlinear interactions between semi-micro and micro modes are first kept in the analysis as the drag, noise and drive. The nonlinear dynamics determines both the fluctuation levels and the cross field turbulent transport for the fixed global parameters. A quenching or suppressing effect is induced by their nonlinear interplay, even if both modes are unstable when analyzed independently. Influence of the inhomogeneous global radial electric field is discussed. A new insight is given for the physics of internal transport barrier. The thermal fluctuation of the scale length of {lambda}{sub D} is assumed to be statistically independent. The hierarchical structure is constructed according to the scale lengths. Transitions in turbulence are found and phase diagrams with cusp type catastrophe are obtained. Dynamics is followed. Statistical properties of the subcritical excitation are discussed. The probability density function (PDF) and transition probability are obtained. Power-laws are obtained in the PDF as well as in the transition probability. Generalization for the case where turbulence is composed of three-classes of modes is also developed. A new catastrophe of turbulent sates is obtained. (author)

  5. Transition in multiple-scale-lengths turbulence in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Kitazawa, A.

    2002-02-01

    The statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed for the cases where fluctuations with different scale-lengths coexist. Statistical nonlinear interactions between semi-micro and micro modes are first kept in the analysis as the drag, noise and drive. The nonlinear dynamics determines both the fluctuation levels and the cross field turbulent transport for the fixed global parameters. A quenching or suppressing effect is induced by their nonlinear interplay, even if both modes are unstable when analyzed independently. Influence of the inhomogeneous global radial electric field is discussed. A new insight is given for the physics of internal transport barrier. The thermal fluctuation of the scale length of λ D is assumed to be statistically independent. The hierarchical structure is constructed according to the scale lengths. Transitions in turbulence are found and phase diagrams with cusp type catastrophe are obtained. Dynamics is followed. Statistical properties of the subcritical excitation are discussed. The probability density function (PDF) and transition probability are obtained. Power-laws are obtained in the PDF as well as in the transition probability. Generalization for the case where turbulence is composed of three-classes of modes is also developed. A new catastrophe of turbulent sates is obtained. (author)

  6. A model for AGN variability on multiple time-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Lia F.; Schawinski, Kevin; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Caplar, Neven; Treister, Ezequiel; Koss, Michael J.; Urry, C. Megan; Zhang, C. E.

    2018-05-01

    We present a framework to link and describe active galactic nuclei (AGN) variability on a wide range of time-scales, from days to billions of years. In particular, we concentrate on the AGN variability features related to changes in black hole fuelling and accretion rate. In our framework, the variability features observed in different AGN at different time-scales may be explained as realisations of the same underlying statistical properties. In this context, we propose a model to simulate the evolution of AGN light curves with time based on the probability density function (PDF) and power spectral density (PSD) of the Eddington ratio (L/LEdd) distribution. Motivated by general galaxy population properties, we propose that the PDF may be inspired by the L/LEdd distribution function (ERDF), and that a single (or limited number of) ERDF+PSD set may explain all observed variability features. After outlining the framework and the model, we compile a set of variability measurements in terms of structure function (SF) and magnitude difference. We then combine the variability measurements on a SF plot ranging from days to Gyr. The proposed framework enables constraints on the underlying PSD and the ability to link AGN variability on different time-scales, therefore providing new insights into AGN variability and black hole growth phenomena.

  7. PATTERN CLASSIFICATION APPROACHES TO MATCHING BUILDING POLYGONS AT MULTIPLE SCALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Matching of building polygons with different levels of detail is crucial in the maintenance and quality assessment of multi-representation databases. Two general problems need to be addressed in the matching process: (1 Which criteria are suitable? (2 How to effectively combine different criteria to make decisions? This paper mainly focuses on the second issue and views data matching as a supervised pattern classification. Several classifiers (i.e. decision trees, Naive Bayes and support vector machines are evaluated for the matching task. Four criteria (i.e. position, size, shape and orientation are used to extract information for these classifiers. Evidence shows that these classifiers outperformed the weighted average approach.

  8. Relationships between avian richness and landscape structure at multiple scales using multiple landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Mitchell; Scott H. Rutzmoser; T. Bently Wigley; Craig Loehle; John A. Gerwin; Patrick D. Keyser; Richard A. Lancia; Roger W. Perry; Christopher L. Reynolds; Ronald E. Thill; Robert Weih; Don White; Petra Bohall Wood

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about factors that structure biodiversity on landscape scales, yet current land management protocols, such as forest certification programs, place an increasing emphasis on managing for sustainable biodiversity at landscape scales. We used a replicated landscape study to evaluate relationships between forest structure and avian diversity at both stand...

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds from Aromatic Plants by Means of Dynamic Headspace Extraction and Multiple Headspace Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omar, Jone; Olivares, Maitane; Alonso, Ibone; Vallejo, Asier; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-01-01

    Seven monoterpenes in 4 aromatic plants (sage, cardamom, lavender, and rosemary) were quantified in liquid extracts and directly in solid samples by means of dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DHS-GC-MS) and multiple headspace extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  10. Micro-electromembrane extraction using multiple free liquid membranes and acceptor solutions - Towards selective extractions of analytes based on their acid-base strength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Seip, K. F.; Gjelstad, A.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 943, NOV (2016), s. 64-73 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : multiple phase extraction * electromembrane extraction * plasma Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  11. Micro-electromembrane extraction using multiple free liquid membranes and acceptor solutions - Towards selective extractions of analytes based on their acid-base strength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Seip, K. F.; Gjelstad, A.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 943, NOV (2016), s. 64-73 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : multiple phase extraction * electromembrane extraction * plasma Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  12. AN EFFICIENT METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC ROAD EXTRACTION BASED ON MULTIPLE FEATURES FROM LiDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The road extraction in urban areas is difficult task due to the complicated patterns and many contextual objects. LiDAR data directly provides three dimensional (3D points with less occlusions and smaller shadows. The elevation information and surface roughness are distinguishing features to separate roads. However, LiDAR data has some disadvantages are not beneficial to object extraction, such as the irregular distribution of point clouds and lack of clear edges of roads. For these problems, this paper proposes an automatic road centerlines extraction method which has three major steps: (1 road center point detection based on multiple feature spatial clustering for separating road points from ground points, (2 local principal component analysis with least squares fitting for extracting the primitives of road centerlines, and (3 hierarchical grouping for connecting primitives into complete roads network. Compared with MTH (consist of Mean shift algorithm, Tensor voting, and Hough transform proposed in our previous article, this method greatly reduced the computational cost. To evaluate the proposed method, the Vaihingen data set, a benchmark testing data provided by ISPRS for “Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction” project, was selected. The experimental results show that our method achieve the same performance by less time in road extraction using LiDAR data.

  13. An Efficient Method for Automatic Road Extraction Based on Multiple Features from LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Hu, X.; Guan, H.; Liu, P.

    2016-06-01

    The road extraction in urban areas is difficult task due to the complicated patterns and many contextual objects. LiDAR data directly provides three dimensional (3D) points with less occlusions and smaller shadows. The elevation information and surface roughness are distinguishing features to separate roads. However, LiDAR data has some disadvantages are not beneficial to object extraction, such as the irregular distribution of point clouds and lack of clear edges of roads. For these problems, this paper proposes an automatic road centerlines extraction method which has three major steps: (1) road center point detection based on multiple feature spatial clustering for separating road points from ground points, (2) local principal component analysis with least squares fitting for extracting the primitives of road centerlines, and (3) hierarchical grouping for connecting primitives into complete roads network. Compared with MTH (consist of Mean shift algorithm, Tensor voting, and Hough transform) proposed in our previous article, this method greatly reduced the computational cost. To evaluate the proposed method, the Vaihingen data set, a benchmark testing data provided by ISPRS for "Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction" project, was selected. The experimental results show that our method achieve the same performance by less time in road extraction using LiDAR data.

  14. Large-Scale Data for Multiple-View Stereopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Vogiatzis, George

    2016-01-01

    The seminal multiple-view stereo benchmark evaluations from Middlebury and by Strecha et al. have played a major role in propelling the development of multi-view stereopsis (MVS) methodology. The somewhat small size and variability of these data sets, however, limit their scope and the conclusions...... that can be derived from them. To facilitate further development within MVS, we here present a new and varied data set consisting of 80 scenes, seen from 49 or 64 accurate camera positions. This is accompanied by accurate structured light scans for reference and evaluation. In addition all images are taken...... under seven different lighting conditions. As a benchmark and to validate the use of our data set for obtaining reasonable and statistically significant findings about MVS, we have applied the three state-of-the-art MVS algorithms by Campbell et al., Furukawa et al., and Tola et al. to the data set...

  15. Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, translation, adaptation and validation for the Persian language population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Naghdi, Soofia; Mohammadi, Roghaye; Hasson, Scott

    2015-02-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) is a multi-item rating scale used to assess the perspectives of patients about the impact of MS on their walking ability. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the MSWS-12 in Persian speaking patients with MS. The MSWS-12 questionnaire was translated into Persian language according to internationally adopted standards involving forward-backward translation, reviewed by an expert committee and tested on the pre-final version. In this cross-sectional study, 100 participants (50 patients with MS and 50 healthy subjects) were included. The MSWS-12 was administered twice 7 days apart to 30 patients with MS for test and retest reliability. Internal consistency reliability was Cronbach's α 0.96 for test and 0.97 for retest. There were no significant floor or ceiling effects. Test-retest reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] agreement of 0.98, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99) confirming the reproducibility of the Persian MSWS-12. Construct validity using known group methods was demonstrated through a significant difference in the Persian MSWS-12 total score between the patients with MS and healthy subjects. Factor analysis extracted 2 latent factors (79.24% of the total variance). A second factor analysis suggested the 9-item Persian MSWS as a unidimensional scale for patients with MS. The Persian MSWS-12 was found to be valid and reliable for assessing walking ability in Persian speaking patients with MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Scaling of chaotic multiplicity: A new observation in high-energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, D.; Ghosh, P.; Roy, J.

    1990-01-01

    We analyze high-energy-interaction data to study the dependence of chaotic multiplicity on the pseudorapidity window and propose a new scaling function bar Ψ(bar z)=left-angle n 1 right-angle/left-angle n right-angle max where left-angle n 1 right-angle is the chaotic multiplicity and bar z=left-angle n right-angle/left-angle n right-angle max is the reduced multiplicity, following the quantum-optical concept of particle production. It has been observed that the proposed ''chaotic multiplicity scaling'' is obeyed by pp, p bar p, and AA collisions at different available energies

  17. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyben, Florian; Weninger, Felix; Lehment, Nicolas; Schuller, Björn; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP) on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis.

  18. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Eyben

    Full Text Available Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis.

  19. Neural Computations in a Dynamical System with Multiple Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Mi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural systems display rich short-term dynamics at various levels, e.g., spike-frequencyadaptation (SFA at single neurons, and short-term facilitation (STF and depression (STDat neuronal synapses. These dynamical features typically covers a broad range of time scalesand exhibit large diversity in different brain regions. It remains unclear what the computationalbenefit for the brain to have such variability in short-term dynamics is. In this study, we proposethat the brain can exploit such dynamical features to implement multiple seemingly contradictorycomputations in a single neural circuit. To demonstrate this idea, we use continuous attractorneural network (CANN as a working model and include STF, SFA and STD with increasing timeconstants in their dynamics. Three computational tasks are considered, which are persistent activity,adaptation, and anticipative tracking. These tasks require conflicting neural mechanisms, andhence cannot be implemented by a single dynamical feature or any combination with similar timeconstants. However, with properly coordinated STF, SFA and STD, we show that the network isable to implement the three computational tasks concurrently. We hope this study will shed lighton the understanding of how the brain orchestrates its rich dynamics at various levels to realizediverse cognitive functions.

  20. An alternative to scale-space representation for extracting local features in image recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Nguyen, Phuong Giang

    2012-01-01

    In image recognition, the common approach for extracting local features using a scale-space representation has usually three main steps; first interest points are extracted at different scales, next from a patch around each interest point the rotation is calculated with corresponding orientation...... and compensation, and finally a descriptor is computed for the derived patch (i.e. feature of the patch). To avoid the memory and computational intensive process of constructing the scale-space, we use a method where no scale-space is required This is done by dividing the given image into a number of triangles...... with sizes dependent on the content of the image, at the location of each triangle. In this paper, we will demonstrate that by rotation of the interest regions at the triangles it is possible in grey scale images to achieve a recognition precision comparable with that of MOPS. The test of the proposed method...

  1. Multiple-scale stochastic processes: Decimation, averaging and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.bo@nordita.org [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Celani, Antonio [Quantitative Life Sciences, The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 - Trieste (Italy)

    2017-02-07

    The recent experimental progresses in handling microscopic systems have allowed to probe them at levels where fluctuations are prominent, calling for stochastic modeling in a large number of physical, chemical and biological phenomena. This has provided fruitful applications for established stochastic methods and motivated further developments. These systems often involve processes taking place on widely separated time scales. For an efficient modeling one usually focuses on the slower degrees of freedom and it is of great importance to accurately eliminate the fast variables in a controlled fashion, carefully accounting for their net effect on the slower dynamics. This procedure in general requires to perform two different operations: decimation and coarse-graining. We introduce the asymptotic methods that form the basis of this procedure and discuss their application to a series of physical, biological and chemical examples. We then turn our attention to functionals of the stochastic trajectories such as residence times, counting statistics, fluxes, entropy production, etc. which have been increasingly studied in recent years. For such functionals, the elimination of the fast degrees of freedom can present additional difficulties and naive procedures can lead to blatantly inconsistent results. Homogenization techniques for functionals are less covered in the literature and we will pedagogically present them here, as natural extensions of the ones employed for the trajectories. We will also discuss recent applications of these techniques to the thermodynamics of small systems and their interpretation in terms of information-theoretic concepts.

  2. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  3. Tidal Channel Diatom Assemblages Reflect within Wetland Environmental Conditions and Land Use at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    We characterized regional patterns of the tidal channel benthic diatom community and examined the relative importance of local wetland and surrounding landscape level factors measured at multiple scales in structuring this assemblage. Surrounding land cover was characterized at ...

  4. A study of multiplicity scaling of particles produced in 16O-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.

    2015-01-01

    Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) scaling has been a dominant framework to study the behaviour of multiplicity distribution of charged particles produced in high-energy hadronic collisions. Several workers have made attempt to investigate multiplicity distributions of particles produced in hadron-hadron (h-h), hadron-nucleus (h-A) and nucleus-nucleus (A-A) collisions at relativistic energies. Multiplicity distributions in p-nucleus interactions in emulsion experiments are found to be consistent with the KNO scaling. The applicability of the scaling of multiplicities was extended to FNL energies by earlier workers. Slattery has shown that KNO scaling is in agreement with the data on pp interactions over a wide-range of energies

  5. Multiple biological complex of alkaline extract of the leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Zhou, Li; Kawano, Michiyo; Thet, May Maw; Tanaka, Shoji; Machino, Mamoru; Amano, Shigeru; Kuroshita, Reina; Watanabe, Shigeru; Chu, Qing; Wang, Qin-Tao; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Sekine, Keisuke; Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Chang-Hao; Uesawa, Yoshihiro; Mohri, Kiminori; Kitajima, Madoka; Oizumi, Hiroshi; Oizumi, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown anti-inflammatory potential of alkaline extract of the leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder (SE). The aim of the present study was to clarity the molecular entity of SE, using various fractionation methods. SE inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), but not tumour necrosis factor-α by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage-like cells. Lignin carbohydrate complex prepared from SE inhibited the NO production to a comparable extent with SE, whereas chlorophyllin was more active. On successive extraction with organic solvents, nearly 90% of SE components, including chlorophyllin, were recovered from the aqueous layer. Anti-HIV activity of SE was comparable with that of lignin-carbohydrate complex, and much higher than that of chlorophyllin and n-butanol extract fractions. The CYP3A inhibitory activity of SE was significantly lower than that of grapefruit juice and chlorophyllin. Oral administration of SE slightly reduced the number of oral bacteria. When SE was applied to HPLC, nearly 70% of SE components were eluted as a single peak. These data suggest that multiple components of SE may be associated with each other in the native state or after extraction with alkaline solution.

  6. Materials and nanosystems : interdisciplinary computational modeling at multiple scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last five decades, computer simulation and numerical modeling have become valuable tools complementing the traditional pillars of science, experiment and theory. In this thesis, several applications of computer-based simulation and modeling shall be explored in order to address problems and open issues in chemical and molecular physics. Attention shall be paid especially to the different degrees of interrelatedness and multiscale-flavor, which may - at least to some extent - be regarded as inherent properties of computational chemistry. In order to do so, a variety of computational methods are used to study features of molecular systems which are of relevance in various branches of science and which correspond to different spatial and/or temporal scales. Proceeding from small to large measures, first, an application in astrochemistry, the investigation of spectroscopic and energetic aspects of carbonic acid isomers shall be discussed. In this respect, very accurate and hence at the same time computationally very demanding electronic structure methods like the coupled-cluster approach are employed. These studies are followed by the discussion of an application in the scope of plasma-wall interaction which is related to nuclear fusion research. There, the interactions of atoms and molecules with graphite surfaces are explored using density functional theory methods. The latter are computationally cheaper than coupled-cluster methods and thus allow the treatment of larger molecular systems, but yield less accuracy and especially reduced error control at the same time. The subsequently presented exploration of surface defects at low-index polar zinc oxide surfaces, which are of interest in materials science and surface science, is another surface science application. The necessity to treat even larger systems of several hundreds of atoms requires the use of approximate density functional theory methods. Thin gold nanowires consisting of several thousands of

  7. Modeling Group Perceptions Using Stochastic Simulation: Scaling Issues in the Multiplicative AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Robin; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decision support approach for applying stochastic simulation to the multiplicative analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in order to deal with issues concerning the scale parameter. The paper suggests a new approach that captures the influence from the scale parameter by maki...

  8. Patterns of disturbance at multiple scales in real and simulated landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni Zurlini; Kurt H. Riitters; Nicola Zaccarelli; Irene Petrosoillo

    2007-01-01

    We describe a framework to characterize and interpret the spatial patterns of disturbances at multiple scales in socio-ecological systems. Domains of scale are defined in pattern metric space and mapped in geographic space, which can help to understand how anthropogenic disturbances might impact biodiversity through habitat modification. The approach identifies typical...

  9. Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Marie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis therapy has been considered an effective treatment for spasticity, although clinical reports of symptom reduction in multiple sclerosis (MS describe mixed outcomes. Recently introduced therapies of combined Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD extracts have potential for symptom relief with the possibility of reducing intoxication and other side effects. Although several past reviews have suggested that cannabinoid therapy provides a therapeutic benefit for symptoms of MS, none have presented a methodical investigation of newer cannabinoid treatments in MS-related spasticity. The purpose of the present review was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of combined THC and CBD extracts on MS-related spasticity in order to increase understanding of the treatment's potential effectiveness, safety and limitations. Methods We reviewed MEDLINE/PubMed, Ovid, and CENTRAL electronic databases for relevant studies using randomized controlled trials. Studies were included only if a combination of THC and CBD extracts was used, and if pre- and post-treatment assessments of spasticity were reported. Results Six studies were systematically reviewed for treatment dosage and duration, objective and subjective measures of spasticity, and reports of adverse events. Although there was variation in the outcome measures reported in these studies, a trend of reduced spasticity in treated patients was noted. Adverse events were reported in each study, however combined TCH and CBD extracts were generally considered to be well-tolerated. Conclusion We found evidence that combined THC and CBD extracts may provide therapeutic benefit for MS spasticity symptoms. Although some objective measures of spasticity noted improvement trends, there were no changes found to be significant in post-treatment assessments. However, subjective assessment of symptom relief did often show significant improvement post-treatment. Differences in

  10. Operational tools to build a multicriteria territorial risk scale with multiple stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cailloux, Olivier; Mayag, Brice; Meyer, Patrick; Mousseau, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating and comparing the threats and vulnerabilities associated with territorial zones according to multiple criteria (industrial activity, population, etc.) can be a time-consuming task and often requires the participation of several stakeholders. Rather than a direct evaluation of these zones, building a risk assessment scale and using it in a formal procedure permits to automate the assessment and therefore to apply it in a repeated way and in large-scale contexts and, provided the chosen procedure and scale are accepted, to make it objective. One of the main difficulties of building such a formal evaluation procedure is to account for the multiple decision makers' preferences. The procedure used in this article, ELECTRE TRI, uses the performances of each territorial zone on multiple criteria, together with preferential parameters from multiple decision makers, to qualitatively assess their associated risk level. We also present operational tools in order to implement such a procedure in practice, and show their use on a detailed example

  11. IMAGE CAPTURE WITH SYNCHRONIZED MULTIPLE-CAMERAS FOR EXTRACTION OF ACCURATE GEOMETRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koehl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a project of recording and modelling tunnels, traffic circles and roads from multiple sensors. The aim is the representation and the accurate 3D modelling of a selection of road infrastructures as dense point clouds in order to extract profiles and metrics from it. Indeed, these models will be used for the sizing of infrastructures in order to simulate exceptional convoy truck routes. The objective is to extract directly from the point clouds the heights, widths and lengths of bridges and tunnels, the diameter of gyrating and to highlight potential obstacles for a convoy. Light, mobile and fast acquisition approaches based on images and videos from a set of synchronized sensors have been tested in order to obtain useable point clouds. The presented solution is based on a combination of multiple low-cost cameras designed on an on-boarded device allowing dynamic captures. The experimental device containing GoPro Hero4 cameras has been set up and used for tests in static or mobile acquisitions. That way, various configurations have been tested by using multiple synchronized cameras. These configurations are discussed in order to highlight the best operational configuration according to the shape of the acquired objects. As the precise calibration of each sensor and its optics are major factors in the process of creation of accurate dense point clouds, and in order to reach the best quality available from such cameras, the estimation of the internal parameters of fisheye lenses of the cameras has been processed. Reference measures were also realized by using a 3D TLS (Faro Focus 3D to allow the accuracy assessment.

  12. Image Capture with Synchronized Multiple-Cameras for Extraction of Accurate Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, M.; Delacourt, T.; Boutry, C.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a project of recording and modelling tunnels, traffic circles and roads from multiple sensors. The aim is the representation and the accurate 3D modelling of a selection of road infrastructures as dense point clouds in order to extract profiles and metrics from it. Indeed, these models will be used for the sizing of infrastructures in order to simulate exceptional convoy truck routes. The objective is to extract directly from the point clouds the heights, widths and lengths of bridges and tunnels, the diameter of gyrating and to highlight potential obstacles for a convoy. Light, mobile and fast acquisition approaches based on images and videos from a set of synchronized sensors have been tested in order to obtain useable point clouds. The presented solution is based on a combination of multiple low-cost cameras designed on an on-boarded device allowing dynamic captures. The experimental device containing GoPro Hero4 cameras has been set up and used for tests in static or mobile acquisitions. That way, various configurations have been tested by using multiple synchronized cameras. These configurations are discussed in order to highlight the best operational configuration according to the shape of the acquired objects. As the precise calibration of each sensor and its optics are major factors in the process of creation of accurate dense point clouds, and in order to reach the best quality available from such cameras, the estimation of the internal parameters of fisheye lenses of the cameras has been processed. Reference measures were also realized by using a 3D TLS (Faro Focus 3D) to allow the accuracy assessment.

  13. On Feature Extraction from Large Scale Linear LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharjee, Partha Pratim

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) can generate co-registered elevation and intensity map over large terrain. The co-registered 3D map and intensity information can be used efficiently for different feature extraction application. In this dissertation, we developed two algorithms for feature extraction, and usages of features for practical applications. One of the developed algorithms can map still and flowing waterbody features, and another one can extract building feature and estimate solar potential on rooftops and facades. Remote sensing capabilities, distinguishing characteristics of laser returns from water surface and specific data collection procedures provide LiDAR data an edge in this application domain. Furthermore, water surface mapping solutions must work on extremely large datasets, from a thousand square miles, to hundreds of thousands of square miles. National and state-wide map generation/upgradation and hydro-flattening of LiDAR data for many other applications are two leading needs of water surface mapping. These call for as much automation as possible. Researchers have developed many semi-automated algorithms using multiple semi-automated tools and human interventions. This reported work describes a consolidated algorithm and toolbox developed for large scale, automated water surface mapping. Geometric features such as flatness of water surface, higher elevation change in water-land interface and, optical properties such as dropouts caused by specular reflection, bimodal intensity distributions were some of the linear LiDAR features exploited for water surface mapping. Large-scale data handling capabilities are incorporated by automated and intelligent windowing, by resolving boundary issues and integrating all results to a single output. This whole algorithm is developed as an ArcGIS toolbox using Python libraries. Testing and validation are performed on a large datasets to determine the effectiveness of the toolbox and results are

  14. Measurement of hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering and extraction of quark fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel-Garcia, Quiela-Marina

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of the COMPASS experience is the study of the nucleon spin structure. Data were taken from a polarized muon beam (160 GeV/c) scattering off a polarized target ( 6 LiD or NH 3 ). In this context, the need of a precise knowledge of quark Fragmentation Functions (final-state hadronization of quarks q into hadrons h, FFs) was raised. The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). This thesis presents the measurement of charged hadrons (pions and kaons) multiplicities from SIDIS data collected in 2006. The data cover a large kinematical range: Q 2 ≥1 (GeV/c)2, y belongs to [0.1,0.9], x belongs to [0.004,0.7] and W belongs to [5,17] GeV. These multiplicities provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the FFs determination. (author) [fr

  15. Scaling in multiplicity distributions of heavy, black and grey prongs in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.; Torsti, J.J.; Valtonen, E.

    1979-01-01

    The validity of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling hypothesis was examined in the case of heavy, black, and grey prongs in proton-emulsion collisions ('heavy' means 'either black or grey'). The average multiplicities of these prongs were computed in the region 0.1-400 GeV for the nuclei C, N, O, S, Br, Ag, and I. After the inclusion of the energy-dependent excitation probability of the nuclei of the form P* = b 0 + b 1 ln E 0 into the model, experimental multiplicity distributions in the energy region 6-300 GeV agreed satisfactorily with the scaling hypothesis. The ratio of the dispersion D (D = √ 2 >- 2 ) to the average multiplicity in the scaling functions of heavy, balck, and grey prongs was estimated to be 0.86, 0.84, and 1.04, respectively, in the high energy region. (Auth.)

  16. Scaling of multiplicity distribution in hadron collisions and diffractive-excitation like models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, A.J.; Dethlefsen, J.M.; Koba, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Multiplicity distribution of secondary particles in inelastic hadron collision at high energy is studied in the semiclassical impact parameter representation. The scaling function is shown to consist of two factors: one geometrical and the other dynamical. We propose a specific choice of these factors, which describe satisfactorily the elastic scattering, the ratio of elastic to total cross-section and the simple scaling behaviour of multiplicity distribution in p-p collisions. Two versions of diffractive-excitation like models (global and local excitation) are presented as interpretation of our choice of dynamical factor. (author)

  17. Anaesthetic Management of A Child with Multiple Congenital Anomalies Scheduled for Cataract Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Kulkarni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In infants& children variety of conditions and syndromes are associated with difficult Airway. Anaesthetic management becomes a challenge if it remains unrecognized until induction and sometimes results in disaster, leading to oropharyngeal trauma, laryngeal oedema, cardiovascular& neurological complications. A 4-month-old child with multiple congenital anomalies was posted for cataract extraction for early and better development of vision. He had history of post birth respiratory distress, difficulty in feeding, breath holding with delayed mile stones. He was treated as for Juvenile asthma. This child was induced with inhalation anaesthesia. There was difficulty in laryngoscopic intubation and could pass much smaller size of the tube than predicted. He developed post operative stridor and desaturation. The problems which we faced during the anaesthetic management and during postoperative period are discussed with this case.

  18. Multiple-Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Multiscale Feature Extraction and MSVM_PPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of rolling bearing fault patterns, especially for the compound faults, has attracted notable attention and is still a challenge in fault diagnosis. In this paper, a novel method called multiscale feature extraction (MFE and multiclass support vector machine (MSVM with particle parameter adaptive (PPA is proposed. MFE is used to preprocess the process signals, which decomposes the data into intrinsic mode function by empirical mode decomposition method, and instantaneous frequency of decomposed components was obtained by Hilbert transformation. Then, statistical features and principal component analysis are utilized to extract significant information from the features, to get effective data from multiple faults. MSVM method with PPA parameters optimization will classify the fault patterns. The results of a case study of the rolling bearings faults data from Case Western Reserve University show that (1 the proposed intelligent method (MFE_PPA_MSVM improves the classification recognition rate; (2 the accuracy will decline when the number of fault patterns increases; (3 prediction accuracy can be the best when the training set size is increased to 70% of the total sample set. It verifies the method is feasible and efficient for fault diagnosis.

  19. Genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid in multiples organs of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larangeira, Paula Martins; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-11-01

    The ionic liquid or melted salt 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium is an alternative process to extract natural pigments, such as carotenoids. Lycopene represents 80-90% of total of carotenoids presents in tomatoes and it has been widely studied due its potent antioxidant action. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid using experimental model in vivo. For this purpose, a total of 20 male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups (n=5), as follows: control group; received a corresponding amount of corn oil for 7days by intragastric gavage (i.g.), ionic liquid group, received 10mgkg -1 body weight for 7days by gavage; 10mg carotenoids group, received 10mgkg -1 bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage and 500mg carotenoids group, received 500mgkg -1 bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage. Rat liver treated with ionic liquid exhibited moderate histopathological changes randomly distributed in the parenchyma, such as cytoplasmic eosinophilia, apoptotic bodies, inflammatory infiltrate and focal necrosis. DNA damage was found in peripheral blood and liver cells of rats treated with ionic liquid or carotenoids at 500mg. An increase of micronucleated cells and 8-OhDG immunopositive cells were also detected in rats treated with carotenoids at 500mg. In summary, our results demonstrate that recommended dose for human daily intake of carotenoids extracted by ionic liquid did not induce genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in multiple organs of rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Process engineering challenges of uranium extraction from phosphoric acid on industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouriya, Govind; Singh, Dhirendra; Nath, A.K.; Majumdar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy Water Board (HWB) is a constituent unit of the Department of Atomic Energy. One of the diversified activities undertaken by HWB is pursuing exploitation of non-conventional resources for recovery of uranium from wet phosphoric acid being the most prominent one. Amongst the feasible processes for recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid is solvent extraction. Use of in-house solvent produced by HWB, is another key driver. To garner necessary information for developing the industrial scale facilities, the process has been studied in the laboratory scale, mini scale, bench scale at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher. The process was subsequently scaled up to an industrial prototype scale unit and was set up as a Technology Demonstration Plant coupled with a commercial phosphoric acid plant. The plant has successfully processed more than 2 lakh m 3 of wet phosphoric acid and all the parameters including the product, Yellow Cake have been qualified. No adverse effect has been observed in the fertilizer produced. The main characteristics of the process and subsequent process innovations are discussed in this paper. These innovations have been carried out to overcome hurdles faced during commissioning and subsequent operations of the Plant. The innovations include improved pretreatment of the wet phosphoric acid for feeding to the extraction cycle, improved control of the first cycle chemical environment, reducing the strength of the phosphoric acid used for stripping, reducing the number of equipment and machineries, alteration in solvent composition used in the first and second cycle in the solvent extraction units of the plant. (author)

  1. Linking Fine-Scale Observations and Model Output with Imagery at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, J.; Walthall, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The development and implementation of a system for seasonal worldwide agricultural yield estimates is underway with the international Group on Earth Observations GeoGLAM project. GeoGLAM includes a research component to continually improve and validate its algorithms. There is a history of field measurement campaigns going back decades to draw upon for ways of linking surface measurements and model results with satellite observations. Ground-based, in-situ measurements collected by interdisciplinary teams include yields, model inputs and factors affecting scene radiation. Data that is comparable across space and time with careful attention to calibration is essential for the development and validation of agricultural applications of remote sensing. Data management to ensure stewardship, availability and accessibility of the data are best accomplished when considered an integral part of the research. The expense and logistical challenges of field measurement campaigns can be cost-prohibitive and because of short funding cycles for research, access to consistent, stable study sites can be lost. The use of a dedicated staff for baseline data needed by multiple investigators, and conducting measurement campaigns using existing measurement networks such as the USDA Long Term Agroecosystem Research network can fulfill these needs and ensure long-term access to study sites.

  2. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Monitoring My Multiple Sclerosis Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Cansu; Tülek, Zeliha; Kürtüncü, Murat; Eraksoy, Mefkure

    2017-06-01

    This research was conducted to adapt the Monitoring My Multiple Sclerosis (MMMS) scale, which is a scale used for self-evaluation by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients of their own health and quality of life, to Turkish and to determine the psychometric properties of the scale. The methodological research was conducted in the outpatient MS clinic of a university hospital between January and September 2013. The sample in this study consisted of 140 patients aged above 18 who had a diagnosis of definite MS. Patients who experienced attacks in the previous month or had any serious medical problems other than MS were not included in the group. The linguistic validity of MMMS was tested by a backward-forward translation method and an expert panel. Reliability analysis was performed using test-retest correlations, item-total correlations, and internal consistency analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis and concurrent validity were used to determine the construct validity. The Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 instrument was used to determine concurrent validity and the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Mini Mental State Examination were used for further determination of the construct validity. We determined that the scale consisted of four factors with loadings ranging from 0.49 to 0.79. The correlation coefficients of the scale were determined to be between 0.47 and 0.76 for item-total score and between 0.60 and 0.81 for items and subscale scores. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was determined to be 0.94 for the entire scale and between 0.64 and 0.89 for the subscales. Test-retest correlations were significant. Correlations between MMMS and other scales were also found to be significant. The Turkish MMMS provides adequate validity and reliability for assessing the impact of MS on quality of life and health status in patients.

  3. Algorithmic Foundation of Spectral Rarefaction for Measuring Satellite Imagery Heterogeneity at Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchini, Duccio

    2009-01-01

    Measuring heterogeneity in satellite imagery is an important task to deal with. Most measures of spectral diversity have been based on Shannon Information theory. However, this approach does not inherently address different scales, ranging from local (hereafter referred to alpha diversity) to global scales (gamma diversity). The aim of this paper is to propose a method for measuring spectral heterogeneity at multiple scales based on rarefaction curves. An algorithmic solution of rarefaction applied to image pixel values (Digital Numbers, DNs) is provided and discussed. PMID:22389600

  4. Small-scale fluctuations in the microwave background radiation and multiple gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that multiple gravitational lensing of the microwave background radiation (MBR) by static compact objects significantly attenuates small-scale fluctuations in the MBR. Gravitational lensing, by altering trajectories of MBR photons reaching an observer, leads to (phase) mixing of photons from regions with different initial fluctuations. As a result of this diffusion process the original fluctuations are damped on scales up to several arcmin. An equation that describes this process and its general solution are given. It is concluded that the present upper limits on the amplitude of the MBR fluctuations on small scales cannot constrain theories of galaxy formation. 25 references

  5. Multiple scales and singular limits for compressible rotating fluids with general initial data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2014), s. 1104-1127 ISSN 0360-5302 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes equations * multiple scales * oscillatory integrals Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.013, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03605302.2013.856917

  6. Non-Abelian Kubo formula and the multiple time-scale method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Li, J.

    1996-01-01

    The non-Abelian Kubo formula is derived from the kinetic theory. That expression is compared with the one obtained using the eikonal for a Chern endash Simons theory. The multiple time-scale method is used to study the non-Abelian Kubo formula, and the damping rate for longitudinal color waves is computed. copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  7. Measuring floodplain spatial patterns using continuous surface metrics at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Murray W.; Thoms, Martin C.; DeJager, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between fluvial processes and floodplain ecosystems occur upon a floodplain surface that is often physically complex. Spatial patterns in floodplain topography have only recently been quantified over multiple scales, and discrepancies exist in how floodplain surfaces are perceived to be spatially organised. We measured spatial patterns in floodplain topography for pool 9 of the Upper Mississippi River, USA, using moving window analyses of eight surface metrics applied to a 1 × 1 m2 DEM over multiple scales. The metrics used were Range, SD, Skewness, Kurtosis, CV, SDCURV,Rugosity, and Vol:Area, and window sizes ranged from 10 to 1000 m in radius. Surface metric values were highly variable across the floodplain and revealed a high degree of spatial organisation in floodplain topography. Moran's I correlograms fit to the landscape of each metric at each window size revealed that patchiness existed at nearly all window sizes, but the strength and scale of patchiness changed within window size, suggesting that multiple scales of patchiness and patch structure exist in the topography of this floodplain. Scale thresholds in the spatial patterns were observed, particularly between the 50 and 100 m window sizes for all surface metrics and between the 500 and 750 m window sizes for most metrics. These threshold scales are ~ 15–20% and 150% of the main channel width (1–2% and 10–15% of the floodplain width), respectively. These thresholds may be related to structuring processes operating across distinct scale ranges. By coupling surface metrics, multi-scale analyses, and correlograms, quantifying floodplain topographic complexity is possible in ways that should assist in clarifying how floodplain ecosystems are structured.

  8. Validation of the fatigue scale for motor and cognitive functions in a danish multiple sclerosis cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oervik, M. S.; Sejbaek, T.; Penner, I. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Our objective was to validate the Danish translation of the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Materials and methods A Danish MS cohort (n = 84) was matched and compared to the original German validation cohort (n = 309) and a he......Background Our objective was to validate the Danish translation of the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Materials and methods A Danish MS cohort (n = 84) was matched and compared to the original German validation cohort (n = 309...... positive correlations between the two fatigue scales implied high convergent validity (total scores: r = 0.851, p gender). Correcting for depression did not result in any significant adjustments of the correlations...

  9. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  10. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva D. Bhatter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome, Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf, Piper nigrum L. (seed, and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549 infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity.

  11. Study of radium extraction mechanisms from scales by leaching in different acidic and alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Gafar, M.; Al-Kurdi, H.

    2002-07-01

    The present report shows the results of leaching experiments for scales containing naturally occuring radioactive materials using different acidic and alkaline media. The obtained result can be used for defining the method of safe disposal of such waste. Leaching solutions used in this study were distilled water, mineral acids (sulpharic acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid), sodium, potassium hydroxides, ammonium oxalate EDTA, sodium carbonate, potassium acetate, and a mixture of potassium chloride and hydrochloric acid. The results have shown that the extraction ratio of radium-226, the most abundant isotope in scales, is very low and even negligible using all different media. This indicates that all scales produced in Syrian oil fields do not require any chemical preparation before disposal. In addition, the effect of both stirring time of phrases and concentration of leaching media that may affect the radium transfer process from solid phase to aqueous phase have been investigated were no measurable amount being observed in the leachate. (author)

  12. Structural phylogeny by profile extraction and multiple superimposition using electrostatic congruence as a discriminator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Rao, Basuthkar J. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Baker, Nathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asgeirsson, Bjarni [Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2013-04-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of proteins using multiple sequence alignment (MSA) assumes an underlying evolutionary relationship in these proteins which occasionally remains undetected due to considerable sequence divergence. Structural alignment programs have been developed to unravel such fuzzy relationships. However, none of these structure based methods have used electrostatic properties to discriminate between spatially equivalent residues. We present a methodology for MSA of a set of related proteins with known structures using electrostatic properties as an additional discriminator (STEEP). STEEP first extracts a profile, then generates a multiple structural superimposition providing a consolidated spatial framework for comparing residues and finally emits the MSA. Residues that are aligned differently by including or excluding electrostatic properties can be targeted by directed evolution experiments to transform the enzymatic properties of one protein into another. We have compared STEEP results to those obtained from a MSA program (ClustalW) and a structural alignment method (MUSTANG) for chymotrypsin serine proteases. Subsequently, we used PhyML to generate phylogenetic trees for the serine and metallo-β-lactamase superfamilies from the STEEP generated MSA, and corroborated the accepted relationships in these superfamilies. We have observed that STEEP acts as a functional classifier when electrostatic congruence is used as a discriminator, and thus identifies potential targets for directed evolution experiments. In summary, STEEP is unique among phylogenetic methods for its ability to use electrostatic congruence to specify mutations that might be the source of the functional divergence in a protein family. Based on our results, we also hypothesize that the active site and its close vicinity contains enough information to infer the correct phylogeny for related proteins.

  13. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  14. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lilai, E-mail: llxu@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Gao, Peiqing, E-mail: peiqing15@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China); Cui, Shenghui, E-mail: shcui@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Chun, E-mail: xmhwlc@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  15. Combining MCDA and risk analysis: dealing with scaling issues in the multiplicative AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Rob; Salling, Kim Bang

    the progression factor 2 is used for calculating scores of alternatives and √2 for calculation of criteria weights when transforming the verbal judgments stemming from pair wise comparisons. However, depending on the decision context, the decision-makers aversion towards risk, etc., it is most likely......This paper proposes a new decision support system (DSS) for applying risk analysis and stochastic simulation to the multiplicative AHP in order to deal with issues concerning the progression factors. The multiplicative AHP makes use of direct rating on a logarithmic scale, and for this purpose...

  16. A multiple-group measurement scale for interprofessional collaboration: Adaptation and validation into Italian and German languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittadello, Fabio; Mischo-Kelling, Maria; Wieser, Heike; Cavada, Luisa; Lochner, Lukas; Naletto, Carla; Fink, Verena; Reeves, Scott

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a study that aimed to validate a translation of a multiple-group measurement scale for interprofessional collaboration (IPC). We used survey data gathered over a three month period as part of a mixed methods study that explored the nature of IPC in Northern Italy. Following a translation from English into Italian and German the survey was distributed online to over 5,000 health professionals (dieticians, nurses, occupational therapists, physicians, physiotherapists, speech therapists and psychologists) based in one regional health trust. In total, 2,238 different health professions completed the survey. Based on the original scale, three principal components were extracted and confirmed as relevant factors for IPC (communication, accommodation and isolation). A confirmatory analysis (3-factor model) was applied to the data of physicians and nurses by language group. In conclusion, the validation of the German and Italian IPC scale has provided an instrument of acceptable reliability and validity for the assessment of IPC involving physicians and nurses.

  17. Multiple time scale analysis of pressure oscillations in solid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqas; Maqsood, Adnan; Riaz, Rizwan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, acoustic pressure oscillations for single and coupled longitudinal acoustic modes in Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) are investigated using Multiple Time Scales (MTS) method. Two independent time scales are introduced. The oscillations occur on fast time scale whereas the amplitude and phase changes on slow time scale. Hopf bifurcation is employed to investigate the properties of the solution. The supercritical bifurcation phenomenon is observed for linearly unstable system. The amplitude of the oscillations result from equal energy gain and loss rates of longitudinal acoustic modes. The effect of linear instability and frequency of longitudinal modes on amplitude and phase of oscillations are determined for both single and coupled modes. For both cases, the maximum amplitude of oscillations decreases with the frequency of acoustic mode and linear instability of SRM. The comparison of analytical MTS results and numerical simulations demonstrate an excellent agreement.

  18. Flood statistics of simple and multiple scaling; Invarianza di scala del regime di piena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Renzo; Mancini, Marco; Burlando, Paolo; De Michele, Carlo [Milan, Politecnico Univ. (Italy). DIIAR; Brath, Armando [Bologna, Univ. (Italy). DISTART

    1996-09-01

    The variability of flood probabilities throughout the river network is investigated by introducing the concepts of simple and multiple scaling. Flood statistics and quantiles as parametrized by drainage area are considered, and a distributed geomorphoclimatic model is used to analyze in detail their scaling properties for two river basins in Thyrrhenian Liguria (North-Western Italy). Although temporal storm precipitation and spatial runoff production are not scaling, the resulting flood flows do not display substantial deviations from statistical self-similarity or simple scaling. This result has a wide potential in order to assess the concept of hydrological homogeneity, also indicating a new route towards establishing physically-based procedures for flood frequency regionalization.

  19. Multiple mechanisms generate a universal scaling with dissipation for the air-water gas transfer velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katul, Gabriel; Liu, Heping

    2017-02-01

    A large corpus of field and laboratory experiments support the finding that the water side transfer velocity kL of sparingly soluble gases near air-water interfaces scales as kL˜(νɛ)1/4, where ν is the kinematic water viscosity and ɛ is the mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate. Originally predicted from surface renewal theory, this scaling appears to hold for marine and coastal systems and across many environmental conditions. It is shown that multiple approaches to representing the effects of turbulence on kL lead to this expression when the Kolmogorov microscale is assumed to be the most efficient transporting eddy near the interface. The approaches considered range from simplified surface renewal schemes with distinct models for renewal durations, scaling and dimensional considerations, and a new structure function approach derived using analogies between scalar and momentum transfer. The work offers a new perspective as to why the aforementioned 1/4 scaling is robust.

  20. Extracting surface waves, hum and normal modes: time-scale phase-weighted stack and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, Sergi; Schimmel, Martin; Stutzmann, Eleonore

    2017-10-01

    Stacks of ambient noise correlations are routinely used to extract empirical Green's functions (EGFs) between station pairs. The time-frequency phase-weighted stack (tf-PWS) is a physically intuitive nonlinear denoising method that uses the phase coherence to improve EGF convergence when the performance of conventional linear averaging methods is not sufficient. The high computational cost of a continuous approach to the time-frequency transformation is currently a main limitation in ambient noise studies. We introduce the time-scale phase-weighted stack (ts-PWS) as an alternative extension of the phase-weighted stack that uses complex frames of wavelets to build a time-frequency representation that is much more efficient and fast to compute and that preserve the performance and flexibility of the tf-PWS. In addition, we propose two strategies: the unbiased phase coherence and the two-stage ts-PWS methods to further improve noise attenuation, quality of the extracted signals and convergence speed. We demonstrate that these approaches enable to extract minor- and major-arc Rayleigh waves (up to the sixth Rayleigh wave train) from many years of data from the GEOSCOPE global network. Finally we also show that fundamental spheroidal modes can be extracted from these EGF.

  1. A Multiphysics Framework to Learn and Predict in Presence of Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomin, P.; Lunati, I.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling complex phenomena in the subsurface remains challenging due to the presence of multiple interacting scales, which can make it impossible to focus on purely macroscopic phenomena (relevant in most applications) and neglect the processes at the micro-scale. We present and discuss a general framework that allows us to deal with the situation in which the lack of scale separation requires the combined use of different descriptions at different scale (for instance, a pore-scale description at the micro-scale and a Darcy-like description at the macro-scale) [1,2]. The method is based on conservation principles and constructs the macro-scale problem by numerical averaging of micro-scale balance equations. By employing spatiotemporal adaptive strategies, this approach can efficiently solve large-scale problems [2,3]. In addition, being based on a numerical volume-averaging paradigm, it offers a tool to illuminate how macroscopic equations emerge from microscopic processes, to better understand the meaning of microscopic quantities, and to investigate the validity of the assumptions routinely used to construct the macro-scale problems. [1] Tomin, P., and I. Lunati, A Hybrid Multiscale Method for Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media, Journal of Computational Physics, 250, 293-307, 2013 [2] Tomin, P., and I. Lunati, Local-global splitting and spatiotemporal-adaptive Multiscale Finite Volume Method, Journal of Computational Physics, 280, 214-231, 2015 [3] Tomin, P., and I. Lunati, Spatiotemporal adaptive multiphysics simulations of drainage-imbibition cycles, Computational Geosciences, 2015 (under review)

  2. Multiple scales and phases in discrete chains with application to folded proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikova, A.; Niemi, A. J.; Nilsson, Johan; Ulybyshev, M.

    2018-05-01

    Chiral heteropolymers such as large globular proteins can simultaneously support multiple length scales. The interplay between the different scales brings about conformational diversity, determines the phase properties of the polymer chain, and governs the structure of the energy landscape. Most importantly, multiple scales produce complex dynamics that enable proteins to sustain live matter. However, at the moment there is incomplete understanding of how to identify and distinguish the various scales that determine the structure and dynamics of a complex protein. Here we address this impending problem. We develop a methodology with the potential to systematically identify different length scales, in the general case of a linear polymer chain. For this we introduce and analyze the properties of an order parameter that can both reveal the presence of different length scales and can also probe the phase structure. We first develop our concepts in the case of chiral homopolymers. We introduce a variant of Kadanoff's block-spin transformation to coarse grain piecewise linear chains, such as the C α backbone of a protein. We derive analytically, and then verify numerically, a number of properties that the order parameter can display, in the case of a chiral polymer chain. In particular, we propose that in the case of a chiral heteropolymer the order parameter can reveal traits of several different phases, contingent on the length scale at which it is scrutinized. We confirm that this is the case with crystallographic protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. Thus our results suggest relations between the scales, the phases, and the complexity of folding pathways.

  3. Bench- and field-scale evaluation of chromium and cadmium extraction by electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gent, David B.; Bricka, R. Mark; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Larson, Steven L.; Fabian, Gene; Granade, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The results of bench-scale laboratory tests and in situ, pilot-scale demonstration of electrokinetic extraction of chromium and cadmium from contaminated soil are presented. The laboratory tests were conducted using 10 cm long samples under current density of 5 A/m 2 for 1200 h. Tests were conducted with and without citric acid amendment at the cathode. The results showed that citric acid improved extraction, especially in the sections near the cathode. However, processing was not enough to result in complete cleanup. The field demo was conducted at the Naval Air Weapon Station (NAWS), Point Mugu, California. Three cathodes were centered between six anodes. The anode-cathode spacing was 4.45 m (15 ft). Constant voltage of 60 V (∼13 V/m) was applied for 20 days and then was reduced to 45 V (10 V/m) for 6 months. Citric acid was used to maintain the cathode pH at 4. After 6 months of treatment, 78% of the soil volume has been cleared of chromium or treated to below natural background levels. The results also indicated that 70% of the soil between the electrodes had been cleared of cadmium contamination. A comparison between the bench-scale and field demo showed that the field process was more effective than the lab tests. This indicated that small sample size will induce a negative effect on the efficiency of the process due to an increased impact of the boundaries on the overall process

  4. Use of ethyl lactate to extract bioactive compounds from Cytisus scoparius: Comparison of pressurized liquid extraction and medium scale ambient temperature systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lores, Marta; Pájaro, Marta; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge; García-Jares, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    An important trend in the extraction of chemical compounds is the application of new environmentally friendly, food grade solvents. Ethyl lactate (ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate), produced by fermentation of carbohydrates, is miscible with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds being a potentially good solvent for bioactive compounds. Despite its relatively wide use as a general solvent, the utilization of ethyl lactate as an extraction solvent has only recently been considered. Here, we evaluate the possible use of ethyl lactate to extract phenolic compounds from wild plants belonging to Cytisus scoparius, and we compare the characteristics of the extracts obtained by Pressurized Solvent Extraction (the total phenolics content, the antioxidant activity and the concentration of the major polyphenols) with those of other extracts obtained with methanol. In order to explore the industrial production of the ethyl lactate Cytisus extract, we also evaluate medium scale ambient temperature setups. The whole plant and the different parts (flowers, branches, and seed pods) were evaluated separately as potential sources of polyphenols. All extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for accurate identification of the major polyphenols. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained when using ethyl lactate or methanol. The main bioactives found in the Cytisus extract were the non-flavonoid phenolic compounds caffeic and protocatechuic acids and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; the flavonoids rutin, kaempferol and quercetin; the flavones chrysin, orientin and apigenin; and the alkaloid lupanine. Regarding the comparison of the extraction systems, although the performance of the PLE was much better than that of the ambient-temperature columns, the energy consumption was also much higher. Ethyl lactate has resulted an efficient extraction solvent for polyphenols from C. scoparius, yielding extracts with high levels of plant phenolics and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of these

  5. Wisdom tooth extraction causing lingual nerve and styloglossus muscle damage: a mimic of multiple cranial nerve palsies

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, A. S.; Evans, M.; Shah, S.; Catania, S.; Warren, J. D.; Gleeson, M. J.; Reilly, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The combination of tongue hemianaesthesia, dysgeusia, dysarthria and dysphagia suggests the involvement of multiple cranial nerves. We present a case with sudden onset of these symptoms immediately following wisdom tooth extraction and highlight the clinical features that allowed localisation of the lesion to a focal, iatrogenic injury of the lingual nerve and adjacent styloglossus muscle.

  6. A multiple-scale power series method for solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chein-Shan Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The power series solution is a cheap and effective method to solve nonlinear problems, like the Duffing-van der Pol oscillator, the Volterra population model and the nonlinear boundary value problems. A novel power series method by considering the multiple scales $R_k$ in the power term $(t/R_k^k$ is developed, which are derived explicitly to reduce the ill-conditioned behavior in the data interpolation. In the method a huge value times a tiny value is avoided, such that we can decrease the numerical instability and which is the main reason to cause the failure of the conventional power series method. The multiple scales derived from an integral can be used in the power series expansion, which provide very accurate numerical solutions of the problems considered in this paper.

  7. Lead Selenide Nanostructures Self-Assembled across Multiple Length Scales and Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan K. Wujcik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-assembly approach to lead selenide (PbSe structures that have organized across multiple length scales and multiple dimensions has been achieved. These structures consist of angstrom-scale 0D PbSe crystals, synthesized via a hot solution process, which have stacked into 1D nanorods via aligned dipoles. These 1D nanorods have arranged into nanoscale 2D sheets via directional short-ranged attraction. The nanoscale 2D sheets then further aligned into larger 2D microscale planes. In this study, the authors have characterized the PbSe structures via normal and cryo-TEM and EDX showing that this multiscale multidimensional self-assembled alignment is not due to drying effects. These PbSe structures hold promise for applications in advanced materials—particularly electronic technologies, where alignment can aid in device performance.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Biogenic Gas Accumulation and Release in The Greater Everglades at Multiple Scales of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, M. D.; Cornett, C.; Schaffer, L.; Comas, X.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands play a critical role in the carbon (C) cycle by producing and releasing significant amounts of greenhouse biogenic gasses (CO2, CH4) into the atmosphere. Wetlands in tropical and subtropical climates (such as the Florida Everglades) have become of great interest in the past two decades as they account for more than 20% of the global peatland C stock and are located in climates that favor year-round C emissions. Despite the increase in research involving C emission from these types of wetlands, the spatial and temporal variability involving C production, accumulation and release is still highly uncertain, and is the focus of this research at multiple scales of measurement (i.e. lab, field and landscape). Spatial variability in biogenic gas content, build up and release, at both the lab and field scales, was estimated using a series of ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys constrained with gas traps fitted with time-lapse cameras. Variability in gas content was estimated at the sub-meter scale (lab scale) within two extracted monoliths from different wetland ecosystems at the Disney wilderness Preserve (DWP) and the Blue Cypress Preserve (BCP) using high frequency GPR (1.2 GHz) transects across the monoliths. At the field scale (> 10m) changes in biogenic gas content were estimated using 160 MHz GPR surveys collected within 4 different emergent wetlands at the DWP. Additionally, biogenic gas content from the extracted monoliths was used to developed a landscape comparison of C accumulation and emissions for each different wetland ecosystem. Changes in gas content over time were estimated at the lab scale at high temporal resolution (i.e. sub-hourly) in monoliths from the BCP and Water Conservation Area 1-A. An autonomous rail system was constructed to estimate biogenic gas content variability within the wetland soil matrix using a series of continuous, uninterrupted 1.2 GHz GPR transects along the samples. Measurements were again constrained with an array

  9. Effect of utilization of tomato extract and foliar fertilizer as media on shoots multiplication of banana cv Ambon in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidhari, L. A.; Purwanto, E.; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    The good quality banana seeds are still difficult to obtain. There are two ways to provide seeds, namely conventional and tissue culture (in vitro). Tomato extract contains natural ZPT or phytohormone which can be utilized in modification of banana tissue culture media. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of media types and tomato extracts in various concentrations for multiplication of banana cv. Ambon in vitro. The study was conducted from October - December 2016 at the Tissue Culture Laboratory of Horticulture Seed Center, Salaman, Magelang. The experimental design used was completely randomized design with two treatment factors. The firs factor was media type with the addition of foliar fertilizer, the second factor was modification of tomato extract with 4 levels. The results showed that the different of the treated media treatment did not affect the emerge of leaf and leaf length, the number of roots and root length. The emerge of the leaves of all treatments occurred at 6 days after planting with the highest average length was obtained in MS treatment with a combination of tomato extract 50 ml/l (10.3 cm). The use of MS medium with a combination of tomato extract 50 ml/l generated the average root number 15.5 with a root lengths 7.5 cm. Substitution of MS medium with tomato extract and foliar fertilizer did not show better results compared to the use of MS media in the multiplication of banana shoots in tissue culture.

  10. Scaling laws governing the multiple scattering of diatomic molecules under Coulomb explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1992-01-01

    The trajectories of fast molecules during and after penetration through foils are governed by Coulomb explosion and distorted by multiple scattering and other penetration phenomena. A scattering event may cause the energy available for Coulomb explosion to increase or decrease, and angular momentum may be transferred to the molecule. Because of continuing Coulomb explosion inside and outside the target foil, the transmission pattern recorded at a detector far away from the target is not just a linear superposition of Coulomb explosion and multiple scattering. The velocity distribution of an initially monochromatic and well-collimated, but randomly oriented, beam of molecular ions is governed by a generalization of the standard Bothe-Landau integral that governs the multiple scattering of atomic ions. Emphasis has been laid on the distribution in relative velocity and, in particular, relative energy. The statistical distributions governing the longitudinal motion (i.e., the relative motion along the molecular axis) and the rotational motion can be scaled into standard multiple-scattering distributions of atomic ions. The two scaling laws are very different. For thin target foils, the significance of rotational energy transfer is enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to switched-off Coulomb explosion. A distribution for the total relative energy (i.e., longitudinal plus rotational motion) has also been found, but its scaling behavior is more complex. Explicit examples given for all three distributions refer to power-law scattering. As a first approximation, scattering events undergone by the two atoms in the molecule were assumed uncorrelated. A separate section has been devoted to an estimate of the effect of impact-parameter correlation on the multiple scattering of penetrating molecules

  11. Seed harvesting by a generalist consumer is context-dependent: Interactive effects across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Klinger, Rob

    2013-01-01

    multiple scales. Associational effects provide a useful theoretical basis for better understanding harvester ant foraging decisions. These results demonstrate the importance of ecological context for seed removal, which has implications for seed pools, plant populations and communities.

  12. Extracting physical properties of arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, Martin; Kluska, Sven; Hameiri, Ziv; Hoex, Bram; Aberle, Armin G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method that allows the extraction of relevant physical properties such as sheet resistance and dopant profile from arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas formed in semiconductors with a focused pulsed laser beam. The key feature of the method is to use large laser-doped areas with an identical average number of laser pulses per area (laser pulse density) as the arbitrarily shaped areas. The method is verified using sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped silicon samples. Furthermore, the method is extended to doping with continuous-wave lasers by using the average number of passes per area or density of passes

  13. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-06-01

    Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 - 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 - 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to develop integrated policies and measures for waste management over the long term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Community males show multiple-perpetrator rape proclivity: development and preliminary validation of an interest scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Wood, Jane L

    2014-02-01

    The literature on Multiple Perpetrator Rape (MPR) is scant; however, a significant proportion of sexual offending involves multiple perpetrators. In addition to the need for research with apprehended offenders of MPR, there is also a need to conduct research with members of the general public. Recent advances in the forensic literature have led to the development of self-report proclivity scales. These scales have enabled researchers to conduct evaluative studies sampling from members of the general public who may be perpetrators of sexual offenses and have remained undetected, or at highest risk of engaging in sexual offending. The current study describes the development and preliminary validation of the Multiple-Perpetrator Rape Interest Scale (M-PRIS), a vignette-based measure assessing community males' sexual arousal to MPR, behavioral propensity toward MPR and enjoyment of MPR. The findings show that the M-PRIS is a reliable measure of community males' sexual interest in MPR with high internal reliability and temporal stability. In a sample of university males we found that a large proportion (66%) did not emphatically reject an interest in MPR. We also found that rape-supportive cognitive distortions, antisocial attitudes, and high-risk sexual fantasies were predictors of sexual interest in MPR. We discuss these findings and the implications for further research employing proclivity measures referencing theory development and clinical practice.

  15. Modified multiple time scale method for solving strongly nonlinear damped forced vibration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, M. A.; Alam, M. Z.; Sharif, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, modified multiple time scale (MTS) method is employed to solve strongly nonlinear forced vibration systems. The first-order approximation is only considered in order to avoid complexicity. The formulations and the determination of the solution procedure are very easy and straightforward. The classical multiple time scale (MS) and multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) do not give desire result for the strongly damped forced vibration systems with strong damping effects. The main aim of this paper is to remove these limitations. Two examples are considered to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the present procedure. The approximate external frequencies and the corresponding approximate solutions are determined by the present method. The results give good coincidence with corresponding numerical solution (considered to be exact) and also provide better result than other existing results. For weak nonlinearities with weak damping effect, the absolute relative error measures (first-order approximate external frequency) in this paper is only 0.07% when amplitude A = 1.5 , while the relative error gives MSLP method is surprisingly 28.81%. Furthermore, for strong nonlinearities with strong damping effect, the absolute relative error found in this article is only 0.02%, whereas the relative error obtained by MSLP method is 24.18%. Therefore, the present method is not only valid for weakly nonlinear damped forced systems, but also gives better result for strongly nonlinear systems with both small and strong damping effect.

  16. Microalgae based biorefinery: evaluation of oil extraction methods in terms of efficiency, costs, toxicity and energy in lab-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Darío González-Delgado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several alternatives of microalgal metabolites extraction and transformation are being studied for achieving the total utilization of this energy crop of great interest worldwide. Microalgae oil extraction is a key stage in microalgal biodiesel production chains and their efficiency affects significantly the global process efficiency. In this study, a comparison of five oil extraction methods in lab-scale was made taking as additional parameters, besides extraction efficiency, the costs of method performing, energy requirements, and toxicity of solvents used, in order to elucidate the convenience of their incorporation to a microalgae-based topology of biorefinery. Methods analyzed were Solvent extraction assisted with high speed homogenization (SHE, Continuous reflux solvent extraction (CSE, Hexane based extraction (HBE, Cyclohexane based extraction (CBE and Ethanol-hexane extraction (EHE, for this evaluation were used the microalgae strains Nannochloropsis sp., Guinardia sp., Closterium sp., Amphiprora sp. and Navicula sp., obtained from a Colombian microalgae bioprospecting. In addition, morphological response of strains to oil extraction methods was also evaluated by optic microscopy. Results shows that although there is not a unique oil extraction method which excels in all parameters evaluated, CSE, SHE and HBE appears as promising alternatives, while HBE method is shown as the more convenient for using in lab-scale and potentially scalable for implementation in a microalgae based biorefinery

  17. Knickzone Extraction Tool (KET – A new ArcGIS toolset for automatic extraction of knickzones from a DEM based on multi-scale stream gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tuba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of knickpoints or knickzones from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM has gained immense significance owing to the increasing implications of knickzones on landform development. However, existing methods for knickzone extraction tend to be subjective or require time-intensive data processing. This paper describes the proposed Knickzone Extraction Tool (KET, a new raster-based Python script deployed in the form of an ArcGIS toolset that automates the process of knickzone extraction and is both fast and more user-friendly. The KET is based on multi-scale analysis of slope gradients along a river course, where any locally steep segment (knickzone can be extracted as an anomalously high local gradient. We also conducted a comparative analysis of the KET and other contemporary knickzone identification techniques. The relationship between knickzone distribution and its morphometric characteristics are also examined through a case study of a mountainous watershed in Japan.

  18. Multiple time scales in modeling the incidence of infections acquired in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wolkewitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When patients are admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU their risk of getting an infection will be highly depend on the length of stay at-risk in the ICU. In addition, risk of infection is likely to vary over calendar time as a result of fluctuations in the prevalence of the pathogen on the ward. Hence risk of infection is expected to depend on two time scales (time in ICU and calendar time as well as competing events (discharge or death and their spatial location. The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply appropriate statistical models for the risk of ICU-acquired infection accounting for multiple time scales, competing risks and the spatial clustering of the data. Methods A multi-center data base from a Spanish surveillance network was used to study the occurrence of an infection due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The analysis included 84,843 patient admissions between January 2006 and December 2011 from 81 ICUs. Stratified Cox models were used to study multiple time scales while accounting for spatial clustering of the data (patients within ICUs and for death or discharge as competing events for MRSA infection. Results Both time scales, time in ICU and calendar time, are highly associated with the MRSA hazard rate and cumulative risk. When using only one basic time scale, the interpretation and magnitude of several patient-individual risk factors differed. Risk factors concerning the severity of illness were more pronounced when using only calendar time. These differences disappeared when using both time scales simultaneously. Conclusions The time-dependent dynamics of infections is complex and should be studied with models allowing for multiple time scales. For patient individual risk-factors we recommend stratified Cox regression models for competing events with ICU time as the basic time scale and calendar time as a covariate. The inclusion of calendar time and stratification by ICU

  19. Charged Particles Multiplicity and Scaling Violation of Fragmentation Functions in Electron-Positron Annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    By the use of data from the annihilation process of electron-positron in AMY detector at 60 GeV center of mass energy, charged particles multiplicity distribution is obtained and fitted with the KNO scaling. Then, momentum spectra of charged particles and momentum distribution with respect to the jet axis are obtained, and the results are compared to the different models of QCD; also, the distribution of fragmentation functions and scaling violations are studied. It is being expected that the scaling violations of the fragmentation functions of gluon jets are stronger than the quark ones. One of the reasons for such case is that splitting function of quarks is larger than splitting function of gluon.

  20. Hierarchical approach to optimization of parallel matrix multiplication on large-scale platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hasanov, Khalid

    2014-03-04

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Many state-of-the-art parallel algorithms, which are widely used in scientific applications executed on high-end computing systems, were designed in the twentieth century with relatively small-scale parallelism in mind. Indeed, while in 1990s a system with few hundred cores was considered a powerful supercomputer, modern top supercomputers have millions of cores. In this paper, we present a hierarchical approach to optimization of message-passing parallel algorithms for execution on large-scale distributed-memory systems. The idea is to reduce the communication cost by introducing hierarchy and hence more parallelism in the communication scheme. We apply this approach to SUMMA, the state-of-the-art parallel algorithm for matrix–matrix multiplication, and demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the modified Hierarchical SUMMA significantly improves the communication cost and the overall performance on large-scale platforms.

  1. Decomposing Multi‐Level Ethnic Segregation in Auckland, New Zealand, 2001–2013 : Segregation Intensity for Multiple Groups at Multiple Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manley, D.J.; Johnston, Ron; Jones, Kelvyn

    2018-01-01

    There has been a growing appreciation that the processes generating urban residential segregation operate at multiple scales, stimulating innovations into the measurement of their outcomes. This paper applies a multi‐level modelling approach to that issue to the situation in Auckland, where multiple

  2. Genetic structuring of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua B.; Roberts, James H.; King, Timothy L.; Edwards, John W.; Ford, W. Mark; Ray, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Although groups of bats may be genetically distinguishable at large spatial scales, the effects of forest disturbances, particularly permanent land use conversions on fine-scale population structure and gene flow of summer aggregations of philopatric bat species are less clear. We genotyped and analyzed variation at 10 nuclear DNA microsatellite markers in 182 individuals of the forest-dwelling northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) at multiple spatial scales, from within first-order watersheds scaling up to larger regional areas in West Virginia and New York. Our results indicate that groups of northern myotis were genetically indistinguishable at any spatial scale we considered, and the collective population maintained high genetic diversity. It is likely that the ability to migrate, exploit small forest patches, and use networks of mating sites located throughout the Appalachian Mountains, Interior Highlands, and elsewhere in the hibernation range have allowed northern myotis to maintain high genetic diversity and gene flow regardless of forest disturbances at local and regional spatial scales. A consequence of maintaining high gene flow might be the potential to minimize genetic founder effects following population declines caused currently by the enzootic White-nose Syndrome.

  3. A Hierarchical Approach for Measuring the Consistency of Water Areas between Multiple Representations of Tile Maps with Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilang Shen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In geographic information systems, the reliability of querying, analysing, or reasoning results depends on the data quality. One central criterion of data quality is consistency, and identifying inconsistencies is crucial for maintaining the integrity of spatial data from multiple sources or at multiple resolutions. In traditional methods of consistency assessment, vector data are used as the primary experimental data. In this manuscript, we describe the use of a new type of raster data, tile maps, to access the consistency of information from multiscale representations of the water bodies that make up drainage systems. We describe a hierarchical methodology to determine the spatial consistency of tile-map datasets that display water areas in a raster format. Three characteristic indices, the degree of global feature consistency, the degree of local feature consistency, and the degree of overlap, are proposed to measure the consistency of multiscale representations of water areas. The perceptual hash algorithm and the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT descriptor are applied to extract and measure the global and local features of water areas. By performing combined calculations using these three characteristic indices, the degrees of consistency of multiscale representations of water areas can be divided into five grades: exactly consistent, highly consistent, moderately consistent, less consistent, and inconsistent. For evaluation purposes, the proposed method is applied to several test areas from the Tiandi map of China. In addition, we identify key technologies that are related to the process of extracting water areas from a tile map. The accuracy of the consistency assessment method is evaluated, and our experimental results confirm that the proposed methodology is efficient and accurate.

  4. Pedestrian detection in thermal images: An automated scale based region extraction with curvelet space validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, A.; Faheema, A. G. J.; Deodhare, Dipti

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection is a key problem in night vision processing with a dozen of applications that will positively impact the performance of autonomous systems. Despite significant progress, our study shows that performance of state-of-the-art thermal image pedestrian detectors still has much room for improvement. The purpose of this paper is to overcome the challenge faced by the thermal image pedestrian detectors, which employ intensity based Region Of Interest (ROI) extraction followed by feature based validation. The most striking disadvantage faced by the first module, ROI extraction, is the failed detection of cloth insulted parts. To overcome this setback, this paper employs an algorithm and a principle of region growing pursuit tuned to the scale of the pedestrian. The statistics subtended by the pedestrian drastically vary with the scale and deviation from normality approach facilitates scale detection. Further, the paper offers an adaptive mathematical threshold to resolve the problem of subtracting the background while extracting cloth insulated parts as well. The inherent false positives of the ROI extraction module are limited by the choice of good features in pedestrian validation step. One such feature is curvelet feature, which has found its use extensively in optical images, but has as yet no reported results in thermal images. This has been used to arrive at a pedestrian detector with a reduced false positive rate. This work is the first venture made to scrutinize the utility of curvelet for characterizing pedestrians in thermal images. Attempt has also been made to improve the speed of curvelet transform computation. The classification task is realized through the use of the well known methodology of Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The proposed method is substantiated with qualified evaluation methodologies that permits us to carry out probing and informative comparisons across state-of-the-art features, including deep learning methods, with six

  5. High temperature CO2 capture of hydroxyapatite extracted from tilapia scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar H. Ojeda-Niño

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HAp was obtained from tilapia scales by two extraction methods: direct calcination and acid-base treatment. The physicochemical characteristics of the obtained HAps were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, surface area, infrared spectroscopy, and basicity measurement at 298 K by CO2-pulse titration. Furthermore, the CO2 capture capacity of the solids at high temperature was also determined. Both methods showed the presence of a HAp phase although significant differences in the properties of the solids were found. The HAp obtained by direct calcination exhibited a lower crystallinity and a greater surface area and basicity than the HAp obtained by the acid-base treatment. These features were correlated with the solid’s CO2 capture capacity. In this work, CO2 capture capacity values for HAp yielded by calcination ranged from 2.5 to 3.2 mg CO2 /g captured at 973 K, and for the acid-base treatment-derived HAp, CO2 capture capacity values between 1.2 to 2.5 mg CO2 /g were recorded. These results reveal the potential of HAps extracted from tilapia scales as solids with high CO2 capture capacity, thermal stability, and capture/release cycles reversibility.

  6. Reduced α-stable dynamics for multiple time scale systems forced with correlated additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William F.; Kuske, Rachel A.; Monahan, Adam H.

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic averaging problems with Gaussian forcing have been the subject of numerous studies, but far less attention has been paid to problems with infinite-variance stochastic forcing, such as an α-stable noise process. It has been shown that simple linear systems driven by correlated additive and multiplicative (CAM) Gaussian noise, which emerge in the context of reduced atmosphere and ocean dynamics, have infinite variance in certain parameter regimes. In this study, we consider the stochastic averaging of systems where a linear CAM noise process in the infinite variance parameter regime drives a comparatively slow process. We use (semi)-analytical approximations combined with numerical illustrations to compare the averaged process to one that is forced by a white α-stable process, demonstrating consistent properties in the case of large time-scale separation. We identify the conditions required for the fast linear CAM process to have such an influence in driving a slower process and then derive an (effectively) equivalent fast, infinite-variance process for which an existing stochastic averaging approximation is readily applied. The results are illustrated using numerical simulations of a set of example systems.

  7. Optimization of a flow injection analysis system for multiple solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, T.M.; Shelly, D.C.; Warner, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a multistage flow injection analysis solvent extraction system has been optimized. The effect of solvent segmentation devices, extraction coils, and phase separators on performance characteristics is discussed. Theoretical consideration is given to the effects and determination of dispersion and the extraction dynamics within both glass and Teflon extraction coils. The optimized system has a sample recovery similar to an identical manual procedure and a 1.5% relative standard deviation between injections. Sample throughput time is under 5 min. These characteristics represent significant improvements over the performance of the same system before optimization. 6 figures, 2 tables

  8. Single or multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical or chemical coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yinghang; Gong, Yubing; Wang Li; Ma Xiaoguang; Yang Chuanlu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Single synchronization transition for gap-junctional coupling. → Multiple synchronization transitions for chemical synaptic coupling. → Gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on synchronization transition. → Chemical synapses may play a dominant role in neurons' information processing. - Abstract: In this paper, we have studied time delay- and coupling strength-induced synchronization transitions in scale-free modified Hodgkin-Huxley (MHH) neuron networks with gap-junctions and chemical synaptic coupling. It is shown that the synchronization transitions are much different for these two coupling types. For gap-junctions, the neurons exhibit a single synchronization transition with time delay and coupling strength, while for chemical synapses, there are multiple synchronization transitions with time delay, and the synchronization transition with coupling strength is dependent on the time delay lengths. For short delays we observe a single synchronization transition, whereas for long delays the neurons exhibit multiple synchronization transitions as the coupling strength is varied. These results show that gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on the pattern formation and synchronization transitions of the scale-free MHH neuronal networks, and chemical synapses, compared to gap junctions, may play a dominant and more active function in the firing activity of the networks. These findings would be helpful for further understanding the roles of gap junctions and chemical synapses in the firing dynamics of neuronal networks.

  9. Single or multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical or chemical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Yinghang [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Gong, Yubing, E-mail: gongyubing09@hotmail.co [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Wang Li; Ma Xiaoguang; Yang Chuanlu [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Single synchronization transition for gap-junctional coupling. Multiple synchronization transitions for chemical synaptic coupling. Gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on synchronization transition. Chemical synapses may play a dominant role in neurons' information processing. - Abstract: In this paper, we have studied time delay- and coupling strength-induced synchronization transitions in scale-free modified Hodgkin-Huxley (MHH) neuron networks with gap-junctions and chemical synaptic coupling. It is shown that the synchronization transitions are much different for these two coupling types. For gap-junctions, the neurons exhibit a single synchronization transition with time delay and coupling strength, while for chemical synapses, there are multiple synchronization transitions with time delay, and the synchronization transition with coupling strength is dependent on the time delay lengths. For short delays we observe a single synchronization transition, whereas for long delays the neurons exhibit multiple synchronization transitions as the coupling strength is varied. These results show that gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on the pattern formation and synchronization transitions of the scale-free MHH neuronal networks, and chemical synapses, compared to gap junctions, may play a dominant and more active function in the firing activity of the networks. These findings would be helpful for further understanding the roles of gap junctions and chemical synapses in the firing dynamics of neuronal networks.

  10. Multiple heavy metals extraction and recovery from hazardous electroplating sludge waste via ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuncheng; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang; Cai, Tingting; Li, Haiying; Huang, Zhiyuan; Yuan, Gaoqing

    2010-06-15

    An ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching process on extracting and recovering multiple heavy metals from actual electroplating sludge was studied in lab tests. It provided an effective technique for separation of valuable metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) from less valuable metals (Fe and Cr) in electroplating sludge. The efficiency of the process had been measured with the leaching efficiencies and recovery rates of the metals. Enhanced by ultrasonic power, the first-stage acid leaching demonstrated leaching rates of 96.72%, 97.77%, 98.00%, 53.03%, and 0.44% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe respectively, effectively separated half of Cr and almost all of Fe from mixed metals. The subsequent second-stage leaching achieved leaching rates of 75.03%, 81.05%, 81.39%, 1.02%, and 0% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe that further separated Cu, Ni, and Zn from mixed metals. With the stabilized two-stage ultrasonically enhanced leaching, the resulting over all recovery rates of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr and Fe from electroplating sludge could be achieved at 97.42%, 98.46%, 98.63%, 98.32% and 100% respectively, with Cr and Fe in solids and the rest of the metals in an aqueous solution discharged from the leaching system. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and contact time. The results were also confirmed in an industrial pilot-scale test, and same high metal recoveries were performed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The function of communities in protein interaction networks at multiple scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Nick S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If biology is modular then clusters, or communities, of proteins derived using only protein interaction network structure should define protein modules with similar biological roles. We investigate the link between biological modules and network communities in yeast and its relationship to the scale at which we probe the network. Results Our results demonstrate that the functional homogeneity of communities depends on the scale selected, and that almost all proteins lie in a functionally homogeneous community at some scale. We judge functional homogeneity using a novel test and three independent characterizations of protein function, and find a high degree of overlap between these measures. We show that a high mean clustering coefficient of a community can be used to identify those that are functionally homogeneous. By tracing the community membership of a protein through multiple scales we demonstrate how our approach could be useful to biologists focusing on a particular protein. Conclusions We show that there is no one scale of interest in the community structure of the yeast protein interaction network, but we can identify the range of resolution parameters that yield the most functionally coherent communities, and predict which communities are most likely to be functionally homogeneous.

  12. Skin and scales of teleost fish: Simple structure but high performance and multiple functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernerey, Franck J.; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-08-01

    Natural and man-made structural materials perform similar functions such as structural support or protection. Therefore they rely on the same types of properties: strength, robustness, lightweight. Nature can therefore provide a significant source of inspiration for new and alternative engineering designs. We report here some results regarding a very common, yet largely unknown, type of biological material: fish skin. Within a thin, flexible and lightweight layer, fish skins display a variety of strain stiffening and stabilizing mechanisms which promote multiple functions such as protection, robustness and swimming efficiency. We particularly discuss four important features pertaining to scaled skins: (a) a strongly elastic tensile behavior that is independent from the presence of rigid scales, (b) a compressive response that prevents buckling and wrinkling instabilities, which are usually predominant for thin membranes, (c) a bending response that displays nonlinear stiffening mechanisms arising from geometric constraints between neighboring scales and (d) a robust structure that preserves the above characteristics upon the loss or damage of structural elements. These important properties make fish skin an attractive model for the development of very thin and flexible armors and protective layers, especially when combined with the high penetration resistance of individual scales. Scaled structures inspired by fish skin could find applications in ultra-light and flexible armor systems, flexible electronics or the design of smart and adaptive morphing structures for aerospace vehicles.

  13. Multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical and chemical hybrid synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Tsang, Kaiming; Chan, Wailok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synchronization transitions in hybrid scale-free neuronal networks are investigated. • Multiple synchronization transitions can be induced by the time delay. • Effect of synchronization transitions depends on the ratio of the electrical and chemical synapses. • Coupling strength and the density of inter-neuronal links can enhance the synchronization. -- Abstract: The impacts of information transmission delay on the synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical and chemical hybrid synapses are investigated. Numerical results show that multiple appearances of synchronization regions transitions can be induced by different information transmission delays. With the time delay increasing, the synchronization of neuronal activities can be enhanced or destroyed, irrespective of the probability of chemical synapses in the whole hybrid neuronal network. In particular, for larger probability of electrical synapses, the regions of synchronous activities appear broader with stronger synchronization ability of electrical synapses compared with chemical ones. Moreover, it can be found that increasing the coupling strength can promote synchronization monotonously, playing the similar role of the increasing the probability of the electrical synapses. Interestingly, the structures and parameters of the scale-free neuronal networks, especially the structural evolvement plays a more subtle role in the synchronization transitions. In the network formation process, it is found that every new vertex is attached to the more old vertices already present in the network, the more synchronous activities will be emerge

  14. Efficiency scale and technological change in credit unions and multiple banks using the COSIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Rocha Bittencourt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The modernization of the financial intermediation process and adapting to new technologies, brought adjustments to operational processes, providing the reduction of information borrowing costs, allowing generate greater customer satisfaction, due to increased competitiveness in addition to making gains with long efficiency period. In this context, this research aims to analyze the evolution in scale and technological efficiency of credit and multiple cooperative banks from 2009 to 2013. We used the method of Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA, which allows to calculate the change in efficiency of institutions through the Malmquist Index. The results indicated that institutions that employ larger volumes of assets in the composition of its resources presented evolution in scale and technological efficiency, influencing the change in total factor productivity. It should be noticed that cooperatives had, in some years, advances in technology and scale efficiency higher than banks. However, this result can be explained by the fact that the average efficiency of credit unions have been lower than that of banks in the analyzed sample, indicating that there is greater need to improve internal processes by cooperatives, compared to multiple banks surveyed.

  15. Human-Robot Teaming for Hydrologic Data Gathering at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, J.; Young, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    The use of personal robot-assistive technology by researchers and practitioners for hydrologic data gathering has grown in recent years as barriers to platform capability, cost, and human-robot interaction have been overcome. One consequence to this growth is a broad availability of unmanned platforms that might or might not be suitable for a specific hydrologic investigation. Through multiple field studies, a set of recommendations has been developed to help guide novice through experienced users in choosing the appropriate unmanned platforms for a given application. This talk will present a series of hydrologic data sets gathered using a human-robot teaming approach that has leveraged unmanned aerial, ground, and surface vehicles over multiple scales. The field case studies discussed will be connected to the best practices, also provided in the presentation. This talk will be of interest to geoscience researchers and practitioners, in general, as well as those working in fields related to emerging technologies.

  16. Error analysis of dimensionless scaling experiments with multiple points using linear regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guercan, Oe.D.; Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Bourdelle, C.

    2010-01-01

    A general method of error estimation in the case of multiple point dimensionless scaling experiments, using linear regression and standard error propagation, is proposed. The method reduces to the previous result of Cordey (2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 052001) in the case of a two-point scan. On the other hand, if the points follow a linear trend, it explains how the estimated error decreases as more points are added to the scan. Based on the analytical expression that is derived, it is argued that for a low number of points, adding points to the ends of the scanned range, rather than the middle, results in a smaller error estimate. (letter)

  17. A Multiple-Item Scale for Assessing E-Government Service Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadomichelaki, Xenia; Mentzas, Gregoris

    A critical element in the evolution of e-governmental services is the development of sites that better serve the citizens’ needs. To deliver superior service quality, we must first understand how citizens perceive and evaluate online citizen service. This involves defining what e-government service quality is, identifying its underlying dimensions, and determining how it can be conceptualized and measured. In this article we conceptualise an e-government service quality model (e-GovQual) and then we develop, refine, validate, confirm and test a multiple-item scale for measuring e-government service quality for public administration sites where citizens seek either information or services.

  18. Dynamical properties of the growing continuum using multiple-scale method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynčík L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of growth and remodeling is applied to the 1D continuum. This can be mentioned e.g. as a model of the muscle fibre or piezo-electric stack. Hyperelastic material described by free energy potential suggested by Fung is used whereas the change of stiffness is taken into account. Corresponding equations define the dynamical system with two degrees of freedom. Its stability and the properties of bifurcations are studied using multiple-scale method. There are shown the conditions under which the degenerated Hopf's bifurcation is occuring.

  19. Fission time-scale in experiments and in multiple initiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamian, S. A., E-mail: karamian@nrmail.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    Rate of fission for highly-excited nuclei is affected by the viscose character of the systemmotion in deformation coordinates as was reported for very heavy nuclei with Z{sub C} > 90. The long time-scale of fission can be described in a model of 'fission by diffusion' that includes an assumption of the overdamped diabatic motion. The fission-to-spallation ratio at intermediate proton energy could be influenced by the viscosity, as well. Within a novel approach of the present work, the cross examination of the fission probability, time-scales, and pre-fission neutron multiplicities is resulted in the consistent interpretation of a whole set of the observables. Earlier, different aspects could be reproduced in partial simulations without careful coordination.

  20. Strong coupling constant extraction from high-multiplicity Z +jets observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Maître, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    We present a strong coupling constant extraction at next-to-leading order QCD accuracy using ATLAS Z +2 ,3,4 jets data. This is the first extraction using processes with a dependency on high powers of the coupling constant. We obtain values of the strong coupling constant at the Z mass compatible with the world average and with uncertainties commensurate with other next-to-leading order extractions at hadron colliders. Our most conservative result for the strong coupling constant is αS(MZ)=0.117 8-0.0043+0.0051 .

  1. Temporal scale dependent interactions between multiple environmental disturbances in microcosm ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Aurélie; Pennekamp, Frank; Lemoine, Mélissa; Petchey, Owen L

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental change has negative impacts on ecological systems, impacting the stable provision of functions, goods, and services. Whereas effects of individual environmental changes (e.g. temperature change or change in resource availability) are reasonably well understood, we lack information about if and how multiple changes interact. We examined interactions among four types of environmental disturbance (temperature, nutrient ratio, carbon enrichment, and light) in a fully factorial design using a microbial aquatic ecosystem and observed responses of dissolved oxygen saturation at three temporal scales (resistance, resilience, and return time). We tested whether multiple disturbances combine in a dominant, additive, or interactive fashion, and compared the predictability of dissolved oxygen across scales. Carbon enrichment and shading reduced oxygen concentration in the short term (i.e. resistance); although no other effects or interactions were statistically significant, resistance decreased as the number of disturbances increased. In the medium term, only enrichment accelerated recovery, but none of the other effects (including interactions) were significant. In the long term, enrichment and shading lengthened return times, and we found significant two-way synergistic interactions between disturbances. The best performing model (dominant, additive, or interactive) depended on the temporal scale of response. In the short term (i.e. for resistance), the dominance model predicted resistance of dissolved oxygen best, due to a large effect of carbon enrichment, whereas none of the models could predict the medium term (i.e. resilience). The long-term response was best predicted by models including interactions among disturbances. Our results indicate the importance of accounting for the temporal scale of responses when researching the effects of environmental disturbances on ecosystems. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley

  2. Effects of processing parameters on the caffeine extraction yield during decaffeination of black tea using pilot-scale supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgaz, Saziye; Sat, Ihsan Gungor; Polat, Atilla

    2018-04-01

    In this pilot-scale study supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO 2 ) extraction technique was used for decaffeination of black tea. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO 2 flow rate (1, 2, 3 L/min) and modifier quantity (0, 2.5, 5 mol%) were selected as extraction parameters. Three-level and five-factor response surface methodology experimental design with a Box-Behnken type was employed to generate 46 different processing conditions. 100% of caffeine from black tea was removed under two different extraction conditions; one of which was consist of 375 bar pressure, 62.5 °C temperature, 300 min extraction time, 2 L/min CO 2 flow rate and 5 mol% modifier concentration and the other was composed of same temperature, pressure and extraction time conditions with 3 L/min CO 2 flow rate and 2.5 mol% modifier concentration. Results showed that extraction time, pressure, CO 2 flow rate and modifier quantity had great impact on decaffeination yield.

  3. Mercury exposure of workers and health problems related with small-scale gold panning and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Shah, M.T.; Din, I.U.; Rehman, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate mercury (Hg) exposure and health problems related to small-scale gold panning and extraction (GPE) in the northern Pakistan. Urine and blood samples of occupational and non-occupational persons were analyzed for total Hg, while blood's fractions including red blood cells and plasma were analyzed for total Hg and its inorganic and organic species. The concentrations of Hg in urine and blood samples were significantly (P<0.01) higher in occupational persons as compared to non-occupational and exceeded the permissible limits set by World Health Organization (WHO) and United State Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). Furthermore, the data indicated that numerous health problems were present in occupational persons involved in GPE. (author)

  4. Influence of diversity and road access on palm extraction at landscape scale in SE Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byg, A.; Vormisto, J.; Balslev, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and the activities of small-scale farmers remains poorly understood despite its importance for conservation. In tropical forest areas farmers often include extraction of forest products in their subsistence strategies, and it has been suggested that factors...... such as market access and diversity levels influence people's use of forest products. To investigate these relationships, we studied the use of palms in five villages inhabited by colonists and indigenous Shuar in the lower montane forest in south-eastern Ecuador by means of interviews and line transects around...... the villages. We found that use of palms was not driven by the diversity of palms available in the forest surrounding each village. Instead, the most important factor seemed to be lack of market access so in villages furthest away from the nearest road people used more palm products for their subsistence life...

  5. A multiple-time-scale approach to the control of ITBs on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborde, L.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D. [EURATOM-CEA Association (DSM-DRFC), CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Moreau, D. [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Ariola, M. [EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE Association, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Cordoliani, V. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Tala, T. [EURATOM-Tekes Association, VTT Processes (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The simultaneous real-time control of the current and temperature gradient profiles could lead to the steady state sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) and so to a stationary optimized plasma regime. Recent experiments in JET have demonstrated significant progress in achieving such a control: different current and temperature gradient target profiles have been reached and sustained for several seconds using a controller based on a static linear model. It's worth noting that the inverse safety factor profile evolves on a slow time scale (resistive time) while the normalized electron temperature gradient reacts on a faster one (confinement time). Moreover these experiments have shown that the controller was sensitive to rapid plasma events such as transient ITBs during the safety factor profile evolution or MHD instabilities which modify the pressure profiles on the confinement time scale. In order to take into account the different dynamics of the controlled profiles and to better react to rapid plasma events the control technique is being improved by using a multiple-time-scale approximation. The paper describes the theoretical analysis and closed-loop simulations using a control algorithm based on two-time-scale state-space model. These closed-loop simulations using the full dynamic but linear model used for the controller design to simulate the plasma response have demonstrated that this new controller allows the normalized electron temperature gradient target profile to be reached faster than the one used in previous experiments. (A.C.)

  6. A multiple-time-scale approach to the control of ITBs on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, L.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Moreau, D.; Ariola, M.; Cordoliani, V.; Tala, T.

    2005-01-01

    The simultaneous real-time control of the current and temperature gradient profiles could lead to the steady state sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) and so to a stationary optimized plasma regime. Recent experiments in JET have demonstrated significant progress in achieving such a control: different current and temperature gradient target profiles have been reached and sustained for several seconds using a controller based on a static linear model. It's worth noting that the inverse safety factor profile evolves on a slow time scale (resistive time) while the normalized electron temperature gradient reacts on a faster one (confinement time). Moreover these experiments have shown that the controller was sensitive to rapid plasma events such as transient ITBs during the safety factor profile evolution or MHD instabilities which modify the pressure profiles on the confinement time scale. In order to take into account the different dynamics of the controlled profiles and to better react to rapid plasma events the control technique is being improved by using a multiple-time-scale approximation. The paper describes the theoretical analysis and closed-loop simulations using a control algorithm based on two-time-scale state-space model. These closed-loop simulations using the full dynamic but linear model used for the controller design to simulate the plasma response have demonstrated that this new controller allows the normalized electron temperature gradient target profile to be reached faster than the one used in previous experiments. (A.C.)

  7. Population genetics of the Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis across multiple spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shem D Unger

    Full Text Available Conservation genetics is a powerful tool to assess the population structure of species and provides a framework for informing management of freshwater ecosystems. As lotic habitats become fragmented, the need to assess gene flow for species of conservation management becomes a priority. The eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis is a large, fully aquatic paedamorphic salamander. Many populations are experiencing declines throughout their geographic range, yet the genetic ramifications of these declines are currently unknown. To this end, we examined levels of genetic variation and genetic structure at both range-wide and drainage (hierarchical scales. We collected 1,203 individuals from 77 rivers throughout nine states from June 2007 to August 2011. Levels of genetic diversity were relatively high among all sampling locations. We detected significant genetic structure across populations (Fst values ranged from 0.001 between rivers within a single watershed to 0.218 between states. We identified two genetically differentiated groups at the range-wide scale: 1 the Ohio River drainage and 2 the Tennessee River drainage. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA based on landscape-scale sampling of basins within the Tennessee River drainage revealed the majority of genetic variation (∼94-98% occurs within rivers. Eastern hellbenders show a strong pattern of isolation by stream distance (IBSD at the drainage level. Understanding levels of genetic variation and differentiation at multiple spatial and biological scales will enable natural resource managers to make more informed decisions and plan effective conservation strategies for cryptic, lotic species.

  8. Seeing the forest through the trees: Considering roost-site selection at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowski, David S.; Rota, Christopher T.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007–2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural

  9. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  10. Validation of patient determined disease steps (PDDS) scale scores in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M; Pula, John H; Cadavid, Diego

    2013-04-25

    The Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) is a promising patient-reported outcome (PRO) of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, there is limited evidence regarding the validity of PDDS scores, despite its sound conceptual development and broad inclusion in MS research. This study examined the validity of the PDDS based on (1) the association with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores and (2) the pattern of associations between PDDS and EDSS scores with Functional System (FS) scores as well as ambulatory and other outcomes. 96 persons with MS provided demographic/clinical information, completed the PDDS and other PROs including the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12), and underwent a neurological examination for generating FS and EDSS scores. Participants completed assessments of cognition, ambulation including the 6-minute walk (6 MW), and wore an accelerometer during waking hours over seven days. There was a strong correlation between EDSS and PDDS scores (ρ = .783). PDDS and EDSS scores were strongly correlated with Pyramidal (ρ = .578 &ρ = .647, respectively) and Cerebellar (ρ = .501 &ρ = .528, respectively) FS scores as well as 6 MW distance (ρ = .704 &ρ = .805, respectively), MSWS-12 scores (ρ = .801 &ρ = .729, respectively), and accelerometer steps/day (ρ = -.740 &ρ = -.717, respectively). This study provides novel evidence supporting the PDDS as valid PRO of disability in MS.

  11. Scaling of charged particle multiplicity in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2002-01-01

    The charged particle multiplicity distribution $dN_{ch}/d\\eta$ has been measured by the NA50 experiment in Pb--Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. Measurements were done at incident energies of 40 and 158 GeV per nucleon over a broad impact parameter range. The multiplicity distributions are studied as a function of centrality using the number of participating nucleons ($N_{part}$), or the number of binary nucleon--nucleon collisions ($N_{coll}$). Their values at midrapidity exhibit a power law scaling behaviour given by $N_{part}^{1.00}$ and $N_{coll}^{0.75}$ at 158 GeV. Compatible results are found for the scaling behaviour at 40 GeV. The width of the $dN_{ch}/d\\eta$ distributions is larger at 158 than at 40 GeV/nucleon and decreases slightly with centrality at both energies. Our results are compared to similar studies performed by other experiments both at the CERN SPS and at RHIC.}

  12. Cut-off scaling and multiplicative reformalization in the theory of critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacs, G.; Solyom, J.; Zawadowski, A.

    1976-03-01

    In the paper a new method to study the critical fluctuations in systems of 4-epsilon dimensions around the phase transition point is developed. This method unifies the Kadanoff scaling hypothesis as formulated by Wilson by help of his renormalization group technique and the simple mathematical structure of the Lie equations of the Gell-Mann-Low multiplicative renormalization. The basic idea of the new method is that a change in the physical cut-off can be compensated by an effective coupling in such a way that the Green's function and vertex in the original and transformed system differ only by a multiplicative factor. The critical indices, the anomalous dimensions and the critical exponent describing the correction to scaling are determined to second order in epsilon. The specific heat exponent is also calculated, in four dimensions the effect of fluctuations appears in the form of logarithmic corrections. In the last sections the new method is compared to other ones and the differences are discussed. (Sz.N.Z.)

  13. Managing multiple roles: development of the Work-Family Conciliation Strategies Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Marisa; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2014-07-17

    Juggling the demands of work and family is becoming increasingly difficult in today's world. As dual-earners are now a majority and men and women's roles in both the workplace and at home have changed, questions have been raised regarding how individuals and couples can balance family and work. Nevertheless, research addressing work-family conciliation strategies is limited to a conflict-driven approach and context-specific instruments are scarce. This study develops an instrument for assessing how dual-earners manage their multiple roles detaching from a conflict point of view highlighting the work-family conciliation strategies put forward by these couples. Through qualitative and quantitative procedures the Work-Family Conciliation Strategies Scales was developed and is composed by 5 factors: Couple Coping; Positive Attitude Towards Multiple Roles, Planning and Management Skills, Professional Adjustments and Institutional Support; with good adjustment [χ2/df = 1.22; CFI = .90, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .08.] and good reliability coefficients [from .67 to .87]. The developed scale contributes to research because of its specificity to the work-family framework and its focus on the proactive nature of balancing work and family roles. The results support further use of this instrument.

  14. Optimizing multiple reliable forward contracts for reservoir allocation using multitime scale streamflow forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengqian; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.; Cook, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Streamflow forecasts at multiple time scales provide a new opportunity for reservoir management to address competing objectives. Market instruments such as forward contracts with specified reliability are considered as a tool that may help address the perceived risk associated with the use of such forecasts in lieu of traditional operation and allocation strategies. A water allocation process that enables multiple contracts for water supply and hydropower production with different durations, while maintaining a prescribed level of flood risk reduction, is presented. The allocation process is supported by an optimization model that considers multitime scale ensemble forecasts of monthly streamflow and flood volume over the upcoming season and year, the desired reliability and pricing of proposed contracts for hydropower and water supply. It solves for the size of contracts at each reliability level that can be allocated for each future period, while meeting target end of period reservoir storage with a prescribed reliability. The contracts may be insurable, given that their reliability is verified through retrospective modeling. The process can allow reservoir operators to overcome their concerns as to the appropriate skill of probabilistic forecasts, while providing water users with short-term and long-term guarantees as to how much water or energy they may be allocated. An application of the optimization model to the Bhakra Dam, India, provides an illustration of the process. The issues of forecast skill and contract performance are examined. A field engagement of the idea is useful to develop a real-world perspective and needs a suitable institutional environment.

  15. Multiple-scale structures: from Faraday waves to soft-matter quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Savitz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years, quasicrystals were observed only as solid-state metallic alloys, yet current research is now actively exploring their formation in a variety of soft materials, including systems of macromolecules, nanoparticles and colloids. Much effort is being invested in understanding the thermodynamic properties of these soft-matter quasicrystals in order to predict and possibly control the structures that form, and hopefully to shed light on the broader yet unresolved general questions of quasicrystal formation and stability. Moreover, the ability to control the self-assembly of soft quasicrystals may contribute to the development of novel photonics or other applications based on self-assembled metamaterials. Here a path is followed, leading to quantitative stability predictions, that starts with a model developed two decades ago to treat the formation of multiple-scale quasiperiodic Faraday waves (standing wave patterns in vibrating fluid surfaces and which was later mapped onto systems of soft particles, interacting via multiple-scale pair potentials. The article reviews, and substantially expands, the quantitative predictions of these models, while correcting a few discrepancies in earlier calculations, and presents new analytical methods for treating the models. In so doing, a number of new stable quasicrystalline structures are found with octagonal, octadecagonal and higher-order symmetries, some of which may, it is hoped, be observed in future experiments.

  16. Multiple-scale structures: from Faraday waves to soft-matter quasicrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, Samuel; Babadi, Mehrtash; Lifshitz, Ron

    2018-05-01

    For many years, quasicrystals were observed only as solid-state metallic alloys, yet current research is now actively exploring their formation in a variety of soft materials, including systems of macromolecules, nanoparticles and colloids. Much effort is being invested in understanding the thermodynamic properties of these soft-matter quasicrystals in order to predict and possibly control the structures that form, and hopefully to shed light on the broader yet unresolved general questions of quasicrystal formation and stability. Moreover, the ability to control the self-assembly of soft quasicrystals may contribute to the development of novel photonics or other applications based on self-assembled metamaterials. Here a path is followed, leading to quantitative stability predictions, that starts with a model developed two decades ago to treat the formation of multiple-scale quasiperiodic Faraday waves (standing wave patterns in vibrating fluid surfaces) and which was later mapped onto systems of soft particles, interacting via multiple-scale pair potentials. The article reviews, and substantially expands, the quantitative predictions of these models, while correcting a few discrepancies in earlier calculations, and presents new analytical methods for treating the models. In so doing, a number of new stable quasicrystalline structures are found with octagonal, octadecagonal and higher-order symmetries, some of which may, it is hoped, be observed in future experiments.

  17. Extraction of bioactives from Orthosiphon stamineus using microwave and ultrasound-assisted techniques: Process optimization and scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung-Hung; See, Tiam-You; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng; Kow, Kien-Woh

    2017-04-15

    This work demonstrated the optimization and scale up of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive compounds from Orthosiphon stamineus using energy-based parameters such as absorbed power density and absorbed energy density (APD-AED) and response surface methodology (RSM). The intensive optimum conditions of MAE obtained at 80% EtOH, 50mL/g, APD of 0.35W/mL, AED of 250J/mL can be used to determine the optimum conditions of the scale-dependent parameters i.e. microwave power and treatment time at various extraction scales (100-300mL solvent loading). The yields of the up scaled conditions were consistent with less than 8% discrepancy and they were about 91-98% of the Soxhlet extraction yield. By adapting APD-AED method in the case of UAE, the intensive optimum conditions of the extraction, i.e. 70% EtOH, 30mL/g, APD of 0.22W/mL, AED of 450J/mL are able to achieve similar scale up results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Color, Scale, and Rotation Independent Multiple License Plates Detection in Videos and Still Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Reddy Soora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing license plate (LP detection systems have shown significant development in the processing of the images, with restrictions related to environmental conditions and plate variations. With increased mobility and internationalization, there is a need to develop a universal LP detection system, which can handle multiple LPs of many countries and any vehicle, in an open environment and all weather conditions, having different plate variations. This paper presents a novel LP detection method using different clustering techniques based on geometrical properties of the LP characters and proposed a new character extraction method, for noisy/missed character components of the LP due to the presence of noise between LP characters and LP border. The proposed method detects multiple LPs from an input image or video, having different plate variations, under different environmental and weather conditions because of the geometrical properties of the set of characters in the LP. The proposed method is tested using standard media-lab and Application Oriented License Plate (AOLP benchmark LP recognition databases and achieved the success rates of 97.3% and 93.7%, respectively. Results clearly indicate that the proposed approach is comparable to the previously published papers, which evaluated their performance on publicly available benchmark LP databases.

  19. [Multiple analysis of the difference in intestinal absorption between the main components and the extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Xin, Ran; Wang, Jin-Yan; Zhou, Lei; Yuan, Ling; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the rat intestinal absorption behavior of two main active components, liquiritin, glycyrrhizin and the extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. The rat intestinal perfusion model was employed. Concentrations of the compounds of the interest in the intestinal perfusate, bile and plasma samples were determined by HPLC and UPLC. At the same time, the intestinal enzymes incubation test and the partition coefficient determination, the absorption of liquiritin and glycyrrhizin alone and the extract were multiple analyzed. The results showed that the P(eff) (effective permeability) of liquiritin or glycyrrhizin alone or the extract was less than 0.3, which suggested their poor absorption in the intestine. The P(eff) of the two main active components or the extract was not significantly different in duodenum, jejunum, colon and ileum segment. The P(eff) of the glycyrrhizin in the extract had no significant difference in the four intestinal segments compared with the glycyrrhizin alone. The absorption of the liquiritin displayed significant difference (P components might not increase the amount of liquiritin and glycyrrhizin in the bile and plasma within the duration of the test.

  20. A New Approach to Adaptive Control of Multiple Scales in Plasma Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Yuri

    2007-04-01

    A new approach to temporal refinement of kinetic (Particle-in-Cell, Vlasov) and fluid (MHD, two-fluid) simulations of plasmas is presented: Discrete-Event Simulation (DES). DES adaptively distributes CPU resources in accordance with local time scales and enables asynchronous integration of inhomogeneous nonlinear systems with multiple time scales on meshes of arbitrary topologies. This removes computational penalties usually incurred in explicit codes due to the global Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL) restriction on a time-step size. DES stands apart from multiple time-stepping algorithms in that it requires neither selecting a global synchronization time step nor pre-determining a sequence of time-integration operations for individual parts of the system (local time increments need not bear any integer multiple relations). Instead, elements of a mesh-distributed solution self-adaptively predict and synchronize their temporal trajectories by directly enforcing local causality (accuracy) constraints, which are formulated in terms of incremental changes to the evolving solution. Together with flux-conservative propagation of information, this new paradigm ensures stable and fast asynchronous runs, where idle computation is automatically eliminated. DES is parallelized via a novel Preemptive Event Processing (PEP) technique, which automatically synchronizes elements with similar update rates. In this mode, events with close execution times are projected onto time levels, which are adaptively determined by the program. PEP allows reuse of standard message-passing algorithms on distributed architectures. For optimum accuracy, DES can be combined with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) techniques for structured and unstructured meshes. Current examples of event-driven models range from electrostatic, hybrid particle-in-cell plasma systems to reactive fluid dynamics simulations. They demonstrate the superior performance of DES in terms of accuracy, speed and robustness.

  1. Improved detection of multiple environmental antibiotics through an optimized sample extraction strategy in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinzhu; Bayen, Stéphane; Kelly, Barry C; Li, Xu; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    A solid-phase extraction/liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was optimized in this study for sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple antibiotics in urban surface waters and soils. Among the seven classes of tested antibiotics, extraction efficiencies of macrolides, lincosamide, chloramphenicol, and polyether antibiotics were significantly improved under optimized sample extraction pH. Instead of only using acidic extraction in many existing studies, the results indicated that antibiotics with low pK a values (antibiotics with high pK a values (>7) were extracted more efficiently under neutral conditions. The effects of pH were more obvious on polar compounds than those on non-polar compounds. Optimization of extraction pH resulted in significantly improved sample recovery and better detection limits. Compared with reported values in the literature, the average reduction of minimal detection limits obtained in this study was 87.6% in surface waters (0.06-2.28 ng/L) and 67.1% in soils (0.01-18.16 ng/g dry wt). This method was subsequently applied to detect antibiotics in environmental samples in a heavily populated urban city, and macrolides, sulfonamides, and lincomycin were frequently detected. Antibiotics with highest detected concentrations were sulfamethazine (82.5 ng/L) in surface waters and erythromycin (6.6 ng/g dry wt) in soils. The optimized sample extraction strategy can be used to improve the detection of a variety of antibiotics in environmental surface waters and soils.

  2. Accurate quantification of 5 German cockroach (GCr) allergens in complex extracts using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindaye, S T; Spiric, J; David, N A; Rabin, R L; Slater, J E

    2017-12-01

    German cockroach (GCr) allergen extracts are complex and heterogeneous products, and methods to better assess their potency and composition are needed for adequate studies of their safety and efficacy. The objective of this study was to develop an assay based on liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM MS) for rapid, accurate, and reproducible quantification of 5 allergens (Bla g 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 3, Bla g 4, and Bla g 5) in crude GCr allergen extracts. We first established a comprehensive peptide library of allergens from various commercial extracts as well as recombinant allergens. Peptide mapping was performed using high-resolution MS, and the peptide library was then used to identify prototypic and quantotypic peptides to proceed with MRM method development. Assay development included a systematic optimization of digestion conditions (buffer, digestion time, and trypsin concentration), chromatographic separation, and MS parameters. Robustness and suitability were assessed following ICH (Q2 [R1]) guidelines. The method is precise (RSD  0.99, 0.01-1384 fmol/μL), and sensitive (LLOD and LLOQ MS, we quantified allergens from various commercial GCr extracts and showed considerable variability that may impact clinical efficacy. Our data demonstrate that the LC-MRM MS method is valuable for absolute quantification of allergens in GCr extracts and likely has broader applicability to other complex allergen extracts. Definitive quantification provides a new standard for labelling of allergen extracts, which will inform patient care, enable personalized therapy, and enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy for environmental and food allergies. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Numerical Investigation of Multiple-, Interacting-Scale Variable-Density Ground Water Flow Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosler, D.; Ibaraki, M.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of our study is to elucidate the nonlinear processes that are important for multiple-, interacting-scale flow and solute transport in subsurface environments. In particular, we are focusing on the influence of small-scale instability development on variable-density ground water flow behavior in large-scale systems. Convective mixing caused by these instabilities may mix the fluids to a greater extent than would be the case with classical, Fickian dispersion. Most current numerical schemes for interpreting field-scale variable-density flow systems do not explicitly account for the complexities caused by small-scale instabilities and treat such processes as "lumped" Fickian dispersive mixing. Such approaches may greatly underestimate the mixing behavior and misrepresent the overall large-scale flow field dynamics. The specific objectives of our study are: (i) to develop an adaptive (spatial and temporal scales) three-dimensional numerical model that is fully capable of simulating field-scale variable-density flow systems with fine resolution (~1 cm); and (ii) to evaluate the importance of scale-dependent process interactions by performing a series of simulations on different problem scales ranging from laboratory experiments to field settings, including an aquifer storage and freshwater recovery (ASR) system similar to those planned for the Florida Everglades and in-situ contaminant remediation systems. We are examining (1) methods to create instabilities in field-scale systems, (2) porous media heterogeneity effects, and (3) the relation between heterogeneity characteristics (e.g., permeability variance and correlation length scales) and the mixing scales that develop for varying degrees of unstable stratification. Applications of our work include the design of new water supply and conservation measures (e.g., ASR systems), assessment of saltwater intrusion problems in coastal aquifers, and the design of in-situ remediation systems for aquifer restoration

  4. Community functional responses to soil and climate at multiple spatial scales: when does intraspecific variation matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Siefert

    Full Text Available Despite increasing evidence of the importance of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities, its role in community trait responses to environmental variation, particularly along broad-scale climatic gradients, is poorly understood. We analyzed functional trait variation among early-successional herbaceous plant communities (old fields across a 1200-km latitudinal extent in eastern North America, focusing on four traits: vegetative height, leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA, and leaf dry matter content (LDMC. We determined the contributions of species turnover and intraspecific variation to between-site functional dissimilarity at multiple spatial scales and community trait responses to edaphic and climatic factors. Among-site variation in community mean trait values and community trait responses to the environment were generated by a combination of species turnover and intraspecific variation, with species turnover making a greater contribution for all traits. The relative importance of intraspecific variation decreased with increasing geographic and environmental distance between sites for SLA and leaf area. Intraspecific variation was most important for responses of vegetative height and responses to edaphic compared to climatic factors. Individual species displayed strong trait responses to environmental factors in many cases, but these responses were highly variable among species and did not usually scale up to the community level. These findings provide new insights into the role of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities and the factors controlling its relative importance. The contribution of intraspecific variation to community trait responses was greatest at fine spatial scales and along edaphic gradients, while species turnover dominated at broad spatial scales and along climatic gradients.

  5. Classification of Suicide Attempts through a Machine Learning Algorithm Based on Multiple Systemic Psychiatric Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihoon Oh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification and prediction of suicide attempts in high-risk groups is important for preventing suicide. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the information from multiple clinical scales has classification power for identifying actual suicide attempts. Patients with depression and anxiety disorders (N = 573 were included, and each participant completed 31 self-report psychiatric scales and questionnaires about their history of suicide attempts. We then trained an artificial neural network classifier with 41 variables (31 psychiatric scales and 10 sociodemographic elements and ranked the contribution of each variable for the classification of suicide attempts. To evaluate the clinical applicability of our model, we measured classification performance with top-ranked predictors. Our model had an overall accuracy of 93.7% in 1-month, 90.8% in 1-year, and 87.4% in lifetime suicide attempts detection. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC was the highest for 1-month suicide attempts detection (0.93, followed by lifetime (0.89, and 1-year detection (0.87. Among all variables, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire had the highest contribution, and the positive and negative characteristics of the scales similarly contributed to classification performance. Performance on suicide attempts classification was largely maintained when we only used the top five ranked variables for training (AUROC; 1-month, 0.75, 1-year, 0.85, lifetime suicide attempts detection, 0.87. Our findings indicate that information from self-report clinical scales can be useful for the classification of suicide attempts. Based on the reliable performance of the top five predictors alone, this machine learning approach could help clinicians identify high-risk patients in clinical settings.

  6. Large-scale recovery of an endangered amphibian despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Roland A.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Vrendenburg, Vance T.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Briggs, Cheryl J.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, with 32% of species at risk for extinction. Given this imperiled status, is the disappearance of a large fraction of the Earth’s amphibians inevitable, or are some declining species more resilient than is generally assumed? We address this question in a species that is emblematic of many declining amphibians, the endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae). Based on >7,000 frog surveys conducted across Yosemite National Park over a 20-y period, we show that, after decades of decline and despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors, including introduced fish, the recently emerged disease chytridiomycosis, and pesticides, R. sierrae abundance increased sevenfold during the study and at a rate of 11% per year. These increases occurred in hundreds of populations throughout Yosemite, providing a rare example of amphibian recovery at an ecologically relevant spatial scale. Results from a laboratory experiment indicate that these increases may be in part because of reduced frog susceptibility to chytridiomycosis. The disappearance of nonnative fish from numerous water bodies after cessation of stocking also contributed to the recovery. The large-scale increases in R. sierrae abundance that we document suggest that, when habitats are relatively intact and stressors are reduced in their importance by active management or species’ adaptive responses, declines of some amphibians may be partially reversible, at least at a regional scale. Other studies conducted over similarly large temporal and spatial scales are critically needed to provide insight and generality about the reversibility of amphibian declines at a global scale.

  7. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Avitabile

    Full Text Available Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter. Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood, they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales.

  8. Classification of Suicide Attempts through a Machine Learning Algorithm Based on Multiple Systemic Psychiatric Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jihoon; Yun, Kyongsik; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Classification and prediction of suicide attempts in high-risk groups is important for preventing suicide. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the information from multiple clinical scales has classification power for identifying actual suicide attempts. Patients with depression and anxiety disorders ( N  = 573) were included, and each participant completed 31 self-report psychiatric scales and questionnaires about their history of suicide attempts. We then trained an artificial neural network classifier with 41 variables (31 psychiatric scales and 10 sociodemographic elements) and ranked the contribution of each variable for the classification of suicide attempts. To evaluate the clinical applicability of our model, we measured classification performance with top-ranked predictors. Our model had an overall accuracy of 93.7% in 1-month, 90.8% in 1-year, and 87.4% in lifetime suicide attempts detection. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was the highest for 1-month suicide attempts detection (0.93), followed by lifetime (0.89), and 1-year detection (0.87). Among all variables, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire had the highest contribution, and the positive and negative characteristics of the scales similarly contributed to classification performance. Performance on suicide attempts classification was largely maintained when we only used the top five ranked variables for training (AUROC; 1-month, 0.75, 1-year, 0.85, lifetime suicide attempts detection, 0.87). Our findings indicate that information from self-report clinical scales can be useful for the classification of suicide attempts. Based on the reliable performance of the top five predictors alone, this machine learning approach could help clinicians identify high-risk patients in clinical settings.

  9. Prediction of the antimicrobial activity of walnut (Juglans regia L.) kernel aqueous extracts using artificial neural network and multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuncuoglu, Hatice; Kavuncuoglu, Erhan; Karatas, Seyda Merve; Benli, Büsra; Sagdic, Osman; Yalcin, Hasan

    2018-04-09

    The mathematical model was established to determine the diameter of inhibition zone of the walnut extract on the twelve bacterial species. Type of extraction, concentration, and pathogens were taken as input variables. Two models were used with the aim of designing this system. One of them was developed with artificial neural networks (ANN), and the other was formed with multiple linear regression (MLR). Four common training algorithms were used. Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), Bayesian regulation (BR), scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and resilient back propagation (RP) were investigated, and the algorithms were compared. Root mean squared error and correlation coefficient were evaluated as performance criteria. When these criteria were analyzed, ANN showed high prediction performance, while MLR showed low prediction performance. As a result, it is seen that when the different input values are provided to the system developed with ANN, the most accurate inhibition zone (IZ) estimates were obtained. The results of this study could offer new perspectives, particularly in the field of microbiology, because these could be applied to other type of extraction, concentrations, and pathogens, without resorting to experiments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of halogenated DBPs and identification of new DBPs trihalomethanols in chlorine dioxide treated drinking water with multiple extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiarui; Zhang, Xiangru; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhu, Xiaohu; Gong, Tingting

    2017-08-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) is a widely used alternative disinfectant due to its high biocidal efficiency and low-level formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. A major portion of total organic halogen (TOX), a collective parameter for all halogenated DBPs, formed in ClO 2 -treated drinking water is still unknown. A commonly used pretreatment method for analyzing halogenated DBPs in drinking water is one-time liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which may lead to a substantial loss of DBPs prior to analysis. In this study, characterization and identification of polar halogenated DBPs in a ClO 2 -treated drinking water sample were conducted by pretreating the sample with multiple extractions. Compared to one-time LLE, the combined four-time LLEs improved the recovery of TOX by 2.3 times. The developmental toxicity of the drinking water sample pretreated with the combined four-time LLEs was 1.67 times higher than that pretreated with one-time LLE. With the aid of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, a new group of polar halogenated DBPs, trihalomethanols, were detected in the drinking water sample pretreated with multiple extractions; two of them, trichloromethanol and bromodichloromethanol, were identified with synthesized standard compounds. Moreover, these trihalomethanols were found to be the transformation products of trihalomethanes formed during ClO 2 disinfection. The results indicate that multiple LLEs can significantly improve extraction efficiencies of polar halogenated DBPs and is a better pretreatment method for characterizing and identifying new polar halogenated DBPs in drinking water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Large-scale event extraction from literature with multi-level gene normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Van Landeghem

    Full Text Available Text mining for the life sciences aims to aid database curation, knowledge summarization and information retrieval through the automated processing of biomedical texts. To provide comprehensive coverage and enable full integration with existing biomolecular database records, it is crucial that text mining tools scale up to millions of articles and that their analyses can be unambiguously linked to information recorded in resources such as UniProt, KEGG, BioGRID and NCBI databases. In this study, we investigate how fully automated text mining of complex biomolecular events can be augmented with a normalization strategy that identifies biological concepts in text, mapping them to identifiers at varying levels of granularity, ranging from canonicalized symbols to unique gene and proteins and broad gene families. To this end, we have combined two state-of-the-art text mining components, previously evaluated on two community-wide challenges, and have extended and improved upon these methods by exploiting their complementary nature. Using these systems, we perform normalization and event extraction to create a large-scale resource that is publicly available, unique in semantic scope, and covers all 21.9 million PubMed abstracts and 460 thousand PubMed Central open access full-text articles. This dataset contains 40 million biomolecular events involving 76 million gene/protein mentions, linked to 122 thousand distinct genes from 5032 species across the full taxonomic tree. Detailed evaluations and analyses reveal promising results for application of this data in database and pathway curation efforts. The main software components used in this study are released under an open-source license. Further, the resulting dataset is freely accessible through a novel API, providing programmatic and customized access (http://www.evexdb.org/api/v001/. Finally, to allow for large-scale bioinformatic analyses, the entire resource is available for bulk download from

  13. Multiple time scale analysis of sediment and runoff changes in the Lower Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment and runoff changes of seven hydrological stations along the Lower Yellow River (LYR (Huayuankou Station, Jiahetan Station, Gaocun Station, Sunkou Station, Ai Shan Station, Qikou Station and Lijin Station from 1980 to 2003 were alanyzed at multiple time scale. The maximum value of monthly, daily and hourly sediment load and runoff conservations were also analyzed with the annually mean value. Mann–Kendall non-parametric mathematics correlation test and Hurst coefficient method were adopted in the study. Research results indicate that (1 the runoff of seven hydrological stations was significantly reduced in the study period at different time scales. However, the trends of sediment load in these stations were not obvious. The sediment load of Huayuankou, Jiahetan and Aishan stations even slightly increased with the runoff decrease. (2 The trends of the sediment load with different time scale showed differences at Luokou and Lijin stations. Although the annually and monthly sediment load were broadly flat, the maximum hourly sediment load showed decrease trend. (3 According to the Hurst coefficients, the trend of sediment and runoff will be continue without taking measures, which proved the necessary of runoff-sediment regulation scheme.

  14. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition performance in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Kreiner, David S; Tree, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) completed the 10 core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests. Means for age and education were 42.05 years (SD = 9.94) and 14.33 years (SD = 2.40). For all participants, the native language was English. The mean duration of MS diagnosis was 8.17 years (SD = 7.75), and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; Kurtzke, 1983 ) score was 3.73 (SD = 1.41) with a range from 2.0 to 6.5. A control group of healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics also completed the WAIS-IV and were provided by the test publisher. Compared to controls, patients with MS earned significantly lower subtest and composite scores. The patients' mean scores were consistently in the low-average to average range, and the patterns of performance across groups did not differ significantly, although there was a trend towards higher scores on the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and lower scores on the Processing Speed Index (PSI). Approximately 78% of patients had actual Full Scale IQs that were significantly lower than preillness, demographically based IQ estimates.

  15. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A. W.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Adams, Michael J.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Chambert, Thierry A.; Cruickshank, Sam S.; Fisher, Robert N.; Green, David M.; Hossack, Blake R.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Rittenhouse, Tracy A. G.; Ryan, Maureen E.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Walls, Susan C.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Gorman, Thomas A.; Ray, Andrew M.; Pilliod, David S.; Price, Steven J.; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a “smoking gun” was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed.

  16. Towards a More Biologically-meaningful Climate Characterization: Variability in Space and Time at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, D. S.; Kaufman, C. G.; Kueppers, L. M.; Harte, J.

    2013-12-01

    Sampling limitations and current modeling capacity justify the common use of mean temperature values in summaries of historical climate and future projections. However, a monthly mean temperature representing a 1-km2 area on the landscape is often unable to capture the climate complexity driving organismal and ecological processes. Estimates of variability in addition to mean values are more biologically meaningful and have been shown to improve projections of range shifts for certain species. Historical analyses of variance and extreme events at coarse spatial scales, as well as coarse-scale projections, show increasing temporal variability in temperature with warmer means. Few studies have considered how spatial variance changes with warming, and analysis for both temporal and spatial variability across scales is lacking. It is unclear how the spatial variability of fine-scale conditions relevant to plant and animal individuals may change given warmer coarse-scale mean values. A change in spatial variability will affect the availability of suitable habitat on the landscape and thus, will influence future species ranges. By characterizing variability across both temporal and spatial scales, we can account for potential bias in species range projections that use coarse climate data and enable improvements to current models. In this study, we use temperature data at multiple spatial and temporal scales to characterize spatial and temporal variability under a warmer climate, i.e., increased mean temperatures. Observational data from the Sierra Nevada (California, USA), experimental climate manipulation data from the eastern and western slopes of the Rocky Mountains (Colorado, USA), projected CMIP5 data for California (USA) and observed PRISM data (USA) allow us to compare characteristics of a mean-variance relationship across spatial scales ranging from sub-meter2 to 10,000 km2 and across temporal scales ranging from hours to decades. Preliminary spatial analysis at

  17. Large-Scale Membrane- and Lignin-Modified Adsorbent-Assisted Extraction and Preconcentration of Triazine Analogs and Aflatoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Shun-Wei; Chen, Shushi

    2017-01-01

    The large-scale simultaneous extraction and concentration of aqueous solutions of triazine analogs, and aflatoxins, through a hydrocarbon-based membrane (e.g., polyethylene, polyethylene/polypropylene copolymer) under ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure is reported. The subsequent adsorption of analyte in the extraction chamber over the lignin-modified silica gel facilitates the process by reducing the operating time. The maximum adsorption capacity values for triazine analogs and af...

  18. Collective Influence of Multiple Spreaders Evaluated by Tracing Real Information Flow in Large-Scale Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xian; Pei, Sen; Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A

    2016-10-26

    Identifying the most influential spreaders that maximize information flow is a central question in network theory. Recently, a scalable method called "Collective Influence (CI)" has been put forward through collective influence maximization. In contrast to heuristic methods evaluating nodes' significance separately, CI method inspects the collective influence of multiple spreaders. Despite that CI applies to the influence maximization problem in percolation model, it is still important to examine its efficacy in realistic information spreading. Here, we examine real-world information flow in various social and scientific platforms including American Physical Society, Facebook, Twitter and LiveJournal. Since empirical data cannot be directly mapped to ideal multi-source spreading, we leverage the behavioral patterns of users extracted from data to construct "virtual" information spreading processes. Our results demonstrate that the set of spreaders selected by CI can induce larger scale of information propagation. Moreover, local measures as the number of connections or citations are not necessarily the deterministic factors of nodes' importance in realistic information spreading. This result has significance for rankings scientists in scientific networks like the APS, where the commonly used number of citations can be a poor indicator of the collective influence of authors in the community.

  19. Collective Influence of Multiple Spreaders Evaluated by Tracing Real Information Flow in Large-Scale Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xian; Pei, Sen; Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the most influential spreaders that maximize information flow is a central question in network theory. Recently, a scalable method called “Collective Influence (CI)” has been put forward through collective influence maximization. In contrast to heuristic methods evaluating nodes’ significance separately, CI method inspects the collective influence of multiple spreaders. Despite that CI applies to the influence maximization problem in percolation model, it is still important to examine its efficacy in realistic information spreading. Here, we examine real-world information flow in various social and scientific platforms including American Physical Society, Facebook, Twitter and LiveJournal. Since empirical data cannot be directly mapped to ideal multi-source spreading, we leverage the behavioral patterns of users extracted from data to construct “virtual” information spreading processes. Our results demonstrate that the set of spreaders selected by CI can induce larger scale of information propagation. Moreover, local measures as the number of connections or citations are not necessarily the deterministic factors of nodes’ importance in realistic information spreading. This result has significance for rankings scientists in scientific networks like the APS, where the commonly used number of citations can be a poor indicator of the collective influence of authors in the community. PMID:27782207

  20. Scale-up of mixer-settler for uranium extraction; Determinacao das relacoes de `scale-up` em misturador-decantador tipo caixa utilizado na extracao de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, A.O. de

    1990-05-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain scale-up relations for a box type mixer-settler used in uranium extraction process for chloridric leaches. Three box type units with different sizes and with the same geometry were used for scale-up of the mixer. The correlation between extraction rate and specific power input, D/T ratio (stirrer diameter/mixer length) and residence time were experimentally obtained. The results showed that the extraction increases with power input for a constant value of D/T equal to 1/3, remaining however independent from mixer sizes for a specific value of power input. This behavior was observed for power input values ranging from 100 to 750 w/m{sup 9}. (author). 23 refs, 22 figs, 23 tabs.

  1. Extraction of multi-scale landslide morphological features based on local Gi* using airborne LiDAR-derived DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenzhong; Deng, Susu; Xu, Wenbing

    2018-02-01

    For automatic landslide detection, landslide morphological features should be quantitatively expressed and extracted. High-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) derived from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data allow fine-scale morphological features to be extracted, but noise in DEMs influences morphological feature extraction, and the multi-scale nature of landslide features should be considered. This paper proposes a method to extract landslide morphological features characterized by homogeneous spatial patterns. Both profile and tangential curvature are utilized to quantify land surface morphology, and a local Gi* statistic is calculated for each cell to identify significant patterns of clustering of similar morphometric values. The method was tested on both synthetic surfaces simulating natural terrain and airborne LiDAR data acquired over an area dominated by shallow debris slides and flows. The test results of the synthetic data indicate that the concave and convex morphologies of the simulated terrain features at different scales and distinctness could be recognized using the proposed method, even when random noise was added to the synthetic data. In the test area, cells with large local Gi* values were extracted at a specified significance level from the profile and the tangential curvature image generated from the LiDAR-derived 1-m DEM. The morphologies of landslide main scarps, source areas and trails were clearly indicated, and the morphological features were represented by clusters of extracted cells. A comparison with the morphological feature extraction method based on curvature thresholds proved the proposed method's robustness to DEM noise. When verified against a landslide inventory, the morphological features of almost all recent (historical (> 10 years) landslides were extracted. This finding indicates that the proposed method can facilitate landslide detection, although the cell clusters extracted from curvature images should

  2. DL-sQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Service Quality of Online Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Naj; Lowe, Sue; Pinegar, Kem

    2006-01-01

    Education is a service with multiplicity of student interactions over time and across multiple touch points. Quality teaching needs to be supplemented by consistent quality supporting services for programs to succeed under the competitive distance learning landscape. ServQual and e-SQ scales have been proposed for measuring quality of traditional…

  3. Salt removal from microliter sample volumes by multiple phase microelectromembrane extractions across free liquid membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 16 (2017), s. 8476-8483 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : desalting * microelectromembrane extraction * electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  4. Salt removal from microliter sample volumes by multiple phase microelectromembrane extractions across free liquid membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 16 (2017), s. 8476-8483 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : desalting * microelectromembrane extraction * electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  5. Large-scale diversity of slope fishes: pattern inconsistency between multiple diversity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Jean-Claude; Maiorano, Porzia; Mérigot, Bastien; Colloca, Francesco; Politou, Chrissi-Yianna; Gil De Sola, Luis; Bertrand, Jacques A; Murenu, Matteo; Durbec, Jean-Pierre; Kallianiotis, Argyris; Mannini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale studies focused on the diversity of continental slope ecosystems are still rare, usually restricted to a limited number of diversity indices and mainly based on the empirical comparison of heterogeneous local data sets. In contrast, we investigate large-scale fish diversity on the basis of multiple diversity indices and using 1454 standardized trawl hauls collected throughout the upper and middle slope of the whole northern Mediterranean Sea (36°3'- 45°7' N; 5°3'W - 28°E). We have analyzed (1) the empirical relationships between a set of 11 diversity indices in order to assess their degree of complementarity/redundancy and (2) the consistency of spatial patterns exhibited by each of the complementary groups of indices. Regarding species richness, our results contrasted both the traditional view based on the hump-shaped theory for bathymetric pattern and the commonly-admitted hypothesis of a large-scale decreasing trend correlated with a similar gradient of primary production in the Mediterranean Sea. More generally, we found that the components of slope fish diversity we analyzed did not always show a consistent pattern of distribution according either to depth or to spatial areas, suggesting that they are not driven by the same factors. These results, which stress the need to extend the number of indices traditionally considered in diversity monitoring networks, could provide a basis for rethinking not only the methodological approach used in monitoring systems, but also the definition of priority zones for protection. Finally, our results call into question the feasibility of properly investigating large-scale diversity patterns using a widespread approach in ecology, which is based on the compilation of pre-existing heterogeneous and disparate data sets, in particular when focusing on indices that are very sensitive to sampling design standardization, such as species richness.

  6. Ozone flux of an urban orange grove: multiple scaled measurements and model comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstad, K. P.; Grulke, N. E.; Jenerette, D. G.; Schilling, S.; Marrett, K.

    2009-12-01

    There is significant uncertainty about the ozone sink properties of the phytosphere due to a complexity of interactions and feedbacks with biotic and abiotic factors. Improved understanding of the controls on ozone fluxes is critical to estimating and regulating the total ozone budget. Ozone exchanges of an orange orchard within the city of Riverside, CA were examined using a multiple-scaled approach. We access the carbon, water, and energy budgets at the stand- to leaf- level to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the variability in ozone fluxes of this agro-ecosystem. The two initial goals of the study were 1. To consider variations and controls on the ozone fluxes within the canopy; and, 2. To examine different modeling and scaling approaches for totaling the ozone fluxes of this orchard. Current understanding of the total ozone flux between the atmosphere near ground and the phytosphere (F-total) include consideration of a fraction which is absorbed by vegetation through stomatal uptake (F-absorb), and fractional components of deposition on external, non-stomatal, surfaces of the vegetation (F-external) and soil (F-soil). Multiplicative stomatal-conductance models have been commonly used to estimate F-absorb, since this flux cannot be measured directly. We approach F-absorb estimates for this orange orchard using chamber measurement of leaf stomatal-conductance, as well as non-chamber sap-conductance collected on branches of varied aspect and sun/shade conditions within the canopy. We use two approaches to measure the F-total of this stand. Gradient flux profiles were measured using slow-response ozone sensors collecting within and above the canopy (4.6 m), and at the top of the tower (8.5 m). In addition, an eddy-covariance system fitted with a high-frequency chemiluminescence ozone system will be deployed (8.5 m). Preliminary ozone gradient flux profiles demonstrate a substantial ozone sink strength of this orchard, with diurnal concentration differentials

  7. Physical modelling of granular flows at multiple-scales and stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take, Andy; Bowman, Elisabeth; Bryant, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The rheology of dry granular flows is an area of significant focus within the granular physics, geoscience, and geotechnical engineering research communities. Studies performed to better understand granular flows in manufacturing, materials processing or bulk handling applications have typically focused on the behavior of steady, continuous flows. As a result, much of the research on relating the fundamental interaction of particles to the rheological or constitutive behaviour of granular flows has been performed under (usually) steady-state conditions and low stress levels. However, landslides, which are the primary focus of the geoscience and geotechnical engineering communities, are by nature unsteady flows defined by a finite source volume and at flow depths much larger than typically possible in laboratory experiments. The objective of this paper is to report initial findings of experimental studies currently being conducted using a new large-scale landslide flume (8 m long, 2 m wide slope inclined at 30° with a 35 m long horizontal base section) and at elevated particle self-weight in a 10 m diameter geotechnical centrifuge to investigate the granular flow behavior at multiple-scales and stress levels. The transparent sidewalls of the two flumes used in the experimental investigation permit the combination of observations of particle-scale interaction (using high-speed imaging through transparent vertical sidewalls at over 1000 frames per second) with observations of the distal reach of the landslide debris. These observations are used to investigate the applicability of rheological models developed for steady state flows (e.g. the dimensionless inertial number) in landslide applications and the robustness of depth-averaged approaches to modelling dry granular flow at multiple scales. These observations indicate that the dimensionless inertial number calculated for the flow may be of limited utility except perhaps to define a general state (e.g. liquid

  8. Measuring the impact of multiple sclerosis on psychosocial functioning: the development of a new self-efficacy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airlie, J; Baker, G A; Smith, S J; Young, C A

    2001-06-01

    To develop a scale to measure self-efficacy in neurologically impaired patients with multiple sclerosis and to assess the scale's psychometric properties. Cross-sectional questionnaire study in a clinical setting, the retest questionnaire returned by mail after completion at home. Regional multiple sclerosis (MS) outpatient clinic or the Clinical Trials Unit (CTU) at a large neuroscience centre in the UK. One hundred persons with MS attending the Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery and Clatterbridge Hospital, Wirral, as outpatients. Cognitively impaired patients were excluded at an initial clinic assessment. Patients were asked to provide demographic data and complete the self-efficacy scale along with the following validated scales: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Impact, Stigma and Mastery and Rankin Scales. The Rankin Scale and Barthel Index were also assessed by the physician. A new 11-item self-efficacy scale was constructed consisting of two domains of control and personal agency. The validity of the scale was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha analysis of internal consistency (alpha = 0.81). The test-retest reliability of the scale over two weeks was acceptable with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.79. Construct validity was investigated using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient resulting in significant correlations with depression (r= -0.52) anxiety (r =-0.50) and mastery (r= 0.73). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that these factors accounted for 70% of the variance of scores on the self-efficacy scale, with scores on mastery, anxiety and perceived disability being independently significant. Assessment of the psychometric properties of this new self-efficacy scale suggest that it possesses good validity and reliability in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  9. Multiple plasmonically induced transparency for chip-scale bandpass filters in metallic nanowaveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua; Yue, Zengqi; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-05-01

    We propose and investigate a new kind of bandpass filters based on the plasmonically induced transparency (PIT) effect in a special metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide system. The finite element method (FEM) simulations illustrate that the obvious PIT response can be generated in the metallic nanostructure with the stub and coupled cavities. The lineshape and position of the PIT peak are particularly dependent on the lengths of the stub and coupled cavities, the waveguide width, as well as the coupling distance between the stub and coupled cavities. The numerical simulations are in accordance with the results obtained by the temporal coupled-mode theory. The multi-peak PIT effect can be achieved by integrating multiple coupled cavities into the plasmonic waveguide. This PIT response contributes to the flexible realization of chip-scale multi-channel bandpass filters, which could find crucial applications in highly integrated optical circuits for signal processing.

  10. On the nonlinear dynamics of trolling-mode AFM: Analytical solution using multiple time scales method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2018-06-01

    Trolling mode atomic force microscopy (TR-AFM) has resolved many imaging problems by a considerable reduction of the liquid-resonator interaction forces in liquid environments. The present study develops a nonlinear model of the meniscus force exerted to the nanoneedle of TR-AFM and presents an analytical solution to the distributed-parameter model of TR-AFM resonator utilizing multiple time scales (MTS) method. Based on the developed analytical solution, the frequency-response curves of the resonator operation in air and liquid (for different penetration length of the nanoneedle) are obtained. The closed-form analytical solution and the frequency-response curves are validated by the comparison with both the finite element solution of the main partial differential equations and the experimental observations. The effect of excitation angle of the resonator on horizontal oscillation of the probe tip and the effect of different parameters on the frequency-response of the system are investigated.

  11. Multiple-Time-Scales Hierarchical Frequency Stability Control Strategy of Medium-Voltage Isolated Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhuoli; Yang, Ping; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an islanded medium-voltage (MV) microgrid placed in Dongao Island is presented, which integrates renewable-energy-based distributed generations (DGs), energy storage system (ESS), and local loads. In an isolated microgrid without connection to the main grid to support the frequency......, it is more complex to control and manage. Thus in order to maintain the frequency stability in multiple-time-scales, a hierarchical control strategy is proposed. The proposed control architecture divides the system frequency in three zones: (A) stable zone, (B) precautionary zone and (C) emergency zone...... of Zone B. Theoretical analysis, time-domain simulation and field test results under various conditions and scenarios in the Dongao Island microgrid are presented to prove the validity of the introduced control strategy....

  12. Measurement with multiple indicators and psychophysical scaling in the context of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Saris, W.E.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to test the theory of reasoned action of Fishbein and Ajzen. The measurements were done using two category scales and two psychophysical scales. No consistent difference in results was found between the four modalities. However, if the latter were used as multiple

  13. MRMer, an interactive open source and cross-platform system for data extraction and visualization of multiple reaction monitoring experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel B; Holzman, Ted; May, Damon; Peterson, Amelia; Eastham, Ashley; Eng, Jimmy; McIntosh, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry identifies and quantifies specific peptides in a complex mixture with very high sensitivity and speed and thus has promise for the high throughput screening of clinical samples for candidate biomarkers. We have developed an interactive software platform, called MRMer, for managing highly complex MRM-MS experiments, including quantitative analyses using heavy/light isotopic peptide pairs. MRMer parses and extracts information from MS files encoded in the platform-independent mzXML data format. It extracts and infers precursor-product ion transition pairings, computes integrated ion intensities, and permits rapid visual curation for analyses exceeding 1000 precursor-product pairs. Results can be easily output for quantitative comparison of consecutive runs. Additionally MRMer incorporates features that permit the quantitative analysis experiments including heavy and light isotopic peptide pairs. MRMer is open source and provided under the Apache 2.0 license.

  14. Distributed cerebellar plasticity implements generalized multiple-scale memory components in real-robot sensorimotor tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCasellato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum plays a crucial role in motor learning and it acts as a predictive controller. Modeling it and embedding it into sensorimotor tasks allows us to create functional links between plasticity mechanisms, neural circuits and behavioral learning. Moreover, if applied to real-time control of a neurorobot, the cerebellar model has to deal with a real noisy and changing environment, thus showing its robustness and effectiveness in learning. A biologically inspired cerebellar model with distributed plasticity, both at cortical and nuclear sites, has been used. Two cerebellum-mediated paradigms have been designed: an associative Pavlovian task and a vestibulo-ocular reflex, with multiple sessions of acquisition and extinction and with different stimuli and perturbation patterns. The cerebellar controller succeeded to generate conditioned responses and finely tuned eye movement compensation, thus reproducing human-like behaviors. Through a productive plasticity transfer from cortical to nuclear sites, the distributed cerebellar controller showed in both tasks the capability to optimize learning on multiple time-scales, to store motor memory and to effectively adapt to dynamic ranges of stimuli.

  15. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Stephan; Sahker, Ethan; Hedden, Suzy

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores. Multiple group factor analysis provided a quasi-confirmatory factor analysis. The solution accounted for 75.24% of the total variance, suggesting that 10 factors provide a reasonably good fit. However, Tucker's congruence coefficients between the factor structure and defining weights (0.41-0.52) suggested a poor fit to the hypothesized 10-domain structure. Principal components of the 10-domain scores yielded one factor whose eigenvalue was greater than one (5.93), accounting for 75.8% of the common variance. A few domains had perceptible but small unique variance components suggesting that a few of the domains may warrant enrichment. Our findings suggest that there is one general factor, with a caveat. Using the 10 measures inflates the chance for Type I errors. Using one general measure avoids this issue, is simple to interpret, and could reduce the number of items. However, those seeking to maximally predict later recovery success may need to use the full instrument and all 10 domains.

  16. Clutter-free Visualization of Large Point Symbols at Multiple Scales by Offset Quadtrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the cartographic problems in map mash-up applications in the Web 2.0 context, this paper studies a clutter-free technique for visualizing large symbols on Web maps. Basically, a quadtree is used to select one symbol in each grid cell at each zoom level. To resolve the symbol overlaps between neighboring quad-grids, multiple offsets are applied to the quadtree and a voting strategy is used to compute the significant level of symbols for their selection at multiple scales. The method is able to resolve spatial conflicts without explicit conflict detection, thus enabling a highly efficient processing. Also the resulting map forms a visual hierarchy of semantic importance. We discuss issues such as the relative importance, symbol-to-grid size ratio, and effective offset schemes, and propose two extensions to make better use of the free space available on the map. Experiments were carried out to validate the technique,which demonstrates its robustness and efficiency (a non-optimal implementation leads to a sub-second processing for datasets of a 105 magnitude.

  17. Stimulus encoding and feature extraction by multiple pyramidal cells in the hindbrain of weakly electric fish

    OpenAIRE

    Krahe, Rüdiger; Kreiman, Gabriel; Gabbiani, Fabrizio; Koch, Christof; Metzner, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Neighboring cells in topographical sensory maps may transmit similar information to the next higher level of processing. How information transmission by groups of nearby neurons compares with the performance of single cells is a very important question for understanding the functioning of the nervous system. To tackle this problem, we quantified stimulus-encoding and feature extraction performance by pairs of simultaneously recorded electrosensory pyramidal cells in the hindbrain of weakly el...

  18. [Optimization of ultrasonic extraction process for Xiaoqinglong granules by Box-Behnken in condition of medium scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Kuan; Shi, Xiao-Meng; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Fen; Wu, Jian-Xiong; Bi, Yu-An; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper is to investigate the optimization conditions of ultrasonic technique for extraction process of Xiaoqinglong granules in medium scale. First of all, single factor experiment was used to determine the overall impact tendency and range of each factor; secondly, Box-Behnken method was used for optimization and detecting the content of paeoniflorin, ephedrine hydrochloride, glycyrrhizic acid of the liquid medicine. Their respective extraction rate was calculated and the comprehensive evaluation was carried out. The results were used as the evaluation basis for the efficacy of Xiaoqinglong granules ultrasonic extraction. The test results showed that the optimum extraction process of Xiaoqinglong granules by ultrasonic extraction was under the following conditions: ultrasonic power 600 W, liquid-solid ratio 10∶1, extraction for 31 min. Under this condition, the predicted value of extraction rate for Xiaoqinglong granules was 85.90%, and the test value was 85.87%. The mathematical model(P<0.01) established in this paper was significant, and can be used for the analysis and prediction of the ultrasonic extraction process of Xiaoqinglong granules. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. A Greener, Quick and Comprehensive Extraction Approach for LC-MS of Multiple Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Breidbach

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In food/feed control, mycotoxin analysis is often still performed “one analyte at a time”. Here a method is presented which aims at making mycotoxin analysis environmentally friendlier through replacing acetonitrile by ethyl acetate and reducing chemical waste production by analyzing four mycotoxins together, forgoing sample extract clean-up, and minimizing solvent consumption. For this, 2 g of test material were suspended in 8 mL water and 16 mL ethyl acetate were added. Extraction was accelerated through sonication for 30 min and subsequent addition of 8 g sodium sulfate. After centrifugation, 500 µL supernatant were spiked with isotopologues, dried down, reconstituted in mobile phase, and measured with LC-MS. The method was validated in-house and through a collaborative study and the performance was fit-for-purpose. Repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDs between 16% at low and 4% at higher contaminations were obtained. The reproducibility RSDs were mostly between 12% and 32%. The trueness of results for T-2 toxin and Zearalenone were not different from 100%, for Deoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin they were larger than 89%. The extraction was also adapted to a quick screening of Aflatoxin B1 in maize by flow-injection–mass spectrometry. Semi-quantitative results were obtained through standard addition and scan-based ion ratio calculations. The method proved to be a viable greener and quicker alternative to existing methods.

  20. Roadside Multiple Objects Extraction from Mobile Laser Scanning Point Cloud Based on DBN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Haifeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed an novel algorithm for exploring deep belief network (DBN architectures to extract and recognize roadside facilities (trees,cars and traffic poles from mobile laser scanning (MLS point cloud.The proposed methods firstly partitioned the raw MLS point cloud into blocks and then removed the ground and building points.In order to partition the off-ground objects into individual objects,off-ground points were organized into an Octree structure and clustered into candidate objects based on connected component.To improve segmentation performance on clusters containing overlapped objects,a refining processing using a voxel-based normalized cut was then implemented.In addition,multi-view features descriptor was generated for each independent roadside facilities based on binary images.Finally,a deep belief network (DBN was trained to extract trees,cars and traffic pole objects.Experiments are undertaken to evaluate the validities of the proposed method with two datasets acquired by Lynx Mobile Mapper System.The precision of trees,cars and traffic poles objects extraction results respectively was 97.31%,97.79% and 92.78%.The recall was 98.30%,98.75% and 96.77% respectively.The quality is 95.70%,93.81% and 90.00%.And the F1 measure was 97.80%,96.81% and 94.73%.

  1. Wisdom tooth extraction causing lingual nerve and styloglossus muscle damage: a mimic of multiple cranial nerve palsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Aisling S; Evans, Matthew; Shah, Sachit; Catania, Santi; Warren, Jason D; Gleeson, Michael J; Reilly, Mary M

    2017-06-01

    The combination of tongue hemianaesthesia, dysgeusia, dysarthria and dysphagia suggests the involvement of multiple cranial nerves. We present a case with sudden onset of these symptoms immediately following wisdom tooth extraction and highlight the clinical features that allowed localisation of the lesion to a focal, iatrogenic injury of the lingual nerve and adjacent styloglossus muscle. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. How do the multiple large-scale climate oscillations trigger extreme precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengfei; Yang, Tao; Xu, Chong-Yu; Yong, Bin; Shao, Quanxi; Li, Zhenya; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xudong; Li, Shu

    2017-10-01

    Identifying the links between variations in large-scale climate patterns and precipitation is of tremendous assistance in characterizing surplus or deficit of precipitation, which is especially important for evaluation of local water resources and ecosystems in semi-humid and semi-arid regions. Restricted by current limited knowledge on underlying mechanisms, statistical correlation methods are often used rather than physical based model to characterize the connections. Nevertheless, available correlation methods are generally unable to reveal the interactions among a wide range of climate oscillations and associated effects on precipitation, especially on extreme precipitation. In this work, a probabilistic analysis approach by means of a state-of-the-art Copula-based joint probability distribution is developed to characterize the aggregated behaviors for large-scale climate patterns and their connections to precipitation. This method is employed to identify the complex connections between climate patterns (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)) and seasonal precipitation over a typical semi-humid and semi-arid region, the Haihe River Basin in China. Results show that the interactions among multiple climate oscillations are non-uniform in most seasons and phases. Certain joint extreme phases can significantly trigger extreme precipitation (flood and drought) owing to the amplification effect among climate oscillations.

  3. Multiple spatial scaling and the weak-coupling approximation. I. General formulation and equilibrium theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinsmith, P E [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)

    1976-04-01

    Multiple spatial scaling is incorporated in a modified form of the Bogoliubov plasma cluster expansion; then this proposed reformulation of the plasma weak-coupling approximation is used to derive, from the BBGKY Hierarchy, a decoupled set of equations for the one-and two-particle distribution functions in the limit as the plasma parameter goes to zero. Because the reformulated cluster expansion permits retention of essential two-particle collisional information in the limiting equations, while simultaneously retaining the well-established Debye-scale relative ordering of the correlation functions, decoupling of the Hierarchy is accomplished without introduction of the divergence problems encountered in the Bogoliubov theory, as is indicated by an exact solution of the limiting equations for the equilibrium case. To establish additional links with existing plasma equilibrium theories, the two-particle equilibrium correlation function is used to calculate the interaction energy and the equation of state. The limiting equation for the equilibrium three-particle correlation function is then developed, and a formal solution is obtained.

  4. Urban land use decouples plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions at multiple spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Nelson

    Full Text Available Intense urban and agricultural development alters habitats, increases fragmentation, and may decouple trophic interactions if plants or animals cannot disperse to needed resources. Specialist insects represent a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and their fidelity to discrete microhabitats provides a powerful framework for investigating organismal responses to human land use. We sampled site occupancy and densities for two plant-herbivore-parasitoid systems from 250 sites across a 360 km2 urban/agricultural landscape to ask whether and how human development decouples interactions between trophic levels. We compared patterns of site occupancy, host plant density, herbivory and parasitism rates of insects at two trophic levels with respect to landcover at multiple spatial scales. Geospatial analyses were used to identify landcover characters predictive of insect distributions. We found that herbivorous insect densities were decoupled from host tree densities in urban landcover types at several spatial scales. This effect was amplified for the third trophic level in one of the two insect systems: despite being abundant regionally, a parasitoid species was absent from all urban/suburban landcover even where its herbivore host was common. Our results indicate that human land use patterns limit distributions of specialist insects. Dispersal constraints associated with urban built development are specifically implicated as a limiting factor.

  5. Quantifying Contributions to Transport in Ionic Polymers Across Multiple Length Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Louis

    Self-organized polymer membranes conduct mobile species (ions, water, alcohols, etc.) according to a hierarchy of structural motifs that span sub-nm to >10 μm in length scale. In order to comprehensively understand such materials, our group combines multiple types of NMR dynamics and transport measurements (spectroscopy, diffusometry, relaxometry, imaging) with structural information from scattering and microscopy as well as with theories of porous media,1 electrolytic transport, and oriented matter.2 In this presentation, I will discuss quantitative separation of the phenomena that govern transport in polymer membranes, from intermolecular interactions (<= 2 nm),3 to locally ordered polymer nanochannels (a few to 10s of nm),2 to larger polymer domain structures (10s of nm and larger).1 Using this multi-scale information, we seek to give informed feedback on the design of polymer membranes for use in, e . g . , efficient batteries, fuel cells, and mechanical actuators. References: [1] J. Hou, J. Li, D. Mountz, M. Hull, and L. A. Madsen. Journal of Membrane Science448, 292-298 (2013). [2] J. Li, J. K. Park, R. B. Moore, and L. A. Madsen. Nature Materials 10, 507-511 (2011). [3] M. D. Lingwood, Z. Zhang, B. E. Kidd, K. B. McCreary, J. Hou, and L. A. Madsen. Chemical Communications 49, 4283 - 4285 (2013).

  6. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DRACONTOMELON DAO EXTRACTS ON METHICILLIN-RESISTANT S. AUREUS (MRSA) AND E. COLI MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE (MDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniati, Yuniati; Hasanah, Nurul; Ismail, Sjarif; Anitasari, Silvia; Paramita, Swandari

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus , methicillin-resistant and Escherichia coli , multidrug-resistant included in the list of antibiotic-resistant priority pathogens from WHO. As multidrug-resistant bacteria problem is increasing, it is necessary to probe new sources for identifying antimicrobial compounds. Medicinal plants represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents. One of the potential plants for further examined as antibacterial is Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe. The present study designed to find the antibacterial activity of D. dao stem bark extracts on Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and E. coli Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR), followed by determined secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity and determined the value of MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration). D. dao stem bark extracted using 60% ethanol. Disc diffusion test methods used to find the antibacterial activity, following by microdilution methods to find the value of MIC and MBC. Secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity determined by bioautography using TLC (thin layer chromatography) methods. D. dao stem bark extracts are sensitive to MSSA, MRSA and E.coli MDR bacteria. The inhibition zone is 16.0 mm in MSSA, 11.7 mm in MRSA and 10.7 mm in E. coli MDR. The entire MBC/MIC ratios for MSSA, MRSA and E.coli MDR is lower than 4. The ratio showed bactericidal effects of D. dao stem bark extracts. In TLC results, colorless bands found to be secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. D. dao stem bark extracts are potential to develop as antibacterial agent especially against MRSA and E. coli MDR strain.

  7. Testing sequential extraction methods for the analysis of multiple stable isotope systems from a bone sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlstedt, Elina; Arppe, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Stable isotope composition of bones, analysed either from the mineral phase (hydroxyapatite) or from the organic phase (mainly collagen) carry important climatological and ecological information and are therefore widely used in paleontological and archaeological research. For the analysis of the stable isotope compositions, both of the phases, hydroxyapatite and collagen, have their more or less well established separation and analytical techniques. Recent development in IRMS and wet chemical extraction methods have facilitated the analysis of very small bone fractions (500 μg or less starting material) for PO43-O isotope composition. However, the uniqueness and (pre-) historical value of each archaeological and paleontological finding lead to preciously little material available for stable isotope analyses, encouraging further development of microanalytical methods for the use of stable isotope analyses. Here we present the first results in developing extraction methods for combining collagen C- and N-isotope analyses to PO43-O-isotope analyses from a single bone sample fraction. We tested sequential extraction starting with dilute acid demineralization and collection of both collagen and PO43-fractions, followed by further purification step by H2O2 (PO43-fraction). First results show that bone sample separates as small as 2 mg may be analysed for their δ15N, δ13C and δ18OPO4 values. The method may be incorporated in detailed investigation of sequentially developing skeletal material such as teeth, potentially allowing for the investigation of interannual variability in climatological/environmental signals or investigation of the early life history of an individual.

  8. On extracting hadron multiplicities and unpolarized nucleon structure ratios from SIDIS data at the HERMES experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Levy, Loren Alexander

    2008-10-01

    We present an analysis using the world's largest data set of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) in the kinematic range 0.1 running (especially in 2002 and 2004) make the HERMES data invaluable for reinforcing the E866/NuSea Drell-Yan result on d/ u at a different and from an entirely different physical process. These PDF extractions are also an important test of many typical assumptions made in SIDIS analyses and must be taken into consideration in light of the future facilities that propose to use this technique.

  9. Petiveria alliacea extracts uses multiple mechanisms to inhibit growth of human and mouse tumoral cells

    OpenAIRE

    Urue?a, Claudia; Cifuentes, Claudia; Casta?eda, Diana; Arango, Amparo; Kaur, Punit; Asea, Alexzander; Fiorentino, Susana

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is ethnopharmacological evidence that Petiveria alliacea can have antitumor activity; however, the mechanism of its cytotoxic activity is not well understood. We assessed multiple in vitro biological activities of an ethyl acetate soluble plant fraction over several tumor cell lines. Methods Tumor cell lines were evaluated using the following tests: trypan blue exclusion test, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide], flow cytometry, cytosk...

  10. Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction. Final Technical Report EMSP 70045

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles W.; Webb, Andrew W.

    2004-01-01

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. This research project used a combination of laboratory experimentation and mathematical modeling to determine how these various processes interact to limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. Our results were applied to scenarios typical of the carbon tetrachloride spill zone at the Hanford Site. Our results indicate that: (a) the initial distribution of the spilled DNAPL (i.e., the spill-zone architecture) has a major influence upon the performance of any subsequent SVE operations; (b) while the pattern of higher and lower conductivity soil zones has an important impact upon spill zone architecture, soil moisture distribution plays an even larger role when there are large quantities of co-disposed waste-water (as in the Hanford scenario); (c) depending upon soil moisture dynamics, liquid DNAPL that is trapped by surrounding water is extremely difficult to remove by SVE; (d) natural barometric pumping can remove a large amount of the initial DNAPL mass for spills occurring close to the land surface, and hence the initial spilled inventory will be over-estimated if this process is neglected

  11. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  12. High Agreement was Obtained Across Scores from Multiple Equated Scales for Social Anxiety Disorder using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Batterham, Philip; Calear, Alison; Carragher, Natacha; Baillie, Andrew; Slade, Tim

    2018-04-10

    There is no standardized approach to the measurement of social anxiety. Researchers and clinicians are faced with numerous self-report scales with varying strengths, weaknesses, and psychometric properties. The lack of standardization makes it difficult to compare scores across populations that utilise different scales. Item response theory offers one solution to this problem via equating different scales using an anchor scale to set a standardized metric. This study is the first to equate several scales for social anxiety disorder. Data from two samples (n=3,175 and n=1,052), recruited from the Australian community using online advertisements, were utilised to equate a network of 11 self-report social anxiety scales via a fixed parameter item calibration method. Comparisons between actual and equated scores for most of the scales indicted a high level of agreement with mean differences <0.10 (equivalent to a mean difference of less than one point on the standardized metric). This study demonstrates that scores from multiple scales that measure social anxiety can be converted to a common scale. Re-scoring observed scores to a common scale provides opportunities to combine research from multiple studies and ultimately better assess social anxiety in treatment and research settings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Scales used to rate adult patients' psycho-emotional status in tooth extraction procedures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astramskaitė, I; Juodžbalys, G

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review scales used to assess anxiety, stress, and pain in dental patients undergoing a tooth extraction procedure and to propose a novel psycho-emotional rating scale based on the relevant literature and our own experience. An electronic literature search was conducted of the National Library of Medicine database MEDLINE (Ovid) and EMBASE databases between January 2005 and April 2016. Sequential screening at the title/abstract and full-text levels was performed. The review included all human prospective or retrospective follow-up studies and clinical trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and case series that demonstrated at least one scale used to measure tooth extraction anxiety, stress, or pain. The search resulted in 32 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. None of the studies were found to be suitable in evaluating patient's stress, pain, and fear at once. Also, no scales were found that included both the doctor's and the patient's rating. In a few studies, vital signs as psycho-emotional status indicators were rated. Guidelines for a suitable questionnaire that could be used for rating the psycho-emotional status of patients undergoing tooth extraction are listed in the present research. Further studies are required for verification and validation of offered scale. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Waterline Extraction Method from Remote Sensing Image Based on Quad-tree and Multiple Active Contour Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Jintao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After the characteristics of geodesic active contour model (GAC, Chan-Vese model(CV and local binary fitting model(LBF are analyzed, and the active contour model based on regions and edges is combined with image segmentation method based on quad-tree, a waterline extraction method based on quad-tree and multiple active contour model is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the method provides an initial contour according to quad-tree segmentation. Secondly, a new signed pressure force(SPF function based on global image statistics information of CV model and local image statistics information of LBF model has been defined, and then ,the edge stopping function(ESF is replaced by the proposed SPF function, which solves the problem such as evolution stopped in advance and excessive evolution. Finally, the selective binary and Gaussian filtering level set method is used to avoid reinitializing and regularization to improve the evolution efficiency. The experimental results show that this method can effectively extract the weak edges and serious concave edges, and owns some properties such as sub-pixel accuracy, high efficiency and reliability for waterline extraction.

  15. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Arndt,1–3 Ethan Sahker,1,4 Suzy Hedden1 1Iowa Consortium for Substance Abuse Research and Evaluation, 2Department of Psychiatry, Carver College of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, 4Department of Psychological and Quantitative Foundations, Counseling Psychology Program College of Education, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Methods: Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores. Multiple group factor analysis provided a quasi-confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The solution accounted for 75.24% of the total variance, suggesting that 10 factors provide a reasonably good fit. However, Tucker’s congruence coefficients between the factor structure and defining weights (0.41–0.52 suggested a poor fit to the hypothesized 10-domain structure. Principal components of the 10-domain scores yielded one factor whose eigenvalue was greater than one (5.93, accounting for 75.8% of the common variance. A few domains had perceptible but small unique variance components suggesting that a few of the domains may warrant enrichment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is one general factor, with a caveat. Using the 10 measures inflates the chance for Type I errors. Using one general measure avoids this issue, is simple to interpret, and could reduce the number of items. However, those seeking to maximally predict later recovery success may need to use the full instrument and all 10 domains. Keywords: social support, psychometrics, quality of life

  16. Spatial heterogeneity regulates plant-pollinator networks across multiple landscape scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Freitas Moreira

    Full Text Available Mutualistic plant-pollinator interactions play a key role in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning. In a community, the combination of these interactions can generate emergent properties, e.g., robustness and resilience to disturbances such as fluctuations in populations and extinctions. Given that these systems are hierarchical and complex, environmental changes must have multiple levels of influence. In addition, changes in habitat quality and in the landscape structure are important threats to plants, pollinators and their interactions. However, despite the importance of these phenomena for the understanding of biological systems, as well as for conservation and management strategies, few studies have empirically evaluated these effects at the network level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of local conditions and landscape structure at multiple scales on the characteristics of plant-pollinator networks. This study was conducted in agri-natural lands in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. Pollinators were collected in 27 sampling units distributed orthogonally along a gradient of proportion of agriculture and landscape diversity. The Akaike information criterion was used to select models that best fit the metrics for network characteristics, comparing four hypotheses represented by a set of a priori candidate models with specific combinations of the proportion of agriculture, the average shape of the landscape elements, the diversity of the landscape and the structure of local vegetation. The results indicate that a reduction of habitat quality and landscape heterogeneity can cause species loss and decrease of networks nestedness. These structural changes can reduce robustness and resilience of plant-pollinator networks what compromises the reproductive success of plants, the maintenance of biodiversity and the pollination service stability. We also discuss the possible explanations for

  17. Spatial heterogeneity regulates plant-pollinator networks across multiple landscape scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Eduardo Freitas; Boscolo, Danilo; Viana, Blandina Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Mutualistic plant-pollinator interactions play a key role in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning. In a community, the combination of these interactions can generate emergent properties, e.g., robustness and resilience to disturbances such as fluctuations in populations and extinctions. Given that these systems are hierarchical and complex, environmental changes must have multiple levels of influence. In addition, changes in habitat quality and in the landscape structure are important threats to plants, pollinators and their interactions. However, despite the importance of these phenomena for the understanding of biological systems, as well as for conservation and management strategies, few studies have empirically evaluated these effects at the network level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of local conditions and landscape structure at multiple scales on the characteristics of plant-pollinator networks. This study was conducted in agri-natural lands in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. Pollinators were collected in 27 sampling units distributed orthogonally along a gradient of proportion of agriculture and landscape diversity. The Akaike information criterion was used to select models that best fit the metrics for network characteristics, comparing four hypotheses represented by a set of a priori candidate models with specific combinations of the proportion of agriculture, the average shape of the landscape elements, the diversity of the landscape and the structure of local vegetation. The results indicate that a reduction of habitat quality and landscape heterogeneity can cause species loss and decrease of networks nestedness. These structural changes can reduce robustness and resilience of plant-pollinator networks what compromises the reproductive success of plants, the maintenance of biodiversity and the pollination service stability. We also discuss the possible explanations for these relationships and

  18. The e-MSWS-12: improving the multiple sclerosis walking scale using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, Matthew M; Schmidt, Karen M; Engel, Casey E; Brenton, J Nicholas; Patek, Stephen D; Goldman, Myla D

    2016-12-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) is the predominant patient-reported measure of multiple sclerosis (MS) -elated walking ability, yet it had not been analyzed using item response theory (IRT), the emerging standard for patient-reported outcome (PRO) validation. This study aims to reduce MSWS-12 measurement error and facilitate computerized adaptive testing by creating an IRT model of the MSWS-12 and distributing it online. MSWS-12 responses from 284 subjects with MS were collected by mail and used to fit and compare several IRT models. Following model selection and assessment, subpopulations based on age and sex were tested for differential item functioning (DIF). Model comparison favored a one-dimensional graded response model (GRM). This model met fit criteria and explained 87 % of response variance. The performance of each MSWS-12 item was characterized using category response curves (CRCs) and item information. IRT-based MSWS-12 scores correlated with traditional MSWS-12 scores (r = 0.99) and timed 25-foot walk (T25FW) speed (r =  -0.70). Item 2 showed DIF based on age (χ 2  = 19.02, df = 5, p Item 11 showed DIF based on sex (χ 2  = 13.76, df = 5, p = 0.02). MSWS-12 measurement error depends on walking ability, but could be lowered by improving or replacing items with low information or DIF. The e-MSWS-12 includes IRT-based scoring, error checking, and an estimated T25FW derived from MSWS-12 responses. It is available at https://ms-irt.shinyapps.io/e-MSWS-12 .

  19. Efficacy of extracting indices from large-scale acoustic recordings to monitor biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Rachel; McKenna, Megan F; Clapp, Mary; Meyer, Erik; Stabenau, Erik; Angeloni, Lisa M; Crooks, Kevin; Wittemyer, George

    2018-04-20

    Passive acoustic monitoring has the potential to be a powerful approach for assessing biodiversity across large spatial and temporal scales. However, extracting meaningful information from recordings can be prohibitively time consuming. Acoustic indices offer a relatively rapid method for processing acoustic data and are increasingly used to characterize biological communities. We examine the ability of acoustic indices to predict the diversity and abundance of biological sounds within recordings. First we reviewed the acoustic index literature and found that over 60 indices have been applied to a range of objectives with varying success. We then implemented a subset of the most successful indices on acoustic data collected at 43 sites in temperate terrestrial and tropical marine habitats across the continental U.S., developing a predictive model of the diversity of animal sounds observed in recordings. For terrestrial recordings, random forest models using a suite of acoustic indices as covariates predicted Shannon diversity, richness, and total number of biological sounds with high accuracy (R 2 > = 0.94, mean squared error MSE indices assessed, roughness, acoustic activity, and acoustic richness contributed most to the predictive ability of models. Performance of index models was negatively impacted by insect, weather, and anthropogenic sounds. For marine recordings, random forest models predicted Shannon diversity, richness, and total number of biological sounds with low accuracy (R 2 = 195), indicating that alternative methods are necessary in marine habitats. Our results suggest that using a combination of relevant indices in a flexible model can accurately predict the diversity of biological sounds in temperate terrestrial acoustic recordings. Thus, acoustic approaches could be an important contribution to biodiversity monitoring in some habitats in the face of accelerating human-caused ecological change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  20. Improving seasonal forecasts of hydroclimatic variables through the state of multiple large-scale climate signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Block, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Increasingly uncertain hydrologic regimes combined with more frequent and intense extreme events are challenging water systems management worldwide, emphasizing the need of accurate medium- to long-term predictions to timely prompt anticipatory operations. Despite modern forecasts are skillful over short lead time (from hours to days), predictability generally tends to decrease on longer lead times. Global climate teleconnection, such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), may contribute in extending forecast lead times. However, ENSO teleconnection is well defined in some locations, such as Western USA and Australia, while there is no consensus on how it can be detected and used in other regions, particularly in Europe, Africa, and Asia. In this work, we generalize the Niño Index Phase Analysis (NIPA) framework by contributing the Multi Variate Niño Index Phase Analysis (MV-NIPA), which allows capturing the state of multiple large-scale climate signals (i.e. ENSO, North Atlantic Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation, Indian Ocean Dipole) to forecast hydroclimatic variables on a seasonal time scale. Specifically, our approach distinguishes the different phases of the considered climate signals and, for each phase, identifies relevant anomalies in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) that influence the local hydrologic conditions. The potential of the MV-NIPA framework is demonstrated through an application to the Lake Como system, a regulated lake in northern Italy which is mainly operated for flood control and irrigation supply. Numerical results show high correlations between seasonal SST values and one season-ahead precipitation in the Lake Como basin. The skill of the resulting MV-NIPA forecast outperforms the one of ECMWF products. This information represents a valuable contribution to partially anticipate the summer water availability, especially during drought events, ultimately supporting the improvement of the Lake Como

  1. Proteotyping of laboratory-scale biogas plants reveals multiple steady-states in community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, F; Heyer, R; Bissinger, T; Kottler, R; Schallert, K; Püttker, S; Behne, A; Rapp, E; Benndorf, D; Reichl, U

    2017-08-01

    Complex microbial communities are the functional core of anaerobic digestion processes taking place in biogas plants (BGP). So far, however, a comprehensive characterization of the microbiomes involved in methane formation is technically challenging. As an alternative, enriched communities from laboratory-scale experiments can be investigated that have a reduced number of organisms and are easier to characterize by state of the art mass spectrometric-based (MS) metaproteomic workflows. Six parallel laboratory digesters were inoculated with sludge from a full-scale BGP to study the development of enriched microbial communities under defined conditions. During the first three month of cultivation, all reactors (R1-R6) were functionally comparable regarding biogas productions (375-625 NL L reactor volume -1 d -1 ), methane yields (50-60%), pH values (7.1-7.3), and volatile fatty acids (VFA, 1 gNH 3 L -1 ) showed an increase to pH 7.5-8.0, accumulation of acetate (>10 mM), and decreasing biogas production (<125 NL L reactor volume -1 d -1 ). Tandem MS (MS/MS)-based proteotyping allowed the identification of taxonomic abundances and biological processes. Although all reactors showed similar performances, proteotyping and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) fingerprinting revealed significant differences in the composition of individual microbial communities, indicating multiple steady-states. Furthermore, cellulolytic enzymes and cellulosomal proteins of Clostridium thermocellum were identified to be specific markers for the thermophilic reactors (R3, R4). Metaproteins found in R3 indicated hydrogenothrophic methanogenesis, whereas metaproteins of acetoclastic methanogenesis were identified in R4. This suggests not only an individual evolution of microbial communities even for the case that BGPs are started at the same initial conditions under well controlled environmental conditions, but also a high compositional variance of microbiomes under

  2. Petiveria alliacea extracts uses multiple mechanisms to inhibit growth of human and mouse tumoral cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Punit

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is ethnopharmacological evidence that Petiveria alliacea can have antitumor activity; however, the mechanism of its cytotoxic activity is not well understood. We assessed multiple in vitro biological activities of an ethyl acetate soluble plant fraction over several tumor cell lines. Methods Tumor cell lines were evaluated using the following tests: trypan blue exclusion test, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide], flow cytometry, cytoskeleton organization analysis, cell cycle, mitochondria membrane depolarization, clonogenicity test, DNA fragmentation test and differential protein expression by HPLC-Chip/MS analysis. F4 fraction characterization was made by HPLC-MS. Results Petiveria alliacea fraction characterized by de-replication was found to alter actin cytoskeleton organization, induce G2 cell cycle arrest and cause apoptotic cell death in a mitochondria independent way. In addition, we found down regulation of cytoskeleton, chaperone, signal transduction proteins, and proteins involved in metabolic pathways. Finally up regulation of proteins involved in translation and intracellular degradation was also observed. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that Petiveria alliacea exerts multiple biological activities in vitro consistent with cytotoxicity. Further studies in animal models are needed but Petiveria alliacea appears to be a good candidate to be used as an antitumor agent.

  3. Petiveria alliacea extracts uses multiple mechanisms to inhibit growth of human and mouse tumoral cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urueña, Claudia; Cifuentes, Claudia; Castañeda, Diana; Arango, Amparo; Kaur, Punit; Asea, Alexzander; Fiorentino, Susana

    2008-11-18

    There is ethnopharmacological evidence that Petiveria alliacea can have antitumor activity; however, the mechanism of its cytotoxic activity is not well understood. We assessed multiple in vitro biological activities of an ethyl acetate soluble plant fraction over several tumor cell lines. Tumor cell lines were evaluated using the following tests: trypan blue exclusion test, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide], flow cytometry, cytoskeleton organization analysis, cell cycle, mitochondria membrane depolarization, clonogenicity test, DNA fragmentation test and differential protein expression by HPLC-Chip/MS analysis. F4 fraction characterization was made by HPLC-MS. Petiveria alliacea fraction characterized by de-replication was found to alter actin cytoskeleton organization, induce G2 cell cycle arrest and cause apoptotic cell death in a mitochondria independent way. In addition, we found down regulation of cytoskeleton, chaperone, signal transduction proteins, and proteins involved in metabolic pathways. Finally up regulation of proteins involved in translation and intracellular degradation was also observed. The results of this study indicate that Petiveria alliacea exerts multiple biological activities in vitro consistent with cytotoxicity. Further studies in animal models are needed but Petiveria alliacea appears to be a good candidate to be used as an antitumor agent.

  4. Baseflow physical characteristics differ at multiple spatial scales in stream networks across diverse biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janine Ruegg; Walter K. Dodds; Melinda D. Daniels; Ken R. Sheehan; Christina L. Baker; William B. Bowden; Kaitlin J. Farrell; Michael B. Flinn; Tamara K. Harms; Jeremy B. Jones; Lauren E. Koenig; John S. Kominoski; William H. McDowell; Samuel P. Parker; Amy D. Rosemond; Matt T. Trentman; Matt Whiles; Wilfred M. Wollheim

    2016-01-01

    ContextSpatial scaling of ecological processes is facilitated by quantifying underlying habitat attributes. Physical and ecological patterns are often measured at disparate spatial scales limiting our ability to quantify ecological processes at broader spatial scales using physical attributes.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Multiple-Choice Items in Science Technology and Society: Item Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vázquez Alonso

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The scarce attention to assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for Science-Technology-Society (STS education, due to the dialectic, tentative, value-laden, and controversial nature of most STS topics. To overcome the methodological pitfalls of the STS assessment instruments used in the past, an empirically developed instrument (VOSTS, Views on Science-Technology-Society have been suggested. Some methodological proposals, namely the multiple response models and the computing of a global attitudinal index, were suggested to improve the item implementation. The final step of these methodological proposals requires the categorization of STS statements. This paper describes the process of categorization through a scaling procedure ruled by a panel of experts, acting as judges, according to the body of knowledge from history, epistemology, and sociology of science. The statement categorization allows for the sound foundation of STS items, which is useful in educational assessment and science education research, and may also increase teachers’ self-confidence in the development of the STS curriculum for science classrooms.

  6. Content Validity and Reliability of Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS Translated into Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Saeidi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to translate MIDAS questionnaire from English into Persian and determine its content validity and reliability. MIDAS was translated and validated on a sample (N = 110 of Iranian adult population. The participants were both male and female with the age range of 17-57. They were at different educational levels and from different ethnic groups in Iran. A translating team, consisting of five members, bilingual in English and Persian and familiar with multiple intelligences (MI theory and practice, were involved in translating and determining content validity, which included the processes of forward translation, back-translation, review, final proof-reading, and testing. The statistical analyses of inter-scale correlation were performed using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. In an intra-class correlation, the Cronbach's alpha was high for all of the questions. Translation and content validity of MIDAS questionnaire was completed by a proper process leading to high reliability and validity. The results suggest that Persian MIDAS (P-MIDAS could serve as a valid and reliable instrument for measuring Iranian adults MIs.

  7. Cross-scale Efficient Tensor Contractions for Coupled Cluster Computations Through Multiple Programming Model Backends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Khaled Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Epifanovsky, Evgeny [Q-Chem, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Krylov, Anna I. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-07-26

    Coupled-cluster methods provide highly accurate models of molecular structure by explicit numerical calculation of tensors representing the correlation between electrons. These calculations are dominated by a sequence of tensor contractions, motivating the development of numerical libraries for such operations. While based on matrix-matrix multiplication, these libraries are specialized to exploit symmetries in the molecular structure and in electronic interactions, and thus reduce the size of the tensor representation and the complexity of contractions. The resulting algorithms are irregular and their parallelization has been previously achieved via the use of dynamic scheduling or specialized data decompositions. We introduce our efforts to extend the Libtensor framework to work in the distributed memory environment in a scalable and energy efficient manner. We achieve up to 240 speedup compared with the best optimized shared memory implementation. We attain scalability to hundreds of thousands of compute cores on three distributed-memory architectures, (Cray XC30&XC40, BlueGene/Q), and on a heterogeneous GPU-CPU system (Cray XK7). As the bottlenecks shift from being compute-bound DGEMM's to communication-bound collectives as the size of the molecular system scales, we adopt two radically different parallelization approaches for handling load-imbalance. Nevertheless, we preserve a uni ed interface to both programming models to maintain the productivity of computational quantum chemists.

  8. Fault detection and isolation for a full-scale railway vehicle suspension with multiple Kalman filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesussek, Mathias; Ellermann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Reliability and dependability in complex mechanical systems can be improved by fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods. These techniques are key elements for maintenance on demand, which could decrease service cost and time significantly. This paper addresses FDI for a railway vehicle: the mechanical model is described as a multibody system, which is excited randomly due to track irregularities. Various parameters, like masses, spring- and damper-characteristics, influence the dynamics of the vehicle. Often, the exact values of the parameters are unknown and might even change over time. Some of these changes are considered critical with respect to the operation of the system and they require immediate maintenance. The aim of this work is to detect faults in the suspension system of the vehicle. A Kalman filter is used in order to estimate the states. To detect and isolate faults the detection error is minimised with multiple Kalman filters. A full-scale train model with nonlinear wheel/rail contact serves as an example for the described techniques. Numerical results for different test cases are presented. The analysis shows that for the given system it is possible not only to detect a failure of the suspension system from the system's dynamic response, but also to distinguish clearly between different possible causes for the changes in the dynamical behaviour.

  9. Buried interfaces - A systematic study to characterize an adhesive interface at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubrich, Jan; Löbbecke, Miriam; Watermeyer, Philipp; Wilde, Fabian; Requena, Guillermo; da Silva, Julio

    2018-03-01

    A comparative study of a model adhesive interface formed between laser-pretreated Ti15-3-3-3 and the thermoplastic polymer PEEK has been carried out in order to characterize the interfaces' structural details and the infiltration of the surface nano-oxide by the polymer at multiple scales. Destructive approaches such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy of microsections prepared by focused ion beam, and non-destructive imaging approaches including laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy of pretreated surfaces as well as synchrotron computed tomography techniques (micro- and ptychographic tomographies) were employed for resolving the large, μm-sized melt-structures and the fine nano-oxide substructure within the buried interface. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fine, open-porous nano-oxide homogeneously covers the larger macrostructure features which in turn cover the joint surface. The open-porous nano-oxide forming the interface itself appears to be fully infiltrated and wetted by the polymer. No voids or even channels were detected down to the respective resolution limits of scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Examining the Psychometric Quality of Multiple-Choice Assessment Items using Mokken Scale Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A

    The concept of invariant measurement is typically associated with Rasch measurement theory (Engelhard, 2013). Concerned with the appropriateness of the parametric transformation upon which the Rasch model is based, Mokken (1971) proposed a nonparametric procedure for evaluating the quality of social science measurement that is theoretically and empirically related to the Rasch model. Mokken's nonparametric procedure can be used to evaluate the quality of dichotomous and polytomous items in terms of the requirements for invariant measurement. Despite these potential benefits, the use of Mokken scaling to examine the properties of multiple-choice (MC) items in education has not yet been fully explored. A nonparametric approach to evaluating MC items is promising in that this approach facilitates the evaluation of assessments in terms of invariant measurement without imposing potentially inappropriate transformations. Using Rasch-based indices of measurement quality as a frame of reference, data from an eighth-grade physical science assessment are used to illustrate and explore Mokken-based techniques for evaluating the quality of MC items. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  11. Karhunen-Loève (PCA) based detection of multiple oscillations in multiple measurement signals from large-scale process plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, M.V.

    2007-01-01

     In the perspective of optimizing the control and operation of large scale process plants, it is important to detect and to locate oscillations in the plants. This paper presents a scheme for detecting and localizing multiple oscillations in multiple measurements from such a large-scale power plant....... The scheme is based on a Karhunen-Lo\\`{e}ve analysis of the data from the plant. The proposed scheme is subsequently tested on two sets of data: a set of synthetic data and a set of data from a coal-fired power plant. In both cases the scheme detects the beginning of the oscillation within only a few samples....... In addition the oscillation localization has also shown its potential by localizing the oscillations in both data sets....

  12. Hydrologic test plans for large-scale, multiple-well tests in support of site characterization at Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, P.M.; Stone, R.; Lu, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project is preparing plans for tests and has begun work on some tests that will provide the data necessary for the hydrogeologic characterization of a site located on a United States government reservation at Hanford, Washington. This site is being considered for the Nation's first geologic repository of high level nuclear waste. Hydrogeologic characterization of this site requires several lines of investigation which include: surface-based small-scale tests, testing performed at depth from an exploratory shaft, geochemistry investigations, regional studies, and site-specific investigations using large-scale, multiple-well hydraulic tests. The large-scale multiple-well tests are planned for several locations in and around the site. These tests are being designed to provide estimates of hydraulic parameter values of the geologic media, chemical properties of the groundwater, and hydrogeologic boundary conditions at a scale appropriate for evaluating repository performance with respect to potential radionuclide transport

  13. Geomechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay at multiple scales: results from Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, F.; Wild, K.M.; Loew, S. [Institute of Geology, Engineering Geology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Yong, S. [Knight Piesold Ltd, Vancouver (Canada); Thoeny, R. [Grundwasserschutz und Entsorgung, AF-Consult Switzerland AG, Baden (Switzerland); Frank, E. [Sektion Geologie (GEOL), Eidgenössisches Nuklear-Sicherheitsinspektorat (ENSI), Brugg (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    The paper represents a summary about our research projects conducted between 2003 and 2015 related to the mechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri. The research summarized covers a series of laboratory and field tests that address the brittle failure behaviour of Opalinus Clay, its undrained and effective strength, the dependency of petro-physical and mechanical properties on total suction, hydro-mechanically coupled phenomena and the development of a damage zone around excavations. On the laboratory scale, even simple laboratory tests are difficult to interpret and uncertainties remain regarding the representativeness of the results. We show that suction may develop rapidly after core extraction and substantially modifies the strength, stiffness, and petro-physical properties of Opalinus Clay. Consolidated undrained tests performed on fully saturated specimens revealed a relatively small true cohesion and confirmed the strong hydro-mechanically coupled behaviour of this material. Strong hydro-mechanically coupled processes may explain the stability of cores and tunnel excavations in the short term. Pore-pressure effects may cause effective stress states that favour stability in the short term but may cause longer-term deformations and damage as the pore-pressure dissipates. In-situ observations show that macroscopic fracturing is strongly influenced by bedding planes and faults planes. In tunnel sections where opening or shearing along bedding planes or faults planes is kinematically free, the induced fracture type is strongly dependent on the fault plane frequency and orientation. A transition from extensional macroscopic failure to shearing can be observed with increasing fault plane frequency. In zones around the excavation where bedding plane shearing/shearing along tectonic fault planes is kinematically restrained, primary extensional type fractures develop. In addition, heterogeneities such as single tectonic fault planes or fault zones

  14. Multiple sclerosis: Left advantage for auditory laterality in dichotic tests of central auditory processing and relationship of psychoacoustic tests with the Multiple Sclerosis Disability Scale-EDSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza López, Yolanda Rebeca; Orozco Peña, Xóchitl Daisy; Pérez Ruiz, Santiago Jesús

    2018-04-03

    To evaluate the central auditory processing disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis, emphasizing auditory laterality by applying psychoacoustic tests and to identify their relationship with the Multiple Sclerosis Disability Scale (EDSS) functions. Depression scales (HADS), EDSS, and 9 psychoacoustic tests to study CAPD were applied to 26 individuals with multiple sclerosis and 26 controls. Correlation tests were performed between the EDSS and psychoacoustic tests. Seven out of 9 psychoacoustic tests were significantly different (P<.05); right or left (14/19 explorations) with respect to control. In dichotic digits there was a left-ear advantage compared to the usual predominance of RDD. There was significant correlation in five psychoacoustic tests and the specific functions of EDSS. The left-ear advantage detected and interpreted as an expression of deficient influences of the corpus callosum and attention in multiple sclerosis should be investigated. There was a correlation between psychoacoustic tests and specific EDSS functions. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring conditions and trends in ecosystem services at multiple scales: the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) experience

    OpenAIRE

    van Jaarsveld, A.S; Biggs, R; Scholes, R.J; Bohensky, E; Reyers, B; Lynam, T; Musvoto, C; Fabricius, C

    2005-01-01

    The Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) evaluated the relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being at multiple scales, ranging from local through to sub-continental. Trends in ecosystem services (fresh water, food, fuel-wood, cultural and biodiversity) over the period 1990-2000 were mixed across scales. Freshwater resources appear strained across the continent with large numbers of people not securing adequate supplies, especially of good quality water. T...

  16. Scale breaking parton fragmentation functions, analytical parametrizations and comparison with charged multiplicities in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlt, H.

    1980-01-01

    Scale breaking quark and gluon fragmentation functions obtained by solving numerically Altarelli-Parisi type equations are presented. Analytical parametrizations are given for the fragmentation of u and d quarks into pions. The calculated Q 2 dependent fragmentation functions are compared with experimental data. With these scale breaking fragmentation functions the average charged multiplicity is calculated in e + e - annihilation, which rises with energy more than logarithmically and is in good agreement with experiment. (author)

  17. Gastrointestinal stimulatory and uterotonic activities of dietary radish leaves extract are mediated through multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2005-09-01

    Raphanus sativus, commonly known as radish, is a food plant known worldwide for its culinary and medicinal properties especially as a laxative and abortifacient. This study reports the gastrointestinal and uterine tone modulatory activities of the crude extract (Rl.Cr) of radish leaves. Rl.Cr, showing the presence of saponins and alkaloids, exhibited a spasmogenic effect (0.03-10 mg/mL) in isolated rabbit jejunum, rat stomach fundus and uterus which was partially blocked by atropine. In contrast, Rl.Cr was found to be devoid of any stimulatory effect in rat ileum, instead showed an inhibitory effect (0.1 mg/mL) on the ACh dose-response curves. A mild relaxant effect was also observed in rabbit jejunum at the lower doses (0.1-0.3 mg/mL) but not against K(+)-induced contractions, ruling out a calcium channel blocking effect. In guinea-pig ileum, Rl.Cr exhibited a stimulant effect resistant to atropine while sensitive to pyrilamine pretreatment. The aqueous fraction, showing a strong presence of saponins, was found to be more efficacious than the non-polar fractions in its spasmogenic effect. This study shows the presence of species-dependent gastrointestinal effects of radish mediated partially through cholinergic receptors in rabbit and rat tissues, but through histaminergic activation in the guinea-pig, providing a scientific basis for its use in gut and uterine affections while also giving a wider picture of the activity profile of radish by using different species of animals. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Design, development and integration of a large scale multiple source X-ray computed tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, Andrew A.; Liu, Tong; Ng, Ivan Kee Beng; Teng, Wei Yuen; Yap, Tsi Tung; Wan, Siew Ping; Kong, Chun Jeng

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allows visualisation of the physical structures in the interior of an object without physically opening or cutting it. This technology supports a wide range of applications in the non-destructive testing, failure analysis or performance evaluation of industrial products and components. Of the numerous factors that influence the performance characteristics of an X-ray CT system the energy level in the X-ray spectrum to be used is one of the most significant. The ability of the X-ray beam to penetrate a given thickness of a specific material is directly related to the maximum available energy level in the beam. Higher energy levels allow penetration of thicker components made of more dense materials. In response to local industry demand and in support of on-going research activity in the area of 3D X-ray imaging for industrial inspection the Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech) engaged in the design, development and integration of large scale multiple source X-ray computed tomography system based on X-ray sources operating at higher energies than previously available in the Institute. The system consists of a large area direct digital X-ray detector (410 x 410 mm), a multiple-axis manipulator system, a 225 kV open tube microfocus X-ray source and a 450 kV closed tube millifocus X-ray source. The 225 kV X-ray source can be operated in either transmission or reflection mode. The body of the 6-axis manipulator system is fabricated from heavy-duty steel onto which high precision linear and rotary motors have been mounted in order to achieve high accuracy, stability and repeatability. A source-detector distance of up to 2.5 m can be achieved. The system is controlled by a proprietary X-ray CT operating system developed by SIMTech. The system currently can accommodate samples up to 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m in size with weight up to 50 kg. These specifications will be increased to 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 m and 100 kg in future

  19. Scale-up of the mixer of a mixer-settler model used in a uranium solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, A.O. de; Dantas, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Scale-up relations were obtained for the mixer of a box type mixer-settler used in an uranium extraction process from chloridric leaches. Three box type mixers of different sizes and with the same geometry were used for batch and continuous-flow experiments. The correlations between the extraction rate and he specific power input, D/T ratio(=turbine diameter/mixer width) and residence time were experimentally determined. The results showed that the extraction rate increases with the power input at a constant D/T ratio equal to 1/3, remaining however, independent from the mixer size for a specific value of the power input. This behaviour was observed for power input values ranging from 100 to 750 W/m 3 . (author) 8 refs.; 8 figs.; 4 tabs

  20. Description of design and operating procedures of small scale pulsed columns for experimental study on extraction process under abnormal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, Sachio; Sato, Makoto; Kubo, Nobuo; Sakurai, Satoshi; Ami, Norio

    1990-09-01

    To study transient phenomena in a pulsed column co-decontamination process under abnormal conditions, a pair of small scale pulsed columns (effective extraction section; I.D: 25 mm, H.: 2260 mm) for extraction and scrub were installed in the laboratory. An evaporator of aqueous uranium solution was also equipped to reuse concentrated solution as the feed. This report describes several items to have been carefully treated in design, specification and operating procedure of the apparatuses for the experiments. Also described are the procedures for preparation of the feed solutions and treatments of the solutions after the experiments; back-extraction of uranium, diluent washing, alkaline washing and concentration of uranium solution. (author)

  1. Impact on demersal fish of a large-scale and deep sand extraction site with ecosystem-based landscaped sandbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Baptist, Martin J.; van Hal, Ralf; de Boois, Ingeborg J.; Lindeboom, Han J.; Hoekstra, Piet

    2014-06-01

    For the seaward harbour extension of the Port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, approximately 220 million m3 sand was extracted between 2009 and 2013. In order to decrease the surface area of direct impact, the authorities permitted deep sand extraction, down to 20 m below the seabed. Biological and physical impacts of large-scale and deep sand extraction are still being investigated and largely unknown. For this reason, we investigated the colonization of demersal fish in a deep sand extraction site. Two sandbars were artificially created by selective dredging, copying naturally occurring meso-scale bedforms to increase habitat heterogeneity and increasing post-dredging benthic and demersal fish species richness and biomass. Significant differences in demersal fish species assemblages in the sand extraction site were associated with variables such as water depth, median grain size, fraction of very fine sand, biomass of white furrow shell (Abra alba) and time after the cessation of sand extraction. Large quantities of undigested crushed white furrow shell fragments were found in all stomachs and intestines of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), indicating that it is an important prey item. One and two years after cessation, a significant 20-fold increase in demersal fish biomass was observed in deep parts of the extraction site. In the troughs of a landscaped sandbar however, a significant drop in biomass down to reference levels and a significant change in species assemblage was observed two years after cessation. The fish assemblage at the crests of the sandbars differed significantly from the troughs with tub gurnard (Chelidonichthys lucerna) being a Dufrêne-Legendre indicator species of the crests. This is a first indication of the applicability of landscaping techniques to induce heterogeneity of the seabed although it remains difficult to draw a strong conclusion due the lack of replication in the experiment. A new ecological equilibrium is not reached after 2

  2. Magnitude, spatial scale and optimization of ecosystem services from a nutrient extraction mussel farm in the eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Cranford, P. J.; Maar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Suspended mussel aquaculture has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which to remove excess nutrients from eutrophic marine areas. In this study, seasonal mussel growth and water clarification (through seston and phytoplankton depletion) were studied at a commercial-scale nutrient extractive...... mussel farm in a highly eu - trophic Danish fjord. Spatial variations in mussel biomass were examined throughout the year and no significant differences were detected within the farm. Food depletion by mussels was examined at spatial scales ranging from individuals to the entire farm and surrounding area....... Phytoplankton depletion on the scale of individual mussel loops, determined using the siphon mimic approach, indicated between 27 and 44% depletion of chlorophyll a (chl a). Farm-scale depletion was detected and visualized based on intensive 3D spatial surveys of the distribution of chl a and total suspended...

  3. Patterns in foliar nutrient resorption stoichiometry at multiple scales: controlling factors and ecosystem consequences (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.; Cleveland, C. C.; Davidson, E. A.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    During leaf senescence, nutrient rich compounds are transported to other parts of the plant and this 'resorption' recycles nutrients for future growth, reducing losses of potentially limiting nutrients. Variations in leaf chemistry resulting from nutrient resorption also directly affect litter quality, in turn, regulating decomposition rates and soil nutrient availability. Here we investigated stoichiometric patterns of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiency at multiple spatial scales. First, we assembled a global database to explore nutrient resorption among and within biomes and to examine potential relationships between resorption stoichiometry and ecosystem nutrient status. Next, we used a forest regeneration chronosequence in Brazil to assess how resorption stoichiometry linked with a suite of other nutrient cycling measures and with ideas of how nutrient limitation may change over secondary forest regrowth. Finally, we measured N:P resorption ratios of six canopy tree species in a Costa Rican tropical forest. We calculated species-specific resorption ratios and compared them with patterns in leaf litter and topsoil nutrient concentrations. At the global scale, N:P resorption ratios increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP; P1 in latitudes >23°. Focusing on tropical sites in our global dataset we found that, despite fewer data and a restricted latitudinal range, a significant relationship between latitude and N:P resorption ratios persisted (PAmazon Basin chronosequence of regenerating forests, where previous work reported a transition from apparent N limitation in younger forests to P limitation in mature forests, we found N resorption was highest in the youngest forest, whereas P resorption was greatest in the mature forest. Over the course of succession, N resorption efficiency leveled off but P resorption continued to increase with forest age. In Costa Rica, though we found species

  4. Quantifying the heterogeneity of soil compaction, physical soil properties and soil moisture across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian; Sander, Graham

    2016-04-01

    England's rural landscape is dominated by pastoral agriculture, with 40% of land cover classified as either improved or semi-natural grassland according to the Land Cover Map 2007. Since the Second World War the intensification of agriculture has resulted in greater levels of soil compaction, associated with higher stocking densities in fields. Locally compaction has led to loss of soil storage and an increased in levels of ponding in fields. At the catchment scale soil compaction has been hypothesised to contribute to increased flood risk. Previous research (Pattison, 2011) on a 40km2 catchment (Dacre Beck, Lake District, UK) has shown that when soil characteristics are homogeneously parameterised in a hydrological model, downstream peak discharges can be 65% higher for a heavy compacted soil than for a lightly compacted soil. However, at the catchment scale there is likely to be a significant amount of variability in compaction levels within and between fields, due to multiple controlling factors. This research focusses in on one specific type of land use (permanent pasture with cattle grazing) and areas of activity within the field (feeding area, field gate, tree shelter, open field area). The aim was to determine if the soil characteristics and soil compaction levels are homogeneous in the four areas of the field. Also, to determine if these levels stayed the same over the course of the year, or if there were differences at the end of the dry (October) and wet (April) periods. Field experiments were conducted in the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK, which has an area of 120km2. The dynamic cone penetrometer was used to determine the structural properties of the soil, soil samples were collected to assess the bulk density, organic matter content and permeability in the laboratory and the Hydrosense II was used to determine the soil moisture content in the topsoil. Penetration results show that the tree shelter is the most compacted and the open field area

  5. Mapping compound cosmic telescopes containing multiple projected cluster-scale halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, S. Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physics Division L-210, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wong, Kenneth C. [EACOA Fellow, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10641, Taiwan (China); Zabludoff, Ann I. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Keeton, Charles R., E-mail: ammons1@llnl.gov, E-mail: kwong@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: aiz@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Lines of sight with multiple projected cluster-scale gravitational lenses have high total masses and complex lens plane interactions that can boost the area of magnification, or étendue, making detection of faint background sources more likely than elsewhere. To identify these new 'compound' cosmic telescopes, we have found directions in the sky with the highest integrated mass densities, as traced by the projected concentrations of luminous red galaxies (LRGs). We use new galaxy spectroscopy to derive preliminary magnification maps for two such lines of sight with total mass exceeding ∼3 × 10{sup 15} M {sub ☉}. From 1151 MMT Hectospec spectra of galaxies down to i {sub AB} = 21.2, we identify two to three group- and cluster-scale halos in each beam. These are well traced by LRGs. The majority of the mass in beam J085007.6+360428 (0850) is contributed by Zwicky 1953, a massive cluster at z = 0.3774, whereas beam J130657.5+463219 (1306) is composed of three halos with virial masses of 6 × 10{sup 14}-2 × 10{sup 15} M {sub ☉}, one of which is A1682. The magnification maps derived from our mass models based on spectroscopy and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry alone display substantial étendue: the 68% confidence bands on the lens plane area with magnification exceeding 10 for a source plane of z{sub s} = 10 are [1.2, 3.8] arcmin{sup 2} for 0850 and [2.3, 6.7] arcmin{sup 2} for 1306. In deep Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging of beam 0850, we serendipitously discover a candidate multiply imaged V-dropout source at z {sub phot} = 5.03. The location of the candidate multiply imaged arcs is consistent with the critical curves for a source plane of z = 5.03 predicted by our mass model. Incorporating the position of the candidate multiply imaged galaxy as a constraint on the critical curve location in 0850 narrows the 68% confidence band on the lens plane area with μ > 10 and z{sub s} = 10 to [1.8, 4.2] arcmin{sup 2}, an étendue range comparable to that of

  6. Spectral algorithms for multiple scale localized eigenfunctions in infinitely long, slightly bent quantum waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, John P.; Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.

    2018-03-01

    A "bent waveguide" in the sense used here is a small perturbation of a two-dimensional rectangular strip which is infinitely long in the down-channel direction and has a finite, constant width in the cross-channel coordinate. The goal is to calculate the smallest ("ground state") eigenvalue of the stationary Schrödinger equation which here is a two-dimensional Helmholtz equation, ψxx +ψyy + Eψ = 0 where E is the eigenvalue and homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed on the walls of the waveguide. Perturbation theory gives a good description when the "bending strength" parameter ɛ is small as described in our previous article (Amore et al., 2017) and other works cited therein. However, such series are asymptotic, and it is often impractical to calculate more than a handful of terms. It is therefore useful to develop numerical methods for the perturbed strip to cover intermediate ɛ where the perturbation series may be inaccurate and also to check the pertubation expansion when ɛ is small. The perturbation-induced change-in-eigenvalue, δ ≡ E(ɛ) - E(0) , is O(ɛ2) . We show that the computation becomes very challenging as ɛ → 0 because (i) the ground state eigenfunction varies on both O(1) and O(1 / ɛ) length scales and (ii) high accuracy is needed to compute several correct digits in δ, which is itself small compared to the eigenvalue E. The multiple length scales are not geographically separate, but rather are inextricably commingled in the neighborhood of the boundary deformation. We show that coordinate mapping and immersed boundary strategies both reduce the computational domain to the uniform strip, allowing application of pseudospectral methods on tensor product grids with tensor product basis functions. We compared different basis sets; Chebyshev polynomials are best in the cross-channel direction. However, sine functions generate rather accurate analytical approximations with just a single basis function. In the down

  7. Large-scale parameter extraction in electrocardiology models through Born approximation

    KAUST Repository

    He, Yuan; Keyes, David E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main objectives in electrocardiology is to extract physical properties of cardiac tissues from measured information on electrical activity of the heart. Mathematically, this is an inverse problem for reconstructing coefficients

  8. Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

  9. Strong and nonlinear effects of fragmentation on ecosystem service provision at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G. E.; Bennett, Elena M.; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Human actions, such as converting natural land cover to agricultural or urban land, result in the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, with important consequences for the provision of ecosystem services. Such habitat loss is especially important for services that are supplied by fragments of natural land cover and that depend on flows of organisms, matter, or people across the landscape to produce benefits, such as pollination, pest regulation, recreation and cultural services. However, our quantitative knowledge about precisely how different patterns of landscape fragmentation might affect the provision of these types of services is limited. We used a simple, spatially explicit model to evaluate the potential impact of natural land cover loss and fragmentation on the provision of hypothetical ecosystem services. Based on current literature, we assumed that fragments of natural land cover provide ecosystem services to the area surrounding them in a distance-dependent manner such that ecosystem service flow depended on proximity to fragments. We modeled seven different patterns of natural land cover loss across landscapes that varied in the overall level of landscape fragmentation. Our model predicts that natural land cover loss will have strong and unimodal effects on ecosystem service provision, with clear thresholds indicating rapid loss of service provision beyond critical levels of natural land cover loss. It also predicts the presence of a tradeoff between maximizing ecosystem service provision and conserving natural land cover, and a mismatch between ecosystem service provision at landscape versus finer spatial scales. Importantly, the pattern of landscape fragmentation mitigated or intensified these tradeoffs and mismatches. Our model suggests that managing patterns of natural land cover loss and fragmentation could help influence the provision of multiple ecosystem services and manage tradeoffs and synergies between services across different human

  10. Analysis of streamflow variability in Alpine catchments at multiple spatial and temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ciria, T.; Chiogna, G.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine watersheds play a pivotal role in Europe for water provisioning and for hydropower production. In these catchments, temporal fluctuations of river discharge occur at multiple temporal scales due to natural as well as anthropogenic driving forces. In the last decades, modifications of the flow regime have been observed and their origin lies in the complex interplay between construction of dams for hydro power production, changes in water management policies and climatic changes. The alteration of the natural flow has negative impacts on the freshwater biodiversity and threatens the ecosystem integrity of the Alpine region. Therefore, understanding the temporal and spatial variability of river discharge has recently become a particular concern for environmental protection and represents a crucial contribution to achieve sustainable water resources management in the Alps. In this work, time series analysis is conducted for selected gauging stations in the Inn and the Adige catchments, which cover a large part of the central and eastern region of the Alps. We analyze the available time series using the continuous wavelet transform and change-point analyses for determining how and where changes have taken place. Although both catchments belong to different climatic zones of the Greater Alpine Region, streamflow properties share some similar characteristics. The comparison of the collected streamflow time series in the two catchments permits detecting gradients in the hydrological system dynamics that depend on station elevation, longitudinal location in the Alps and catchment area. This work evidences that human activities (e.g., water management practices and flood protection measures, changes in legislation and market regulation) have major impacts on streamflow and should be rigorously considered in hydrological models.

  11. A catchment scale evaluation of multiple stressor effects in headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jes J; McKnight, Ursula S; Loinaz, Maria C; Thomsen, Nanna I; Olsson, Mikael E; Bjerg, Poul L; Binning, Philip J; Kronvang, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation activities to improve water quality and quantity in streams as well as stream management and restoration efforts are conducted in the European Union aiming to improve the chemical, physical and ecological status of streams. Headwater streams are often characterised by impairment of hydromorphological, chemical, and ecological conditions due to multiple anthropogenic impacts. However, they are generally disregarded as water bodies for mitigation activities in the European Water Framework Directive despite their importance for supporting a higher ecological quality in higher order streams. We studied 11 headwater streams in the Hove catchment in the Copenhagen region. All sites had substantial physical habitat and water quality impairments due to anthropogenic influence (intensive agriculture, urban settlements, contaminated sites and low base-flow due to water abstraction activities in the catchment). We aimed to identify the dominating anthropogenic stressors at the catchment scale causing ecological impairment of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and provide a rank-order of importance that could help in prioritising mitigation activities. We identified numerous chemical and hydromorphological impacts of which several were probably causing major ecological impairments, but we were unable to provide a robust rank-ordering of importance suggesting that targeted mitigation efforts on single anthropogenic stressors in the catchment are unlikely to have substantial effects on the ecological quality in these streams. The SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) index explained most of the variability in the macroinvertebrate community structure, and notably, SPEAR index scores were often very low (<10% SPEAR abundance). An extensive re-sampling of a subset of the streams provided evidence that especially insecticides were probably essential contributors to the overall ecological impairment of these streams. Our results suggest that headwater streams should be considered in

  12. Statistical theory and transition in multiple-scale-lengths turbulence in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    The statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed for the cases where fluctuations with different scale-lengths coexist. Nonlinear interactions in the same kind of fluctuations as well as nonlinear interplay between different classes of fluctuations are kept in the analysis. Nonlinear interactions are modelled as turbulent drag, nonlinear noise and nonlinear drive, and a set of Langevin equations is formulated. With the help of an Ansatz of a large number of degrees of freedom with positive Lyapunov number, Langevin equations are solved and the fluctuation dissipation theorem in the presence of strong plasma turbulence has been derived. A case where two driving mechanisms (one for micro mode and the other for semi-micro mode) coexist is investigated. It is found that there are several states of fluctuations: in one state, the micro mode is excited and the semi-micro mode is quenched; in the other state, the semi-micro mode is excited, and the micro mode remains at finite but suppressed level. New type of turbulence transition is obtained, and a cusp type catastrophe is revealed. A phase diagram is drawn for turbulence which is composed of multiple classes of fluctuations. Influence of the inhomogeneous global radial electric field is discussed. A new insight is given for the physics of internal transport barrier. Finally, the nonlocal heat transport due to the long-wave-length fluctuations, which are noise-pumped by shorter-wave-length ones, is analyzed and the impact on transient transport problems is discussed. (author)

  13. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities.

    We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy, for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate.

    Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%.

    The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss. This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  14. Quantitative atom probe analysis of nanostructure containing clusters and precipitates with multiple length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marceau, R.K.W.; Stephenson, L.T.; Hutchinson, C.R.; Ringer, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    A model Al-3Cu-(0.05 Sn) (wt%) alloy containing a bimodal distribution of relatively shear-resistant θ' precipitates and shearable GP zones is considered in this study. It has recently been shown that the addition of the GP zones to such microstructures can lead to significant increases in strength without a decrease in the uniform elongation. In this study, atom probe tomography (APT) has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the GP zones and the solute distribution in the bimodal microstructure as a function of applied plastic strain. Recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis has clearly shown strain-induced dissolution of the GP zones, which is supported by the current APT data with additional spatial information. There is significant repartitioning of Cu from the GP zones into the solid solution during deformation. A new approach for cluster finding in APT data has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the sizes and shapes of the Cu containing features in the solid solution solute as a function of applied strain. -- Research highlights: → A new approach for cluster finding in atom probe tomography (APT) data has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the sizes and shapes of the Cu containing features with multiple length scales. → In this study, a model Al-3Cu-(0.05 Sn) (wt%) alloy containing a bimodal distribution of relatively shear-resistant θ' precipitates and shearable GP zones is considered. → APT has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the GP zones and the solute distribution in the bimodal microstructure as a function of applied plastic strain. → It is clearly shown that there is strain-induced dissolution of the GP zones with significant repartitioning of Cu from the GP zones into the solid solution during deformation.

  15. Phenology Data Products to Support Assessment and Forecasting of Phenology on Multiple Spatiotemporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, K.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Denny, E. G.; Marsh, L.; Moore, D. J.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and environmental change. The National Phenology Database maintained by USA-NPN now has over 3.7 million records for plants and animals for the period 1954-2014, with the majority of these observations collected since 2008 as part of a broad, national contributory science strategy. These data have been used in a number of science, conservation and resource management applications, including national assessments of historical and potential future trends in phenology, regional assessments of spatio-temporal variation in organismal activity, and local monitoring for invasive species detection. Customizable data downloads are freely available, and data are accompanied by FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, vetted and documented methodologies and protocols, and version control. While users are free to develop custom algorithms for data cleaning, winnowing and summarization prior to analysis, the National Coordinating Office of USA-NPN is developing a suite of standard data products to facilitate use and application by a diverse set of data users. This presentation provides a progress report on data product development, including: (1) Quality controlled raw phenophase status data; (2) Derived phenometrics (e.g. onset, duration) at multiple scales; (3) Data visualization tools; (4) Tools to support assessment of species interactions and overlap; (5) Species responsiveness to environmental drivers; (6) Spatially gridded phenoclimatological products; and (7) Algorithms for modeling and forecasting future phenological responses. The prioritization of these data products is a direct response to stakeholder needs related to informing management and policy decisions. We anticipate that these products will contribute to broad understanding of plant

  16. Production method and cost of commercial-scale offshore cultivation of kelp in the Faroe Islands using multiple partial harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandorf Bak, Urd; Mols-Mortensen, Agnes; Gregersen, Olavur

    2018-01-01

    was conducted. The total cost per kg dw of cultivated S. latissima decreased when the number of possible harvests without re-seeding was increased (from € 36.73 to € 9.27). This work has demonstrated that large-scale kelp cultivation is possible using multiple partial harvesting in the Faroe Islands...

  17. Preliminary validation study of the Spanish version of the satisfaction with life scale in persons with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Galan, Ingrid; Den Oudsten, Brenda L.; Power, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess Life Satisfaction, using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and to analyze its psychometric properties in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Method: Persons with MS (n = 84) recruited at the MS Centre of Catalonia (Spain) completed a battery of subjective assessments including the

  18. A numerical comparison between the multiple-scales and finite-element solution for sound propagation in lined flow ducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.; Eversman, W.

    2001-01-01

    An explicit, analytical, multiple-scales solution for modal sound transmission through slowly varying ducts with mean flow and acoustic lining is tested against a numerical finite-element solution solving the same potential flow equations. The test geometry taken is representative of a high-bypass

  19. Modeling hydrologic responses to deforestation/forestation and climate change at multiple scales in the Southern US and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven McNulty; Jianbiao Lu; James Vose; Devendra Amayta; Guoyi Zhou; Zhiqiang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Watershed management and restoration practices require a clear understanding of the basic eco-hydrologic processes and ecosystem responses to disturbances at multiple scales (Bruijnzeel, 2004; Scott et al., 2005). Worldwide century-long forest hydrologic research has documented that deforestation and forestation (i.e. reforestation and afforestation) can have variable...

  20. Performed and perceived walking ability in relation to the Expanded Disability Status Scale in persons with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeskov-Christensen, D; Feys, P; Baert, I

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The severity of walking impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) at different levels on the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) is unclear. Furthermore, it is unclear if the EDSS is differently related to performed- and perceived walking capacity tests. AIMS: To quantify...

  1. Application on small incision extracapsular cataract extraction in large-scale vision recovery action in Shaanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the characteristics of scale cataract operations and the effects and experiences of small incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens(IOLimplantation in large-scale vision recovery action. METHODS: Four thousand eight hundred ninety-two cases(4 892 eyesof cataract were treated by small incision non-phacoemulcification cataract extraction from March 2010 to November 2011 in our hospital(Fuming No.1 surgery car of Shaanxi Provincewhich were retrospectively analyzed. Visual acuity, intraoperative and postoperative complications, the recovery of postoperative inflammation were observed. RESULTS: Visual acuity reached 0.3 or more in 4 521 eyes(92.42%at 1d after the operation, at 3d after the operation in 4 571 eyes(93.44%, there were 4 887 eyes with IOL implantation, implantation rate was 99.90%. All the cases had lesser intraoperative and postoperative complications, and the postoperative inflammation recovered quickly. CONCLUSION: Small incision extracapsular cataract extraction with IOL implantation is simple, effective, economical, safe and adapting for large-scale vision recovery action.

  2. Fish scale collagen sponge incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum plant extract as a possible wound/burn dressing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Prabu, P; Ghosh, Kausik; Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara

    2014-01-01

    Application of plant extracts for the burn/wound treatment is followed over the decades as a common practice and it is an important aspect in clinical management. In this study porous collagen sponges (CS) were prepared using fish scales and were incorporated with mupirocin (CSM) and extracts of Macrotyloma uniflorum (CSPE) separately to impart antimicrobial activity to the sponges. The results showed that the addition of plant extract increased the tensile strength of CSPE and stability against collagenase enzyme. FTIR studies have shown the incorporation of plant extract in CSPE, SEM studies have revealed the porous nature of the sponges and XRD patterns have shown the retention of collagen triple helical structure even after the addition of plant extract. CSPE and CSM have exhibited antimicrobial properties. The sponges prepared were analysed for their in vitro biocompatibility studies using fibroblasts and keratinocyte cell lines and the results have shown their biocompatible nature. Based on the results obtained, CS, CSM and CSPE may be tried as a burn/wound dressing materials, initially, in small animals in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of chitin extracted from fish scales of marine fish species purchased from local markets in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumengan, I. F. M.; Suptijah, P.; Wullur, S.; Talumepa, A.

    2017-10-01

    Chitin is a biodegradable biopolymer with a variety of commercial applications, including in the food food-supplement industries as a marine-derived nutraceutical. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular structure of chitin extracted from fish scales of important marine fish purchased from local markets in North Sulawesi. Chitin compound material was obtained from a specific fish scale, and then sequentially carrying out a boiling treatment to separate it from a complex with collagen. From the scales of two fish species, parrotfish (Chlorurus sordidus) and red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), the rendemen of chitin obtained were 45 % and 33%, respectively. Structural characteristics of the chitin were discussed by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) analysis data. FTIR analysis was done using infrared spectroscopy, which is the resulting spectrum represents the molecular absorption and transmission, creating a molecular fingerprint of the sample. The molecular structure of chitin, C18H26N2O10, where the hydroxyl group on the second carbon replaced by acetyl amide, was shown by the infrared spectra. In the infrared spectra, chitin from parrot fish scales indicated the amide band at 1627.13 cm-1, and chitin from red snapper fish scales the amide band at 1648.09 cm-1 which are a typical one for marine chitin. The hydroxyl and amino bands at the ranged spectra up to 3500 cm-1. The yields of chitin isolated from fish scale were relatively huge. Some treatments are necessary to confirm the molecular conformation and deacetylation behavior. All products from the extraction of fish scales could be more accessible for structural modifications to develop biocompatible materials for pharmaceutical purposes.

  4. Study on TVD parameters sensitivity of a crankshaft using multiple scale and state space method considering quadratic and cubic non-linearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talebitooti

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of quadratic and cubic non-linearities of the system consisting of the crankshaft and torsional vibration damper (TVD is taken into account. TVD consists of non-linear elastomer material used for controlling the torsional vibration of crankshaft. The method of multiple scales is used to solve the governing equations of the system. Meanwhile, the frequency response of the system for both harmonic and sub-harmonic resonances is extracted. In addition, the effects of detuning parameters and other dimensionless parameters for a case of harmonic resonance are investigated. Moreover, the external forces including both inertia and gas forces are simultaneously applied into the model. Finally, in order to study the effectiveness of the parameters, the dimensionless governing equations of the system are solved, considering the state space method. Then, the effects of the torsional damper as well as all corresponding parameters of the system are discussed.

  5. Scale-invariant feature extraction of neural network and renormalization group flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Satoshi; Shiba, Shotaro; Yokoo, Sumito

    2018-05-01

    Theoretical understanding of how a deep neural network (DNN) extracts features from input images is still unclear, but it is widely believed that the extraction is performed hierarchically through a process of coarse graining. It reminds us of the basic renormalization group (RG) concept in statistical physics. In order to explore possible relations between DNN and RG, we use the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) applied to an Ising model and construct a flow of model parameters (in particular, temperature) generated by the RBM. We show that the unsupervised RBM trained by spin configurations at various temperatures from T =0 to T =6 generates a flow along which the temperature approaches the critical value Tc=2.2 7 . This behavior is the opposite of the typical RG flow of the Ising model. By analyzing various properties of the weight matrices of the trained RBM, we discuss why it flows towards Tc and how the RBM learns to extract features of spin configurations.

  6. Large-scale parameter extraction in electrocardiology models through Born approximation

    KAUST Repository

    He, Yuan

    2012-12-04

    One of the main objectives in electrocardiology is to extract physical properties of cardiac tissues from measured information on electrical activity of the heart. Mathematically, this is an inverse problem for reconstructing coefficients in electrocardiology models from partial knowledge of the solutions of the models. In this work, we consider such parameter extraction problems for two well-studied electrocardiology models: the bidomain model and the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We propose a systematic reconstruction method based on the Born approximation of the original nonlinear inverse problem. We describe a two-step procedure that allows us to reconstruct not only perturbations of the unknowns, but also the backgrounds around which the linearization is performed. We show some numerical simulations under various conditions to demonstrate the performance of our method. We also introduce a parameterization strategy using eigenfunctions of the Laplacian operator to reduce the number of unknowns in the parameter extraction problem. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Large-scale extraction of gene interactions from full-text literature using DeepDive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Emily K; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher; Altman, Russ B

    2016-01-01

    A complete repository of gene-gene interactions is key for understanding cellular processes, human disease and drug response. These gene-gene interactions include both protein-protein interactions and transcription factor interactions. The majority of known interactions are found in the biomedical literature. Interaction databases, such as BioGRID and ChEA, annotate these gene-gene interactions; however, curation becomes difficult as the literature grows exponentially. DeepDive is a trained system for extracting information from a variety of sources, including text. In this work, we used DeepDive to extract both protein-protein and transcription factor interactions from over 100,000 full-text PLOS articles. We built an extractor for gene-gene interactions that identified candidate gene-gene relations within an input sentence. For each candidate relation, DeepDive computed a probability that the relation was a correct interaction. We evaluated this system against the Database of Interacting Proteins and against randomly curated extractions. Our system achieved 76% precision and 49% recall in extracting direct and indirect interactions involving gene symbols co-occurring in a sentence. For randomly curated extractions, the system achieved between 62% and 83% precision based on direct or indirect interactions, as well as sentence-level and document-level precision. Overall, our system extracted 3356 unique gene pairs using 724 features from over 100,000 full-text articles. Application source code is publicly available at https://github.com/edoughty/deepdive_genegene_app russ.altman@stanford.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Assessment of Multiple Solvents for Extraction and Direct GC-MS Determination of the Phytochemical Inventory of Sansevieria Extrafoliar Nectar Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylor, Michael O; Juntunen, Hope L; Hazelwood, Donna; Videau, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to analytical determinations of sugar and amino acid constituents of plant nectars, with the primary aim of understanding their ecological roles, yet few studies have reported more exhaustive organic compound inventories of plant nectars or extrafoliar nectars. This work evaluated the efficacy of four solvents (ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, toluene and hexane) to extract the greatest number of organic compound classes and unique compounds from extrafoliar nectar drops produced by Sansevieria spp. Aggregation of the results from each solvent revealed that 240 unique compounds were extracted in total, with 42.5% of those detected in multiple extracts. Aliphatic hydrocarbons dominated in all but the ethyl acetate extracts, with 44 unique aliphatic hydrocarbons detected in dichloromethane (DCM) extracts, followed by 41, 19 and 8 in hexane, toluene and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Hexane extracted the most unique compounds (79), followed by DCM (73), ethyl acetate (56) and toluene (32). Integrated total ion chromatographic peak areas of extracted compound classes were positively correlated with numbers of unique compounds detected within those classes. In addition to demonstrating that multi-solvent extraction with direct GC-MS detection is a suitable analytical approach for determining secondary nectar constituents, to the best of our knowledge, this study also represents: (i) the first attempt to inventory the secondary phytochemical constituents of Sansevieria spp. extrafoliar nectar secretions and (ii) the largest organic solvent extractable compound inventory reported for any plant matrix to date.

  9. A statistical method for model extraction and model selection applied to the temperature scaling of the L–H transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peluso, E; Gelfusa, M; Gaudio, P; Murari, A

    2014-01-01

    Access to the H mode of confinement in tokamaks is characterized by an abrupt transition, which has been the subject of continuous investigation for decades. Various theoretical models have been developed and multi-machine databases of experimental data have been collected. In this paper, a new methodology is reviewed for the investigation of the scaling laws for the temperature threshold to access the H mode. The approach is based on symbolic regression via genetic programming and allows first the extraction of the most statistically reliable models from the available experimental data. Nonlinear fitting is then applied to the mathematical expressions found by symbolic regression; this second step permits to easily compare the quality of the data-driven scalings with the most widely accepted theoretical models. The application of a complete set of statistical indicators shows that the data-driven scaling laws are qualitatively better than the theoretical models. The main limitations of the theoretical models are that they are all expressed as power laws, which are too rigid to fit the available experimental data and to extrapolate to ITER. The proposed method is absolutely general and can be applied to the extraction or scaling law from any experimental database of sufficient statistical relevance. (paper)

  10. Large-Scale Membrane- and Lignin-Modified Adsorbent-Assisted Extraction and Preconcentration of Triazine Analogs and Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shun-Wei; Chen, Shushi

    2017-04-11

    The large-scale simultaneous extraction and concentration of aqueous solutions of triazine analogs, and aflatoxins, through a hydrocarbon-based membrane (e.g., polyethylene, polyethylene/polypropylene copolymer) under ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure is reported. The subsequent adsorption of analyte in the extraction chamber over the lignin-modified silica gel facilitates the process by reducing the operating time. The maximum adsorption capacity values for triazine analogs and aflatoxins are mainly adsorption mechanism-dependent and were calculated to be 0.432 and 0.297 mg/10 mg, respectively. The permeation, and therefore the percentage of analyte extracted, ranges from 1% to almost 100%, and varies among the solvents examined. It is considered to be vapor pressure- and chemical polarity-dependent, and is thus highly affected by the nature and thickness of the membrane, the discrepancy in the solubility values of the analyte between the two liquid phases, and the amount of adsorbent used in the process. A dependence on the size of the analyte was observed in the adsorption capacity measurement, but not in the extraction process. The theoretical interaction simulation and FTIR data show that the planar aflatoxin molecule releases much more energy when facing toward the membrane molecule when approaching it, and the mechanism leading to the adsorption.

  11. Hadronic multiplicity and total cross-section: a new scaling in wide energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobylinsky, N.A.; Martynov, E.S.; Shelest, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of mean multiplicity to total cross-section is shown to be the same for all the Regge models and to rise with energy as lns which is confirmed by experimental data. Hence, a power of multiplicity growth is unambiguously connected with that of total cross-section. As regards the observed growth, approximately ln 2 s, it tells about a dipole character of pomeron singularity

  12. Efficient charge-carrier extraction from Ag₂S quantum dots prepared by the SILAR method for utilization of multiple exciton generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jianhua; Johansson, Erik M J

    2015-01-28

    The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the results suggest that the threshold energy (hνth) for MEG is 2.41Eg. The results reveal that Ag2S QD is a promising material for efficient extraction of charges from MEG and that QDs prepared by SILAR have an advantageous electrical contact facilitating charge separation and extraction.

  13. Measures of spike train synchrony for data with multiple time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satuvuori, Eero; Mulansky, Mario; Bozanic, Nebojsa; Malvestio, Irene; Zeldenrust, Fleur; Lenk, Kerstin; Kreuz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Measures of spike train synchrony are widely used in both experimental and computational neuroscience. Time-scale independent and parameter-free measures, such as the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance and SPIKE-synchronization, are preferable to time scale parametric measures, since by

  14. Small scale extraction and purification of human prolactin for the preparation of radioimmunoassay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, L.E.M.F.

    1989-01-01

    Purification of human prolactin from pituitaries was carried out in our laboratory to obtain a pure reagent for use in RIA. The extraction and purification procedure was adapted from the method of Mc. Lean et al., and it involves the following steps: 1. Extraction of frozen pituitaries in buffers 0.14M phosphate/citrate pH 4.0 and 0.05M ammonium acetate pH 10.0. 2. Purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B in the presence of acetonitrile. 3. Purification by anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Cl-68. The purification method is considered effective for obtaining a hPrl of the purity needed for radioassay purposes, having the advantage of rapidity and relative simplicity. (author) [pt

  15. Analysis Methods for Extracting Knowledge from Large-Scale WiFi Monitoring to Inform Building Facility Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Antonio; Blunck, Henrik; Prentow, Thor Siiger

    2014-01-01

    realistic data to inform facility planning. In this paper, we propose analysis methods to extract knowledge from large sets of network collected WiFi traces to better inform facility management and planning in large building complexes. The analysis methods, which build on a rich set of temporal and spatial......The optimization of logistics in large building com- plexes with many resources, such as hospitals, require realistic facility management and planning. Current planning practices rely foremost on manual observations or coarse unverified as- sumptions and therefore do not properly scale or provide....... Spatio-temporal visualization tools built on top of these methods enable planners to inspect and explore extracted information to inform facility-planning activities. To evaluate the methods, we present results for a large hospital complex covering more than 10 hectares. The evaluation is based on Wi...

  16. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Gabr, Salah A.

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  17. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Elberry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion scales (ROS contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  18. Assessing forest mortality patterns using climate and FIA data at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Xingang Fan; Theodor D. Leininger; Martin A. Spetich

    2012-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and PRISM climate data from 1991-2000 were obtained for 10 states in the southeastern United States. Mortality was calculated for each plot, and annual values for precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature were extracted from the PRISM data. Data were then stratified by upland/bottomland for red oak species, and classification...

  19. Personality factors in recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients: a preliminary investigation with the NEO-FFI scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Braz de Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes some prevalent personality dimensions of recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients. A sample of 33 female recently diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS was assessed with the NEO-FFI personality scale. Beck depression (BDI and anxiety (BAI scales were also used. No significant levels of anxiety or depression were identified in this group. As for personality factors, conscientiousness was the most common factor found, whereas openness to experience was the least observed. Literature on the relationship between personality and MS is scarce and there are no Brazilian studies on this subject. Some personality traits might complicate or facilitate the experience of living with a chronic, disabling and uncertain neurological condition such as MS.

  20. Studying time of flight imaging through scattering media across multiple size scales (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Light scattering is a primary obstacle to optical imaging in a variety of different environments and across many size and time scales. Scattering complicates imaging on large scales when imaging through the atmosphere when imaging from airborne or space borne platforms, through marine fog, or through fog and dust in vehicle navigation, for example in self driving cars. On smaller scales, scattering is the major obstacle when imaging through human tissue in biomedical applications. Despite the large variety of participating materials and size scales, light transport in all these environments is usually described with very similar scattering models that are defined by the same small set of parameters, including scattering and absorption length and phase function. We attempt a study of scattering and methods of imaging through scattering across different scales and media, particularly with respect to the use of time of flight information. We can show that using time of flight, in addition to spatial information, provides distinct advantages in scattering environments. By performing a comparative study of scattering across scales and media, we are able to suggest scale models for scattering environments to aid lab research. We also can transfer knowledge and methodology between different fields.

  1. Subscales correlations between MSSS-88 and PRISM scales in evaluation of spasticity for patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Patient-reported outcomes have been recognized as an important way of assessing health and well-being of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of the study is to determine the correlation between different subscales of Patient-Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM and Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale (MSSS-88 scales in the estimation of spasticity influence on different domains Methods. The study is a cross-sectional observational study. MSSS-88 and PRISM scales were analyzed in five domains (body-function domain, activity domain, participation domain, personal factors/wellbeing domain, and hypothesis. For statistical interpretation of the correlation we performed the Spearman’s ρ-test, concurrent validity, divergent validity, and the linear regression model. Results. We found a significant correlation between subscales of evaluated MSSS-88 and PRISM scales for body domains; the highest correlation was between the need for assistance/positioning (NA/P and walking (W. Spasticity has the weakest correlation with the need for intervention (NI. The presence of pain has a negative impact and significant positive correlation between pain discomfort and NI. In the domain of body function for males, there was a non-significant correlation between muscle spasms and NI. The same applies for social functioning and social embarrassment domains, as well as for emotional health and psychological agitation for personal factors / wellbeing domain. The differences between genders of MS patients persist in different domains; muscle spasms are strong predictors for NI, and body movement is a strong predictor versus W for NA/P. Conclusion. MSSS-88 and PRISM scales can be considered reliable in measuring different domains of disability for MS patients with spasticity. Because it is shorter, quicker, and simple to use, it is concluded that the PRISM scale can successfully compete with and replace the MSSS-88 scale in

  2. Multiple Positive Symmetric Solutions to p-Laplacian Dynamic Equations on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Hui Su

    2009-01-01

    two examples are given to illustrate the main results and their differences. These results are even new for the special cases of continuous and discrete equations, as well as in the general time-scale setting.

  3. The multiple time scales of sleep dynamics as a challenge for modelling the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrich, Eckehard; Claussen, Jens Christian; Achermann, Peter

    2011-10-13

    A particular property of the sleeping brain is that it exhibits dynamics on very different time scales ranging from the typical sleep oscillations such as sleep spindles and slow waves that can be observed in electroencephalogram (EEG) segments of several seconds duration over the transitions between the different sleep stages on a time scale of minutes to the dynamical processes involved in sleep regulation with typical time constants in the range of hours. There is an increasing body of work on mathematical and computational models addressing these different dynamics, however, usually considering only processes on a single time scale. In this paper, we review and present a new analysis of the dynamics of human sleep EEG at the different time scales and relate the findings to recent modelling efforts pointing out both the achievements and remaining challenges.

  4. Investigations of grain size dependent sediment transport phenomena on multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Sediment transport processes in coastal and fluvial environments resulting from disturbances such as urbanization, mining, agriculture, military operations, and climatic change have significant impact on local, regional, and global environments. Primarily, these impacts include the erosion and deposition of sediment, channel network modification, reduction in downstream water quality, and the delivery of chemical contaminants. The scale and spatial distribution of these effects are largely attributable to the size distribution of the sediment grains that become eligible for transport. An improved understanding of advective and diffusive grain-size dependent sediment transport phenomena will lead to the development of more accurate predictive models and more effective control measures. To this end, three studies were performed that investigated grain-size dependent sediment transport on three different scales. Discrete particle computer simulations of sheet flow bedload transport on the scale of 0.1--100 millimeters were performed on a heterogeneous population of grains of various grain sizes. The relative transport rates and diffusivities of grains under both oscillatory and uniform, steady flow conditions were quantified. These findings suggest that boundary layer formalisms should describe surface roughness through a representative grain size that is functionally dependent on the applied flow parameters. On the scale of 1--10m, experiments were performed to quantify the hydrodynamics and sediment capture efficiency of various baffles installed in a sediment retention pond, a commonly used sedimentation control measure in watershed applications. Analysis indicates that an optimum sediment capture effectiveness may be achieved based on baffle permeability, pond geometry and flow rate. Finally, on the scale of 10--1,000m, a distributed, bivariate watershed terain evolution module was developed within GRASS GIS. Simulation results for variable grain sizes and for

  5. Multiple drivers, scales, and interactions influence southern Appalachian stream salamander occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecala, Kristen K.; Maerz, John C.; Halstead, Brian J.; Frisch, John R.; Gragson, Ted L.; Hepinstall-Cymerman, Jeffrey; Leigh, David S.; Jackson, C. Rhett; Peterson, James T.; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how factors that vary in spatial scale relate to population abundance is vital to forecasting species responses to environmental change. Stream and river ecosystems are inherently hierarchical, potentially resulting in organismal responses to fine‐scale changes in patch characteristics that are conditional on the watershed context. Here, we address how populations of two salamander species are affected by interactions among hierarchical processes operating at different scales within a rapidly changing landscape of the southern Appalachian Mountains. We modeled reach‐level occupancy of larval and adult black‐bellied salamanders (Desmognathus quadramaculatus) and larval Blue Ridge two‐lined salamanders (Eurycea wilderae) as a function of 17 different terrestrial and aquatic predictor variables that varied in spatial extent. We found that salamander occurrence varied widely among streams within fully forested catchments, but also exhibited species‐specific responses to changes in local conditions. While D. quadramaculatus declined predictably in relation to losses in forest cover, larval occupancy exhibited the strongest negative response to forest loss as well as decreases in elevation. Conversely, occupancy of E. wilderae was unassociated with watershed conditions, only responding negatively to higher proportions of fast‐flowing stream habitat types. Evaluation of hierarchical relationships demonstrated that most fine‐scale variables were closely correlated with broad watershed‐scale variables, suggesting that local reach‐scale factors have relatively smaller effects within the context of the larger landscape. Our results imply that effective management of southern Appalachian stream salamanders must first focus on the larger scale condition of watersheds before management of local‐scale conditions should proceed. Our findings confirm the results of some studies while refuting the results of others, which may indicate that

  6. A small-scale, portable method for extracting microplastics from marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Rachel L; Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Penelope K; Queirós, Ana M; Galloway, Tamara S

    2017-11-01

    Microplastics (plastic particles, 0.1 μm-5 mm in size) are widespread marine pollutants, accumulating in benthic sediments and shorelines the world over. To gain a clearer understanding of microplastic availability to marine life, and the risks they pose to the health of benthic communities, ecological processes and food security, it is important to obtain accurate measures of microplastic abundance in marine sediments. To date, methods for extracting microplastics from marine sediments have been disadvantaged by complexity, expense, low extraction efficiencies and incompatibility with very fine sediments. Here we present a new, portable method to separate microplastics from sediments of differing types, using the principle of density floatation. The Sediment-Microplastic Isolation (SMI) unit is a custom-built apparatus which consistently extracted microplastics from sediments in a single step, with a mean efficiency of 95.8% (±SE 1.6%; min 70%, max 100%). Zinc chloride, at a density of 1.5 g cm -3 , was deemed an effective and relatively inexpensive floatation media, allowing fine sediment to settle whilst simultaneously enabling floatation of dense polymers. The method was validated by artificially spiking sediment with low and high density microplastics, and its environmental relevance was further tested by extracting plastics present in natural sediment samples from sites ranging in sediment type; fine silt/clay (mean size 10.25 ± SD 3.02 μm) to coarse sand (mean size 149.3 ± SD 49.9 μm). The method presented here is cheap, reproducible and is easily portable, lending itself for use in the laboratory and in the field, eg. on board research vessels. By employing this method, accurate estimates of microplastic type, distribution and abundance in natural sediments can be achieved, with the potential to further our understanding of the availability of microplastics to benthic organisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  7. MZDASoft: a software architecture that enables large-scale comparison of protein expression levels over multiple samples based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanat Bari, Mehrab; Ramirez, Nelson; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jianqiu Michelle

    2015-10-15

    Without accurate peak linking/alignment, only the expression levels of a small percentage of proteins can be compared across multiple samples in Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) due to the selective nature of tandem MS peptide identification. This greatly hampers biomedical research that aims at finding biomarkers for disease diagnosis, treatment, and the understanding of disease mechanisms. A recent algorithm, PeakLink, has allowed the accurate linking of LC/MS peaks without tandem MS identifications to their corresponding ones with identifications across multiple samples collected from different instruments, tissues and labs, which greatly enhanced the ability of comparing proteins. However, PeakLink cannot be implemented practically for large numbers of samples based on existing software architectures, because it requires access to peak elution profiles from multiple LC/MS/MS samples simultaneously. We propose a new architecture based on parallel processing, which extracts LC/MS peak features, and saves them in database files to enable the implementation of PeakLink for multiple samples. The software has been deployed in High-Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The core part of the software, MZDASoft Parallel Peak Extractor (PPE), can be downloaded with a user and developer's guide, and it can be run on HPC centers directly. The quantification applications, MZDASoft TandemQuant and MZDASoft PeakLink, are written in Matlab, which are compiled with a Matlab runtime compiler. A sample script that incorporates all necessary processing steps of MZDASoft for LC/MS/MS quantification in a parallel processing environment is available. The project webpage is http://compgenomics.utsa.edu/zgroup/MZDASoft. The proposed architecture enables the implementation of PeakLink for multiple samples. Significantly more (100%-500%) proteins can be compared over multiple samples with better quantification accuracy in test cases. MZDASoft

  8. A scaled-up Seinhorst elutriater for extraction of cyst nematodes from soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, T.H.; Bekkum, van P.J.; Beers, van T.G.; Beniers, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to process large soil samples containing potato cyst nematodes, the Seinhorst (1964) cyst elutriator was scaled up to process both sandy and marine-clay soils in batches of up to 2.5 kg. Several modifications were implemented. To maintain the required upward current of 3.01 min¿1, an inflow

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12 for the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna E. M. Marangoni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gait impairment is reported by 85% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS as main complaint. In 2003, Hobart et al. developed a scale for walking known as The 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12, which combines the perspectives of patients with psychometric methods. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and validate the MSWS-12 for the Brazilian population with MS. METHODS: This study included 116 individuals diagnosed with MS, in accordance with McDonald's criteria. The steps of the adaptation process included translation, back-translation, review by an expert committee and pretesting. A test and retest of MSWS-12/BR was made for validation, with comparison with another scale (MSIS-29/BR and another test (T25FW. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of MSWS-12/BR was shown to be similar to the original. The results indicate that MSWS-12/BR is a reliable and reproducible scale. CONCLUSIONS: MSWS-12/BR has been adapted and validated, and it is a reliable tool for the Brazilian population.

  10. [Multiple time scales analysis of spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss within watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-bing; Chen, Xing-wei; Chen, Ying

    2015-07-01

    Identification of the critical source areas of non-point source pollution is an important means to control the non-point source pollution within the watershed. In order to further reveal the impact of multiple time scales on the spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss, a SWAT model of Shanmei Reservoir watershed was developed. Based on the simulation of total nitrogen (TN) loss intensity of all 38 subbasins, spatial distribution characteristics of nitrogen loss and critical source areas were analyzed at three time scales of yearly average, monthly average and rainstorms flood process, respectively. Furthermore, multiple linear correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the contribution of natural environment and anthropogenic disturbance on nitrogen loss. The results showed that there were significant spatial differences of TN loss in Shanmei Reservoir watershed at different time scales, and the spatial differentiation degree of nitrogen loss was in the order of monthly average > yearly average > rainstorms flood process. TN loss load mainly came from upland Taoxi subbasin, which was identified as the critical source area. At different time scales, land use types (such as farmland and forest) were always the dominant factor affecting the spatial distribution of nitrogen loss, while the effect of precipitation and runoff on the nitrogen loss was only taken in no fertilization month and several processes of storm flood at no fertilization date. This was mainly due to the significant spatial variation of land use and fertilization, as well as the low spatial variability of precipitation and runoff.

  11. BLINKER: Automated Extraction of Ocular Indices from EEG Enabling Large-Scale Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleifges, Kelly; Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Kerick, Scott E; Robbins, Kay A

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) offers a platform for studying the relationships between behavioral measures, such as blink rate and duration, with neural correlates of fatigue and attention, such as theta and alpha band power. Further, the existence of EEG studies covering a variety of subjects and tasks provides opportunities for the community to better characterize variability of these measures across tasks and subjects. We have implemented an automated pipeline (BLINKER) for extracting ocular indices such as blink rate, blink duration, and blink velocity-amplitude ratios from EEG channels, EOG channels, and/or independent components (ICs). To illustrate the use of our approach, we have applied the pipeline to a large corpus of EEG data (comprising more than 2000 datasets acquired at eight different laboratories) in order to characterize variability of certain ocular indicators across subjects. We also investigate dependence of ocular indices on task in a shooter study. We have implemented our algorithms in a freely available MATLAB toolbox called BLINKER. The toolbox, which is easy to use and can be applied to collections of data without user intervention, can automatically discover which channels or ICs capture blinks. The tools extract blinks, calculate common ocular indices, generate a report for each dataset, dump labeled images of the individual blinks, and provide summary statistics across collections. Users can run BLINKER as a script or as a plugin for EEGLAB. The toolbox is available at https://github.com/VisLab/EEG-Blinks. User documentation and examples appear at http://vislab.github.io/EEG-Blinks/.

  12. Evidence of self-affine multiplicity scaling of charged-particle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the past few years many workers reported on large density fluctuations in different interacting systems [6–12]. Several theoretical interpretations of the origin of large .... of effects with this parameter, already observed for the case of shower multiplicity. ... properties may be different for different regions of the system.

  13. Qualification of new design of flexible pipe against singing: testing at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Lunde, K.; Vijlbrief, O.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible pipes for production of oil and gas typically present a corrugated inner surface. This has been identified as the cause of "singing risers": Flow-Induced Pulsations due to the interaction of sound waves with the shear layers at the small cavities present at each of the multiple

  14. Hierarchical Parallel Matrix Multiplication on Large-Scale Distributed Memory Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Quintin, Jean-Noel

    2013-10-01

    Matrix multiplication is a very important computation kernel both in its own right as a building block of many scientific applications and as a popular representative for other scientific applications. Cannon\\'s algorithm which dates back to 1969 was the first efficient algorithm for parallel matrix multiplication providing theoretically optimal communication cost. However this algorithm requires a square number of processors. In the mid-1990s, the SUMMA algorithm was introduced. SUMMA overcomes the shortcomings of Cannon\\'s algorithm as it can be used on a nonsquare number of processors as well. Since then the number of processors in HPC platforms has increased by two orders of magnitude making the contribution of communication in the overall execution time more significant. Therefore, the state of the art parallel matrix multiplication algorithms should be revisited to reduce the communication cost further. This paper introduces a new parallel matrix multiplication algorithm, Hierarchical SUMMA (HSUMMA), which is a redesign of SUMMA. Our algorithm reduces the communication cost of SUMMA by introducing a two-level virtual hierarchy into the two-dimensional arrangement of processors. Experiments on an IBM BlueGene/P demonstrate the reduction of communication cost up to 2.08 times on 2048 cores and up to 5.89 times on 16384 cores. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Application of Item Response Theory to Modeling of Expanded Disability Status Scale in Multiple Sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, A.M.; Krekels, E.H.; Munafo, A.; Ueckert, S.; Karlsson, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the development of the first item response theory (IRT) model within a pharmacometrics framework to characterize the disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS), as measured by Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS). Data were collected quarterly from a 96-week phase III

  16. Feasibility of large-scale deployment of multiple wearable sensors in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva de Lima, A.L.; Hahn, T.; Evers, L.J.W.; Vries, N.M. de; Cohen, E.; Afek, M.; Bataille, L.; Daeschler, M.; Claes, K.; Boroojerdi, B.; Terricabras, D.; Little, M.A.; Baldus, H.; Bloem, B.R.; Faber, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Wearable devices can capture objective day-to-day data about Parkinson's Disease (PD). This study aims to assess the feasibility of implementing wearable technology to collect data from multiple sensors during the daily lives of PD patients. The Parkinson@home study is an observational, two-cohort

  17. Hierarchical Parallel Matrix Multiplication on Large-Scale Distributed Memory Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Quintin, Jean-Noel; Hasanov, Khalid; Lastovetsky, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Matrix multiplication is a very important computation kernel both in its own right as a building block of many scientific applications and as a popular representative for other scientific applications. Cannon's algorithm which dates back to 1969 was the first efficient algorithm for parallel matrix multiplication providing theoretically optimal communication cost. However this algorithm requires a square number of processors. In the mid-1990s, the SUMMA algorithm was introduced. SUMMA overcomes the shortcomings of Cannon's algorithm as it can be used on a nonsquare number of processors as well. Since then the number of processors in HPC platforms has increased by two orders of magnitude making the contribution of communication in the overall execution time more significant. Therefore, the state of the art parallel matrix multiplication algorithms should be revisited to reduce the communication cost further. This paper introduces a new parallel matrix multiplication algorithm, Hierarchical SUMMA (HSUMMA), which is a redesign of SUMMA. Our algorithm reduces the communication cost of SUMMA by introducing a two-level virtual hierarchy into the two-dimensional arrangement of processors. Experiments on an IBM BlueGene/P demonstrate the reduction of communication cost up to 2.08 times on 2048 cores and up to 5.89 times on 16384 cores. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Study of fission time scale from measurement of pre-scission light particle and γ-ray multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, K.; Chatterjee, A.; Navin, A.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the result of a simultaneous measurement of pre-scission multiplicities and analysis using the statistical model code JOANNE2 which includes deformation effects. Evaporation residue cross-sections has also been measured for the same system and analyzed in a consistent manner. The neutron, charged particle, GDR γ-ray and ER data could be explained consistently. The emission of neutrons seems to be favored towards larger deformation as compared to charged particles. The pre-scission time scale is deduced as 0-2 x 10 -21 s whereas the saddle-to-scission time scale is 36-39 x 10 -21 s. The total fission time scale is deduced as 36-41 x 10 -21 s

  19. Genetic differentiation across multiple spatial scales of the Red Sea of the corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa

    KAUST Repository

    Monroe, Alison

    2015-12-01

    Observing populations at different spatial scales gives greater insight into the specific processes driving genetic differentiation and population structure. Here we determined population connectivity across multiple spatial scales in the Red Sea to determine the population structures of two reef building corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa. The Red sea is a 2,250 km long body of water with extremely variable latitudinal environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and microsatellite markers were used to determine distinct lineages and to look for genetic differentiation among sampling sites. No distinctive population structure across the latitudinal gradient was discovered within this study suggesting a phenotypic plasticity of both these species to various environments. Stylophora pistillata displayed a heterogeneous distribution of three distinct genetic populations on both a fine and large scale. Fst, Gst, and Dest were all significant (p-value<0.05) and showed moderate genetic differentiation between all sampling sites. However this seems to be byproduct of the heterogeneous distribution, as no distinct genetic population breaks were found. Stylophora pistillata showed greater population structure on a fine scale suggesting genetic selection based on fine scale environmental variations. However, further environmental and oceanographic data is needed to make more inferences on this structure at small spatial scales. This study highlights the deficits of knowledge of both the Red Sea and coral plasticity in regards to local environmental conditions.

  20. Development of a patient reported outcome scale for fatigue in multiple sclerosis: The Neurological Fatigue Index (NFI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennant Alan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS. Best-practice guidelines suggest that health services should repeatedly assess fatigue in persons with MS. Several fatigue scales are available but concern has been expressed about their validity. The objective of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a new scale for MS fatigue, the Neurological Fatigue Index (NFI-MS. Methods Qualitative analysis of 40 MS patient interviews had previously contributed to a coherent definition of fatigue, and a potential 52 item set representing the salient themes. A draft questionnaire was mailed out to 1223 people with MS, and the resulting data subjected to both factor and Rasch analysis. Results Data from 635 (51.9% response respondents were split randomly into an 'evaluation' and 'validation' sample. Exploratory factor analysis identified four potential subscales: 'physical', 'cognitive', 'relief by diurnal sleep or rest' and 'abnormal nocturnal sleep and sleepiness'. Rasch analysis led to further item reduction and the generation of a Summary scale comprising items from the Physical and Cognitive subscales. The scales were shown to fit Rasch model expectations, across both the evaluation and validation samples. Conclusion A simple 10-item Summary scale, together with scales measuring the physical and cognitive components of fatigue, were validated for MS fatigue.

  1. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distributed Model Predictive Control over Multiple Groups of Vehicles in Highway Intelligent Space for Large Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the three time warning distances for solving the large scale system of multiple groups of vehicles safety driving characteristics towards highway tunnel environment based on distributed model prediction control approach. Generally speaking, the system includes two parts. First, multiple vehicles are divided into multiple groups. Meanwhile, the distributed model predictive control approach is proposed to calculate the information framework of each group. Each group of optimization performance considers the local optimization and the neighboring subgroup of optimization characteristics, which could ensure the global optimization performance. Second, the three time warning distances are studied based on the basic principles used for highway intelligent space (HIS and the information framework concept is proposed according to the multiple groups of vehicles. The math model is built to avoid the chain avoidance of vehicles. The results demonstrate that the proposed highway intelligent space method could effectively ensure driving safety of multiple groups of vehicles under the environment of fog, rain, or snow.

  3. Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length-scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Bale, Hrishikesh; Barth, Holly D.; Tang, Simon Y.; Reichert, Peter; Busse, Bjoern; Alliston, Tamara; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2011-08-10

    The structure of human cortical bone evolves over multiple length-scales from its basic constituents of collagen and hydroxyapatite at the nanoscale to osteonal structures at nearmillimeter dimensions, which all provide the basis for its mechanical properties. To resist fracture, bone’s toughness is derived intrinsically through plasticity (e.g., fibrillar sliding) at structural-scales typically below a micron and extrinsically (i.e., during crack growth) through mechanisms (e.g., crack deflection/bridging) generated at larger structural-scales. Biological factors such as aging lead to a markedly increased fracture risk, which is often associated with an age-related loss in bone mass (bone quantity). However, we find that age-related structural changes can significantly degrade the fracture resistance (bone quality) over multiple lengthscales. Using in situ small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction to characterize sub-micron structural changes and synchrotron x-ray computed tomography and in situ fracture-toughness measurements in the scanning electron microscope to characterize effects at micron-scales, we show how these age-related structural changes at differing size-scales degrade both the intrinsic and extrinsic toughness of bone. Specifically, we attribute the loss in toughness to increased non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking which suppresses plasticity at nanoscale dimensions and to an increased osteonal density which limits the potency of crack-bridging mechanisms at micron-scales. The link between these processes is that the increased stiffness of the cross-linked collagen requires energy to be absorbed by “plastic” deformation at higher structural levels, which occurs by the process of microcracking.

  4. Walnut and almond oil screw-press extraction at industrial scale: Effects of process parameters on oil yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Martínez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Walnut and almond kernels are highly nutritious mainly due to their high oil contents. In this study, 32 factorial experimental designs were used to optimize processes for oil extraction by screw-pressing at industrial scale. Experimental designs included seed moisture content (SMC, and restriction die (RD as the main processing parameters. Theoretical models were scanned against experimental data in order to optimize oil extraction conditions. The response variables analyzed were oil yield (OY, fine solid content (FC in oil, and oil quality parameters. Fitted models for OY indicated maximum predicted values similar to the highest experimental values. Walnut oil extractions showed a maximum OY (84.5 ± 2.3 % at 7.21% SMC, and 10 mm RD. For almond kernels, maximum OY (71.9 ± 3.5% was obtained at 9.42% SMC, and 12 mm RD. Chemical quality parameters from both oils were in the ranges stated in Codex (FAO/WHO standards for virgin (non-refined oils.

  5. Walnut and almond oil screw-press extraction at industrial scale: Effects of process parameters on oil yield and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, M. L.; Bordón, M.G.; Bodoira, R. M.; Penci, M.C.; Ribotta, P.D.; Maestri, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Walnut and almond kernels are highly nutritious mainly due to their high oil contents. In this study, 32 factorial experimental designs were used to optimize processes for oil extraction by screw-pressing at industrial scale. Experimental designs included seed moisture content (SMC), and restriction die (RD) as the main processing parameters. Theoretical models were scanned against experimental data in order to optimize oil extraction conditions. The response variables analyzed were oil yield (OY), fine solid content (FC) in oil, and oil quality parameters. Fitted models for OY indicated maximum predicted values similar to the highest experimental values. Walnut oil extractions showed a maximum OY (84.5 ± 2.3 %) at 7.21% SMC, and 10 mm RD. For almond kernels, maximum OY (71.9 ± 3.5%) was obtained at 9.42% SMC, and 12 mm RD. Chemical quality parameters from both oils were in the ranges stated in Codex (FAO/WHO) standards for virgin (non-refined) oils. [es

  6. Multiple atomic scale solid surface interconnects for atom circuits and molecule logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joachim, C; Martrou, D; Gauthier, S; Rezeq, M; Troadec, C; Jie Deng; Chandrasekhar, N

    2010-01-01

    The scientific and technical challenges involved in building the planar electrical connection of an atomic scale circuit to N electrodes (N > 2) are discussed. The practical, laboratory scale approach explored today to assemble a multi-access atomic scale precision interconnection machine is presented. Depending on the surface electronic properties of the targeted substrates, two types of machines are considered: on moderate surface band gap materials, scanning tunneling microscopy can be combined with scanning electron microscopy to provide an efficient navigation system, while on wide surface band gap materials, atomic force microscopy can be used in conjunction with optical microscopy. The size of the planar part of the circuit should be minimized on moderate band gap surfaces to avoid current leakage, while this requirement does not apply to wide band gap surfaces. These constraints impose different methods of connection, which are thoroughly discussed, in particular regarding the recent progress in single atom and molecule manipulations on a surface.

  7. A Spatial Framework to Map Heat Health Risks at Multiple Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Huang, Wei

    2015-12-18

    In the last few decades extreme heat events have led to substantial excess mortality, most dramatically in Central Europe in 2003, in Russia in 2010, and even in typically cool locations such as Vancouver, Canada, in 2009. Heat-related morbidity and mortality is expected to increase over the coming centuries as the result of climate-driven global increases in the severity and frequency of extreme heat events. Spatial information on heat exposure and population vulnerability may be combined to map the areas of highest risk and focus mitigation efforts there. However, a mismatch in spatial resolution between heat exposure and vulnerability data can cause spatial scale issues such as the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP). We used a raster-based model to integrate heat exposure and vulnerability data in a multi-criteria decision analysis, and compared it to the traditional vector-based model. We then used the Getis-Ord G(i) index to generate spatially smoothed heat risk hotspot maps from fine to coarse spatial scales. The raster-based model allowed production of maps at spatial resolution, more description of local-scale heat risk variability, and identification of heat-risk areas not identified with the vector-based approach. Spatial smoothing with the Getis-Ord G(i) index produced heat risk hotspots from local to regional spatial scale. The approach is a framework for reducing spatial scale issues in future heat risk mapping, and for identifying heat risk hotspots at spatial scales ranging from the block-level to the municipality level.

  8. Small-scale extraction and radioiodination of human hormones for the substitution of imported radioimmunoassay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimbo, E.K.; Ribela, M.T.C.P.; Borghi, V.C.; Schwarz, I.; Morganti, L.; Araujo, E.A.; Bartolini, P.

    1988-01-01

    The methods for national production of radioimmunoassay reagents to substitute imported kits of: highly purified unlabelled hormones for radioiodination; 125 I-labelled hormones; and specific high titre antisera are presented. The extraction and purification of human growth hormone (hGH) and human luteinizing hormone (hGH) were done from human pituitaries. The 125 I-labelled hormones are obtained by stoichiometric methods. The 125 I-hGH, 125 I-hLH, I-hTSH and 125 I- h calcitonin were prepared and tested in internal and external quality control, in comparison with imported products. The parameters such as: maximum binding to specific antiserum (Bo), nonspecific binding (NSB), mean effective dose (ED 50), sensitivity and accuracy were evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Large-scale assessment of benthic communities across multiple marine protected areas using an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Renata; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Ayroza, Camila Rezende; Jordan, Alan; Figueira, Will F; Byrne, Maria; Malcolm, Hamish A; Williams, Stefan B; Steinberg, Peter D

    2018-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are designed to reduce threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning from anthropogenic activities. Assessment of MPAs effectiveness requires synchronous sampling of protected and non-protected areas at multiple spatial and temporal scales. We used an autonomous underwater vehicle to map benthic communities in replicate 'no-take' and 'general-use' (fishing allowed) zones within three MPAs along 7o of latitude. We recorded 92 taxa and 38 morpho-groups across three large MPAs. We found that important habitat-forming biota (e.g. massive sponges) were more prevalent and abundant in no-take zones, while short ephemeral algae were more abundant in general-use zones, suggesting potential short-term effects of zoning (5-10 years). Yet, short-term effects of zoning were not detected at the community level (community structure or composition), while community structure varied significantly among MPAs. We conclude that by allowing rapid, simultaneous assessments at multiple spatial scales, autonomous underwater vehicles are useful to document changes in marine communities and identify adequate scales to manage them. This study advanced knowledge of marine benthic communities and their conservation in three ways. First, we quantified benthic biodiversity and abundance, generating the first baseline of these benthic communities against which the effectiveness of three large MPAs can be assessed. Second, we identified the taxonomic resolution necessary to assess both short and long-term effects of MPAs, concluding that coarse taxonomic resolution is sufficient given that analyses of community structure at different taxonomic levels were generally consistent. Yet, observed differences were taxa-specific and may have not been evident using our broader taxonomic classifications, a classification of mid to high taxonomic resolution may be necessary to determine zoning effects on key taxa. Third, we provide an example of statistical analyses and

  10. A New Feature Extraction Method Based on EEMD and Multi-Scale Fuzzy Entropy for Motor Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction is one of the most important, pivotal, and difficult problems in mechanical fault diagnosis, which directly relates to the accuracy of fault diagnosis and the reliability of early fault prediction. Therefore, a new fault feature extraction method, called the EDOMFE method based on integrating ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD, mode selection, and multi-scale fuzzy entropy is proposed to accurately diagnose fault in this paper. The EEMD method is used to decompose the vibration signal into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs with a different physical significance. The correlation coefficient analysis method is used to calculate and determine three improved IMFs, which are close to the original signal. The multi-scale fuzzy entropy with the ability of effective distinguishing the complexity of different signals is used to calculate the entropy values of the selected three IMFs in order to form a feature vector with the complexity measure, which is regarded as the inputs of the support vector machine (SVM model for training and constructing a SVM classifier (EOMSMFD based on EDOMFE and SVM for fulfilling fault pattern recognition. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by real bearing vibration signals of the motor with different loads and fault severities. The experiment results show that the proposed EDOMFE method can effectively extract fault features from the vibration signal and that the proposed EOMSMFD method can accurately diagnose the fault types and fault severities for the inner race fault, the outer race fault, and rolling element fault of the motor bearing. Therefore, the proposed method provides a new fault diagnosis technology for rotating machinery.

  11. A Divide and Conquer Strategy for Scaling Weather Simulations with Multiple Regions of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Malakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely prediction of weather phenomena, such as hurricanes and flash floods, require high-fidelity compute intensive simulations of multiple finer regions of interest within a coarse simulation domain. Current weather applications execute these nested simulations sequentially using all the available processors, which is sub-optimal due to their sub-linear scalability. In this work, we present a strategy for parallel execution of multiple nested domain simulations based on partitioning the 2-D processor grid into disjoint rectangular regions associated with each domain. We propose a novel combination of performance prediction, processor allocation methods and topology-aware mapping of the regions on torus interconnects. Experiments on IBM Blue Gene systems using WRF show that the proposed strategies result in performance improvement of up to 33% with topology-oblivious mapping and up to additional 7% with topology-aware mapping over the default sequential strategy.

  12. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan H. Campbell Grant; David A. W. Miller; Benedikt R. Schmidt; Michael J. Adams; Staci M. Amburgey; Thierry Chambert; Sam S. Cruickshank; Robert N. Fisher; David M. Green; Blake R. Hossack; Pieter T. J. Johnson; Maxwell B. Joseph; Tracy A. G. Rittenhouse; Maureen E. Ryan; J. Hardin Waddle; Susan C. Walls; Larissa L. Bailey; Gary M. Fellers; Thomas A. Gorman; Andrew M. Ray; David S. Pilliod; Steven J. Price; Daniel Saenz; Walt Sadinski; Erin Muths

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a “smoking gun” was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors...

  13. Neutron multiplicities as a measure for scission time scales and reaction violences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoche, K.; Scobel, W.; Sprute, L.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the temporal evolution of the fusion-fission reactions 32 S + 197 Au, 232 Th measured for 838 MeV projectiles by means of the neutron clock method. The results confirm existent precision lifetime versus fissility data. The total neutron multiplicity as a measure of the initial excitation energy E * is compared with the folding angle method. (author). 13 refs, 8 figs

  14. A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuefeind, J.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Daniels, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Conventionally, the stretching of rubber is modeled exclusively by rotations of segments of the embedded polymer chains; i.e. changes in entropy. However models have not been tested on all relevant length scales due to a lack of appropriate probes. Here we present a universal X-ray based method f...

  15. Hierarchical approach to optimization of parallel matrix multiplication on large-scale platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hasanov, Khalid; Quintin, Jean-Noë l; Lastovetsky, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    -scale parallelism in mind. Indeed, while in 1990s a system with few hundred cores was considered a powerful supercomputer, modern top supercomputers have millions of cores. In this paper, we present a hierarchical approach to optimization of message-passing parallel

  16. Change Analysis and Decision Tree Based Detection Model for Residential Objects across Multiple Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Liyan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Change analysis and detection plays important role in the updating of multi-scale databases.When overlap an updated larger-scale dataset and a to-be-updated smaller-scale dataset,people usually focus on temporal changes caused by the evolution of spatial entities.Little attention is paid to the representation changes influenced by map generalization.Using polygonal building data as an example,this study examines the changes from different perspectives,such as the reasons for their occurrence,their performance format.Based on this knowledge,we employ decision tree in field of machine learning to establish a change detection model.The aim of the proposed model is to distinguish temporal changes that need to be applied as updates to the smaller-scale dataset from representation changes.The proposed method is validated through tests using real-world building data from Guangzhou city.The experimental results show the overall precision of change detection is more than 90%,which indicates our method is effective to identify changed objects.

  17. An Integrative Bioinformatics Framework for Genome-scale Multiple Level Network Reconstruction of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lili

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how metabolic reactions translate the genome of an organism into its phenotype is a grand challenge in biology. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS statistically connect genotypes to phenotypes, without any recourse to known molecular interactions, whereas a molecular mechanistic description ties gene function to phenotype through gene regulatory networks (GRNs, protein-protein interactions (PPIs and molecular pathways. Integration of different regulatory information levels of an organism is expected to provide a good way for mapping genotypes to phenotypes. However, the lack of curated metabolic model of rice is blocking the exploration of genome-scale multi-level network reconstruction. Here, we have merged GRNs, PPIs and genome-scale metabolic networks (GSMNs approaches into a single framework for rice via omics’ regulatory information reconstruction and integration. Firstly, we reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic model, containing 4,462 function genes, 2,986 metabolites involved in 3,316 reactions, and compartmentalized into ten subcellular locations. Furthermore, 90,358 pairs of protein-protein interactions, 662,936 pairs of gene regulations and 1,763 microRNA-target interactions were integrated into the metabolic model. Eventually, a database was developped for systematically storing and retrieving the genome-scale multi-level network of rice. This provides a reference for understanding genotype-phenotype relationship of rice, and for analysis of its molecular regulatory network.

  18. Neocortical dynamics at multiple scales: EEG standing waves, statistical mechanics, and physical analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Lester; Nunez, Paul L

    2011-02-01

    The dynamic behavior of scalp potentials (EEG) is apparently due to some combination of global and local processes with important top-down and bottom-up interactions across spatial scales. In treating global mechanisms, we stress the importance of myelinated axon propagation delays and periodic boundary conditions in the cortical-white matter system, which is topologically close to a spherical shell. By contrast, the proposed local mechanisms are multiscale interactions between cortical columns via short-ranged non-myelinated fibers. A mechanical model consisting of a stretched string with attached nonlinear springs demonstrates the general idea. The string produces standing waves analogous to large-scale coherent EEG observed in some brain states. The attached springs are analogous to the smaller (mesoscopic) scale columnar dynamics. Generally, we expect string displacement and EEG at all scales to result from both global and local phenomena. A statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI) calculates oscillatory behavior consistent with typical EEG, within columns, between neighboring columns via short-ranged non-myelinated fibers, across cortical regions via myelinated fibers, and also derives a string equation consistent with the global EEG model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental variables measured at multiple spatial scales exert uneven influence on fish assemblages of floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the interaction between environmental variables measured at three different scales (i.e., landscape, lake, and in-lake) and fish assemblage descriptors across a range of over 50 floodplain lakes in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Mississippi and Arkansas. Our goal was to identify important local- and landscape-level determinants of fish assemblage structure. Relationships between fish assemblage structure and variables measured at broader scales (i.e., landscape-level and lake-level) were hypothesized to be stronger than relationships with variables measured at finer scales (i.e., in-lake variables). Results suggest that fish assemblage structure in floodplain lakes was influenced by variables operating on three different scales. However, and contrary to expectations, canonical correlations between in-lake environmental characteristics and fish assemblage structure were generally stronger than correlations between landscape-level and lake-level variables and fish assemblage structure, suggesting a hierarchy of influence. From a resource management perspective, our study suggests that landscape-level and lake-level variables may be manipulated for conservation or restoration purposes, and in-lake variables and fish assemblage structure may be used to monitor the success of such efforts.

  20. Broadband Structural Dynamics: Understanding the Impulse-Response of Structures Across Multiple Length and Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    Spectral domain response calculated • Time domain response obtained through inverse transform Approach 4: WASABI Wavelet Analysis of Structural Anomalies...differences at unity scale! Time Function Transform Apply Spectral Domain Transfer Function Time Function Inverse Transform Transform Transform  mtP

  1. A multiple-scaling method of the computation of threaded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Leger, A.

    1989-01-01

    The numerical computation of threaded structures usually leads to very large finite elements problems. It was therefore very difficult to carry out some parametric studies, especially in non-linear cases involving plasticity or unilateral contact conditions. Nevertheless, these parametric studies are essential in many industrial problems, for instance for the evaluation of various repairing processes of the closure studs of PWR. It is well known that such repairing generally involves several modifications of the thread geometry, of the number of active threads, of the flange clamping conditions, and so on. This paper is devoted to the description of a two-scale method, which easily allows parametric studies. The main idea of this method consists of dividing the problem into a global part, and a local part. The local problem is solved by F.E.M. on the precise geometry of the thread of some elementary loadings. The global one is formulated on the gudgeon scale and is reduced to a monodimensional one. The resolution of this global problem leads to the unsignificant computational cost. Then, a post-processing gives the stress field at the thread scale anywhere in the assembly. After recalling some principles of the two-scales approach, the method is described. The validation by comparison with a direct F.E. computation and some further applications are presented

  2. Early College for All: Efforts to Scale up Early Colleges in Multiple Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the positive impacts of the small, stand-alone early college model and the desire to provide those benefits to more students, organizations have begun efforts to scale up the early college model in a variety of settings. These efforts have been supported by the federal government, particularly by the Investing in Innovation (i3) program.…

  3. Non-native salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Hossack, Blake R.; Bahls, Peter F.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hokit, Grant; Maxell, Bryce A.; Munger, James C.; Wyrick, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    Aim The introduction of non-native species into aquatic environments has been linked with local extinctions and altered distributions of native species. We investigated the effect of non-native salmonids on the occupancy of two native amphibians, the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), across three spatial scales: water bodies, small catchments and large catchments. Location Mountain lakes at ≥ 1500 m elevation were surveyed across the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Methods We surveyed 2267 water bodies for amphibian occupancy (based on evidence of reproduction) and fish presence between 1986 and 2002 and modelled the probability of amphibian occupancy at each spatial scale in relation to habitat availability and quality and fish presence. Results After accounting for habitat features, we estimated that A. macrodactylum was 2.3 times more likely to breed in fishless water bodies than in water bodies with fish. Ambystoma macrodactylum also was more likely to occupy small catchments where none of the water bodies contained fish than in catchments where at least one water body contained fish. However, the probability of salamander occupancy in small catchments was also influenced by habitat availability (i.e. the number of water bodies within a catchment) and suitability of remaining fishless water bodies. We found no relationship between fish presence and salamander occupancy at the large-catchment scale, probably because of increased habitat availability. In contrast to A. macrodactylum, we found no relationship between fish presence and R. luteiventris occupancy at any scale. Main conclusions Our results suggest that the negative effects of non-native salmonids can extend beyond the boundaries of individual water bodies and increase A. macrodactylum extinction risk at landscape scales. We suspect that niche overlap between non-native fish and A. macrodactylum at higher elevations in the northern Rocky

  4. The plasma transport equations derived by multiple time-scale expansions and turbulent transport. I. General theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenstrasser, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A multiple time-scale derivative expansion scheme is applied to the dimensionless Fokker--Planck equation and to Maxwell's equations, where the parameter range of a typical fusion plasma was assumed. Within kinetic theory, the four time scales considered are those of Larmor gyration, particle transit, collisions, and classical transport. The corresponding magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) time scales are those of ion Larmor gyration, Alfven, MHD collision, and resistive diffusion. The solution of the zeroth-order equations results in the force-free equilibria and ideal Ohm's law. The solution of the first-order equations leads under the assumption of a weak collisional plasma to the ideal MHD equations. On the MHD-collision time scale, not only the full set of the MHD transport equations is obtained, but also turbulent terms, where the related transport quantities are one order in the expansion parameter larger than those of classical transport. Finally, at the resistive diffusion time scale the known transport equations are arrived at including, however, also turbulent contributions. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  5. Analysis of Resource and Emission Impacts: An Emergy-Based Multiple Spatial Scale Framework for Urban Ecological and Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the complex and multi-dimensional urban socio-economic system creates impacts on natural capital and human capital, which range from a local to a global scale. An emergy-based multiple spatial scale analysis framework and a rigorous accounting method that can quantify the values of human-made and natural capital losses were proposed in this study. With the intent of comparing the trajectory of Beijing over time, the characteristics of the interface between different scales are considered to explain the resource trade and the impacts of emissions. In addition, our improved determination of emergy analysis and acceptable management options that are in agreement with Beijing’s overall sustainability strategy were examined. The results showed that Beijing’s economy was closely correlated with the consumption of nonrenewable resources and exerted rising pressure on the environment. Of the total emergy use by the economic system, the imported nonrenewable resources from other provinces contribute the most, and the multi‑scale environmental impacts of waterborne and airborne pollution continued to increase from 1999 to 2006. Given the inputs structure, Beijing was chiefly making greater profits by shifting resources from other provinces in China and transferring the emissions outside. The results of our study should enable urban policy planners to better understand the multi-scale policy planning and development design of an urban ecological economic system.

  6. Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible

  7. Preparation of Nano-Scale Biopolymer Extracted from Coconut Residue and Its Performance as Drag Reducing Agent (DRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Muhammad Luqman Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag or frictional force is defined as force that acts opposite to the object’s relative motion through a fluid which then will cause frictional pressure loss in the pipeline. Drag Reducing Agent (DRA is used to solve this issue and most of the DRAs are synthetic polymers but has some environmental issues. Therefore for this study, biopolymer known as Coconut Residue (CR is selected as the candidate to replace synthetic polymers DRA. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Nano-scale biopolymer DRA on the application of water injection system. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is extracted by synthesizing the cellulose extracted from CR under the alkali-catalyzed reaction using monochloroacetic acid. The synthesize process is held in controlled condition whereby the concentration of NaOH is kept at 60%wt, 60 °C temperature and the reaction time is 4 hours. For every 25 g of dried CR used, the mass of synthesized CMC yield is at an average of 23.8 g. The synthesized CMC is then grinded in controlled parameters using the ball milling machine to get the Nano-scale size. The particle size obtained from this is 43.32 Nm which is in range of Nano size. This study proved that Nano-size CMC has higher percentage of drag reduction (%DR and flow increase (%FI if compared to normal-size CMC when tested in high and low flow rate; 44% to 48% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in low flow rate, and 16% to 18% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in high flow rate. The success of this research shows that Nano-scale DRA can be considered to be used to have better performance in reducing drag.

  8. Evaluation of the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) in a Dutch sample: Application of item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkink, Lidwine Brigitta; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Uitdehaag, Bernard Mj

    2016-12-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) measures walking ability from the patients' perspective. We examined the quality of the MSWS-12 using an item response theory model, the graded response model (GRM). A total of 625 unique Dutch multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were included. After testing for unidimensionality, monotonicity, and absence of local dependence, a GRM was fit and item characteristics were assessed. Differential item functioning (DIF) for the variables gender, age, duration of MS, type of MS and severity of MS, reliability, total test information, and standard error of the trait level (θ) were investigated. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a unidimensional structure of the 12 items of the scale, explaining 88% of the variance. Item 2 did not fit into the GRM model. Reliability was 0.93. Items 8 and 9 (of the 11 and 12 item version respectively) showed DIF on the variable severity, based on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). However, the EDSS is strongly related to the content of both items. Our results confirm the good quality of the MSWS-12. The trait level (θ) scores and item parameters of both the 12- and 11-item versions were highly comparable, although we do not suggest to change the content of the MSWS-12. © The Author(s), 2016.

  9. Interlaboratory study of DNA extraction from multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR for individual kernel detection system of genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Makiyma, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Teshima, Reiko; Nakashima, Akie; Ogawa, Asako; Yamagishi, Toru; Futo, Satoshi; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, the labeling of grains, feed, and foodstuff is mandatory if the genetically modified (GM) organism content exceeds a certain level of approved GM varieties. We previously developed an individual kernel detection system consisting of grinding individual kernels, DNA extraction from the individually ground kernels, GM detection using multiplex real-time PCR, and GM event detection using multiplex qualitative PCR to analyze the precise commingling level and varieties of GM maize in real sample grains. We performed the interlaboratory study of the DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR detection, and multiplex qualitative PCR detection to evaluate its applicability, practicality, and ruggedness for the individual kernel detection system of GM maize. DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR were evaluated by five laboratories in Japan, and all results from these laboratories were consistent with the expected results in terms of the commingling level and event analysis. Thus, the DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR for the individual kernel detection system is applicable and practicable in a laboratory to regulate the commingling level of GM maize grain for GM samples, including stacked GM maize.

  10. Large-scale data analysis of power grid resilience across multiple US service regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chuanyi; Wei, Yun; Mei, Henry; Calzada, Jorge; Carey, Matthew; Church, Steve; Hayes, Timothy; Nugent, Brian; Stella, Gregory; Wallace, Matthew; White, Joe; Wilcox, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Severe weather events frequently result in large-scale power failures, affecting millions of people for extended durations. However, the lack of comprehensive, detailed failure and recovery data has impeded large-scale resilience studies. Here, we analyse data from four major service regions representing Upstate New York during Super Storm Sandy and daily operations. Using non-stationary spatiotemporal random processes that relate infrastructural failures to recoveries and cost, our data analysis shows that local power failures have a disproportionally large non-local impact on people (that is, the top 20% of failures interrupted 84% of services to customers). A large number (89%) of small failures, represented by the bottom 34% of customers and commonplace devices, resulted in 56% of the total cost of 28 million customer interruption hours. Our study shows that extreme weather does not cause, but rather exacerbates, existing vulnerabilities, which are obscured in daily operations.

  11. Experimental Investigations of Extracted Rapeseed Combustion Emissions in a Small Scale Stationary Fluidized Bed Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Steinbrecht

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the combustion process of extracted rapeseed (ER grist in a stationary fluidized bed combustor (SFBC and evaluate the chemical compositions of the flue gas emissions. The experimental tests of ER combustion in the 90 to 200 kW (Kilowatt SFB combustion test facility show that the optimal ER combustion temperature is within the range from 850 to 880° C. Temperature and the concentration of exhausted emissions (e.g. O2, CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2, Corg were measured with dedicated sensors distributed within the combustor, along its height and in the flue gas duct. The experimental results showed that with respect to German emission limits the concentration of SO2 and NOx in the flue gas were high whereas that of CO was low. This study furthermore is applicable for the abundant biomass residue resources in Vietnam (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse, cassava residues, coconut shell etc., which have similar chemical compositions to ER.

  12. Experimental investigations of extracted rapeseed combustion emissions in a small scale stationary fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh Tung, N.; Steinbrecht, D. [Rostock University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Chair of Environmental Technology, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D - 18059 Rostock (Germany); Tung, N. D. [Hanoi University of Agriculture- Hanoi/Vietnam, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Trau Quy - Gia Lam - Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vincent, T. [Rostock University, Chair of Energy Systems, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D - 18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the combustion process of extracted rapeseed (ER) grist in a stationary fluidized bed combustor (SFBC) and evaluate the chemical compositions of the flue gas emissions. The experimental tests of ER combustion in the 90 to 200 kW SFB combustion test facility show that the optimal ER combustion temperature is within the range from 850 to 880 {sup o}C. Temperature and the concentration of exhausted emissions (e.g. O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, C{sub org}) were measured with dedicated sensors distributed within the combustor, along its height and in the flue gas duct. The experimental results showed that with respect to German emission limits the concentration of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in the flue gas were high whereas that of CO was low. This study furthermore is applicable for the abundant biomass residue resources in Vietnam (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse, cassava residues, coconut shell etc.), which have similar chemical compositions to ER. (author)

  13. Neocortical Dynamics at Multiple Scales: EEG Standing Waves, Statistical Mechanics, and Physical Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Ingber, Lester; Nunez, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of scalp potentials (EEG) is apparently due to some combination of global and local processes with important top-down and bottom-up interactions across spatial scales. In treating global mechanisms, we stress the importance of myelinated axon propagation delays and periodic boundary conditions in the cortical-white matter system, which is topologically close to a spherical shell. By contrast, the proposed local mechanisms are multiscale interactions between cortical colum...

  14. Disentangling multiple drivers of pollination in a landscape-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, Christof; Herzog, Felix; Entling, Martin H

    2014-01-07

    Animal pollination is essential for the reproductive success of many wild and crop plants. Loss and isolation of (semi-)natural habitats in agricultural landscapes can cause declines of plants and pollinators and endanger pollination services. We investigated the independent effects of these drivers on pollination of young cherry trees in a landscape-scale experiment. We included (i) isolation of study trees from other cherry trees (up to 350 m), (ii) the amount of cherry trees in the landscape, (iii) the isolation from other woody habitats (up to 200 m) and (iv) the amount of woody habitats providing nesting and floral resources for pollinators. At the local scale, we considered effects of (v) cherry flower density and (vi) heterospecific flower density. Pollinators visited flowers more often in landscapes with high amount of woody habitat and at sites with lower isolation from the next cherry tree. Fruit set was reduced by isolation from the next cherry tree and by a high local density of heterospecific flowers but did not directly depend on pollinator visitation. These results reveal the importance of considering the plant's need for conspecific pollen and its pollen competition with co-flowering species rather than focusing only on pollinators' habitat requirements and flower visitation. It proved to be important to disentangle habitat isolation from habitat loss, local from landscape-scale effects, and direct effects of pollen availability on fruit set from indirect effects via pollinator visitation to understand the delivery of an agriculturally important ecosystem service.

  15. Incipient multiple fault diagnosis in real time with applications to large-scale systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.Y.; Bien, Z.; Park, J.H.; Seon, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    By using a modified signed directed graph (SDG) together with the distributed artificial neutral networks and a knowledge-based system, a method of incipient multi-fault diagnosis is presented for large-scale physical systems with complex pipes and instrumentations such as valves, actuators, sensors, and controllers. The proposed method is designed so as to (1) make a real-time incipient fault diagnosis possible for large-scale systems, (2) perform the fault diagnosis not only in the steady-state case but also in the transient case as well by using a concept of fault propagation time, which is newly adopted in the SDG model, (3) provide with highly reliable diagnosis results and explanation capability of faults diagnosed as in an expert system, and (4) diagnose the pipe damage such as leaking, break, or throttling. This method is applied for diagnosis of a pressurizer in the Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) unit 2 in Korea under a transient condition, and its result is reported to show satisfactory performance of the method for the incipient multi-fault diagnosis of such a large-scale system in a real-time manner

  16. Consumer preference for seeds and seedlings of rare species impacts tree diversity at multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Guevara, Roger; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-07-01

    Positive density-dependent seed and seedling predation, where herbivores selectively eat seeds or seedlings of common species, is thought to play a major role in creating and maintaining plant community diversity. However, many herbivores and seed predators are known to exhibit preferences for rare foods, which could lead to negative density-dependent predation. In this study, we first demonstrate the occurrence of increased predation of locally rare tree species by a widespread group of insular seed and seedling predators, land crabs. We then build computer simulations based on these empirical data to examine the effects of such predation on diversity patterns. Simulations show that herbivore preferences for locally rare species are likely to drive scale-dependent effects on plant community diversity: at small scales these foraging patterns decrease plant community diversity via the selective consumption of rare plant species, while at the landscape level they should increase diversity, at least for short periods, by promoting clustered local dominance of a variety of species. Finally, we compared observed patterns of plant diversity at the site to those obtained via computer simulations, and found that diversity patterns generated under simulations were highly consistent with observed diversity patterns. We posit that preference for rare species by herbivores may be prevalent in low- or moderate-diversity systems, and that these effects may help explain diversity patterns across different spatial scales in such ecosystems.

  17. Simultaneous Microwave Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds of Boldo Leaves. From Lab to Industrial Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Petigny

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction and separation has been used to increase the concentration of the extract compared to the conventional method with the same solid/liquid ratio, reducing extraction time and separate at the same time Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC from non-Volatile Organic Compounds (NVOC of boldo leaves. As preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material and the separation of VOC from the plant in laboratory scale. The results from the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: microwave power 200 W, extraction time 56 min and solid liquid ratio of 7.5% of plants in water. Lab scale optimized microwave method is compared to conventional distillation, and requires a power/mass ratio of 0.4 W/g of water engaged. This power/mass ratio is kept in order to upscale from lab to pilot plant.

  18. Fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropins.5: Small scale chromatographic fractionation of pituitary extracts into components with different steroidogenic activities using homologous bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrino Teresa R

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fractionation and characterization of gonadotropins (GtH from Fundulus heteroclitus pituitary extracts were carried out using a biocompatible liquid chromatographic procedure (Pharmacia FPLC system. Chromatographic fractions were monitored for gonadotropic activities (induction of oocyte maturation and steroid production using homologous follicle bioassays in vitro. Size-exclusion chromatography eluted gonadotropic activity in one major protein peak (Mr ~ 30,000. Anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC yielded two distinct peaks of 17beta-estradiol (E2- and 17alpha-hydroxy,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography (chromatofocusing followed by HIC resolved pituitary extracts into two active fractions; both induced E2 synthesis, but one was relatively poor in eliciting DHP and testosterone production. Thus, using homologous bioassays, at least two quantitatively different gonadotropic (steroidogenic activities: an E2-promoting gonadotropin (GtH I-like and a DHP-promoting gonadotropin (GtH II-like, which has a lower isoelectric point but greater hydrophobicity than the former, can be distinguished from F. heteroclitus pituitaries by a variety of chromatographic procedures. This study complements previous biochemical and molecular data in F. heteroclitus and substantiates the duality of GtH function in a multiple-spawning teleost.

  19. Regional management units for marine turtles: a novel framework for prioritizing conservation and research across multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P; DiMatteo, Andrew D; Hurley, Brendan J; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Bolten, Alan B; Chaloupka, Milani Y; Hutchinson, Brian J; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W; Dueñas, Raquel Briseño; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B C; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H; Hamann, Mark; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Musick, John A; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B

    2010-12-17

    Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques--including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry--can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition, the RMU framework--including maps and supporting metadata--will be an

  20. Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research across Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Hurley, Brendan J.; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W.; Dueñas, Raquel Briseño; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H.; Hamann, Mark; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques — including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry — can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. Conclusions/Significance The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition

  1. Fabrication, physicochemical characterization and preliminary efficacy evaluation of a W/O/W multiple emulsion loaded with 5% green tea extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Mahmood

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex multiple emulsions have an excellent ability to fill large volumes of functional cosmetic agents. This study was aimed to encapsulate large volume of green tea in classical multiple emulsion and to compare its stability with a multiple emulsion without green tea extract. Multiple emulsions were developed using Cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and classic polysorbate-80 as hydrophilic emulsifier. Multiple emulsions were evaluated for various physicochemical aspects like conductivity, pH, microscopic analysis, rheology and these characteristics were followed for a period of 30 days in different storage conditions. In vitro and in vivo skin protection tests were also performed for both kinds of multiple emulsions i.e. with active (MeA and without active (MeB. Both formulations showed comparable characteristics regarding various physicochemical characteristics in different storage conditions. Rheological analysis showed that formulations showed pseudo plastic behavior upon continuous shear stress. Results of in vitro and in vivo skin protection data have revealed that the active formulation has comparable skin protection effects to that of control formulation. It was presumed that stable multiple emulsions could be a promising choice for topical application of green tea but multiple emulsions presented in this study need improvement in the formula, concluded on the basis of pH, conductivity and apparent viscosity data.

  2. Multiple time-scale optimization scheduling for islanded microgrids including PV, wind turbine, diesel generator and batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Nan, Jiakai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    A multiple time-scale optimization scheduling including day ahead and short time for an islanded microgrid is presented. In this paper, the microgrid under study includes photovoltaics (PV), wind turbine (WT), diesel generator (DG), batteries, and shiftable loads. The study considers the maximum...... efficiency operation area for the diesel engine and the cost of the battery charge/discharge cycle losses. The day-ahead generation scheduling takes into account the minimum operational cost and the maximum load satisfaction as the objective function. Short-term optimal dispatch is based on minimizing...

  3. Page segmentation and text extraction from gray-scale images in microfilm format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Tan, Chew Lim

    2000-12-01

    The paper deals with a suitably designed system that is being used to separate textual regions from graphics regions and locate textual data from textured background. We presented a method based on edge detection to automatically locate text in some noise infected grayscale newspaper images with microfilm format. The algorithm first finds the appropriate edges of textual region using Canny edge detector, and then by edge merging it makes use of edge features to do block segmentation and classification, afterwards feature aided connected component analysis was used to group homogeneous textual regions together within the scope of its bounding box. We can obtain an efficient block segmentation with reduced memory size by introducing the TLC. The proposed method has been used to locate text in a group of newspaper images with multiple page layout. Initial results are encouraging, we would expand the experiment data to over 300 microfilm images with different layout structures, promising result is anticipated with corresponding modification on the prototype of former algorithm to make it more robust and suitable to different cases.

  4. Modelling of multiple short-length-scale stall cells in an axial compressor using evolved GMDH neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanifard, N.; Nariman-Zadeh, N.; Farahani, M.H.; Khalkhali, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 15 years there have been several research efforts to capture the stall inception nature in axial flow compressors. However previous analytical models could not explain the formation of short-length-scale stall cells. This paper provides a new model based on evolved GMDH neural network for transient evolution of multiple short-length-scale stall cells in an axial compressor. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are also employed for optimal design of connectivity configuration of such GMDH-type neural networks. In this way, low-pass filter (LPF) pressure trace near the rotor leading edge is modelled with respect to the variation of pressure coefficient, flow rate coefficient, and number of rotor rotations which are defined as inputs

  5. Multiple linear regression to develop strength scaled equations for knee and elbow joints based on age, gender and segment mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Souza, Sonia; Rasmussen, John; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    and valuable ergonomic tool. Objective: To investigate age and gender effects on the torque-producing ability in the knee and elbow in older adults. To create strength scaled equations based on age, gender, upper/lower limb lengths and masses using multiple linear regression. To reduce the number of dependent...... flexors. Results: Males were signifantly stronger than females across all age groups. Elbow peak torque (EPT) was better preserved from 60s to 70s whereas knee peak torque (KPT) reduced significantly (PGender, thigh mass and age best...... predicted KPT (R2=0.60). Gender, forearm mass and age best predicted EPT (R2=0.75). Good crossvalidation was established for both elbow and knee models. Conclusion: This cross-sectional study of muscle strength created and validated strength scaled equations of EPT and KPT using only gender, segment mass...

  6. Precipitation-productivity Relation in Grassland in Northern China: Investigations at Multiple Spatiotemporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to cause dramatic variability in precipitation regime, not only in terms of change in annual precipitation amount, but also in precipitation seasonal distribution and precipitation event characteristics (high frenquency extrem precipitation, larger but fewer precipitation events), which combined to influence productivity of grassland in arid and semiarid regions. In this study, combining remote sensing products with in-situ measurements of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance system in grassland of northern China, we quantified the effects of spatio-temporal vairation in precipitation on productivity from local sites to region scale. We found that, for an individual precipitation event, the duration of GPP-response to the individual precipitation event and the maximum absolute GPP response induced by the individual precipitation event increased linearly with the size of precipitation events. Comparison of the productivity-precipitation relationships between multi-sites determined that the predominant characteristics of precipitation events (PEC) that affected GPP differed remarkably between the water-limited temperate steppe and the temperature-limited alpine meadow. The number of heavy precipitation events (>10 mm d-1) was the most important PEC to impact GPP in the temperate steppe through affecting soil moisture at different soil profiles, while precipitation interval was the factor that affected GPP most in the alpine meadow via its effects on temperature. At the region scale, shape of ANPP-precipitation relationship varies with distinct spatial scales, and besides annual precipitation, precipitation seasonal distribution also has comparable impacts on spatial variation in ANPP. Temporal variability in ANPP was lower at both the dry and wet end, and peaked at a precipitation of 243.1±3.5mm, which is the transition region between typical steppe and desert steppe

  7. Multiple metals exposure in a small-scale artisanal gold mining community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Nam, Dong-Ha; Kwansaa-Ansah, Edward; Renne, Elisha P; Nriagu, Jerome O

    2011-04-01

    Urinary metals were characterized in 57 male residents of a small-scale gold mining community in Ghana. Chromium and arsenic exceeded health guideline values for 52% and 34%, respectively, of all participants. About 10-40% of the participants had urinary levels of aluminum, copper, manganese, nickel, selenium, and zinc that fell outside the U.S. reference range. Exposures appear ubiquitous across the community as none of the elements were associated with occupation, age, and diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous micro-electromembrane extractions of anions and cations using multiple free liquid membranes and acceptor solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 908, FEB (2016), s. 113-120 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : free liquid membranes * micro-electromembrane extraction * simultaneous extractions Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  9. Simultaneous micro-electromembrane extractions of anions and cations using multiple free liquid membranes and acceptor solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 908, FEB (2016), s. 113-120 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : free liquid membranes * micro-electromembrane extraction * simultaneous extractions Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  10. Practice-oriented optical thin film growth simulation via multiple scale approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turowski, Marcus, E-mail: m.turowski@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, Hannover 30419 (Germany); Jupé, Marco [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, Hannover 30419 (Germany); QUEST: Centre of Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany); Melzig, Thomas [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films IST, Bienroder Weg 54e, Braunschweig 30108 (Germany); Moskovkin, Pavel [Research Centre for Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 rue de Bruxelles, Namur 5000 (Belgium); Daniel, Alain [Centre for Research in Metallurgy, CRM, 21 Avenue du bois Saint Jean, Liège 4000 (Belgium); Pflug, Andreas [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films IST, Bienroder Weg 54e, Braunschweig 30108 (Germany); Lucas, Stéphane [Research Centre for Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 rue de Bruxelles, Namur 5000 (Belgium); Ristau, Detlev [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, Hannover 30419 (Germany); QUEST: Centre of Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Simulation of the coating process is a very promising approach for the understanding of thin film formation. Nevertheless, this complex matter cannot be covered by a single simulation technique. To consider all mechanisms and processes influencing the optical properties of the growing thin films, various common theoretical methods have been combined to a multi-scale model approach. The simulation techniques have been selected in order to describe all processes in the coating chamber, especially the various mechanisms of thin film growth, and to enable the analysis of the resulting structural as well as optical and electronic layer properties. All methods are merged with adapted communication interfaces to achieve optimum compatibility of the different approaches and to generate physically meaningful results. The present contribution offers an approach for the full simulation of an Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) coating process combining direct simulation Monte Carlo, classical molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo, and density functional theory. The simulation is performed exemplary for an existing IBS-coating plant to achieve a validation of the developed multi-scale approach. Finally, the modeled results are compared to experimental data. - Highlights: • A model approach for simulating an Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) process is presented. • In order to combine the different techniques, optimized interfaces are developed. • The transport of atomic species in the coating chamber is calculated. • We modeled structural and optical film properties based on simulated IBS parameter. • The modeled and the experimental refractive index data fit very well.

  11. Exploring the brain on multiple scales with correlative two-photon and light sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2014-02-01

    One of the unique features of the brain is that its activity cannot be framed in a single spatio-temporal scale, but rather spans many orders of magnitude both in space and time. A single imaging technique can reveal only a small part of this complex machinery. To obtain a more comprehensive view of brain functionality, complementary approaches should be combined into a correlative framework. Here, we describe a method to integrate data from in vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging and ex vivo light sheet microscopy, taking advantage of blood vessels as reference chart. We show how the apical dendritic arbor of a single cortical pyramidal neuron imaged in living thy1-GFP-M mice can be found in the large-scale brain reconstruction obtained with light sheet microscopy. Starting from the apical portion, the whole pyramidal neuron can then be segmented. The correlative approach presented here allows contextualizing within a three-dimensional anatomic framework the neurons whose dynamics have been observed with high detail in vivo.

  12. Autonomous management of a recursive area hierarchy for large scale wireless sensor networks using multiple parents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan Vee [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Delgado-Frias, Jose [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Large scale wireless sensor networks have been proposed for applications ranging from anomaly detection in an environment to vehicle tracking. Many of these applications require the networks to be distributed across a large geographic area while supporting three to five year network lifetimes. In order to support these requirements large scale wireless sensor networks of duty-cycled devices need a method of efficient and effective autonomous configuration/maintenance. This method should gracefully handle the synchronization tasks duty-cycled networks. Further, an effective configuration solution needs to recognize that in-network data aggregation and analysis presents significant benefits to wireless sensor network and should configure the network in a way such that said higher level functions benefit from the logically imposed structure. NOA, the proposed configuration and maintenance protocol, provides a multi-parent hierarchical logical structure for the network that reduces the synchronization workload. It also provides higher level functions with significant inherent benefits such as but not limited to: removing network divisions that are created by single-parent hierarchies, guarantees for when data will be compared in the hierarchy, and redundancies for communication as well as in-network data aggregation/analysis/storage.

  13. Measuring Multiple Minority Stress: The LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Molina, Yamile; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane; Walters, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals who are also racial/ethnic minorities (LGBT-POC) are a multiply marginalized population subject to microaggressions associated with both racism and heterosexism. To date, research on this population has been hampered by the lack of a measurement tool to assess the unique experiences associated with the intersection of these oppressions. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a three-phase, mixed method empirical study to assess microaggressions among LGBT-POC. The LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale is an 18-item self-report scale assessing the unique types of microaggressions experienced by ethnic minority LGBT adults. The measure includes three subscales: (a) Racism in LGBT communities, (b) Heterosexism in Racial/Ethnic Minority Communities, and (c) Racism in Dating and Close Relationships, that are theoretically consistent with prior literature on racial/ethnic minority LGBTs and have strong psychometric properties including internal consistency and construct validity in terms of correlations with measures of psychological distress and LGBT-identity variables. Men scored higher on the LGBT-PCMS than women, lesbians and gay men scored higher than bisexual women and men, and Asian Americans scored higher than African Americans and Latina/os. PMID:21604840

  14. Ward identities and consistency relations for the large scale structure with multiple species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloso, Marco; Pietroni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We present fully nonlinear consistency relations for the squeezed bispectrum of Large Scale Structure. These relations hold when the matter component of the Universe is composed of one or more species, and generalize those obtained in [1,2] in the single species case. The multi-species relations apply to the standard dark matter + baryons scenario, as well as to the case in which some of the fields are auxiliary quantities describing a particular population, such as dark matter halos or a specific galaxy class. If a large scale velocity bias exists between the different populations new terms appear in the consistency relations with respect to the single species case. As an illustration, we discuss two physical cases in which such a velocity bias can exist: (1) a new long range scalar force in the dark matter sector (resulting in a violation of the equivalence principle in the dark matter-baryon system), and (2) the distribution of dark matter halos relative to that of the underlying dark matter field

  15. Habitat selection by Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) at multiple spatial scales in an urbanized estuary: The importance of salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluso-Demers, Jill; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Peterson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The highly urbanized San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA, is currently undergoing large-scale habitat restoration, and several thousand hectares of former salt evaporation ponds are being converted to tidal marsh. To identify potential effects of this habitat restoration on breeding waterbirds, habitat selection of radiotagged Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) was examined at multiple spatial scales during the pre-breeding and breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006. At each spatial scale, habitat selection ratios were calculated by season, year, and sex. Forster's Terns selected salt pond habitats at most spatial scales and demonstrated the importance of salt ponds for foraging and roosting. Salinity influenced the types of salt pond habitats that were selected. Specifically, Forster's Terns strongly selected lower salinity salt ponds (0.5–30 g/L) and generally avoided higher salinity salt ponds (≥31 g/L). Forster's Terns typically used tidal marsh and managed marsh habitats in proportion to their availability, avoided upland and tidal flat habitats, and strongly avoided open bay habitats. Salt ponds provide important habitat for breeding waterbirds, and restoration efforts to convert former salt ponds to tidal marsh may reduce the availability of preferred breeding and foraging areas.

  16. Techniques for extracting single-trial activity patterns from large-scale neural recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Mark M; Yu, Byron M; Sahani, Maneesh; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2008-01-01

    Summary Large, chronically-implanted arrays of microelectrodes are an increasingly common tool for recording from primate cortex, and can provide extracellular recordings from many (order of 100) neurons. While the desire for cortically-based motor prostheses has helped drive their development, such arrays also offer great potential to advance basic neuroscience research. Here we discuss the utility of array recording for the study of neural dynamics. Neural activity often has dynamics beyond that driven directly by the stimulus. While governed by those dynamics, neural responses may nevertheless unfold differently for nominally identical trials, rendering many traditional analysis methods ineffective. We review recent studies – some employing simultaneous recording, some not – indicating that such variability is indeed present both during movement generation, and during the preceding premotor computations. In such cases, large-scale simultaneous recordings have the potential to provide an unprecedented view of neural dynamics at the level of single trials. However, this enterprise will depend not only on techniques for simultaneous recording, but also on the use and further development of analysis techniques that can appropriately reduce the dimensionality of the data, and allow visualization of single-trial neural behavior. PMID:18093826

  17. Fish scale terrace GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes with enhanced light extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Christoph J. M.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Zhao, Liang; Paskova, Tanya; Preble, Edward A.; Wetzel, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Non-planar GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes were epitaxially grown to exhibit steps for enhanced light emission. By means of a large off-cut of the epitaxial growth plane from the c-plane (0.06° to 2.24°), surface morphologies of steps and inclined terraces that resemble fish scale patterns could controllably be achieved. These patterns penetrate the active region without deteriorating the electrical device performance. We find conditions leading to a large increase in light-output power over the virtually on-axis device and over planar sapphire references. The process is found suitable to enhance light extraction even without post-growth processing.

  18. Potential environmental impact of tidal energy extraction in the Pentland Firth at large spatial scales: results of a biogeochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Johan; Ruardij, Piet; Greenwood, Naomi

    2016-05-01

    A model study was carried out of the potential large-scale (> 100 km) effects of marine renewable tidal energy generation in the Pentland Firth, using the 3-D hydrodynamics-biogeochemistry model GETM-ERSEM-BFM. A realistic 800 MW scenario and a high-impact scenario with massive expansion of tidal energy extraction to 8 GW scenario were considered. The realistic 800 MW scenario suggested minor effects on the tides, and undetectable effects on the biogeochemistry. The massive-expansion 8 GW scenario suggested effects would be observed over hundreds of kilometres away with changes of up to 10 % in tidal and ecosystem variables, in particular in a broad area in the vicinity of the Wash. There, waters became less turbid, and primary production increased with associated increases in faunal ecosystem variables. Moreover, a one-off increase in carbon storage in the sea bed was detected. Although these first results suggest positive environmental effects, further investigation is recommended of (i) the residual circulation in the vicinity of the Pentland Firth and effects on larval dispersal using a higher-resolution model and (ii) ecosystem effects with (future) state-of-the-art models if energy extraction substantially beyond 1 GW is planned.

  19. Perspective: Differential dynamic microscopy extracts multi-scale activity in complex fluids and biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, Roberto; Cicuta, Pietro

    2017-09-01

    Differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) is a technique that exploits optical microscopy to obtain local, multi-scale quantitative information about dynamic samples, in most cases without user intervention. It is proving extremely useful in understanding dynamics in liquid suspensions, soft materials, cells, and tissues. In DDM, image sequences are analyzed via a combination of image differences and spatial Fourier transforms to obtain information equivalent to that obtained by means of light scattering techniques. Compared to light scattering, DDM offers obvious advantages, principally (a) simplicity of the setup; (b) possibility of removing static contributions along the optical path; (c) power of simultaneous different microscopy contrast mechanisms; and (d) flexibility of choosing an analysis region, analogous to a scattering volume. For many questions, DDM has also advantages compared to segmentation/tracking approaches and to correlation techniques like particle image velocimetry. The very straightforward DDM approach, originally demonstrated with bright field microscopy of aqueous colloids, has lately been used to probe a variety of other complex fluids and biological systems with many different imaging methods, including dark-field, differential interference contrast, wide-field, light-sheet, and confocal microscopy. The number of adopting groups is rapidly increasing and so are the applications. Here, we briefly recall the working principles of DDM, we highlight its advantages and limitations, we outline recent experimental breakthroughs, and we provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. DDM can become a standard primary tool in every laboratory equipped with a microscope, at the very least as a first bias-free automated evaluation of the dynamics in a system.

  20. Using Multiple Regression in Estimating (semi) VOC Emissions and Concentrations at the European Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Pistocchi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    chemicals available in the European Chemicals Bureau risk assessment reports (RARs). The method suggests a simple linear relationship between Henry's Law constant, octanol-water coefficient, use and production volumes, and emissions and PECs on a regional scale in the European Union. Emissions and PECs......This paper proposes a simple method for estimating emissions and predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) in water and air for organic chemicals that are used in household products and industrial processes. The method has been tested on existing data for 63 organic high-production volume...... are a result of a complex interaction between chemical properties, production and use patterns and geographical characteristics. A linear relationship cannot capture these complexities; however, it may be applied at a cost-efficient screening level for suggesting critical chemicals that are candidates...

  1. Evaluation of the treatment efficacy of patients with multiple sclerosis using Barthel index and Expanded Disability Status Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Tanovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, autoimmune and progressive multifocal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis using BI (Barthel index and EDDS (Expanded Disability Status Scale.Methods: A clinical observational study was made at the clinic for physical medicine and rehabilitation in Sarajevo. We analyzed 49 patients with MS in relation of gender, age and level of disability at admission and discharge, patient disability were estimated using EDDS scale. The ability of patients in their activities of daily living were also analyzed according to the BI at admission and discharge.Results: Of the total number of patients (n=49 there were 15 men and 34 women. The average age of female patient was 42.38±13.48 and male patient 46.06±9.56. EDDS values were significantly different at the beginning and at the end of the therapy (p=0.001 as was the value of BI (p=0.001.Conclusion: MS patients, after the rehabilitation in hospital conditions show significant recovery and a reduced level of disability; they show higher independence in activities but rehabilitation demands individual approach and adjustment with what patients are currently capable of achieving.

  2. A neuromorphic implementation of multiple spike-timing synaptic plasticity rules for large-scale neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runchun Mark Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a neuromorphic implementation of multiple synaptic plasticity learning rules, which include both Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP and Spike Timing Dependent Delay Plasticity (STDDP. We present a fully digital implementation as well as a mixed-signal implementation, both of which use a novel dynamic-assignment time-multiplexing approach and support up to 2^26 (64M synaptic plasticity elements. Rather than implementing dedicated synapses for particular types of synaptic plasticity, we implemented a more generic synaptic plasticity adaptor array that is separate from the neurons in the neural network. Each adaptor performs synaptic plasticity according to the arrival times of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes assigned to it, and sends out a weighted and/or delayed pre-synaptic spike to the target synapse in the neural network. This strategy provides great flexibility for building complex large-scale neural networks, as a neural network can be configured for multiple synaptic plasticity rules without changing its structure. We validate the proposed neuromorphic implementations with measurement results and illustrate that the circuits are capable of performing both STDP and STDDP. We argue that it is practical to scale the work presented here up to 2^36 (64G synaptic adaptors on a current high-end FPGA platform.

  3. Coordinated learning of grid cell and place cell spatial and temporal properties: multiple scales, attention and oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Pilly, Praveen K

    2014-02-05

    A neural model proposes how entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells may develop as spatial categories in a hierarchy of self-organizing maps (SOMs). The model responds to realistic rat navigational trajectories by learning both grid cells with hexagonal grid firing fields of multiple spatial scales, and place cells with one or more firing fields, that match neurophysiological data about their development in juvenile rats. Both grid and place cells can develop by detecting, learning and remembering the most frequent and energetic co-occurrences of their inputs. The model's parsimonious properties include: similar ring attractor mechanisms process linear and angular path integration inputs that drive map learning; the same SOM mechanisms can learn grid cell and place cell receptive fields; and the learning of the dorsoventral organization of multiple spatial scale modules through medial entorhinal cortex to hippocampus (HC) may use mechanisms homologous to those for temporal learning through lateral entorhinal cortex to HC ('neural relativity'). The model clarifies how top-down HC-to-entorhinal attentional mechanisms may stabilize map learning, simulates how hippocampal inactivation may disrupt grid cells, and explains data about theta, beta and gamma oscillations. The article also compares the three main types of grid cell models in the light of recent data.

  4. Epilobium angustifolium extract demonstrates multiple effects on dermal fibroblasts in vitro and skin photo-protection in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszová, Ema; Cheel, José; Pávek, Stanislav; Moravcová, Martina; Hermannová, Martina; Matějková, Ilona; Spilková, Jiřina; Velebný, Vladimír; Kubala, Lukáš

    2013-09-01

    Stress-induced fibroblast senescence is thought to contribute to skin aging. Ultraviolet light (UV) radiation is the most potent environmental risk factor in these processes. An Epilobium angustifolium (EA) extract was evaluated for its capacity to reverse the senescent response of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro and to exhibit skin photo-protection in vivo. The HPLC-UV-MS analysis of the EA preparation identified three major polyphenol groups: tannins (oenothein B), phenolic acids (gallic and chlorogenic acids) and flavonoids. EA extract increased the cell viability of senescent NHDF induced by serum deprivation. It diminished connective tissue growth factor and fibronectin gene expressions in senescent NHDF. Down-regulation of the UV-induced release of both matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3 and the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -2, and also down-regulation of the gene expression of hyaluronidase 2 were observed in repeatedly UV-irradiated NHDF after EA extract treatment. Interestingly, EA extract diminished the down-regulation of sirtuin 1 dampened by UV-irradiation. The application of EA extract using a sub-irritating dose protected skin against UV-induced erythema formation in vivo. In summary, EA extract diminished stress-induced effects on NHDF, particularly on connective tissue growth factor, fibronectin and matrix metalloproteinases. These results collectively suggest that EA extract may possess anti-aging properties and that the EA polyphenols might account for these benefits.

  5. Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for Large-Scale 5G Networks: Interference Aware Design

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2017-09-18

    Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is promoted as a key component of 5G cellular networks. As the name implies, NOMA operation introduces intracell interference (i.e., interference arising within the cell) to the cellular operation. The intracell interference is managed by careful NOMA design (e.g., user clustering and resource allocation) along with successive interference cancellation. However, most of the proposed NOMA designs are agnostic to intercell interference (i.e., interference from outside the cell), which is a major performance limiting parameter in 5G networks. This article sheds light on the drastic negative-impact of intercell interference on the NOMA performance and advocates interference-aware NOMA design that jointly accounts for both intracell and intercell interference. To this end, a case study for fair NOMA operation is presented and intercell interference mitigation techniques for NOMA networks are discussed. This article also investigates the potential of integrating NOMA with two important 5G transmission schemes, namely, full duplex and device-to-device communication. This is important since the ambitious performance defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for 5G is foreseen to be realized via seamless integration of several new technologies and transmission techniques.

  6. Rehabilitation-triggered cortical plasticity after stroke: in vivo imaging at multiple scales (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Conti, Emilia; Lai, Stefano; Spalletti, Cristina; Di Giovanna, Antonino Paolo; Alia, Claudia; Panarese, Alessandro; Sacconi, Leonardo; Micera, Silvestro; Caleo, Matteo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2017-02-01

    Neurorehabilitation protocols based on the use of robotic devices provide a highly repeatable therapy and have recently shown promising clinical results. Little is known about how rehabilitation molds the brain to promote motor recovery of the affected limb. We used a custom-made robotic platform that provides quantitative assessment of forelimb function in a retraction test. Complementary imaging techniques allowed us to access to the multiple facets of robotic rehabilitation-induced cortical plasticity after unilateral photothrombotic stroke in mice Primary Motor Cortex (Caudal Forelimb Area - CFA). First, we analyzed structural features of vasculature and dendritic reshaping in the peri-infarct area with two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Longitudinal analysis of dendritic branches and spines of pyramidal neurons suggests that robotic rehabilitation promotes the stabilization of peri-infarct cortical excitatory circuits, which is not accompanied by consistent vascular reorganization towards pre-stroke conditions. To investigate if this structural stabilization was linked to functional remapping, we performed mesoscale wide-field imaging on GCaMP6 mice while performing the motor task on the robotic platform. We revealed temporal and spatial features of the motor-triggered cortical activation, shining new light on rehabilitation-induced functional remapping of the ipsilesional cortex. Finally, by using an all-optical approach that combines optogenetic activation of the contralesional hemisphere and wide-field functional imaging of peri-infarct area, we dissected the effect of robotic rehabilitation on inter-hemispheric cortico-cortical connectivity.

  7. Multiple Skills Underlie Arithmetic Performance: A Large-Scale Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Ashkenazi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Current theoretical approaches point to the importance of several cognitive skills not specific to mathematics for the etiology of mathematics disorders (MD. In the current study, we examined the role of many of these skills, specifically: rapid automatized naming, attention, reading, and visual perception, on mathematics performance among a large group of college students (N = 1,322 with a wide range of arithmetic proficiency. Using factor analysis, we discovered that our data clustered to four latent variables 1 mathematics, 2 perception speed, 3 attention and 4 reading. In subsequent structural equation modeling, we found that the latent variable perception speed had a strong and meaningful effect on mathematics performance. Moreover, sustained attention, independent from the effect of the latent variable perception speed, had a meaningful, direct effect on arithmetic fact retrieval and procedural knowledge. The latent variable reading had a modest effect on mathematics performance. Specifically, reading comprehension, independent from the effect of the latent variable reading, had a meaningful direct effect on mathematics, and particularly on number line knowledge. Attention, tested by the attention network test, had no effect on mathematics, reading or perception speed. These results indicate that multiple factors can affect mathematics performance supporting a heterogeneous approach to mathematics. These results have meaningful implications for the diagnosis and intervention of pure and comorbid learning disorders.

  8. Determination of the QCD color factor ratio CA/CF from the scale dependence of multiplicity in three jet events

    CERN Document Server

    Gary, J W

    2000-01-01

    I examine the determination of the QCD color factor ratio CA/CF from the scale evolution of particle multiplicity in e+e- three jet events. I fit an analytic expression for the multiplicity in three jet events to event samples generated with QCD multihadronic event generators. I demonstrate that a one parameter fit of CA/CF yields the expected result CA/CF=2.25 in the limit of asymptotically large energies if energy conservation is included in the calculation. In contrast, a two parameter fit of CA/CF and a constant offset to the gluon jet multiplicity, proposed in a recent study, does not yield CA/CF=2.25 in this limit. I apply the one parameter fit method to recently published data of the DELPHI experiment at LEP and determine the effective value of CA/CF from this technique, at the finite energy of the Z0 boson, to be 1.74+-0.03+-0.10, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  9. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  10. Understanding the Patterns and Drivers of Air Pollution on Multiple Time Scales: The Case of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yupeng; Wu, Jianguo; Yu, Deyong; Hao, Ruifang

    2018-06-01

    China's rapid economic growth during the past three decades has resulted in a number of environmental problems, including the deterioration of air quality. It is necessary to better understand how the spatial pattern of air pollutants varies with time scales and what drive these changes. To address these questions, this study focused on one of the most heavily air-polluted areas in North China. We first quantified the spatial pattern of air pollution, and then systematically examined the relationships of air pollution to several socioeconomic and climatic factors using the constraint line method, correlation analysis, and stepwise regression on decadal, annual, and seasonal scales. Our results indicate that PM2.5 was the dominant air pollutant in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, while PM2.5 and PM10 were both important pollutants in the Agro-pastoral Transitional Zone (APTZ) region. Our statistical analyses suggest that energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) in the industry were the most important factors for air pollution on the decadal scale, but the impacts of climatic factors could also be significant. On the annual and seasonal scales, high wind speed, low relative humidity, and long sunshine duration constrained PM2.5 accumulation; low wind speed and high relative humidity constrained PM10 accumulation; and short sunshine duration and high wind speed constrained O3 accumulation. Our study showed that analyses on multiple temporal scales are not only necessary to determine key drivers of air pollution, but also insightful for understanding the spatial patterns of air pollution, which was important for urban planning and air pollution control.

  11. Multiple Scales of Control on the Structure and Spatial Distribution of Woody Vegetation in African Savanna Watersheds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Vaughn

    Full Text Available Factors controlling savanna woody vegetation structure vary at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and as a consequence, unraveling their combined effects has proven to be a classic challenge in savanna ecology. We used airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging to map three-dimensional woody vegetation structure throughout four savanna watersheds, each contrasting in geologic substrate and climate, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. By comparison of the four watersheds, we found that geologic substrate had a stronger effect than climate in determining watershed-scale differences in vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density. Generalized Linear Models were used to assess the spatial distribution of woody vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density, in relation to mapped hydrologic, topographic and fire history traits. For each substrate and climate combination, models incorporating topography, hydrology and fire history explained up to 30% of the remaining variation in woody canopy structure, but inclusion of a spatial autocovariate term further improved model performance. Both crown density and the cover of shorter woody canopies were determined more by unknown factors likely to be changing on smaller spatial scales, such as soil texture, herbivore abundance or fire behavior, than by our mapped regional-scale changes in topography and hydrology. We also detected patterns in spatial covariance at distances up to 50-450 m, depending on watershed and structural metric. Our results suggest that large-scale environmental factors play a smaller role than is often attributed to them in determining woody vegetation structure in southern African savannas. This highlights the need for more spatially-explicit, wide-area analyses using high resolution remote sensing techniques.

  12. Application of Item Response Theory to Modeling of Expanded Disability Status Scale in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, A M; Krekels, E H J; Munafo, A; Ueckert, S; Karlsson, M O

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the development of the first item response theory (IRT) model within a pharmacometrics framework to characterize the disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS), as measured by Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS). Data were collected quarterly from a 96-week phase III clinical study by a blinder rater, involving 104,206 item-level observations from 1319 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), treated with placebo or cladribine. Observed scores for each EDSS item were modeled describing the probability of a given score as a function of patients' (unobserved) disability using a logistic model. Longitudinal data from placebo arms were used to describe the disease progression over time, and the model was then extended to cladribine arms to characterize the drug effect. Sensitivity with respect to patient disability was calculated as Fisher information for each EDSS item, which were ranked according to the amount of information they contained. The IRT model was able to describe baseline and longitudinal EDSS data on item and total level. The final model suggested that cladribine treatment significantly slows disease-progression rate, with a 20% decrease in disease-progression rate compared to placebo, irrespective of exposure, and effects an additional exposure-dependent reduction in disability progression. Four out of eight items contained 80% of information for the given range of disabilities. This study has illustrated that IRT modeling is specifically suitable for accurate quantification of disease status and description and prediction of disease progression in phase 3 studies on RRMS, by integrating EDSS item-level data in a meaningful manner.

  13. Uncertainty analysis of multiple canister repository model by large-scale calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Okuda, H.; Ahn, J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype uncertainty analysis has been made by using the multiple-canister radionuclide transport code, VR, for performance assessment for the high-level radioactive waste repository. Fractures in the host rock determine main conduit of groundwater, and thus significantly affect the magnitude of radionuclide release rates from the repository. In this study, the probability distribution function (PDF) for the number of connected canisters in the same fracture cluster that bears water flow has been determined in a Monte-Carlo fashion by running the FFDF code with assumed PDFs for fracture geometry. The uncertainty for the release rate of 237 Np from a hypothetical repository containing 100 canisters has been quantitatively evaluated by using the VR code with PDFs for the number of connected canisters and the near field rock porosity. The calculation results show that the mass transport is greatly affected by (1) the magnitude of the radionuclide source determined by the number of connected canisters by the fracture cluster, and (2) the canister concentration effect in the same fracture network. The results also show the two conflicting tendencies that the more fractures in the repository model space, the greater average value but the smaller uncertainty of the peak fractional release rate is. To perform a vast amount of calculation, we have utilized the Earth Simulator and SR8000. The multi-level hybrid programming method is applied in the optimization to exploit high performance of the Earth Simulator. The Latin Hypercube Sampling has been utilized to reduce the number of samplings in Monte-Carlo calculation. (authors)

  14. GEMMER: GEnome-wide tool for Multi-scale Modeling data Extraction and Representation for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondeel, Thierry D G A; Crémazy, Frédéric; Barberis, Matteo

    2018-02-01

    Multi-scale modeling of biological systems requires integration of various information about genes and proteins that are connected together in networks. Spatial, temporal and functional information is available; however, it is still a challenge to retrieve and explore this knowledge in an integrated, quick and user-friendly manner. We present GEMMER (GEnome-wide tool for Multi-scale Modelling data Extraction and Representation), a web-based data-integration tool that facilitates high quality visualization of physical, regulatory and genetic interactions between proteins/genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. GEMMER creates network visualizations that integrate information on function, temporal expression, localization and abundance from various existing databases. GEMMER supports modeling efforts by effortlessly gathering this information and providing convenient export options for images and their underlying data. GEMMER is freely available at http://gemmer.barberislab.com. Source code, written in Python, JavaScript library D3js, PHP and JSON, is freely available at https://github.com/barberislab/GEMMER. M.Barberis@uva.nl. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Linear time algorithms to construct populations fitting multiple constraint distributions at genomic scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siragusa, Enrico; Haiminen, Niina; Utro, Filippo; Parida, Laxmi

    2017-10-09

    Computer simulations can be used to study population genetic methods, models and parameters, as well as to predict potential outcomes. For example, in plant populations, predicting the outcome of breeding operations can be studied using simulations. In-silico construction of populations with pre-specified characteristics is an important task in breeding optimization and other population genetic studies. We present two linear time Simulation using Best-fit Algorithms (SimBA) for two classes of problems where each co-fits two distributions: SimBA-LD fits linkage disequilibrium and minimum allele frequency distributions, while SimBA-hap fits founder-haplotype and polyploid allele dosage distributions. An incremental gap-filling version of previously introduced SimBA-LD is here demonstrated to accurately fit the target distributions, allowing efficient large scale simulations. SimBA-hap accuracy and efficiency is demonstrated by simulating tetraploid populations with varying numbers of founder haplotypes, we evaluate both a linear time greedy algoritm and an optimal solution based on mixed-integer programming. SimBA is available on http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/project/5669.

  16. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A.; Ferreira, Joice; Barlow, Jos; Lees, Alexander C.; Parry, Luke; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Berenguer, Erika; Abramovay, Ricardo; Aleixo, Alexandre; Andretti, Christian; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Araújo, Ivanei; de Ávila, Williams Souza; Bardgett, Richard D.; Batistella, Mateus; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Beldini, Troy; de Blas, Driss Ezzine; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Braga, Danielle de Lima; de Brito, Janaína Gomes; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Campos dos Santos, Fabiane; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Cordeiro, Amanda Cardoso Nunes; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Carvalho, Déborah Reis; Castelani, Sergio André; Chaul, Júlio Cézar Mário; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Costa, Francisco de Assis; da Costa, Carla Daniele Furtado; Coudel, Emilie; Coutinho, Alexandre Camargo; Cunha, Dênis; D'Antona, Álvaro; Dezincourt, Joelma; Dias-Silva, Karina; Durigan, Mariana; Esquerdo, Júlio César Dalla Mora; Feres, José; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Ferreira, Amanda Estefânia de Melo; Fiorini, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Lenise Vargas Flores; Frazão, Fábio Soares; Garrett, Rachel; Gomes, Alessandra dos Santos; Gonçalves, Karoline da Silva; Guerrero, José Benito; Hamada, Neusa; Hughes, Robert M.; Igliori, Danilo Carmago; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Juen, Leandro; Junior, Miércio; Junior, José Max Barbosa de Oliveira; Junior, Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Junior, Carlos Souza; Kaufmann, Phil; Korasaki, Vanesca; Leal, Cecília Gontijo; Leitão, Rafael; Lima, Natália; Almeida, Maria de Fátima Lopes; Lourival, Reinaldo; Louzada, Júlio; Nally, Ralph Mac; Marchand, Sébastien; Maués, Márcia Motta; Moreira, Fátima M. S.; Morsello, Carla; Moura, Nárgila; Nessimian, Jorge; Nunes, Sâmia; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Pardini, Renata; Pereira, Heloisa Correia; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Rossetti, Felipe; Schmidt, Fernando Augusto; da Silva, Rodrigo; da Silva, Regina Célia Viana Martins; da Silva, Thiago Fonseca Morello Ramalho; Silveira, Juliana; Siqueira, João Victor; de Carvalho, Teotônio Soares; Solar, Ricardo R. C.; Tancredi, Nicola Savério Holanda; Thomson, James R.; Torres, Patrícia Carignano; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Zagury; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Viana, Cecília; Weinhold, Diana; Zanetti, Ronald; Zuanon, Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here, we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multidisciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organizations working to assess both social and ecological dimensions of land-use sustainability in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The research approach adopted by RAS offers three advantages for addressing land-use sustainability problems: (i) the collection of synchronized and co-located ecological and socioeconomic data across broad gradients of past and present human use; (ii) a nested sampling design to aid comparison of ecological and socioeconomic conditions associated with different land uses across local, landscape and regional scales; and (iii) a strong engagement with a wide variety of actors and non-research institutions. Here, we elaborate on these key features, and identify the ways in which RAS can help in highlighting those problems in most urgent need of attention, and in guiding improvements in land-use sustainability in Amazonia and elsewhere in the tropics. We also discuss some of the practical lessons, limitations and realities faced during the development of the RAS initiative so far. PMID:23610172

  17. Derivation of Optimal Operating Rules for Large-scale Reservoir Systems Considering Multiple Trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Lei, X.; Liu, P.; Wang, H.; Li, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Flood control operation of multi-reservoir systems such as parallel reservoirs and hybrid reservoirs often suffer from complex interactions and trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream. The optimization of such systems is computationally intensive due to nonlinear storage curves, numerous constraints and complex hydraulic connections. This paper aims to derive the optimal flood control operating rules based on the trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream using a new algorithm known as weighted non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (WNSGA II). WNSGA II could locate the Pareto frontier in non-dominated region efficiently due to the directed searching by weighted crowding distance, and the results are compared with those of conventional operating rules (COR) and single objective genetic algorithm (GA). Xijiang river basin in China is selected as a case study, with eight reservoirs and five flood control sections within four tributaries and the mainstream. Furthermore, the effects of inflow uncertainty have been assessed. Results indicate that: (1) WNSGA II could locate the non-dominated solutions faster and provide better Pareto frontier than the traditional non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) due to the weighted crowding distance; (2) WNSGA II outperforms COR and GA on flood control in the whole basin; (3) The multi-objective operating rules from WNSGA II deal with the inflow uncertainties better than COR. Therefore, the WNSGA II can be used to derive stable operating rules for large-scale reservoir systems effectively and efficiently.

  18. Preliminary validation study of the Spanish version of the satisfaction with life scale in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Galán, Ingrid; Den Oudsten, Brenda L; Power, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    To assess Life Satisfaction, using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and to analyze its psychometric properties in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Persons with MS (n = 84) recruited at the MS Centre of Catalonia (Spain) completed a battery of subjective assessments including the SWLS, the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument and disability module (WHOQOL-BREF, WHOQOL-DIS) and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale-Depression (HADS-D); sociodemographic and disability status data were also gathered. Psychometric properties of the SWLS were investigated using standard psychometric methods. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient) was 0.84. A factor analysis using a principal components method showed a one factor structure accounting for 62.6% of the variance. Statistically significant correlations were confirmed between SWLS with WHOQOL-BREF, WHOQOL-DIS and HADS-D. SWLS scores were significantly different between a priori defined groups: probable depressed versus nondepressed and participants perceiving a mild versus severe impact of disability on their lives. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the psychometrics properties of the SWLS in persons with MS. It might be a valuable tool to use in appraising persons with MS through the continuum of care. The Spanish version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) is a reliable and valid instrument in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The SWLS is able to discriminate between participants with low or high scores on depressive symptoms or disability impact on life. SWLS might be useful through the continuum of care in persons with MS, including Rehabilitation Services.

  19. Climate change, livelihoods and the multiple determinants of water adequacy: two approaches at regional to global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Tabea; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Inadequate access to water is already a problem in many regions of the world and processes of global change are expected to further exacerbate the situation. Many aspects determine the adequacy of water resources: beside actual physical water stress, where the resource itself is limited, economic and social water stress can be experienced if access to resource is limited by inadequate infrastructure, political or financial constraints. To assess the adequacy of water availability for human use, integrated approaches are needed that allow to view the multiple determinants in conjunction and provide sound results as a basis for informed decisions. This contribution proposes two parts of an integrated approach to look at the multiple dimensions of water scarcity at regional to global scale. These were developed in a joint project with the German Development Agency (GIZ). It first outlines the AHEAD approach to measure Adequate Human livelihood conditions for wEll-being And Development, implemented at global scale and at national resolution. This first approach allows viewing impacts of climate change, e.g. changes in water availability, within the wider context of AHEAD conditions. A specific focus lies on the uncertainties in projections of climate change and future water availability. As adequate water access is not determined by water availability alone, in a second step we develop an approach to assess the water requirements for different sectors in more detail, including aspects of quantity, quality as well as access, in an integrated way. This more detailed approach is exemplified at region-scale in Indonesia and South Africa. Our results show that in many regions of the world, water scarcity is a limitation to AHEAD conditions in many countries, regardless of differing modelling output. The more detailed assessments highlight the relevance of additional aspects to assess the adequacy of water for human use, showing that in many regions, quality and

  20. The multiple sclerosis rating scale, revised (MSRS-R: Development, refinement, and psychometric validation using an online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wicks Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing the PatientsLikeMe online platform for patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS, we required a patient-reported assessment of functional status that was easy to complete and identified disability in domains other than walking. Existing measures of functional status were inadequate, clinician-reported, focused on walking, and burdensome to complete. In response, we developed the Multiple Sclerosis Rating Scale (MSRS. Methods We adapted a clinician-rated measure, the Guy’s Neurological Disability Scale, to a self-report scale and deployed it to an online community. As part of our validation process we reviewed discussions between patients, conducted patient cognitive debriefing, and made minor improvements to form a revised scale (MSRS-R before deploying a cross-sectional survey to patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS on the PatientsLikeMe platform. The survey included MSRS-R and comparator measures: MSIS-29, PDDS, NARCOMS Performance Scales, PRIMUS, and MSWS-12. Results In total, 816 RRMS patients responded (19% response rate. The MSRS-R exhibited high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .86. The MSRS-R walking item was highly correlated with alternative walking measures (PDDS, ρ = .84; MSWS-12, ρ = .83; NARCOMS mobility question, ρ = .86. MSRS-R correlated well with comparison instruments and differentiated between known groups by PDDS disease stage and relapse burden in the past two years. Factor analysis suggested a single factor accounting for 51.5% of variance. Conclusions The MSRS-R is a concise measure of MS-related functional disability, and may have advantages for disease measurement over longer and more burdensome instruments that are restricted to a smaller number of domains or measure quality of life. Studies are underway describing the use of the instrument in contexts outside our online platform such as clinical practice or trials. The MSRS-R is released for use under

  1. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: Analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Maguas, C.; Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A.; Branquinho, C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors. - The interpretation of lichen-biodiversity data was improved by using analysis at different scales

  2. An operational ensemble prediction system for catchment rainfall over eastern Africa spanning multiple temporal and spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, E. E.; Hopson, T. M.; Gebremichael, M.; Boehnert, J.; Broman, D.; Sampson, K. M.; Rostkier-Edelstein, D.; Collins, D. C.; Harshadeep, N. R.; Burke, E.; Havens, K.

    2017-12-01

    While it is not yet certain how precipitation patterns will change over Africa in the future, it is clear that effectively managing the available water resources is going to be crucial in order to mitigate the effects of water shortages and floods that are likely to occur in a changing climate. One component of effective water management is the availability of state-of-the-art and easy to use rainfall forecasts across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We present a web-based system for displaying and disseminating ensemble forecast and observed precipitation data over central and eastern Africa. The system provides multi-model rainfall forecasts integrated to relevant hydrological catchments for timescales ranging from one day to three months. A zoom-in features is available to access high resolution forecasts for small-scale catchments. Time series plots and data downloads with forecasts, recent rainfall observations and climatological data are available by clicking on individual catchments. The forecasts are calibrated using a quantile regression technique and an optimal multi-model forecast is provided at each timescale. The forecast skill at the various spatial and temporal scales will discussed, as will current applications of this tool for managing water resources in Sudan and optimizing hydropower operations in Ethiopia and Tanzania.

  3. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: Analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Maguas, C. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal (CEBV), 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Recursos Naturais e Ambiente (CERENA) Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Branquinho, C. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal (CEBV), 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors. - The interpretation of lichen-biodiversity data was improved by using analysis at different scales.

  4. The 7-item generalized anxiety disorder scale as a tool for measuring generalized anxiety in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Hartoonian, Narineh; Beier, Meghan; Salem, Rana; Alschuler, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) but understudied. Reliable and valid measures are needed to advance clinical care and expand research in this area. The objectives of this study were to examine the psychometric properties of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) in individuals with MS and to analyze correlates of GAD. Participants (N = 513) completed the anxiety module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (GAD-7). To evaluate psychometric properties of the GAD-7, the sample was randomly split to conduct exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Based on the exploratory factor analysis, a one-factor structure was specified for the confirmatory factor analysis, which showed excellent global fit to the data (χ(2) 12 = 15.17, P = .23, comparative fit index = 0.99, root mean square error of approximation = 0.03, standardized root mean square residual = 0.03). The Cronbach alpha (0.75) indicated acceptable internal consistency for the scale. Furthermore, the GAD-7 was highly correlated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (r = 0.70). Age and duration of MS were both negatively associated with GAD. Higher GAD-7 scores were observed in women and individuals with secondary progressive MS. Individuals with higher GAD-7 scores also endorsed more depressive symptoms. These findings support the reliability and internal validity of the GAD-7 for use in MS. Correlational analyses revealed important relationships with demographics, disease course, and depressive symptoms, which suggest the need for further anxiety research.

  5. Calculation of axial secular frequencies in a nonlinear ion trap with hexapole, octupole, decapole and dodecapole superpositions by the combined methods of multiple scales and Lindstedt-Poincare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroudi, A.; Emampour, M.; Emampour, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a combination of the method of multiple scales and the method of Lindstedt-Poincare which is a perturbative technique is used for calculation of axial secular frequencies of a nonlinear ion trap in the presence of second ,third, fourth and fifth order nonlinear terms of the potential distribution within the trap. The frequencies are calculated. The calculated frequencies are compared with the results of multiple scales method and the exact results.

  6. Rapid determination of eight bioactive alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L. by the optimal microwave extraction combined with positive-negative conversion multiple reaction monitor (+/-MRM) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Tian, Jinlong; Li, Lingzhi; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Qingyi; Gao, Pinyi; Song, Shaojiang

    2014-03-01

    A rapid and reliable microwave extraction and the triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of eight alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L. The optimal microwave extraction (MWE) condition was performed at 60 °C for 12 min with ethanol-water (70:30, v/v) as the extracting solvent, and the solvent to solid ratio was 30:1. The alkaloids were first detected simultaneously by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry under positive-negative conversion multiple reaction monitor ((+/-)MRM) technique. With investigating three different columns, samples were separated in only 8 min on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 (50 × 2.1 mm(2), 1.8 μm) column using acetonitrile and formic acid-water solution as a mobile phase with a flow rate at 0.2 mL/min. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.999) within the test ranges. The method developed was validated with acceptable sensitivity, intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility, and extraction recoveries. It was successfully applied to the determination of eight alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L. from different sources and different harvest periods. The method also provide a reference for extraction and determination of alkaloids in other complex systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two-part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validation of the developed OSATS scale for vac...

  8. Tooth extraction education at dental schools across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; van der Cammen, C.C.J.; Roorda, S.M.E.; Baart, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Aims: To explore students’ opinion about theoretical and clinical training in tooth extraction at different European dental schools. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire, containing 36 dichotomous, multiple choice and Likert scale rating questions, was distributed among students

  9. Dynamic Pore-Scale Imaging of Reactive Transport in Heterogeneous Carbonates at Reservoir Conditions Across Multiple Dissolution Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, H. P.; Bijeljic, B.; Andrew, M. G.; Blunt, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sequestering carbon in deep geologic formations is one way of reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When supercritical CO2 mixes with brine in a reservoir, the acid generated has the potential to dissolve the surrounding pore structure. However, the magnitude and type of dissolution are condition dependent. Understanding how small changes in the pore structure, chemistry, and flow properties affect dissolution is paramount for successful predictive modelling. Both 'Pink Beam' synchrotron radiation and a Micro-CT lab source are used in dynamic X-ray microtomography to investigate the pore structure changes during supercritical CO2 injection in carbonate rocks of varying heterogeneity at high temperatures and pressures and various flow-rates. Three carbonate rock types were studied, one with a homogeneous pore structure and two heterogeneous carbonates. All samples are practically pure calcium carbonate, but have widely varying rock structures. Flow-rate was varied in three successive experiments by over an order of magnitude whlie keeping all other experimental conditions constant. A 4-mm carbonate core was injected with CO2-saturated brine at 10 MPa and 50oC. Tomographic images were taken at 30-second to 20-minute time-resolutions during a 2 to 4-hour injection period. A pore network was extracted using a topological analysis of the pore space and pore-scale flow modelling was performed directly on the binarized images with connected pathways and used to track the altering velocity distributions. Significant differences in dissolution type and magnitude were found for each rock type and flowrate. At the highest flow-rates, the homogeneous carbonate was seen to have predominately uniform dissolution with minor dissolution rate differences between the pores and pore throats. Alternatively, the heterogeneous carbonates which formed wormholes at high flow rates. At low flow rates the homogeneous rock developed wormholes, while the heterogeneous samples showed evidence

  10. Extraction of relations between genes and diseases from text and large-scale data analysis: implications for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Àlex; Piñero, Janet; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Rautschka, Michael; Furlong, Laura I

    2015-02-21

    Current biomedical research needs to leverage and exploit the large amount of information reported in scientific publications. Automated text mining approaches, in particular those aimed at finding relationships between entities, are key for identification of actionable knowledge from free text repositories. We present the BeFree system aimed at identifying relationships between biomedical entities with a special focus on genes and their associated diseases. By exploiting morpho-syntactic information of the text, BeFree is able to identify gene-disease, drug-disease and drug-target associations with state-of-the-art performance. The application of BeFree to real-case scenarios shows its effectiveness in extracting information relevant for translational research. We show the value of the gene-disease associations extracted by BeFree through a number of analyses and integration with other data sources. BeFree succeeds in identifying genes associated to a major cause of morbidity worldwide, depression, which are not present in other public resources. Moreover, large-scale extraction and analysis of gene-disease associations, and integration with current biomedical knowledge, provided interesting insights on the kind of information that can be found in the literature, and raised challenges regarding data prioritization and curation. We found that only a small proportion of the gene-disease associations discovered by using BeFree is collected in expert-curated databases. Thus, there is a pressing need to find alternative strategies to manual curation, in order to review, prioritize and curate text-mining data and incorporate it into domain-specific databases. We present our strategy for data prioritization and discuss its implications for supporting biomedical research and applications. BeFree is a novel text mining system that performs competitively for the identification of gene-disease, drug-disease and drug-target associations. Our analyses show that mining only a

  11. Mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard X-ray focusing in twenty-nanometer scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Liu, Jie; Gleber, Sophie C.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jorg M.; Roehrig, Christian; Wojcik, Michael J.; Vogt, Franz Stefan

    2017-04-04

    An enhanced mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard x-ray focusing in a twenty-nanometer scale is provided. The precision alignment apparatus includes a zone plate alignment base frame; a plurality of zone plates; and a plurality of zone plate holders, each said zone plate holder for mounting and aligning a respective zone plate for hard x-ray focusing. At least one respective positioning stage drives and positions each respective zone plate holder. Each respective positioning stage is mounted on the zone plate alignment base frame. A respective linkage component connects each respective positioning stage and the respective zone plate holder. The zone plate alignment base frame, each zone plate holder and each linkage component is formed of a selected material for providing thermal expansion stability and positioning stability for the precision alignment apparatus.

  12. Managing multiple diffuse pressures on water quality and ecological habitat: Spatially targeting effective mitigation actions at the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Hannah; Reaney, Sim

    2015-04-01

    Catchment systems provide multiple benefits for society, including: land for agriculture, climate regulation and recreational space. Yet, these systems also have undesirable externalities, such as flooding, and the benefits they create can be compromised through societal use. For example, agriculture, forestry and urban land use practices can increase the export of fine sediment and faecal indicator organisms (FIO) delivered to river systems. These diffuse landscape pressures are coupled with pressures on the in stream temperature environment from projected climate change. Such pressures can have detrimental impacts on water quality and ecological habitat and consequently the benefits they provide for society. These diffuse and in-stream pressures can be reduced through actions at the landscape scale but are commonly tackled individually. Any intervention may have benefits for other pressures and hence the challenge is to consider all of the different pressures simultaneously to find solutions with high levels of cross-pressure benefits. This research presents (1) a simple but spatially distributed model to predict the pattern of multiple pressures at the landscape scale, and (2) a method for spatially targeting the optimum location for riparian woodland planting as mitigation action against these pressures. The model follows a minimal information requirement approach along the lines of SCIMAP (www.scimap.org.uk). This approach defines the critical source areas of fine sediment diffuse pollution, rapid overland flow and FIOs, based on the analysis of the pattern of the pressure in the landscape and the connectivity from source areas to rivers. River temperature was modeled using a simple energy balance equation; focusing on temperature of inflowing and outflowing water across a catchment. The model has been calibrated using a long term observed temperature record. The modelling outcomes enabled the identification of the severity of each pressure in relative rather

  13. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of sexual dysfunction modified scale in multiple sclerosis for Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ataíde Peres da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. These patients suffer from various comorbidities, including sexual dysfunction (SD. The lesions of MS may affect regions of the CNS along the pathway of sexual response. The Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19 (MSISQ-19 is a scale that assesses sexual dysfunction. Adapt and validate the MSISQ-19 to Brazilian patients with MS. 204 individuals were evaluated, 134 patients with MS and 70 healthy persons for the control group. It was determined reproducibility, validity, internal consistency and sensitivity of the MSISQ-19-BR. Among patients with MS, 54.3% of male and 71.7% of female presented some kind of SD. In the control group the results were 12.5% and 19.5%, respectively. The MSISQ-19-BR is reproducible, reliable and valid for the Brazilian population and may be used as a tool for assessing the impact of sexual dysfunction in patients with MS.

  14. Efficient ConvNet Feature Extraction with Multiple RoI Pooling for Landmark-Based Visual Localization of Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and robust visual localization is important for autonomous vehicles. By achieving impressive localization accuracy under conditions of significant changes, ConvNet landmark-based approach has attracted the attention of people in several research communities including autonomous vehicles. Such an approach relies heavily on the outstanding discrimination power of ConvNet features to match detected landmarks between images. However, a major challenge of this approach is how to extract discriminative ConvNet features efficiently. To address this challenging, inspired by the high efficiency of the region of interest (RoI pooling layer, we propose a Multiple RoI (MRoI pooling technique, an enhancement of RoI, and a simple yet efficient ConvNet feature extraction method. Our idea is to leverage MRoI pooling to exploit multilevel and multiresolution information from multiple convolutional layers and then fuse them to improve the discrimination capacity of the final ConvNet features. The main advantages of our method are (a high computational efficiency for real-time applications; (b GPU memory efficiency for mobile applications; and (c use of pretrained model without fine-tuning or retraining for easy implementation. Experimental results on four datasets have demonstrated not only the above advantages but also the high discriminating power of the extracted ConvNet features with state-of-the-art localization accuracy.

  15. Optimizing parameter choice for FSL-Brain Extraction Tool (BET) on 3D T1 images in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popescu, Valeriu; Battaglini, M; Hoogstrate, W S

    2012-01-01

    Brain atrophy studies often use FSL-BET (Brain Extraction Tool) as the first step of image processing. Default BET does not always give satisfactory results on 3DT1 MR images, which negatively impacts atrophy measurements. Finding the right alternative BET settings can be a difficult and time-con...

  16. Measuring conditions and trends in ecosystem services at multiple scales: the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, A S; Biggs, R; Scholes, R J; Bohensky, E; Reyers, B; Lynam, T; Musvoto, C; Fabricius, C

    2005-02-28

    The Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) evaluated the relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being at multiple scales, ranging from local through to sub-continental. Trends in ecosystem services (fresh water, food, fuel-wood, cultural and biodiversity) over the period 1990-2000 were mixed across scales. Freshwater resources appear strained across the continent with large numbers of people not securing adequate supplies, especially of good quality water. This translates to high infant mortality patterns across the region. In some areas, the use of water resources for irrigated agriculture and urban-industrial expansion is taking place at considerable cost to the quality and quantity of freshwater available to ecosystems and for domestic use. Staple cereal production across the region has increased but was outstripped by population growth while protein malnutrition is on the rise. The much-anticipated wood-fuel crisis on the subcontinent has not materialized but some areas are experiencing shortages while numerous others remain vulnerable. Cultural benefits of biodiversity are considerable, though hard to quantify or track over time. Biodiversity resources remain at reasonable levels, but are declining faster than reflected in species extinction rates and appear highly sensitive to land-use decisions. The SAfMA sub-global assessment provided an opportunity to experiment with innovative ways to assess ecosystem services including the use of supply-demand surfaces, service sources and sink areas, priority areas for service provision, service 'hotspots' and trade-off assessments.

  17. A simple method for the small scale synthesis and solid-phase extraction purification of steroid sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Christopher C; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2014-12-01

    Steroid sulfates are a major class of steroid metabolite that are of growing importance in fields such as anti-doping analysis, the detection of residues in agricultural produce or medicine. Despite this, many steroid sulfate reference materials may have limited or no availability hampering the development of analytical methods. We report simple protocols for the rapid synthesis and purification of steroid sulfates that are suitable for adoption by analytical laboratories. Central to this approach is the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for purification, a technique routinely used for sample preparation in analytical laboratories around the world. The sulfate conjugates of sixteen steroid compounds encompassing a wide range of steroid substitution patterns and configurations are prepared, including the previously unreported sulfate conjugates of the designer steroids furazadrol (17β-hydroxyandrostan[2,3-d]isoxazole), isofurazadrol (17β-hydroxyandrostan[3,2-c]isoxazole) and trenazone (17β-hydroxyestra-4,9-dien-3-one). Structural characterization data, together with NMR and mass spectra are reported for all steroid sulfates, often for the first time. The scope of this approach for small scale synthesis is highlighted by the sulfation of 1μg of testosterone (17β-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one) as monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Species turnover drives β-diversity patterns across multiple spatial scales of plant-galling interactions in mountaintop grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcel Serra; Carneiro, Marco Antônio Alves; Branco, Cristina Alves; Borges, Rafael Augusto Xavier; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2018-01-01

    This study describes differences in species richness and composition of the assemblages of galling insects and their host plants at different spatial scales. Sampling was conducted along altitudinal gradients composed of campos rupestres and campos de altitude of two mountain complexes in southeastern Brazil: Espinhaço Range and Mantiqueira Range. The following hypotheses were tested: i) local and regional richness of host plants and galling insects are positively correlated; ii) beta diversity is the most important component of regional diversity of host plants and galling insects; and iii) Turnover is the main mechanism driving beta diversity of both host plants and galling insects. Local richness of galling insects and host plants increased with increasing regional richness of species, suggesting a pattern of unsaturated communities. The additive partition of regional richness (γ) into local and beta components shows that local richnesses (α) of species of galling insects and host plants are low relative to regional richness; the beta (β) component incorporates most of the regional richness. The multi-scale analysis of additive partitioning showed similar patterns for galling insects and host plants with the local component (α) incorporated a small part of regional richness. Beta diversity of galling insects and host plants were mainly the result of turnover, with little contribution from nesting. Although the species composition of galling insects and host plant species varied among sample sites, mountains and even mountain ranges, local richness remained relatively low. In this way, the addition of local habitats with different landscapes substantially affects regional richness. Each mountain contributes fundamentally to the composition of regional diversity of galling insects and host plants, and so the design of future conservation strategies should incorporate multiple scales.

  19. Measurement and modeling of two-phase flow parameters in scaled 8 Multiplication-Sign 8 BWR rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.; Schlegel, J.P.; Liu, Y.; Paranjape, S.; Hibiki, T. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States); Ishii, M., E-mail: ishii@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grid spacers have a significant but not well understood effect on flow behavior and development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two different length scales are present in rod bundles, which must be accounted for in modeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An easy-to-implement empirical model has been developed for the two-phase friction multiplier. - Abstract: The behavior of reactor systems is predicted using advanced computational codes in order to determine the safety characteristics of the system during various accidents and to determine the performance characteristics of the reactor. These codes generally utilize the two-fluid model for predictions of two-phase flows, as this model is the most accurate and detailed model which is currently practical for predicting large-scale systems. One of the weaknesses of this approach however is the need to develop constitutive models for various quantities. Of specific interest are the models used in the prediction of void fraction and pressure drop across the rod bundle due to their importance in new Natural Circulation Boiling Water Reactor (NCBWR) designs, where these quantities determine the coolant flow rate through the core. To verify the performance of these models and expand the existing experimental database, data has been collected in an 8 Multiplication-Sign 8 rod bundle which is carefully scaled from actual BWR geometry and includes grid spacers to maintain rod spacing. While these spacer grids are 'generic', their inclusion does provide valuable data for analysis of the effect of grid spacers on the flow. In addition to pressure drop measurements the area-averaged void fraction has been measured by impedance void meters and local conductivity probes have been used to measure the local void fraction and interfacial area concentration in the bundle subchannels. Experimental conditions covered a wide range of flow rates and void fractions up to 80%.

  20. Poroelastic Parameters of Peru Margin Sediments: Implications for Flow and Transport at Multiple Scales in the Marine Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettemy, G. L.; Cikoski, C.; Tobin, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader investigation of the deep marine subsurface environment, the first biosphere-focused drilling expedition, Leg 201, of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) occupied five unique sites in the Peru Margin (in a 1200 km2 region centered at 10 S, 80E). These sites represent the entire range of shallow biogeological conditions associated with this convergent margin:deep-water, mixed clay-pelagic sediments ocean-ward of the trench; slope-apron and prism toe sediments at the deformation front; and several distinct lithostratigraphic sequences on the continental shelf. Microbial enumeration and pore-water geochemistry results show that each particular site is both consistent and unique--consistent in terms of general biotic quantity and activity as predicted by energy flux and redox potential given the depositional environment and sedimentary record, but unique at key biogeological boundaries such as lithologic and/or physical property interfaces. This research addresses questions related to our understanding of how and why these boundaries form by looking at poroelastic and hydrologic parameters measured at multiple scales, from sub-millimeter to several centimeters. The issue of measurement scale, especially in regard to permeability and diffusivity characterization, is vital to interpreting observations of biologically-mediated diagenetic fronts (e.g., dolomitic lenses, depth- or time-varying barite fronts). These parameters are derived from (i) hydrologic and wave propagation experiments, (ii) SEM images, and (iii) shipboard split-core measurements, and structured in a modified Biot poroelasticity framework. This approach also allows quantification of the local heterogeneity of these parameters at the scale applicable to (and controlled by) microbial life; these results can then be used to formulate predictive models of the impact of biogeochemical processes. Ultimately, these models could then be used in interpretation of new remote-sensed data (e

  1. Rapid determination of alkaloids in Macleaya cordata using ionic liquid extraction followed by multiple reaction monitoring UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linqiu; Huang, Mingyuan; Shao, Junli; Lin, Bokun; Shen, Qing

    2017-02-20

    The ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) have been successfully applied in extracting of six alkaloids from M. cordata. 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C 6 MIM][BF 4 ]) aqueous solution was used as extraction solvent. The target analytes in raw material were deposited into a single drop of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 6 MIM][PF 6 ]), which was in situ formed by mixing [C 6 MIM][BF 4 ] and potassium hexafluorophosphate ([K][PF 6 ]. Afterwards, the extract was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The proposed method was fully validated in terms of linearity (0.9983-0.9992), LOD (0.080ngmL -1 ), LOQ (0.25ngmL -1 ), intra-day precision (MS/MS is powerful and practical for analyzing alkaloids in M. cordata., and it also has great potential for comprehensive quality control of other herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Raft cultivation area extraction from high resolution remote sensing imagery by fusing multi-scale region-line primitive association features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Cui, Qi; Wang, Jie; Ming, Dongping; Lv, Guonian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we first propose several novel concepts for object-based image analysis, which include line-based shape regularity, line density, and scale-based best feature value (SBV), based on the region-line primitive association framework (RLPAF). We then propose a raft cultivation area (RCA) extraction method for high spatial resolution (HSR) remote sensing imagery based on multi-scale feature fusion and spatial rule induction. The proposed method includes the following steps: (1) Multi-scale region primitives (segments) are obtained by image segmentation method HBC-SEG, and line primitives (straight lines) are obtained by phase-based line detection method. (2) Association relationships between regions and lines are built based on RLPAF, and then multi-scale RLPAF features are extracted and SBVs are selected. (3) Several spatial rules are designed to extract RCAs within sea waters after land and water separation. Experiments show that the proposed method can successfully extract different-shaped RCAs from HR images with good performance.

  3. Remediation Performance and Mechanism of Heavy Metals by a Bottom Up Activation and Extraction System Using Multiple Biochemical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kemeng; Li, Yunzhen; Sun, Yang; Liu, Ruyue; Li, Junjie; Zhao, Yun; Xu, Heng

    2017-09-13

    Soil contamination with heavy metals has caused serious environmental problems and increased the risks to humans and biota. Herein, we developed an effective bottom up metals removal system based on the synergy between the activation of immobilization metal-resistant bacteria and the extraction of bioaccumulator material (Stropharia rugosoannulata). In this system, the advantages of biochar produced at 400 °C and sodium alginate were integrated to immobilize bacteria. Optimized by response surface methodology, the biochar and bacterial suspension were mixed at a ratio of 1:20 (w:v) for 12 h when 2.5% sodium alginate was added to the mixture. Results demonstrated that the system significantly increased the proportion of acid soluble Cd and Cu and improved the soil microecology (microbial counts, soil respiration, and enzyme activities). The maximum extractions of Cd and Cu were 8.79 and 77.92 mg kg -1 , respectively. Moreover, details of the possible mechanistic insight into the metal removal are discussed, which indicate positive correlation with the acetic acid extractable metals and soil microecology. Meanwhile, the "dilution effect" in S. rugosoannulata probably plays an important role in the metal removal process. Furthermore, the metal-resistant bacteria in this system were successfully colonized, and the soil bacteria community were evaluated to understand the microbial diversity in metal-contaminated soil after remediation.

  4. The Swedish version of the Acceptance of Chronic Health Conditions Scale for people with multiple sclerosis: Translation, cultural adaptation and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslin, Mia; Kottorp, Anders; Kierkegaard, Marie; Johansson, Sverker

    2016-11-11

    To translate and culturally adapt the Acceptance of Chronic Health Conditions (ACHC) Scale for people with multiple sclerosis into Swedish, and to analyse the psychometric properties of the Swedish version. Ten people with multiple sclerosis participated in translation and cultural adaptation of the ACHC Scale; 148 people with multiple sclerosis were included in evaluation of the psychometric properties of the scale. Translation and cultural adaptation were carried out through translation and back-translation, by expert committee evaluation and pre-test with cognitive interviews in people with multiple sclerosis. The psychometric properties of the Swedish version were evaluated using Rasch analysis. The Swedish version of the ACHC Scale was an acceptable equivalent to the original version. Seven of the original 10 items fitted the Rasch model and demonstrated ability to separate between groups. A 5-item version, including 2 items and 3 super-items, demonstrated better psychometric properties, but lower ability to separate between groups. The Swedish version of the ACHC Scale with the original 10 items did not fit the Rasch model. Two solutions, either with 7 items (ACHC-7) or with 2 items and 3 super-items (ACHC-5), demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties. Use of the ACHC-5 Scale with super-items is recommended, since this solution adjusts for local dependency among items.

  5. Network Events on Multiple Space and Time Scales in Cultured Neural Networks and in a Stochastic Rate Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gigante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cortical networks, in-vitro as well as in-vivo, can spontaneously generate a variety of collective dynamical events such as network spikes, UP and DOWN states, global oscillations, and avalanches. Though each of them has been variously recognized in previous works as expression of the excitability of the cortical tissue and the associated nonlinear dynamics, a unified picture of the determinant factors (dynamical and architectural is desirable and not yet available. Progress has also been partially hindered by the use of a variety of statistical measures to define the network events of interest. We propose here a common probabilistic definition of network events that, applied to the firing activity of cultured neural networks, highlights the co-occurrence of network spikes, power-law distributed avalanches, and exponentially distributed 'quasi-orbits', which offer a third type of collective behavior. A rate model, including synaptic excitation and inhibition with no imposed topology, synaptic short-term depression, and finite-size noise, accounts for all these different, coexisting phenomena. We find that their emergence is largely regulated by the proximity to an oscillatory instability of the dynamics, where the non-linear excitable behavior leads to a self-amplification of activity fluctuations over a wide range of scales in space and time. In this sense, the cultured network dynamics is compatible with an excitation-inhibition balance corresponding to a slightly sub-critical regime. Finally, we propose and test a method to infer the characteristic time of the fatigue process, from the observed time course of the network's firing rate. Unlike the model, possessing a single fatigue mechanism, the cultured network appears to show multiple time scales, signalling the possible coexistence of different fatigue mechanisms.

  6. Investigation of biotransformation, sorption, and desorption of multiple chemical contaminants in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Katherine E; Lew, Julia; Dickenson, Eric R V; Wert, Eric C

    2018-06-01

    The evolving demands of drinking water treatment necessitate processes capable of removing a diverse suite of contaminants. Biofiltration can employ biotransformation and sorption to remove various classes of chemicals from water. Here, pilot-scale virgin anthracite-sand and previously used biological activated carbon (BAC)-sand dual media filters were operated for ∼250 days to assess removals of 0.4 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen, 50-140 μg/L manganese, and ∼100 ng/L each of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) spiked into pre-ozonated Colorado River water. Anthracite achieved complete nitrification within 200 days and started removing ibuprofen at 85 days. Limited manganese (10%) removal occurred. In contrast, BAC completely nitrified ammonia within 113 days, removed all manganese at 43 days, and exhibited steady state removal of most TOrCs by 140 days. However, during the first 140 days, removal of caffeine, DEET, gemfibrozil, naproxen, and trimethoprim decreased, suggesting a shift from sorption to biotransformation. Acetaminophen and sulfamethoxazole were removed at consistent levels, with complete removal of acetaminophen achieved throughout the study; ibuprofen removal increased with time. When subjected to elevated (1 μg/L) concentrations of TOrCs, BAC removed larger masses of chemicals; with a subsequent decrease and ultimate cease in the TOrCs spike, caffeine, DEET, gemfibrozil, and trimethoprim notably desorbed. By the end of operation, anthracite and BAC exhibited equivalent quantities of biomass measured as adenosine triphosphate, but BAC harbored greater microbial diversity (examined with 16S rRNA sequencing). Improved insight was gained regarding concurrent biotransformation, sorption, and desorption of multiple organic and inorganic contaminants in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling of negative ion extraction from a magnetized plasma source: Derivation of scaling laws and description of the origins of aberrations in the ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fubiani, G.; Garrigues, L.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    We model the extraction of negative ions from a high brightness high power magnetized negative ion source. The model is a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) algorithm with Monte-Carlo Collisions. The negative ions are generated only on the plasma grid surface (which separates the plasma from the electrostatic accelerator downstream). The scope of this work is to derive scaling laws for the negative ion beam properties versus the extraction voltage (potential of the first grid of the accelerator) and plasma density and investigate the origins of aberrations on the ion beam. We show that a given value of the negative ion beam perveance correlates rather well with the beam profile on the extraction grid independent of the simulated plasma density. Furthermore, the extracted beam current may be scaled to any value of the plasma density. The scaling factor must be derived numerically but the overall gain of computational cost compared to performing a PIC simulation at the real plasma density is significant. Aberrations appear for a meniscus curvature radius of the order of the radius of the grid aperture. These aberrations cannot be cancelled out by switching to a chamfered grid aperture (as in the case of positive ions).

  8. The Multicultural Identity Integration Scale (MULTIIS): Developing a comprehensive measure for configuring one's multiple cultural identities within the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolsky, Maya A; Amiot, Catherine E; de la Sablonnière, Roxane

    2016-04-01

    The research investigating how one's multiple cultural identities are configured within the self has yet to account for existing cultural identity configurations aside from integration, and for identifying with more than 2 cultural groups at once. The current research addresses these issues by constructing the Multicultural Identity Integration Scale (MULTIIS) to examine 3 different multicultural identity configurations, and their relationship to well-being based on Amiot and colleagues' (2007) cognitive-developmental model of social identity integration (CDSMII). Diverse samples of multicultural individuals completed the MULTIIS along with identity and well-being measures. (Study 1A: N = 407; 1B: N = 310; 2A = 338 and 2A = 254) RESULTS: Reliability and confirmatory factorial analyses (Studies 1A and 2A) all supported the factorial structure of the MULTIIS. Regression analyses (Studies 1B and 2B) confirmed that the integration subscale of the MULTIIS positively predicted well-being, whereas compartmentalization negatively predicted well-being. Categorization was inconsistently related to well-being. These findings support the CDSMII and the usefulness of the MULTIIS measure, and suggest that each identity configuration is uniquely related to well-being outcomes. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Expanded Disability Status Scale-Based Disability and Dental-Periodontal Conditions in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Hasan; Canbaz Kabay, Sibel; Gungor Hatipoglu, Mujgan; Ozden, Hilmi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different disability states in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) as determined by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and dental-periodontal measures. Eighty patients with MS (64 females and 16 males) were included in this study. Data on MS types, attack frequency, disease duration, EDSS scores and orofacial complaints prior to an MS attack were obtained from medical records. The plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival index (GI), decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) index and number of present teeth were measured during one dental examination for each subject. The MS patients were divided into the following 2 groups based on their EDSS scores: low physical disability (L-DS) and high physical disability (H-DS). Differences in dental parameters between groups of low and high disability were investigated. p disability in MS patients. In addition, some maxillofacial-oral complaints prior to an MS attack were observed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Collective synchronization of self/non-self discrimination in T cell activation, across multiple spatio-temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan-Bonnet, Gregoire

    The immune system is a collection of cells whose function is to eradicate pathogenic infections and malignant tumors while protecting healthy tissues. Recent work has delineated key molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with the ability to discriminate self from non-self agents. For example, structural studies have quantified the biophysical characteristics of antigenic molecules (those prone to trigger lymphocyte activation and a subsequent immune response). However, such molecular mechanisms were found to be highly unreliable at the individual cellular level. We will present recent efforts to build experimentally validated computational models of the immune responses at the collective cell level. Such models have become critical to delineate how higher-level integration through nonlinear amplification in signal transduction, dynamic feedback in lymphocyte differentiation and cell-to-cell communication allows the immune system to enforce reliable self/non-self discrimination at the organism level. In particular, we will present recent results demonstrating how T cells tune their antigen discrimination according to cytokine cues, and how competition for cytokine within polyclonal populations of cells shape the repertoire of responding clones. Additionally, we will present recent theoretical and experimental results demonstrating how competition between diffusion and consumption of cytokines determine the range of cell-cell communications within lymphoid organs. Finally, we will discuss how biochemically explicit models, combined with quantitative experimental validation, unravel the relevance of new feedbacks for immune regulations across multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  11. Catalytic activity of autoantibodies toward myelin basic protein correlates with the scores on the multiple sclerosis expanded disability status scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Natalia A; Durova, Oxana M; Vorobiev, Ivan I; Belogurov, Alexey A; Telegin, Georgy B; Suchkov, Sergey V; Misikov, Victor K; Morse, Herbert C; Gabibov, Alexander G

    2006-02-28

    Autoantibodies toward myelin basic protein (MBP) evidently emerge in sera and cerebrospinal fluid of the patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as in a MS rodent model, i.e., experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The studies of the last two decades have unveiled somewhat controversial data on the diagnostic applicability of anti-MBP autoantibodies as a disease' marker. Here, we present the results of new functional analysis of the anti-MBP autoantibodies isolated from MS (in patients) and EAE (in mice) sera, based on their proteolytic activity against the targeted autoantigen. The activity was shown to be the intrinsic property of the IgG molecule. No activity was found in the sera-derived antibody fraction of healthy donors and control mice. Sera of 24 patients with clinically proven MS at different stages of the disease, and 20 healthy controls were screened for the anti-MBP antibody-mediated proteolytic activity. The activity correlated with the scores on the MS expanded disability status scale (EDSS) (r(2)=0.85, P<0.001). Thus, the anti-MBP autoantibody-mediated proteolysis may be regarded as an additional marker of the disease progression.

  12. Disease spread across multiple scales in a spatial hierarchy: effect of host spatial structure and of inoculum quantity and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosme, Marie; Lucas, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    Spatial patterns of both the host and the disease influence disease spread and crop losses. Therefore, the manipulation of these patterns might help improve control strategies. Considering disease spread across multiple scales in a spatial hierarchy allows one to capture important features of epidemics developing in space without using explicitly spatialized variables. Thus, if the system under study is composed of roots, plants, and planting hills, the effect of host spatial pattern can be studied by varying the number of plants per planting hill. A simulation model based on hierarchy theory was used to simulate the effects of large versus small planting hills, low versus high level of initial infections, and aggregated versus uniform distribution of initial infections. The results showed that aggregating the initially infected plants always resulted in slower epidemics than spreading out the initial infections uniformly. Simulation results also showed that, in most cases, disease epidemics were slower in the case of large host aggregates (100 plants/hill) than with smaller aggregates (25 plants/hill), except when the initially infected plants were both numerous and spread out uniformly. The optimal strategy for disease control depends on several factors, including initial conditions. More importantly, the model offers a framework to account for the interplay between the spatial characteristics of the system, rates of infection, and aggregation of the disease.

  13. Multiple anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic properties of red wine polyphenolic extracts: differential role of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and stilbenes on endothelial inflammatory gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabriso, Nadia; Scoditti, Egeria; Massaro, Marika; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Storelli, Carlo; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the vascular anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenolic extracts from two typical South Italy red wines, the specific contribution of individual polyphenols and the underlying mechanisms of action. Human endothelial cells were incubated with increasing concentrations (1-50 μg/mL) of Primitivo and Negroamaro polyphenolic extracts (PWPE and NWPE, respectively) or pure polyphenols (1-25 μmol/L), including hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and caftaric acids), flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin) or stilbenes (trans-resveratrol, trans-piceid) before stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Through multiple assays, we analyzed the endothelial-monocyte adhesion, the endothelial expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), as well as ROS intracellular levels and the activation of NF-κB and AP-1. Both PWPE and NWPE, already at 1 μg/mL, inhibited monocyte adhesion to stimulated endothelial cells, a key event in triggering vascular inflammation. They down-regulated the expression of adhesion molecules, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-Selectin, as well as MCP-1 and M-CSF, at mRNA and protein levels. All polyphenols reduced intracellular ROS, and everything, except caftaric acid, inhibited the endothelial expression of adhesion molecules and MCP-1, although with different potency. Flavonols and resveratrol significantly reduced also the endothelial expression and release of M-CSF. The decrease in endothelial inflammatory gene expression was related to the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 activation but not to intracellular oxidative stress. This study showed multiple anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic properties of red wine polyphenolic extracts and indentified specific bioactive polyphenols which could counteract inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis.

  14. Combined effects of multiple large-scale hydraulic engineering on water stages in the middle Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianqiao; Sun, Zhaohua; Li, Yitian; Yang, Yunping

    2017-12-01

    Investigation of water stages influenced by human projects provides better understanding of riverine geomorphological processes and river management. Based on hydrological data collected over 60 years, an extreme stage-extreme discharge analysis and a specific-gauge analysis were performed to research the individual and combined effects of multiple engineering projects on a long-term time series of water stages in the middle Yangtze River. Conclusions are as follows. (1) In accordance with the operation years of the Jingjiang cutoff (CF), the Gezhouba Dam (GD), and the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the time series (1955-2012) was divided into periods of P1 (1955-1970), P2 (1971-1980), P3 (1981-2002), and P4 (2003 - 2012). Water stage changes during P1-P2, P2-P3, and P3-P4 are varied because of the differences in the types and scales of these projects. The stage decreased at Shashi and increased at Luoshan owing to the operation of the CF. Additionally, after the GD was constructed, the low-flow stage decreased in the upstream reach of Chenglingji and increased in its downstream reach, whereas the flood stage merely decreased at Yichang. Moreover, the TGD resulted in an overall decrease in low-flow stages and a limited increase in flood stages because of the differential adjustments of river geometry and resistance between the low-flow channel and flood channel. (2) Although differences existed in the scouring mechanisms between streamwise erosion associated with dams and headward erosion associated with cutoffs, particular bed textures in the gravel reach led to a similar adjustment that stage reduction at Shashi was the greatest of all stations, which caused the flow slope and sediment transport capacity to decrease in the sandy reach. (3) These engineering projects caused changes in average low-flow and flood stages that varied between Yichang (- 1.58 and - 0.08 m respectively), Shashi (- 3.54 and - 0.12 m), and Luoshan (1.15 and 0.97 m) from P1 to P4. However, less

  15. Multiple Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear Four-Point Singular Boundary Value Problem with a p-Laplacian Operator on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihuang Hong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present sufficient conditions for the existence of at least twin or triple positive solutions of a nonlinear four-point singular boundary value problem with a p-Laplacian dynamic equation on a time scale. Our results are obtained via some new multiple fixed point theorems.

  16. Cross-diagnostic validity of the SF-36 physical functioning scale in patients with stroke, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study using Rasch analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, Annet J.; de Groot, Vincent; Roorda, Leo D.; Schepers, Vera P. M.; Lindeman, Eline; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Beelen, Anita; Dekker, Joost

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate unidimensionality and differential item functioning of the SF-36 physical functioning scale (PF10) in patients with various neurological disorders. Patients: Patients post-stroke (n = 198), with multiple sclerosis (n = 151) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  17. Examining the Interplay of Processes Across Multiple Time-Scales: Illustration With the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E; Pincus, Aaron L; Lorek, Amy; Rebar, Amanda; Roche, Michael J; Coccia, Michael; Morack, Jennifer; Feldman, Josh; Gerstorf, Denis

    Human development is characterized by the complex interplay of processes that manifest at multiple levels of analysis and time-scales. We introduce the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB) as a model for how multiple time-scale study designs facilitate more precise articulation of developmental theory. Combining age heterogeneity, longitudinal panel, daily diary, and experience sampling protocols, the study made use of smartphone and web-based technologies to obtain intensive longitudinal data from 150 persons age 18-89 years as they completed three 21-day measurement bursts ( t = 426 bursts, t = 8,557 days) wherein they provided reports on their social interactions ( t = 64,112) as they went about their daily lives. We illustrate how multiple time-scales of data can be used to articulate bioecological models of development and the interplay among more 'distal' processes that manifest at 'slower' time-scales (e.g., age-related differences and burst-to-burst changes in mental health) and more 'proximal' processes that manifest at 'faster' time-scales (e.g., changes in context that progress in accordance with the weekly calendar and family influence processes).

  18. A novel multiple headspace extraction gas chromatographic method for measuring the diffusion coefficient of methanol in water and in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2015-03-13

    A novel method for the determination of the diffusion coefficient (D) of methanol in water and olive oil has been developed. Based on multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC), the methanol released from the liquid sample of interest in a closed sample vial was determined in a stepwise fashion. A theoretical model was derived to establish the relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the GC signals from MHE-GC measurements. The results showed that the present method has an excellent precision (RSDwater and olive oil, when compared with data reported in the literature. The present method is simple and practical and can be a valuable tool for the determination of the diffusion coefficient of volatile analyte(s) into food simulants from food and beverage packaging material, both in research studies and in actual applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy independent scaling of the ridge and final state description of high multiplicity p +p collisions at √{s }=7 and 13 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debojit

    2018-02-01

    An energy independent scaling of the near-side ridge yield at a given multiplicity has been observed by the ATLAS and the CMS collaborations in p +p collisions at √{s }=7 and 13 TeV. Such a striking feature of the data can be successfully explained by approaches based on initial state momentum space correlation generated due to gluon saturation. In this paper, we try to examine if such a scaling is also an inherent feature of the approaches that employ strong final state interaction in p +p collisions. We find that hydrodynamical modeling of p +p collisions using EPOS 3 shows a violation of such scaling. The current study can, therefore, provide important new insights on the origin of long-range azimuthal correlations in high multiplicity p +p collisions at the LHC energies.

  20. The NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database: Computational Version 3.00 with Updated Content and the Introduction of Multiple Scaling Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Ricca, A.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2018-02-01

    Version 3.00 of the library of computed spectra in the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (PAHdb) is described. Version 3.00 introduces the use of multiple scale factors, instead of the single scaling factor used previously, to align the theoretical harmonic frequencies with the experimental fundamentals. The use of multiple scale factors permits the use of a variety of basis sets; this allows new PAH species to be included in the database, such as those containing oxygen, and yields an improved treatment of strained species and those containing nitrogen. In addition, the computed spectra of 2439 new PAH species have been added. The impact of these changes on the analysis of an astronomical spectrum through database-fitting is considered and compared with a fit using Version 2.00 of the library of computed spectra. Finally, astronomical constraints are defined for the PAH spectral libraries in PAHdb.

  1. Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of chemometrics in single and sequential extraction assays: a review. Part II. Cluster analysis, multiple linear regression, mixture resolution, experimental design and other techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, Agnese; Abollino, Ornella; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-03-04

    Single and sequential extraction procedures are used for studying element mobility and availability in solid matrices, like soils, sediments, sludge, and airborne particulate matter. In the first part of this review we reported an overview on these procedures and described the applications of chemometric uni- and bivariate techniques and of multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on variable reduction to the experimental results obtained. The second part of the review deals with the use of chemometrics not only for the visualization and interpretation of data, but also for the investigation of the effects of experimental conditions on the response, the optimization of their values and the calculation of element fractionation. We will describe the principles of the multivariate chemometric techniques considered, the aims for which they were applied and the key findings obtained. The following topics will be critically addressed: pattern recognition by cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and other less common techniques; modelling by multiple linear regression (MLR); investigation of spatial distribution of variables by geostatistics; calculation of fractionation patterns by a mixture resolution method (Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distributions, CISED); optimization and characterization of extraction procedures by experimental design; other multivariate techniques less commonly applied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Classification of Small-Scale Eucalyptus Plantations Based on NDVI Time Series Obtained from Multiple High-Resolution Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailang Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus, a short-rotation plantation, has been expanding rapidly in southeast China in recent years owing to its short growth cycle and high yield of wood. Effective identification of eucalyptus, therefore, is important for monitoring land use changes and investigating environmental quality. For this article, we used remote sensing images over 15 years (one per year with a 30-m spatial resolution, including Landsat 5 thematic mapper images, Landsat 7-enhanced thematic mapper images, and HJ 1A/1B images. These data were used to construct a 15-year Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series for several cities in Guangdong Province, China. Eucalyptus reference NDVI time series sub-sequences were acquired, including one-year-long and two-year-long growing periods, using invested eucalyptus samples in the study region. In order to compensate for the discontinuity of the NDVI time series that is a consequence of the relatively coarse temporal resolution, we developed an inverted triangle area methodology. Using this methodology, the images were classified on the basis of the matching degree of the NDVI time series and two reference NDVI time series sub-sequences during the growing period of the eucalyptus rotations. Three additional methodologies (Bounding Envelope, City Block, and Standardized Euclidian Distance were also tested and used as a comparison group. Threshold coefficients for the algorithms were adjusted using commission–omission error criteria. The results show that the triangle area methodology out-performed the other methodologies in classifying eucalyptus plantations. Threshold coefficients and an optimal discriminant function were determined using a mosaic photograph that had been taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle platform. Good stability was found as we performed further validation using multiple-year data from the high-resolution Gaofen Satellite 1 (GF-1 observations of larger regions. Eucalyptus planting dates

  4. Development and validation of the work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales among registered nurses with multiple roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Song, Rhayun

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales, and to validate the psychometrics of those scales among registered nurses with multiple roles. The concepts, generation of items, and the scale domains of work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales were constructed based on a review of the literature. The validity and reliability of the scales were examined by administering them to 201 registered nurses who were recruited from 8 university hospitals in South Korea. The content validity was examined by nursing experts using a content validity index. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to establish the construct validity. The correlation with depression was examined to assess concurrent validity. Finally, internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The work-family-school role conflicts scale comprised ten items with three factors: work-school-to-family conflict (three items), family-school-to-work conflict (three items), and work-family-to-school conflict (four items). The role-related social support scale comprised nine items with three factors: support from family (three items), support from work (three items), and support from school (three items). Cronbach's alphas were 0.83 and 0.76 for the work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales, respectively. Both instruments exhibited acceptable construct and concurrent validity. The validity and reliability of the developed scales indicate their potential usefulness for the assessment of work-family-school role conflict and role-related social support among registered nurses with multiple roles in Korea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility, Test-Retest Reliability, and Interrater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Tardieu Scale in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waninge, A.; Rook, R. A.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Gielen, E.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) often describe the quality of the daily movements of these persons in terms of flexibility or stiffness. Objective outcome measures for flexibility and stiffness are muscle tone or level of spasticity. Two instruments used to grade muscle tone and spasticity are the…

  6. Feasibility, test-retest reliability, and interrater reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Tardieu Scale in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Rook, R.A.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Gielen, E.; van der Schans, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) often describe the quality of the daily movements of these persons in terms of flexibility or stiffness. Objective outcome measures for flexibility and stiffness are muscle tone or level of spasticity. Two instruments

  7. Sensor-Based Auto-Focusing System Using Multi-Scale Feature Extraction and Phase Correlation Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbeum Jang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel auto-focusing system based on a CMOS sensor containing pixels with different phases. Robust extraction of features in a severely defocused image is the fundamental problem of a phase-difference auto-focusing system. In order to solve this problem, a multi-resolution feature extraction algorithm is proposed. Given the extracted features, the proposed auto-focusing system can provide the ideal focusing position using phase correlation matching. The proposed auto-focusing (AF algorithm consists of four steps: (i acquisition of left and right images using AF points in the region-of-interest; (ii feature extraction in the left image under low illumination and out-of-focus blur; (iii the generation of two feature images using the phase difference between the left and right images; and (iv estimation of the phase shifting vector using phase correlation matching. Since the proposed system accurately estimates the phase difference in the out-of-focus blurred image under low illumination, it can provide faster, more robust auto focusing than existing systems.

  8. Application of numerical modelling to scaling-up of electrically induced extraction from an organic mixture using an ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Kamil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction provides an environmentally friendly process as an alternative to azeotropic distillation, pervaporation and reverse osmosis because these techniques require the use of large amounts of energy, may involve volatile organic compounds, and operation at high pressure.

  9. Comparison of the performance of full scale pulsed columns vs. mixer-settlers for uranium solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsowitz, R.L.; Kleinberger, R.; Buchalter, E.M.; Grinbaum, B.

    2000-01-01

    A rare opportunity arose to compare the performance of Bateman Pulsed Columns (BPC) vs. Mixer-Settlers at an industrial site, over a long period, when the Uranium Solvent Extraction Plant of WMC at Olympic Dam, South Australia was upgraded. The original plant was operated for years with two trains of 2-stage mixer-settler batteries for the extraction of uranium. When the company decided to increase the yield of the plant, the existing two trains of mixer-settlers for uranium extraction were arranged in series, giving one 4-stage battery. In parallel, two Bateman Pulsed Columns, of the disc-and-doughnut type, were installed to compare the performance of both types of equipment over an extended period.The plant has been operating in parallel for three years and the results show that the performance of the columns is excellent: the extraction yield is similar to the 4 mixer-settlers in series - about 98%, the entrainment of solvent is lower, there are less mechanical failures, less problems with crud, smaller solvent losses and the operation is simpler. The results convinced WMC to install an additional 10 BPC's for the expansion of their uranium plant. These columns were successfully commissioned early 1999. This paper includes quantitative comparison of both types of equipment. (author)

  10. Predictions for an invaded world: A strategy to predict the distribution of native and non-indigenous species at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, D.A.; Lee, H.

    2008-01-01

    Habitat models can be used to predict the distributions of marine and estuarine non-indigenous species (NIS) over several spatial scales. At an estuary scale, our goal is to predict the estuaries most likely to be invaded, but at a habitat scale, the goal is to predict the specific locations within an estuary that are most vulnerable to invasion. As an initial step in evaluating several habitat models, model performance for a suite of benthic species with reasonably well-known distributions on the Pacific coast of the US needs to be compared. We discuss the utility of non-parametric multiplicative regression (NPMR) for predicting habitat- and estuary-scale distributions of native and NIS. NPMR incorporates interactions among variables, allows qualitative and categorical variables, and utilizes data on absence as well as presence. Preliminary results indicate that NPMR generally performs well at both spatial scales and that distributions of NIS are predicted as well as those of native species. For most species, latitude was the single best predictor, although similar model performance could be obtained at both spatial scales with combinations of other habitat variables. Errors of commission were more frequent at a habitat scale, with omission and commission errors approximately equal at an estuary scale. ?? 2008 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

  11. How entorhinal grid cells may learn multiple spatial scales from a dorsoventral gradient of cell response rates in a self-organizing map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Grossberg

    Full Text Available Place cells in the hippocampus of higher mammals are critical for spatial navigation. Recent modeling clarifies how this may be achieved by how grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC input to place cells. Grid cells exhibit hexagonal grid firing patterns across space in multiple spatial scales along the MEC dorsoventral axis. Signals from grid cells of multiple scales combine adaptively to activate place cells that represent much larger spaces than grid cells. But how do grid cells learn to fire at multiple positions that form a hexagonal grid, and with spatial scales that increase along the dorsoventral axis? In vitro recordings of medial entorhinal layer II stellate cells have revealed subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (MPOs whose temporal periods, and time constants of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs, both increase along this axis. Slower (faster subthreshold MPOs and slower (faster EPSPs correlate with larger (smaller grid spacings and field widths. A self-organizing map neural model explains how the anatomical gradient of grid spatial scales can be learned by cells that respond more slowly along the gradient to their inputs from stripe cells of multiple scales, which perform linear velocity path integration. The model cells also exhibit MPO frequencies that covary with their response rates. The gradient in intrinsic rhythmicity is thus not compelling evidence for oscillatory interference as a mechanism of grid cell firing. A response rate gradient combined with input stripe cells that have normalized receptive fields can reproduce all known spatial and temporal properties of grid cells along the MEC dorsoventral axis. This spatial gradient mechanism is homologous to a gradient mechanism for temporal learning in the lateral entorhinal cortex and its hippocampal projections. Spatial and temporal representations may hereby arise from homologous mechanisms, thereby embodying a mechanistic "neural relativity" that

  12. Scaling properties of charged particle multiplicity distributions in oxygen induced emulsion interactions at 14.6, 60 and 200 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Arora, R.

    1988-12-01

    The multiplicity distributions of shower particles (n s ) are measured in inclusive inelastic oxygen emulsion interactions. Scaling in observed in the normalized variable n s / ave.(n s ) for 14.6, 60 and 200 A GeV. The dependence of ave. (n s ) on the charge flow in the forward direction (Q ZD ) and the distribution of the number of participating projectile protons is examined. The normalized multiplicities as a function of Q ZD seem also to be independent of incident energies. A comparison with the Lund Model Fritiof yields satisfactory agreement. (authors)

  13. Sivers asymmetry extracted in SIDIS at the hard scales of the Drell–Yan process at COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight proton transverse-spin-dependent azimuthal asymmetries are extracted in four regions of the photon virtuality Q2 from the COMPASS 2010 semi-inclusive hadron measurements in deep inelastic muon–nucleon scattering. These Q2 regions correspond to the four regions of the di-muon mass Q2 used in the ongoing analyses of the COMPASS Drell–Yan measurements, which allows for a future direct comparison of the nucleon transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions extracted from these two alternative measurements. In addition, for the azimuthal asymmetries induced by the Sivers transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function various two-dimensional kinematic dependences are presented. The integrated Sivers asymmetries are found to be positive with an accuracy that appears to be sufficient to test the sign change of the Sivers function predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics.

  14. Sivers asymmetry extracted in SIDIS at the hard scale of the Drell-Yan process at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Akhunzyanov, R; Alexeev, M G; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anfimov, N V; Anosov, V; Augsten, K; Augustyniak, W; Austregesilo, A; Azevedo, C D R; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Ball, M; Barth, J; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bicker, K; Bielert, E R; Birsa, R; Bodlak, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bressan, A; Buchele, M; Chang, W-C; Chatterjee, C; Chiosso, M; Choi, I; Chung, S-U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Dreisbach, Ch; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger jr, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Fuchey, E; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Giarra, J; Giordano, F; Gnesi, I; Gorzellik, M; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Grube, B; Grussenmeyer, T; Guskov, A; Haas, F; Hahne, D; Hamar, G; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Heitz, R; Herrmann, F; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Hsieh, C-Y; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jary, V; Joosten, R; Jorg, P; Kabuß, E; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O M; Kramer, M; Kremser, P; Krinner, F; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kulinich, Y; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levillain, M; Levorato, S; Lian, Y-S; Lichtenstadt, J; Longo, R; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makins, N; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marianski, B; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G V; Meyer, M; Meyer, W; Mikhailov, Yu V; Mikhasenko, M; Mitrofanov, E; Mitrofanov, N; Miyachi, Y; Nagaytsev, A; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Novy, J; Nowak, W-D; Nukazuka, G; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Orlov, I; Ostrick, M; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Peng, J-C; Pereira, F; Pesek, M; Peshekhonov, D V; Pierre, N; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Regali, C; Reicherz, G; Riedl, C; Roskot, M; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Rybnikov, A; Rychter, A; Salac, R; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, C; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sawada, T; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schonning, K; Seder, E; Selyunin, A; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Smolik, J; Srnka, A; Steffen, D; Stolarski, M; Subrt, O; Sulc, M; Suzuki, H; Szabelski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Tasevsky, M; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Thiel, A; Tosello, F; Tskhay, V; Uhl, S; Veloso, J; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wallner, S; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; ter Wolbeek, J; Zaremba, K; Zavada, P; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M; Zink, A

    2017-07-10

    Proton transverse-spin azimuthal asymmetries are extracted from the COMPASS 2010 semi-inclusive hadron measurements in deep inelastic muon-nucleon scattering in those four regions of the photon virtuality $Q^2$, which correspond to the four regions of the di-muon mass $\\sqrt{Q^2}$ used in the ongoing analysis of the COMPASS Drell-Yan measurements. This allows for a future direct comparison of the nucleon transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions extracted from these two alternative measurements. Various two-dimensional kinematic dependences are presented for the azimuthal asymmetries induced by the Sivers transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function. The integrated Sivers asymmetries are found to be positive with an accuracy that appears to be sufficient to test the sign change of the Sivers function predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics.

  15. Multi-Locus Next-Generation Sequence Typing of DNA Extracted From Pooled Colonies Detects Multiple Unrelated Candida albicans Strains in a Significant Proportion of Patient Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningxin Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida albicans is an important opportunistic human pathogen. For C. albicans strain typing or drug susceptibility testing, a single colony recovered from a patient sample is normally used. This is insufficient when multiple strains are present at the site sampled. How often this is the case is unclear. Previous studies, confined to oral, vaginal and vulvar samples, have yielded conflicting results and have assessed too small a number of colonies per sample to reliably detect the presence of multiple strains. We developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS modification of the highly discriminatory C. albicans MLST (multilocus sequence typing method, 100+1 NGS-MLST, for detection and typing of multiple strains in clinical samples. In 100+1 NGS-MLST, DNA is extracted from a pool of colonies from a patient sample and also from one of the colonies. MLST amplicons from both DNA preparations are analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Using base call frequencies, our bespoke DALMATIONS software determines the MLST type of the single colony. If base call frequency differences between pool and single colony indicate the presence of an additional strain, the differences are used to computationally infer the second MLST type without the need for MLST of additional individual colonies. In mixes of previously typed pairs of strains, 100+1 NGS-MLST reliably detected a second strain. Inferred MLST types of second strains were always more similar to their real MLST types than to those of any of 59 other isolates (22 of 31 inferred types were identical to the real type. Using 100+1 NGS-MLST we found that 7/60 human samples, including three superficial candidiasis samples, contained two unrelated strains. In addition, at least one sample contained two highly similar variants of the same strain. The probability of samples containing unrelated strains appears to differ considerably between body sites. Our findings indicate the need for wider surveys to

  16. Weakly nonparallel and curvature effects on stationary crossflow instability: Comparison of results from multiple-scales analysis and parabolized stability equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Bart A.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei

    1995-01-01

    A multiple-scales approach is used to approximate the effects of nonparallelism and streamwise surface curvature on the growth of stationary crossflow vortices in incompressible, three-dimesional boundary layers. The results agree with results predicted by solving the parabolized stability equations in regions where the nonparallelism is sufficiently weak. As the nonparallelism increases, the agreement between the two approaches worsens. An attempt has been made to quantify the nonparallelism on flow stability in terms of a nondimensional number that describes the rate of change of the mean flow relative to the disturbance wavelength. We find that the above nondimensional number provides useful information about the adequacy of the multiple-scales approximation for different disturbances for a given flow geometry, but the number does not collapse data for different flow geometries onto a single curve.

  17. Rapid gas chromatography with flame photometric detection of multiple organophosphorus pesticides in Salvia miltiorrhizae after ultrasonication assisted one-step extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaofei; Qin, Jia'an; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Hongzheng; Wang, Yong; Guo, Weiying; Ma, Zhijie; Kong, Weijun

    2017-11-15

    A simple and rapid gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) method was developed for the determination of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in Salvia miltiorrhizae by using ultrasonication assisted one-step extraction (USAE) without any clean-up steps. Some crucial parameters such as type of extraction solvent were optimized to improve the method performance for trace analysis. Any clean-up steps were negligent as no interferences were detected in the GC-FPD chromatograms for sensitive detection. Under the optimized conditions, limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) for all pesticides were in the range of 0.001-0.002mg/kg and 0.002-0.01mg/kg and 0.002-0.01mg/kg, respectively, which were all below the regulatory maximum residue limits suggested. RSDs for method precision (intra- and inter-day variations) were lower than 6.8% in approval with international regulations. Average recovery rates for all pesticides at three fortification levels (0.5, 1.0 and 5.0mg/kg) were in the range of 71.2-101.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) pesticide (dimethoate) out of the 12 targets was simultaneously detected in four samples at concentrations of 0.016-0.02mg/kg. Dichlorvos and omethoate were found in the same sample from Sichuan province at 0.004 and 0.027mg/kg, respectively. Malathion and monocrotophos were determined in the other two samples at 0.014 and 0.028mg/kg, respectively. All the positive samples were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. The simple, reliable and rapid USAE-GC-FPD method with many advantages over traditional techniques would be preferred for trace analysis of multiple pesticides in more complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ALICE measurements in p–Pb collisions: Charged particle multiplicity, centrality determination and implications for binary scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toia, Alberica, E-mail: alberica.toia@cern.ch [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Measurements of particle production in proton–nucleus collisions provide a reference to disentangle final state effects, i.e. signatures of the formation of a deconfined hot medium, from initial state effects, already present in cold nuclear matter. Since many initial state effects are expected to vary as function of the number of collisions suffered by the incoming proton, it is crucial to estimate the centrality of the collision. In p-Pb collisions categorization of events into different centrality classes using a particle multiplicity distribution is complicated by the low particle multiplicities and the large multiplicity fluctuations. We present ALICE measurements of particle production in p-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=5.02 TeV, including the pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum dependence, and we discuss the event classification in centrality classes and its implications for the measurements of nuclear modification factors.

  19. Sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS quantitation and pharmacokinetic comparisons of multiple alkaloids from Fuzi- Beimu and single herb aqueous extracts following oral delivery in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanyan; Li, Yamei; Zhang, Pengjie; Yang, Bin; Wu, Huanyu; Guo, Xuejun; Li, Yubo; Zhang, Yanjun

    2017-07-15

    Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata- Fritillariae Thunbergii bulbus, namely Fuzi- Beimu in Chinese, is a classic herb pair whose combined administration was prohibited according to the rule of "Eighteen antagonisms". However, incompatibility of Fuzi and Beimu has become controversial because of the application supported by many recorded ancient prescriptions and increasing modern researches and clinical practice. The present study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic differences of multiple alkaloids from Fuzi- Beimu and the single herb aqueous extracts following oral delivery in rats. Twelve alkaloids including aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconitine, benzoylmesaconitine, benzoylhypacoitine, neoline, fuziline, talatisamine, chasmanine, peimine and peimisine in rat plasma were simultaneously quantitated by using sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), with the method developed and fully validated. Plasma concentrations of the twelve alkaloids after administration were determined and pharmacokinetic parameters were compared. Significant differences were observed for all alkaloids except aconitine, mesaconitine and benzoylaconitine for Fuzi- Beimu group in comparison with the single herb group. AUC 0-t and T 1/2 of hypaconitine were increased significantly. AUC 0-t and C max were increased and T max decreased significantly for benzoylmesaconitine and benzoylhypacoitine. Fuziline showed significantly increased AUC 0-t , C max and T max . T 1/2 of neoline was notably increased. T 1/2 and T max were significantly elevated for talatisamine while C max decreased. T max of chasmanine was significantly increased and C max decreased. Extremely significant increase of T max was found for peimisine, and significant increase of T 1/2 for peimine. Results revealed that combined use of Fuzi and Beimu significantly influenced the system exposure and pharmacokinetic behaviors of multiple alkaloids from both

  20. Tuple image multi-scale optical flow for detailed cardiac motion extraction: Application to left ventricle rotation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assen, van H.C.; Florack, L.M.J.; Westenberg, J.J.M.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Hamarneh, G.; Abugharbieh, R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for detailed tracking of cardiac motion based on MR-tagging imaging, multi-scale optical flow, and HARP-like image filtering.In earlier work, we showed that the results obtained with our method correlate very well with Phase Contrast MRI. In this paper we combine the

  1. Laboratory-scale dry/wet-milling process for the extraction of starch and gluten from wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Helmens, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory-scale process is presented for the manufacture of starch and gluten from wheat. Main feature of this process is that whole wheat kernels are crushed dry between smooth rolls prior to wet disintegration in excess water in such way that gluten formation is prevented and fibres can be

  2. M-GCAT: interactively and efficiently constructing large-scale multiple genome comparison frameworks in closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messeguer Xavier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to recent advances in whole genome shotgun sequencing and assembly technologies, the financial cost of decoding an organism's DNA has been drastically reduced, resulting in a recent explosion of genomic sequencing projects. This increase in related genomic data will allow for in depth studies of evolution in closely related species through multiple whole genome comparisons. Results To facilitate such comparisons, we present an interactive multiple genome comparison and alignment tool, M-GCAT, that can efficiently construct multiple genome comparison frameworks in closely related species. M-GCAT is able to compare and identify highly conserved regions in up to 20 closely related bacterial species in minutes on a standard computer, and as many as 90 (containing 75 cloned genomes from a set of 15 published enterobacterial genomes in an hour. M-GCAT also incorporates a novel comparative genomics data visualization interface allowing the user to globally and locally examine and inspect the conserved regions and gene annotations. Conclusion M-GCAT is an interactive comparative genomics tool well suited for quickly generating multiple genome comparisons frameworks and alignments among closely related species. M-GCAT is freely available for download for academic and non-commercial use at: http://alggen.lsi.upc.es/recerca/align/mgcat/intro-mgcat.html.

  3. Examining the Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Quality of Life Scale among People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Shawn M.; Li, Jian; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Bishop, Malachy; Merchant, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation counseling researchers seeking to more fully understand the phenomenon of psychosocial adaptation to disability are devoting increased attention to the impact of disability on quality of life (QOL). This impact has been of particular interest among multiple sclerosis (MS) researchers. The complex etiology, unpredictable nature, and…

  4. Fine-scale mapping of 8q24 locus identifies multiple independent risk variants for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiajun; Zhang, Yanfeng; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    public resources implied that SNPs rs7815245 in Signal 3, and rs1121948 in Signal 5 (in linkage disequilibrium with rs11780156, r(2)  = 0.77), were putatively functional variants for two of the five independent association signals. The results highlighted multiple 8q24 variants associated with breast...

  5. Effects of green tea extract and α-tocopherol on the lipid oxidation rate of omega-3 oils, incorporated into table spreads, prepared using multiple emulsion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Sandra P O'; O'Beirne, David; Ní Eidhin, Deirdre; O'Kennedy, Brendan T

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of fat and water soluble antioxidants on the oxidative stability of omega (ω)-3 rich table spreads, produced using novel multiple emulsion technology. Table spreads were produced by dispersing an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion (500 g/kg 85 camelina/15 fish oil blend) in a hardstock/rapeseed oil blend, using sodium caseinate and polyglycerol polyricinoleate as emulsifiers. The O/W and oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) emulsions contained either a water soluble antioxidant (green tea extract [GTE]), an oil soluble antioxidant (α-Tocopherol), or both. Spreads containing α-Tocopherol had the highest lipid hydroperoxide values, whereas spreads containing GTE had the lowest (P < 0.05), during storage at 5°C, while p-Anisidine values did not differ significantly. Particle size was generally unaffected by antioxidant type (P < 0.05). Double emulsion (O/W/O) structures were clearly seen in confocal images of the spreads. By the end of storage, none of the spreads had significantly different G' values. Firmness (Newtons) of all spreads generally increased during storage (P < 0.05). © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Evaluating habitat associations of a fish assemblage at multiple spatial scales in a minimally disturbed stream using low-cost remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Brandon D.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Bean, Preston T.; Groeschel, Jillian R.; Magnelia, Stephan J.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity at multiple scales is a major factor affecting fish assemblage structure. However, assessments that examine these relationships at multiple scales concurrently are lacking. The lack of assessments at these scales is a critical gap in understanding as conservation and restoration efforts typically work at these levels.A combination of low-cost side-scan sonar surveys, aerial imagery using an unmanned aerial vehicle, and fish collections were used to evaluate the relationship between physicochemical and landscape variables at various spatial scales (e.g. micro-mesohabitat, mesohabitat, channel unit, stream reach) and stream–fish assemblage structure and habitat associations in the South Llano River, a spring-fed second-order stream on the Edwards Plateau in central Texas during 2012–2013.Low-cost side-scan sonar surveys have not typically been used to generate data for riverscape assessments of assemblage structure, thus the secondary objective was to assess the efficacy of this approach.The finest spatial scale (micro-mesohabitat) and the intermediate scale (channel unit) had the greatest explanatory power for variation in fish assemblage structure.Many of the fish endemic to the Edwards Plateau showed similar associations with physicochemical and landscape variables suggesting that conservation and restoration actions targeting a single endemic species may provide benefits to a large proportion of the endemic species in this system.Low-cost side-scan sonar proved to be a cost-effective means of acquiring information on the habitat availability of the entire river length and allowed the assessment of how a full suite of riverscape-level variables influenced local fish assemblage structure.

  7. Pilot-scale studies of soil vapor extraction and bioventing for remediation of a gasoline spill at Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Joss, C.J.; Martino, L.E. [and others

    1994-07-01

    Approximately 10,000 gal of spilled gasoline and unknown amounts Of trichloroethylene and benzene were discovered at the US Army`s Cameron Station facility. Because the base is to be closed and turned over to the city of Alexandria in 1995, the Army sought the most rapid and cost-effective means of spill remediation. At the request of the Baltimore District of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Argonne conducted a pilot-scale study to determine the feasibility of vapor extraction and bioventing for resolving remediation problems and to critique a private firm`s vapor-extraction design. Argonne staff, working with academic and private-sector participants, designed and implemented a new systems approach to sampling, analysis and risk assessment. The US Geological Survey`s AIRFLOW model was adapted for the study to simulate the performance of possible remediation designs. A commercial vapor-extraction machine was used to remove nearly 500 gal of gasoline from Argonne-installed horizontal wells. By incorporating numerous design comments from the Argonne project team, field personnel improved the system`s performance. Argonne staff also determined that bioventing stimulated indigenous bacteria to bioremediate the gasoline spin. The Corps of Engineers will use Argonne`s pilot-study approach to evaluate remediation systems at field operation sites in several states.