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Sample records for extract induces lipolytic

  1. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  2. Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

  3. Extra-pancreatic invasion induces lipolytic and fibrotic changes in the adipose microenvironment, with released fatty acids enhancing the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Takashi; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Sada, Masafumi; Abe, Toshiya; Endo, Sho; Koikawa, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Chika; Miura, Daisuke; Mizuuchi, Yusuke; Moriyama, Taiki; Nakata, Kohei; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Manabe, Tatsuya; Ohtsuka, Takao; Nagai, Eishi; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Hashizume, Makoto; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer progression involves components of the tumor microenvironment, including stellate cells, immune cells, endothelial cells, and the extracellular matrix. Although peripancreatic fat is the main stromal component involved in extra-pancreatic invasion, its roles in local invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. This study investigated the role of adipose tissue in pancreatic cancer progression using genetically engineered mice (Pdx1-Cre; LSL-KrasG12D; Trp53R172H/+) and an in vitro model of organotypic fat invasion. Mice fed a high fat diet had significantly larger primary pancreatic tumors and a significantly higher rate of distant organ metastasis than mice fed a standard diet. In the organotypic fat invasion model, pancreatic cancer cell clusters were smaller and more elongated in shape and showed increased fibrosis. Adipose tissue-derived conditioned medium enhanced pancreatic cancer cell invasiveness and gemcitabine resistance, as well as inducing morphologic changes in cancer cells and increasing the numbers of lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. The concentrations of oleic, palmitoleic, and linoleic acids were higher in adipose tissue-derived conditioned medium than in normal medium, with these fatty acids significantly enhancing the migration of cancer cells. Mature adipocytes were smaller and the concentration of fatty acids in the medium higher when these cells were co-cultured with cancer cells. These findings indicate that lipolytic and fibrotic changes in peripancreatic adipose tissue enhance local invasiveness and metastasis via adipocyte-released fatty acids. Inhibition of fatty acid uptake by cancer cells may be a novel therapy targeting interactions between cancer and stromal cells. PMID:28407685

  4. Lipolytic and antimicrobial activities of Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Purpose: To identify and determine lipolytic and antimicrobial activities, and antibiotic susceptibility of ... reverse-phase C-18 column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ..... arabinose, D-cellobiose, D-fructose, D-galactose,.

  5. Lipolytic effect of a polyphenolic citrus dry extract of red orange, grapefruit, orange (SINETROL) in human body fat adipocytes. Mechanism of action by inhibition of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Tenca, Guillaume; Juchaux, Franck; Bernard, François-Xavier

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigated the lipolytic (break of fat stored) effect of a citrus-based polyphenolic dietary supplement (SINETROL) at human adipocytes (ex vivo), body fat (clinical) and biochemical levels (inhibition of phosphodiesterase). Free fatty acids (FFA) release was used as indicator of human adipocyte lipolysis and SINETROL activity has been compared with known lipolytic products (isoproterenol, theopylline and caffeine). SINETROL stimulated significantly the lipolytic activity in a range of 6 fold greater than the control. Moreover, SINETROL has 2.1 greater activity than guarana 12% caffeine while its content in caffeine is 3 times lower. Clinically, two groups of 10 volunteers with BMI relevant of overweight were compared during 4 and 12 weeks with 1.4 g/day SINETROL and placebo supplementation. In the SINETROL Group the body fat (%) decreased with a significant difference of 5.53% and 15.6% after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively, while the body weight (kg) decreased with a significant difference of 2.2 and 5.2 kg after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. These observed effects are linked to SINETROL polyphenolic composition and its resulting synergistic activity. SINETROL is a potent inhibitor of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) (97%) compared to other purified compounds (cyanidin-3 glycoside, narangin, caffeine). These results suggest that SINETROL has a strong lipolytic effect mediated by cAMP-PDE inhibition. SINETROL may serve to prevent obesity by decreasing BMI.

  6. kernel oil by lipolytic organisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Rancidity of extracted cashew oil was observed with cashew kernel stored at 70, 80 and 90% .... method of American Oil Chemist Society AOCS (1978) using glacial ..... changes occur and volatile products are formed that are.

  7. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  8. A comparison of the levels of oil, carotenoids, and lipolytic enzyme activities in modern lines and hybrids of grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen modern commercial grain sorghum hybrids and five sorghum lines were extracted and the levels of oil and carotenoids were analyzed and compared. The same samples were also evaluated for lipolytic enzyme activity. The oil content in all eighteen samples ranged from 3.21 to 4.29 wt%. Beta c...

  9. Isolation of lipolytic bacteria from Colombian Andean soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaramillo, Paola Andrea Palacios; Borda-Molina, Daniel; Montaña, José Salvador

    2017-01-01

    soils under low temperatures were sampled: paramo and glacier soils from "Los Nevados" National Natural Park. Both soils were enriched through a fed-batch fermentation using olive oil as the inductor substrate. Forty-three lipolytic isolates were obtained and their taxonomic assignments were performed...... on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing. In both cases, the phylum Proteobacteria represented the majority of the isolates. Qualitative assays to measure the lipolytic activity were performed by using tributyrin, triolein or olive oil (1%). Two isolates identified as Pseudomonas psychrophila...

  10. Cutaneous foreign body granulomas associated with lipolytic cocktail: Who is the enemy, mesotherapy or drugs injected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Gokalp, Hilal; Ince, Umit; Engin, Burhan

    2017-10-01

    Mesotherapy is widely used for its lipolytic effect as an alternative procedure to surgical methods. Although many benefits of lipolytic mesotherapy have been observed, numerous side effects have also been reported. Here, we report a case of cutaneous foreign body granulomas that occurred after lipolytic mesotherapy.

  11. Pitfalls using tributyrin agar screening to detect lipolytic activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The metagenomics approach is an efficient method for obtaining novel biocatalysts and useful genes from uncultured microorganisms within diverse environments. In this study, we constructed a metagenomic library using a South African deep mine biofilm sample. The library was screened for lipolytic activity using LB ...

  12. Mining lipolytic enzymes in community DNA from high Andean soils using a targeted approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda-Molina, Daniel; Montaña, José Salvador; Zambrano, María Mercedes; Baena, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Microbial enrichments cultures are a useful strategy to speed up the search for enzymes that can be employed in industrial processes. Lipases have gained special attention because they show unique properties such as: broad substrate specificity, enantio- and regio-selectivity and stability in organic solvents. A major goal is to identify novel lipolytic enzymes from microorganisms living in cold extreme environments such as high Andean soils, of relevance to our study being their capability be used in industrial processes. Paramo and glacier soils from the Nevados National Park in Colombia were sampled and microbial communities enriched through a fed-batch fermentation using olive oil as an inductor substrate. After 15 days of enrichment under aerobic conditions, total DNA was extracted. Subsequently, metagenomic libraries were constructed in the cosmid vector pWEB-TNC™. After functional screening, twenty and eighteen lipolytic clones were obtained from Paramo and Glacier soil enrichments, respectively. Based on lipid hydrolysis halo dimensions, the clone (Gla1) from a glacier enrichment was selected. A gene related to lipolytic activity was subcloned to evaluate enzyme properties. Phylogenetic analysis of the identified gene showed that the encoded lipase belongs to the family GDSL from a Ralstonia-like species. Interestingly, the secreted enzyme exhibited stability at high temperature and alkaline conditions, specifically the preferred conditions at 80 °C and pH 9.0. Thus, with the identification of an enzyme with non-expected properties, in this study is shown the potential of extreme cold environments to be explored for new catalytic molecules, using current molecular biology techniques, with applications in industrial processes, which demand stability under harsh conditions.

  13. Anti-lipolytic activity and phytochemical screening ofChelianthesalbomarginataagainst pathogenic microorganisms

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    Rini Jarial

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic properties of selected fern, Chelianthusalbomarginataand to identify its functional compounds. The methanolic fern-extract (MFE of these ferns was assessed for anti-bacterial activities by measuring inhibition zones against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains using agar diffusion method. MFE at a concentration of 25 μg/ml showed marked anti-bacterial activity against all bacterial strains (6-23mm zone of inhibition and was maximum against Enterobacter sp (23 mm. In addition, the MFE of C. albomarginatahad the best MIC values of 2.25µg/ml against S. aureus and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The MFE also possessed good anti-lipolytic activity (66.5% against a porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL and cholesterol oxidase inhibition (79%. This result showed that MFE of C. albomarginataunder optimal concentrationis not only a potent source of natural anti-oxidants and anti-bacterial activity but also possesses efficient cholesterol degradation and anti-lipolytic activities, that is to be beneficial in the body weight management.

  14. Lipolytic activity from bacteria prospected in polluted portuary sites

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    Kaori Levy Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    This study demonstrates that these TBT resistant isolates have, at the same time, the capacity to produce enzymes with a large biotechnological potential but, nevertheless, their relationship is not well understood, representing a novel approach. It is expected for these organisms to produce highly biotechnological relevant biocatalysts, due to their severe adaptations (Suehiro et al., 2007. The fully characterization of these lipases, mostly for F3 with elevated lipolytic activity exhibited, presents also a future challenge.

  15. Lipolytic activity in high temperature germinating Almond seedlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bahri

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... Felipe A (1981). Germination accelérée d'amandes au moyen de l'acide gibbérellique. Cahier Options Méditerranéennes I:139-140. Hirayama O, Matsuda H (1972). An improved method for determining lipolytic acylhydrolases activity. Agric. Biol. Chem. 36(10):1831-. 1833. Garcia-Olmedo R, Marca-Garcia ...

  16. Lipolytic actions of secretin in mouse adipocytes[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Revathi; Chow, Billy K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Secretin (Sct), a classical gut hormone, is now known to play pleiotropic functions in the body including osmoregulation, digestion, and feeding control. As Sct has long been implicated to regulate metabolism, in this report, we have investigated a potential lipolytic action of Sct. In our preliminary studies, both Sct levels in circulation and Sct receptor (SctR) transcripts in adipose tissue were upregulated during fasting, suggesting a potential physiological relevance of Sct in regulating lipolysis. Using SctR knockout and Sct knockout mice as controls, we show that Sct is able to stimulate lipolysis in vitro in isolated adipocytes dose- and time-dependently, as well as acute lipolysis in vivo. H-89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, was found to attenuate lipolytic effects of 1 μM Sct in vitro, while a significant increase in PKA activity upon Sct injection was observed in the adipose tissue in vivo. Sct was also found to stimulate phosphorylation at 660ser of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and to bring about the translocation of HSL from cytosol to the lipid droplet. In summary, our data demonstrate for the first time the in vivo and in vitro lipolytic effects of Sct, and that this function is mediated by PKA and HSL. PMID:24273196

  17. Unraveling the lipolytic activity of thermophilic bacteria isolated from a volcanic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Panagiota M; Savvides, Alexander L; Karagouni, Amalia D; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G

    2013-01-01

    In a bioprospecting effort towards novel thermostable lipases, we assessed the lipolytic profile of 101 bacterial strains isolated from the volcanic area of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece. Screening of lipase activity was performed both in agar plates and liquid cultures using olive oil as carbon source. Significant differences were observed between the two screening methods with no clear correlation between them. While the percentage of lipase producing strains identified in agar plates was only 17%, lipolytic activity in liquid culture supernatants was detected for 74% of them. Nine strains exhibiting elevated extracellular lipase activities were selected for lipase production and biochemical characterization. The majority of lipase producers revealed high phylogenetic similarity with Geobacillus species and related genera, whilst one of them was identified as Aneurinibacillus sp. Lipase biosynthesis strongly depended on the carbon source that supplemented the culture medium. Olive oil induced lipase production in all strains, but maximum enzyme yields for some of the strains were also obtained with Tween-80, mineral oil, and glycerol. Partially purified lipases revealed optimal activity at 70-80°C and pH 8-9. Extensive thermal stability studies revealed marked thermostability for the majority of the lipases as well as a two-step thermal deactivation pattern.

  18. Unraveling the Lipolytic Activity of Thermophilic Bacteria Isolated from a Volcanic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota M. Stathopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a bioprospecting effort towards novel thermostable lipases, we assessed the lipolytic profile of 101 bacterial strains isolated from the volcanic area of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece. Screening of lipase activity was performed both in agar plates and liquid cultures using olive oil as carbon source. Significant differences were observed between the two screening methods with no clear correlation between them. While the percentage of lipase producing strains identified in agar plates was only 17%, lipolytic activity in liquid culture supernatants was detected for 74% of them. Nine strains exhibiting elevated extracellular lipase activities were selected for lipase production and biochemical characterization. The majority of lipase producers revealed high phylogenetic similarity with Geobacillus species and related genera, whilst one of them was identified as Aneurinibacillus sp. Lipase biosynthesis strongly depended on the carbon source that supplemented the culture medium. Olive oil induced lipase production in all strains, but maximum enzyme yields for some of the strains were also obtained with Tween-80, mineral oil, and glycerol. Partially purified lipases revealed optimal activity at 70–80°C and pH 8-9. Extensive thermal stability studies revealed marked thermostability for the majority of the lipases as well as a two-step thermal deactivation pattern.

  19. Catalytic Properties of Lipase Extracts from Aspergillus niger

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    Cintia M. Romero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening of lipolytic strains using Rhodamine-B/olive oil plate technique allowed the selection of Aspergillus niger MYA 135. Lipase production in submerged culture containing 2 % olive oil was enhanced by more than 50 % compared to basal cultural conditions. Optimal catalytic conditions for olive oil-induced lipase were pH=6.5 and 30–35 °C. These values were shifted to the acid region (4.0–6.5 and 35–37 °C when lipase extract was produced under basal conditions. Slight changes of the residual lipase activity against the pH were found. However, preincubation at either 37 or 40 °C caused an increase in the olive oil-inducible lipolytic activity. On the contrary, lipase residual activity decreases in the 30–55 °C range when it was produced in basal medium. Lipolytic extracts were almost not deactivated in presence of 50 % water-miscible organic solvents. However, water-immiscible aliphatic solvents reduced the lipase activity between 20 and 80 %.

  20. Suberin utilization by chrysonilia sitophila: evidence for lipolytic enzymes production

    OpenAIRE

    Vitorino, S. I.; Neves, E. S. G.; Gaspar, F.; Marques, J. J. Figueiredo; Romão, M. V. San

    2007-01-01

    The role of the development of Chrysonilia sitophila on cork slabs, during the manufacturing process of cork stoppers, is not clearly understood. This work describes the first results demonstrating the potential of that mould to metabolize suberin. Lipolytic activity was clearly observed in solid and liquid cultures of C. sitophila. A função do desenvolvimento de Chrysonilia sitophila em pranchas de cortiça, durante o processo de fabrico de rolhas de cortiça, não está ainda claramente clar...

  1. MODELLING SLOW EXTRACTION INDUCED RADIOACTIVITY IN SPS LSS2

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo Martinez, Aurora Cecilia; CERN. Geneva. TE Department

    2017-01-01

    The Accelerator and Beam Transfer (ABT) group is investigating the impact of recent proposals to extract higher proton intensities to Fixed Target experiments at the SPS. The 400 GeV high-energy proton beam is typically extracted over a few seconds using a resonant slow-extraction technique that induces small but unavoidable beam losses on the extraction equipment in SPS LSS2. In this report, the induced radioactivity for 2016-2017 is used to predict future activation levels and cool-down times, using a past intervention as a reference to predict dose to the personnel carrying-out maintenance of the accelerator.

  2. Cat's claw oxindole alkaloid isomerization induced by common extraction methods

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    Samuel Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat's claw oxindole alkaloids are prone to isomerization in aqueous solution. However, studies on their behavior in extraction processes are scarce. This paper addressed the issue by considering five commonly used extraction processes. Unlike dynamic maceration (DM and ultrasound-assisted extraction, substantial isomerization was induced by static maceration, turbo-extraction and reflux extraction. After heating under reflux in DM, the kinetic order of isomerization was established and equations were fitted successfully using a four-parameter Weibull model (R² > 0.999. Different isomerization rates and equilibrium constants were verified, revealing a possible matrix effect on alkaloid isomerization.

  3. Mangifera indica L. leaf extract alleviates doxorubicin induced cardiac stress

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    Laxit Bhatt

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The present findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. indica against oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 284-289

  4. Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    In this study, the role of the ethyl alcohol extract of H. fusiforme (EAHF) in the induction of apoptosis in ... closely related to the induction of apoptosis via the downregulation of IAP family members such as IAP-. 1, IAP-2 ... induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells through ... Total cell extracts were prepared using PRO-.

  5. Artemesia annua extract prevents glyoxal-induced cell injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Artemesia annua extract on glyoxal-induced injury in retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs). Methods: HRECs were cultured in a medium containing 500 μM glyoxal or glyoxal plus 50μM Artemesia annua extract, or in the medium alone for 24 h. Apoptosis was analysed by flow ...

  6. In vitro lipolytic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roasted pistachio kernel and skin constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Timmers, Michael A; Xiong, Jia; Yousef, Gad; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Lila, Mary Ann

    2016-10-12

    A comprehensive phytochemical analysis was conducted on pistachios to identify the differential contributions of skin and kernel phytochemicals to in vitro bioactivity. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of skin and kernel non-polar extracts (SNP and KNP, respectively) indicated that the major components are fatty acids (696.36 and 879.70 mg g -1 ), phytosterols (16.08 and 4.28 mg g -1 ), and γ-tocopherol (304.17 and 397.10 μg g -1 ). Analysis of the skin and kernel polar extracts (SP and KP, respectively) showed that skin accumulated higher levels of phenolic compounds, especially flavan-3-ols, compared to the kernel. An (epi)catechin hexoside was the major component in SP and KP (9.8 mg g -1 and 3.3 mg g -1 , respectively). Flavan-3-ols with different degrees of polymerization were detected in SP, but only the monomers were identified in the KP. Quercetin glycosides were the major flavonols present in both SP and KP. Bioassays with 3T3L1 mouse adipocytes demonstrated that all extracts decreased lipid accumulation, with SNP demonstrating the highest activity (17% inhibition). Bioassay guided fractionation of SNP indicated that the lipolytic activity was highest in the fraction consisting of linoleic acid (20%), linolenic acid (10%), and β-sitosterol (50%). Radical scavenging assays indicated that all pistachio extracts significantly inhibited ROS, while SP was the most inhibiting to NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Gene expression profiles associated with inflammation (IL6, iNOS, and COX2) were characterized in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages after treatment with pistachio extracts. SP and KP were the most potent to inhibit the expression of COX2. The SNP had the strongest effect in decreasing non-mitochondrial oxidative burst associated with inflammatory response in macrophages.

  7. The lipolytic activity of Rhizopus microsporus var rhizopodiformis isolat UICC No. 6

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    Doni Prayudi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to examine the effect of peptone concentration (2,5% or 5%, inoculum concentration (0,1%, 0,5% or 1% and incubation period (0 – 96 hours, interval 12 hours on the lipolytic activity of Rhizopus microsporus var rhizopodiformis isolat UICC No. 6. Fermentation was done using the basal medium from Samad and the lipolytic activity on olive oil substrate was measured employing titration method with 0,05M NaOH. Lipolytic activity is expressed as unit/ml and one unit is defined as 1 Ωmol fatty acid liberated per minute. Results show that optimum lipolytic activity was obtained from 1 % inoculum, 5% peptone after 72 hours incubation period.

  8. Enzymatic surface hydrolysis of polyamide 6,6 with mixtures of proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvinzadeh Gashti, Mazeyar; Assefipour, Reza; Kiumarsi, Amir; Parvinzadeh Gashti, Mahyar

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the changes induced on nylon 6,6 fabric by a mixture of proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. Technical measurements were studied including those of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), weight loss (WL), bending lengths (BL), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), moisture absorbency (MA), and reflectance spectroscopy (RS). For this purpose, nylon 6,6 fabrics were treated separately with different concentrations of protease and lipase mixtures in solution. The dyeing process was then carried out on the treated fabrics with two reactive and acid dyes. The intensity of major peaks in the FTIR spectra of the protease-treated samples is in favor of chemical changes the polypeptide functional groups in the fabrics. Thermal studies also show a significant decrease in the thermal degradation temperature of the treated polymer at temperatures higher than 400°C. The protease and lipase mixtures decreased the sample weight, while lipase intensified the weight loss comparing with protease. It was observed that the concentration of lipase enzyme had a direct influence on the darkness of dyed samples.

  9. Strategy for improving extracellular lipolytic activities by a novel thermotolerant Staphylococcus sp. strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherif Slim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular bacterial lipases received much attention for their substrate specificity and their ability to function under extreme environments (pH, temperature.... Many staphylococci produced lipases which were released into the culture medium. Reports of extracellular thermostable lipases from Staphylococcus sp. and active in alkaline conditions are not previously described. Results This study focused on novel strategies to increase extracellular lipolytic enzyme production by a novel Staphylococcus sp. strain ESW. The microorganism needed neutral or alkaline pH values between 7.0 and 12.0 for growth. For pH values outside this range, cell growth seemed to be significantly inhibited. Staphylococcus sp. culture was able to grow within a wide temperature range (from 30 to 55°C. The presence of oils in the culture medium leaded to improvements in cells growth and lipolytic enzyme activity. On the other hand, although chemical surfactants leaded to an almost complete inhibition of growth and lipolytic enzyme production, their addition along the culture could affect the location of the enzyme. In addition, our results showed that this novel Staphylococcus sp. strain produced biosurfactants simultaneously with lipolytic activity, when soapstock (The main co-product of the vegetable oil refining industry, was used as the sole carbon source. Conclusion A simultaneous biosurfactant and extracellular lipolytic enzymes produced bacterial strain with potential application in soap stock treatment

  10. Glioprotective Effects of Ashwagandha Leaf Extract against Lead Induced Toxicity

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    Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, also known as Indian Ginseng, is a well-known Indian medicinal plant due to its antioxidative, antistress, antigenotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to assess and establish the cytoprotective potential of Ashwagandha leaf aqueous extract against lead induced toxicity. Pretreatment of C6 cells with 0.1% Ashwagandha extract showed cytoprotection against 25 μM to 400 μM concentration of lead nitrate. Further pretreatment with Ashwagandha extract to lead nitrate exposed cells (200 μM resulted in normalization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression as well as heat shock protein (HSP70, mortalin, and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM expression. Further, the cytoprotective efficacy of Ashwagandha extract was studied in vivo. Administration of Ashwagandha extract provided significant protection to lead induced altered antioxidant defense that may significantly compromise normal cellular function. Ashwagandha also provided a significant protection to lipid peroxidation (LPx levels, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD but not reduced glutathione (GSH contents in brain tissue as well as peripheral organs, liver and kidney, suggesting its ability to act as a free radical scavenger protecting cells against toxic insult. These results, thus, suggest that Ashwagandha water extract may have the potential therapeutic implication against lead poisoning.

  11. Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis in Human Leukemia U937 Cells by Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species. C-H Kang, S-H Kang, S-H Boo, S-Y Park, D-O Moon, G-Y Kim ...

  12. Trichilia monadelpha Bark Extracts Inhibit Carrageenan-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. ... The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of ...

  13. Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Syzygium cumini Leaf Dually Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet Function in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Jonas R.; França, Lucas M.; Chagas, Vinicyus T.; Gaspar, Renato S.; dos Santos, Kayque A.; Gonçalves, Luciana M.; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Holloway, Alison C.; Dutra, Richard P.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Cappelli, Ana Paula G.; Paes, Antonio Marcus de A.

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed, and pulp-fruit, however. there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg) or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a twofold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10–1000 μg/mL) increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E β-cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating β-cell insulin release, which was associated

  14. Polyphenol-rich extract of Syzygium cumini leaf dually improves peripheral insulin sensitivity and pancreatic islet function in monosodium L-glutamate-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rodrigues Sanches

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (Myrtaceae has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed and pulp-fruit, however there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a 2-fold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10 – 1000 ug/mL increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E beta cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating beta cell insulin release

  15. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  16. Identification of lipolytic enzymes isolated from bacteria indigenous to Eucalyptus wood species for application in the pulping industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramnath, L

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ) and characterized. Phenol red agar plates supplemented with 1% olive oil or tributyrin was ascertained to be the most favourable method of screening for lipolytic activity. Lipolytic activity of the various enzymes were highest at 45–61 U/ml at the optimum...

  17. Mangifera indica L. leaf extract alleviates doxorubicin induced cardiac stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Laxit; Joshi, Viraj

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic leaf extract of Mangifera indica L. against cardiac stress caused by doxorubicin (DOX). Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with 100 mg/kg of M. indica leaf extract (MILE) in alone and interactive groups for 21 days. Apart from the normal and MILE control groups, all the groups were subjected to DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity for 21 days and effects of different treatments were analyzed by changes in serum biomarkers, tissue antioxidant levels, electrocardiographic parameters, lipid profile, and histopathological evaluation. Results: The MILE treated group showed decrease in serum biomarker enzyme levels and increase in tissue antioxidants levels. Compared to DOX control group, MILE treated animals showed improvement in lipid profile, electrocardiographic parameters, histological score, and mortality. Conclusion: These findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. indica against oxidative stress induced by DOX. PMID:28894627

  18. Novel extraction induced by microemulsion breaking: a model study for Hg extraction from Brazilian gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentino, Priscila O; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for the extraction of Hg from Brazilian gasoline samples: extraction induced by microemulsion breaking (EIMB). In this approach, a microemulsion is formed by mixing the sample with n-propanol and HCl. Afterwards, the microemulsion is destabilized by the addition of water and the two phases are separated: (i) the top phase, containing the residual gasoline and (ii) the bottom phase, containing the extracted analyte in a medium containing water, n-propanol and the ethanol originally present in the gasoline sample. The bottom phase is then collected and the Hg is measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). This model study used Brazilian gasoline samples spiked with Hg (organometallic compound) to optimize the process. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the microemulsion was prepared by mixing 8.7mL of sample with 1.2mL of n-propanol and 0.1mL of a 10molL -1 HCl solution. Emulsion breaking was induced by adding 300µL of deionized water and the bottom phase was collected for the measurement of Hg. Six samples of Brazilian gasoline were spiked with Hg in the organometallic form and recovery percentages in the range of 88-109% were observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lipolytic activity in the flight muscles of Locusta migratoria measured with haemolymph lipoproteins as substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Wheeler, C.H.; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1984-01-01

    A radiochemical assay is described in which neutral lipids presented as part of authentic haemolymph lipoproteins have been used as substrates to measure the lipolytic activity in the flight muscles of Locusta migratoria. The radiolabel in the substrate was located almost exclusively in the glycerol

  20. Blunted lipolytic response to fasting in abdominally obese women: evidence for involvement of hyposomatotropism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Madelon M.; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Wijbrandts, Carla; de Kam, Marieke L.; Frölich, Marijke; Cohen, Adam F.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Meinders, A. Edo; Pijl, Hanno

    2003-01-01

    Background: Abdominal obesity is associated with a blunted lipolytic response to fasting that may contribute to the preservation of adipose tissue mass. Objective: To further explore the pathophysiology of blunted lipolysis during fasting in obesity, we simultaneously measured lipolysis and distinct

  1. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Karslo?lu, Bet?l; ?i?ek, ?mran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Cando?an, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p

  2. Chemical-induced disease relation extraction with various linguistic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jinghang; Qian, Longhua; Zhou, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relations between chemicals and diseases is crucial in various biomedical tasks such as new drug discoveries and new therapy developments. While manually mining these relations from the biomedical literature is costly and time-consuming, such a procedure is often difficult to keep up-to-date. To address these issues, the BioCreative-V community proposed a challenging task of automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease (CID) relations in order to benefit biocuration. This article describes our work on the CID relation extraction task on the BioCreative-V tasks. We built a machine learning based system that utilized simple yet effective linguistic features to extract relations with maximum entropy models. In addition to leveraging various features, the hypernym relations between entity concepts derived from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)-controlled vocabulary were also employed during both training and testing stages to obtain more accurate classification models and better extraction performance, respectively. We demoted relation extraction between entities in documents to relation extraction between entity mentions. In our system, pairs of chemical and disease mentions at both intra- and inter-sentence levels were first constructed as relation instances for training and testing, then two classification models at both levels were trained from the training examples and applied to the testing examples. Finally, we merged the classification results from mention level to document level to acquire final relations between chemicals and diseases. Our system achieved promisingF-scores of 60.4% on the development dataset and 58.3% on the test dataset using gold-standard entity annotations, respectively. Database URL:https://github.com/JHnlp/BC5CIDTask. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Lipolytic Changes in the Milk Fat of Raw Milk and Their Effects on the Quality of Milk Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kirst, E.

    1986-01-01

    Lipolytic changes in milk rat affect sensory attributes and techno logicaI properties of milk and milk products. They are affectcd by physiologal, thermal . and biochemical factors as well as by the mechanics of fluids Lipolytic processes in milk are intensified by modern processing methods. In this review. special attention has been paid to runinant- related feeding of dairy cows. foaming of milk. mechanical and thermal influences and the growth of psycllrotrophic bacteria. Feeds defic...

  4. Effect of starter cultures combinations on lipolytic activity and ripening of dry fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Baris Bingol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starter culture combinations on the quality of Turkish type dry fermented sausage (sucuk were evaluated during ripening and storage periods. Sucuk formulations were produced without (control and with three different starter culture combinations; i Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus, ii Staphylococcus carnosus+ Lactobacillus sakei, and iii Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus+Lactobacillus sakei. Analysis of microbiological, physico-chemical and lipase enzyme levels of samples were conducted until the 60th day. Interactions among the presence of lipolytic starter cultures, lipase enzyme levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also evaluated both in ripening and drying periods. There were apparent differences on microbiological and chemical properties between samples prepared with starters and control. It has been concluded that the use of lipolytic starter cultures in suitable combination would have positive effect on the acceleration of ripening and improvement of the quality of dry fermented sausages.

  5. Grape seed extract ameliorates bleomycin-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Liu, Ya-Nan; Ge, Ling-Tian; Guan, Yan; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Yong-Liang; Dong, Xin-Wei; Sun, Yun; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2017-05-05

    Pulmonary fibrosis is common in a variety of inflammatory lung diseases, such as interstitial pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and silicosis. There is currently no effective clinical drug treatment. It has been reported that grape seed extracts (GSE) has extensive pharmacological effects with minimal toxicity. Although it has been found that GSE can improve the lung collagen deposition and fibrosis pathology induced by bleomycin in rat, its effects on pulmonary function, inflammation, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain to be researched. In the present study, we studied whether GSE provided protection against bleomycin (BLM)-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis. ICR strain mice were treated with BLM in order to establish pulmonary fibrosis models. GSE was given daily via intragastric administration for three weeks starting at one day after intratracheal instillation. GSE at 50 or 100mg/kg significantly reduced BLM-induced inflammatory cells infiltration, proinflammatory factor protein expression, and hydroxyproline in lung tissues, and improved pulmonary function in mice. Additionally, treatment with GSE also significantly impaired BLM-induced increases in lung fibrotic marker expression (collagen type I alpha 1 and fibronectin 1) and decreases in an anti-fibrotic marker (E-cadherin). Further investigation indicated that the possible molecular targets of GSE are matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) and TGF-β1, given that treatment with GSE significantly prevented BLM-induced increases in MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Together, these results suggest that supplementation with GSE may improve the quality of life of lung fibrosis patients by inhibiting MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE LIPOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF FUNGUS ON CASTOR OIL (Ricinuscommunis)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza C., L.; Lino N., M.; León Q., J.; Santiago C., J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to select fungal strains having improved lipolytic activity in castor oil and see if its crude enzyme obtained by fermentation in liquid substrate (FSL) has the same activity on castor oil. Nine strains were isolated from fungi, Penicillium sp eight and one Aspergillus sp from waste vegetable oils. The results show that all studied strains of degradation halos developed, however, in no case was the halos of crude enzymatic degradation. The work showed that the strains o...

  7. Unraveling the Lipolytic Activity of Thermophilic Bacteria Isolated from a Volcanic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Stathopoulou, Panagiota M.; Savvides, Alexander L.; Karagouni, Amalia D.; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G.

    2013-01-01

    In a bioprospecting effort towards novel thermostable lipases, we assessed the lipolytic profile of 101 bacterial strains isolated from the volcanic area of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece. Screening of lipase activity was performed both in agar plates and liquid cultures using olive oil as carbon source. Significant differences were observed between the two screening methods with no clear correlation between them. While the percentage of lipase producing strains identified in agar plates was o...

  8. Identification and Characterisation of A Locally Isolated Lipolytic Microfungus - Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Geotrichum candidum was successfully isolated from local soil samples and some of its characteristics determined. The strain produces lipase that hydrolysed palm olein on a selective agar incorporated with Nile Blue sulphate and palm olein. Suspension culture was used to study the growth and lipolytic activity. The results showed that the highest dry cell mass of G. candidum was achieved after 96 hours of growth when 2% (v/v seed culture was used as inoculum. Using spore suspension as an inoculum was not favourable since less yield of mycelia mass was obtained at peak of log phase and the culture exhibited relatively low lipolytic activity and efficiency of hydrolysis. The maximum amount of free fatty acids (90.5% was released after 48 hours of incubation. However, the highest lipolytic activity, 7.02 mmole FFA/g dry cell was detected at 54 hours. The production of cell-bound lipase of G. candidum was concomitant with growth and declined when growth ceased. During the course of growth, changes to palm olein added into the culture medium caused the growth culture to turn into a creamy colloidal emulsion. Towards the end of the incubation period, solid fatty particles were formed. Thin layer chromatographic analysis showed that triacylglycerols in the palm olein were rapidly hydrolysed to fatty acids in 18 hours, with no pronounced change in the amounts of 1,2-diacylglycerols and 1,3-diacylglycerols.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipolytic enzymes as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Brust

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New diagnosis tests are urgently needed to address the global tuberculosis (TB burden and to improve control programs especially in resource-limited settings. An effective in vitro diagnostic of TB based on serological methods would be regarded as an attractive progress because immunoassays are simple, rapid, inexpensive, and may offer the possibility to detect cases missed by standard sputum smear microscopy. However, currently available serology tests for TB are highly variable in sensitivity and specificity. Lipolytic enzymes have recently emerged as key factors in lipid metabolization during dormancy and/or exit of the non-replicating growth phase, a prerequisite step of TB reactivation. The focus of this study was to analyze and compare the potential of four Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipolytic enzymes (LipY, Rv0183, Rv1984c and Rv3452 as new markers in the serodiagnosis of active TB. METHODS: Recombinant proteins were produced and used in optimized ELISA aimed to detect IgG and IgM serum antibodies against the four lipolytic enzymes. The capacity of the assays to identify infection was evaluated in patients with either active TB or latent TB and compared with two distinct control groups consisting of BCG-vaccinated blood donors and hospitalized non-TB individuals. RESULTS: A robust humoral response was detected in patients with active TB whereas antibodies against lipolytic enzymes were infrequently detected in either uninfected groups or in subjects with latent infection. High specifity levels, ranging from 93.9% to 97.5%, were obtained for all four antigens with sensitivity values ranging from 73.4% to 90.5%, with Rv3452 displaying the highest performances. Patients with active TB usually exhibited strong IgG responses but poor IgM responses. CONCLUSION: These results clearly indicate that the lipolytic enzymes tested are strongly immunogenic allowing to distinguish active from latent TB infections. They appear as potent

  10. Proteolytic and lipolytic microbiota of refrigerated raw milk from northeast and southern regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of milk and milk derivatives is directly related to the microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk. Spoilage microorganisms with proteolytic and/or lipolytic properties are primarily responsible for the decrease in the quality of milk, which is reflected in the shelf life of pasteurized milk and all derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the spoilage microbial load of refrigerated raw milk from the northeast and southern regions of Brazil, which have different climatic and technological conditions of production. We evaluated 46 samples of milk from the state of Paraná in the southern region, and 10 samples of milk from the state of Maranhão in the northeast region, totaling 56 samples collected from November 2013 to November 2014. The producers of Paraná were divided into large (20 or small (26 according to the average daily production. All producers of Maranhão were considered small (<500L/day. The proteolytic and lipolytic microorganism counts were conducted in milk agar and tributyrin agar, respectively. Milk from the large producers of Paraná had average counts of 1.4 × 104 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 1.2 × 103 CFU/mL for lipolytics microorganisms, significantly (p <0.05 lower than the small producers in the same state, and the producers of Maranhão. Producers of Maranhao had counts of 1.1 × 105 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 2 × 105 CFU/mL for lipolytic microorganisms, with the proteolytic count significantly lower than that of small Paraná producers. The amount of proteolytic and lipolytic spoilage microorganisms in milk is influenced by the adaptation of the microorganisms to cold, promoted by the cooling of milk, which is practiced less frequently in the country’s northeastern region. The amount of spoilage microorganisms is also affected by the implementation of milking hygiene practices, which reduce contamination. Such practices are more frequently and efficiently

  11. Use of Arctium lappa Extract Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kott, Attalla Farag; Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Severe destructive hepatic injuries can be induced by acetaminophen overdose and may lead to acute hepatic failure. Objective: To investigate the ameliorative effects of Arctium lappa root extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group, Arctium lappa extract group, acetaminophen-injected group, and acetaminophen treated with Arctium lappa extract group. Results: The treatment with Arctium lappa extract reduc...

  12. Plasma extraction by centrifugo-pneumatically induced gating of flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Robert; Ducrée, Jens; Reis, Nuno; Da Fonseca, João Garcia

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel valving mechanism to implement plasma extraction from whole blood on a centrifugal microfluidic ‘lab-on-a-disc’ platform. The new scheme is based on pressure-induced deflection of a liquid membrane which gates the centrifugally driven flow through a microfluidic structure. Compared to conventional concepts such as capillary burst valves, siphons or sacrificial materials, the valving structure presented here is represented by a compact, small-footprint design which obviates the need for (local) surface functionalization or hybrid materials integration, thus significantly reducing the complexity (and hence cost) of manufacture. As a pilot study of this new centrifugal flow control element, we demonstrate here the efficient separation of metered plasma from whole blood. While the flow is stopped, blood is separated into plasma and its cellular constituents by centrifugally induced sedimentation. After completion, the flow resumes by elevating the spinning frequency, providing up to 80% of the original plasma content to an overflow chamber within a short, 2 min interval. The amount of residual cells in the plasma amounts to less than 20 cells μl −1 . (paper)

  13. Effects of scallop shell extract on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and MK801-induced locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yasushi; Inoue, Tatsuro; Kawaminami, Satoshi; Fujita, Miho

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of the organic components of scallop shells (scallop shell extract) on memory impairment and locomotor activity induced by scopolamine or 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK801). Effect of the scallop shell extract on memory impairment and locomotor activity was investigated using the Y-maze test, the Morris water maze test, and the open field test. Scallop shell extract significantly reduced scopolamine-induced short-term memory impairment and partially reduced scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in the Morris water maze test. Scallop shell extract suppressed scopolamine-induced elevation of acetylcholine esterase activity in the cerebral cortex. Treatment with scallop shell extract reversed the increase in locomotor activity induced by scopolamine. Scallop shell extract also suppressed the increase in locomotor activity induced by MK801. Our results provide initial evidence that scallop shell extract reduces scopolamine-induced memory impairment and suppresses MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Water extracts from winery by-products as tobacco defense inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouaret, Razik; Goujon, Eric; Trivella, Aurélien; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Mery-Bernardon, Aude; Goupil, Pascale

    2014-10-01

    Water extracts from winery by-products exhibited significant plant defense inducer properties. Experiments were conducted on three marc extracts containing various amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins. Infiltration of red, white and seed grape marc extracts into tobacco leaves induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining. The infiltration zones and the surrounding areas revealed accumulation of autofluorescent compounds under UV light. Leaf infiltration of the three winery by-product extracts induced defense gene expression. The antimicrobial PR1, β-1,3-glucanase PR2, and chitinase PR3 target genes were upregulated locally in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatments. The osmotin PR5 transcripts accumulated as well in red marc extract treated-tobacco leaves. Overall, the winery by-product extracts elicited an array of plant defense responses making the grape residues a potential use of high value compounds.

  15. Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A

    2004-07-01

    The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plant extracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera.

  16. Mixed-substrate (glycerol tributyrate and fibrin) zymography for simultaneous detection of lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes on a single gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nack-Shick; Choi, Jong Hyun; Kim, Bo-Hye; Han, Yun-Jon; Kim, Joong Su; Lee, Seung-Goo; Song, Jae Jun

    2009-06-01

    A new zymography method for simultaneous detection of two different enzymatic activities (lipolytic and proteolytic) using a single SDS-containing or native-conformation gel and a mixed-substrate (glycerol tributyrate and fibrin) (MS)(1) gel was developed. After routine electrophoresis, SDS in the gel was removed by treatment with Triton X-100. Gel proteins were electrotransferred to the MS gel. To visualize lipolytic activity, the MS gel was incubated at 37 degrees C (for 6 or 24 h) until clear bands against an opaque background were observed. To detect proteolytic activity, the same MS gel was stained with Coomassie brilliant blue. Using this method, we show that six lipolytic enzymes from Staphylococcus pasteuri NJ-1 and four proteolytic enzymes from two Bacillus strains, B. licheniformis DJ-2 and B. licheniformis NJ-5, isolated from soil, can be simultaneously detected.

  17. Improvement of selected strains through gamma irradiation for enhanced lipolytic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, T.; Mubashir, N.; Hussain, Y.; Abbas, S.Q.; Ashraf, I.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to enhance the production of industrially important enzyme lipase by subjecting the wild lipase producing fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus microsporus and Penicillium atrovenetum to various doses of gamma irradiation (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 Gy). The isolation and lipolytic activity of selected mutant derived strains is described in this paper. Among all the mutants tested, MBL-5 obtained at 140Gy of Aspergillus niger strain showed highest extracellular lipase activity (13.75 +- 0.15 U mL/sup -1/) while MBL-1 Rhizopus microsporus at the rate 20Gy showed the lowest activity i.e., 1.06 +- 0.11 U mL/sup -1/. A range of pH 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 was used to check the lipolytic potential of various mutants along with their wild type. It was observed that MBL-5 (Aspergillus niger) and MBL-2 (Rhizopus microsporus) showed enhanced extracellular lipase activity at pH 11 while MBL-3 (Penicillium atrovenetum) showed the highest extracellular lipase activity 22.53 +- 0.21 U mL/sup -1/ at pH 9. It indicates a possible role for the MBL-2, MBL-3 and MBL-5 mutant strains in the detergent industry for the development of eco-friendly technologies. (author)

  18. Microbial conversion of food wastes for biofertilizer production with thermophilic lipolytic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Shu-Hsien; Yang, Shang-Shyng [Institute of Microbiology and Biochemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, (Taiwan); Liu, Ching-Piao [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Meiho Institute of Technology, Pingtung 91201, (Taiwan)

    2007-05-15

    Food waste is approximately one quarter of the total garbage in Taiwan. To investigate the feasibility of microbial conversion of food waste to multiple functional biofertilizer, food waste was mixed with bulking materials, inoculated with thermophilic and lipolytic microbes and incubated at 50{sup o}C in a mechanical composter. Microbial inoculation enhanced the degradation of food wastes, increased the total nitrogen and the germination rate of alfalfa seed, shortened the maturity period and improved the quality of biofertilizer. In food waste inoculated with thermophilic and lipolytic Brevibacillus borstelensis SH168 for 28 days, total nitrogen increased from 2.01% to 2.10%, ash increased from 24.94% to 29.21%, crude fat decreased from 4.88% to 1.34% and the C/N ratio decreased from 18.02 to 17.65. Each gram of final product had a higher population of thermophilic microbes than mesophilic microbes. Microbial conversion of food waste to biofertilizer is a feasible and potential technology in the future to maintain the natural resources and to reduce the impact on environmental quality. (author)

  19. Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a lipolytic, anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium utilizing short- and long-chain fatty acids in syntrophic coculture with a methanogenic archaeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlitshnyi, V; Rainey, F; Wiegel, J

    1996-10-01

    Three strains of an anaerobic thermophilic organoheterotrophic lipolytic alkalitolerant bacterium, Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/VS-265T; DSM 11003), were isolated from alkaline hot springs of Lake Bogoria (Kenya). The cells were nonmotile, non-spore forming, straight or slightly curved rods. At 60 degrees C the pH range for growth determined at 25 degrees C [pH25 degrees C] was 7.15 to 9.5, with an optimum between 8.1 and 8.9 (pH60 degrees C of 7.6 and 8.1). At a pH25 degrees C of 8.5 the temperature range for growth was from 52 to 70 degrees C, with an optimum between 60 and 66 degrees C. The shortest doubling time was around 1 h. In pure culture the bacterium grew in a mineral base medium supplemented with yeast extract, tryptone, Casamino Acids, betaine, and crotonate as carbon sources, producing acetate as a major product and constitutively a lipase. During growth in the presence of olive oil, free long-chain fatty acids were accumulated in the medium but the pure culture could not utilize olive oil, triacylglycerols, short- and long-chain fatty acids, and glycerol for growth. In syntrophic coculture (Methanobacterium strain JW/VS-M29) the lipolytic bacteria grew on triacylglycerols and linear saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 4 to 18 carbon atoms, but glycerol was not utilized. Fatty acids with even numbers of carbon atoms were degraded to acetate and methane, while from odd-numbered fatty acids 1 mol of propionate per mol of fatty acid was additionally formed. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified Syntrophospora and Syntrophomonas spp. as closest phylogenetic neighbors.

  20. Root Extract and Fractions in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of total hydroalcohol root extract of Plumeria alba ... Methods: The effect of total hydroalcohol extract at 250 mg/kg and different fractions .... using technique of separation by precipitation in ... environmental conditions (temperature of 25 ± 2 ... tubes were tightly closed and homogenized for a.

  1. Huaier Aqueous Extract Induces Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Arrest in S Phase via JNK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengshuo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Huaier aqueous extract, the main active constituent of Huaier proteoglycan, has antihepatocarcinoma activity in experimental and clinical settings. However, the potential and associated antihepatoma mechanisms of Huaier extract are not yet fully understood. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to elucidate the inhibitory proliferation effect of Huaier extract on apoptosis and cycle of HepG2 and Bel-7402 cells. Our data demonstrated that incubation with Huaier extract resulted in a marked decrease in cell viability dose-dependently. Flow cytometric analysis showed that a 48 h treatment of Huaier extract caused cell apoptosis. Typical apoptotic nucleus alterations were observed with fluorescence microscope after Hoechst staining. Immunoblot analysis further demonstrated that Huaier extract activated caspase 3 and PARP. Additionally, Huaier extract inhibited the activity of p-ERK, p-p38, and p-JNK in terms of MAPK. Furthermore, Huaier extract induced HCC cells arrest in S phase and decreased the cycle related protein expression of β-catenin and cyclin D1. Studies with JNK specific inhibitor, SP600125, showed that Huaier extract induced S phase arrest and decreased β-catenin and cyclin D1 expression via JNK signaling pathway. In conclusion, we verify that Huaier extract causes cell apoptosis and induces hepatocellular carcinoma cells arrest in S phase via JNK pathway, which advances our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of Huaier extract in hepatocarcinoma management.

  2. Effects of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis on induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... The use of plants and its extracts have aided mankind in the treatment of different ... about three-quarters of the world population rely on plants for the ... Chemical balance (Gallenkamp England), plastic container. (Gallenkamp ...

  3. the effect of cucumber ( ) extract on acid induced corneal burn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    The groups were CB group treated with cucumber bark extract only,. CP group treated with .... maintenance of healthy bone, teeth and gums. It actsasanantioxidant . ... burn in the eyes of the guinea pigs included; slight hyperemia, lid edema ...

  4. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoja P Attanayake

    2013-01-01

    C onclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  5. The inhibiting effects of Urtica dioica root extracts on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Muth, C

    1997-08-01

    Extracts of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We established a BPH-model by directly implanting an urogenital sinus (UGS) into the ventral prostate gland of an adult mouse. Five differently prepared stinging nettle root extracts were tested in this model. The 20% methanolic extract was the most effective with a 51.4% inhibition of induced growth.

  6. Aqueous Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa Suppresses LPS-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... potential transcriptional factor for regulating the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α. As expected, AEOD suppressed the LPS-induced degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα and sustained the expression of p65 in the cytosol. Furthermore, AEOD substantially inhibited the LPS-induced DNA binding activity of NF-κB.

  7. Antidiabetic Activity of Different Extracts of Myrtus Communis in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjeshahin Mohammad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Hydroalcoholic (70° extract of leaves of Myrtus communis has been shown to have antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats in our previous study. In this study, we intended to determine the components of the mentioned extract and identify the mechanism for its action.

  8. Recovery of Extracellular Lipolytic Enzymes from Macrophomina phaseolina by Foam Fractionation with Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schinke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophomina phaseolina was cultivated in complex and simple media for the production of extracellular lipolytic enzymes. Culture supernatants were batch foam fractionated for the recovery of these enzymes, and column design and operation included the use of P 2 frit (porosity 40 to 100 μm, air as sparging gas at variable flow rates, and Triton X-100 added at the beginning or gradually in aliquots. Samples taken at intervals showed the progress of the kinetic and the efficiency parameters. Best results were obtained with the simple medium supernatant by combining the stepwise addition of small amounts of the surfactant with the variation of the air flow rates along the separation. Inert proteins were foamed out first, and the subsequent foamate was enriched in the enzymes, showing estimated activity recovery (R, enrichment ratio (E, and purification factor (P of 45%, 34.7, and 2.9, respectively. Lipases were present in the enriched foamate.

  9. Isolation and characterisation of obligately anaerobic, lipolytic bacteria from the rumen of red deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, G N; Strömpl, C; Moore, E R; Thiele, J H

    1998-03-01

    Two Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic, lipolytic bacteria, isolates LIP4 and LIP5, were obtained from the rumen contents of juvenile red deer. These mesophilic bacterial strains were capable of hydrolysing the neutral lipids, tallow, tripalmitin and oliver oil, into their constituent free long-chain fatty acid and glycerol moieties. The latter compound was dissimilated by both isolates, with isolate LIP4 producing propionate as the predominant product, while isolate LIP5 produced acetate, ethanol and succinate. The lactate-utilising isolate LIP4 grew on a limited range of saccharide substrates including glucose, fructose and ribose, and exhibited an unusual cell wall structure and morphology. The isolate LIP5 grew upon a wider range of saccharides, but was unable to use lactate as a substrate. Based upon phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, isolate LIP4 clusters with species in the genus Propionibacterium, while isolate LIP5 is a member of clostridial cluster XIVa.

  10. Methanol Extract of Codonopsis pilosula Inhibits Inducible Nitric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the mechanism of antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Codonopsis pilosula. Methods: Anti-oxidative properties were assessed by measuring free radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide (NO) levels, protein oxidation and reducing power, while the mechanism of antioxidative effect of ...

  11. Effects of Enantia chlorantha extracts in Laboratory-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kg of various extracts of the herbal preparation or 30 – 100mg/kg aspirin or distilled water was administered to groups of rats of either sex (200 – 250g, n = 10). Each of the groups of rats then received 0.1ml of 1% of carrageen into the plantar ...

  12. Anaphe venata larva extract-induced purposeless chewing in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we investigated the effect of the crude aqueous and Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) extracts of this larva on altered spontaneous rat behavior in a novel environment particularly chewing behaviour, with a view to determine the mechanism(s) involved in these behavioural alteration. Animals were randomly ...

  13. Artemesia annua extract prevents glyoxal-induced cell injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, treatment of HRECs with Artemesia annua extract ... Artemesia annua can potentially be used for the development of a new drug for the prevention ..... species down regulate glucose transport system in ... hypoxic conditions and its effects on the blood-retinal ... brain beta-amyloid precursor protein in a rat model of.

  14. Environmentally induced displacements in the ecotourism-extraction nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Davidov, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, we increasingly see the often-deemed incongruent activities of ecotourism, associated environmental conservation and natural resource or fossil fuel extraction happening in the same spaces, often supported by the same institutions. Rather than being incongruent, however, these

  15. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract on Alcohol-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced hepatotoxicity in rats was evaluated. Rats fed alcohol only produced significant increase in the levels of enzyme markers of tissues damage (ALT, AST and ALP), lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and decreased serum vitamin C levels ...

  16. Could grape seed extract modulate nephritic damage induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RBCs). Preadministration of GSO to Metho-induced rats revealed apparent normal renal parenchyma. The proximal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules appeared near to normal with their narrow lumen. Preadministration with GSO ...

  17. Dexamethasone attenuates grain sorghum dust extract-induced increase in macromolecular efflux in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S R; Ikezaki, H; Gao, X P; Rubinstein, I

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dexamethasone attenuates grain sorghum dust extract-induced increase in macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch and, if so, whether this response is specific. By using intravital microscopy, we found that an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust elicited significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass, 70 kDa) from the in situ hamster cheek pouch (P grain sorghum dust extract- and substance P-induced increases in macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch in a specific fashion.

  18. Portulaca oleracea extracts protect human keratinocytes and fibroblasts from UV-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suyeon; Kim, Ki Ho; Park, Changhoon; Lee, Jong-Suk; Kim, Young Heui

    2014-10-01

    Portulaca oleracea extracts, known as Ma Chi Hyun in the traditional Korean medicine, show a variety of biomedical efficacies including those in anti-inflammation and anti-allergy. In this study, we investigate the protective activity of the P. oleracea extracts against UVB-induced damage in human epithelial keratinocytes and fibroblasts by several apoptosis-related tests. The results suggest that P. oleracea extracts have protective effects from UVB-induced apoptosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  20. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran Aiyalu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg. Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity.

  1. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  2. Safety requirements for buildings under induced earthquakes due to gas extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the Dutch province of Groningen over the last year shallow earthquakes are induced due to large scale gas extraction from the gas field at 3 km depth. The induced earthquakes differ from the better known tectonic earthquakes all over the world, caused by movement of the earth at large depths. The

  3. Dental extraction following zoledronate, induces osteonecrosis in rat's jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Gutiérrez, X; Gómez-Clavel, J-F; Gaitán-Cepeda, L-A

    2017-03-01

    Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (BRONJ) is clinically characterized by the presence of exposed bone in the oral cavity that persists for more than eight weeks. Previous attempts to establish an animal model have not sufficiently considered disease features. Our aim was to establish an inexpensive and replicable animal model that develops BRONJ in a short time. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and experimental. In the experimental group, we administered 0.06mg/kg intraperitoneal dose of zoledronic acid (ZA) 7 and 14 days prior to maxillary second molar extraction. At two, four and six weeks after tooth extraction, the animals were euthanized, and we dissected the maxilla following histological procedures. We stained serial slides with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. The samples were harvested for macroscopic, radiologic and histological evaluation of bone changes. At two weeks postextraction, we observed exposed necrotic bone in dental socket areas in experimental groups. Radiological analysis revealed osteolytic lesions accompanied by extensive destruction and sequestrum formation in the same group. Histological examination confirmed the absence of necrotic bone in control groups in contrast with the experimental groups. The percentage of empty lacunae and the number of osteoclasts and the necrotic bone area were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the experimental groups. The animal model using ZA administration to prior dental extraction successfully mimicked human BRONJ lesions. Also, the model was easily replicated, inexpensive and showed different features than other previous BRONJ models.

  4. Influence of vegetable coagulant and ripening time on the lipolytic and sensory profile of cheeses made with raw goat milk from Canary breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Arturo A; Pino, Verónica; Fresno, María R; Jiménez-Abizanda, Ana I; Álvarez, Sergio; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2017-04-01

    Free fatty acids and sensory profiles were obtained for cheeses made with raw goat milk and vegetable coagulant, derived from the cardoon flower ( Cynara cardunculus), at different ripening times (7 and 20 days). A solid-liquid phase extraction method followed by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography was used. Profiles were also obtained with cheeses made with commercial coagulant, traditional kid rennet paste, and mixture coagulant (vegetable coagulant-kid rennet). The use of vegetable coagulant and vegetable coagulant-kid rennet is common in traditional Protected Designation of Origin cheeses such as " Queso Flor de Guía" and " Queso Media Flor de Guía" (Spain). Contents of short-chain free fatty acids (7.5-22.5 mmol·kg -1 ), medium-chain free fatty acids (0.4-3.7 mmol·kg -1 ), and long-chain free fatty acids (0.2-2.1 mmol·kg -1 ) varied depending on the coagulant type and the ripening time. Vegetable coagulant cheeses present odour intensity and flavour intensity much higher than commercial coagulant cheeses in the sensory analysis for cheeses obtained with seven days of ripening, but the values decrease when increasing the ripening time. Multivariate analysis allowed us to differentiate cheese samples according to the ripening time when using lipolytic profile and according to the coagulant type using the sensory profile.

  5. Effects of scallop shell extract on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and MK801-induced locomotor activity

    OpenAIRE

    HASEGAWA, Yasushi; INOUE, Tatsuro; KAWAMINAMI, Satoshi; FUJITA, Miho

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the neuroprotective effects of the organic components of scallop shells (scallop shell extract) on memory impairment and locomotor activity induced by scopolamine or 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK801).MethodsEffect of the scallop shell extract on memory impairment and locomotor activity was investigated using the Y-maze test, the Morris water maze test, and the open field test.ResultsScallop shell extract significantly reduced scopolami...

  6. Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers (Poaceae) root extract induces apoptotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has also been used for the treatment of weak vision, urinary tract infection, .... with an alternating 12 h dark/light cycle in ... detected by Western blot analysis as described previously .... the cyclin signaling pathways, induced apoptotic cell death ...

  7. Aqueous Root Extract in Loperamide- Induced Constipated Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    central nervous system (CNS) depressant action of the plant has ... administration was done using metal oropharyngeal ... weight of constipated rats before treatment. .... constipation, abdominal bloating and refractory ... found in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic .... induced production of prostaglandins in rat isolated.

  8. Complexation-induced supramolecular assembly drives metal-ion extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ross J; Meridiano, Yannick; Muller, Julie; Berthon, Laurence; Guilbaud, Philippe; Zorz, Nicole; Antonio, Mark R; Demars, Thomas; Zemb, Thomas

    2014-09-26

    Combining experiment with theory reveals the role of self-assembly and complexation in metal-ion transfer through the water-oil interface. The coordinating metal salt Eu(NO3)3 was extracted from water into oil by a lipophilic neutral amphiphile. Molecular dynamics simulations were coupled to experimental spectroscopic and X-ray scattering techniques to investigate how local coordination interactions between the metal ion and ligands in the organic phase combine with long-range interactions to produce spontaneous changes in the solvent microstructure. Extraction of the Eu(3+)-3(NO3(-)) ion pairs involves incorporation of the "hard" metal complex into the core of "soft" aggregates. This seeds the formation of reverse micelles that draw the water and "free" amphiphile into nanoscale hydrophilic domains. The reverse micelles interact through attractive van der Waals interactions and coalesce into rod-shaped polynuclear Eu(III) -containing aggregates with metal centers bridged by nitrate. These preorganized hydrophilic domains, containing high densities of O-donor ligands and anions, provide improved Eu(III) solvation environments that help drive interfacial transfer, as is reflected by the increasing Eu(III) partitioning ratios (oil/aqueous) despite the organic phase approaching saturation. For the first time, this multiscale approach links metal-ion coordination with nanoscale structure to reveal the free-energy balance that drives the phase transfer of neutral metal salts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Role of Rosemary leaves extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Garima S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a study of the modulatory effect of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract on radiation-induced hematological and biochemical changes in Swiss albino mice. The dose reduction factor for the Rosemary extract against gamma rays was calculated 1.53 from LD50/30 values. The Rosemary extract was administered orally for 5 consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. The hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed from day 1 to 30 post-irradiation intervals. The total erythrocyte count, total leucocytes count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values in the experimental group were found to be elevated as compared to the control group of mice. Furthermore, the Rosemary extract treatment enhanced reduced glutathione content in the liver and blood against radiation-induced depletion. Treatment with the plant extract brought a significant fall in the lipid peroxidation level, suggesting rosemary's role in protection against radiation-induced membrane and cellular damage. The results from the present study suggest a radio-protective effect of the Rosemary extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Lawsonia inermis Extracts Inhibits Chromium(VI-Induced Cellular and DNA Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Guha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI is a very strong oxidant which consequently causes high cytotoxicity through oxidative stress. Prevention of Cr(VI-induced cellular damage has been sought in this study in aqueous and methanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Lythraceae, commonly known as Henna. The extracts showed significant (P < .05 potential in scavenging free radicals (DPPH• and ABTS•+ and Fe3+, and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. DNA damage caused by exposure of pBR322 to Cr(VI-UV is markedly inhibited by both extracts in varying degrees. A distinct decline in Cr(VI-induced cytotoxicity was noticed in MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells with an increase in dosage of both extracts individually. Furthermore, both extracts proved to contain a high content of phenolic compounds which were found to have a strong and significant (P < .05 positive correlation to the radical scavenging potential, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity and cyto-protective efficiency against Cr(VI-induced oxidative cellular damage. HPLC analysis identified some of the major phenolic compounds in both extracts, which might be responsible for the antioxidant potential and the properties of DNA and cyto-protection. This study contributes to the search for natural resources that might yield potent therapeutic drugs against Cr(VI-induced oxidative cell damage.

  11. Antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of Scrophularia striata extract against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadmehr, Abbas; Oghyanous, Keyvan Alizadeh; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Amirghofran, Zahra; Azadbakht, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the neuroprotective effect of Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) extract, a plant growing in northeastern of Iran, against oxidative stress-induced neurocytotoxicity in PC12 was evaluated. The PC12 cell line pretreated with different concentrations (10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) of the extract and then treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Survival of the cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptosis were measured using MTT assay, fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, and annexin V/propidium iodide, respectively. Moreover, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. Phytochemical assay by thin layer chromatography showed that the main components, including phenolic compounds, phenyl propanoids and flavonoids, were presented in the S. striata extract. The extract in concentrations of 50-200 μg/ml protected PC12 cells from H2O2-induced toxicity. The survival of the cells at concentration of 200 μg/ml was 64 % compared to that of H2O2 alone-treated cells (48 %) (p extract also dose-dependently reduced intracellular ROS production (p extract showed antioxidative effects and decreased apoptotic cells. Collectively, these findings indicated the ability of S. striata to decrease ROS generation and cell apoptosis and also suggest the presence of the neuroprotective agents in this plant.

  12. Physalis minima Leaves Extract Induces Re-Endothelialization in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Nugrahenny

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The administration of deoxy-corticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt can induce oxidative stress leading to decrease the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO, increase senescence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, thus contributing to endothelial dysfunction. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Physalis minima L. leaves extract on serum NO levels, circulating EPCs number, and histopathology of tail artery endothelial cells in DOCA-salt-induced endothelial dysfunction in rats. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: rats without any treatment (normal, rats treated with DOCA (10 mg/kgBW s.c. twice weekly and given 0.9% NaCl to drink ad libitum for 6 weeks, and DOCA-salt-induced rats orally supplemented with P. minima leaves extract at doses of 500, 1500, or 2500 mg/kgBW for 4 weeks. Serum NO levels were measured by colorimetry. The number of circulating EPCs (CD34+/CD133+ cells was determined by flow cytometry. The tail artery sections were histologically processed with hematoxylin-eosin staining. DOCA-salt-induced rats showed significantly (p<0.05 decrease in serum NO levels and circulating EPCs number compared to the normal. There was also more detached tail artery endothelial cells in DOCA-salt-induced rats. P. minima leaves extract at a dose of 500 mg/kgBW significantly (p<0.05 increased serum NO level and circulating EPCs number, and also induced an optimal re-endothelialization in DOCA-salt-induced rats. P. minima leave extract dose-dependently increases NO bioavailability contributing to enhanced EPCs mobilization, thereby promoting re-endothelialization in DOCA-salt-induced endothelial dysfunction in rats.

  13. Ketoconazole-induced testicular damage in rats reduced by Gentiana extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Amr

    2008-04-01

    Ketoconazole (KET) is an antifungal drug with a broad spectrum of activity that also induces reproductive toxicity in humans and animals. The protective effect of Gentiana (GEN) extract (Gentiana lutea) against KET-induced testicular damage was evaluated in male Wistar rats. GEN extract was administered orally (1g/kgbwt/day) for 26 days. Three weeks after extract administration, KET was co-administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 100mg/kg once a day for 5 days. KET-induced reproductive toxicity was associated with clear reductions of the weights of testes and epididymides, sperm indices and serum testosterone levels. KET also induced severe testicular histopathological lesions such as degeneration of the seminiferous tubules and depletion of germ cells. In addition, marked oxidative damage to testicular lipids and alterations of natural antioxidants (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were reported in association with KET toxicity. Most of the KET-induced effects were greatly decreased with the concomitant application of GEN extract. This study suggests a protective role of GEN extract that could be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  14. Diospyros kaki Extract Inhibits Alkali Burn-Induced Corneal Neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung Jae; Jo, Hyoung; Kim, Kyung-A; Ahn, Hong Ryul; Kang, Suk Woo; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) leaves on corneal neovascularization (CoNV) in rats. One week after the alkali burns in the corneas, the CoNV area coverage in the CoNV-positive control group, 100 mg/kg EEDK group, and 200 mg/kg EEDK group was 43.3% ± 5.5%, 337.7% ± 2.5%, and 27.2% ± 4.3%, respectively. The areas of CoNV in the EEDK-treated groups were significantly different from those of the CoNV group. EEDK significantly attenuated the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-6, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) protein levels. Orally administrated D. kaki inhibited CoNV development in rats.

  15. Hibiscus vitifolius (Linn.) root extracts shows potent protective action against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Anbu Jeba Sunilson John; Mohan, Syam; Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar; Kalusalingam, Anandarajagopal; Ariamuthu, Saraswathi

    2012-05-07

    The roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) is used for the treatment of jaundice in the folklore system of medicine in India. This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in albino rats of either sex by oral administration of a combination of three anti-tubercular drugs. Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Hibiscus vitifolius (400mg/kg/day) were evaluated for their possible hepatoprotective potential. All the extracts were found to be safe up to a dose of 2000mg/kg. Among the four extracts studied, oral administration of methanol extract of Hibiscus vitifolius at 400mg/kg showed significant difference in all the parameters when compared to control. There was a significant (PHibiscus vitifolius have potent hepatoprotective activity, thereby justifying its ethnopharmacological claim. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of aqueous ethanol extract of Cestrum nocturnum against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imran Qadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activities of Cestrum nocturnum (Queen of Night was evaluated against the paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the mice. Aqueous ethanol (30:70 extract of plant was obtained by maceration. Results showed that aqueous ethanol extract of C. nocturnum (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.05 hepatoprotective activities against paracetamol induced liver injury in Swiss albino mice. Histopathalogical studied of liver further supported the hepatoprotective effects of C. notrunum. Phyto-chemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and volatile oils. Most of the flavonoids have hepatoprotective activity. Therefore, the hepatoprotective activity of C. nocturnum may be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic components. It was concluded from the present study that aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of C. nocturnum has hepatoprotective activity against the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino mice.

  17. Protective effects of ginger and marshmallow extracts on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghlool, Sameh S.; Shehata, Basim A.; Abo-Seif, Ali A.; Abd El-Latif, Hekma A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gastric ulcer is one of the most serious diseases. Most classic treatment lines produce adverse drug reactions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of two natural extracts, namely ginger and marshmallow extracts, on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups; a normal control group, an ulcer control group, and three treatment groups receiving famotidine (20 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), and m...

  18. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hesami; Maryam Ayatollahi; Bita Geramizadeh; Akram Jamshidzadeh; Akbar Vahdati

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), we used immunohistochemical analysis ...

  19. An evaluation of the proteolytic and lipolytic potential of Penicillium spp. isolated from traditional Greek sausages in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagianni, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A number of novel Penicillium strains belonging to Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium solitum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium oxalicum species, isolated from the surface of traditional Greek sausages, were evaluated for their proteolytic and lipolytic potential in a solid substrate first and next in submerged fermentations, using complex media. Extracellular proteolytic activity was assessed at acid, neutral, and alkaline pH, while the lipolytic activity was assessed using olive oil, the short-chain triacylglycerol tributyrin, and the long-chain triolein, as substrates. The study revealed that although closely related, the tested strains produce enzymes of distinct specificities. P. nalgiovense PNA9 produced the highest alkaline proteolytic activity (13.2 unit (U)/ml) and the highest lipolytic activity with tributyrin (92 U/ml). Comparisons with known sources show that proteases and/or lipases can be secreted effectively by some Penicillia (P. nalgiovense PNA4, PNA7, and PNA9 and P. solitum PSO1), and further investigations on their properties and characteristics would be promising.

  20. Grapevine fruit extract protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human lymphocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading the oxidative damage further to biomolecules. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) posses several bioactive phytochemicals and is the richest source of antioxidants. In this study, we investigated V. vinifera for its phytochemical content, enzymes profile and, ROS-and oxidant-scavenging activities. We have also studied the fruit extract of four different grapevine viz., Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe for their radioprotective actions in human lymphocytes. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (P < 0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuated the oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy γ-radiation in human lymphocytes in vitro. Further, γ-radiation-induced increase in caspase 3/7 activity was significantly attenuated by grape extracts. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. (author)

  1. The Extract of Lycium depressum Stocks Enhances Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Siamak; Zarei, Leila; Pourjabali, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Rahim

    2017-06-01

    In diabetes, impaired wound healing and other tissue abnormalities are considered major concerns. The aim of the present study was to assess the wound-healing activity of methanolic extracts of the extract of Lycium depressum leaves. A total of 60 healthy male Wistar diabetic rats weighing approximately 160 to 180 g and 7 weeks of age were randomized into 10 groups for incision and excision wound models: sham surgery group (SHAM), including creation of wounds and no treatment; base formulation group (FG) with creation of wounds and application of base formulation ointment; treatment group 1 (TG1) with 1 g of powder extract of the plant material in ointment; treatment group 2 (TG2) with 2 g; and treatment group 4 (TG3) with 4 g of powder extract of the plant material in ointment. A wound was induced by an excision- and incision-based wound model in male rats. The mature green leaves of L depressum were collected and authenticated. Extractions of dried leaves were carried out. For wound-healing activity, the extracts were applied topically in the form of ointment and compared with control groups. The healing of the wound was assessed based on excision, incision, hydroxyproline estimation, and biomechanical and biochemical studies. The extract of L depressum leaves enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content, and improved mechanical indices and histological characteristics in treatment groups compared with SHAM and FG ( P healing in a diabetes induced model.

  2. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanayake, Anoja P; Jayatilaka, Kamani A P W; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K B

    2013-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  3. Protective Effect of Morus alba Leaf Extract on N-Nitrosodiethylamine-induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Adamska, Teresa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Flaczyk, Ewa; Przeor, Monika; Kurpik, Monika; Liebert, Jadwiga Jodynis

    The leaves of white mulberry (Morus alba L.) contain various polyphenolic compounds possessing strong antioxidant activity and anticancer potential. This study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive effect of aqueous extract of mulberry leaves against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced liver carcinogenesis. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, mulberry extract-treated, NDEA-treated, and mulberry extract plus NDEA-treated. Mulberry extract was given in the diet (1,000 mg/kg b.w./day); NDEA was given in drinking water. Mulberry extract reduced the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, dysplastic nodules, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation, and DNA degradation. Treatment with mulberry leaf extract along with NDEA challenge did not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content. Treatment with mulberry leaf extract partially protected the livers of rats from NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis and a direct antioxidant mechanism appears to contribute to its anticarcinogenic activity. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Saw palmetto extract induces nuclear heterogeneity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Francis, Bettina M; Rayburn, A Lane

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto (SW), a phytotherapeutic compound used in the treatment of prostate disease, was examined for potential nuclear effects. SW extract was incorporated into a complete casein-based semisynthetic rodent chow at 0%, 0.1% and 1% SW. SW was fed to mice for 6 weeks, after which the mice received a single i/p injection of either the known genotoxic agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in saline or just saline. Forty-eight hours after injection, blood and bone marrow were collected for flow cytometric analysis. A significant effect of MMS was observed in both male and female mice with respect to: an increase in nuclear heterogeneity in bone marrow cells as measured by the coefficient of variation of the G1 peak in a flow histogram (6.32 versus 4.8 in male mice, 7.0 versus 4.9 in female mice) and an increase in the number of micronucleated blood cells (3.4% versus 0.56% male mice, 3.1% versus 0.6 in female mice) indicating a positive genotoxic response. SW also appears to increase the heterogeneity of bone marrow nuclei in a dose dependent manner (0-5.1%, 0.1-5.5% and 1-5.7% in male mice, 0-5.7%, 0.1-6.0% and 1-6.2% in female mice) without a concomitant increase in blood cell micronuclei. These results indicate that SW is not genotoxic with respect to physical DNA damage and that the changes observed in the bone marrow are due to chromatin conformation modifications in the nuclei of in vivo treated mouse cells. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Modulation of ionizing radiation induced oxidative imbalance by semi-fractionated extract of Piper betle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Savita; Dutta, Ajaswrata; Sankhwar, Sanghmitra; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The study was planned to evaluate modulatory effect of aqueous extract of Piper betle leaf (PBL) on ionizing radiation mediated oxidative stress leading to normal tissues damage during radiotherapy and other radiation exposures. The total polyphenols and flavonoids known as free radical scavenger (chelators) were measured in the extract. To ascertain antioxidant potential of PBL extract, we studied free radical scavenging, metal chelation, reducing power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP ) using in vitro assays. Mice were exposed to varied radiation doses administered with the same extract prior to irradiation to confirm its oxidative stress minimizing efficacy by evaluating ferric reducing ability of plasma, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation and micro-nuclei frequency. PBL extract was effective in scavenging DPPH (up to 92% at 100 µg/ml) and superoxide radicals (up to 95% at 80 µg/ml), chelated metal ions (up to 83% at 50 µg/ml) and inhibited lipid peroxidation (up to 45.65% at 500 µg/ml) in a dose dependant manner using in vitro model. Oral administration of PBL extract (225 mg/kg body weight) 1 hr before irradiation in mice significantly enhanced (p < 0.01) radiation abated antioxidant potential of plasma and GSH level in all the observed organs. The treatment with extract effectively lowered the radiation induced lipid peroxidation at 24 hrs in all the selected organs with maximum inhibition in thymus (p < 0.01). After 48 hrs, lipid peroxidation was maximally inhibited in the group treated with the extract. Frequency of radiation induced micronucleated cells declined significantly (34.78%, p < 0.01) at 24 hrs post-irradiation interval by PBL extract administration. The results suggest that PBL extract has high antioxidant potential and relatively non-toxic and thus could be assertively used to mitigate radiotherapy inflicted normal tissues damage and also injuries caused by moderate doses of radiation

  6. Evaluation of mesotherapeutic injections of three different combinations of lipolytic agents for body contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlubay, Zekayi

    2011-08-01

    There has been significant interest recently in the technique of mesotherapy as a method of 'melting fat' for body contouring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy and lipolytic potential of several compounds commonly used in cosmetic mesotherapy. A total of 75 women (mean age: 33 years) were separated randomly into three mesotherapy groups. Injections were performed for 15 treatments once a week. The main component of each cocktail was phosphatidylcholine/deoxycholic acid for group 1, caffeine for group 2, and Conjonctyl® for group 3. Outcome was evaluated by weight, body fat percentage (BFP), circumference measurements, and patient questionnaires. Seventy-two of all the patients (96%) showed a circumference loss. An average circumference reduction of 4.41 cm per site for group 1, 2.99 cm for group 2, and 2.10 cm for group 3 was achieved. Mean body circumference loss was statistically significant, with p Mesotherapy is a well-tolerated and effective alternative treatment modality for reducing the diameter of body circumference.

  7. Lipolytic Potential of Aspergillus japonicus LAB01: Production, Partial Purification, and Characterisation of an Extracellular Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lívia Tereza Andrade; Oliveira, Jamil S.; dos Santos, Vera L.; Regis, Wiliam C. B.; Santoro, Marcelo M.; Resende, Rodrigo R.

    2014-01-01

    Lipolytic potential of Aspergillus japonicus LAB01 was investigated by describing the catalytic properties and stability of a secreted extracellular lipase. Enzyme production was considered high under room temperature after 4 days using sunflower oil and a combination of casein with sodium nitrate. Lipase was partially purified by 3.9-fold, resulting in a 44.2% yield using ammonium sulphate precipitation (60%) quantified with Superose 12 HR gel filtration chromatography. The activity of the enzyme was maximised at pH 8.5, and the enzyme demonstrated stability under alkaline conditions. The optimum temperature was found to be 45°C, and the enzyme was stable for up to 100 minutes, with more than 80% of initial activity remaining after incubation at this temperature. Partially purified enzyme showed reasonable stability with triton X-100 and was activated in the presence of organic solvents (toluene, hexane, and methanol). Among the tested ions, only Cu2+, Ni2+, and Al3+ showed inhibitory effects. Substrate specificity of the lipase was higher for C14 among various p-nitrophenyl esters assayed. The KM and V max values of the purified enzyme for p-nitrophenyl palmitate were 0.13 mM and 12.58 umol/(L·min), respectively. These features render a novel biocatalyst for industrial applications. PMID:25530954

  8. Effect of short-term fasting on lipolytic responsiveness in normal and obese human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.; Peters, E.J.; Klein, S.; Holland, O.B.; Rosenblatt, J.; Gary, H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the rate of lipolysis (fatty acid and glycerol release into blood) has been quantified in both normal weight and obese volunteers after both 15 and 87 h of fasting. In each study, the basal rate and subsequent response to epinephrine infusion were determined. The rate of appearance (R/sub a/) of free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol were quantified by infusion of [1- 13 C]palmitate and D-5-glycerol, respectively. Substrate flux rates per unit of body fat mass and lean body mass were calculated from total body water measurements using H 2 18 O dilution. In normal volunteers, the basal R/sub a/ FFA and R/sub a/ glycerol rose markedly with 87 h of fasting, whereas the increases were more modest in the obese subjects. However, the rate of mobilization of fat, in relation to the lean body mass, was higher in the obese subjects than in the normal subjects after 15 h of fasting, and the values were similar in both groups after 87 h of fasting. There was an increased lipolytic response to epinephrine after fasting in both groups. This increased sensitivity may have resulted from the enhancement of fatty acid-triglyceride substrate cycling that occurred after fasting

  9. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsloğlu, Betül; Çiçek, Ümran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Candoğan, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p<0.05). After drying stage, free fatty acid values of traditional style and heat processed fermented sausages were between 10.54-13.01% and 6.56-8.49%, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of traditionally processed fermented sausages were between 0.220-0.450 mg·kg(-1), and TBA values of heat processed fermented sausages were in a range of 0.405-0.795 mg·kg(-1). Oleic and linoleic acids were predominant fatty acids in all fermented sausages. It was seen that fermented sausage groups produced with starter culture had lower TBA and FFA values in comparison with the control groups, and heat application inhibited the lipase enzyme activity and had an improving effect on lipid oxidation. As a result of these effects, heat processed fermented sausages had lower FFA and higher TBA values than the traditionally processed groups.

  10. Attachment-inducing capacities of fish skin epithelial extracts on oncomiracidia of Benedenia seriolae (Monogenea: Capsalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Nagakura, Tatsuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuo; Fukuda, Yutaka; Wakabayashi, Hisatsugu

    2002-03-01

    Attachment-inducing capacities of skin epithelial extracts of yellowtail, Japanese flounder and red sea bream on oncomiracidia of the monogenean Benedenia seriolae were examined. Clear differences were not detected in the capacity among the fish species, although B. seriolae infects only yellowtail and its congeners in Seriola. This suggests that either the capacity is not host specific or host-specific attachment-inducing capacity cannot be detected by the assay method. Further, the attachment-inducing capacities were suppressed by wheat-germ lectin and concanavalin A in skin epithelial extracts of Japanese flounder and yellowtail, respectively. This suggests that some sugar-related chemical substances existing in fish epithelia induce the attachment of B. seriolae oncomiracidia.

  11. The plant extract Isatis tinctoria L. extract (ITE) inhibits allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattström, A; Schapowal, A; Kamal, M A; Maillet, I; Ryffel, B; Moser, R

    2010-07-01

    The herbal Isatis tinctoria extract (ITE) inhibits the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) as well as lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and therefore possesses anti-inflammatory properties. The extract might also be useful in allergic airway diseases which are characterized by chronic inflammation. ITE obtained from leaves by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was investigated in ovalbumin (OVA) immunised BALB/c mice given intranasally together with antigen challenge in the murine model of allergic airway disease (asthma) with the analysis of the inflammatory and immune parameters in the lung. ITE given with the antigen challenge inhibited in a dose related manner the allergic response. ITE diminished airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophil recruitment into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid upon allergen challenge, but had no effect in the saline control mice. Eosinophil recruitment was further assessed in the lung by eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity at a dose of 30 microg ITE per mouse. Microscopic investigations revealed less inflammation, eosinophil recruitment and mucus hyperproduction in the lung in a dose related manner. Diminution of AHR and inflammation was associated with reduced IL-4, IL-5, and RANTES production in the BAL fluid at the 30 microg ITE dose, while OVA specific IgE and eotaxin serum levels remained unchanged. ITE, which has been reported inhibiting COX-2 and 5-LOX, reduced allergic airway inflammation and AHR by inhibiting the production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, and RANTES. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Desmodium gangeticum root extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Hitler; Parthasarathy Arumugam; Mathivanan Narayanasamy; Elangovan Vellaichamy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Desmodium gangeticum (L) DC (Fabaceae; DG), a medicinal plant that grows in tropical habitats, is widely used to treat various ailments including digestive and inflammatory disorders. Aims: To investigate the possible cardioprotective activity of a DG root extract against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH) in adult Wistar rats. Methods: Daily intraperitoneal administration of ISO (10 mg/kg body weight, single injection) for 7 days induced LVH...

  13. Palm kernel cake extract exerts hepatoprotective activity in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Goh, Yong Meng; Shakeri, Majid; Oskoueian, Armin

    2014-10-02

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens. This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of PKC extract in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes. The nature of the active metabolites and elucidation of the possible mechanism involved were also investigated. The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p < 0.05) lower than silymarin as the reference antioxidant. Heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocyte impaired the total protein, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity significantly (p < 0.05). Treatment of heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p < 0.05). The real time PCR and western blot analyses revealed the significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of oxidative stress biomarkers including TNF-like, IFN-γ and IL-1β genes; NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins expression upon heat stress in chicken hepatocytes. The PKC extract and silymarin were able to alleviate the expression of all of these biomarkers in heat-induced chicken hepatocytes. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity. Palm kernel cake extract could be a potential agent to protect hepatocytes function under heat induced oxidative stress.

  14. Hydroethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaf for induced osteoarthritis using a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanideh, N; Zare, Z; Jamshidzadeh, A; Lotfi, M; Azarpira, Negar; Sepehrimanesh, M; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effects of an extract of Psidium guajava (guava) leaf on experimentally induced osteoarthritis in guinea pig. The left knee of 30 male guinea pigs was anesthetized and the cranial cruciate ligament was severed. The animals were followed for 8 weeks until osteoarthritis was confirmed by radiography and histopathology. Animals were divided randomly into five groups; group 1, the ligament was severed and untreated; group 2, the ligament was severed and treated with piascledine, an extract of soybean and avocado; group 3, the ligament was severed and treated with 200 mg/kg hydroethanolic extract of guava; group 4, the ligament was severed and treated with 400 mg/kg hydroethanolic extract of guava; and group 5, control animals without surgery or extracts. Radiological and histopathological evaluations after 8 weeks showed reduced severity of osteoarthritis in the piascledine treatment group compared to group 1. The guava extract also reduce the severity of osteoarthritis compared to controls. Histopathological examination of treatment and control groups showed that treatment the guava extract improved lesions significantly. Hydroethanolic extracts of guava leaf appears to prevent osteoarthritis by inhibition of free radical formation in the knee joint.

  15. Effectiveness of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze against diarrhea-inducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mallmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leaves and roots of Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae have been used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea, skin diseases, blennorrhagia, dyspepsia, parasitic worms and malaria. The aim of study was to characterize the chemical profiles of the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and roots of A. australe, and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against diarrhea-inducing bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella dysenteriae and Yersinia enterocolitica, as well as their cytotoxic properties. Aqueous leaf extracts were obtained by infusion, while aqueous root extracts were obtained by decoction. The hydroalcoholic leaf and root extracts were prepared by maceration in 90% ethanol for 3 days. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using standard techniques and cytotoxicity was evaluated using Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO-K1. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds in the extracts. Although root extracts were not effective against E. faecalis, leaf extracts at concentrations of 20 mg/mL exhibited bactericidal activities against this microorganism. The hydroalcoholic root extract was unique in presenting a bactericidal effect against S. dysenteriae. None of the extracts showed bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities against Y. enterocolitica. The results presented herein demonstrate that the Gram-positive E. faecalis and the Gram-negative S. dysenteriae were susceptible to A. australe extracts, although bacteriostatic/bactericidal activities were only observed at concentrations considered too high for clinical application. Our results support the ethnopharmacological use of A. australe in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly diarrhea caused by infectious bacteria, although further studies are required to determine the anti-diarrhea effects and the toxicities of the extracts in vivo.

  16. Use of Arctium lappa Extract Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kott, Attalla Farag; Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed

    2015-12-01

    Severe destructive hepatic injuries can be induced by acetaminophen overdose and may lead to acute hepatic failure. To investigate the ameliorative effects of Arctium lappa root extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group, Arctium lappa extract group, acetaminophen-injected group, and acetaminophen treated with Arctium lappa extract group. The treatment with Arctium lappa extract reduced serum alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in the acetaminophen group when compared with the control group. DNA fragments in the acetaminophen-injected group were also significantly increased (P Arctium lappa treatment (12.97±0.89 nmol/mg) when compared with the acetaminophen-treated-only group (12.97±0.89 nmol/mg). Histopathologic examination revealed that acetaminophen administration produced hepatic cell necrosis, infiltrate of lymphocytes, and vacuolation that were associated with the acetaminophen-treated animal group, but the degree of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity was mediated by treatment with Arctium lappa extract. Arctium lappa can prevent most of the hepatic tissue damage caused by acetaminophen overdose in rats.

  17. Portulaca Extract Attenuates Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Colitis in Mice through Activation of PPARγ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Rui; Luo, Hui; Wang, Nan; Li, Jingjing; Xu, Shizan; Chen, Kan; Feng, Jiao; Wu, Liwei; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Lu, Xiya; Xia, Yujing; Shi, Yanhong; Zhou, Yingqun; He, Weigang; Dai, Qi; Zheng, Yuejuan; Lu, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used as adjuvant therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism of its activity in IBD still remains unclear. Since previous studies have documented the anti-inflammatory effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors- γ (PPAR- γ ), Portulaca regulation of PPAR- γ in inflammation was examined in current study. Ulcerative colitis (UC) was generated by 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice and four groups were established as normal control, DSS alone, DSS plus mesalamine, and DSS plus Portulaca . Severity of UC was evaluated by body weight, stool blood form, and length of colorectum. Inflammation was examined by determination of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1a). Portulaca extract was able to attenuate development of UC in DSS model similar to the treatment of mesalazine. Moreover, Portulaca extract inhibited proinflammatory cytokines release and reduced the level of DSS-induced NF- κ B phosphorylation. Furthermore, Portulaca extract restored PPAR- γ level, which was reduced by DSS. In addition, Portulaca extract protected DSS induced apoptosis in mice. In conclusion, Portulaca extract can alleviate colitis in mice through regulation of inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, and PPAR- γ level; therefore, Portulaca extract can be a potential candidate for the treatment of IBD.

  18. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Foriş, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as μEq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co γ-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 μEq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with γ-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (pextract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 μEq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (pextract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  19. Cognitive enhancing of pineapple extract and juice in scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtazi-borojeni, Amir Abbas; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Rabbani, Mohammed; Ghannadi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Elham

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing of pineapple juice and ethanolic extract in scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit mice. The ethanolic extract of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) was prepared by maceration method and its juice was obtained by a homogenizer. Object recognition task was used to evaluate the mice memory. Exploration time in the first and second trial was recorded. The differences in exploration time between a familiar and a novel object in the second trial were taken as a memory index. Animals were randomly assigned into 15 groups of 6 each including: control group (normal saline + vehicle), positive control group (scopolamine + rivastigmine), seven experimental groups (received scopolamine alone or scopolamine + ethanolic extract of pineapple in different doses), six other experimental groups were treated by ethanolic extract or juice of pineapple in different doses. Scopolamine (100 μL, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and pineapple juice or extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 40 and 30 min before starting the second trial in the experimental groups. Object discrimination was impaired after scopolamine administration. Results showed that juice and ethanolic extract of pineapple significantly restored object recognition ability in mice treated with scopolamine. These finding suggested that pineapple had a protective role against scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its ability in management of cognitive disorders. PMID:28626484

  20. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were ...

  1. Oral Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases ultraviolet-induced damage of human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A.; Pathak, Madhu A.; Parrado, Concepcion; Goukassian, David; Rius-Díaz, Francisca; Mihm, Martín C.; Fitzpatrick, Thomas B.; González, Salvador

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: UV radiation induces damage to human skin. Protection of skin by an oral photoprotective agent would have substantial benefits. Objective We investigated the photoprotective effect of oral administration of an extract of the natural antioxidant Polypodium leucotomos (PL). METHODS: A

  2. Protective Effect of Onion Extract on Bleomycin-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Cho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following one of the world’s largest nuclear accidents, occured at Fukushima, Japan in 2011, a significant scientific effort has focused on minimizing the potential adverse health effects due to radiation exposure. The use of natural dietary antioxidants to reduce the risk of radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage is a simple strategy for minimizing radiation-related cancer rates and improving overall health. The onion is among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and is an important food for increasing their overall intake. Therefore, we examined the effect of an onion extract on cyto- and geno-toxicity in human lymphocytes treated with bleomycin (BLM, a radiomimetic agent. In addition, we measured the frequency of micronuclei (MN and DNA damage following treatment with BLM using a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and a single cell gel electrophoresis assay. We observed a significant increase in cell viability in lymphocytes treated with onion extract then exposed to BLM compared to cells treated with BLM alone. The frequency of BLM induced MN and DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent manner; however, when lymphocytes were pretreated with onion extract (10 and 20 μL/mL, the frequency of BLM-induced MN was decreased at all doses of BLM and DNA damage was decreased at 3 μg/mL of BLM. These results suggest that onion extract may have protective effects against BLM-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes.

  3. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherien Kamal Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract effectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (p0.05 different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients.

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Morus nigra against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus nigra (Family Moraceae is traditionally used injaundice, diabetes, hypertension, cough, fever and cancer. The current study was conducted to determine hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of leaves of M. nigra. Two doses of 250 mg/kg p.o and 500 mg/kg p.o showed that extract of M. nigra produced significant (p<0.001 reduction in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin induced by paracetamol and the results are comparable to silymarin (p<0.001. Results were supported by histopathologi-cal investigations, phytochemical screening and detection of active consti-tuents by HPLC. The current study showed that aqueous methanolic extract of M. nigra possess hepatoprotective activity that might be due to quercetin, luteolin and isorhamnetin. It was concluded from this study that M. nigra has hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver injury in mice.

  6. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (pAsparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent.

  7. Protective Effect of Anthocyanins Extract from Blueberry on TNBS-Induced IBD Model of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hua Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of anthocyanins extract of blueberry on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD model of mice. The study employed female C57BL/6 mice (n = 50, and colitis was induced by intracolonic injection of 0.5 mg of TNBS dissolved in 50% ethanol–phosphate buffered solution. The mice were divided into five groups (n = 10: vehicle, TNBS control and anthocyanins groups that received different doses of anthocyanins extract (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1 daily for 6 days. Both increase in body weight and diarrhea symptoms were monitored each day. After 6 days, the animals were killed, and the following parameters were assessed: colon length, morphological score, histological score and biochemical assay (NO, myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin (IL-12, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interferon (IFN-γ. The results showed that the anthocyanins extract of blueberry rendered strong protection against TNBS-induced colonic damage at a dosage of 40 mg kg-1. When compared with the control, anthocyanins extract significantly prevented loss of body weight and ameliorated the scores of diarrhea, morphology and histology. Treatment with anthocyanins extract restored IL-10 excretion, as well as caused reduction in the levels of NO, MPO, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Our research revealed the protective effect of anthocyanins extract from blueberry on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in mice, as well as examined whether high levels of dietary blueberries would lower the risk or have protective effects on human IBD, which may require further investigation.

  8. Silymarin and Nigella sativa extract ameliorate paracetamol induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Zakaria Hamza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the ameliorative role of silymarin or/and Nigella sativa (N. sativa water extract against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP-induced renal function deterioration in male mice at the biochemical levels. Methods: The mice were divided into seven groups (10/group. The first group was served as control. The second group was treated with dose of APAP. The third and fourth groups were treated with silymarin alone and N. sativa water extract alone, respectively. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with combination of APAP with silymarin and APAP with N. sativa water extract, respectively. The seventh group was treated with a combination of both ameliorative compounds (silymarin and N. sativa water extract with APAP and all animals were treated for a period of 30 days. Results: Exposure to APAP at the treated dose for mice led to an alteration of kidney function parameters, increase in the level of serum urea and creatinine. Also, paracetamol administration induced oxidative stress in kidney homogenates by increasing malondialdhyde level and decreasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and this stress was ameliorated by administration of either silymarin or N. sativa water extract. Conclusions: Administration of silymarin or/and N. sativa water extract to APAP-treated mice alleviate the toxicity of APAP, and this appeared clearly by biochemical improvement of kidney function parameters and antioxidant parameters. But, the alleviation is more pronounced with the both antioxidants. Thus, the pronounce effect of silymarin and N. sativa water extract is most effective in reducing the toxicity induced by APAP and improving the kidney function parameters and antioxidant status of kidney of male mice.

  9. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Adansonia digitata Extract on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Hanafy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae was examined for its hepatoprotective activity against liver damage induced by acetaminophen in rats. The principle depends on the fact that administration of acetaminophen will be associated with development of oxidative stress. In addition, hepatospecific serum markers will be disturbed. Treatment of the rats with the methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. prior to administration of acetaminophen significantly reduced the disturbance in liver function. Liver functions were measured by assessment of total protein, total bilirubin, ALP, ALT, and AST. Oxidative stress parameter and antioxidant markers were also evaluated. Moreover, histopathological evaluation was performed in order to assess liver case regarding inflammatory infiltration or necrosis. Animals were observed for any symptoms of toxicity after administration of extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. to ensure safety of the fruit extract.

  10. Capparis spinosa L. aqueous extract evokes antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Eddouks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa (CS possess antidiabetic effect, he present study aims to reveal the possible  mechanism of action of CS in diabetic mice.Materials and Methods: Both single and repeated oral administrations of aqueous extract of CS were performed in multi-low dose streptozotocin-induced (MLDS diabetic mice. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used in association with the endogenous glucose production (perfusion rate of 3-3H glucose to evaluate the effect of CS aqueous extract on insulin sensitivity.Results: Our study showed that aqueous extract of CS possess a potent hypoglycaemic activity in MLDS diabetic mice. Furthermore, the analysis perfusion of 3-3H glucose demonstrated  the parallel decrease of basal endogenous glucose production (EGP with the hypoglycaemic activity. EGP was lower in CS-Treated group when compared to the control group (p

  11. Effect of Potent Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ- induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200?mg/kg. Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200?mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine.

  12. Antihyperglycemic Effects of Fermented and Nonfermented Mung Bean Extracts on Alloxan-Induced-Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Keong Yeap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean was reported as a potential antidiabetic agent while fermented food has been proposed as one of the major contributors that can reduce the risk of diabetes in Asian populations. In this study, we have compared the normoglycemic effect, glucose-induced hyperglycemic effect, and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic effect of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts. Our results showed that fermented mung bean extracts did not induce hypoglycemic effect on normal mice but significantly reduced the blood sugar levels of glucose- and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL were also lowered while insulin secretion and antioxidant level as measured by malonaldehyde (MDA assays were significantly improved in the plasma of the fermented mung bean-treated group in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mouse. These results indicated that fermentation using Mardi Rhizopus sp. strain 5351 inoculums could enhance the antihyperglycemic and the antioxidant effects of mung bean in alloxan-treated mice. The improvement in the antihyperglycemic effect may also be contributed by the increased content of GABA and the free amino acid that are present in the fermented mung bean extracts.

  13. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Ameliorated FCA-Induced Experimental Arthritis: A Comparative Study among Different Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroos, Maliha; Sattar, Shumaila; Umer, Nigarish; Sharif, Ahsan

    2017-01-01

    Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (NAT) is commonly used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatism and inflammatory diseases. Current study evaluates the antiarthritic potential of NAT using Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model. Treatments with methanolic, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts were continued for consecutive 20 days. Macroscopic arthritic scoring and water displacement plethysmometry were used to evaluate arthritic development. Hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated and ankle joints were processed for histopathological evaluation. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and GC-MS analysis were conducted for identification of constituents. NAT extracts suppressed arthritic scoring, paw edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells, pannus formation, and bone erosion. The plant extracts ameliorated total leukocytes and platelet counts and nearly normalized red blood cells (RBC) counts and hemoglobin (Hb) content. The extracts were found safe in terms of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity as determined by aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and urea levels. Comparative analysis showed that ethyl acetate extract produced the highest inhibition of paw edema. The major constituents found in ethyl acetate extract can be classified into three major classes, that is, terpenes, terpenoids, fatty acids, and iridoid glycosides. Current study showed that Nyctanthes arbor-tristis ameliorated experimental rheumatoid arthritis and ethyl acetate extract possessed the highest inhibitory activity. PMID:28676830

  14. Inhibition of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 and its Inflammatory Reactions in Mice by Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata, a Well-known Medicinal Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, V.; Yarla, N. S.; Zameer, F.; Nagendra Prasad, M. N.; Santosh, M. S.; More, S. S.; Rao, D. G.; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neutralizing potential of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata on the isolated inflammatory PLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboii rusellii pulchella (belonging to Group IIA inflammatory secretory PLA2 [sPLA2]) and its associated edema-induced activities in Swiss albino mice. A. paniculata extract dose dependently inhibited the Group IIA sPLA2 enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. Further, the extract dose dependently inhibited the edema formation, when co-injected with enzyme indicating that a strong correlation exists between lipolytic and pro-inflammatory activities of the enzyme. In conclusion, results of this study shows that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata effectively inhibits Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate its anti-inflammatory properties. The results of the present study warranted further studies to develop bioactive compound (s) in ethanolic extract of A. paniculata as potent therapeutic agent (s) for inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases

  15. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  16. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Saumya R.; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K.

    2011-01-01

    The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. PMID:21572659

  17. Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris extract on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rat简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra; Rabiei; Shiva; Mokhtari; Samira; Asgharzade; Mostafa; Gholami; Samira; Rahnama; Mahmoud; Rafieian-kopaei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Thymus vulgaris(T. vulgaris) on learning and memory functions in scopolamine-induced memory deficit in rats. Memory enhancing activity in scopolamine-induced amnesic rats was investigated by assessing the Morris water maze and passive avoidance paradigm.Methods: A total of 42 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 equal groups as follow:control group: received water, scopolamine treated group: received scopolamine 1 mg/kg for 15 days, two scopolamine + T. vulgaris treated groups: received scopolamine and T. vulgaris extract 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days, two intact groups:received T. vulgaris extract 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days.Results: Administration of T. vulgaris extract significantly restored memory and learning impairments induced by scopolamine in the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test.Conclusions: T. vulgaris extract has repairing effects on memory and behavioral disorders produced by scopolamine and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  18. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  19. The Effects of Zataria Multiflora Hydroalcoholic Extract on Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hajihashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that broadly is used to treat gram negative bacteria infections, although it has side effects such as nephrotoxicity. According to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory properties of Zataria Multiflora, the effects of co-treatment with zataria Multiflora and hydroalcholic extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicitj were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this study, male rats of Vistar race were divided into 4 groups: 1.control group, 2. co-treatment with gentamicin and vehicle group, 3. co-treatment with gentamicin and zataria Multifiora extract group, 4. co-treatment with zataria Multiflora extract and normal saline solution group. Zataria Multiflora hydroalcoholic extract was added to drinking water as 800 PPm concentration. They, systolic blood pressure and renal blood flow (RBF were measured. Also, the amounts of urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and osmolarity were measured in plasma and urine samples Results: In co-treatment group with zataria Multiflora extract, the amounts of urea, creatinine, absolute sodium excretion and relative sodium and potassium excretion and malondialdehyde (MDA that have been inceased in treatment with gentamicin, significantly were reduced. Creatinine clearance, urine osmolarity, RBF and FRAP that was decreased in gentamicin group in compare to control group, significantly increased. Conclusion: Co-treatment prevents nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin and attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation, So it can be effective to cure rats receiving gentamicin.

  20. [The effect of osteogenic inducer on healing of tooth extraction sockets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junliang; Shan, Chuncheng; He, Yun; Xia, Delin

    2012-06-01

    To study the effect of osteogenic inducer (dexamethasone, beta-sodium glycerophosphate and Vitamin C) carried by gelatin sponge on healing and remodeling of tooth extraction sockets. Fifty rabbits were selected. After extracting the first premolars of bilateral maxillary, the right side tooth extraction sockets were filled with gelatin sponge containing osteogenic inducer as experimental side, tooth extraction sockets on left side were filled with gelatin sponge as control. Every ten rabbits were executed at the end of 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks after tooth extraction. Bone density was measured through digital X-ray images. The specimens were examined by histology. The absorption height of alveolar bone at 12 weeks was measured. X-ray measurement showed that the bone density of experimental side was higher than that of control side at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks, the difference had statistical significance (Psockets of experimental side was earlier than that in control side. The absorptional height of alveolar bone had significant difference between experimental side and control side (Psockets can promote the healing and new bone formation and prevent from alveolar bone absorption.

  1. Extract of Rhus verniciflua Bark Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ki Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RV has traditionally been used as a food supplement and a traditional herbal medicine for centuries in Korea. Recent studies suggest that RV has potent antioxidative, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of RV from mice sensitized with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB and activated macrophages were investigated. The results showed that RV reduced ear swelling and hyperplasia of ear tissue as well as an increase in vascular permeability, which are characteristics of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD with evident histomorphological changes in epidermis and dermis. Decreased numbers of infiltrated mast cells were seen in RV extract treated group, using toluidine blue staining. RV extract significantly regulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS at the translational level in activated macrophages. Furthermore, RV extract and its active compound, fisetin, attenuated the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6 mRNA in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Anti-ACD effect of RV extract may be due to the suppression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines which might be mediated via the NFκB signaling pathways. Collectively, RV extract has potential for alleviating ACD-like symptoms induced by DNFB in the mouse.

  2. Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ho-Keun; Lee, Sung Haeng; Park, Zee Yong; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Hwang, Ji-Sun; So, Jae-Seon; Lee, Choong-Gu; Sahoo, Anupama; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeon, Won Kyung; Ko, Byoung Seob; Im, Chang-Rok

    2010-01-01

    Cinnamomum cassia bark is the outer skin of an evergreen tall tree belonging to the family Lauraceae containing several active components such as essential oils (cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde), tannin, mucus and carbohydrate. They have various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activity. Previously, we have reported that anti-cancer effect of cinnamon extracts is associated with modulation of angiogenesis and effector function of CD8 + T cells. In this study, we further identified that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is also link with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the activities NFκB and AP1 in mouse melanoma model. Water soluble cinnamon extract was obtained and quality of cinnamon extract was evaluated by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. In this study, we tested anti-tumor activity and elucidated action mechanism of cinnamon extract using various types of tumor cell lines including lymphoma, melanoma, cervix cancer and colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Cinnamon extract strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induced active cell death of tumor cells by up-regulating pro-apoptotic molecules while inhibiting NFκB and AP1 activity and their target genes such as Bcl-2, BcL-xL and survivin. Oral administration of cinnamon extract in melanoma transplantation model significantly inhibited tumor growth with the same mechanism of action observed in vitro. Our study suggests that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is directly linked with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity and inhibition of NFκB and AP1 activities and their target genes in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Hence, further elucidation of active components of cinnamon extract could lead to development of potent anti-tumor agent or complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of diverse cancers

  3. Ameliorating effects of aged garlic extracts against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In vitro antioxidant activities and neuron-like PC12 cell protective effects of solvent fractions from aged garlic extracts were investigated to evaluate their anti-amnesic functions. Ethyl acetate fractions of aged garlic had higher total phenolics than other fractions. Methods Antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic were examined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibitory effect using mouse whole brain homogenates. Levels of cellular oxidative stress as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). PC12 cell viability was investigated by 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydtrogenase (LDH) assay. The learning and memory impairment in institute of cancer research (ICR) mice was induced by neurotoxic amyloid beta protein (Aβ) to investigate in vivo anti-amnesic effects of aged garlic extracts by using Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. Results We discovered that ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and MDA inhibitory effect. Intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment in PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were presented in the medium compare to PC12 cells which was only treated with Aβ only. Ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic extracts showed protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Pre-administration with aged garlic extracts attenuated Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits in both in vivo tests. Conclusions Our findings suggest that aged garlic extracts with antioxidant activities may improve cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit, and possess a wide range of beneficial activities for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:24134394

  4. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Piper longum root aqueous extract in STZ induced diabetic rats

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    Nabi Shaik Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA followed by DMRT. Results During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. Conclusions From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the

  5. The thickness of odontoblast-like cell layer after induced by propolis extract and calcium hydroxide

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    Irfan Dwiandhono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propolis is a substance made from resin collected by bees (Apis mellifera from variety of plants, mixed with its saliva and various enzymes to build a nest. Propolis has potential antimicrobial and antiinflammatory agents with some advantages over calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2. Ca(OH2 has been considered as the “gold standard” of direct pulp-capping materials, but there are still some weakness of its application. First, it can induce pulp inflammation which last up to 3 months. Second, the tissue response to Ca(OH2 is not always predictable. Third, the tunnel defect can probably formed in dentinal bridge with possible bacterial invasion in that gap. Purpose: This study was aimed to determine and compare the thickness of odontoblast-like cells layer after induced by propolis extract and Ca(OH2 in rat’s pulp tissue. Method: Class 1 preparation was done in maxillary first molar tooth of wistar mice until the pulp opened. The Ca(OH2 and propolis extract was applied to induce the formation of odontoblast-like cells, the cavity was filled with RMGIC. The teeth were extracted (after 14 and 28 days of induction. The samples were then processed for histological evaluation. Result: There were significant differences between the thickness of odontoblast-like cells after induced by propolis extract and Ca(OH2. Conclusion: The propolis extract as the direct pulp capping agent produces thicker odontoblast-like cell layer compared to Ca(OH2.

  6. Curcuma aromatica Water Extract Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastritis via Enhancement of Antioxidant Status

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    Woo-Young Jeon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp. and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p<0.01 and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp.. CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol.

  7. Continuous nucleus extraction by optically-induced cell lysis on a batch-type microfluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Hung, Lien-Yu; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-04-21

    The extraction of a cell's nucleus is an essential technique required for a number of procedures, such as disease diagnosis, genetic replication, and animal cloning. However, existing nucleus extraction techniques are relatively inefficient and labor-intensive. Therefore, this study presents an innovative, microfluidics-based approach featuring optically-induced cell lysis (OICL) for nucleus extraction and collection in an automatic format. In comparison to previous micro-devices designed for nucleus extraction, the new OICL device designed herein is superior in terms of flexibility, selectivity, and efficiency. To facilitate this OICL module for continuous nucleus extraction, we further integrated an optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) module with the OICL device within the microfluidic chip. This on-chip integration circumvents the need for highly trained personnel and expensive, cumbersome equipment. Specifically, this microfluidic system automates four steps by 1) automatically focusing and transporting cells, 2) releasing the nuclei on the OICL module, 3) isolating the nuclei on the ODEP module, and 4) collecting the nuclei in the outlet chamber. The efficiency of cell membrane lysis and the ODEP nucleus separation was measured to be 78.04 ± 5.70% and 80.90 ± 5.98%, respectively, leading to an overall nucleus extraction efficiency of 58.21 ± 2.21%. These results demonstrate that this microfluidics-based system can successfully perform nucleus extraction, and the integrated platform is therefore promising in cell fusion technology with the goal of achieving genetic replication, or even animal cloning, in the near future.

  8. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin-induced liver damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, N; Garba, S H; Timothy, H

    2009-12-01

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six. Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100 mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days respectively. Rats in group III were administered 450 mg/kg body weight of Psidium guajava only for 7 days while rats in groups IV, V and VI were administered Psidium guajava extract for 7 days and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin for 14 days. Histopathological investigation of the liver tissues revealed striking oedema and mild periportal mononuclear cell infiltration of hepatic cords in the liver of rats administered 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. Pretreatment with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract showed a slight degree of protection against the induced hepatic injury caused by 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate. Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained revealed a significant increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes measured in the groups administered with 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract compared to the control groups and those pretreated with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. This study has shown that the aqueous extract of psidium guajava leaf possesses hepatoprotective property at lower dose and a hepatotoxic property at higher dose but further studies with prolonged duration is recommended.

  9. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury by emulsified Antrodia extract

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    Wei-Chih Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Antrodia cinnamomea (AC is found with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory biological activities. In this study, we investigated the anti-hepatitis effect of the emulsified AC extract from RO water or supercritical fluid CO2 with ethanol co-solvent extract methods of AC preparations. Materials and Methods: Five groups of eight to ten weeks male rats with a count of ten for each group were studied to evaluate the protection of two kinds of AC extract from hepatic injury. Acute liver injury of rats was induced by injecting 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Positive and negative control groups rats were perfused with CCl4 or isotonic saline, respectively. Experimental groups received oral administration once/day of AC preparations before CCl4 treatment: water AC extract (WAE group, or emulsified AC extract from supercritical fluid extraction (EAE group for 5 days, and sacrificed on the 6th day and the blood and liver samples were collected under chloral hydrate anesthesia. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant markers, and relevant signaling pathways were measured (AST, ALT, ROS, IL-1, IL-6, NO, and COX-2, MAPKs, and caspase-3. Results: EAE at 50 mg/kg significantly decreased the serum AST, ALT, IL-1, IL-6, NO, and ROS levels. Both extracts reduced the activation of p-ERK in the liver samples, but EAE inhibited COX-2 and caspase-3 protein expression better than WAE. The EAE ameliorated CCl4-induced hepatic injury significantly; as compared with WAE and the positive control. Conclusion: The hepatoprotection of EAE could be attributed to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Antrodia.

  10. Protection effect of piper betel leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shun-Chieh; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lin, Jing-Jing; Peng, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2007-01-01

    Piper betel leaves (PBL) are used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. PBL has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antimutation. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of PBL extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in a rat model. Fibrosis and hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were induced in rats by an administration of CCl(4) (8%, 1 ml/kg body weight) thrice a week for 4 weeks. PBL extract significantly inhibited the elevated AST and ALT activities caused by CCl(4) intoxication. It also attenuated total glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST alpha isoform activity, and on the other hand, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The histological examination showed the PBL extract protected liver from the damage induced by CCl(4) by decreasing alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-sma) expression, inducing active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression though Ras/Erk pathway, and inhibiting TIMP2 level that consequently attenuated the fibrosis of liver. The data of this study support a chemopreventive potential of PBL against liver fibrosis.

  11. Amelioration of azoxymethane induced-carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Rawahi, Amani S; Al Riyami, Marwa; Al-Kindi, Mohamed A; Al-Issaei, Halima K; Farooq, Sardar A; Al-Alawi, Ahmed; Rahman, Mohammad S

    2014-02-18

    Azoxymethane (AOM) is a potent carcinogenic agent commonly used to induce colon cancer in rats; the cytotoxicity of AOM is considered to mediate oxidative stress. This study investigated the chemopreventive effect of three natural extracts [pomegranate peel extract (PomPE), papaya peel extract (PapPE) and seaweed extract (SE)] against AOM-induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in rat colon. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 4 weeks) were randomly divided into 8 groups (10 rats/group). Control group was fed a basal diet; AOM-treated group was fed a basal diet and received AOM intraperitonial injections for two weeks at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight, whereas the other six groups were received oral supplementation of PomPE, PapPE or SE, in the presence or absence of AOM injection. All animals were continuously fed ad-libitum until aged 16 weeks, then all rats were sacrificed and the colon tissues were examined microscopically for pathological changes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) development, genotoxicity (induced micronuclei (MN) cells enumeration), and glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Our results showed that AOM-induced ACF development and pathological changes in the colonic mucosal tissues, increased bone marrow MN cells and oxidative stress (glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation) in rat colonic cells. The concomitant treatment of AOM with PomPE, PapPE or SE significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effects of AOM. The results of this study provide in-vivo evidence that PomPE, PapPE and SE reduced the AOM-induced colon cancer in rats, through their potent anti-oxidant activities.

  12. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p Lavandula.

  13. Ethanol extract from portulaca oleracea L. attenuated acetaminophen-induced mice liver injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Shi, Hong-Guang; Tang, Gu-Sheng; Wang, Wan-Yin; Zhou, Juan; Dong, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen-induced liver injury represents the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure in the world. Portulaca oleracea L., a widely distributed weed, has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Previously, we reported that the ethanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of PO on acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity. The results demonstrated that PO was an effective anti-oxidative agent, which could, to some extent, reverse APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver of mice. At the same time, PO treatment significantly decreased mice serum levels of IL-6 and TNFα and their mRNA expression in liver tissue IL-α and TNFα play an important role during APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, PO inhibited APAP and TNFα-induced activation of JNK, whose activation play an important effect during APAP induced liver injury. These findings suggested that administration of PO may be an effective strategy to prevent or treat liver injury induced by APAP. PMID:25901199

  14. Evaluation of methanolic extract of Phragmites karka on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rat

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    Atta ur Rehman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phragmites karka has been reported for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Here, extracts of leaf and rhizome of the plant were individually investigated in CCl4-induced hepatofibrosis in male Wistar rats by administering CCl4 intraperitoneally biweekly for 6 weeks. Afterwards the animals were investigated for liver fibrosis at biochemical, molecular and histological levels, and it showed a profound increase (p<0.001 in elevation of serum levels of transaminases, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, mRNA expression of α smooth muscle actin, collagen and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, and extracellular matrix deposition and perilobular necrosis. Both extracts markedly (p<0.001 decreased the elevated levels of these markers. Histopathological investigations also substantiated the above results by exhibiting a decreased in extracellular matrix deposition in post-treatment animals. In conclusion, both extracts had substantially modified the biochemical and molecular markers of liver fibrosis, in addition to histological improvement in architecture of liver.

  15. Amelioration of the cyclophosphamide induced genotoxic damage in mice by the ethanolic extract of Equisetum arvense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Jasbir; Ali, Md Niamat; Ganaie, Hilal Ahmad; Tabassum, Nahida

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the potential of the plant E. arvense against the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects induced by cyclophosphamide (chemotherapeutic agent) in the bone marrow cells of mice using the Chromosome assay (CA) and Mitotic index (MI) in vivo as the biomarkers. The study was performed following 3 protocols: pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment and post-treatment with the ethanolic extract of the plant. The results demonstrated that the plant extract was not cytotoxic and mutagenic and has a protective effect against the mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide in pre, simultaneous and post treatments and against its cytotoxicity as well. Because of its ability to prevent chromosomal damage , E. arvense is likely to open an interesting field concerning its possible use in clinical applications, most importantly in cancer as a chemopreventive agent or even as a coadjuvant to chemotherapy to reduce the side effects associated with it.

  16. Effectiveness of artichoke extract in preventing alcohol-induced hangovers: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H.; White, Adrian R.; Stevinson, Clare; Ernst, Edzard

    2003-01-01

    Background Extract of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is promoted as a possible preventive or cure for alcohol-induced hangover symptoms. However, few rigorous clinical trials have assessed the effects of artichoke extract, and none has examined the effects in relation to hangovers. We undertook this study to test whether artichoke extract is effective in preventing the signs and symptoms of alcohol-induced hangover. Methods We recruited healthy adult volunteers between 18 and 65 years of age to participate in a randomized double-blind crossover trial. Participants received either 3 capsules of commercially available standardized artichoke extract or indistinguishable, inert placebo capsules immediately before and after alcohol exposure. After a 1-week washout period the volunteers received the opposite treatment. Participants predefined the type and amount of alcoholic beverage that would give them a hangover and ate the same meal before commencing alcohol consumption on the 2 study days. The primary outcome measure was the difference in hangover severity scores between the artichoke extract and placebo interventions. Secondary outcome measures were differences between the interventions in scores using a mood profile questionnaire and cognitive performance tests administered 1 hour before and 10 hours after alcohol exposure. Results Fifteen volunteers participated in the study. The mean number (and standard deviation) of alcohol units (each unit being 7.9 g, or 10 mL, of ethanol) consumed during treatment with artichoke extract and placebo was 10.7 (3.1) and 10.5 (2.4) respectively, equivalent to 1.2 (0.3) and 1.2 (0.2) g of alcohol per kilogram body weight. The volume of nonalcoholic drink consumed and the duration of sleep were similar during the artichoke extract and placebo interventions. None of the outcome measures differed significantly between interventions. Adverse events were rare and were mild and transient. Interpretation Our results suggest that

  17. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

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    Zahra Hesami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, we used immunohistochemical analysis in male rats. Methods: In this project the 28 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 animals. The rats were divided into four experimental groups as follows: the first group (sham intraperitoneally received only olive oil as the solvent of carbon tetrachloride; second group (CCl4 intraperitoneally received carbon tetrachloride dissolved in olive oil (ratio of about 1: 1 at a concentration of 1 ml/kg and a twice a week for eight weeks; third group subcutaneously received only platelet extract at a concentration of 0.5 ml/kg twice a week for three weeks; and fourth group received both CCl4 intraperitoneally for eight weeks and platelet extract subcutaneously for last three weeks. After 8 weeks of trial blood and liver sampling were done. Blood samples sent for enzymatic (AST, ALT tests and liver samples tested for histological and immunohistochemical studies. The data were analyzed using  one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test by Graph pad Prism 5 software and data were considered significant at p≤ 0.05. Results: The results show that platelet extract causes a significant (p≤ 0.001 decrease in liver enzymes and albumin improves the function of liver. The level of alfa smooth muscle actin (α-SMA as an index of hepatic stellate cell activation was decreased by platelet extract administration which eventually reduced the necrosis and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in studied rats

  18. Urtica dioica dichloromethane extract induce apoptosis from intrinsic pathway on human prostate cancer cells (PC3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Mansoori, B; Aghapour, M; Baradaran, B

    2016-03-31

    Prostate cancer is considered as the major cause of death among men around the world. There are a number of medicinal plants triggering apoptosis response in cancer cells, thus have a therapeutic potential. Therefore, further studies to characterize beneficial properties of these plants in order to introduce novel anti-cancer drugs are the interest of recent researches on the alternative medicine. On the other hand, due to traditional uses and availability of Urtica dioica extract, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of this medicinal herb on pc3 prostate cancer cell line. In the present study the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract were assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue viability dye. Then, DNA fragmentation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were exploited to measure cell death and apoptosis stage. The expression levels of caspase 3, caspase 9 and Bcl-2 genes were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Finally, Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. MTT assay showed that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica significantly inhibited the cell growth. According to the DNA fragmentation and TUNEL assay results, the herbal extract was able to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Our findings also demonstrated that the plant extract substantially increases the caspase 3 and 9 mRNA expression, while decreases Bcl-2. Cell cycle arrest was occurred in G2 stage, due to the results of flow cytometry. These results indicate that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica can successfully induce apoptosis in PC3 cells. Therefore, it could be used as a novel therapeutic candidate for prostate tumor treatment.

  19. Cynodon dactylon extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmani, F; Sadki, C; Aziz, M; Mimouni, M; Hacht, B

    2009-04-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae family) decoction was used in the treatment of kidney stones. However, no scientific study was undertaken so far to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the plant. Thus, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of Cynodon aqueous extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Ethylene glycol (EG) was used in the experiment to induce calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition into kidneys. In preventive protocol, Cynodon decoction was administered in the same day with EG to evaluate the ability of the extract to prevent crystal deposition. However, in curative protocol, rats were first rendered nephrolithiasic and then the extract was administered to assess the ability of the plant to eliminate the pre-existing crystal deposition. In both protocols, urinary biochemical and other variables were measured during the course of the study. Crystalluria and renal histology were examined as well. The results showed that, in both protocols, all measured variables were similar for both the rat groups. Nevertheless, urinary biochemical analysis was apparently unaffected by the extract except oxalate in preventive protocol, and calcium, sodium, and potassium in curative protocol which were significantly highly excreted in treated rats compared to untreated animals. Crystalluria was characterized mostly by the presence of large quantities of CaOx monohydrate and CaOx dihydrate particles in untreated rats. However, crystalluria was mainly dominated by the presence of CaOx dihydrate particles with reduced size. The most apparent beneficial effect of Cynodon extract was seen in kidney tissues where reduced levels of CaOx deposition have been noticed especially in medullary and papillary sections from treated rats. We concluded that C. dactylon extract has beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition into kidneys. Such findings provide a scientific explanation for its use in the

  20. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad; Rafi Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi; Zainab Awaen Al-Ebady; Thulfuqar Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy...

  1. Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24019816

  2. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

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    Yoshinori Okada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alzheimer′s disease (AD is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds′ aqueous extracts (PSAE for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN. Materials and Methods: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce. PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. Results: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. Conclusion: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death.

  3. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds' aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death.

  4. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia induced by High Fat Diet

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    Rahul Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast (NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract (ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF and seed extract (GS were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=4.01 µg/ml, ABTS•+ (IC50=0.82 µg/ml, NBT (IC50=0.07 µg/ml and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=19.26 µg/ml. Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%, serum total cholesterol (33%, triglycerides (32%, low-density lipoprotein (38% and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

  5. Protective Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Portulaca Oleracea Against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

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    Gholamreza Karimi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPortulaca oleracea L. is a herbaceous weed from portulacaceae family. It can be found in many parts of the world. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that P. oleracea have antioxidant effects. The protective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. oleracea against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity was studied in rats.Materials and MethodsSingle intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg cisplatin was administrated to rats. After 5 days, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr concentration were determined. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts, before and after cisplatin injection on BUN and Scr, as well as morphological renal damage, was evaluated. ResultsIt was indicated that treatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. oleracea in the highest dose (0.8 and 2 g/ kg, 6 and 12 hr before cisplatin injection reduced BUN and Scr. Tubular necrotic damage was not observed either. ConclusionResults suggest that P. oleracea extract may protect against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and might serve as a novel combination agent with cisplan to limit renal injury.

  6. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris fruit extract on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

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    Borran, Mina; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) could be helpful in the treatment of acute pancreatitis; thus, this study was designed to investigate the effects of T. terrestris on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of T. terrestris hydro-alcoholic extract were administered both orally (60 minutes before pancreatitis induction, p.o.) and intra-peritoneally (30 minutes before pancreatitis induction, i.p.) to different groups of mice (n=6). Pancreatitis was induced by five injections (i.p.) of cerulein 50μg/kg body weight with 1 hr intervals. Animals were euthanized 5 hr after the last injection of cerulein and tissue injures were assessed biochemically and pathologically. Results: T. terrestris extract 200 and 400mg/kg (p.o.) and T. terrestris extract 400 mg/kg (i.p.) reduced pancreatic tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and serum amylase and lipase levels and alleviated histological parameters. Conclusion: These data suggest that T. terrestris hydro-alcoholic extract was effective in protecting against experimental acute pancreatitis and possibly the efficacy depends on dose and route of administration. PMID:28748172

  7. Extracts of human atherosclerotic lesions modify LDL inducing enhanced macrophage uptake

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    Hoff, H.F.; O'Neill, J.

    1986-01-01

    Both an LDL-like fraction isolated from human aortic plaques and LDL incubated with cultured aortic endothelial or smooth muscle cells have been shown to be internalized by macrophages in vitro in an unregulated fashion leading to foam cell formation. Lipid peroxidation induced by free radicals released from cells was shown to be responsible for cell-modified LDL. The authors incubated LDL with a supernatant fraction of leached, i.e. non-homogenized, extracts of aortic plaques for one hour at 37 0 C, to determine whether extracellular components present in arteries were also capable of modifying LDL. Extract-treated LDL showed the following changes relative to untreated LDL: 1) increased electrophretic mobility, 2) altered pattern of B-100 on SDS-PAGE, i.e. presence of a doublet with higher M/sub r/ than B-100, and 3) enhanced uptake by cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages as measured by increased degradation of 125 I-LDL, and increased stimulation of cholesterol esterification using 14 C-oleate. Extracts from homogenized plaques and grossly normal intima induced similar changes. The modification was tissue specific in that extracts of arteries but not of liver, muscle or skin modified LDL. Protease degradation of LDL during incubation was probably not responsible since inhibitors did not prevent modification. It is possible that products of lipid peroxidation present in extracellular lipid of arteries may propagate free radicals or be incorporated into LDL, leading to modifications similar to those found in cell-modified LDL

  8. Grape extract protects against γ-radiation-induced membrane damage strains of human erythrocytes

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    Das, Subir Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The membrane integrity of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) is compromised by the deleterious actions of γ-radiation in humans. Grapes are the richest source of antioxidants due to presence of potentially bioactive phytochemicals. The objective of the present study was to assess the radioprotective actions of grape extracts against the γ-radiation-induced membrane permeability of human erythrocytes. The scavenging activities in seeds of grape in DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, were higher than skin or pulp of different cultivars. Grape extracts also showed appreciable extent of total antioxidant capacity and effective antihemolytic action. Grape extracts significantly ameliorated the γ-radiation-induced increase of the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, an index of lipid peroxidation) in the RBC membrane ghosts. Stored blood showed higher levels of K + ion as compared to the normal blood which was elevated by γ-radiation. Membrane ATPase was inhibited by the exposure to γ-radiation.Treatment of RBCs with the grape extracts prior to the exposure of γ-radiation significantly mitigated these changes in the erythrocyte membranes caused by the lower dose of radiation (4 Gy). (author)

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of parsley, basil, and chicory aqueous extracts against dexamethasone-induced in experimental rats

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    Soliman, Hanan A.; El-Desouky, Mohamed A.; Hozayen, Walaa G.; Ahmed, Rasha R.; Khaliefa, Amal K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along with three different plant extracts of parsley, basil, and chicory (2 g/kg b. wt.), (400 mg/kg b. wt.), and (100 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively. Results: All these groups were treated given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Dex-induced alterations in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular indices and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, liver thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) levels increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and liver glutathione (GSH) levels decreased. On the other hand, plant extracts succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from Dex as indicated by the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, TBARS, and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Conclusions: It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley, basil, and chicory extracts have hepatoprotective effects in Dex-induced in rats. PMID:27069727

  10. Mangifera indica L. extract protects T cells from activation-induced cell death.

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    Hernández, Patricia; Delgado, Rene; Walczak, Henning

    2006-09-01

    The aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) has been reported to have antioxidant properties. AIDS is characterized by up-regulation of CD95 ligand (CD95L) expression and enhancement of activation-induced cell death (AICD). Recent studies demonstrate oxidative signals combined with simultaneous calcium (Ca(2+)) influx into the cytosol are required for induction of CD95L expression. In this study we show that M. indica extract attenuated anti-CD3-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular free Ca(2+) and consequently, downregulates CD95L mRNA expression and CD95-mediated AICD. In addition, TCR triggering caused an elevation in the antioxidant enzyme manganous superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and the increase in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, both effects being prevented by M. indica extract. We provide a number of evidences regarding how M. indica extract enhance T-cell survival by inhibiting AICD, a finding associated with a decrease in oxidative stress generated through the TCR signaling pathway in activated T cells.

  11. Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum extract as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model.

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    Bayir, Yasin; Halici, Zekai; Keles, Mevlut Sait; Colak, Suat; Cakir, Ahmet; Kaya, Yusuf; Akçay, Fatih

    2011-11-18

    Since ancient times, various herbal preparations have been used in treatment of urolithiasis, which is basically formation of calcium oxalate stones in kidney. The aim of our study is to assess the effects of Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum (HP) as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model in rats. The efficacy of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg HP extract was studied in 1% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride-induced urolithiasis for 21 days in rats. The weight difference and the levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid in both serum and 24h-urine were measured. The calcium oxalate (CaOx) and pH were defined in urine. Histo-pathological analyses in kidneys were also performed. The rats' weights were higher in HP groups than urolithiasis group. Urolithiasis caused a significant increase in both serum and urine biochemical parameters compared to healthy rats. HP extract decreased levels of these parameters. Urine CaOx level was high in urolithiasis rats, whereas it was decreased by HP extract. Histopathological examinations revealed extensive intratubular crystal depositions and degenerative tubular structures in urolithiasis group, but not in HP treatment groups. More studies will be necessary to elucidate the antiurolithiatic activity of HP. Nonetheless, having a beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition into kidneys, HP extract may be a potential drug for urolithiasis treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon L. root extract against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowsalya, R; Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Vaishnavi, M; Namasivayam, Elangovan

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced significant results in the protective action. The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses significant anticancer properties.

  13. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris fruit extract on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borran, Mina; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities of Tribulus terrestris ( T. terrestris ) could be helpful in the treatment of acute pancreatitis; thus, this study was designed to investigate the effects of T. terrestris on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of T. terrestris hydro-alcoholic extract were administered both orally (60 minutes before pancreatitis induction, p.o.) and intra-peritoneally (30 minutes before pancreatitis induction, i.p.) to different groups of mice (n=6). Pancreatitis was induced by five injections (i.p.) of cerulein 50μg/kg body weight with 1 hr intervals. Animals were euthanized 5 hr after the last injection of cerulein and tissue injures were assessed biochemically and pathologically. T. terrestris extract 200 and 400mg/kg (p.o.) and T. terrestris extract 400 mg/kg (i.p.) reduced pancreatic tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and serum amylase and lipase levels and alleviated histological parameters. These data suggest that T. terrestris hydro-alcoholic extract was effective in protecting against experimental acute pancreatitis and possibly the efficacy depends on dose and route of administration.

  14. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris fruit extract on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

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    Mina Borran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris could be helpful in the treatment of acute pancreatitis; thus, this study was designed to investigate the effects of T. terrestris on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of T. terrestris hydro-alcoholic extract were administered both orally (60 minutes before pancreatitis induction, p.o. and intra-peritoneally (30 minutes before pancreatitis induction, i.p. to different groups of mice (n=6. Pancreatitis was induced by five injections (i.p. of cerulein 50μg/kg body weight with 1 hr intervals. Animals were euthanized 5 hr after the last injection of cerulein and tissue injures were assessed biochemically and pathologically. Results: T. terrestris extract 200 and 400mg/kg (p.o. and T. terrestris extract 400 mg/kg (i.p. reduced pancreatic tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and serum amylase and lipase levels and alleviated histological parameters. Conclusion: These data suggest that T. terrestris hydro-alcoholic extract was effective in protecting against experimental acute pancreatitis and possibly the efficacy depends on dose and route of administration.

  15. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon L. root extract against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatic carcinoma

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    R Kowsalya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced signifi cant results in the protective action. Results: The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses signifi cant anticancer properties

  16. A Combined Bioinformatics and Functional Metagenomics Approach to Discovering Lipolytic Biocatalysts

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    Thorsten eMasuch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of protein sequence data published today is of metagenomic origin. However, our ability to assign functions to these sequences is often hampered by our general inability to cultivate the larger part of microbial species and the sheer amount of sequence data generated in these projects. Here we present a combination of bioinformatics, synthetic biology and Escherichia coli genetics to discover biocatalysts in metagenomic datasets. We created a subset of the Global Ocean Sampling dataset, the largest metagenomic project published to date, by removing all proteins that matched Hidden Markov Models of known protein families from PFAM and TIGRFAM with high confidence (e-value > 10-5. This essentially left us with proteins with low or no homology to known protein families, still encompassing ~1.7 million different sequences. In this subset, we then identified protein families de novo with a Markov clustering algorithm. For each protein family, we defined a single representative based on its phylogenetic relationship to all other members in that family. This reduced the dataset to ~17,000 representatives of protein families with more than 10 members. Based on conserved regions typical for lipases and esterases, we selected a representative gene from a family of 27 members for synthesis. This protein, when expressed in E. coli, showed lipolytic activity towards para-nitrophenyl (pNP esters. The Km value of the enzyme was 66.68 µM for pNP-butyrate and 68.08 µM for pNP-palmitate with kcat/Km values at 3.4 x 106 and 6.6 x 105 M-1s-1, respectively. Hydrolysis of model substrates showed enantiopreference for the R-form. Reactions yielded 43% and 61% enantiomeric excess of products with ibuprofen methyl ester and 2-phenylpropanoic acid ethyl ester, respectively. The enzyme retains 50 % of its maximum activity at temperatures as low as 10 °C, its activity is enhanced in artificial seawater and buffers with higher salt concentrations with an

  17. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

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    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  18. Antidiabetic Activity of Aqueous Leaves Extract of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr. in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhare, Ramdas B.; Sangameswaran, B.; Mohite, Popat B.; Khanage, Shantaram G.

    2011-01-01

    The aqueous leaves extract of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr. (Family: Fabaceae) was evaluated for its antidiabetic potential on normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In the chronic model, the aqueous extract was administered to normal and STZ- induced diabetic rats at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) p.o. per day for 30 days. The fasting Blood Glucose Levels (BGL), serum insulin level and biochemical data such as glycosylated hemoglobin, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) were evaluated and all were compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg b.w.). The statistical data indicated significant increase in the body weight, liver glycogen, serum insulin and HDL levels and decrease in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides when compared with glibenclamide. Thus the aqueous leaves extract of Sesbania sesban had beneficial effects in reducing the elevated blood glucose level and lipid profile of STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:23407749

  19. Antidiabetic effect of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

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    B. Jayaprasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been increasing at an alarming rate around the world, and experts have relied on remedies from the utilization of ancient drugs that are essentially derived from plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg b.w.. The diabetic rats were administered orally with C. swietenia bark (CSB methanolic (CSBMEt and aqueous (CSBAEt (250 mg/kg b.w. extracts and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg b.w. by intragastric intubation for 45 days. The result showed a heavy loss in weight, increase in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, and decline in plasma insulin and total hemoglobin content. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase were found to be increased whereas hexokinase and glycogen contents were decreased in STZ induced diabetic rats. CSBAEt, CSBMEt and glibenclamide treated diabetic rats showed moderate reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels; in addition, plasma insulin and hemoglobin levels were elevated. The altered activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and liver glycogen were improved remarkably. CSBMEt results were comparable to the standard drug glibenclamide. The present findings support the usage of the plant extracts for the traditional treatment of diabetes.

  20. The Effect of Alium Satium Extract on the Glomerular Diameter of STZ -induced Sprague dawley Rats

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    Susilorini Susilorini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia exert toxic effect in kidney.The aim of this study was to investigate the short term effect of ethanolic extract of garlic in preventing nephropathy following streptozotocin (STZ induced rats. Twenty male Sprague dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 group, all group induced induced by single dose intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg kg-1 of streptozotocin (STZ. Treatment with 3 doses ethanolic extract of garlic (0,1; 0,25; 0,5 mg kg-1 day-1 was followed for 14 days, then the left kidneys were excised and histhopathological studies were carried out using scanner 3D Hitech and Panoramic view software. Statistical analysis have been done using non parametric analysis Kruskall Wallis. The study revealed that glomerular diameter of the treatment rats was significantly different from the control group (p=0,0001. Increasing doses didn’t make difference. The ethanolic extract of garlic (Allium sativum influences the diameter glomeruli but increasing doses has no effect on the glomerular diameter.

  1. Autophagy induced by purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract triggered a cooperative effect on inducing the hepatic stellate cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardin, Cristiane C; Martins, Leo A M; Parisi, Mariana M; Vieira, Moema Queiroz; Terra, Silvia R; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia M; Borojevic, Radovan; Vizzotto, Márcia; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Guma, Fátima Costa Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the major source of collagen I in liver fibrosis. Eugenia uniflora L. is a tree species that is widely distributed in South America. E. uniflora L. fruit-popularly known as pitanga-has been shown to exert beneficial properties. Autophagy contributes to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival under stress situation, but it has also been suggested to be an alternative cell death pathway. Mitochondria play a pivotal role on signaling cell death. Mitophagy of damaged mitochondria is an important cell defense mechanism against organelle-mediated cell death signaling. We previously found that purple pitanga extract induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cell cycle arrest, and death by apoptosis and necrosis in GRX cells, a well-established activated HSC line. We evaluated the effects of 72-h treatment with crescent concentrations of purple pitanga extract (5 to 100 μg/mL) on triggering autophagy in GRX cells, as this is an important mechanism to cells under cytotoxic conditions. We found that all treated cells presented an increase in the mRNA expression of autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7). Concomitantly, flow cytometry and ultrastructural analysis of treated cells revealed an increase of autophagosomes/autolysosomes that consequentially led to an increased mitophagy. As purple pitanga extract was previously found to be broadly cytotoxic to GRX cells, we postulated that autophagy contributes to this scenario, where cell death seems to be an inevitable fate. Altogether, the effectiveness on inducing activated HSC death can make purple pitanga extract a good candidate on treating liver fibrosis.

  2. Nephroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. on acetaminophen-induced and pleurisy-induced lesions in rats

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    Denise Pereira Müzell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the bioactive properties of an aqueous extract of M. officinalis for its anti-inflammatory activity and its protection against hepatic and renal lesions induced by acetaminophen (APAP. Animals pre-treated with the crude extract in pleurisy induced by carrageenan showed a reduction in the amounts of exudate, in the numbers of leukocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Intragastric administration of the extract for seven days prior to the APAP-induced lesion showed no protective effect on the liver. The treatment with the extract induced an increase of serum aspartate aminotransferase, indicating a rise of toxicity. Contrarily, the same treatment reduced the APAP induced lesion in kidney, with respect to ν-glutamyltransferase. The results suggested that the extract was not hepatoprotective and could lead to an increase in the lesions induced by the APAP. On the other hand, the extract was nephroprotective against the lesions induced by the APAP and showed an anti-inflammatory effect on pleurisy carrageenan-induced.

  3. Ameliorating activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against lead induced renal toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y Amarnath; Chalamaiah, M; Ramesh, B; Balaji, G; Indira, P

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in lead induced toxicity rats. In this study renal glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase enzymes were measured in lead nitrate (300 mg/kg BW), and lead nitrate plus ginger extract (150 mg/kg BW) treated rat groups for 1 week and 3 weeks respectively. The glutathione level and GSH dependent antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and catalase significantly (P < 0.05) increased in ginger extract treated rat groups. In addition, histological studies showed lesser renal changes in lead plus ginger extract treated rat groups than that of lead alone treated rat groups. These results indicate that ginger extract alleviated lead toxic effects by enhancing the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase.

  4. Andrographis paniculata extract induced apoptosis of adenocarcinoma mammae in C3H mice

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    Nugrahaningsih

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Apoptosis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Induction of apoptosis is a strategy for developing cancer therapy. In vitro study found that andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata has anticancer activity by an apoptotic mechanism in cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to prove the effect of Andrographis paniculata extract administered orally on apoptosis of mammary adenocarcinoma in C3H mice. METHODS This study was of post test randomized control group design. Twenty four C3H mice with transplanted mammary adenocarcinomas were divided into four groups. To three groups Andrographis paniculata extract was administered orally for 14 days, at doses of 5, 10 and 15 mg/day, respectively, whereas to the control group no Andrographis paniculata extract was administered. On day 15 the mice were terminated. The mammary adenocarcinomas were examined by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method. The values of the apoptotic index were expressed as mean±SD and analyzed using Anova and Pearson’s correlation test. RESULTS The mean apoptotic index values differed significantly among the experimental groups (p=0.001. The highest value was found in the group receiving Andrographis paniculata extract 15 mg/day, while the lowest was in the control group, the values being significantly correlated (r=0.974. CONCLUSIONS Oral administration of Andrographis paniculata extract induced apoptosis in C3H mice with mammary adenocarcinoma

  5. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar; Saxena, S.; Gautam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated and compared in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property of the grape extracts of four different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (p<0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly among extracts of any cultivar. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. DNA damage was evaluated in acellular system using pBR322 plasmid relaxation. Grape extract was able to effectively scavenge free radicals in vitro. It could significantly prevent radiation-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract and type of the cultivars. (author)

  6. Combinations of Ashwagandha leaf extracts protect brain-derived cells against oxidative stress and induce differentiation.

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    Navjot Shah

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha, a traditional Indian herb, has been known for its variety of therapeutic activities. We earlier demonstrated anticancer activities in the alcoholic and water extracts of the leaves that were mediated by activation of tumor suppressor functions and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Low doses of these extracts were shown to possess neuroprotective activities in vitro and in vivo assays.We used cultured glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells to examine the effect of extracts (alcoholic and water as well as their bioactive components for neuroprotective activities against oxidative stress. Various biochemical and imaging assays on the marker proteins of glial and neuronal cells were performed along with their survival profiles in control, stressed and recovered conditions. We found that the extracts and one of the purified components, withanone, when used at a low dose, protected the glial and neuronal cells from oxidative as well as glutamate insult, and induced their differentiation per se. Furthermore, the combinations of extracts and active component were highly potent endorsing the therapeutic merit of the combinational approach.Ashwagandha leaf derived bioactive compounds have neuroprotective potential and may serve as supplement for brain health.

  7. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

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    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  8. Allergen-Removed Rhus verniciflua Extract Induces Ovarian Cancer Cell Death via JNK Activation.

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    Kang, Se-Hui; Hwang, In-Hu; Son, Eunju; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Choi, Jong-Soon; Park, Soo-Jung; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Lee, Kyung-Bok; Lee, Zee-Won; Lee, Jong Hoon; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Jang, Ik-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor-[Formula: see text]B (NF-[Formula: see text]B)/Rel transcription factors are best known for their central roles in promoting cell survival in cancer. NF-[Formula: see text]B antagonizes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text]-induced apoptosis through a process involving attenuation of the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). However, the role of JNK activation in apoptosis induced by negative regulation of NF-[Formula: see text]B is not completely understood. We found that allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua Stokes (aRVS) extract-mediated NF-[Formula: see text]B inhibition induces apoptosis in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells via the serial activation of caspases and SKOV-3 cells are most specifically suppressed by aRVS. Here, we show that in addition to activating caspases, aRVS extract negatively modulates the TNF-[Formula: see text]-mediated I[Formula: see text]B/NF-[Formula: see text]B pathway to promote JNK activation, which results in apoptosis. When the cytokine TNF-[Formula: see text] binds to the TNF receptor, I[Formula: see text]B dissociates from NF-[Formula: see text]B. As a result, the active NF-[Formula: see text]B translocates to the nucleus. aRVS extract (0.5[Formula: see text]mg/ml) clearly prevented NF-[Formula: see text]B from mobilizing to the nucleus, resulting in the upregulation of JNK phosphorylation. This subsequently increased Bax activation, leading to marked aRVS-induced apoptosis, whereas the JNK inhibitor SP600125 in aRVS extract treated SKOV-3 cells strongly inhibited Bax. Bax subfamily proteins induced apoptosis through caspase-3. Thus, these results indicate that aRVS extract contains components that inhibit NF-[Formula: see text]B signaling to upregulate JNK activation in ovarian cancer cells and support the potential of aRVS as a therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer.

  9. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb leaf extract ameliorates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in rats.

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    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2010-10-28

    Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) known as "Mahabala" in Ayurveda and marketed as "Shahadeyi" is used in ethnomedicine to treat ailments such as dysuria and urinary disorders. To evaluate nephroprotective potential of SR against gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats with GM (100 mg/kg bodyweight (i.p.) for 8 days) and were treated with SR extract (200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight (p.o.) for 8 days) or 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (vehicle). Plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with lipid peroxidation were evaluated in various experimental groups. GM treatment induced significant elevation (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea, creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant decrement (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR treatment to GM treated rats (GM+SR) recorded significant decrement (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant increment (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR leaf extract ameliorates GM induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction and thus validates its ethnomedicinal use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Efficacy of Dandelion Root Extract in Inducing Apoptosis in Drug-Resistant Human Melanoma Cells

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    S. J. Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Notoriously chemoresistant melanoma has become the most prevalent form of cancer for the 25–29 North American age demographic. Standard treatment after early detection involves surgical excision (recurrence is possible, and metastatic melanoma is refractory to immuno-, radio-, and most harmful chemotherapies. Various natural compounds have shown efficacy in killing different cancers, albeit not always specifically. In this study, we show that dandelion root extract (DRE specifically and effectively induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells without inducing toxicity in noncancerous cells. Characteristic apoptotic morphology of nuclear condensation and phosphatidylserine flipping to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of A375 human melanoma cells was observed within 48 hours. DRE-induced apoptosis activates caspase-8 in A375 cells early on, demonstrating employment of an extrinsic apoptotic pathway to kill A375 cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS generated from DRE-treated isolated mitochondria indicates that natural compounds in DRE can also directly target mitochondria. Interestingly, the relatively resistant G361 human melanoma cell line responded to DRE when combined with the metabolism interfering antitype II diabetic drug metformin. Therefore, treatment with this common, yet potent extract of natural compounds has proven novel in specifically inducing apoptosis in chemoresistant melanoma, without toxicity to healthy cells.

  11. Ameliorating Effects of Ethanol Extract of Fructus mume on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

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    Min-Soo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that Fructus mume (F. mume extract shows protective effects on memory impairments and anti-inflammatory effects induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Neurodegeneration of basal cholinergic neurons is also observed in the brain with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine whether F. mume extracts enhance cognitive function via the action of cholinergic neuron using a scopolamine-induced animal model of memory impairments. F. mume (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg was administered to C57BL/6 mice for 14 days (days 1–14 and memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, a muscarinic receptor antagonist for 7 days (days 8–14. Spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze and hippocampal level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT was examined by ELISA and immunoblotting. Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impairments in acquisition and retention in Morris water maze task and increased activity of AChE in the hippocampus. Mice that received F. mume and scopolamine showed no scopolamine-induced memory impairment and increased activity of AChE. In addition, treatments of F. mume increased ChAT expression in the hippocampus. These results indicated that F. mume might enhance cognitive function via action of cholinergic neurons.

  12. Analysis of Kras gene from induced pancreatic cancer rats administered with Momordicacharantia and Ocimumbasilicum leaf extracts

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    J.B. Minari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze K-ras gene from induced pancreatic cancer rats administered with Momordicacharantia and Ocimumbasilicum leaf extracts. Methods: Twenty-five (25 adult rats weighing between 90–120 g were divided into 5 groups namely RA, RB, RC, NC and PC, each group had 5 rats. The PC which served as the control was fed with normal fish meal and water ad libitum; the NC which is the negative control received 20 mg/ml/week of Nitrosamines only while other groups received different concentrations of aqueous extract of both M. charantia and O. basilicum (200 mg, 100 mg, 50 mg and Nitrosamine. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of both M. charantia and O. basilicum was carried out. The extraction of DNA was done using Jena Bioscience DNA preparation kit and the protocol was based on the spin column based genomic DNA purification from blood, animal and plant cells. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the K-ras gene extracted from the pancreas tissues of experimental rats while hematoxylinand eosin staining was used for histological assay. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and glycosides in M. charantia while saponins, tannins and glycosides were discovered in O. basilicum. Significant reduction in the weight of rats treated with 200 mg of aqueous extracts of M. charantia and O. basilicum while rats that were dosed with nitrosamines only showed a slight increase in weight in the first three weeks when compared to the positive control. Histological studies revealed that there is both enlargement and reduction in the islet cell size, with one of the sections showing a normal islet cell size. While the agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that there may be possibility of prevention of damage to k-ras gene as a result of the effect of plants extract. Conclusion: This work has shown that the leaf extracts of both M. charantia and O. basilicum

  13. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

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    Hefnawy Taha M. Hefnawy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in reproductive system of rats. Methods: Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v. The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, peroxidase (POD activity, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results: Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl 4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal

  14. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawy, Hefnawy Taha M.; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in reproductive system of rats. Methods Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v). The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight) in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px). Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally) once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal level by

  15. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

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    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

  16. Hepatoprotective activity of Rhus oxyacantha root cortex extract against DDT-induced liver injury in rats.

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    Ben Miled, Hanène; Barka, Zaineb Ben; Hallègue, Dorsaf; Lahbib, Karima; Ladjimi, Mohamed; Tlili, Mounira; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben; Ksouri, Riadh; Tebourbi, Olfa

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of R. oxyacantha root cortex (RE) against DDT-induced liver injury in male rats. The RE exhibited high total phenolic, flavonoid and condensed tannins contents. The antioxidant activity in vitro systems showed a significant potent free radical scavenging activity of the extract. The HPLC finger print of R. oxyacantha active extract showed the presence of five phenolic compounds with higher amounts of catechol and gallic acid. The in vivo results showed that a single intraperitoneal administration of DDT enhanced levels of hepatic markers (ALT, AST and LDH) in serum of experimental animals. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in increased levels of the lipid peroxidation with a significant induction of SOD and GPx, metallothioneins (MTs) and a concomitant decrease of non protein thiols (NPSH) in liver. However, pretreatment of rats with RE at a dose of 150 and 300mg/kg body weight significantly lowered serum transaminases and LDH in treated rats. A significant reduction in hepatic thiobarbituric reactive substances and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities and hepatic MTs levels by treatment with plant extract against DDT, were observed. These biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations, suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of RE with the two doses used. These results strongly suggest that treatment with ethyl acetate extract normalizes various biochemical parameters and protects the liver against DDT-induced oxidative damage in rats and thus help in evaluation of traditional claim on this plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Heliotropium Indicum Ameliorates Hyperglycaemia-Induced Tissue Complications in Albino Rats

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    Rasheed Bolaji Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heliotropium indicum is used by traditional medical practitioners in North Central Nigeria for the management of ailments including diabetes. However, the folkloric use of H. indicum as antidiabetic has been asserted, but its roles on the hyperglycemia-induced organ-specific complications are not yet scientifically proven. Thus, ameliorative effect of aqueous leaf extract of H. indicum on selected toxicological parameters in hyperglycaemic rats was investigated in this study. Methods: Twenty-five rats were randomized into five groups. The study was carried out at the Animal Holding Unit, Biochemistry Department, University of Ilorin in 2013. Four groups were intraperitoneally administered singly with 150 mg/kg b.wt of alloxan to induce hyperglycemia. The normal control (NC and hyperglycaemic control (HC groups were administered 1 ml distilled water, while the reference group (HR were administered 14.2 mg/kg b.wt of metformin and the test groups, H30 and H75 were administered 30 and 75 mg/kg b.wt, the extract respectively for fourteen days. Results: The significantly increased (P<0.05 serum concentrations of tissue membrane bound enzymes (ALT, AST, ACP and ALP, direct and total bilirubin, urea and creatinine in HC indicating compromised tissue structures and functions in HC were attenuated. The significantly (P<0.05 reduced serum total protein, globulin and albumin in HC were significantly increased by both doses of the extract. The ameliorative role of the extract at the test doses was supported by the histological assessment of liver and kidney of the animals. Conclusion: Aqueous leaf extract of H. indicum can be explored at the ethnobotanical dose of 30 and 75 mg/kg b.wt on the management of some of the tissue-specific disarrays associated with diabetes.

  18. Anticonvulsant effect of ethanolic extract of Cyperus articulatus L. leaves on pentylenetetrazol induced seizure in mice

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    Oscar Herrera-Calderon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus articulatus (CA rhizomes have demonstrated different properties on nervous system. However, the leaves still have not studied to treat epilepsy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CA ethanolic extract on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced seizures in mice as well as measuring its antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro. Mice were divided into five groups: (1 control (PTZ 80 mg/kg; i.p., (2 PTZ-Diazepam (1 mg/kg; i.p., (3–5 PTZ-CA 50, PTZ-CA 150 and PTZ-CA 300 (50, 150 and 300 mg/kg of CA extract, 30 min prior to each PTZ injection. The PTZ-CA 150 group showed lower seizure scores (P < 0.01, latency (P < 0.01, frequency (P < 0.01 and duration (P < 0.01 than control group. The antioxidant activity of CA extract scavenged DPPH radical showed IC 50 = 16.9 ± 0.1 μg/mL and TEAC = 2.28 ± 0.08, mmol trolox/g of extract, the content of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA and malondialdehyde (MDA were significantly high (P < 0.01 at dose of 150 mg/kg (82 ± 1.2 ng/g tissue; 1.0 ± 2.2 mol/g tissue, respectively. The present research demonstrated that CA extract possesses a potential effect to prevent PTZ induced seizures, antioxidant activity in addition to increase GABA levels.

  19. Amelioration of ionizing radiation induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver by Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh Kr; Dey, Sanjit; Datta, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-01-01

    Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced lipid peroxidation has been investigated. Swiss albino mice, selected from an inbred colony, were administered with MoLE (300 mg/kg body wt) for 15 days before exposing to a single dose of 5 Gy 60 Co-gamma radiation. After treatments, animals were necropsied at different post irradiation intervals (days 1, 7 and 15) and hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were estimated to observe the relative changes due to irradiation and its possible amelioration by MoLE. It was observed that, MoLE treatment restored GSH in liver and prevented radiation induced augmentation in hepatic lipid peroxidation. Phytochemical analysis showed that MoLE possess various phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, myricetin) etc., which may play the key role in prevention of hepatic lipid peroxidation by scavenging radiation induced free radicals. (author)

  20. Antidiabetic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic status of Heliotropium zeylanicum extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesh, Kandasamy; Yeligar, Veerendra; Dash, Deepak Kumar; Sengupta, Pinaki; Maiti, Bhim Chandra; Maity, Tapan Kumar

    2006-11-01

    The potential role of the methanolic extract of Heliotropium zeylanicum (BURM.F) LAMK (MEHZ) in the treatment of diabetes along with its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of (MEHZ) 150 and 300 mg/kg/d for 14 d significantly decreased the blood glucose level and considerably increased the body weight, food intake, and liquid intake of diabetic-induced rats. MEHZ significantly decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and significantly increased reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at the end of 14 d of treatment. The study also investigated the antihyperlipidemic potential of MEHZ. The results show that the active fraction of MEHZ is promising for development of a standardized phytomedicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  1. Quercetogetin protects against cigarette smoke extract-induced apoptosis in epithelial cells by inhibiting mitophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Eun Suk; Kim, Se-Hee; Ryter, Stefan W; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Kyung, Sun Young; Kim, Yu Jin; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Jeong-Woong

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that the autophagy-dependent turnover of mitochondria (mitophagy) mediates pulmonary epithelial cell death in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure, and contributes to emphysema development in vivo during chronic cigarette smoke (CS)-exposure, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of mitophagy in regulating apoptosis in CSE-exposed human lung bronchial epithelial cells. Furthermore, we investigated the potential of the polymethoxylated flavone antioxidant quercetogetin (QUE) to inhibit CSE-induced mitophagy-dependent apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that CSE induces mitophagy in epithelial cells via mitochondrial dysfunction, and causes increased expression levels of the mitophagy-regulator protein PTEN-induced putative kinase-1 (PINK1) and the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-1-like protein (DRP-1). CSE induced epithelial cell death and increased the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9. Caspase-3 activity was significantly increased in Beas-2B cells exposed to CSE, and decreased by siRNA-dependent knockdown of DRP-1. Treatment of epithelial cells with QUE inhibited CSE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy by inhibiting phospho (p)-DRP-1 and PINK1 expression. QUE suppressed mitophagy-dependent apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9 and downregulating caspase activity in human bronchial epithelial cells. These findings suggest that QUE may serve as a potential therapeutic in CS-induced pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wan-Loy; Lim, Yen-Wei; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2010-09-21

    Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control) at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls). Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL). The extract reduced significantly (p assay, the radical scavenging activity of the extract was higher than phycocyanin and was at least 50% of vitamin C and vitamin E. Based on the ABTS assay, the antioxidant activity of the extract at 50 μmug/mL was as good as vitamin C and vitamin E. The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  3. Protective effect of Curcuma longa L. extract on CCl4-induced acute hepatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geum-Hwa; Lee, Hwa-Young; Choi, Min-Kyung; Chung, Han-Wool; Kim, Seung-Wook; Chae, Han-Jung

    2017-02-01

    The Curcuma longa L. (CLL) rhizome has long been used to treat patients with hepatic dysfunction. CLL is a member of the ginger family of spices that are widely used in China, India, and Japan, and is a common spice, coloring, flavoring, and traditional medicine. This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of CLL extract and its active component curcumin in an acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver stress model. Acute hepatic stress was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl 4 (0.1 ml/kg body weight) in rats. CLL extract was administered once a day for 3 days at three dose levels (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day) and curcumin was administered once a day at the 200 mg/kg/day. We performed alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). activity analysis and also measured total lipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels, and lipid peroxidation. At 100 g CLL, the curcuminoid components curcumin (901.63 ± 5.37 mg/100 g), bis-demethoxycurcumin (108.28 ± 2.89 mg/100 g), and demethoxycurcumin (234.85 ± 1.85 mg/100 g) were quantified through high liquid chromatography analysis. In CCl 4 -treated rats, serum AST and ALT levels increased 2.1- and 1.2-fold compared with the control. AST but not ALT elevation induced by CCl 4 was significantly alleviated in CLL- and curcumin-treated rats. Peroxidation of membrane lipids in the liver was significantly prevented by CLL (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day) on tissue lipid peroxidation assay and immunostaining with anti-4HNE antibody. We found that CLL extract and curcumin exhibited significant protection against liver injury by improving hepatic superoxide dismutase (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase activity, and glutathione content in the CCl 4 -treated group (p < 0.05), leading to a reduced lipid peroxidase level. Our data suggested that CLL extract and curcumin protect the liver from acute CCl 4 -induced injury in a rodent model by suppressing

  4. Protective effect of Hippophae rhamnoides leaf extract on gamma irradiation induced clastogenecity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Anuradha; Prasad, Jagdish; Bala, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn) is a plant belonging to Elaeagnaceae family and is distributed worldwide. It has variety of uses from nutritional food to pharmacological application. The study was aimed to analyse the extract from Hippophae rhamnoides leaves for their possible protective effects against the whole body 60 Co-a-irradiation. The study was performed on six groups of male mice i.e. untreated group, H. rhamnoides extract group, irradiated (2Gy), irradiated (3Gy), H. rhamnoides and irradiated (2Gy) and H. rhamnoides and irradiated (3Gy). In each group micronucleus test was performed utilising bone marrow and peripheral blood. The mice were sacrificed 30 hrs after treatment and analysed for the presence of micronuclei. In the present study, there was no significant increase in the frequency of either micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) or normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) in H. rhamnoides extract treated group over the negative control group of animals, indicating its non-clastogenic and non-toxic activity in the erythropoietic system. H. rhamnoides extract showed good anti-clastogenic activity against the a-irradiation induced clastogenecity in both the tissues i.e. bone marrow and peripheral blood by reducing the frequency of micronuclei. Also the administration of H. rhamnoides extract along with irradiation was slightly able to increase the frequency of PCE in bone marrow as well as in peripheral blood in comparison to the irradiated group (2Gy and 3Gy) indicating its ability to reduce the toxicity caused by irradiation in the erythropoietic system. Thus the results indicate the non-clastogenic effect of H. rhamnoides leaf extract and significant protective activity against 60 Co-a-irradiation suggesting its pharmacological significance for development of radioprotector. (author)

  5. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Adeleke Ojo, Oluwafemi; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin; Emmanuel Oyinloye, Babatunji; Ogunmodede, Oluwafemi

    2018-03-01

    Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (pArtocarpus heterophyllus stem bark most especially at 150 mg/kg body weight which exhibited no significant (p>0.05) different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients.

  6. Protective effects of ginger and marshmallow extracts on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in rats.

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    Zaghlool, Sameh S; Shehata, Basim A; Abo-Seif, Ali A; Abd El-Latif, Hekma A

    2015-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is one of the most serious diseases. Most classic treatment lines produce adverse drug reactions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of two natural extracts, namely ginger and marshmallow extracts, on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Animals were divided into five groups; a normal control group, an ulcer control group, and three treatment groups receiving famotidine (20 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), and marshmallow (100 mg/kg). Treatments were given orally on a daily basis for 14 days prior to a single intra-peritoneal administration of indomethacin (20 mg/kg). Indomethacin administration resulted in significant ulcerogenic effect evidenced by significant elevations in ulcer number, ulcer index, and blood superoxide dismutase activity accompanied by significant decreases in gastric mucosal nitric oxide and glutathione levels. In addition, elevations in gastric mucosal lipid peroxides and histamine content were observed. Alternatively, pretreatment with famotidine, ginger or marshmallow significantly corrected macroscopic and biochemical findings, supported microscopically by results of histopathological study. These results demonstrate that administration of either ginger or marshmallow extract could protect against indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in rats presumably via their antioxidant properties and inhibition of histamine release.

  7. Cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhele, Sindiswa T; Motadi, Lesetja R

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer remains a global health related issue among females of Sub-Saharan Africa, with over half a million new cases reported each year. Different therapeutic regimens have been suggested in various regions of Africa, however, over a quarter of a million women die of cervical cancer, annually. This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women and calls for urgent therapeutic strategies. In this study we compare the anti-proliferative effects of crude extract of Cannabis sativa and its main compound cannabidiol on different cervical cancer cell lines. To achieve our aim, phytochemical screening, MTT assay, cell growth analysis, flow cytometry, morphology analysis, Western blot, caspase 3/7 assay, and ATP measurement assay were conducted. Results obtained indicate that both cannabidiol and Cannabis sativa extracts were able to halt cell proliferation in all cell lines at varying concentrations. They further revealed that apoptosis was induced by cannabidiol as shown by increased subG0/G1 and apoptosis through annexin V. Apoptosis was confirmed by overexpression of p53, caspase 3 and bax. Apoptosis induction was further confirmed by morphological changes, an increase in Caspase 3/7 and a decrease in the ATP levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa crude extracts prevent cell growth and induce cell death in cervical cancer cell lines.

  8. Protective Effect of Momordica charantia Fruit Extract on Hyperglycaemia-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis

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    Razif Abas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diabetes mellitus, cardiac fibrosis is characterized by increase in the deposition of collagen fibers. The present study aimed to observe the effect of Momordica charantia (MC fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the rats were subdivided (n = 6 into control group (Ctrl, control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC, diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl, diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC, and diabetic group treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin (DM-Met. Administration of MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg body weight in diabetic rats for 28 days showed significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the fasting blood glucose level. Significant increase in cardiac tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione contents (GSH, and catalase (CAT was observed following MC treatment. Hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced and associated morphological damages reverted to normal. The decreased expression of type III and type IV collagens was observed under immunohistochemical staining. It is concluded that MC fruit extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.

  9. Protective effects of a blueberry extract in acute inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Maria-Eduardo; Oliveira, Mónica; Direito, Rosa; Rocha, João; Alves, Paula; Serra, Ana-Teresa; Duarte, Catarina; Bronze, Rosário; Fernandes, Adelaide; Brites, Dora; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda; Sepodes, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    Here we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of a blueberry extract in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and collagen-induced arthritis model, both in rats. Along with the chemical characterization of the phenolic content of the fruits and extract, the antioxidant potential of the extract, the cellular antioxidant activity and the effects over neutrophils' oxidative burst, were studied in order to provide a mechanistic insight for the anti-inflammatory effects observed. The extract significantly inhibited paw edema formation in an acute model the rat. Our results also demonstrate that the standardized extract had pharmacological activity when administered orally in the collagen-induced arthritis model in the rat and was able to significantly reduce the development of clinical signs of arthritis and the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, consequently improving articular function in treated animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypoglycemic and Nephroprotective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Sweet Fraction in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Mohammad mehdi Zangeneh

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the obtained results, aqueous extract of S. rebaudiana (sweet fraction can regulate the blood glucose levels and inhibit diabetes-induced renal damages. It seems that S. rebaudiana can be used as an antidiabetic and nephroprotective supplement.

  11. Chemopreventive effect of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. extract against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert-Baskar, Arul; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2010-07-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the chemopreventive property of Cynodon dactylon. The antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic potentials of the plant were investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NO(-)) and MTT assay on four cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM, MCH-7, AGS, A549) and a normal cell line (VERO). In vivo chemopreventive property of the plant extract was studied in DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon was found to be antiproliferative and antioxidative at lower concentrations and induced apoptotic cell death in COLO 320 DM cells. Treatment with methanolic extract of C. dactylon increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the number of dysplastic crypts in DMH-induced colon of albino rats. The present investigation revealed the anticancer potential of methanolic extract of C. dactylon in COLO 320 DM cells and experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

  12. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORINGA PEREGRINA LEAVES EXTRACT ON ACETAMINOPHEN -INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Samy Abdelfatah Abdel; Abdelrahem, Mohamed Taha; Said, Mostafa Mohamed; Khattab, Alshaimaa

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a common antipyretic drug but at overdose can cause severe hepatotoxicity that may further develop into liver failure and hepatic centrilobular necrosis in experimental animals and humans. This study was undertaken to assess the ameliorative role of Moringa peregrina leaves extract against acetaminophen toxicity in rats. Induction of hepatotoxicity was done by chronic oral administration of acetaminophen (750 mg/kg bwt) for 4 weeks. To study the possible hepatoprotective effect, Moringa peregrina leaves extract (200 mg/kg bwt) or Silymarin (50 mg/kg bwt) was administered orally, for 4 weeks, along with acetaminophen. acetaminophen significantly increased serum liver enzymes and caused oxidative stress, evidenced by significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, hepatic DNA fragmentation, and significant decrease of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes in liver, blood and brain. On the other hand, administration of Moringa peregrina leaves extract reversed acetaminophen-related toxic effects through: powerful malondialdehyde suppression, glutathione peroxidase normalization and stimulation of the cellular antioxidants synthesis represented by significant increase of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in liver, blood and brain, besides, DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased in the liver tissue. acetaminophen induced oxidative damage can be improved by Moringa peregrina leaves extract-treatment, due to its antioxidant potential.

  13. Hypocholesterolemic and Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Basella alba Leaf Extract in Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Rabbits

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    Gunasekaran Baskaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is the major risk factor that leads to atherosclerosis. Nowadays, alternative treatment using medicinal plants gained much attention since the usage of statins leads to adverse health effects, especially liver and muscle toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of Basella alba (B. alba using hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbits. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed with varying diets: normal diet, 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD, 2% HCD + 10 mg/kg simvastatin, 2% HCD + 100 mg/kg B. alba extract, and 2% HCD + 200 mg/kg B. alba extract, respectively. The treatment with B. alba extract significantly lowered the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides and increased HDL and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx levels. The elevated levels of liver enzymes (AST and ALT and creatine kinase were noted in hypercholesterolemic and statin treated groups indicating liver and muscle injuries. Treatment with B. alba extract also significantly suppressed the aortic plaque formation and reduced the intima: media ratio as observed in simvastatin-treated group. This is the first in vivo study on B. alba that suggests its potential as an alternative therapeutic agent for hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  14. Effects of Salvadora persica Extract on the Hematological and Biochemical Alterations against Immobilization-Induced Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Kholoud S.; Alshamrani, Salha A.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 24 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, stress, extract alone, and stress + extract (n = 6 each), for total 21 days of treatment. The immobilization stress was induced in rats by putting them in 20 cm × 7 cm plastic tubes for 2 h/day for 21 days. Rats were postorally treated with Salvadora persica at a dose of 900 mg/kg body weight via intragastric intubations. At the end of the test period, hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood and serum samples with determination of vital organs weights. The vital organ weights were not significantly affected in stressed rats as compared to control rats. Compared to the control group, the stress treated group showed significances in several hematological parameters, including decreases in WBC, RBC, and PLT counts. Furthermore, in comparison to the control group, the stress group showed significantly increased blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerols levels and decreased HDL-cholesterol level. The hematological and biochemical parameters in the stress + extract treated group were approximately similar to control group. The SP extract restored the changes observed following stress treatment. PMID:26221565

  15. Mangosteen peel extract reduces formalin-induced liver cell death in rats

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    Afiana Rohmani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Formalin is a xenobiotic that is now commonly used as a preservative in the food industry. The liver is an organ that has the highest metabolic capacity as compared to other organs. Mangosteen or Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML peel contains xanthones, which are a source of natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mangosteen peel extract on formalin-induced liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression in Wistar rats. Methods Eighteen rats received formalin orally for 2 weeks, and were subsequently divided into 3 groups, consisting of the formalin-control group receiving a placebo and treatment groups 1 and 2, which were treated with mangosteen peel extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kgBW/day, respectively. The treatment was carried out for 1 week, and finally the rats were terminated. The differences in liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression were analyzed. Results One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant differences in liver cell mortality rate among the three groups (p=0.004. The liver cell mortality rate in the treatment group receiving 400 mg/kgBW/day extract was lower than that in the formalin-control group. There was no p53 expression in all groups. Conclusions Garcinia mangostana Linn peel extract reduced the mortality rate of liver cells in rats receiving oral formalin. Involvement of p53 expression in liver cell mortality in rats exposed to oral formalin is presumably negligible.

  16. Cardioprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Tecoma stans flowers against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

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    Shanmukha Ittagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the cardioprotective effect of 70% ethanolic extract of Tecoma stans (T. stans flowers against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat myocardium. Methods: Wister rats were pretreated with 70% ethanolic extract of T. stans flowers (250 and 500 mg/kg orally for 14 d and then intoxicated with isoproterenol [200 mg/(kg · day, s.c.] for 2 consecutive d. The biochemical markers for myocardial infarction such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins were determined. In addition the antioxidant status on heart tissue is also evaluated by testing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase. Results: The results indicated that pretreatment with 70% ethanolic extract of T. stans flowers prevented fall in antioxidants and retarded elevation of cardiac damage markers in isoproterenol treated rats, significantly. In addition, these findings were evidently supported by the remarkable protection revealed in the histopathological studies, even GC-MS analysis data also substantiated out investigation. Conclusions: It was concluded that, in addition to poly phenolics, some of the phyto fragments found during GC-MS analysis might also contributed to the cardiac protection offered by the extract.

  17. Effect of Nigella Sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae ground seed extract on Carrageenan induced inflammation in rats

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    Saima Parveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa Linn (Family: Ranunculaceae Bengali name “kalo jera” is used as spice in Bengali foods. Native to Western Asia, Turkey, Iraq and Egypt, the black seed oil has been valued for its health benefits for centuries. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of stomach aches, asthma, bronchitis, coughs, fevers, tumour and as a tonic. The dried and grounded seed was extracted with ethanol and the extract was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema model. The extracts were administered orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, and statistically significant (p<0.05 anti-inflammatory effects were observed in a dose dependant manner. The extract showed 28.75% and 43.79% inhibition of inflammation at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight after first hour of the carrageenan administration which was comparable to that of standard drugs aspirin 40.52% and hydrocortisone 47.71% respectively. The result of this study supported the traditional medicinal uses of this seed. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2011; 5(1: 22-24

  18. Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract against oxidative stress induced by gamma-irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, I. M.; El-Hindy, H.M.A.; Moussa, S.Z.; Mansour, S.Z.

    2013-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract against redox imbalance induced by protracted exposure to γ -rays. Rats were exposed to γ-radiation at a dose 2 Gy / week for 4 weeks (γ-radiated group) Ginkgo biloba extract was administered in a dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt. for 7 days before the first dose of γ-radiation and contemned during for exposure period (Ginkgo biloba pre- treated group) and also after the last dose of γ-radiation (Ginkgo biloba post- treated group), these groups were compared with either control or Ginkgo biloba animals. The results reveal obtained significant increases in malondialdhyde and nitric oxide concentrations in blood and liver of γ-irradiated group with concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Histopathological examinations in the liver revealed a severe damage showed by dilated congested control vein with ruptured endothelium. Vacuolated hapatocytes and extensive cell necrosis were also seen. Note extravagated RBCs within sinusoidal spaces. In addition, the enzymes of liver function and bilirubin content were increased. DNA fragmentation percentage and tumor necrosis factor alpha concentration were also increased in liver. Ginkgo biloba extract administration significantly ameliorated the adverse effects of γ-irradiation in rats. It could be concluded that Ginkgo biloba extract has a role in reducing the oxidative stress of pre or post γ-irradiation on liver tissue of rats

  19. Protective Role of Comfrey Leave Extracts on UV-induced Zebrafish Fin Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chien-Chung; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Yao-Chin; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2014-07-01

    In zebrafish, UV exposure leads to fin malformation phenotypes including fin reduction or absence. The present study evaluated UV-protective activities of comfrey leaves extracts in a zebrafish model by recording fin morphological changes. Chemopreventive effects of comfrey leave extracts were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. The results showed that (1) the mean times of return to normal fin in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 3.43 and 2.86 days and were quicker compared with that in the UV only group (4.21 days); (2) zebrafish fins in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 2.05 and 3.25 times more likely to return to normal than those in the UV only group; and (3) comfrey leave extracts had UV-absorbance abilities and significantly reduced ROS production in UV-exposed zebrafish embryos, which may attenuate UV-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, comfrey leaves extracts may have the potential to be developed as UV-protective agents to protect zebrafish embryos from UV-induced damage.

  20. Moringa oleifera Seed Extract Alleviates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Mice

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    Juan Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Moringa oleifera seeds has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. In the present study, we assessed the neuropharmacological effects of 70% ethanolic M. oleifera seed extract (MSE on cognitive impairment caused by scopolamine injection in mice using the passive avoidance and Morris water maze (MWM tests. MSE (250 or 500 mg/kg was administered to mice by oral gavage for 7 or 14 days, and cognitive impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (4 mg/kg for 1 or 6 days. Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impaired learning and memory retention and considerably decreased cholinergic system reactivity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. MSE pretreatment significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and enhanced cholinergic system reactivity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Additionally, the protein expressions of phosphorylated Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB in the hippocampus were significantly decreased by scopolamine, but these decreases were reversed by MSE treatment. These results suggest that MSE-induced ameliorative cognitive effects are mediated by enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmission system and neurogenesis via activation of the Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB signaling pathways. These findings suggest that MSE could be a potent neuropharmacological drug against amnesia, and its mechanism might be modulation of cholinergic activity via the Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB signaling pathways.

  1. Deer Bone Oil Extract Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deer bone oil extract (DBOE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. DBOE was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to obtain two fractions: methanol fraction (DBO-M) and hexane fraction (DBO-H). TLC showed that DBO-M had relatively more hydrophilic lipid complexes, including unsaturated fatty acids, than DBOE and DBO-H. The relative compositions of tetradecenoyl carnitine, α-linoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased in the DBO-M fraction by 61, 38, and 32%, respectively, compared with DBOE. The concentration of sugar moieties was 3-fold higher in the DBO-M fraction than DBOE and DBO-H. DBO-M significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This DBO-M-mediated decrease in NO production was due to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12β, was suppressed by DBO-M. Our data showed that DBO-M, which has relatively higher sugar content than DBOE and DBO-H, could play an important role in suppressing inflammatory responses by controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators.

  2. Hepatoprotective potential of Lavandula coronopifolia extracts against ethanol induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtsam S; Al-Oqail, Mai M; Hassan, Wafaa H B; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

    2015-08-01

    The present investigations were carried out to study the protective potential of four extracts (namely petroleum ether extract (LCR), chloroform extract (LCM), ethyl acetate extract (LCE), and alcoholic extract (LCL)) of Lavandula coronopifolia on oxidative stress-mediated cell death induced by ethanol, a known hepatotoxin in human hapatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cells were pretreated with LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts (10-50 μg/ml) of L. coronopifolia for 24 h and then ethanol was added and incubated further for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red uptake assays and morphological changes in HepG2 cells were studied. Pretreatment with various extracts of L. coronpifolia was found to be significantly effective in countering the cytotoxic responses of ethanol. Antioxidant properties of these L. coronopifolia extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels induced by ethanol were investigated. Results show that pretreatment with these extracts for 24 h significantly inhibited ROS generation and LPO induced and increased the GSH levels reduced by ethanol. The data from the study suggests that LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts of L. coronopifolia showed hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced damage in HepG2 cells. However, a comparative study revealed that the LCE extract was found to be the most effective and LCL the least effective. The hepatoprotective effects observed in the study could be associated with the antioxidant properties of these extracts of L. coronopifolia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Evaluation of effects of Bauhinia variegata stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice

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    Ravindra G Mali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata Linn (family: Caesalpiniaceae, popularly known as Rakta Kanchnar, is a medium-sized tree found throughout India. The stem bark of B. variegata (BV is used traditionally in the treatment of asthma, jaundice, tuberculosis, leprosy, and skin diseases. In the present study, we have investigated the role of aqueous (BVA and ethanol (BVE extracts of the plant against milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia in albino mice. The results of the study revealed that pretreatment with both the extracts caused significant reduction in the total leukocyte and eosinophil counts in animals in dose-dependent manner. From these results, it can be concluded that the plant BV is having antieosinophilic activity.

  4. Spectroscopic analysis of the role of extractives on heat-induced discoloration of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Nicole M. Stark

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of extractives on heat-induced discoloration of wood, samples of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood flour were extracted with various solvents prior to heat-treatment. Analysis of their color parameters and chromophoric structures showed that the chroma value of the unextracted sample decreased while that of the...

  5. Passion fruit peel extract attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilakapati, Shanmuga Reddy; Serasanambati, Mamatha; Manikonda, Pavan Kumar; Chilakapati, Damodar Reddy; Watson, Ronald Ross

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fatal lung disease characterized by excessive collagen deposition, with no effective treatments. We investigated the efficacy of natural products with high anti-inflammatory activity, such as passion fruit peel extract (PFPE), in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF). C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin to induce PF. Daily PFPE treatment significantly reduced loss of body mass and mortality rate in mice compared with those treated with bleomycin. While bleomycin-induced PF resulted in elevated total numbers of inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid on both days 7 and 21, PFPE administration significantly attenuated these phenomena compared with bleomycin group. On day 7, the decreased superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities observed in the bleomycin group were significantly restored with PFPE treatment. On day 21, enhanced hydroxyproline deposition in the bleomycin group was also suppressed by PFPE administration. PFPE treatment significantly attenuated extensive inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulation of collagen in lung tissue sections of bleomycin-induced mice on days 7 and 21, respectively. Our results indicate that administration of PFPE decreased bleomycin-induced PF because of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  6. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Chul; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Shin, Na-Rae; Shin, In-Sik; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the dose-response effects of pine bark extract (PBE, pycnogenol ® ) on oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes induced by cisplatin (Csp) in rats. The ameliorating potential of PBE was evaluated after orally administering PBE at doses of 10 or 20 mg/kg for 10 days. Acute kidney injury was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Csp at 7 mg/kg on test day 5. Csp treatment caused acute kidney injury manifested by elevated levels of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) with corresponding histopathological changes, including degeneration of tubular epithelial cells, hyaline casts in the tubular lumen, and inflammatory cell infiltration (interstitial nephritis). Csp also induced significant apoptotic changes in renal tubular cells. In addition, Csp treatment induced high levels of oxidative stress, as evidenced by an increased level of malondialdehyde, depletion of the reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and decreased activities of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in kidney tissues. On the contrary, PBE treatment lowered BUN and CRE levels and effectively attenuated histopathological alterations and apoptotic changes induced by Csp. Additionally, treatment with PBE suppressed lipid peroxidation, prevented depletion of GSH, and enhanced activities of the antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissue. These results indicate that PBE has a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes caused by Csp in the rat kidney, which may be attributed to both increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  7. Effect of corn silk extract on acetaminophen induced renal damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehboob, F.; Tahir, M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the protective role of Corn Silk extract on Acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity in albino mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in experimental research laboratory University of Health Sciences and Anatomy department, Lahore. The study duration was one year from February 2012 to February 2013. Material and Methods: Twenty seven male albino mice, 6-8 weeks old weighing 30 + 5 gm, were used; these animals were randomly divided into three groups having nine mice in each group. Group A served as control and was given 16.6ml/kg normal saline intraperitoneally on first day of experiment and was sacrificed on 10th day of the experiment. Group B was treated with acetaminophen 600 mg/kg dissolved in 16.6 ml of normal saline intraperitoneally on 1st day of experiment and was sacrificed after 48 hours. Group C was given acetaminophen at a dose of 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally on first day of experiment and then corn silk extract was given by oral route at a dose of 400 mg/kg for next 8 days. The animals were sacrificed on 10th day of the experiment, the kidneys were removed; 3mm three tissue pieces were fixed in 10% formaline; processed and stained with H and E for histological study. Results: It was observed on microscopic examination that Corn silk extract reduced deleterious effects of acetaminophen on tubules of kidney as evidenced by reduction of tubular vacuolation and necrosis, absence of protein casts, vascular congestion and inflammation. Conclusion: It is concluded from current results that corn silk extract protects acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  8. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Pistacia vera against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Vahid; Amirteimoury, Morteza; Taghipour, Zahra; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Bazmandegan, Gholamreza; Rahnama, Amir; Khajehasani, Fatemeh; Fatemi, Iman

    2017-11-01

    Pistacia vera is a plant of the family Anacardiaceae found in Central and West Asia. P. vera nut (Pistachio) possess multiple pharmacological effects such as antimicrobial, anti-hyperlipidemia, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. This study is designed to evaluate the protective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of pistachio on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day for 7 days). Hydroalcoholic extract of pistachio (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg/p.o) was administered for 7 days. The nephroprotective activity was evaluated by determining creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, urine volume, urine glucose and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. The kidneys were processed for histopathological examinations and all specimens were examined for morphologic parameters involving tubular degeneration, tubular necrosis and tubule interstitial nephritis. Results showed a significant increase in the levels of serum creatinine, urine volume, urine glucose and BUN and decrease of creatinine clearance by gentamicin (GA) administration. Co-administration with pistachio extract showed reduction in the levels of serum creatinine, urine volume, urine glucose and BUN and increase of creatinine clearance in all doses but the most significant alteration was observed in doses of 100 mg/kg. Also, the nephroprotective effect of the GA was confirmed by the histological examination of the kidneys. The study revealed the nephroprotective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of pistachio. These findings suggest that pistachio treatment may attenuate renal dysfunction and structural damage through the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation in the kidney.

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of Portulaca oleracea extract against CCl4-induced damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Mardani, Parisa Mousavi

    2015-07-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae) has been traditionally used in folk medicine to afford protection against liver injury, although its actual efficacy remains uncertain. To evaluate purslane as a hepatoprotective agent, we investigated the protective effect of its ethanol extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. A total of 108 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 12 groups. The first group was maintained as normal control, whereas CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg bw, 50% CCl4 in olive oil, i.p.), purslane extract (0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 g/kg bw, intragastrically), and purslane extract (five doses as above) along with CCl4 were administered to the Groups II, III-VII, and VIII-XII, respectively. The rats were sacrificed on the 30th day, and blood was withdrawn by cardiac puncture. Liver damage was assessed by measuring hepatic marker enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, and SOD) and histopathological observation. Treatment with CCl4 resulted in increased serum activities of marker enzymes with a concomitant decrease in SOD. Histological alterations were also observed in the liver tissue upon CCl4 treatment. Administration of purslane extract (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 g/kg b.w.) significantly showed a marked tendency towards normalization of all measured biochemical parameters in CCl4-treated rats. Histopathological changes also paralleled the detected alteration in markers of liver function. These results demonstrate that purslane exerts protective effects against CCl4-induced damage in rat liver and supports a potential therapeutic use of purslane as an alternative for patients with liver diseases.

  10. Amelioratory effect of flavonoids rich Pergularia daemia extract against CFA induced arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Rameshkumar, Angappan; Jeyadevi, Ramachandran; Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sripriya, Jaganathan; Bose, Prabaharan Chandra; Sivasudha, Thilagar

    2016-05-01

    Pergularia daemia Forsk. (Asclepiadaceae) is a traditionally reported medicinal herb used to treat joint pain and arthritis. However, there are no scientific reports about anti-arthritic activity of P. daemia methanolic extract on rats as animal model. This study identifies bioactive compounds present in the P. daemia methanolic extract and evaluates its anti-arthritic potential in CFA induced arthritic rats. Phytoconstituents of P. daemia extract were examined using LC-ESI/MS method. Anti-arthritic activity of P. daemia extract was determined by various biochemical experiments (RF, ESR and CRP), ultrasonography and histological analysis. LC-ESI/MS analysis resulted in the identification of major flavonoids compounds such as formononetin, qurecetin, chrysoeriol, taxifolin and naringenin. Serum biomarker analysis, after the treatment with PDME (500mg/kg b.w.) revealed that the hemoglobin (11.84±0.42g/dL) and RBC (8.38±0.67million/mm(3)) levels were significantly increased whereas WBC (8.91±0.38thousands/mm(3)), RF (17.94±0.45IU/mL), ESR (7.91±0.12mm/h) and CRP (22.56±0.26mg/L) levels were decreased when compared with the CFA induced arthritic control group. Histology results revealed that treatment with PDME has resulted in significant prevention against bony destruction by decreasing soft tissue swelling and narrowing of joint spaces (250 and 500mg/kg b.w.). Anti-arthritic effect of P. daemia might be due to the presence of these bioactive flavonoids. These findings lend pharmacological support to the reported folkloric use of P. daemia in the treatment and management of painful, arthritic inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cynodon Dactylon (L. Pers. on ISchemia/Reperfusion-Induced Arrhythmias

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    A Garjani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Probable antiarrhythmic effects of Cynodon dactylon (L. pers. (family Poaceae against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced arrhythmias were investigated in isolated rat heart. Methods: The hearts were subjected to 30min regional ischemia followed by 30min reperfusion and perfused with hydroalcoholic extract of rhizome of C. dactylon (25, 50, 100 and 200µg/ml. Results: During ischemia, the extract produced marked reduction in the number, duration and incidences of ventricular tachycardia (VT at 25 and 50µg/ml (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively. Total number of ischemic ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs were lowered by 25-100µg/ml (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. At the reperfusion phase, C. dactylon (25 and 50µg/ml decreased incidence of VT from 100% (control to 13 and 33% (p<0.001 and p<0.05 respectively. Duration and number of VT and total VF incidence were also reduced at the same concentration (p<0.05 for all. Perfusion of the extract (25-100µg/ml was markedly lowered reversible VF duration from 218±99sec to 0 sec, 0 sec and 10±5sec (p<0.01, p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively. Moreover, C. dactylon (25 and 50µg/ml decreased number of total VEBs from 349±73 to 35±17 (p<0.001 and 66±26 (p<0.01. In this study, it was also shown that perfusion of the extract produced a marked and concentration-dependent positive inotropic effect. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that C. dactylon produce protective effects against I/R-induced arrhythmias in isolated rat hearts probably by increase in the myocardial contractility and as a result by improvement of hemodynamic factors.

  12. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Methanol Extract of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight. Leaf in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Tri Widyawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium polyanthum (S. polyanthum, a plant belonging to Myrtaceae, is widely used in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisines. Diabetic patients in Indonesia also commonly use it as a traditional medicine. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the methanol extract (ME of S. polyanthum leaf and its possible mechanisms of action. To test for hypoglycemic activity, ME was administered orally to normal male Sprague Dawley rats after a 12-h fast. To further test for antihyperglycemic activity, the same treatment was administered to glucose-loaded (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, IPGTT and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats, respectively. Hypoglycemic test in normal rats did not show significant reduction in blood glucose levels (BGLs by the extract. Furthermore, IPGTT conducted on glucose-loaded normal rats also did not show significant reduction of BGLs. However, repeated administration of metformin and three doses of ME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for six days caused significant reduction of fasting BGLs in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The possible mechanisms of action of S. polyanthum antihyperglycemic activity were assessed by measurement of intestinal glucose absorption and glucose uptake by isolated rat abdominal muscle. It was found that the extract not only inhibited glucose absorption from the intestine but also significantly increased glucose uptake in muscle tissue. A preliminary phytochemical qualitative analysis of ME indicated the presence of tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. Additionally, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analysis detected squalene. In conclusion, S. polyanthum methanol leaf extract exerts its antihyperglycemic effect possibly by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and promoting glucose uptake by the muscles.

  13. Cymbopogon citratus and Camellia sinensis extracts selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells and reduce growth of lymphoma xenografts in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philion, Cory; Ma, Dennis; Ruvinov, Ivan; Mansour, Fadi; Pignanelli, Christopher; Noel, Megan; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John; Rodrigues, Mark; Singh, Inderpal; Ropat, Jesse; Pandey, Siyaram

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells are reported to have elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are highly dependent on cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. Numerous nutraceuticals and natural polyphenolic compounds have a wide range of abilities to alter cellular redox states with potential implications in various diseases. Furthermore, therapeutic options for cancers are mostly nonselective treatments including genotoxic or tubulin-targeting compounds. Some of the natural extracts, containing multiple bioactive compounds, could target multiple pathways in cancer cells to selectively induce cell death. Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Camellia sinensis (white tea) extracts have been shown to have medicinal properties, however, their activity against lymphoma and leukemia, as well as mechanistic details, have not been fully characterized. Herein, we report potent anti-cancer properties in dose and time-dependent manners of ethanolic lemongrass and hot water white tea extracts in lymphoma and leukemia models. Both extracts were able to effectively induce apoptosis selectively in these human cancer cell types. Interestingly, ethanolic lemongrass extract induces apoptosis primarily by the extrinsic pathway and was found to be dependent on the generation of ROS. Conversely, apoptotic induction by hot water white tea extract was independent of ROS. Furthermore, both of these extracts caused mitochondrial depolarization and decreased rates of oxygen consumption in lymphoma and leukemia cells, leading to cell death. Most importantly, both these extracts were effective in reducing tumor growth in human lymphoma xenograft models when administered orally. Thus, these natural extracts could have potential for being nontoxic alternatives for the treatment of cancer. PMID:29340014

  14. Antioxidant activity of citrullus colocynthis pulp extract in the RBC's of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallak, M.; Jaliah, B.I.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that Citrullus colocynthis pulp seedless extract have antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic effects in alloxan induced diabetes. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the mechanism of damage of red blood cells and anaemia in diabetic patients. So the current study was carried out to investigate the protective role of citrullus colocynthis against oxidative stress in the RBC's of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups each of ten rats, the first group was normal non diabetic rats given normal saline orally and was named control group, the second group was diabetic rats given normal saline orally and were named normal saline treated-diabetic rats, the third and fourth group were diabetic rats treated with the pulp extract or glibenclamide (a positive control) orally. Evaluations were made for haematological parameters in the blood and for lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes activities in the RBC's of all experimental rats. Results: The diabetic rats had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in total erythrocytes count and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and a normal Haemoglobin (Hb) value in the blood. They also showed decreased levels of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and decreased activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in the RBC's hemolysate. On other hand, oral administration of citrullus colocynthis or glibenclamide alleviated these altered parameters in the treated rats, they resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in the in total erythrocytes count and PCV (Haematocrit) values in the blood and caused a significant decreased levels of TBARS and increased activities of SOD and CAT in the RBC's of those diabetic treated rats when compared to diabetic rats given normal saline. The effect was more profound in citrullus colocynthis treated diabetic rats. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract possesses a potent antioxidant property

  15. Lipolytic enzymes LipA and LipB from Bacillus subtilis differ in regulation of gene expression, biochemical properties, and three-dimensional structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggert, Thorsten; Pouderoyen, Gertie van; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2001-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis secretes the lipolytic enzymes LipA and LipB. We show here that they are differentially expressed depending on the composition of the growth medium: LipA is produced in rich and in minimal medium, whereas LipB is present only in rich medium. A comparison of biochemical

  16. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (AL), Camellia sinensis (CS), Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG), and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM) are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (m)RNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results A noncytotoxic dose (200 μM) of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001) regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation into molecular mechanisms modulated by herbal extracts should be undertaken to shed light on the development of novel

  17. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomari E

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pomari, Bruno Stefanon, Monica Colitti Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy Background: Arctium lappa (AL, Camellia sinensis (CS, Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG, and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods: Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (mRNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results: A noncytotoxic dose (200 µM of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001 regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in

  18. Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Sedigheh Asgary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. In this study, anti-diabetic effect of its hydroalcoholic extract was compared with that of glibenclamide. Methods: Male white Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of six each: nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius (200 mg kg -1 BW; diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg kg -1 BW. Alloxan was administered (120 mg kg -1 BW, intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Fasting blood samples were collected three times, before injection of alloxan, two weeks and six weeks after injection of alloxan and fasting blood sugar (FBS, Hb A1C, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were measured each time. Results: FBS, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C had a meaningful decrease in diabetic rats treated with Carthamus tinctorius and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. Insulin level increased significantly in diabetic groups received treatment (glibenclamide or Carthamus tinctorius L in comparison with diabetic group with no treatment. The histological study revealed size of islets of Langerhans enlarged significantly consequentially as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. The extract appeared non toxic as evidenced by normal levels of AST, ALP and ALT. Effects of administrating glibenclamide or extract of Carthamus tinctorius L on all biochemical parameters discussed above showed no difference and both tend to bring the values to near normal. Conclusion: These results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius possesses beneficial effect on treatment of diabetes.

  19. Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and the Hepatoprotective Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Jessiaea Nervosa Leaf

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    Ama Udu Ibiam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extract against Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Methods: Forty albino rats were randomly assigned into groups A-G with 4 rats in each of the groups A-F. Group A served as control and were given feed only while rats in groups B-F were orally exposed to varying concentrations of cadmium for six weeks. Effects of cadmium were most significant at 12 mg/Kg body weight (BW, and this dose was used for subsequent test involving oral administration of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extracts. In this segment, group G (n= 16 was sub-divided into four: G1-G4, with each sub-group containing four rats. Rats in sub-group G1 were given cadmium and feed only and served as positive control. Rats in sub-groups G2, G3, and G4 were given cadmium and 20, 50 and 100g/kg BW of Jussiaea nervosa extract, respectively, for six weeks. Blood and liver were analysed using standard laboratory techniques and methods. Results: Liver function parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in exposed rats in comparison to the controls, except for total protein and albumin, which were significantly decreased. Histopathological assessment reveals renal pathology in exposed rats in sharp contrast with the controls. Jussiaea nervosa extract however lowered the values of liver function parameters with 100mg/Kg BW dose producing the highest ameliorative effects. Similarly, the serum albumin and total protein significantly (p<0.05 improved with normal liver architecture. Conclusion: The results show the hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa extract against Cd toxicity.

  20. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  1. lipolytic effect of calotropis procera in the skin of wistar rats.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    used as an antiseptic for skin infection. Several studies have been carried out on the effects of various extracts of Calotropis procera on different organs of animals (Al-Robai et al, 1993a, 1993b;. Jam et al, 1996; Basu et al, 1997). On the contrar), there is little or no information on the effect of the plant extract on the skin.

  2. Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq., Rubiaceae, extract shows hypoglycemic effect and eases oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq., Rubiaceae, a Bangladeshi medicinal plant, was studied for its potential hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant property in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract induced significant reduction in serum glucose, and transaminases, e.g. aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and alkaline phosphatases (ALP, activities. Significant changes in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, peroxidase and catalase levels during the experimental period were also observed. The results established that the hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of A. cadamba possesses hypoglycemic property and is able to protect liver and brain from oxidative damages caused by diabetes.

  3. Ipomoea aquatica Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

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    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

  4. ESTIMATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPOLYTIC ENZYME ACTIVITY BY THERMOPHILIC BACILLUS SP. ISOLATED FROM ARID AND SEMI-ARID REGION OF RAJASTHAN, INDIA

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    Deeksha Gaur

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic organisms can be defined as, micro-organisms which are adapted to survive at high temperatures. The enzymes secreted by thermophilic bacteria are capable of catalyzing biochemical reactions at high temperatures. Thermophilic bacteria are able to produce thermostable lipolytic enzymes (capable of degradation of lipid at temperatures higher than mesophilic bacteria. Therefore, the isolation of thermophilic bacteria from natural sources and their identification are quite beneficial in terms of discovering thermostable lipase enzymes. Due to great temperature fluctuation in hot arid and semi-arid region of Rajasthan, this area could serve as a good source for new thermophilic lipase producing bacteria with novel industrially important properties. The main objective of this research is the isolation and estimation of industrially important thermophilic lipase enzyme produced by thermophilic bacteria, isolated from arid and semi-arid region of Rajasthan. For this research purpose soil samples were collected from Churu, Sikar and Jhunjunu regions of Rajasthan. Total 16 bacterial strains were isolated and among only 2 thermostable lipolytic enzyme producing bacteria were charcterized. The thermostable lipolytic enzyme was estimated by qualitative and quantitative experiments. The isolates were identified as Bacillus sp. by microscopic, biochemical and molecular characterization. The optimum enzyme activity was observed at pH 8, temperature 60°C and 6% salt concentrations at 24 hrs time duration. Lipolytic enzyme find useful in a variety of biotechnological fields such as food and dairy (cheese ripening, flavour development, detergent, pharmaceutical (naproxen, ibuprofen, agrochemical (insecticide, pesticide and oleochemical (fat and oil hydrolysis, biosurfactant synthesis industries. Lipolytic enzyme can be further used in many newer areas where they can serve as potential biocatalysts.

  5. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

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    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  6. Mulberry Fruit Extract Affords Protection against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

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    Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl carbamate (EC is a food and environmental toxicant and is a cause of concern for human exposure. Several studies indicated that EC-induced toxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Mulberry fruits are reported to have a wide range of bioactive compounds and pharmacological activities. The present study was therefore aimed to investigate the protective property of mulberry fruit extract (MFE on EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Chemical composition analysis showed that total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in MFE were 502.43 ± 5.10 and 219.12 ± 4.45 mg QE/100 g FW. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were the major anthocyanins in MFE. In vitro antioxidant studies (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays jointly exhibited the potent antioxidant capacity of MFE. Further study indicated that MFE protected human liver HepG2 cells from EC-induced cytotoxicity by scavenging overproduced cellular ROS. EC treatment promoted intracellular glutathione (GSH depletion and caused mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP collapse, as well as mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation, whereas MFE pretreatment significantly inhibited GSH depletion and restored the mitochondrial membrane function. Overall, our study suggested that polyphenolic-rich MFE could afford a potent protection against EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  7. Effects of black hoof medicinal mushroom, phellinus linteus (Agaricomycetes), polysaccharide extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamaç, Mustafa; Zeytinoğlu, Melih; Şentürk, Hakan; Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Göngör; Bayramoğlu, Gökhan; Oğlakci, Ayşegül; Griensven, van Leo J.L.D.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the healing effects of a Phellinus linteus fruiting body hot water extract (PLE) in streptozotocin (STZ)–induced diabetic rats. PLE was given before and after STZ. The preprotective, protective, and postprotective effects of PLE on STZ-induced oxidative stress were

  8. Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice by Inhibition of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic beta-cell death is known to be the cause of deficient insulin production in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of beta-cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS extract on beta-cell death. Oral administration of PCS extract resulted in a significant improvement of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PCS extract treatment improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin levels. To study the mechanisms involved, we investigated the effects of PCS extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells. Treatment with PCS extract inhibited cell death. PCS extract treatment decreased reactive oxygen species level and activated antioxidative enzymes. Among the major components of PCS extract, psoralen and isopsoralen (coumarins, but not bakuchiol, showed preventive effects against H2O2-induced beta-cell death. These findings indicate that PCS extract may be a potential pharmacological agent to protect against pancreatic beta-cell damage caused by oxidative stress associated with diabetes.

  9. Cardiovascular effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the stem of Xylopia cayennensis in rats

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    Alessandra A. Nascimento

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the stem of Xylopia cayennensis (HEXC were studied in rats using a combined in vivo and in vitro approach. In non-anesthetized rats, HEXC injections produced a significant and dose-dependent hypotension associated with an increase in heart rate. The hypotensive response was not attenuated after nitric oxide (NO synthase blockade, L-NAME (20 mg/Kg, i.v.. In isolated rat superior aortic rings, HEXC was able to relax the tonus induced by phenylephrine (1 µM and KCl (80 mM, (EC50 = 85±13 and 62±5 µg/mL, respectively. The smooth muscle-relaxant activity of HEXC was not inhibited by removal of vascular endothelium (EC50 = 58±6 µg/mL. HEXC antagonized CaCl2-induced contractions in depolarizing medium nominally without Ca2+. HEXC inhibited the intracellular calcium-dependent transient contractions induced by caffeine (20 mM in Ca2+-free solution, but not those induced by norepinephrine (1 µM. In isolated rat atrial preparations, HEXC produced negative inotropic and chronotropic responses (IC50= 534±42 and 259±22 µg/mL, respectively. The results obtained suggest that the hypotensive effect of HEXC is probably due to a peripheral vasodilatation, at least, secondary to an interference with the Ca2+ mobilization as a consequence of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blockade and the inhibition of Ca2+ release from caffeine-sensitive intracellular stores. Finally, HEXC acts directly on the heart decreasing contractility and heart rate, these effects are of little importance to the expression of the hypotensive response induced by HEXC.

  10. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Liang, Yu-Chih; Chao, Jane CJ; Tsai, Li-Hsueh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Wang, Chia-Chi; Pan, Shiann

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. METHODS: Female Wistar albino rats were used for the studies. We randomly divided the rats for each study into five subgroups: normal control, experimental control, and three experimental groups. The gastric ulcers were induced by instilling 1 mL 50% ethanol into the stomach. We gave GbE 8.75, 17.5, 26.25 mg/kg intravenously to the experimental groups respectively 30 min prior to the ulcerative challenge. We removed the stomachs 45 min later. The gastric ulcers, gastric mucus and the content of non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA), c-Jun kinase (JNK) activity in gastric mucosa were evaluated. The amount of gastric juice and its acidity were also measured. RESULTS: The findings of our study are as follows: (1) GbE pretreatment was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats; (2) the GbE pretreatment afforded a dose-dependent inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, NP-SH contents and increase in the lipid peroxidation (increase MDA) in gastric tissue; (3) gastric ulcer induced by ethanol produced an increase in JNK activity in gastric mucosa which also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with GbE; and (4) GbE alone had no inhibitory effect on gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. CONCLUSION: The finding of this study showed that GbE significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. We suggest that the preventive effect of GbE may be mediated through: (1) inhibition of lipid peroxidation; (2) preservation of gastric mucus and NP-SH; and (3) blockade of cell apoptosis. PMID:15968732

  11. Red Ginseng Extract Attenuates Kainate-Induced Excitotoxicity by Antioxidative Effects

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    Jin-Yi Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the neuroprotective activity of red ginseng extract (RGE, Panax ginseng, C. A. Meyer against kainic acid- (KA- induced excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. In hippocampal cells, RGE inhibited KA-induced excitotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner as measured by the MTT assay. To study the possible mechanisms of the RGE-mediated neuroprotective effect against KA-induced cytotoxicity, we examined the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and [Ca2+]i in cultured hippocampal neurons and found that RGE treatment dose-dependently inhibited intracellular ROS and [Ca2+]i elevation. Oral administration of RGE (30 and 200 mg/kg in mice decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA level induced by KA injection (30 mg/kg, i.p.. In addition, similar results were obtained after pretreatment with the radical scavengers Trolox and N, N′-dimethylthiourea (DMTU. Finally, after confirming the protective effect of RGE on hippocampal brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF protein levels, we found that RGE is active compounds mixture in KA-induced hippocampal mossy-fiber function improvement. Furthermore, RGE eliminated 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, and the IC50 was approximately 10 mg/ml. The reductive activity of RGE, as measured by reaction with hydroxyl radical (•OH, was similar to trolox. The second-order rate constant of RGE for •OH was 3.5–4.5×109 M−1·S−1. Therefore, these results indicate that RGE possesses radical reduction activity and alleviates KA-induced excitotoxicity by quenching ROS in hippocampal neurons.

  12. Suppressions of Serotonin-Induced Increased Vascular Permeability and Leukocyte Infiltration by Bixa orellana Leaf Extract

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    Yoke Keong Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Bixa orellana (AEBO leaves and its possible mechanisms in animal models. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated using serotonin-induced rat paw edema, increased peritoneal vascular permeability, and leukocyte infiltrations in an air-pouch model. Nitric oxide (NO, indicated by the sum of nitrites and nitrates, and vascular growth endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured in paw tissues of rats to determine their involvement in the regulation of increased permeability. Pretreatments with AEBO (50 and 150 mg kg−1 prior to serotonin inductions resulted in maximum inhibitions of 56.2% of paw volume, 45.7% of Evans blue dye leakage in the peritoneal vascular permeability model, and 83.9% of leukocyte infiltration in the air-pouch model. 57.2% maximum inhibition of NO and 27% of VEGF formations in rats’ paws were observed with AEBO at the dose of 150 mg kg−1. Pharmacological screening of the extract showed significant (P<0.05 anti-inflammatory activity, indicated by the suppressions of increased vascular permeability and leukocyte infiltration. The inhibitions of these inflammatory events are probably mediated via inhibition of NO and VEGF formation and release.

  13. Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2012-10-01

    Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-κB, TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors.

  14. Investigation of the extraction of short diffusion lengths from simulated electron-beam induced current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, D.; Parish, G.; Nener, B. [Microelectronics Research Group, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, 6009 Crawley (Perth) (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    This paper reports on the investigations via 2-D simulation into the accuracy of diffusion length extraction from scanning electron-beam induced current measurements when the diffusion length, L is very short. L is extracted by using the direct method proposed by Chan et al.[1] and later refined by Kurniawan and Ong[2] to take finite junction depth into account. The 2-D simulations were undertaken using Synopsys {sup registered} Sentaurus TCAD and a realistic electron-hole pair generation volume was created using CASINO v2.42[3], a Monte Carlo Scanning Electron Microscope interaction simulation software, and imported into Sentaurus. The voltage and diameter of the electron beam and diffusion length and surface recombination velocity of the semiconductor materials were varied in the simulations to determine the errors in the diffusion length extracted from the EBIC signals as a function of these parameters. The results of the simulation show that the accuracy of the method proposed in[1] is reasonably accurate and that the beam voltage and spot size do not have significant effects on the accuracy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Investigation of the extraction of short diffusion lengths from simulated electron-beam induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee, D.; Parish, G.; Nener, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigations via 2-D simulation into the accuracy of diffusion length extraction from scanning electron-beam induced current measurements when the diffusion length, L is very short. L is extracted by using the direct method proposed by Chan et al.[1] and later refined by Kurniawan and Ong[2] to take finite junction depth into account. The 2-D simulations were undertaken using Synopsys registered Sentaurus TCAD and a realistic electron-hole pair generation volume was created using CASINO v2.42[3], a Monte Carlo Scanning Electron Microscope interaction simulation software, and imported into Sentaurus. The voltage and diameter of the electron beam and diffusion length and surface recombination velocity of the semiconductor materials were varied in the simulations to determine the errors in the diffusion length extracted from the EBIC signals as a function of these parameters. The results of the simulation show that the accuracy of the method proposed in[1] is reasonably accurate and that the beam voltage and spot size do not have significant effects on the accuracy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Risks Associated with Unconventional Gas Extraction Projects. Induced Seismicity, NORM and Ecological Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The latest technological advances in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and horizontal drilling are globally driving the commercial extraction of unconventional resources. Although there is still no commercial exploitation of these resources within the EU, the fact that there are potential reserves in some countries, such as Spain, stimulates the need of performing preliminary studies to define the characteristics that an unconventional gas extraction project should consider. The object of these features are the safety of the project, thus minimizing the probabilities of negative environmental impacts, and especially since there is not any EU Framework Directive focusing on the regulation of the operation of such fossil fuels. A project of this nature, involving natural systems, must start from the knowledge of these systems and from an assessment of its features in order to reach the environmental safety of the operations. Moreover, the implementation of risk management systems, along with the existence of an appropriate legislation and supervision are key elements in the development of unconventional gas extraction projects that are environmentally friendly. The present report includes, among the overall risks associated with such projects, those related to: i) the induced seismicity; ii) the Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM); and iii) the ecology.

  18. Aqueous extract of Pinus caribaea inhibits the damage induced by ultraviolet radiations, in plasmid DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioly Vernhes Tamayo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: The incidence of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV on Earth has increased due to diminish of the ozone layer. This enviromental agent is highly genotoxic causing numerous damage in DNA molecule. Nowadays there is a growing interest in the search of compounds capable to minimize these effects. In particular, phytocompounds have been tested as excelent candidates for their antigenotoxic properties. Aims: To evaluate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Pinus caribaea (EPC against the damage induced by the UVB and UVC radiation. Methods: The cell-free plasmid DNA assay was employed. The forms of plasmid were separated electrophoretically in agarose gel. For genotoxic and photoprotective evaluation of P. caribaea, different concentrations of the extract (0.1 – 2.0 mg/mL and exposure times were evaluated. The CPD lesions were detected enzymatically. Additionally, the transmittance of the aqueous extract against 254 nm and 312 nm was measured. Results: None of the concentrations were genotoxic in 30 min of treatment, for superior times a clastogenic effect was observed. The EPC despite inhibiting the activity of the enzyme T4 endo V, impedes photolesions formation in DNA at concentrations ≥ 0.1 mg/mL. Conclusions: The EPC has photoprotective properties, this effect could be related with its antioxidants and absorptives capacities.

  19. Protective effects of Punica granatum seeds extract against aging and scopolamine induced cognitive impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sokindra; Maheshwari, Kamal Kishore; Singh, Vijender

    2008-10-25

    Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. This impairment probably is due to the vulnerability of the brain cells to increased oxidative stress during aging process. Many studies have shown that certain phenolic antioxidants attenuate neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress. The present work was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum seeds on cognitive performance of aged and scopolamine treated young mice using one trial step-down type passive avoidance and elevated plus maze task. Aged or scopolamine treated mice showed poor retention of memory in step-down type passive avoidance and in elevated plus maze task. Chronic administration (21 days) of Punica granatum extract and vitamin C significantly (p Punica granatum extract also significantly lowered lipid peroxidation level and increased antioxidant glutathione level in brain tissues. Punica granatum preparations could be protective in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb extract against isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ansarullah; Karn, Sanjay S; Shah, Jigar D; Patel, Dipak K; Salunke, Sunita P; Padate, Geeta S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigates cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb (SR) extract on heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and membrane bound ATPases against isoproterenol (IP) induced myocardial necrosis (MN) in rats. Rats treated with IP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) recorded significant (p<0.05) increment in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activity levels of Ca(+2) ATPase whereas there was significant (p<0.05) decrease in plasma HDL, cardiac endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Mg(+2) ATPase. Pre-treatment with SR extract (400 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 30 consecutive days followed by IP injections on days 29th and 30th, showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, cardiac lipid peroxidation, Ca(+2) ATPase and significant increase in plasma HDL, cardiac endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Mg(+2) ATPase compared to IP treated group. Hence, this study is the first scientific report on cardioprotective effect of SR against IP induced MN in rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice.

  2. Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract induces human melanoma cell death, apoptosis, and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer. Previous studies have indicated that an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. In this study, we want to investigate the anticancer activity of Hibiscus leaf polyphenolic (HLP) extract in melanoma cells. First, HLP was exhibited to be rich in epicatechin gallate (ECG) and other polyphenols. Apoptotic and autophagic activities of HLP and ECG were further evaluated by DAPI stain, cell-cycle analysis, and acidic vascular organelle (AVO) stain. Our results revealed that both HLP and ECG induced the caspases cleavages, Bcl-2 family proteins regulation, and Fas/FasL activation in A375 cells. In addition, we also revealed that the cells presented AVO-positive after HLP treatments. HLP could increase the expressions of autophagy-related proteins autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5), Beclin1, and light chain 3-II (LC3-II), and induce autophagic cell death in A375 cells. These data indicated that the anticancer effect of HLP, partly contributed by ECG, in A375 cells. HLP potentially could be developed as an antimelanoma agent. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Protective role of marine macroalgae extracts against STZ induced diabetic rats

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    Marine macroalgae

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anti-diabetic activity of marine macroalgae extracts (n = 31, purification and characterization of sulphated galactopyran (SGP from Gracilaria opuntia (FM4 in diabetic rats. Methods: The animals were separated into groups and STZ (55 mg/kg body weight was used to induce diabetics. Glucose, HbA1c, insulin, C-peptide levels and in vivo antioxidant levels were estimated and histopathological studies were done in STZ-induced diabetic and marine macroalgae treated rats. Results: Based on glucose and HbA1c levels and in vivo antioxidant levels, among the 31 marine macroalgae extracts, FM4 has showed high anti-diabetic activity. Hence, FM4 was purified and characterized by 1H-NMR spectra and FT-IR as sulphated galactopyran. During the survival analysis, SGP at dose of 100 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05 survival rate and elevations in C-peptide and insulin levels. The histopathological modulations of SGP were observed in diabetic rat tissues such as liver, kidney and brain. Hence obtained results reveal that SGP treated diabetic rats has significant changes in C-peptide and insulin levels which regulates the blood glucose levels and recovered the histopathological changes. Conclusions: Marine macroalgae have significant anti-diabetic activity. Hence, they could be used as nutraceutical supplement or natural green remedy against diabetes mellitus.

  4. Cordyceps militaris extract attenuates D-galactose-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zaixin; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Jinshan; Jia, Jing; Ding, Jie; Luo, Rongzhen; Liu, Zhangqin

    2012-12-01

    Memory impairment is one of main clinical symptoms of brain senescence. To address the effects of Cordyceps militaris Link extract (CE) on memory impairment, a D-galactose (D-Gal)-induced aging mouse model was employed. Mice injected with D-Gal showed a significant learning and memory impairment that was rescued by CE treatment. The mechanism was further investigated by analyzing the protein level and activity of oxidant and antioxidant molecules, including malondialdehyde (MDA), monoamine oxidase (MAO), total super-oxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), which played critical roles in the development of brain senescence. The results showed that CE treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the oxidative activity of MAO and the level of MDA, and significantly increased the antioxidant activities of T-SOD and T-AOC in the cerebral cortices. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes GSH-px in serum were significantly upregulated after CE treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that Cordyceps militaris extract could ameliorate experimental memory impairment in mice with D-Gal-induced aging through its potent antioxidant activities.

  5. Amelioration of the cyclophosphamide induced genotoxic damage in mice by the ethanolic extract of Equisetum arvense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir Kour

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated the potential of the plant E. arvense against the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects induced by cyclophosphamide (chemotherapeutic agent in the bone marrow cells of mice using the Chromosome assay (CA and Mitotic index (MI in vivo as the biomarkers. The study was performed following 3 protocols: pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment and post-treatment with the ethanolic extract of the plant. The results demonstrated that the plant extract was not cytotoxic and mutagenic and has a protective effect against the mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide in pre, simultaneous and post treatments and against its cytotoxicity as well. Because of its ability to prevent chromosomal damage, E. arvense is likely to open an interesting field concerning its possible use in clinical applications, most importantly in cancer as a chemopreventive agent or even as a coadjuvant to chemotherapy to reduce the side effects associated with it. Keywords: Equisetum arvense, Antimutagenicity, Chromosomal aberration assay, Mitotic index, GC–MS analysis

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Ecklonia cava Extract on High Glucose-Induced Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kojima-Yuasa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a disease closely associated with obesity and diabetes. A prevalence of type 2 diabetes and a high body mass index in cryptogenic cirrhosis may imply that obesity leads to cirrhosis. Here, we examined the effects of an extract of Ecklonia cava, a brown algae, on the activation of high glucose-induced hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, key players in hepatic fibrosis. Isolated HSCs were incubated with or without a high glucose concentration. Ecklonia cava extract (ECE was added to the culture simultaneously with the high glucose. Treatment with high glucose stimulated expression of type I collagen and α-smooth muscle actin, which are markers of activation in HSCs, in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of high glucose-treated HSCs was suppressed by the ECE. An increase in the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and a decrease in intracellular glutathione levels were observed soon after treatment with high glucose, and these changes were suppressed by the simultaneous addition of ECE. High glucose levels stimulated the secretion of bioactive transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β from the cells, and the stimulation was also suppressed by treating the HSCs with ECE. These results suggest that the suppression of high glucose-induced HSC activation by ECE is mediated through the inhibition of ROS and/or GSH and the downregulation of TGF-β secretion. ECE is useful for preventing the development of diabetic liver fibrosis.

  7. A crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong Shu; Bravo, Àlex; Furlong, Laura I.; Good, Benjamin M.; Su, Andrew I.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between chemicals and diseases are one of the most queried biomedical interactions. Although expert manual curation is the standard method for extracting these relations from the literature, it is expensive and impractical to apply to large numbers of documents, and therefore alternative methods are required. We describe here a crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text as part of the BioCreative V Chemical Disease Relation challenge. Five non-expert workers on the CrowdFlower platform were shown each potential chemical-induced disease relation highlighted in the original source text and asked to make binary judgments about whether the text supported the relation. Worker responses were aggregated through voting, and relations receiving four or more votes were predicted as true. On the official evaluation dataset of 500 PubMed abstracts, the crowd attained a 0.505 F-score (0.475 precision, 0.540 recall), with a maximum theoretical recall of 0.751 due to errors with named entity recognition. The total crowdsourcing cost was $1290.67 ($2.58 per abstract) and took a total of 7 h. A qualitative error analysis revealed that 46.66% of sampled errors were due to task limitations and gold standard errors, indicating that performance can still be improved. All code and results are publicly available at https://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relex Database URL: https://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relex PMID:27087308

  8. Effect of Syzygium Aromaticum (CLOVE) Extract on Blood Glucose Level in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Z. R.; Chaudhry, S. R.; Naseer, A.; Chaudhry, F. R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the glucose lowering effect of 50% ethanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum in comparison with that of standard insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: National Institute of Health Islamabad. Jul 2011- Dec 2011 Material and Methods: It was carried out on 48 adult rats of Sprague dawley specie. Rats were equally divided into 6 groups (I-VI). Group - I served as control. Diabetes was induced by giving single intraperitoneal injection of STZ in Group II to VI. Group-II served as diabetic control, while groups III, IV, V and VI served as experimental groups. Group III, IV and V rats received 50% ethanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum at a dose of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight respectively for sixty days. Group VI (standard) received humulin insulin 70/30 at dose of 0.6 units<-kg body weight subcutaneously bid for sixty days. Fasting blood samples were taken at zero day, 15 day, 30 day and 60 day after giving injection STZ. Although Syzygium aromaticum with the doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight and insulin reduced the level of glucose in rats but on comparison Syzygium aromaticum 750 mg=kg dose reduced glucose more effectively than 250 and 500 mg/kg dose. While in group III, IV subjects, blood glucose levels remained above normal level. In group VI receiving insulin the level of this parameter remained almost closer to group IV rats. On studying the weight of the animals after receiving STZ there was initial reduction in the weight of all the experimental groups but after receiving the extract of plant improvement was seen and the weight of group V getting 750 mg=kg/body weight of Syzygium aromaticum became almost closer to the weight of control group. Conclusion: Syzygium aromaticum extract has glucose lowering effect in STZ induced diabetic rats and this effect is dose related and the dose of 750 mg/kg body weight has produced maximum effect. (author)

  9. PGBR extract ameliorates TNF-α induced insulin resistance in hepatocytes

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    Fu-Chih Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR could ameliorate metabolic syndrome, however, not much research estimates the effect of PGBR extract on insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of PGBR extract in TNF-α induced insulin resistance. HepG2 cells, hepatocytes, were cultured in DMEM medium and added with 5 μM insulin or with insulin and 30 ng/ml TNF-α or with insulin, TNF-α and PGBR extract (50, 100, 300 μg/ml. The glucose levels of the medium were decreased by insulin, demonstrating insulin promoted glucose uptake into cell. However, TNF-α inhibited glucose uptake into cells treated with insulin. Moreover, insulin increased the protein expressions of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-α (PI3K-α, serine/threonine kinase PI3K-linked protein kinase B (Akt/PKB, glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2, glucokinase (GCK, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α and PPAR-γ. TNF-α activated p65 and MAPKs (JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 which worsened the expressions of AMPK, IRS-1, PI3K-α, Akt/PKB, GLUT-2, GCK, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ. Once this relationship was established, we added PGBR extract to cell with insulin and TNF-α. We found glucose levels of medium were lowered and that the protein expressions of AMPK, IRS-1, PI3K-α, Akt/PKB, GLUT-2, GCK, GSK-3, PPAR-α, PPAR-γ and p65, JNK1/2 were also recovered. In conclusion, this study found that TNF-α inhibited insulin stimulated glucose uptake and aggravated related proteins expressions, suggesting that it might cause insulin resistance. PGBR extract was found to ameliorate this TNF-α induced insulin resistance, suggesting that it might be used in the future to help control insulin resistance.

  10. Inactivation of Ca2+-induced ciliary reversal by high-salt extraction in the cilia of Paramecium.

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    Kutomi, Osamu; Seki, Makoto; Nakamura, Shogo; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Munenori

    2013-10-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) induces ciliary reversal and backward swimming in Paramecium. However, it is not known how the Ca(2+) signal controls the motor machinery to induce ciliary reversal. We found that demembranated cilia on the ciliated cortical sheets from Paramecium caudatum lost the ability to undergo ciliary reversal after brief extraction with a solution containing 0.5 M KCl. KNO(3), which is similar to KCl with respect to chaotropic effect; it had the same effect as that of KCl on ciliary response. Cyclic AMP antagonizes Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal. Limited trypsin digestion prevents endogenous A-kinase and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of an outer arm dynein light chain and induces ciliary reversal. However, the trypsin digestion prior to the high-salt extraction did not affect the inhibition of Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal caused by the high-salt extraction. Furthermore, during the course of the high-salt extraction, some axonemal proteins were extracted from ciliary axonemes, suggesting that they may be responsible for Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal.

  11. Effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

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    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa; Rodriguez, Daniella; Maldonado, Carmen; Mormontoy, Juliet; Portella, Jimmy; Pajuelo, Monica; Villegas, León; Gasco, Manuel

    2007-03-01

    To determine the effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats. Prostatic hyperplasia was induced in male rats with testosterone enanthate (TE). The study comprised six groups: one control group (group 1), one group treated with TE (group 2), two groups treated with TE and aqueous extract of red maca (groups 3 and 4), one group treated with hydroalcoholic extract of red maca (group 5) and one group treated with finasteride (0.1 mg, group 6). Differences in the aqueous extract dependent on the length of time of boiling, whether for 2 or 3 hours, for groups 3 and 4 was assessed. Extracts of red maca contained 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate. Thereafter, a dose-response effect of different doses of benzylglucosinolates (0.02-0.08 mg) in red maca extracts was assessed. Prostate weight was similar in rats treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca prepared after 2 and 3 hours of boiling. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca, hydroalcoholic extract of red maca and finasteride reduced prostate weight in rats with prostatic hyperplasia. No difference was observed between the data obtained from aqueous extract or hydroalcoholic extract of red maca. A dose dependent reduction of prostate weight was observed with the increase of the dose of benzylglucosinolates in red maca extracts. The present study showed that hydroalcoholic or aqueous extract of red maca containing 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate can reduce prostate size in male rats in which prostatic hyperplasia had been induced by TE.

  12. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

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    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (goomg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  13. Vitamin E and Hippophea rhamnoides L. extract reduce nicotine-induced oxidative stress in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumustekin, Kenan; Taysi, Seyithan; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Aktas, Omer; Oztasan, Nuray; Akcay, Fatih; Suleyman, Halis; Akar, Sedat; Dane, Senol; Gul, Mustafa

    2010-06-01

    The effects of vitamin E and Hippophea rhamnoides L. extract (HRe-1) on nicotine-induced oxidative stress in rat heart were investigated. There were eight rats per group and supplementation period was 3 weeks. The groups were: nicotine [0.5 mg kg(-1)day(-1), intraperitoneal (i.p.)]; nicotine plus vitamin E [75 mg kg(-1)day(-1), intragastric (i.g.)]; nicotine plus HRe-1 (250 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.g.); and the control group (receiving only vehicles). Nicotine increased the malondialdehyde level, which was prevented by both vitamin E and HRe-1. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in nicotine plus vitamin E supplemented group was higher than the others. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in nicotine plus HRe-1 supplemented group was increased compared with the control group. Catalase activity was higher in nicotine group compared with others. GPx activity in nicotine plus vitamin E supplemented group was elevated compared with the others. Total and non-enzymatic superoxide scavenger activities in nicotine plus vitamin E supplemented group were lower than nicotine plus HRe-1 supplemented group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in nicotine plus HRe-1 supplemented group compared with others. Glutathione reductase activity and nitric oxide level were not affected. Increased SOD and GST activities might have taken part in the prevention of nicotine-induced oxidative stress in HRe-1 supplemented group in rat heart. Flavonols such as quercetin, and isorahmnetin, tocopherols such as alpha-tocopherol and beta-tocopherol and carotenoids such as alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, reported to be present in H. rhamnoides L. extracts may be responsible for the antioxidant effects of this plant extract. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cardioprotective potential of Punica granatum extract in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

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    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Patankar, Pankaj; Ghadi, Prakash; Kasture, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    To determine the protective role of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) seed juice extract and its butanolic fraction on heart rate, electrocardiographic patterns, vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes together with morphologic and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. The effects of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and butanolic fraction of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg., p.o.) on cardiac parameters were studied. Isoproterenol hydrochloride was used to induce myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, heart rate, ECG, pressure rate index and cardiac marker enzyme levels were assessed. Rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) showed a significant increase in heart rate, ST elevation in ECG, pressure rate index and a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes- lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase in serum. Isoproterenol significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and increased vascular reactivity to various catecholamines. Pretreatment with PJ (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) for a period of 21 days significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on heart rate, PRI, ECG patterns, levels of LDH, CK, SOD, CAT, and vascular reactivity changes. Treatment with PJ (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) alone did not alter any of the parameters as compared to vehicle-treated Wistar rats. Punica granatum-treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Punica granatum ameliorates cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol and may be of value in the treatment of MI.

  15. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

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    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  16. Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile Ethanolic Extract Modulates Cell Activities with Skin Health Applications

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    Laura Cornara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrasses are high plants sharing adaptive metabolic features with both terrestrial plants and marine algae, resulting in a phytocomplex possibly endowed with interesting biological properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro activities on skin cells of an ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile, family Potamogetonaceae, herein named Posidonia ethanolic extract (PEE. PEE showed high radical scavenging activity, high phenolic content, and resulted rich in chicoric acid, as determined through HPLC-MS analysis. The use of MTT assay on fibroblasts showed a PEE cytotoxicity threshold (IC05 of 50 µg/mL at 48 h, while a sub-toxic dose of 20 µg/mL induced a significant increase of fibroblast growth rate after 10 days. In addition, an ELISA assay revealed that PEE doses of 5 and 10 µg/mL induced collagen production in fibroblasts. PEE induced dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, up to about 45% inhibition at 1000 µg/mL, while 50% reduction of melanin was observed in melanoma cells exposed to 50 µg/mL PEE. Finally, PEE lipolytic activity was assessed by measuring glycerol release from adipocytes following triglyceride degradation. In conclusion, we have collected new data about the biological activities of the phytocomplex of P. oceanica seagrass on skin cells. Our findings indicate that PEE could be profitably used in the development of products for skin aging, undesired hyperpigmentation, and cellulite.

  17. Anti-Oxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ziziphus mucronata Fruit Extract Against Dimethoate-Induced Toxicity

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    Kwape Tebogo Elvis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Ziziphus mucronata (ZM fruit extract. Methods: The different types of fruit extract were prepared by soaking the dry powdered fruit in different solvents followed by rotary evaporation. Each extract was tested for its phenol content and antioxidant activities. An in vivo study was performed in Sprague- Dawley (SD rats. Thirty adult male SD rats (aged 21 weeks were divided into six groups of five rats each and treated as follows: The normal control (NC received distilled water while the dimethoate control (DC received 6 mg/kg.bw.day-1 dimethoate dissolved in distilled water. The experimental groups E1, E2, E3, and E0 received dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (100 mg/kg.bw-1, dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (200 mg/kg.bw-1, dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (300 mg/kg.bw-1, and ZMFM (300 mg/kg.bw-1 only. Both the normal control and the dimethoate control groups were used to compare the results. After 90 days, rats were sacrificed, blood was collected for biochemical assays, and livers were harvested for histological study. Results: High phenol content was estimated, and 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH spectrophotometric, thin layer chromatography (TLC and 2, 2-Azobis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assays showed a high antioxidant activity among the extracts. The preventive effects observed in the E1, E2 and E3 groups proved that the extract could prevent dimethoate toxicity by maintaining normal reduced glutathione (GSH, vitamin C and E, superoxide dismutase, catalase, cholineasterase and lipid profiles. The preventive effect was observed to be dose dependent. The EO group showed no extractinduced toxicity. Histological observations agreed with the results obtained in the biochemical studies. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that ZM methanol fruit extract is capable of attenuating dimethoate-induced toxicity because of its

  18. Hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris induced DNA damage and apoptosis

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    Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd; Md. Saad, Suhana; Makpol, Suzana; Shamaan, Nor Aripin; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of hot water extracts of Chlorella vulgaris on hepatoma cell line HepG2. INTRODUCTION: The search for food and spices that can induce apoptosis in cancer cells has been a major study interest in the last decade. Chlorella vulgaris, a unicellular green algae, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti‐cancer properties. However, its chemopreventive effects in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells have not been studied in great detail. METHODS: HepG2 liver cancer cells and WRL68 normal liver cells were treated with various concentrations (0‐4 mg/ml) of hot water extract of C. vulgaris after 24 hours incubation. Apoptosis rate was evaluated by TUNEL assay while DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay. Apoptosis proteins were evaluated by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Chlorella vulgaris decreased the number of viable HepG2 cells in a dose dependent manner (p Chlorella vulgaris tested. Evaluation of apoptosis by TUNEL assay showed that Chlorella vulgaris induced a higher apoptotic rate (70%) in HepG2 cells compared to normal liver cells, WRL68 (15%). Western blot analysis showed increased expression of pro‐ apoptotic proteins P53, Bax and caspase‐3 in the HepG2 cells compared to normal liver cells WRL68, and decreased expression of the anti‐apoptotic protein Bcl‐2. CONCLUSIONS: Chlorella vulgaris may have anti‐cancer effects by inducing apoptosis signaling cascades via an increased expression of P53, Bax and caspase‐3 proteins and through a reduction of Bcl‐2 protein, which subsequently lead to increased DNA damage and apoptosis. PMID:21340229

  19. Desmodium gangeticum root extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth in rats.

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    Divya Hitler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Desmodium gangeticum (L DC (Fabaceae; DG, a medicinal plant that grows in tropical habitats, is widely used to treat various ailments including digestive and inflammatory disorders. Aims: To investigate the possible cardioprotective activity of a DG root extract against isoproterenol (ISO-induced left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH in adult Wistar rats. Methods: Daily intraperitoneal administration of ISO (10 mg/kg body weight, single injection for 7 days induced LVH in rats. The LVH rats were post-treated orally with DG (100 mg/kg body weight for a period of 30 days. Thereafter, changes in heart weight (HW and body weight (BW, HW/BW ratio, percent of hypertrophy, collagen accumulation, activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -2 and -9, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzymes, and the level of an oxidative stress marker, lipid peroxide (LPO, were determined. Results: HW/BW ratio, an indicator of hypertrophic growth, was significantly reduced in DG root post-treated LVH rats as compared with that for the non-treated LVH rats. The altered levels of ventricular LPO, collagen, MMPs-2 and -9, and antioxidant enzymes in the ISO-treated animals reverted back to near normal upon DG treatment. Further, the anti-hypertrophic activity of DG was comparable to that of the standard drug losartan (10 mg/kg. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the aqueous root extract of DG exhibited anti-hypertrophic activity in-vivo by inhibiting ISO-induced ROS generation and MMP activities.

  20. Korean Red Ginseng Extract Attenuates 3-Nitropropionic Acid-Induced Huntington’s-Like Symptoms

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    Minhee Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean red ginseng (KRG possesses neuroprotective activity. However, the potential neuroprotective value of KRG for the striatal toxicity is largely unknown. We investigated whether KRG extract (KRGE could have a neuroprotective effect in a 3-nitropropionic acid- (3-NP induced (i.p. Huntington’s disease (HD model. KRGE (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day, p.o. was administrated 10 days before 3-NP injection (pre-administration, from the same time with 3-NP injection (co-administration, or from the peak point of neurological impairment by 3-NP injection (post-administration. Pre-administration of KRGE produced the greatest neuroprotective effect in this model. Pre-administration of KRGE significantly decreased 3-NP-induced neurological impairment, lethality, lesion area, and neuronal loss in the 3-NP-injected striatum. KRGE attenuated microglial activation and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signal pathway. KRGE also reduced the level of mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and OX-42. Interestingly, the intrathecal administration of SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor or PD98059 (an inhibitor of MAPK Kinase, MEK increased the survival rate in the 3-NP-induced HD model. Pre-administration of KRGE may effectively inhibit 3-NP-induced striatal toxicity via the inhibition of the phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways, indicating its therapeutic potential for suppressing Huntington’s-like symptoms.

  1. Hepatoprotective effect of Forsythiae Fructus water extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Miao, Hui; Yan, Hongyu; Sheng, Yuchen; Ji, Lili

    2018-05-23

    The fruit of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, named Forsythiae Fructus (Lian-Qiao), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for clearing away heat and toxic material, eliminating the mass and relieving swelling. This study aims to observe the attenuation of the water extract of Forsythiae Fructus (FSE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatic fibrosis in male C57BL/6 mice. Hepatic fibrosis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection with 2 ml/kg CCl 4 (mixed 1: 3 in olive oil) twice a week for 4 weeks. At the same time, the mice were orally given with FSE (1, 2 g/kg) every day for 4 weeks. Serum biochemical parameters, gene and protein expression related to liver fibrosis were analyzed. The contents of forsythiaside A and forsythin in FSE were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) activity and liver histological evaluation both showed the protection of FSE against CCl 4 -induced liver injury. Further, the anti-fibrotic effects of FSE was evidenced by the results of Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining, liver hydroxyproline content, and serum amounts of hyaluronic acid, laminin, collagen Ⅳ and type III procollagen (PCIII). FSE also reduced the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in livers from CCl 4 -injured mice. Additionally, FSE decreased the increased hepatic expression of fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) and vimentin induced by CCl 4 in mice. FSE attenuates CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis in mice by inhibiting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, reducing hepatic extracellular matrix (ECM) disposition and reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ixeris dentata extract regulates salivary secretion through the activation of aquaporin-5 and prevents diabetes-induced xerostomia.

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    Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ixeris dentata (IXD) extract to improve the salivation rate in dry mouth induced by diabetes. Both control and diabetic rats were treated with a sublingual spray of either water or IXD extract to determine the effects of IXD on salivation. During the study, we observed that IXD extract treatment increased the salivary flow rate in diabetic rats. The expression of α-amylase was increased significantly in both saliva and glandular tissue lysates of IXD-treated diabetic rats. Aquaporin-5 protein expression was abnormally low in the salivary glands of diabetic rats, which increased hyposalivation and led to salivary dysfunction. However, a single oral spray of IXD extract drastically increased the expression of aquaporin-5 in salivary gland acinar and ductal cells in diabetic rats. Moreover, IXD extract induced expression of Na + /H + exchangers in the salivary gland, which suggests that Na + /H + exchangers modulate salivary secretions and aid in the fluid-secretion mechanism. Furthermore, transient treatment with IXD extract increased the intracellular calcium in human salivary gland cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential value of an IXD extract for the treatment of diabetes-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia.

  3. Protective effect of Arbutus unedo aqueous extract in carrageenan-induced lung inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotto, Sofia; Esposito, Emanuela; Di Paola, Rosanna; Ciampa, Anna; Mazzon, Emanuela; de Prati, Alessandra Carcereri; Darra, Elena; Vincenzi, Simone; Cucinotta, Giovanni; Caminiti, Rocco; Suzuki, Hisanori; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we show that an aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo L. (AuE), a Mediterranean endemic plant widely employed as an astringent, diuretic and urinary anti-septic, in vitro down-regulates the expression of some inflammatory genes, such as those encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and intracellular adhesion molecule-(ICAM)-1, exerting a inhibitory action on both IFN-gamma-elicited STAT1 activation and IL-6-elicited STAT3 activation. To evaluate further the effect of AuE in animal models of acute inflammation, we examined whether AuE administration attenuates inflammatory response of murine induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan. For this purpose we studied: (1) STAT1/3 activation, (2) TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 production in pleural exudate, (3) lung iNOS, COX-2 and ICAM-1 expression, (4) neutrophil infiltration, (5) the nitration of cellular proteins by peroxynitrite, (6) lipid peroxidation, (7) prostaglandin E2 and nitrite/nitrate levels and (8) lung injury. We show that AuE strongly down-regulates STAT3 activation induced in the lung by carrageenan with concomitant attenuation of all parameters examined associated with inflammation, suggesting that STAT3 should be a new molecular target for anti-inflammatory treatment. This study demonstrates that acute lung inflammation is significantly attenuated by the treatment with AuE.

  4. Antioxidant potential properties of mushroom extract (Agaricus bisporus) against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Guizani, Nejib

    2014-09-01

    Aluminum (Al) is an environmental toxin that induces oxidative stress in neuronal cells. Mushroom cultivar extract (MCE) acted as a potent antioxidant agent and protects against cellular oxidative stress in human cultured neuronal cells. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of MCE against Al-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 rats per group), control group, MCE-fed group, Al-administered group and MCE/Al-treated group. Animals were continuously fed ad-libitum their specific diets for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed and the brain tissues were homogenized and examined for biochemical measurements of neurocellular oxidative stress indices [glutathione (GSH), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), antioxidant enzymes and oxidized dichlorofluorescein (DCF)]. Al-administration caused inhibition of antioxidant enzymes and a significant decrease in GSH and TAC levels, meanwhile it positively increased cellular oxidized DCF level, as well as Al concentration in brain tissues. Feeding animals with MCE had completely offset the Al-induced oxidative stress and significantly restrict the Al accumulation in brain tissues of Al-administered rats. The results obtained suggest that MCE acted as a potent dietary antioxidant and protects against Al-mediated neurotoxicity, by abrogating neuronal oxidative stress.

  5. Punica granatum peel extract protects against ionizing radiation-induced enteritis and leukocyte apoptosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toklu, H.Z.; Sehirli, O.; Ozyurt, H.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation-induced enteritis is a well-recognized sequel of therapeutic irradiation. Therefore we examined the radioprotective properties of Punica granatum peel extract (PPE) on the oxidative damage in the ileum. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body X-ray irradiation of 800 cGy. Irradiated rats were pretreated orally with saline or PPE (50 mg/kg/day) for 10 days before irradiation and the following 10 days, while control rats received saline or PPE but no irradiation. Then plasma and ileum samples were obtained. Irradiation caused a decrease in glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, which was accompanied by increases in malondialdehyde levels, myeloperoxidase activity, collagen content of the tissue with a concomitant increase 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (an index of oxidative DNA damage). Similarly, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated in irradiated groups as compared to control. PPE treatment reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations induced by irradiation. Furthermore, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in irradiated animals, while PPE reversed these effects. PPE supplementation reduced oxidative damage in the ileal tissues, probably by a mechanism that is associated with the decreased production of reactive oxygen metabolites and enhancement of antioxidant mechanisms. Adjuvant therapy of PPE may have a potential to support a successful radiotherapy by protecting against radiation-induced enteritis. (author)

  6. Blueberry Anthocyanins-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiac Injury.

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    Yunen Liu

    Full Text Available We sought to explore the effect of blueberry anthocyanins-enriched extracts (BAE on cyclophosphamide (CTX-induced cardiac injury. The rats were divided randomly into five groups including normal control, CTX 100 mg/kg, BAE 80mg/kg, CTX+BAE 20mg/kg and CTX+BAE 80mg/kg groups. The rats in the three BAE-treated groups were administered BAE for four weeks. Seven days after BAE administration, rats in CTX group and two BAE-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 100 mg/kg CTX. Cardiac injury was assessed using physiological parameters, Echo, morphological staining, real-time PCR and western blot. In addition, cardiotoxicity indices, inflammatory cytokines expression and oxidative stress markers were also detected. Four weeks 20mg/kg and 80mg/kg dose of BAE treatment following CTX exposure attenuated mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and activities of heart enzymes, improved cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Importantly, BAE also attenuated CTX-induced LV leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokines expression, ameliorated oxidative stress as well as cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, BAE attenuated the CTX-induced cardiac injury and the protective mechanisms were related closely to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics of BAE.

  7. Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice.

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    Song, Yeong Ok; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Baek, Jang-Mi; Kang, Keon-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Roh, Seong-Soo; Park, Chan Hum; Jeong, Kap-Seop; Noh, Jeong-Sook

    2017-06-15

    The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the CS and CSE groups were increased relative to those in the LPS group. In LPS-insulted hepatic tissue, inflammatory factors were augmented relative to those in the NC group, but were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with CS or CSE. Moreover, CS and CSE alleviated the LPS-induced apoptotic factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CS and CSE effectively decreased the serum lipid concentrations and downregulated hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins expression. In conclusion, the skate CSE could protect against LPS-induced hepatic dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, probably through the regulation of MAPK signaling.

  8. Urtica dioica extract attenuates depressive like behavior and associative memory dysfunction in dexamethasone induced diabetic mice.

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    Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that glucocorticoids results in depression and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Further diabetes induces oxidative stress and hippocampal dysfunction resulting in cognitive decline. Traditionally Urtica dioica has been used for diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction. The present study investigated the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.m.) induced diabetes and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction. We observed that mice administered with chronic dexamethasone resulted in hypercortisolemia, oxidative stress, depressive like behavior, cognitive impairment, hyperglycemia with reduced body weight, increased water intake and decreased hippocampal glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) mRNA expression. Urtica dioica significantly reduced hyperglycemia, plasma corticosterone, oxidative stress and depressive like behavior as well as improved associative memory and hippocampal GLUT4 mRNA expression comparable to rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Further, Urtica dioica insignificantly improved spatial memory and serum insulin. In conclusion, Urtica dioica reversed dexamethasone induced hyperglycemia and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction.

  9. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba extract on experimental Bothrops venom-induced acute kidney injury.

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    Monique Silva Martines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV-induced AKI. METHODOLOGY: Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C, SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance, renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler, blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer, renal vascular resistance (RVR, urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method, hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit, fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. CONCLUSION: SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR.

  10. Amniotic membrane extract ameliorates benzalkonium chloride-induced dry eye in a murine model.

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    Xiao, Xinye; Luo, Pingping; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Jingyao; He, Hui; Xu, Yuxue; Lin, Zhirong; Zhou, Yueping; Xu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zuguo

    2013-10-01

    Human amniotic membrane (AM) is avascular but contains various beneficial bioactive factors, its extract (AE) is also effective in treating many ocular surface disorders. In this study, we for the first time evaluated the therapeutic effects of AE on dry eye induced by benzalkonium chloride in a BALB/c mouse model. Topical application of AE (1.5 and 3 μg/eye/day) resulted in significantly longer tear break-up time on Day 3 and 6, lower fluorescein staining scores on Day 3, and lower inflammatory index on Day 6. AE reduced corneal epithelial K10 expression, inflammatory infiltration, and levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in BAC treated mice than that in the control mice. Moreover, decreased TUNEL positive cells in cornea and increased goblet cells in conjunctiva were also observed in AE treated corneas. Finally, AE induced more Ki-67 positive cells in corneal epithelium of dry eye mouse. Taken together, our data provide further support for BAC induced dry eye model as a valuable for dry eye study and suggest a great potential for AE as a therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Extract of D. dasycarpus Ameliorates Oxazolone-Induced Skin Damage in Mice by Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms

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    Tsong-Min Chang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Dictamni dasycarpus is a type of Chinese medicine made from the root bark of D. dasycarpus. It has been reported to show a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological effects, for example, it has been used widely for the treatment of rheumatism, nettle rash, itching, jaundice, chronic hepatitis and skin diseases. In the current study, D. dasycarpus extract was investigated for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as its capability to alleviate oxazolone-induced skin damage in mice. The possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of D. dasycarpus extract against oxidative challenge was elucidated by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, interleukin-6, Tumor necrosis factor-α, NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3 inflammasome and interleukin-1β in HaCaT cells. D. dasycarpus extract did not affect cell viability in basal conditions. The extract significantly reduced oxazolone-induced epidermal swelling compared to untreated animal in the hairless albino mice (ICR mice model. At the molecular level, Western blot assays indicated that the D. dasycarpus extract attenuated oxazolone-induced activation of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC, procaspase-1, NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs such as c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK and p38. This study demonstrates that D. dasycarpus extract could protect skin cells against oxidative and inflammatory insult by modulating the intracellular levels of ROS, TNF-α, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome generation, antioxidant enzyme activity and cell signaling pathways. D. dasycarpus extract also attenuated the expression of NF-κB in HaCaT keratinocytes and thereby effectively downregulated inflammatory responses in the skin. Furthermore, D. dasycarpus extract alleviated oxazolone-induced damage in mice. Our results suggest the potential application

  12. The Extract of D. dasycarpus Ameliorates Oxazolone-Induced Skin Damage in Mice by Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms.

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    Chang, Tsong-Min; Yang, Ting-Ya; Niu, Yu-Lin; Huang, Huey-Chun

    2018-06-15

    Dictamni dasycarpus is a type of Chinese medicine made from the root bark of D. dasycarpus . It has been reported to show a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological effects, for example, it has been used widely for the treatment of rheumatism, nettle rash, itching, jaundice, chronic hepatitis and skin diseases. In the current study, D. dasycarpus extract was investigated for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as its capability to alleviate oxazolone-induced skin damage in mice. The possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of D. dasycarpus extract against oxidative challenge was elucidated by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, interleukin-6, Tumor necrosis factor-α, NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3)) inflammasome and interleukin-1β in HaCaT cells. D. dasycarpus extract did not affect cell viability in basal conditions. The extract significantly reduced oxazolone-induced epidermal swelling compared to untreated animal in the hairless albino mice (ICR mice) model. At the molecular level, Western blot assays indicated that the D. dasycarpus extract attenuated oxazolone-induced activation of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), procaspase-1, NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) such as c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38. This study demonstrates that D. dasycarpus extract could protect skin cells against oxidative and inflammatory insult by modulating the intracellular levels of ROS, TNF-α, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome generation, antioxidant enzyme activity and cell signaling pathways. D. dasycarpus extract also attenuated the expression of NF-κB in HaCaT keratinocytes and thereby effectively downregulated inflammatory responses in the skin. Furthermore, D. dasycarpus extract alleviated oxazolone-induced damage in mice. Our results suggest the potential application of D

  13. Hypoglycemic and pancreatic protective effects of Portulaca oleracea extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

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    Ramadan, Basma K; Schaalan, Mona F; Tolba, Amina M

    2017-01-11

    Diabetes is a major public health concern. In spite of continuous new drug development to treat diabetes, herbal remedies remain a potential adjunct therapy to maintain better glycemic control while also imparting few side-effects. Portulaca oleracea has been traditionally used to manage several diseases due to the anti-oxidant and anti-atherogenic effects it imparts. To better understand the mechanisms associated with potential protective effect of P. oleracea extract against diabetes, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were used in this study. Forty Wistar rats (male, 7-8-wk-old, 140-160 g) were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): Group I (control), Group II (P. oleracea-treated; gavaged with P. oleracea extract daily [at 250 mg/kg] for 4 weeks), Group III (diabetic control; daily IP injection of alloxan [at 75 mg/kg] for 5 days) and Group IV (P. oleracea-pre-treated diabetic; gavaged with P. oleracea extract daily [at 250 mg/kg] for 4 weeks and then daily IP injection of alloxan [at 75 mg/kg] for 5 days). Body weight, food consumption, blood (serum) levels of glucose, C peptide, Hb A1C, insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were determined for all groups. The results indicated that while Hb A1C, serum levels of glucose, TNF-α and IL-6 were all significantly decreased in the P. oleracea-pre-treated diabetic rats, these hosts also had significant increases in C peptide and insulin compared to levels in the counterpart diabetic rats. These results were confirmed by the histopathological assessments which showed marked improvement of the destructive effect on pancreatic islet cells induced by alloxan. P. oleracea extract is a general tissue protective and regeneartive agent, as evidenced by increasing β-cell mass and therefore improved the glucose metabolism. Thus, stimulation of Portulaca oleracea signaling in β- cells may be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetes prevention.

  14. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice

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    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marawa; Salem, Neveen A.; El-Din M. Gaafar, Alaa

    2012-01-01

    Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum. Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration in mice. Cannabis extract was given by subcutaneous route at 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) once daily for 18 days and the effect on haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced catalepsy was examined at selected time intervals using the bar test. Mice were euthanized 18 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate) were determined in brain and liver. In saline-treated mice, no catalepsy was observed at doses of cannabis up to 20 mg/kg. Mice treated with haloperidol at the dose of 1 mg/kg, exhibited significant cataleptic response. Mice treated with cannabis and haloperidol showed significant decrease in catalepsy duration, compared with the haloperidol only treated group. This decrease in catalepsy duration was evident on days 1-12 after starting cannabis injection. Later the effect of cannabis was not apparent. The administration of only cannabis (10 or 20 mg/kg) decreased brain MDA by 17.5 and 21.8 %, respectively. The level of nitric oxide decreased by 18 % after cannabis at 20 mg/kg. Glucose in brain decreased by 20.1 % after 20 mg/kg of cannabis extract. The administration of only haloperidol increased MDA (22.2 %), decreased GSH (25.7 %) and increased brain nitric oxide by 44.1 %. The administration of cannabis (10 or 20 mg/kg) to haloperidol-treated mice resulted in a significant decrease in brain MDA and nitric

  15. Protective effects of methanolic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats.

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    Nasiry, Davood; Khalatbary, Ali Reza; Ahmadvand, Hassan; Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh; Akbari, Esmaeil

    2017-10-02

    Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the most common and debilitating complications of diabetes mellitus. There is accumulating evidence that Juglans regia L. (GRL) leaf extract, a rich source of phenolic components, has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of Juglans regia L. leaf extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rat. The DPN rat model was generated by intraperitoneal injection of a single 55 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin (STZ). A subset of the STZ-induced diabetic rats intragastically administered with GRL leaf extract (200 mg/kg/day) before or after the onset of neuropathy, whereas other diabetic rats received only isotonic saline as the same volume of GRL leaf extract. To evaluate the effects of GRL leaf extract on the diabetic neuropathy various parameters, including histopathology and immunohistochemistry of apoptotic and inflammatory factors were assessed along with nociceptive and biochemical assessments. Degeneration of the sciatic nerves which was detected in the STZ-diabetic rats attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Greater caspase-3, COX-2, and iNOS expression could be detected in the STZ-diabetic rats, which were significantly attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Also, attenuation of lipid peroxidation and nociceptive response along with improved antioxidant status in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats were detected after GRL leaf extract administration. In other word, GRL leaf extract ameliorated the behavioral and structural indices of diabetic neuropathy even after the onset of neuropathy, in addition to blood sugar reduction. Our results suggest that GRL leaf extract exert preventive and curative effects against STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats which might be due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. Protection against

  16. Neuroprotective Effect of Matricaria chamomilla Extract on Motor Dysfunction Induced by Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rat

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    Azam Moshfegh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Stroke can cause paralysis, muscle weakness, and loss of balance that may affect walking and routine activities. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl alcohol extract of Matricaria chamomilla on cerebral ischemia-induced motor dysfunctions in rats. Methods In this experimental study, forty two male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups consisting of control group, sham group, ischemia/reperfusion group and three treatment groups [treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg doses of M. chamomilla extract and undergoing ischemia/reperfusion(I/R]. Motor coordination and balance were evaluated using Rotarod test. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitric oxide (NO levels of serum and brain were also determined. Results The extract of M. chamomilla significantly improved I/R-induced motor dysfunction. Induction of I/R led to increase serum MDA, while the extract of M, chamomlla significantly reduced it. Administration all doses of M. chamomilla extract to the ischemic rats did not reduce the hippocampus MDA levels (P > 0.05. The extract of M. chamomilla at dose of 200 mg/kg slightly decreased cortex MDA (P > 0.01. It had no significant effects on the total antioxidant capacity of the brain (hippocampus and cortex and serum. Injection of Matricaria chamomilla extract also did not change serum NO level. Conclusions Our findings suggested that the Matricaria chamomilla extract could improve motor dysfunction.

  17. Echinophora platyloba DC (Apiaceae crude extract induces apoptosis in human prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC 3

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    Fatemeh Zare Shahneh

    2014-10-01

    . Conclusions: In summary, the E. platyloba extract attenuated the human prostate adenocarcinoma cell proliferation in vitro possibly by inducing apoptosis. E. platyloba is likely to be valuable for the treatment of human prostate adenocarcinoma.

  18. A pharmacological evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity of leaves extract of Murraya koenigii in experimentally induced diarrhoea in rats

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    Praveen Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (M. koenigiiby using models of castor oil induced diarrhoea, charcoal meal test and PGE 2 induced diarrhoea. Methods: Alcoholic extract (400 mg/kg and aqueous extract (200 mg/kg of leaves of Murraya koenigii were used with loperamide as standard. Albino Wistar rats of both sexes weighing between 150-250 g were used for the anti-diarrhoeal activity. Results: The result suggested that it could act centrally and inhibit the PGE2 to give anti-diarrhoeal effects. Result of charcoal meal test also suggested its anti-muscarnic activity. Conclusions: These findings indicate that aqueous extract of the leaves of M. koenigii displays good antidiarrhoeal activity, corroborating the folk use of M. koenigii preparations and contributing for its pharmacological validation.

  19. Attenuation of salicylate-induced tinnitus by Ginkgo biloba extract in rats.

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    Jastreboff, P J; Zhou, S; Jastreboff, M M; Kwapisz, U; Gryczynska, U

    1997-01-01

    The effects of an extract from Ginkgo biloba, EGb 761, on tinnitus were tested using an animal model of tinnitus. Daily oral administration of EGb 761 in doses from 10 to 100 mg/ kg/day began 2 weeks before behavioral procedures and continued until the end of the experiment. Tinnitus was induced by daily administration of 321 mg/kg sodium salicylate s.c. (corresponding to 275 mg/kg/day of salicylate acid) in fourteen groups of pigmented rats, 6 animals/group. The results from salicylate- and EGb-761-treated animals were compared to control groups receiving either salicylate, saline, or EGb 761 only in doses of 100 mg/kg. Administration of EGb 761 resulted in a statistically significant decrease of the behavioral manifestation of tinnitus for doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/ day.

  20. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line.

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    Izdebska, Magdalena; Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas, Marta; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Alina

    2015-12-31

    For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope. The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM), was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment. Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  1. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line

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    Magdalena Izdebska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. Material and methods: A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope.Results: The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM, was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment.Conclusion: Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  2. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

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    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  3. Protective effects of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extract against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

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    Gong, Pin; Chen, Fu-xin; Wang, Lan; Wang, Jing; Jin, Sai; Ma, Yang-min

    2014-05-01

    The oxidative status and morphological changes of mouse liver exposed to cadmium chloride (Cd(II)) and therapeutic potential of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extract against Cd(II)-induced hepatic injury were investigated. A variety of parameters were evaluated, including lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PCO) level, DNA fragment, as well as antioxidative defense system (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH)). Elemental analysis and evaluation of morphological changes and NO levels were also performed. Exposure to Cd(II) led to increased LPO and PCO as well as DNA fragment and a reduction of SOD and CAT activities, however, the content of GSH elevated probably due to biological adaptive-response. In contrast, co-treatment of anthocyanin (Ay) inhibited the increased oxidative parameters as well as restored the activities of antioxidative defense system in a dose-dependent manner. Ay administration regained these morphological changes caused by intoxication of Cd(II) to nearly normal levels. Moreover, the accumulation of Cd(II) in liver may be one of the reasons for Cd(II) toxicity and Ay can chelate with Cd(II) to reduce Cd(II) burden. The influence of Cd(II) on the Zn and Ca levels can also be adjusted by the co-administration of Ay. Exposure to Cd(II) led to an increase of NO and Ay reduced NO contents probably by directly scavenging. Potential mechanisms for the protective effect of Ay have been proposed, including its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect along with the metal-chelating capacity. These results suggest that blueberry extract may be valuable as a therapeutic agent in combating Cd(II)-induced tissue injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text.

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    Li, Tong Shu; Bravo, Àlex; Furlong, Laura I; Good, Benjamin M; Su, Andrew I

    2016-01-01

    Relations between chemicals and diseases are one of the most queried biomedical interactions. Although expert manual curation is the standard method for extracting these relations from the literature, it is expensive and impractical to apply to large numbers of documents, and therefore alternative methods are required. We describe here a crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text as part of the BioCreative V Chemical Disease Relation challenge. Five non-expert workers on the CrowdFlower platform were shown each potential chemical-induced disease relation highlighted in the original source text and asked to make binary judgments about whether the text supported the relation. Worker responses were aggregated through voting, and relations receiving four or more votes were predicted as true. On the official evaluation dataset of 500 PubMed abstracts, the crowd attained a 0.505F-score (0.475 precision, 0.540 recall), with a maximum theoretical recall of 0.751 due to errors with named entity recognition. The total crowdsourcing cost was $1290.67 ($2.58 per abstract) and took a total of 7 h. A qualitative error analysis revealed that 46.66% of sampled errors were due to task limitations and gold standard errors, indicating that performance can still be improved. All code and results are publicly available athttps://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relexDatabase URL:https://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relex. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Ninjin'yoeito and ginseng extract prevent oxaliplatin-induced neurodegeneration in PC12 cells.

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    Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Ayano; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Mizukami, Hajime; Makino, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Ninjin'yoeito (NYT) is a formula of Japanese traditional kampo medicine composed of 12 crude drugs, and is designed to improve the decline in constitution after recovery from disease, fatigue, anemia, anorexia, perspiration during sleep, cold limbs, slight fever, chills, persistent cough, malaise, mental disequilibrium, insomnia, and constipation. Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a platinum-based anticancer drug used to treat colorectal, pancreatic, and stomach cancers. However, it often causes acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies including cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of NYT on neuronal degeneration caused by L-OHP using PC12 cells, which are derived from the rat adrenal medulla and differentiate into nerve-like cells after exposure to nerve growth factor. L-OHP treatment decreased the elongation of neurite-like projection outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. When PC12 cells were treated with NYT hot water extract, neurodegeneration caused by L-OHP was significantly prevented in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the 12 crude drugs composing NYT, the extract of Ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng) exhibited the strongest preventive effects on neurodegeneration in differentiated PC12 cells. By activity-guided fractionation, we found that the fraction containing ginsenosides displayed preventive activity and, among several ginsenosides, ginsenoside F2 exhibited significant preventive effects on L-OHP-induced decreases in neurite-like outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. These results suggest that NYT and ginseng are promising agents for preventing L-OHP-induced neuropathies and present ginsenoside F2 as one of the active ingredients in ginseng.

  6. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract

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    Snehal Nitin Mestry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum, due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p. in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Snehal Nitin; Dhodi, Jayesh Bachu; Kumbhar, Sangita Balbhim; Juvekar, Archana Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum , due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS) positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  8. Toona Sinensis Extracts Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in the Human Lung Large Cell Carcinoma

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    Cheng-Yuan Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Toona sinensis extracts have been shown to exhibit anti-cancer effects in human ovarian cancer cell lines, human promyelocytic leukemia cells and human lung adenocarcinoma. Its safety has also been confirmed in animal studies. However, its anti-cancer properties in human lung large cell carcinoma have not been studied. Here, we used a powder obtained by freeze-drying the super-natant of centrifuged crude extract from Toona sinensis leaves (TSL-1 to treat the human lung carcinoma cell line H661. Cell viability was evaluated by the 3-(4-,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that TSL-1 blocked H661 cell cycle progression. Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of cell cycle proteins that promote cell cycle progression, including cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cyclin D1, and increased the expression of proteins that inhibit cell cycle progression, including p27. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that TSL-1 induced H661 cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that TSL-1 reduced the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2, and degraded the DNA repair protein, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase. TSL-1 shows potential as a novel therapeutic agent or for use as an adjuvant for treating human lung large cell carcinoma.

  9. Crataegus Monogyna Aqueous Extract Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Toxicity in Rat Testis: Stereological Evidences

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    Hassan Malekinejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is extensively used as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of various cancers, as well as an immunosuppressive agent. However, despite its wide spectrum of clinical uses, CP is known to cause several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. Crataegus monogyna is one of the oldest pharmaceutical plants that have been shown to be cytoprotective by scavenging free radicals. The present study was conducted to assess whether Crataegus monogyna fruits aqueous extract with anti-oxidant properties, could serve as a protective agent against reproductive toxicity during CP treatment in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were categorized into four groups. Two groups of rats were administered CP at a dose of 5 mg in 5 ml saline/kg/day for 28 days by oral gavages. One of these groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after cyclophosphamide administration. A vehicle treated control group and a Crataegus monogyna control group were also included. The CP-treated group showed significant decreases in the body, testes and epididymides weights as well as many histological alterations. Stereological parameters and spermatogenic activities (Sertoli cell, repopulation and miotic indices were also significantly decreased by CP treatment. Notably, Crataegus coadministration caused a partial recovery in above-mentined parameters. These findings indicate that Crataegus monogyna may be partially protective against CP-induced testicular toxicity.

  10. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) inhibits 2-deoxyribose damage induced by Fe (III) plus ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto Lázaro; Delgado, René; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Vercesi, Anibal E

    2006-02-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of selected species of Mangifera indica L, used in Cuba as a nutritional antioxidant supplement. Many in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress have been used to elucidate the antioxidant mechanisms of this extract. To further characterize the mechanism of Vimang action, its effect on the degradation of 2-deoxyribose induced by Fe (III)-EDTA plus ascorbate or plus hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase was studied. Vimang was shown to be a potent inhibitor of 2-deoxyribose degradation mediated by Fe (III)-EDTA plus ascorbate or superoxide (O2-). The results revealed that Vimang, at concentrations higher than 50 microM mangiferin equivalent, was equally effective in preventing degradation of both 15 mM and 1.5 mM 2-deoxyribose. At a fixed Fe (III) concentration, increasing the concentration of ligands (either EDTA or citrate) caused a significant reduction in the protective effects of Vimang. When ascorbate was replaced by O2- (formed by hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase) the protective efficiency of Vimang was also inversely related to EDTA concentration. The results strongly indicate that Vimang does not block 2-deoxyribose degradation by simply trapping *OH radicals. Rather, Vimang seems to act as an antioxidant by complexing iron ions, rendering them inactive or poorly active in the Fenton reaction. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Amelioration of lead induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

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    Sharma A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a blue-gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth crust and isspread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativumto reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oraltreatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/ kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50 induceda significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanineaminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ALP, cholesterol, lipidperoxidation (LPO and lead nitrate. In parallel, hepatic protein levels in lead exposed mice weresignificantly depleted. Lead nitrate exposure also produced detrimental effects on the redox status ofthe liver indicated by a significant decline in the levels of liver antioxidants such as superoxidedismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione (GSH. After exposure to lead nitrate (50 mg/kgbody weight for 10 days, the animals received aqueous garlic extract (250 mg/ kg body weight and500 mg/ kg body weight and ethanolic garlic extract (100 mg/ kg body weight and 250 mg/ kg bodyweight and partially restored the deranged parameters significantly Histological examination of theliver also revealed pathophysiological changes in lead nitrate exposed group and treatment with garlicimproved liver histology. Our data suggest that garlic is a phytoantioxidant that can counteract thedeleterious effects of lead nitrate.

  12. Methanolic extracts of Uncaria rhynchophylla induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kyung-Jin; Cha, Mi-Ran; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yoon, Mi-Young; Park, Hae-Ryong

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we report the anticancer activities of Uncaria rhynchophylla extracts, a Rubiaceae plant native to China. Traditionally, Uncaria rhynchophylla has been used in the prevention and treatment of neurotoxicity. However, the cytotoxic activity of Uncaria rhynchophylla against human colon carcinoma cells has not, until now, been elucidated. We found that the methanolic extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla (URE) have cytotoxic effects on HT-29 cells. The URE showed highly cytotoxic effects via the MTT reduction assay, LDH release assay, and colony formation assay. As expected, URE inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, the methanolic URE of the 500 microg/ml showed 15.8% inhibition against growth of HT-29 cells. It induced characteristic apoptotic effects in HT-29 cells, including chromatin condensation and sharking occurring 24 h when the cells were treated at a concentration of the 500 microg/ml. The activation of caspase-3 and the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase were detected over the course of apoptosis induction. These results indicate that URE contains bioactive materials with strong activity, and is a potential chemotherapeutic agent candidate against HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells.

  13. Anti-atherosclerotic effect of Cynodon dactylon extract on experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

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    Pashaie, Belal; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Malekinejad, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) is a perennial plant traditionally used as an herbal medicine in many countries. In the present study, anti-atherosclerotic property of ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was investigated in the experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. In this study, 36 male Wistar rats were selected and allocated into six groups (n = 6). The control group received a normal diet, sham group received a high cholesterol diet (HCD; 1.50% cholesterol and 24.00% fat) and other groups received a HCD and ethanolic extract of C. dactylon at low (100 mg kg -1 ), moderate (200 mg kg -1 ) and maximum (400 mg kg -1 ) doses via gavages. The last group received atorvastatin (10 mg kg -1 ) through gavage with a HCD. The study period for all groups was six months. At the end of this period, parameters including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were assessed in the blood samples. Additionally, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations on coronary and aorta arteries sections were performed. The results showed an increase in vessels wall thickness and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the HCD group, while these pathological changes were not seen in C. dactylon -treated groups. Treatment of HCD animals with C. dactylon positively changed lipid profile by lowering of TC, TG and LDL-C. The results indicate that C. dactylon prevents from early atherosclerotic changes in the vessels wall.

  14. Moringa oleifera extract (Lam) attenuates Aluminium phosphide-induced acute cardiac toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Ahmed S; El-Nabarawy, Nagla A; Ibrahim, Samah F

    2018-01-01

    Moringa oleifera extract (Lam) has many antioxidant and protective properties. Objective: to investigate the antioxidant activities of Lam in counteracting the high oxidative stress caused by acute sub-lethal aluminium phosphide (AlP) intoxication in rat heart. These activities will be detected by histopathological examination and some oxidative stress biomarkers. a single sub-lethal dose of Alp (2 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, and Lam was given orally at a dose (100 mg/kg body weight) one hour after receiving AlP to rats. aluminium phosphide caused significant cardiac histopathological changes with a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA); lipid peroxidation marker; and a significant depletion of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione reductase). However, treatment with Lam protected efficiently the cardiac tissue of intoxicated rats by increasing antioxidants levels with slight decreasing in MDA production compared to untreated group. This study suggested that Moringa oleifera extract could possibly restore the altered cardiac histopathology and some antioxidant power in AlP intoxicated rats, and it could even be used as adjuvant therapy against AlP-induced cardiotoxicity.

  15. Effect of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" fruit extract in Mus musculus var. swis with induced hyperlipidemi.

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    Julio Campos Florián

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the hypolipidemic activity of the fruit of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" in a model of acute hyperlipidemia induced by triton. Mus musculus var. swis males as experimental animals. We worked with four groups of mice, the white group received distilled water orally and saline intraperitoneally, the control group received distilled water orally and intraperitoneally triton, the problem group 1 received orally 0.05g/100g Physalis peruviana extract intraperitoneally and triton and the problem group 2 received orally 0.2g/100g extract of Physalis peruviana and triton intraperitoneally. After 24 hours of administering the treatments were performed measurements of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Mean levels of cholesterol (mg/dL were: 58.87 ± 11.54 (white, 121.71 ± 15.00 (control, 58.08 ± 9.21 (Problem 1 and 66 78 ± 16.77 (Problem 2. Average levels of triglycerides (g /L were: 0.48 ± 0.07 (white, 1.84 ± 0.18 (control, 0.34 ± 0.10 (Problem 1 and 0.94 ± 0.25 (Problem 2. We found significant reductions (p <0.000 concentrations of both cholesterol and triglycerides in relation to those obtained in the group treated only with Triton.

  16. Compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium Extract Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Disorders in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Liu, Cong; Jing, Shu; Wang, Mengyang; Wang, Han; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Chunmei; Chen, Jianguang; Li, He

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a da...

  17. Study of Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leucas indica Linn. Aerial Parts on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahananda Sarkar; Prova Biswas; Amalesh Samanta

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Leucas indica Linn. on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The extract showed a significant dose depended (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w, orally) reduction in fasting blood glucose level, comparing with reference drug, glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg b.w, orally). In addition, the changes in body weight, analysis of serum biochemical parameters like lipid profile, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate p...

  18. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

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    Jin Bae Weon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ- induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC.

  19. Antihyperglycemic Potential of Grewia asiatica Fruit Extract against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia in Rats: Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms

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    Hala A. H. Khattab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is regarded as a serious chronic disease that carries a high risk for considerable complications. In folk medicine, the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. This study aimed to investigate the possible curative effect of G. asiatica fruit ethanolic extract against streptozotocin- (STZ- induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, mechanism of antihyperglycemic action is investigated. Hyperglycemic rats are either treated with 100 or 200 mg/kg/day G. asiatica fruits extract. Serum glucose, liver glycogen, malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, interleukin- (IL- 1β, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α are measured. G. asiatica fruits extract reduces blood glucose and pancreatic MDA levels. It increases liver glycogen and pancreatic GSH contents and SOD enzyme activity. Furthermore, Grewia asiatica fruits extract decreases serum IL-1β and TNF-α. The treatment also protects against STZ-induced pathological changes in the pancreas. The results of this study indicated that G. asiatica fruit extract exerts antihyperglycemic activity against STZ-induced hyperglycemia. The improvement in the pancreatic β-cells and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of G. asiatica fruit extract may explain the antihyperglycemic effect.

  20. Antihyperglycemic Potential of Grewia asiatica Fruit Extract against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia in Rats: Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Hala A. H.; El-Shitany, Nagla A.; Abdallah, Inas Z. A.; Yousef, Fatimah M.; Alkreathy, Huda M.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is regarded as a serious chronic disease that carries a high risk for considerable complications. In folk medicine, the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. This study aimed to investigate the possible curative effect of G. asiatica fruit ethanolic extract against streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, mechanism of antihyperglycemic action is investigated. Hyperglycemic rats are either treated with 100 or 200 mg/kg/day G. asiatica fruits extract. Serum glucose, liver glycogen, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α are measured. G. asiatica fruits extract reduces blood glucose and pancreatic MDA levels. It increases liver glycogen and pancreatic GSH contents and SOD enzyme activity. Furthermore, Grewia asiatica fruits extract decreases serum IL-1β and TNF-α. The treatment also protects against STZ-induced pathological changes in the pancreas. The results of this study indicated that G. asiatica fruit extract exerts antihyperglycemic activity against STZ-induced hyperglycemia. The improvement in the pancreatic β-cells and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of G. asiatica fruit extract may explain the antihyperglycemic effect. PMID:26347423

  1. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanan, Muthupillai; Krishnan, Manigandan; Padarthi, Pavankumar; Namasivayam, Elangovan

    2014-01-01

    To explore the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic Mangifera indica (EMI) and methanolic Mangifera indica (MMI) leaf extracts in mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Toxicity in mice was induced with HgCl 2 (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by oral intervention with EMI and MMI extracts (25 mg and 50 mg/kg. body wt.) for 30 days. The extent of liver damage was assessed from the extents of histopathological, morphological, antioxidant and liver enzymes. Mercuric chloride-induced mice showed an increased cellular damage whereas leaf extracts of EMI and MMI-treated mice showed recovery of damaged hepatocytes. Mercuric chloride intoxicated mice exhibited a significant (p Mangifera indica extract remarkably reduces hepatotoxicity in mice possibly through its antioxidant potentials. How to cite this article: Karuppanan M, Krishnan M, Padarthi P, Namasivayam E. Hepatoprotec-tive and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):18-24.

  2. [Suppressive Effects of Extract of Cedar Wood on Heat-induced Expression of Cellular Heat Shock Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Junji; Matsubara, Eri; Narita, Eijiro; Koyama, Shin; Shimizu, Yoko; Kawai, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

     In recent years, highly antimicrobial properties of cedar heartwood essential oil against the wood-rotting fungi and pathogenic fungi have been reported in several papers. Antimicrobial properties against oral bacteria by hinokitiol contained in Thujopsis have been also extensively studied. The relation of naturally derived components and human immune system has been studied in some previous papers. In the present study, we focused on Japanese cedar, which has the widest artificial afforestation site in the country among various tree species. Extract oil was obtained from mixture of sapwood and heartwood of about 40-year cedar grown in Oguni, Kumamoto, Japan. We examined the influence of extract components from Japanese cedar woods on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) during heating, and on the micronucleus formation induced by the treatment of bleomycin as a DNA damaging agent. Cell lines used in this study were human fetal glial cells (SVGp12) and human glioma cells (MO54). Remarkable suppression of the Hsp70 expression induced by heating at 43°C was detected by the treatment of cedar extract in both SVGp12 and MO54 cells. We also found that cedar extract had an inhibitory tendency to reduce the micronucleus formation induced by bleomycin. From these results, the extract components from Japanese cedar woods would have an inhibitory effect of the stress response as a suppression of the heat-induced Hsp70 expression, and might have a reductive effect on carcinogenicity.

  3. Prevention of taurolithocholate-induced hepatic bile canalicular distortions by HPLC-characterized extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, R

    2002-09-01

    The effects of water-soluble extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaves on taurolithocholate-induced cholestatic bile canalicular membrane distortions were studied in primary cultured rat hepatocytes using electron microscopy. Artichoke extracts at concentrations between 0.08 and 0.5 mg/ml were able to prevent the formation of bizarre canalicular membrane transformations in a dose-dependent manner when added simultaneously with the bile acid. However, prevention also occurred when the hepatocytes were preincubated with the extracts, indicating that absorption of the bile acid to components of the extracts was not involved. These results demonstrate that artichoke leaf extracts exert a potent anticholestatic action at least in the case of taurolithocholate. This effect may contribute to the overall hepatoprotective influence of this herbal formulation.

  4. Beneficial Effect of Jojoba Seed Extracts on Hyperglycemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in RINm5f Beta Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Sahla; Hentati, Olfa; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Fakhreddine, Khaskhoussi; Maillard, Elisa; Dal, Stéphanie; Sigrist, Séverine

    2018-03-20

    Hyperglycemia occurs during diabetes and insulin resistance. It causes oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, leading to cellular damage. Polyphenols play a central role in defense against oxidative stress. In our study, we investigated the antioxidant properties of simmondsin, a pure molecule present in jojoba seeds, and of the aqueous extract of jojoba seeds on fructose-induced oxidative stress in RINm5f beta cells. The exposure of RINm5f beta cells to fructose triggered the loss of cell viability (-48%, p jojoba seed extract makes jojoba a powerful agent to prevent the destruction of RINm5f beta cells induced by hyperglycemia.

  5. Antidiabetic Activity Test of Ethanolic Seri Leave’s (Muntingia Calabura L.) Extract in Male Rats Induced by Alloxan

    OpenAIRE

    Herlina Herlina; Annisa Amriani; Indah Solihah; Rizky Sintya

    2018-01-01

    Antidiabetic activity test of ethanol extract of seri leave (Muntingia calabura L.) rats induced by alloxan has been done. Male wistar albino rats are used as animal models which divided into 6 groups, normal group (aquadest), negative control group (Na CMC 0,5%), positive control group (glibenclamide 0,43 mg/200 gBB), and 1, 2, and 3 treatment groups (ethanol extract of seri leave 65, 130, dan 260 mg/kgBB). Rats blood glucose level after induced intraperitoneally by alloxan 130 mg/kgBB can b...

  6. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota Benth on alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Hymete, Ariaya; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Tadesse, Mekuria

    2017-05-02

    Ajuga remota Benth is traditionally used in Ethiopia for the management of diabetes mellitus. Since this claim has not been investigated scientifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. After acute toxicity test, the Swiss albino mice were induced with alloxan to get experimental diabetes animals. The fasting mean blood glucose level before and after treatment for two weeks in normal, diabetic untreated and diabetic mice treated with aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts were performed. Data were statistically evaluated by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20. P-value Phytochemical screening of both extracts indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and steroids, which might contribute to the antidiabetic activity. The extracts, however, did not contain alkaloids and anthraquinones. The aqueous extract (500 mg/kg) showed the highest percentage reduction in blood glucose levels and the ability of A. remota extracts in reducing blood glucose levels presumably due to the presence of antioxidant constituents such as flavonoids. The effect of the extract supported the traditional claim of the plant.

  7. Beneficial Effect of Jojoba Seed Extracts on Hyperglycemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in RINm5f Beta Cells

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    Sahla Belhadj

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia occurs during diabetes and insulin resistance. It causes oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, leading to cellular damage. Polyphenols play a central role in defense against oxidative stress. In our study, we investigated the antioxidant properties of simmondsin, a pure molecule present in jojoba seeds, and of the aqueous extract of jojoba seeds on fructose-induced oxidative stress in RINm5f beta cells. The exposure of RINm5f beta cells to fructose triggered the loss of cell viability (−48%, p < 0.001 and disruption of insulin secretion (p < 0.001 associated with of reactive oxygen species (ROS production and a modulation of pro-oxidant and antioxidant signaling pathway. Cell pre-treatments with extracts considerably increased cell viability (+86% p < 0.001 for simmondsin and +74% (p < 0.001 for aqueous extract and insulin secretion. The extracts also markedly decreased ROS (−69% (p < 0.001 for simmondsin and −59% (p < 0.001 for aqueous extract and caspase-3 activation and improved antioxidant defense, inhibiting p22phox and increasing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 levels (+70%, p < 0.001 for aqueous extract. Simmondsin had no impact on Nrf2 levels. The richness and diversity of molecules present in jojoba seed extract makes jojoba a powerful agent to prevent the destruction of RINm5f beta cells induced by hyperglycemia.

  8. Evaluation of Mango Byproduct Extracts as Antioxidant Against Pb-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Mice

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    Makawy Aida I. El

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of mango by-products were investigated. This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of mango peel or kernel defatted extracts against Pb-acetate adverse effects on oxidant/antioxidant status, liver dysfunction biomarkers, histopathological changes and genotoxicity in male mice. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of both extracts were evaluated. Two doses of both extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg were used to evaluate their role against the toxicity of Pb-acetate (500 ppm. Mice given mango extracts with Pb-acetate had significantly lower plasma MDA, AST and ALT and higher glutathione than mice given Pb-acetate alone. Mango extracts prevented the histopathological changes in liver induced by Pb-acetate and decreased the cytotoxicity of lead by increasing the ratio of PCE/NCE. Mango extract treatment reduced the DNA damage induced by Pb-acetate in liver as demonstrated by a reduction in micronuclei and decrease in tail length, tail DNA% and Olive tail moment. It can be concluded that mango by-product extracts have potential to protect from oxidative stress and genotoxicity of lead.

  9. Protective effect of Petroselinum crispum extract in abortion using prostadin-induced renal dysfunction in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rezazad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study investigated the effects of parsley extract on pregnant rat kidneys which have undergone clinical abortion using prostaglandins. The renal protective effect of parsley extract was evaluated in pregnant rats which had an abortion. Parsley was used due to its antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods:  Fifty-four female rats were divided in 9 groups of 6: control pregnant, two pregnant groups which received parsley extract and prostadin, two non-pregnant groups treated with parsley extract and prostadin, a group administered with both treatments, and three groups which received parsley extract in pre-implantation, implantation, and post-implantation periods of embryos. Ethanolic extract (5 mg/kg was given daily to animals for 18 days of pregnancy period. Parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant statues (TAS, creatinine, and urea were measured using biochemical assays. Histopathologic studies were also done with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining method. Results: After 18 days of treatment, significant differences were observed in serum creatinine, urea, and MDA and TAS levels. Kidney cross-sections showed edema in prostadin-treated rats while improvements in parsley + prostadin -treated rats were observed. Conclusion: These results suggested that ethanolic extract of Petroselinum crispum reduced the dysfunction in rats kidney caused by prostadin-induced abortion and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of prostaglandin-induced edema.

  10. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice

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    Amir Raoofi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6. The first group (control was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl and experimental groups with CIS (E1, CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2, CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3, CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4 intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey′s post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman′s capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. Conclusions: The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice.

  11. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tribulus Terrestris on Cisplatin Induced Renal Tissue Damage in Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoofi, Amir; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS) (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria) induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6). The first group (control) was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and experimental groups with CIS (E1), CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2), CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3), CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4) intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman's capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. Conclusions: The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice. PMID:25789143

  12. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on Cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoofi, Amir; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS) (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria) induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6). The first group (control) was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and experimental groups with CIS (E1), CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2), CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3), CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4) intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman's capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice.

  13. Protective effect of Sida cordata leaf extract against CCl(4) induced acute liver toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Sunil; Dutt, K R; Jena, J

    2013-04-13

    To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of Sida cordata (Malvaceae) (S. cordata) in experimental rats to validate its traditional claim. Wister albino rats were divided into 6 groups: Group I served as control; Group II served as hepatotoxic (CCl(4) treated) group; Group III, IV and V served as (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) S. cordata leaf extract (SCLE) treated groups; Group VI served as positive control (Silymarin) treated group. Liver marker enzymes serum glutamate oxyloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured and compared along with histopathological studies. Obtained results show that the treatment with SCLE significantly (P<0.05-<0.001) and dose-dependently reduced CCl4 induced elevated serum level of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, SCLE significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels, which was confirmed by the histopathological studies. The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of SCLE against CCl(4) induced acute liver toxicity in rats and thereby scientifically support its traditional use. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Siegesbeckia orientalis Extract Inhibits TGFβ1-Induced Migration and Invasion of Endometrial Cancer Cells

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    Chi-Chang Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Type II endometrial carcinoma typically exhibits aggressive metastasis and results in a poor prognosis. Siegesbeckia orientalis Linne is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb with several medicinal benefits, including the cytotoxicity against various cancers. This study investigates the inhibitory effects of S. orientalis ethanol extract (SOE on the migration and invasion of endometrial cancer cells, which were stimulated by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ. The inhibitory effects were evaluated by determining wound healing and performing the Boyden chamber assay. This study reveals that SOE can inhibit TGFβ1-induced cell wound healing, cell migration, and cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner in RL95-2 and HEC-1A endometrial cancer cells. SOE also reversed the TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, including the loss of the cell-cell junction and the lamellipodia-like structures. Western blot analysis revealed that SOE inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and Akt, as well as the expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and u-PA in RL95-2 cells dose-dependently. The results of this investigation suggest that SOE is a potential anti-metastatic agent against human endometrial tumors.

  15. Flos Puerariae Extract Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhong-he Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effects of Flos Puerariae extract (FPE on cognitive impairment associated with diabetes were assessed in C57BL/6J mice. Methods. Experimental diabetic mice model was induced by one injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ for 5 days consecutively. FPE was orally administrated at the dosages of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day, respectively. The learning and memory ability was assessed by Morris water maze test. Body weight, blood glucose, free fatty acid (FFA and total cholesterol (TCH in serum, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were also measured. Results. Oral administration of FPE significantly improved cognitive deficits in STZ-induced diabetic mice. FPE treatment also maintained body weight and ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. Additionally, decreased MDA level, enhanced CAT, and GSH-Px activities in cerebral cortex or hippocampus, as well as alleviated AChE activity in cerebral cortex, were found in diabetic mice supplemented with FPE. Conclusion. This study suggests that FPE ameliorates memory deficits in experimental diabetic mice, at least partly through the normalization of metabolic abnormalities, ameliorated oxidative stress, and AChE activity in brain.

  16. The effect of Ginkgo extract EGb761 in cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, Guerkan; Anlar, Oemer; Erdogan, Ender; Koesem, Mustafa; Oezbek, Hanefi; Tuerker, Aybars

    2004-01-01

    Neuroprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in cisplatin (cis-diamminedi-chloroplatinum, or CDDP)-induced peripheral neuropathy was investigated. Swiss albino mice were treated with CDDP, 2 mg/kg ip twice a week for nine times. One group of the animals also received EGb761 in the drinking water at an estimated dosage of 100 mg/kg per day. Two other groups received vehicle (control) or EGb761 only. Development of neuropathy was evaluated with changes in sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Following the treatments, dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) were microscopically examined and some were cultured for 3 days. EGb761 proved effective in preventing the reduction in NCV (P < 0.0001) caused by CDDP. CDDP caused a decrease in the number of migrating cells (P < 0.01) and in the length of outgrowing axons (P < 0.01) while EGb761 treatment prevented the latter. CDDP led to smaller nuclear and somatic sizes in neurons (P < 0.01), while with EGb761 co-administration, both were close to control values. Animals having EGb761 only had similar results with controls. In conclusion, EGb761 was found to be effective in preventing some functional and morphological deteriorations in CDDP-induced peripheral neuropathy

  17. Effects of ginkgo biloba extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in rats

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    Chao Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of ginkgo biloba extract(EGb 761on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization(CNVin rats.METHODS: Totally 60 BN rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, model group, experimental group, physiological saline group with 15 in each group. All CNV models were made by krypton laser. Rats in experimental group were intraperitoneally injected with 0.35% EGb761(100mg/kgevery day after laser exposure until they were sacrificed. Rats in physiological saline group were intraperitoneally injected physiological saline every day after laser exposure until they were sacrificed. Fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAwas performed on every rat on the 7th day, 14th day and the 21st day after laser exposure, then the rats were sacrificed immediately. The eyes were enucleated and processed for histopathologic examination.RESULTS: There was no choroidal fluorescein leakage staining in normal rats. There were obviously less choroidal fluorescein leakage points in experimental groups than that in the corresponding model groups(PCONCLUSION: EGb761 len inhibit the formation of laser-induced CNV in rats. The longer the time, the better curative effect.

  18. Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract protects of radiation induced glycogen depletion in Albino Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damodara Gowda, K.M.; Krishna, A.P.; Shetty, Lathika; Suchetha Shetty, N.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation cause variety of pathological processes in irradiated cells. The killing action of ionizing radiation is mainly mediated through the free radicals generated from the radiolysis of cellular water. In the present study, protective effects of Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract (NJE) on radiation induced depletion of glycogen in rats exposed to 3 Gy whole body electron beam irradiation (EBR) was investigated. EBR was performed at Microtron centre, Mangalore University. Treatment of rats with NJE at a dosage of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw respectively once daily for 15 days before, after and both before and after irradiation was done. The liver, kidney and muscle was separated and used for the estimation of total glycogen content using standard procedures and also for the histochemical localization of glycogen by PAS staining method. The data was analyzed by paired t test and Kruskal Wallis test. P<0.05 was the level of significance. The irradiated rats exhibited significant decline (p=0.000) in the level of total glycogen content in the tissues of liver, kidney and muscle whereas, a nonsignificant variation was recorded in rats treated with NJE. This study indicated that treatment with NJE both before and after irradiation for 15 consecutive days provided significant protection against irradiation induced depletion of glycogen. (author)

  19. Effect of Oenothera odorata Root Extract on Microgravity and Disuse-Induced Muscle Atrophy

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    Yong-Hyeon Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle atrophy, a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and volume, results from reduced muscle use and plays a key role in various muscular diseases. In the microgravity environment of space especially, muscle atrophy is induced by muscle inactivity. Exposure to microgravity induces muscle atrophy through several biological effects, including associations with reactive oxygen species (ROS. This study used 3D-clinostat to investigate muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress in vitro, and sciatic denervation was used to investigate muscle atrophy in vivo. We assessed the effect of Oenothera odorata root extract (EVP on muscle atrophy. EVP helped recover cell viability in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to microgravity for 24 h and delayed muscle atrophy in sciatic denervated mice. However, the expressions of HSP70, SOD1, and ceramide in microgravity-exposed C2C12 myoblasts and in sciatic denervated mice were either decreased or completely inhibited. These results suggested that EVP can be expected to have a positive effect on muscle atrophy by disuse and microgravity. In addition, EVP helped characterize the antioxidant function in muscle atrophy.

  20. Effect of Oenothera odorata Root Extract on Microgravity and Disuse-Induced Muscle Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hyeon; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Park, Ji-Hyung; Kabayama, Kazuya; Opitz, Joerg; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2015-01-01

    Muscle atrophy, a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and volume, results from reduced muscle use and plays a key role in various muscular diseases. In the microgravity environment of space especially, muscle atrophy is induced by muscle inactivity. Exposure to microgravity induces muscle atrophy through several biological effects, including associations with reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study used 3D-clinostat to investigate muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress in vitro, and sciatic denervation was used to investigate muscle atrophy in vivo. We assessed the effect of Oenothera odorata root extract (EVP) on muscle atrophy. EVP helped recover cell viability in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to microgravity for 24 h and delayed muscle atrophy in sciatic denervated mice. However, the expressions of HSP70, SOD1, and ceramide in microgravity-exposed C2C12 myoblasts and in sciatic denervated mice were either decreased or completely inhibited. These results suggested that EVP can be expected to have a positive effect on muscle atrophy by disuse and microgravity. In addition, EVP helped characterize the antioxidant function in muscle atrophy.

  1. Effect of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. fruit extract on cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megala, Jayaraman; Geetha, Arumugam

    2015-10-01

    The edible fruits of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. are traditionally used for various gastric complications in India. Here, we investigated the antiulcer activity of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of P. dulce (HAEPD) by applying cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in rats. Duodenal ulcer was induced in male albino Wistar rats by oral administration of cysteamine @ 420 mg/kg body wt. as a single dose. The rats were pre-administered orally with HAEPD @ 200 mg/kg body wt. for 30 days prior to ulcer induction. Rats pre-administered with ranitidine @ 30 mg/kg body wt. served as reference drug control. Ulcer score, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glycoproteins, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were measured in the duodenum. Rats pre-administered with the HAEPD showed significantly reduced ulcer score comparable to that of ranitidine pretreated rats. The co-administration of HAEPD lowered the TBARS level and also restored the levels of glycoproteins, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological observations confirmed the presence of inflammation, necrosis and hemorrhagic spots in the duodenum of ulcer control rats which were significantly reduced due to HAEPD treatment. No abnormal alterations were observed in normal rats treated with HAEPD at the dosage studied. The results demonstrated antioxidant and cytoprotective nature of P. dulce, and thereby its significant anti ulcer property.

  2. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice

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    V. Tangpu

    2014-06-01

    Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice, using four experimental models, i.e. measurement of faecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 enteropooling assay and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100 and ndash;3200 mg/kg. In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrhoeal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhoea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared to 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard anti-diarrhoeal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for the protection from diarrhoea. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 103-108

  3. Huaier Extract Induces Autophagic Cell Death by Inhibiting the mTOR/S6K Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells.

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    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Huaier extract is attracting increased attention due to its biological activities, including antitumor, anti-parasite and immunomodulatory effects. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy in Huaier-induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Huaier treatment inhibited cell viability in all three cell lines and induced various large membranous vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In addition, electron microscopy, MDC staining, accumulated expression of autophagy markers and flow cytometry revealed that Huaier extract triggered autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy attenuated Huaier-induced cell death. Furthermore, Huaier extract inhibited the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR/S6K pathway in breast cancer cells. After implanting MDA-MB-231 cells subcutaneously into the right flank of BALB/c nu/nu mice, Huaier extract induced autophagy and effectively inhibited xenograft tumor growth. This study is the first to show that Huaier-induced cytotoxicity is partially mediated through autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells through suppression of the mTOR/S6K pathway.

  4. Ethanolic Extract of Marsdenia condurango Ameliorates Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Lung Cancer of Rats

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    Sikdar Sourav

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Condurango is widely used in various systems of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM against oesophageal and stomach ailments including certain types of cancer. However, until now no systematic study has been conducted to verify its efficacy and dose with proper experimental support. Therefore, we examined if ethanolic extract of Condurango could ameliorate benzo[a]pyrene (BaP-induced lung cancer in rats, in vivo to validate its use as traditional medicine. Methods:Fifteen male and 15 female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV (high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results:A histological study revealed gradual progress in lung tissue-repair activity in Condurango-fed cancer-bearing rats, showing gradual tissue recovery after three months of drug administration. Condurango has the capacity to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS, which may contribute to a reduction in anti-oxidative activity and to an induction of oxidative stress-mediated cancer cell-death. Condurango-activated pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, p53, cytochrome-c, apaf-1, ICAD and PARP and down-regulated antiapoptotic-Bcl-2 expression were noted both at mRNA and protein levels. Studies on caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage by western blot analysis revealed that Condurango induced apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway. Conclusion:The anticancer efficacy of an ethanolic extract of Condurango for treating BaP-induced lung cancer in rats lends support for its use in various traditional

  5. The protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract against histopathological changes induced by Malayan cobra (Naja sputatrix) venom in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, S Y; Tan, N H; Liew, S H; Sim, S M; Aguiyi, J C

    2009-04-01

    Seed of Mucuna pruriens (Velvet beans) has been prescribed by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria as a prophylactic oral antisnake remedy. In the present studies, we investigated the protective effects of M. pruriens seed extract (MPE) against histopathological changes induced by intravenous injection of Naja sputatrix (Malayan cobra) venom in rats pretreated with the seed extract. Examination by light microscope revealed that the venom induced histopathological changes in heart and blood vessels in liver, but no effect on brain, lung, kidney and spleen. The induced changes were prevented by pretreatment of the rats with MPE. Our results suggest that MPE pretreatment protects rat heart and liver blood vessels against cobra venom-induced damages.

  6. Modulatory Effect of Methanol Extract of Piper guineense in CCl₄-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Osunsanmi, Foluso Oluwagbemiga; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2017-08-24

    This study seeks to investigate the possible protective role of the methanol extract of Piper guineense seeds against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in an animal model. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering oral doses of CCl₄ (1.2 g/kg bw) three times a week for three weeks. Group 1 (Control) and Group 2 (CCl₄) were left untreated; Piper guineense (PG; 400 mg/kg bw) was administered to Group 3 (T₁) by oral gavage for 14 days prior to the administration of CCl₄ and simultaneously with CCl₄; PG (400 mg/kg bw) was administered simultaneously with CCl₄ in Group 4 (T₂); and Livolin forte (20 mg/kg bw) was administered simultaneously with CCl₄ in Group 5 (T₃), the standard drug group. The administration of CCl₄ induces histopathological alteration in the liver, with concomitant increased activities of serum hepatic marker enzymes associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Similarly, there was decrease in non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione) and enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione S-transferase), superoxide dismutase, and catalase. An elevation in serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels was noticed along with decreased levels of serum total protein. Treatment with PG 400 mg/kg bw exhibited excellent modulatory activity with respect to the different parameters studied by reversing all the above-mentioned biochemical changes significantly in the experimental animals. These results suggest that PG offered protection comparable to that of Livolin forte with better efficacy when pre-treated with 400 mg/kg bw 14 days prior to CCl₄-exposure.

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extract from Berchemia lineate against CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Yi, Li-Tao; Geng, Di; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Weng, Lian-Jin

    2015-05-01

    The roots of Berchemia lineate (L.) DC. (Rhamnaceae) have been long used as a remedy for the treatment of some diseases in Guangxi Province, China. The present study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of Berchemia lineate ethanol extract (BELE) on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice. Effect of BELE administrated for 7 consecutive days was evaluated in mice by the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), albulin (ALB), globulin (GLB), and total protein (TP) levels, as well as liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Moreover, histopathological examinations were also taken. Compared with the model group, administration of 400 mg/kg BELE for 7 d in mice significantly decreased the serum ALT (56.25 U/L), AST (297.67 U/L), ALP (188.20 U/L), and TBIL (17.90 mol/L), along with the elevation of TP (64.67 g/L). In addition, BELE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, i.g.) treated mice recorded a dose-dependent increment of SOD (291.17, 310.32, and 325.67 U/mg prot) and reduction of MDA (7.27, 6.77, and 5.33 nmol/mg prot) levels. Histopathological examinations also confirmed that BELE can ameliorate CCl4-induced liver injuries, characterized by extensive hepatocellular degeneration/necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, congestion, and sinusoidal dilatation. The results indicated that BELE possessed remarkable protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity and oxidative injuries induced by CCl4, and that the hepatoprotective effects of BELE may be due to both the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the increase of antioxidant activity.

  8. Andrographis paniculata leaf extract prevents thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats.

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    Daleya Abdulaziz Bardi

    Full Text Available This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg. Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson's Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed

  9. Andrographis paniculata leaf extract prevents thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Rouhollahi, Elham; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP) on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control) or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis) three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg) or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg). Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson's Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed to result from

  10. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PUNICA GRANATUM FLOWER ON BIOMARKERS AND ECG CHANGES IN ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib N.A; Patel Jignesh; Medi Swathi

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Punica granatum flower (PG) against isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by studying cardiac markers and electrocardiographic changes. MI was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of ISO (150mg/kg b.w) at an interval of 24 hours for 2 days. ISO treated rats showed significant increase in cardiac markers such as Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Creatine kinase (CK-MB), Alanine aminotransfer...

  11. Melted Paraffin Wax as an Innovative Liquid and Solid Extractant for Elemental Analysis by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papai, Rodrigo; Sato, Roseli Hiromi; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Krug, Francisco José; Gaubeur, Ivanise

    2017-03-07

    This work proposes a new development in the use of melted paraffin wax as a new extractant in a procedure designed to aggregate the advantages of liquid phase extraction (extract homogeneity, fast, and efficient transfer, low cost and simplicity) to solid phase extraction. As proof of concept, copper(II) in aqueous samples was converted into a hydrophobic complex of copper(II) diethyldithiocarbamate and subsequently extracted into paraffin wax. Parameters which affect the complexation and extraction (pH, DDTC, and Triton X-100 concentration, vortex agitation time and complexation time) were optimized in a univariate way. The combination of the extraction proposed procedure with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy allowed the precise copper determination (coefficient of variation = 3.1%, n = 10) and enhanced detectability because of the concentration factor of 18 times. A calibration curve was obtained with a linear range of 0.50-10.00 mg L -1 (R 2 = 0.9990, n = 7), LOD = 0.12 mg L -1 , and LOQ = 0.38 mg L -1 under optimized conditions. An extraction procedure efficiency of 94% was obtained. The accuracy of the method was confirmed through the analysis of a reference material of human blood serum, by the spike and recovery trials with seawater, tap water, mineral water, and alcoholic beverages and by comparing with those results obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  12. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Mohammadian, Maryam; Dianat, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanin trasaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined. Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP. Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:23115450

  13. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

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    Akram Ahangarpour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI, serum triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, alanin trasaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined.Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP.Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome.

  14. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A HYPOGLYCEMIC EXTRACT FROM CUCURBITA FICIFOLIA BOUCHE THAT INDUCES LIVER GLYCOGEN ACCUMULATION IN DIABETIC MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica, Garcia Gonzalez; Mario, Garcia Lorenzana; Alejandro, Zamilpa; Cesar, Almanza Perez Julio; Ivan, Jasso Villagomez E; Ruben, Roman Ramos; Javier, Alarcon-Aguilar Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia ( C. ficifolia ) fruit has demonstrated hypoglycemic effect, which may be attributed to some components in the extract. However, the major secondary metabolites in this fruit have not yet been identified and little is known about its extra-pancreatic action, in particular, on liver carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, in addition to the isolation and structural elucidation of the principal components in the aqueous extract of C. ficifolia , the aim of this study was to determine whether or not the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia ( C. ficifolia ) fruit is due to accumulation of liver glycogen in diabetic mice. The aqueous extract from fruit of C. ficifolia was fractionated and its main secondary metabolites were purified and chemically characterized (NMR and GC-MS). Alloxan-induced diabetic mice received daily by gavage the aqueous extract (30 days). The liver glycogen content was quantified by spectroscopic method and by PAS stain; ALT and AST by spectrometric method; glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase and GLUT2 by Western blot; the mRNA expression of GLUT2 and glucagon-receptor by RT-PCR; while serum insulin was quantified by ELISA method. A liver histological analysis was also performed by H&E stain. Chemical fingerprint showed five majoritarian compounds in the aqueous extract of C. ficifolia : p -coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicin, stigmast-7,2,2-dien-3-ol and stigmast-7-en-3-ol. The histological analysis showed accumulation of liver glycogen. Also, increased glycogen synthase and decreased glycogen phosphorylase were observed. Interestingly, the histological architecture evidenced a liver-protective effect due the extract. Five compounds were identified in C. ficifolia aqueous extract. The hypoglycemic effect of this extract may be partially explained by liver glycogen accumulation. The bioactive compound responsible for the hypoglycemic effect of this extract will be

  15. Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 possesses high lipolytic activity in solid-state fermentation in comparison with submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadirci, Bilge Hilal; Yasa, Ihsan; Kocyigit, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a bioprocess that doesn't need an excess of free water, and it offers potential benefits for microbial cultivation for bioprocesses and product development. In comparing the antibiotic production, few detailed reports could be found with lipolytic enzyme production by Streptomycetes in SSF. Taking this knowledge into consideration, we prefer to purify Actinomycetes species as a new source for lipase production. The lipase-producing strain Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 was isolated from soil and lipase production was managed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in comparison with submerged fermentation (SmF). Bioprocess-affecting factors like initial moisture content, incubation time, and various carbon and nitrogen additives and the other enzymes secreted into the media were optimized. Lipase activity was measured as 1.74 ± 0.0005 U/g dry substrate (gds) by the p-nitrophenylpalmitate (pNPP) method on day 6 of fermentation with 71.43% final substrate moisture content. In order to understand the metabolic priority in SSF, cellulase and xylanase activity of Streptomyces sp. TEM33 was also measured. The microorganism degrades the wheat bran to its usable form by excreting cellulases and xylanases; then it secretes the lipase that is necessary for degrading the oil in the medium.

  16. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effect of Fagonia cretica L. methanolic extract and Citrus paradise Macfad. juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits

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    Sairah H. Kamran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fagonia cretica is a medicinal herb reported to have flavanoids of potential therapeutic value and Citrus paradisi is a fruit, whose juice is of great therapeutic value due to its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Aims: To determine anti-hyperglycemic and renal protective effect of methanolic extract of Fagonia cretica and Citrus paradisi juice (grapefruit juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Methods: Diabetes was induced in rabbits by alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg, i.p.. The therapies including Fagonia cretica methanolic extract (500 mg/kg, Citrus paradisi juice (7 mL/kg and sitagliptin (10 mg/kg were administered (p.o. to diabetic groups for 14 days. The biochemical parameters, glucose, creatinine, urea, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, globulins and albumin/globulin ratio were estimated. Results: Fagonia cretica extract and grapefruit juice therapy significantly (p<0.05 reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. Fagonia cretica extract was more effective anti-hyperglycemic agent than Citrus paradisi juice and sitagliptin. Significant (p<0.05 improvement in kidney function was observed in treated groups, the plant extract showing significant improvement as compared to the other two treatments. The histopathological results verified improvement in structural damage of kidney, liver and pancreas with these treatments. Conclusions: Fagonica cretica and Citrus paradisi juice therapy markedly improved hyperglycemia and kidney functions in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  17. Effect of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaves extract on blood glucose and plasma lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Xue Tong; Zhang, Hai Yan; Yao, Hui Yuan; Zhang, Hui

    2010-08-09

    To investigate the hypoglycemic effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaves (VBTL) extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. After administration of VBTL extract for 4 weeks, the body weight, organ weight, blood glucose (BG), insulin and plasma lipid levels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were measured. Body weights of diabetic mice treated with VBTL extract were partly recovered. The BG levels of AEG (diabetic mice treated with VBTL aqueous extract) were reduced to 91.52 and 85.82% at week 2 and week 4, respectively (P0.05). The insulin levels of AEG and EEG were obviously higher (P<0.05) than those of MC (diabetic mice in model control group). Comparing with MC, AEG and EEG had significantly lower (P<0.05) TC or TG levels and similar HDL-cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol levels. In comparison with non-diabetic control mice, AEG had similar plasma lipid levels except higher LDL-cholesterol level, while EEG had higher TC, TG and LDL-cholesterol levels and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Both aqueous and ethanolic extract of VBTL possess a potential hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

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    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  19. Effect of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α on Early Healing in Extraction Sockets

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    Hyun-Chang Lim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A on the early healing (4 weeks of extraction sockets exhibiting partial loss of the labial bone. Two extraction sockets of the maxillary incisors from each of six dogs were assigned to two treatment modalities: deproteinized bovine bone mineral (i with 10% collagen (DBBM-C soaked with HIF1A and covered by a collagen membrane (CM (HIF group or (ii treated with DBBM-C only and covered by a CM (control group. Microcomputed tomography revealed some degree of collapse of the labial contour. The totally augmented volume and new bone volume did not differ significantly between two groups (P>0.05. The histological analysis revealed that the apical area of the socket was mostly filled with newly formed bone, while there was less newly formed bone in the coronal area and incomplete cortex formation. The histomorphometric analysis revealed that the area of newly formed bone was significantly larger in the HIF group than the control group (12.16±3.04 versus 9.48±2.01 mm2, P<0.05, while there was no significant intergroup difference in the total augmented area. In conclusion, even though DBBM-C soaked with HIF1A enhanced histomorphometric bone formation, this intervention did not demonstrate superiority in preventing ridge shrinkage compared to DBBM-C alone. Clinical relevance of these findings should be further studied.

  20. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  1. Radioprotective potential of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against hematological alterations induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Inder; Soyal, Dhanraj; Goyal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the era of expending nuclear energy program all over the world, the role of radiation biology has acquired greater relevance and significance in addressing the health issues in view of constant human exposure to various types of radiations. Radioprotective drugs hold immense promise for saving precious human lives in from irradiation in various situations. Currently available synthetic radiomudulators is fraught with their inherent toxicity at the optimum dose and hence the need to discover and develop new more effective less toxic radiomudulatory drugs from natural sources. In the present study, the protective effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EOFE) has been assessed by estimating hematological constituents against irradiation. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups. Group I was administered with double distilled water (DDW) volume equal to EOFE (100 mg./kg. body wt./animal/clay) by oral gavages to serve as normal. Group II was administered orally EOFE for 7 days once daily at a does of 100 mg./kg.b. wt./animal/day, Group Ill animals were exposed to 2.5 Gy gamma radiations to serve as irradiated control. Group IV mice were treated with EOFE, orally for consecutive days (as in Group II) and were exposed to 2.5 Gy gamma rays half an hr. after the last administration of EOFE on day 7th. The above animals were necropsied on 12 hr, 24 hr, 3 days, 5 days, 10 days, 20 days and 30 days post treatment intervals, and their blood was collected for estimation of blood constituents. A significant decline in RBC, hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) contents from normal was observed in irradiated control animals (Group III). All these parameters were found to be significantly higher in EOFE pretreated irradiated animals (Group IV). From these results, it is concluded that Emblica officinalis fruit extract has the ability to protect the individuals from radiation-induced hematological injuries. (author)

  2. The effect of pomegranate fruit extract on testosterone-induced BPH in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Amr E; Esmat, Ahmed; Hassona, Mohammed D H; Tadros, Mariane G; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Guns, Emma S Tomlinson

    2015-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affects many men after the age of 50 years. Inflammation and oxidative stress along with apoptotic changes are thought to play an important role in the pathology of BPH. Pomegranate contains a variety of polyphenolic compounds that have been studied in a medley of diseases for their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties. Therefore, this study examined the effect of Pomegranate Fruit Extract (PFE) on the development of BPH using a testosterone-induced BPH model in rats. A total of 48 rats were randomly divided into six groups of eight, one group served as the control, BPH was induced by testosterone 3 mg/kg S.C. daily in four groups, three of them received PFE by oral gavage daily at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg respectively, while one group received PFE at a dose of 50 mg/kg without induction of BPH. PFE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was the most effective in decreasing testosterone-induced increase in prostate weight, prostate weight/body weight ratio, and PAP levels by 30.8%, 55%, and 68% respectively and in preventing the accompanying histological changes. In the BPH model, testosterone significantly decreased GSH, SOD, and CAT to 0.45, 0.64, and 0.88 of the control group values respectively, and significantly increased MDA by >6-fold. In combination with testosterone, PFE dosed at 100 mg/kg significantly increased GSH, SOD, and CAT to 0.83, 0.92, and 0.93 of the control group values respectively, whereas MDA was significantly decreased by 72% compared with the testosterone treated group. In addition to this, at the range of doses studied, PFE lowered COX-II, iNOS, Ki-67 expression, and increased apoptotic index. The current findings elucidate the effectiveness of PFE in preventing testosterone-induced BPH in rats. This could be attributed, at least partly, to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-apoptotic properties. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris protects against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yue-hua; Yang, Chuan-hua; Li, Wei; Wu, Sai; Meng, Xian-qing; Li, Dong-na

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the role of aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris (TT) against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) dysfunction in vitro. HUVECs were pre-incubated for 60 min with TT (30 and 3 μg/mL respectively) or 10(-5) mol/L valsartan (as positive controls) and then the injured endothelium model was established by applying 100 μg/mL ox-LDL for 24 h. Cell viability of HUVECs was observed by real-time cell electronic sensing assay and apoptosis rate by Annexin V/PI staining. The cell migration assay was performed with a transwell insert system. Cytoskeleton remodeling was observed by immunofluorescence assay. The content of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometer. Key genes associated with the metabolism of ox-LDL were chosen for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to explore the possible mechanism of TT against oxidized LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. TT suppressed ox-LDL-induced HUVEC proliferation and apoptosis rates significantly (41.1% and 43.5% after treatment for 3 and 38 h, respectively; P<0.05). It also prolonged the HUVEC survival time and postponed the cell's decaying stage (from the 69th h to over 100 h). According to the immunofluorescence and transwell insert system assay, TT improved the endothelial cytoskeletal network, and vinculin expression and increased cell migration. Additionally, TT regulated of the synthesis of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (P<0.05). Both 30 and 3 μg/mL TT demonstrated similar efficacy to valsartan. TT normalized the increased mRNA expression of PI3Kα and Socs3. It also decreased mRNA expression of Akt1, AMPKα1, JAK2, LepR and STAT3 induced by ox-LDL. The most notable changes were JAK2, LepR, PI3Kα, Socs3 and STAT3. TT

  4. Onion and garlic extracts as potential antidotes for cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in prostate glands of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola-Mudathir, F K; Suru, S M

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been implicated in increased prostate gland malignancy risk in both wildlife and humans. This study examines the chemoprotective roles of onion and garlic extracts on Cd-induced biochemical alterations in the prostate glands of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups: control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd alone (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day); extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bwt per day) for 1 week and then co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day) for additional 3 weeks. Oxidant/antioxidant status and acid phosphatase (ACPtotal and ACPprostatic ) activity were examined in prostate glands. Cd intoxication caused a marked (P garlic extract significantly minimised these alterations. The onion extract offered a dose-dependent protection. Our findings suggest a chemoprotective capability for onion and garlic extracts against Cd-induced biochemical alteration in the prostate glands. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

    2010-11-25

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum γ-Glutamyl transferase (γGT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities when compared with the group administered the toxin alone. In addition, treatments of the animals with aqueous or ethanolic extract of O. basilicum before the administration of sodium arsenite resulted in the attenuation of the sodium arsenite-induced aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities: ALT (from 282.6% to 167.7% and 157.8%), AST (from 325.1% to 173.5% and 164.2%) for the group administered sodium arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium arsenite respectively, expressed as percentage of the negative control. These findings support the presence of hepatoprotective activity in the O.basilicum extracts.

  6. Molecular alterations of tropoelastin and proteoglycans induced by tobacco smoke extracts and ultraviolet A in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Lei; Morita, Akimichi; Tsuji, Takuo

    2002-01-01

    Functional integrity of normal skin is dependent on the balance between the biosynthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, primarily composed of collagen, elastin and proteoglycans. In our previous studies, we found that tobacco smoke extracts decreased expressions of type I and III procollagen and induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in the cultured skin fibroblasts. We here further investigated the effects of tobacco smoke extracts or ultraviolet A (UVA) treatments on the expression of tropoelastin (soluble elastin protein), and versican and decorin (proteoglycans) in cultured skin fibroblasts. The mRNA of tropoelastin increased by tobacco smoke extracts or UVA irradiation. Versican was markedly shown to decrease after these treatments by using western blotting and the mRNA of versican V0 also significantly decreased. UVA treatment did not show remarkable change in decorin protein, but resulted in marked decrease of decorin D1 mRNA. In contrast to UVA irradiation, the treatments of tobacco smoke extracts resulted in significant increase in decorin, while mRNA of decorin D1 decreased as compared to the control. MMP-7 increased after the treatment of tobacco smoke extracts or UVA. These results indicated that common molecular features might underlie the skin premature aging induced by tobacco smoke extracts and UVA, including abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix deposition through elevated MMPs, reduced collagen production, abnormal tropoelastin accumulation, and altered proteoglycans. (author)

  7. Molecular alterations of tropoelastin and proteoglycans induced by tobacco smoke extracts and ultraviolet A in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Lei; Morita, Akimichi; Tsuji, Takuo [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    2002-02-01

    Functional integrity of normal skin is dependent on the balance between the biosynthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, primarily composed of collagen, elastin and proteoglycans. In our previous studies, we found that tobacco smoke extracts decreased expressions of type I and III procollagen and induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in the cultured skin fibroblasts. We here further investigated the effects of tobacco smoke extracts or ultraviolet A (UVA) treatments on the expression of tropoelastin (soluble elastin protein), and versican and decorin (proteoglycans) in cultured skin fibroblasts. The mRNA of tropoelastin increased by tobacco smoke extracts or UVA irradiation. Versican was markedly shown to decrease after these treatments by using western blotting and the mRNA of versican V0 also significantly decreased. UVA treatment did not show remarkable change in decorin protein, but resulted in marked decrease of decorin D1 mRNA. In contrast to UVA irradiation, the treatments of tobacco smoke extracts resulted in significant increase in decorin, while mRNA of decorin D1 decreased as compared to the control. MMP-7 increased after the treatment of tobacco smoke extracts or UVA. These results indicated that common molecular features might underlie the skin premature aging induced by tobacco smoke extracts and UVA, including abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix deposition through elevated MMPs, reduced collagen production, abnormal tropoelastin accumulation, and altered proteoglycans. (author)

  8. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis. GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature, could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.

  9. Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) standardized extract: a potential pharmacological tool to diet-induced metabolic syndrome damage management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pathise Souto; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Bona, Natália Pontes; Soares, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira; Cardoso, Juliane de Souza; Vasconcellos, Flávia Aleixo; Tavares, Rejane Giacomelli; Vizzotto, Marcia; Silva, Luísa Mariano Cerqueira da; Grecco, Fabiane Borelli; Gamaro, Giovana Duzzo; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Lencina, Claiton Leoneti; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Stefanello, Francieli Moro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) extract on metabolic status, as well as on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in an animal model of metabolic syndrome induced by a highly palatable diet (HPD). Rats were treated for 150days and divided into 4 experimental groups: standard chow (SC) and water orally, SC and E. uniflora extract (200mg/kg daily, p.o), HPD and water orally, HPD and extract. Our data showed that HPD caused glucose intolerance, increased visceral fat, weight gain, as well as serum glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol; however, E. uniflora prevented these alterations. The extract decreased lipid peroxidation and prevented the reduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum of animals submitted to HPD. We observed a HPD-induced reduction of thiol content in these cerebral structures. The extract prevented increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the prefrontal cortex caused by HPD and the increase in immobility time observed in the forced swim test. Regarding chemical composition, LC/MS analysis showed the presence of nine anthocyanins as the major compounds. In conclusion, E. uniflora extract showed benefits against metabolic alterations caused by HPD, as well as exhibited antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (red blood cell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar; Gautam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated and compared in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property of the grape extracts of four different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (p<0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly among extracts of any cultivar. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy γ-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. (author)

  11. Possible anti-diarrhoeal potential of ethanol leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata in castor oil-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba, Patrick Emeka; Joshua, Parker Elija; Ezeonuogu, Francis Chimaobi; Ezeja, Maxwell Ikechukwu; Omoja, Valentine Uneojo; Umeakuana, Paschal Ugochukwu

    2015-12-01

    Chromolaena odorata is a plant commonly used traditionally to treat ailments including diarrhoea in Nigeria. The ethanol leaf extract of C. odorata was studied for its anti-diarrhoeal activity using electrolyte test and castor oil-induced diarrhoea rats' models. Acute toxicity effect of the extract was also evaluated. The extract showed a dose-dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhoea at the tested doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weights). The protection offered by pretreatment with 400 mg/kg body weight of the ethanol leaf extract of C. odorata with regards to reductions in the incidences of faecal wetness and rate of defaecations were statistically comparable to that achieved with Lomotil, a known anti-diarrhoeic drug. The result of the electrolyte test showed that the extract pretreated groups had significantly (p<0.05) lower potassium and sodium ions in their intestinal fluid when compared with the diarrhoeic untreated controls. This is well tolerated. The results indicate that the ethanol leaf extract of C. odorata is safe and possesses anti-diarrhoeal activity with electrolyte reabsorption proposed as the possible mechanism of action.

  12. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin André Jurgen; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...

  13. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  14. Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, induces human hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, performs immunomodulatory activity on cancer patients suffering from radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The present study aims to investigate the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects of CSEI in cells and tumor-xenografted mouse models. In HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, CSEI reduced cell viability, enhanced apoptosis rate, caused reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, inhibited migration ability, and induced caspases cascade and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. CSEI significantly inhibited HepG2-xenografted tumor growth in nude mice. In cell and animal experiments, CSEI increased the activations of pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase 8, caspase 9 and caspase 3; meanwhile, it suppressed the expressions of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and anti-oxidation proteins, such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 and catalase (CAT. The enhanced phosphorylation of P38 and c-JunN-terminalkinase (JNK, and decreased phosphorylation of extra cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERKs were observed in CSEI-treated cells and tumor tissues. CSEI-induced cell viability reduction was significantly attenuated by N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (a ROS inhibitor pretreatment. All data demonstrated that the upregulated oxidative stress status and the altered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs phosphorylation contributed to CSEI-driven mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, CSEI exactly induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  15. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (Linn. flower against acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppan Nithianantham

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea (C. ternatea flower extract against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Methods: The antioxidant property of C. ternatea flower extract was investigated by employing established in vitro antioxidant assay. The C. ternatea flower extract was studied in this work for its hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, billirubin and glutathione with histopathological analysis. Results: The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 105.40依2.47 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 72.21依0.05 mg/g catechin equivalent respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea flower extract was 68.9% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC 50 value of 327.00 µg/mL. The results of acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiment showed that mice treated with the extract (200 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione was found to be restored in extract treated animals compared to the groups treated with acetaminophen alone (P<0.05. Therapy of extract also showed its protective effect on histopathological alterations and supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: The present work confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea flower against model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen.

  16. Panax ginseng extract attenuates neuronal injury and cognitive deficits in rats with vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-De Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant. Panax ginseng extract has numerous biological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antistress activities. Panax ginseng extract also has a cognition-enhancing effect in rats with alcohol-induced memory impairment. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a well-known model of vascular dementia. The rats were then intragastrically administered 50 or 100 mg/kg Panax ginseng extract. Morris water maze and balance beam tests were used to evaluate memory deficits and motor function, respectively. Protein quantity was used to evaluate cholinergic neurons. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. Western blot assay was used to evaluate protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, Bcl-2 and Bax. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract for 8 weeks significantly improved behavioral function and increased neuronal density and VEGF and bFGF protein expression in the hippocampal CA3 area. Furthermore, Panax ginseng extract reduced the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive cells, and it decreased apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2 and downregulating Bax protein expression. The effect of Panax ginseng extract was dose-dependent and similar to that of nimodipine, a commonly used drug for the treatment of vascular dementia. These findings suggest that Panax ginseng extract is neuroprotective against vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and therefore might have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating the disease.

  17. Effects of grape pomace antioxidant extract on oxidative stress and inflammation in diet induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-11-10

    Norton grape is one of the most important wine grapes in Southern and Midwestern states and generates massive pomace byproducts. The objective of this study is to characterize the antioxidant compounds and activity in Norton grape pomace extract (GPE) and further assess the potential health promoting properties of Norton GPE using an animal disease model. The total phenolic content and anthocyanins in Norton GPE were 475.4 mg of gallic acid equiv/g and 156.9 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equiv/g, respectively. Catechin and epicatechin in GPE were 28.6 and 24.5 mg/g, respectively. Other major antioxidants in GPE included quercetin (1.6 mg/g), trans-resveratrol (60 μg/g), gallic acid (867.2 μg/g), coutaric acid (511.8 μg/g), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (408.3 μg/g), and protocatechuic acid (371.5 μg/g). The antioxidant activity of GPE was evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and was 4133 μmol of Trolox equiv/g. Male diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a normal diet (ND group), a high fat diet (HF group), and the high fat diet supplemented with GPE (HFGPE group). After 12-week treatment, mice in the high fat diet groups gained 29% more weight than the ND group. The GPE supplementation (estimated 250 mg/kg bw/d) lowered plasma C-reactive protein levels by 15.5% in the high fat diet fed mice (P < 0.05), suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect by dietary GPE. However, dietary GPE did not improve oxidative stress in DIO mice as determined by plasma ORAC, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. The results showed that GPE contained significant antioxidants and dietary GPE exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in diet induced obesity.

  18. Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Azime, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential

  19. Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.-C.; Huang, H.-P.; Hsu, J.-D.; Yang, S.-F.; Wang, C.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant activity and liver protection. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of HAs on human cancer cells. The result showed that HAs could cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in HL-60 cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that HAs treatment (0-4 mg/ml) markedly induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The result also revealed increased phosphorylation in p38 and c-Jun, cytochrome c release, and expression of tBid, Fas, and FasL in the HAs-treated HL-60 cells. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI-3K inhibitor) to evaluate their effect on the HAs-induced HL-60 death. The data showed that only SB203580 had strong potential in inhibiting HL-60 cell apoptosis and related protein expression and phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggested that HAs mediated HL-60 apoptosis via the p38-FasL and Bid pathway. According to these results, HAs could be developed as chemopreventive agents. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed

  20. Photoprotection of Buddleja cordata extract against UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Acevedo, José Guillermo; Espinosa González, Adriana Montserrat; De Maria y Campos, Diana Matamoros; Benitez Flores, José del Carmen; Hernández Delgado, Tzasna; Flores Maya, Saul; Campos Contreras, Jorge; Muñoz López, José Luis; García Bores, Ana María

    2014-08-03

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using botanical agents to prevent skin damage resulting from solar UV-irradiation. Buddleja cordata is a plant that is known as "tepozan". Some people in Mexico use the leaves of this plant to treat tumours, abscesses, sores and burns. The purpose of this study is to investigate the photoprotective properties of Buddleja cordata methanolic extract (BCME) against UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice at the macroscopic and histological levels. BCME was characterised to determine its spectroscopic, chromatographic and antioxidant (DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals) properties. To conduct the photoprotection studies, BCME was applied topically to the skin of SKH-1 mice before acute exposure to UVB for 10 minutes. The murine skin samples were used for macroscopic and histological studies to assess tissue damage. Penetration of active components of BCME into stratum corneum on the dorsal area of mice was investigated in vivo by the tape stripping method. Moreover, genotoxicity of BCME was evaluated in a Vicia faba cell root micronucleus model. BCME displayed absorbance over the entire UVB spectrum, and its principal components included verbascoside and linarin. BCME exhibited antioxidant activity and significantly scavenged hydroxyl radicals. BCME reduced erythema, sunburn cell production, vessel congestion and epidermal thickening of UVB irradiated mouse skin. BCME penetrate the skin of mice. BCME did not exhibit genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. The topical administration of BCME protected against acute UVB-induced damage in mouse SKH-1 skin, and our results suggest that BCME may potentially prevent photodamage.

  1. Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El Azime, A S [Radiation Biology Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential

  2. Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zahra Bathaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract (SAE on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.

  3. Eucommia leaf extract (ELE) prevents OVX-induced osteoporosis and obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenping; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Mizuno, Kaito; Ishida, Torao; Ooi, Kazuya; Hirata, Tetsuya; Wada, Atsunori

    2012-01-01

    The cortex of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver is widely used to treat kidney deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine. Its leaves have recently been reported to have anti-obesity properties in metabolic syndrome-like rat models. Due to a sharp decline in estrogen production, obesity, together with osteoporosis, are common problems in postmenopausal women. In this study, we examined the potential effect of Eucommia leaf extract (ELE) in preventing osteoporosis and obesity induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Forty-six female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: Sham-Cont, OVX-Cont, and four OVX groups administered estradiol and different concentrations of ELE 1.25%, ELE 2.5%, and ELE 5%. Treatments were administered after ovariectomy at six weeks of age and continued for 12 weeks. OVX induced a significant decrease in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar, femora, and tibiae, together with a marked increase in body mass index (BMI). The administration of 5% ELE led to a significant increase in tibial and femoral BMD, as well as significantly increased bone-strength parameters when compared with OVX-Cont rats. According to the suppressed Dpd and increased osteocalcin concentrations in ELE 5% rats, we suggest that varying proportions of bone formation and bone absorption contributed to the enhanced BMD in the femora and tibiae. In addition, significant decreases in body weight, BMI and fat tissue in 5% ELE rats were also observed. These results suggest that ELE may have curative properties for BMD and BMI in OVX rats, and could provide an alternative therapy for the prevention of both postmenopausal osteoporosis and obesity.

  4. Effect of Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum ethanol extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaydin Yildirim, Betul; Kordali, Saban; Terim Kapakin, Kubra Asena; Yildirim, Fatih; Aktas Senocak, Esra; Altun, Serdar

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic or protective effects of Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum ethanol extract (HPE) against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Thirty-six Sprague Dawley male rats weighing between 200 and 250 g were used as live material. They were formed into six groups containing 6 rats each and were allowed to adapt to laboratory conditions for 7 d. Group I: control, 5% DMSO intraperitoneal (i.p.); Group II: HPE 100 mg/(kg·d) i.p.; Group III: HPE 200 mg/(kg·d) i.p.; Group IV: gentamicin as 80 mg/(kg·d) i.p.; Group V: gentamicin as 80 mg/(kg·d) i.p.+HPE 100 mg/(kg·d) i.p.; and Group VI: gentamicin as 80 mg/(kg·d) i.p.+HPE 200 mg/(kg·d) i.p. for 8 d. Following treatment, serum, liver, and kidney tissues were used to assess blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation. Gentamicin significantly increased serum BUN, creatinin, and liver and kidney levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). It also decreased the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Treatment with the HPE 100 mg/kg reversed gentamicin-induced alterations as evidenced by decreased serum BUN and creatinin, liver and kidney oxidant marker, and tubular necrosis as well as by an increase in antioxidant enzymes. It was found that HPE 200 mg/kg significantly increased liver and kidney tissue MDA levels in nephrotoxicity in rats. As a result, these findings support the proposition that HPE in 100 mg/kg dose demonstrates in the kidney and liver as free radicals and scavenger to prevent the toxic effects of gentamicin in both the biochemical and histopathology parameters.

  5. Prevention of experimentally-induced gastric ulcers in rats by an ethanolic extract of "Parsley" Petroselinum crispum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; El-Tahir, Kamal; Rafatullah, Syed

    2003-01-01

    An ethanolic extract of Parsley, Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym.ex A.W. Hill (Umbelliferae), was tested for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, indomethacin and cytodestructive agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) in rats. The extract in doses of 1 and 2 g/kg body weight had a significant antiulcerogenic activity on the models used. Besides, ethanol-induced depleted gastric wall mucus and non-protein sulfhydryl contents were replenished by pretreatment with Parsley extract. Acute toxicity tests showed a large margin of safety for the extract. The phytochemical screening of Parsley leaves revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, sterols and/or triterpenes.

  6. Fruit extract from a Sechium edule hybrid induce apoptosis in leukaemic cell lines but not in normal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiñiga-Sánchez, Itzen; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Cadena-Iñiguez, Jorge; Ruíz-Posadas, Lucero del Mar; Cadena-Zamudio, Jorge David; González-Ugarte, Ana Karen; Steider, Benny Weiss; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro

    2015-01-01

    The antiproliferative potential of a crude extract from the chayote hybrid H-837-07-GISeM® and its potential for apoptosis induction were assessed in leukaemic cell lines and normal mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs). The extract strongly inhibited the proliferation of the P388, J774, and WEHI-3 cell lines (with an IC50 below 1.3 μg·mL(-1)), reduced cell viability, and induced apoptotic body production, phosphatidylserine translocation, and DNA fragmentation. However, the extract had no effect on BM-MNCs. We postulate that these properties make the extract a good candidate for an anti-tumour agent for clinical use.

  7. An extract of Polygonum multiflorum protects against free radical damage induced by ultraviolet B irradiation of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Hwang

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the incidence of ultraviolet B (UVB-related skin problems has been increasing. Damages induced by UVB radiation are related to mutations that occur as a result of direct DNA damage and/or the production of reactive oxygen species. We investigated the anti-oxidant effects of a Polygonum multiflorum thumb extract against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation. Female SKH-1 hairless mice were divided into three groups: control (N = 7, distilled water- (N = 10, and P. multiflorum extract-treated (PM, N = 10 groups. The PM (10 g was extracted with 100 mL distilled water, cryo-dried and 9.8 g was obtained. The animals received a topical application of 500 µL distilled water or PM extract (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16%, w/v, dissolved in distilled water for 30 min after UVB irradiation (wavelength 280-320 nm, 300 mJ/cm²; 3 min of the dorsal kin for 14 days, and skin immunohistochemistry and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 activity were determined. SOD1 immunoreactivity, its protein levels and activities in the skin were significantly reduced by 70% in the distilled water-treated group after UVB irradiation compared to control. However, in the PM extract-treated groups, SOD1 immunoreactivity and its protein and activity levels increased in a dose-dependent manner (1-16%, w/v, PM extract compared to the distilled water-treated group. SOD1 protein levels and activities in the groups treated with 8 and 16%, w/v, PM extract recovered to 80-90% of the control group levels after UVB. These results suggest that PM extract strongly inhibits the destruction of SOD1 by UV radiation and probably contains anti-skin photoaging agents.

  8. Radioprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana on radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajna, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Intense exposure to ionization radiation by accidental, occupational or therapeutical purpose causes cellular damage mainly by formation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or by free radicals. Humans are intentionally exposed to ionising radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The use of ionising radiation in cancer therapy may lead to transient and/or permanent injury to normal tissues within the treatment field. To increase the therapeutic index of radiation therapy, various modes of radioprotection have been developed that selectively reduce cytotoxic effects to normal tissues. Because radiation-induced cellular damage is attributed primarily to the harmful effects of free radicals, molecules with radical scavenging properties are particularly promising as radioprotectors. Loeseneriella arnottiana, a member of family Hippocrateaceae, is a climbing shrub used by traditional medicine practitioners. To study the antioxidant activity and radioprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana against electron beam radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Loeseneriella arnottiana roots were dried and extracted using methanol by solvent extraction method. Antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH method. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The lymphocytes were incubated for one hour with two different concentrations 10 μg and 50 μg of root extract before exposure to 2 Gy electron beam radiation. 30 μg of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana exhibited 96% radical scavenging activity comparable to 15 μg of ascorbic acid. In reducing power assay it showed dose dependent increase in absorbance indicating that extract is capable of donating hydrogen atoms. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with 10 μg and 50 μg of root extract before irradiation resulted in reduction in the Comet length, Olive tail moment, percentage of DNA in tail when compared to the radiation control group. Results of this

  9. Phytochemical-rich medicinal plant extracts suppress bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells

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    Niluni M. Wijesundara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Pharyngitis is an inflammatory condition of the pharynx and associated structures commonly caused by the Group A streptococci (GAS. There is a growing interest in discovering plant-based anti-inflammatory compounds as potential alternatives to conventional drugs. This study evaluated anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemical-rich extracts prepared from 12 herbal plants using human tonsil epithelial cells (HTonEpiC in vitro. Methods The HTonEpiC were induced by a mixture of lipoteichoic acid (LTA and peptidoglycan (PGN (10 µg/mL; bacterial antigens for 4 h and then exposed to ethanol extracts (EE or aqueous extracts (AE for 20 h. The secretion of four pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Results The herbal plant extracts (≤5 µg/mL were not cytotoxic to HTonEpiC. The extracts exhibited a broad range of reduction (1.2%–92.6% of secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8, human beta defensin-2 (hBD-2, epithelial-derived neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78, and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2. Both EE and AE of clove, ginger, and echinacea flower and EE from danshen root significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine production as induced by LTA and PGN in HTonEpiCs at the concentrations of 1 and 5 µg/mL. Discussion Our observations indicate that danshen root, clove, ginger, and echinacea flower extracts exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect in HTonEpiCs. The most efficacious extracts from danshen root, clove, ginger and echinacea flowers have potential to be used as natural sources for developing phytotherapeutic products in the management of painful inflammation due to streptococcal pharyngitis.

  10. Methanol leaf extract of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis (Lauraceae) enhances gastric defense against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hanita; Nordin, Noraziah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah

    2017-01-01

    Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), also known as “Medang payung” by the Malay people, belongs to the Lauraceae family. In this study, methanol leaf extract of A. sesquipedalis was investigated for their acute toxicity and gastroprotective effects to reduce ulcers in rat stomachs induced by ethanol. The rats were assigned to one of five groups: normal group (group 1), ulcer group (group 2), control positive drug group (group 3) and two experimental groups treated with 150 mg/kg (group 4) and 300 mg/kg (group 5) of leaf extract. The rats were sacrificed an hour after pretreatment with extracts, and their stomach homogenates and tissues were collected for further evaluation. Macroscopic and histological analyses showed that gastric ulcers in rats pretreated with the extract were significantly reduced to an extent that it allowed leukocytes penetration of the gastric walls compared with the ulcer group. In addition, an ulcer inhibition rate of >70% was detected in rats treated with both doses of A. sesquipedalis extract, showing a notable protection of gastric layer. Severe destruction of gastric mucosa was prevented with a high production of mucus and pH gastric contents in both omeprazole-treated and extract-treated groups. Meanwhile, an increase in glycoprotein uptake was observed in pretreated rats through accumulation of magenta color in Periodic Acid Schiff staining assay. Analysis of gastric homogenate from pretreated rats showed a reduction of malondialdehyde and elevation of nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and protein concentration levels in comparison with group 2. Suppression of apoptosis in gastric tissues by upregulation of Hsp70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein was also observed in rats pretreated with extract. Consistent results of a reduction of gastric ulcer and the protection of gastric wall were obtained for rats pretreated with A. sesquipedalis extract, which showed its

  11. Methanol leaf extract of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis (Lauraceae) enhances gastric defense against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hanita; Nordin, Noraziah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah

    2017-01-01

    Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), also known as "Medang payung" by the Malay people, belongs to the Lauraceae family. In this study, methanol leaf extract of A. sesquipedalis was investigated for their acute toxicity and gastroprotective effects to reduce ulcers in rat stomachs induced by ethanol. The rats were assigned to one of five groups: normal group (group 1), ulcer group (group 2), control positive drug group (group 3) and two experimental groups treated with 150 mg/kg (group 4) and 300 mg/kg (group 5) of leaf extract. The rats were sacrificed an hour after pretreatment with extracts, and their stomach homogenates and tissues were collected for further evaluation. Macroscopic and histological analyses showed that gastric ulcers in rats pretreated with the extract were significantly reduced to an extent that it allowed leukocytes penetration of the gastric walls compared with the ulcer group. In addition, an ulcer inhibition rate of >70% was detected in rats treated with both doses of A. sesquipedalis extract, showing a notable protection of gastric layer. Severe destruction of gastric mucosa was prevented with a high production of mucus and pH gastric contents in both omeprazole-treated and extract-treated groups. Meanwhile, an increase in glycoprotein uptake was observed in pretreated rats through accumulation of magenta color in Periodic Acid Schiff staining assay. Analysis of gastric homogenate from pretreated rats showed a reduction of malondialdehyde and elevation of nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and protein concentration levels in comparison with group 2. Suppression of apoptosis in gastric tissues by upregulation of Hsp70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein was also observed in rats pretreated with extract. Consistent results of a reduction of gastric ulcer and the protection of gastric wall were obtained for rats pretreated with A. sesquipedalis extract, which showed its prominent

  12. Protective effect of methanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla against excitotoxicity induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongseok; Son, Dongwook; Lee, Pyeongjae; Kim, Dae-Keun; Shin, Min-Chul; Jang, Mi-Hyeon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Yong-Sik; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Kim, Hocheol

    2003-05-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla is a medicinal herb used for convulsive disorders in Oriental medicine. In this study, the effect of the methanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity was investigated. Pretreatment with the extract of Uncaria rhynchopylla reduced the degree of neuronal damage induced by NMDA exposure in cultured hippocampal slices. In the patch clamp study, Uncaria rhynchophylla significantly inhibited NMDA receptor-activated ion current in acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 neurons. These results indicate that Uncaria rhynchophylla offers protection against NMDA-induced neuronal injury and inhibitory action on NMDA receptor-mediated ion current may be a mechanism behind the neuroprotective effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla.

  13. Anticancer activity and apoptosis inducing effect of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma against human cancer cell line

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    Md. Azizur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MTT assay and DAPI staining test were performed to evaluate anticancer potential and to assess apoptosis inducing effect of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma leaves (MECD against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa. Changes in MMP and intracellular ROS level were also assessed by JC-1 and DCFH-DA staining. Total phenolic contents were determined by colorimetric principle. Levels of statistical significance were determined by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett’s posttest. Results showed that MECD with obtained IC50 of 202 µg/mL inhibited in vitro proliferation of human cervical cancer cells and induced apoptosis indicating its promising anticancer activity as compared to the standard tamoxifen with obtained IC50 of 48 µg/mL. Total phenolic contents was found to be 176.5 mg GAE/g dried extract. It was concluded that MECD possess promising anticancer activity and induce apoptosis.

  14. The extract from Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel induces apoptosis and impairs metastasis in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanle; Li, Yali; Yang, Fangfang; Zeng, Anqi; Yang, Shuping; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Yiwen; Xie, Yongmei; Ye, Tinghong; Xia, Yong; Yin, Wenya

    2017-09-01

    Prostate cancer is a big threat to male for its poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Natural compounds are important resources of many anticancer drugs. Pomegranate is a kind of antioxidant-rich fruit and its peel and seed has potential anticancer activities. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PoPx) on the apoptosis and metastasis of prostate cancer cells and the related mechanism. We found that PoPx showed growth inhibition on prostate cancer cells. Nuclei morphological and flow cytometer (FCM) analysis indicated that PoPx could induce prostate cancer apoptosis. Further investigation indicated that mitochondrial mediated intrinsic pathway is involved in the apoptosis. Exposure to PoPx led to loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δym), accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Western blot analysis showed that PoPx could increase the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl2 and activation of apoptosis executor caspase 3. Wound healing assay and transwell migration and invasion assay implied that PoPx has the potential to inhibit migration and invasion, two critical steps in prostate cancer metastasis. Downregulation of MMP2/MMP9 and upregulation of TIMP2 showed accordance with the inhibition of migration and invasion. In summary, the present data showed that PoPx could be a promising drug candidate to treat prostate cancer, showing us a better way to develop novel drugs from natural compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The relaxant effect induced by Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract on rat isolated trachea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehri, Badreddine; Ahmed, Mueen K.K.; Aiache, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Garlic plays an important role in complementary and alternative medicine. Most people believe in and use herbal products even when they have not been as thoroughly researched as garlic. Garlic is also known for its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Materials and Methods: The relaxant effect of Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract (ASBAE) containing 0.06%-0.10% of allicin was studied on isolated smooth muscle of trachea of rats precontracted using acetylcholine (10−5 M). Results: It was found that ASBAE induced a dose-dependent relaxation with recorded EC 50 values of 71.87 ± 5.90 µg/mL (n = 7). Pretreatments with mepyramine (10−7 M), methysergide (10−7 M), caffeine (10−6 M), theophylline (10−6 M), nifedipine (10−6 M), and dipyridamole (10−6 M) did not alter ASBAE concentration-response curves. In turn, concentration-response curves to ASBAE were significantly shifted toward right in the presence of aspirin (3.10−3 M), indomethacin (10−6 M), prazosin (10−6 M), and propranolol (10−7 M). Conclusion: It is suggested that the recorded relaxation results are due to the release of prostaglandins E 1 and E 2 consecutively to α- and β-adrenoreceptor stimulation. PMID:21472073

  16. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

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    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  17. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice

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    Julio Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA, acetylcholinesterase (Ache and monoamine oxidase (MAO brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i naive (control, (ii sham, (iii OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv 0.50 g kg−1 and (v 2.00 g kg−1 black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23–27 and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35. At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.

  18. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Qiong, Wang; Liu, Xinmin; Jiang, Zhen; Dang, Haixia; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (Ache) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i) naive (control), (ii) sham, (iii) OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv) 0.50 g kg(-1) and (v) 2.00 g kg(-1) black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23-27) and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35). At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg) increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.

  19. Antioxidant activity of Green tea extract against Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in the rats

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    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to be a common health problem worldwide. Isoniazid, an antibiotic used routinely for tuberculosis chemotherapy is documented to be a potent hepatotoxicant. The aim of the present study was to assess the antioxidant activity of Green tea extract (GTE against Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in the rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 animals each including 1- normal healthy control rats, 2- healthy rats receiving (GTE 3- toxicant control, and 4- toxicant drug+ GTE treatment group. In groups 2 and 4 GTE (1.5%, w/v was given as only source of drinking for 8 weeks. In the midst stage of experiment (4th and 5th weeks, Isonizid (50 mg/kg b.w./day, i.p. was administrated for groups 3 and 4 for a period of 2 weeks. At the end of experiment, product of lipid peroxidation (MDA, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and glutathione reductase (GR were assayed in liver homogenates to evaluate antioxidant activity. Significant differences among the groups were determined by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p

  20. Attenuated RANKL-induced cytotoxicity by Portulaca oleracea ethanol extract enhances RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Choi, Eun-Joo; Lee, Hak-Yong; Lee, Choong Hun; Lee, Young-Rae; Kim, Min Seuk

    2015-07-14

    Portulaca oleracea (PO) has been widely used as traditional medicine because of its pharmacological activities. However, the effects of PO on osteoclasts that modulate bone homeostasis are still elusive. In this study, we examined the effects of PO ethanol extract (POEE) on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization, nuclear factor of activated T-cell c1 (NFATc1) amplification, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) multinucleated cell (MNC) formation, and cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that POEE suppressed RANKL-induced Ca(2+) oscillations by inhibition of Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores, resulting in reduction of NFATc1 amplification. Notably, POEE attenuated RANKL-mediated cytotoxicity and cleavage of polyadenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP), resulted in enhanced formation of TRAP+ MNCs. These results present in vitro effects of POEE on RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and suggest the possible use of PO in treating bone disorders, such as osteopetrosis.

  1. Use of ethanol extracts of Terminalia chebula to prevent periodontal disease induced by dental plaque bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongsung; Nho, Youn Hwa; Yun, Seok Kyun; Hwang, Young Sun

    2017-02-16

    The fruit of the Terminalia chebula tree has been widely used for the treatment of various disorders. Its anti-diabetic, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral effects have been studied. Dental plaque bacteria (DPB) are intimately associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. In the quest for materials that will prove useful in the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease, we investigated the preventive effects of an ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula (EETC) on DPB-induced inflammation and bone resorption. The anti-bacterial effect of EETC was analyzed using the disc diffusion method. The anti-inflammatory effect of EETC was determined by molecular biological analysis of the DPB-mediated culture cells. Prevention of osteoclastic bone resorption by EETC was explored using osteoclast formation and pit formation assays. EETC suppressed the growth of oral bacteria and reduced the induction of inflammatory cytokines and proteases, abolishing the expression of PGE2 and COX-2 and inhibiting matrix damage. By stimulating the DPB-derived lipopolysaccharides, EETC inhibited both osteoclast formation in osteoclast precursors and RANKL expression in osteoblasts, thereby contributing to the prevention of bone resorption. EETC may be a beneficial supplement to help prevent DPB-mediated periodontal disease.

  2. Programmed cell death in Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff induced by several molecules present in olive leaf extracts.

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    Ines Sifaoui

    Full Text Available Therapy against Acanthamoeba infections such as Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE and Acanthamoeba Keratitis (AK, remains as an issue to be solved due to the existence of a cyst stage which is highly resistant to most chemical and physical agents. Recently, the activity of Olive Leaf Extracts (OLE was demonstrated against Acanthamoeba species. However, the molecules involved in this activity were not identified and/or evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the main molecules which are present in OLE and secondly to study their mechanism of action in Acanthamoeba. Among the tested molecules, the observed activities ranged from an IC50 of 6.59 in the case of apigenine to an IC50 > 100 μg/ml for other molecules. After that, elucidation of the mechanism of action of these molecules was evaluated by the detection of changes in the phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, the permeability of the plasma membrane, the mitochondrial membrane potential and the ATP levels in the treated cells. Vanillic, syringic and ursolic acids induced the higher permeabilization of the plasma membrane. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial membrane was altered by all tested molecules which were also able to decrease the ATP levels to less than 50% in IC90 treated cells after 24 h. Therefore, all the molecules tested in this study could be considered as a future therapeutic alternative against Acanthamoeba spp. Further studies are needed in order to establish the true potential of these molecules against these emerging opportunistic pathogenic protozoa.

  3. The effect of hippophae rhamnoides extract on oral mucositis induced in rats with methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuduban, Ozan; Mazlumoglu, Muhammed Recai; Kuduban, Selma Denktas; Erhan, Ertugrul; Cetin, Nihal; Kukula, Osman; Yarali, Oguzhan; Cimen, Ferda Keskin; Cankaya, Murat

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of HRE (Hippophae rhamnoides extract) on oral mucositis induced in rats with MTX. Experimental animals were divided into groups as healthy (HG), HRE+MTX (HMTX), and control group, which received MTX (MTXC). HMTX group received 50 mg/kg HRE while MTXC and HG groups received equivolume distilled water with gavage once a day. After one hour of HRE and distilled water administration, HMTX and MTXC groups received a single dose of oral MTX 5 mg/ kg. This procedure was repeated for one month. The levels of MDA, IL-1β, and TNF-α were found to be significantly higher in the cheek, lower lip, and tongue tissue of the animals receiving MTX, compared with HG and HMTX groups; however, these parameters were lower in the cheek and low lip tissue, and a milder damage ocurred in these tissues, compared with the tongue tissue in MTXC group. No histopathologic damage was observed in the cheek, lower lip, and tongue tissues of the rats treated with HRE. This findings indicate that HRE as a natural product is an important advantage compared with synthetic drugs for prophylaxis of oral mucositis developed due to MTX.

  4. The effect of hippophae rhamnoides extract on oral mucositis induced in rats with methotrexate

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    Ozan Kuduban

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effect of HRE (Hippophae rhamnoides extract on oral mucositis induced in rats with MTX. Material and Methods: Experimental animals were divided into groups as healthy (HG, HRE+MTX (HMTX, and control group, which received MTX (MTXC. HMTX group received 50 mg/kg HRE while MTXC and HG groups received equivolume distilled water with gavage once a day. After one hour of HRE and distilled water administration, HMTX and MTXC groups received a single dose of oral MTX 5 mg/ kg. This procedure was repeated for one month. Results: The levels of MDA, IL-1β, and TNF-α were found to be significantly higher in the cheek, lower lip, and tongue tissue of the animals receiving MTX, compared with HG and HMTX groups; however, these parameters were lower in the cheek and low lip tissue, and a milder damage ocurred in these tissues, compared with the tongue tissue in MTXC group. No histopathologic damage was observed in the cheek, lower lip, and tongue tissues of the rats treated with HRE. Conclusion: This findings indicate that HRE as a natural product is an important advantage compared with synthetic drugs for prophylaxis of oral mucositis developed due to MTX.

  5. Effects of aqueous cinnamon extract on chemically-induced carcinoma of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

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    Samah K. Ezzat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE on 7, 12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch (HCP mucosa. Sixty male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into six equal groups. The hamsters of groups I, II and III received no treatment, DMBA and ACE respectively, for 16 weeks. Groups IV and V were handled as group II and concomitantly treated with ACE for the same period and additionally group V received ACE for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of DMBA application. Group VI hamsters were handled as group III and additionally received DMBA for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of ACE supplementation. Hamsters of each group were euthanized according to the experimental schedule. The buccal pouches were and prepared for H&E stain, PAS reagent, CD3 and PDGF immunohistochemical reactivity. All groups showed dysplastic changes with varying degrees except groups I and III. Deep invasive carcinomas were recorded in 90% of the samples of group II, 60% of group IV, 50% of group V and 40% of group VI. From the previous results, it can be concluded that ACE has the potentiality preventing oral cancer initiation better than inhibiting oral cancer progression.

  6. Herba Artemisiae Capillaris Extract Prevents the Development of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy of Rat

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    Jianan Geng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major cause of end-stage renal disease throughout the world; until now there is no specific drug available. In this work, we use herba artemisiae capillaris extract (HACE to alleviate renal fibrosis characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM in rats, aiming to investigate the protective effect of the HACE on DN. We found that the intragastric treatment of high-dose HACE could reverse the effect of streptozotocin not only to decrease the level of blood glucose and blood lipid in different degree but also further to improve renal functions. It is worth mentioning that the effect of HACE treatment was comparable to the positive drug benazepril. Moreover, we found that HACE treatment could on one hand inhibit oxidative stress in DN rats through regulating enzymatic activity for scavenging reactive oxygen species and on the other hand increase the ECM degradation through regulating the activity of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and the expression of tissue transglutaminase (tTG, which explained why HACE treatment inhibited ECM accumulation. On the basis of above experimental results, we conclude that HACE prevents DN development in a streptozotocin-induced DN rat model, and HACE is a promising candidate to cure DN in clinic.

  7. Vimang (Mangifera indica L. extract) induces permeability transition in isolated mitochondria, closely reproducing the effect of mangiferin, Vimang's main component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira; Delgado, René; Cavalheiro, Renata A; Santos, Antonio C; Vercesi, Anibal E; Curti, Carlos

    2006-02-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is a Ca(2+)-dependent, cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive, non-selective inner membrane permeabilization process. It is often associated with apoptotic cell death, and is induced by a wide range of agents or conditions, usually involving reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we demonstrated that Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang), in the presence of 20 microM Ca(2+), induces MPT in isolated rat liver mitochondria, assessed as CsA-sensitive mitochondrial swelling, closely reproducing the same effect of mangiferin, the main component of the extract, as well as MPT-linked processes like oxidation of membrane protein thiols, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and Ca(2+) release from organelles. The flavonoid catechin, the second main component of Vimang, also induces MPT, although to a lesser extent; the minor, but still representative Vimang extract components, gallic and benzoic acids, show respectively, low and high MPT inducing abilities. Nevertheless, following exposure to H(2)O(2)/horseradish peroxidase, the visible spectra of these compounds does not present the same changes previously reported for mangiferin. It is concluded that Vimang-induced MPT closely reproduces mangiferin effects, and proposed that this xanthone is the main agent responsible for the extract's MPT inducing ability, by the action on mitochondrial membrane protein thiols of products arising as a consequence of the mangiferin's antioxidant activity. While this effect would oppose the beneficial effect of Vimang's antioxidant activity, it could nevertheless benefit cells exposed to over-production of ROS as occurring in cancer cells, in which triggering of MPT-mediated apoptosis may represent an important defense mechanism to their host.

  8. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8

  9. Protective effect of Psidium guajava leaf extract on altered carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Shanmugavalli, R; Rajendran, Deepa; Bai, Mookambikai Ramya; Sorimuthu, Subramanian

    2013-12-01

    Psidium guajava is an important plant of high medicinal value and has been used in traditional systems of medicine against various ailments. The antidiabetic effect of the ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves and also its protective effect on altered glucose metabolism was evaluated in streptozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetes was induced in rats by means of intraperitoneal injection of 50-mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) of stz. Diabetes-induced rats were randomly divided into two groups. One group of rats was treated with Psidium guajava leaf extract at a dosage of 300-mg/kg b.wt. and the other group of rats was treated with the standard drug glyclazide at a dosage of 5-mg/kg b.wt. for 30 days. The blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, Hb, HbA1c were measured. The effect on the drug on altered glucose metabolizing enzymes were also studied. Treatment with Psidium guajava extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c levels and a significant increase in plasma insulin levels. The drug also significantly restored the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. This suggests that the potential antidiabetic effect of the ethanolic extract of the Psidium guajava leaves may be due to the presence of flavonoids and other phenolic components present in the drug.

  10. Protective effects of ethanol extracts of Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. on ageing-induced deterioration in mouse oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyuk-Joon; You, Seung Yeop; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeon, Hong Bae; Oh, Jeong Su

    2017-08-01

    Following ovulation, oocytes undergo a time-dependent deterioration in quality referred to as post-ovulatory ageing. Although various factors influence the post-ovulatory ageing of oocytes, oxidative stress is a key factor involved in deterioration of oocyte quality. Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. has been widely used in East Asia as a food ingredient and traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, and microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that A. asiatica exhibits antioxidative effects. In this study, we investigated whether A. asiatica has the potential to attenuate deterioration in oocyte quality during post-ovulatory ageing. Freshly ovulated mouse oocytes were cultured with 0, 50, 100 or 200 μg/ml ethanol extracts of A. asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. After culture for up to 24 h, various ageing-induced oocyte abnormalities, including morphological changes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, apoptosis, chromosome and spindle defects, and mitochondrial aggregation were determined. Treatment of oocytes with A. asiatica extracts reduced ageing-induced morphological changes. Moreover, A. asiatica extracts decreased ROS generation and the onset of apoptosis by preventing elevation of the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio during post-ovulatory ageing. Furthermore, A. asiatica extracts attenuated the ageing-induced abnormalities including spindle defects, chromosome misalignment and mitochondrial aggregation. Our results demonstrate that A. asiatica can relieve deterioration in oocyte quality and delay the onset of apoptosis during post-ovulatory ageing.

  11. Protective Effect of T. violacea Rhizome Extract Against Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

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    Olorunnisola Sinbad Olorunnisola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the effect of methanolic extract of T. violacea rhizomes on high cholesterol (2% diet fed rats (HCD. At the end of 4 weeks, serum total protein, albumin, reduced glutathione (GSH, and markers of oxidative stress viz., catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS—a marker of lipid peroxidation, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the serum, aorta, liver and heart of HCD and normal rats were assessed and compared. A significant (p < 0.05 elevation in TBARS, and a reduction (p < 0.05 in serum total protein, albumin, GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in tissues of HCD fed rats compared with the normal group. Co-administration of crude extracts of T. violacea rhizomes protected the liver, heart, serum and aorta against HCD-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose dependant manner. The activities of the extract (500 mg/kg compared favorably with gemfibrozil. The extracts also protected against HCD-induced reduction in serum total protein, GSH and restored the activities of antioxidant tissues (liver, heart and aorta enzymes to near normal values. This result suggested that consumption of T. violacea rhizome may help to protect against hypercholesterolemia- induced oxidative stress diseases in the heart and liver.

  12. Attenuation of nonenzymatic glycation, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by chloroform leaf extract of Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Pérez; Gómez, Yolanda Gómez Y.; Guzman, Mónica Damián

    2011-01-01

    Background: The hypoglycemic effects of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica (AI) were evaluated by oral administration in streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic rats (SD). Materials and Methods: The effect of chronic oral administration of the extract for 28 days was evaluated in streptozotozin diabetic rats. Lipid peroxidation, glycogen content of liver and skeletal muscles, insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were determined. In addition, advanced glycation end product formation (AGEs) was evaluated. Results: The most active extracts were obtained with chloroform. Chloroform extract from AI shows increased levels of SOD, GSH, GSSG and CAT, hepatic glycogen content, glucose-6-phosphatase and insulin plasma levels, which also decreased the glucokinase (GK), lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. The chloroform extract exhibited significant inhibitory activity against advanced glycation end product formation with an IC50 average range of 79.1 mg/ml. Conclusion: Azadirachta indica can improve hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinema in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats and, therefore, AI can be potentially considered to be an antidiabetic-safe agent. PMID:21969798

  13. A garlic extract protects from ultraviolet B (280-320 nm) radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, V.E.; Bosnic, M.; Rozinova, E.; Boehm-Wilcox, C.

    1993-01-01

    Lyophilized aged garlic extract has been incorporated at concentrations of 0.1%, 1% and 4% by weight into semi purified powdered diets and fed to hairless mice. Under moderate UVB exposure conditions resulting in 58% suppression of the systemic contact hypersensitivity response in control-fed mice, a dose-responsive protection was observed in the garlic-fed mice; contact hypersensitivity in the UVB-exposed mice fed 4% garlic extract was suppressed by only 19%. If the UVB exposure was replaced by topical application of one of a series of lotions containing increasing concentrations of cis-urocanic acid, a dose-responsive suppression of contact hypersensitivity was demonstrated in control-fed mice (urocanic acid at 25, 50, 100 and 200 micrograms per mouse resulting in 22-46% suppression). Mice fed a diet containing 1% aged garlic extract were partially protected from cis-urocanic acid-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity, with greater protection from the lower concentrations of urocanic acid. Mice fed a diet containing 4% aged garlic extract were protected from all concentrations of urocanic acid. The results indicate that aged garlic extract contains ingredient(s) that protect from UVB-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity and suggest that the mechanism of protection is by antagonism of the cis-urocanic acid mediation of this form of immunosuppression

  14. Study of the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract microemulsion of Teucrium polium .L against bromobenzene -induced hepatotoxicity in mice

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    alihasan Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Liver is a major organ of the body, which can be exposed to various chemicals, drugs and many other xenobiotics such as bromobenzene. The aim of this study was to find out the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract microemulsion of Teucrium polium against hepatotoxicity induced by bromobenzene. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into eight groups, with ten animals in each group. Group 1-3 received respectively normal saline base of microemulsion and extract microemulsions in dose of 400 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Group 4 received bromobenzene (0.36 ml/kg, ip only on the 10th day groups 5-8 received extract microemulsions orally in doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, during 10 days and bromobenzene (0.36 ml/kg, ip on the 10th day 1 hour after last dose of extract. 24 hours later, the animals were bled and enzymes ALT, AST and ALP were measured. Animal liver was removed for histological studies. Results: The results showed a significant increase in liver enzyme activity by bromobenzene. The treated groups with Teucrium polium showed a significant decrease in liver enzyme activity in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (P<0.05. Histological observations also confirmed the results. Conclusion: The results revealed that hydroalcoholic extract microemulsion of Teucrium polium has protective effect on liver toxicity induced by bromobenzene

  15. Methanolic Extracts from Brown Seaweeds Dictyota cilliolata and Dictyota menstrualis Induce Apoptosis in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma HeLa Cells

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    Dayanne Lopes Gomes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common female tumor worldwide, surpassed only by breast cancer. Natural products from seaweeds evidencing apoptotic activity have attracted a great deal of attention as new leads for alternative and complementary preventive or therapeutic anticancer agents. Here, methanol extracts from 13 species of tropical seaweeds (Rhodophytas, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta collected from the Northeast of Brazil were assessed as apoptosis-inducing agents on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa. All extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells; the most potent were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota cilliolata (MEDC and Dictyota menstrualis (MEDM. In addition, MEDC and MEDM also inhibits SiHa (cervix carcinoma cell proliferation. Studies with these two extracts using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HeLa cells exposed to MEDM and MEDC exhibit morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptosis as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and sub-G1 cell cycle phase accumulation, also MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in cell cycle phase S. Moreover, the activation of caspases 3 and 9 by these extracts suggests a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis route. However, other routes cannot be ruled out. Together, these results point out the methanol extracts of the brown algae D. mentrualis and D. cilliolata as potential sources of molecules with antitumor activity.

  16. Potential nephrotoxic effects produced by steroidal saponins from hydro alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the development of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigated the potential effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris, a plant of Zygophyllaceae family, on the renal complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ (90 mg/kg) to the 2-days old neonates. After 6 weeks of induction, diabetic rats were treated with 50 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of T. terrestris for 8 weeks. The anti-hyperglycaemic nature was confirmed by reduction in blood glucose and improvement in insulin levels. Diabetic renal injury associated with decrease in total proteins and albumin levels was observed to be improved by T. terrestris extract. Glomerular filtration rate along with inflammatory and growth factors, adiponectin and erythropoietin were also improved by the treatment, though the findings were not significant. However, the beneficial antidiabetic effects of T. terrestris extract in plasma were not observed in kidney histopathology. This was confirmed by the quantitative estimation of unhydrolyzed fraction of saponins (major component: protodioscin) in plasma and kidney samples of normal and diabetic rats. Hence, it can be concluded that 8 weeks treatment with T. terrestris extract produces potential toxic effects in kidney, which are independent of its anti-diabetic action.

  17. UVA-induced ROS generation inhibition by Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract and subsequent cell death in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszewska, Edyta; Soin, Magdalena; Filipek, Agnieszka; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2013-09-05

    UVA radiation stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which react with lipids, proteins and other intracellular molecules leading to oxidative stress, cellular damage and ultimately cell death. There is, therefore, a growing need for substances exhibiting antioxidant activity, which may support repair mechanisms of the skin. This study evaluates the protective effect of the aqueous Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok defatted seeds extract, rich in polyphenolic compounds, against UVA (25 and 50J/cm(2))-induced changes in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The tested extract (0.1-10μg/ml) has decreased, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the UVA-induced release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium, the ROS production (with the use of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) and lipid peroxidation (utilizing redox reactions with ferrous ions) as compared to the control cells (incubated without the extract). Moreover, the extract increased the number of viable (calcein positive) cells decreasing the number of cells in late apoptosis (annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide positive). Thus our results show that O. paradoxa defatted seeds extract may be beneficial for the prevention of UVA skin damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective effects of nettle (Urtica dioica extract against acute kidney injury induced by gentamycin in the rat

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    سید پژمان مرتضوی

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aminoglycosides are often used in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics and have a rapid bactericidal effect, are available at an affordable cost and have less incidence of resistance, making them a drug of choice for treatment of several life-threatening infections. However, the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides prevent their long term use. The use of herbal extracts in order to decrease injuries of injurious materials has long been considered. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the protective effects of nettle (Urtica dioica extract against gentamicin induced kidney injuries in the rat. Forty five male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups consisting of: 1-healthy control group, 2- negative control group that received tween 20 (extract solvent, 3- patient control group which received onlygentamicin at 100 mg/kg, experimental healthy groups 4-6 which received nettle extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and patient experimental groups 7-9 which received nettle extract along with gentamicin at 100 mg/kg. At the end of the experiment (28 days, blood samples were obtained, and the kidneys were removed for histopathologic investigations. The results showed that gentamicin alone induced renal tissue damage and significantly increased the serum levels of creatinine and urea (p

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis in Normoglycemic and Streptozocine (STZ Induced Diabetic Male Rats

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    MR Nikbakht

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Citrullus colocynthis is a plant which has been used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit on normoglycemic and streptozocine induced diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: 45 male Wistar rats weighing, 250-350 gr, have been selected and randomly divided in seven groups. Group1 without any drugs usage, group 2 that received normal saline (IV and distilled water (oral, group 3 received only streptozocine (IV, group 4 received only the extract of Citrullus colocynthis (1000 mg/kg, groups 5, 6 and 7 received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of Citrullus colocynthis extract after injection of STZ and induction of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection (45 mg/kg of STZ. Blood sampling was provided directly from animal heart and blood sugar was measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using students t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean of normal blood sugar in control group was 156.5±15.7 mg/dl which defined as normal blood sugar. Streptozocine significantly increased blood sugar (p<0.05. The Citrullus colocynthis extract with 500 mg/kg dosage has not significantly reduced the blood sugar but is dosage of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood sugar in a dose-dependent mode (p<0.05. Results also showed that the extract in dosage of 1000 mg/kg did not have a significant effect on normoglycemic animals. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit dose-dependently reduced the blood glucose level in streptozocine-induced diabetic rats but did not have significant effect on normal blood sugar.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of Fennel extract on TERT gene expression changes in mouse liver tumors induced with cancer

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    Zeinab Mousaee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of plants for therapeutic purposes is the source of many modern medical treatments. In this study, at first, the cytotoxicity of the Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel extract on cancer cells was studied. Then, TERT gene expression changes were estimated via induction of cancer and extract treatment. Materials and Methods: At first, different concentrations of the Fennel extract were obtained for cell morphology and the MTT assay. Afterwards, cancer in mice was induced. Sampling was performed to determine changes in gene expression after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. After that, RNA was extracted, cDNA was synthesized, and gene expression changes were studied. Results: Results showed an inhibitory effect on both cell lines at 50% inhibition (IC50 of proliferation at 200 µg/ml after 72 hours using the MTT assay. The morphology results in the third day in 100 and 200 concentrations showed that the extract caused complete degeneration and destruction of cancer cells. The results of analysis of the graphs revealed that the expression of TERT gene in treated cancer samples decreased on days 7, 14 and 28 compared with the control. Conclusion: The Fennel extract has dual effects on cancer cells through initiating intracellular events. In high concentrations, the extract stimulates proliferative growth in cancer cells and in low concentrations it has inhibitory effects on cell growth and proliferation. In the evaluation of the extract on TERT gene expression, a reduction was observed in gene expression on days 7, 14 and 28. Therefore, the Fennel extract can affect the gene expression through its effect on molecular pathways.

  1. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

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    Idris Ahmed Issa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50 for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p<0.005 and 56.9% (p<0.0004 in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p<0.0001 at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity.

  2. Assessing Anticonvulsant Effect of Aqueous Extract of Datura Stramonium Seed on PTZ-Induced Seizures in the Male Mice

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    S Namvar Aghdash

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders that affect social, economic and biological aspects of the human life. Many epileptic patients have uncontrolled seizures and medication-related side effects despite adequate pharmacological treatment. The use of plant extracts is proposed as a therapeutic modality in order to treat different diseases. Datura plant has long been used in the traditional medicine in regard with some nervous disorders like epilepsy. Thus, this study aimed to provide a scientific basis investigating the effect of Datura aqueous extract on PTZ-induced seizures in the male mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male mice were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups including: one control group, one sham group and three experimental groups. The experimental groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Datura Stramonium seed via gavage for 30 days, and the sham group received stilled water via gavage. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 35 mg/kg, i.p were injected into control, sham and experimental groups 30 minutes after gavage in order to induce the seizure. Then latency time of seizure onset, seizure duration and seizure phases were measured and recorded in the experimental, sham and control groups. The data analysis was carried out via one way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests.  Moreover, difference less than 0.05 (P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study findings revealed that the aqueous extract of Datura Stramonium seed produced a significant effect on PTZ-induced seizure. In addition, Datura increases latency time of seizure onset (P˂0.01, inhibits progress of seizure stages (P˂0.05 and decreases seizure duration (P˂0.001. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that extract of this plant has anticonvulsant effects on PTZ-induced seizure. As a result, it seems to be beneficial to the epilepsy treatment.

  3. Anti-Ageing Effects of Sonchus oleraceus L. (pūhā) Leaf Extracts on H2O2-Induced Cell Senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Zong-Quan Ou; Thomas Rades; Arlene McDowell

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants protect against damage from free radicals and are believed to slow the ageing process. Previously, we have reported the high antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) leaf extracts. We hypothesize that S. oleraceus extracts protect cells against H2O2-induced senescence by mediating oxidative stress. Premature senescence of young WI-38 cells was induced by application of H2O2. Cells were treated with S. oleraceus extracts before or after H2O2 stress...

  4. Insulin secretion enhancing activity of roselle calyx extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisetmuen, Eamruthai; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Yutanawiboonchai, Wiboonchai; Itharat, Arunporn

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Our recent study revealed the antihyperglycemic activity of an ethanolic extract of roselle calyxes (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in diabetic rats. The present study had, therefore, an objective to investigate the mechanism underlying this activity. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were induced to be diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Normal rats as well as diabetic rats were administered with the ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyxes (HS-EE) at 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg/day, respectively, for 6 weeks. Then, blood glucose and insulin levels, at basal and glucose-stimulated secretions, were measured. The pancreas was dissected to examine histologically. Results: HS-EE 1.0 g/kg/day significantly decreased the blood glucose level by 38 ± 12% in diabetic rats but not in normal rats. In normal rats, treatment with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE increased the basal insulin level significantly as compared with control normal rats (1.28 ± 0.25 and 0.55 ± 0.05 ng/ml, respectively). Interestingly, diabetic rats treated with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE also showed a significant increase in basal insulin level as compared with the control diabetic rats (0.30 ± 0.05 and 0.15 ± 0.01 ng/ml, respectively). Concerning microscopic histological examination, HS-EE 1.0 g/kg significantly increased the number of islets of Langerhans in both normal rats (1.2 ± 0.1 and 2.0 ± 0.1 islet number/10 low-power fields (LPF) for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively) and diabetic rats (1.0 ± 0.3 and 3.9 ± 0.6 islet number/10 LPF for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively). Conclusion: The antidiabetic activity of HS-EE may be partially mediated via the stimulating effect on insulin secretion. PMID:23798879

  5. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight)...

  6. Turmeric Extract Rescues Ethanol-Induced Developmental Defect in the Zebrafish Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Connors, Craig T; Mohammed, Arooj S; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, Kathleen; Marrs, James A; Chism, Grady W

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL), Desmethoxycurcumin (43.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL), and Bisdemethoxycurcumin (36.6 ± 0.1 μg/mL). Zebrafish embryos were treated with 100 mM (0.6% v/v) ethanol during gastrulation through organogenesis (2 to 48 h postfertilization (hpf)) and supplemented with turmeric extract to obtain total curcuminoid concentrations of 0, 1.16, 1.72, or 2.32 μM. Turmeric supplementation showed significant rescue of the body length at 72 hpf compared to ethanol-treated embryos. The mechanism underlying the rescue remains to be determined. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract are involved in the protective effect against hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Leticia Priscilla; Gubert, Priscila; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2012-06-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity has been related to several cases of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic transplant. As APAP hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress, natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy to diminish the hepatic dysfunction induced by APAP. Taraxacum officinale Weber (Family Asteraceae), commonly known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes because of its choleretic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of T. officinale leaf extract against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. T. officinale was able to decrease thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels induced by 200 mg/kg APAP (p.o.), as well as prevent the decrease in sulfhydryl levels caused by APAP treatment. Furthermore, histopathological alterations, as well as the increased levels of serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases caused by APAP, were prevented by T. officinale (0.1 and 0.5 mg/mL). In addition, T. officinale extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide radicals. Our results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of T. officinale against the toxicity induced by APAP. The possible mechanisms involved include its scavenger activities against ROS and reactive nitrogen species, which are attributed to the content of phenolic compounds in the extract.

  8. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Prunus yedoensis Bark Extract on Adipose Tissue in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

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    Hee Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic, low-grade inflammatory responses occur in obese adipose tissue and play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. Macrophages exposed to high glucose upregulate the expression of SRA, a macrophage-specific scavenger receptor. The present study investigated whether Prunus yedoensis (PY bark extract affects the inflammatory response and scavenger receptor gene expression observed in a diet-induced obesity model in vivo. Oral administration of PY extract significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels without a change in body weight in mice fed a high fat diet for 17 weeks. PY extract significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory and macrophage genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and F4/80 in epididymal adipose tissue. Among scavenger receptor genes, SRA expression was significantly reduced. The inhibitory responses of PY extract and its fractions were determined through evaluation of scavenger receptor expression in THP-1 cells. PY extract and its ethyl acetate fraction decreased the levels of SRA mRNA and phospho-ERK1/2 during monocyte differentiation. Our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of PY extract and its downregulation of SRA seem to account for its hypoglycemic effects.

  9. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaf extracts in sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatouillat, Grégory; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Bertin, Eric; Okiemy-Akeli, Marie-Genevieve; Morjani, Hamid; Lavaud, Catherine; Madoulet, Claudie

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been used to cure a wide variety of ailments. However, only a few studies have reported its anticancer effects. In this study, extracts were obtained from alfalfa leaves and their cytotoxic effects were assessed on several sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells lines. Using the mouse leukaemia P388 cell line and its doxorubicin-resistant counterpart (P388/DOX), we showed that the inhibition of cell growth induced by alfalfa leaf extracts was mediated through the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation analysis. The execution of programmed cell death was achieved via the activation of caspase-3, leading to PARP cleavage. Fractionation of toluene extract (To-1), the most active extract obtained from crude extract, led to the identification of 3 terpene derivatives and 5 flavonoids. Among them, (-)-medicarpin, (-)-melilotocarpan E, millepurpan, tricin, and chrysoeriol showed cytotoxic effects in P388 as well as P388/DOX cells. These results demonstrate that alfalfa leaf extract may have interesting potential in cancer chemoprevention and therapy.

  10. Protective Effect of the Plant Extracts of Erythroxylum sp. against Toxic Effects Induced by the Venom of Lachesis muta Snake

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    Eduardo Coriolano de Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins that induce toxic effects, such as edema, hemorrhage, and death. Lachesis muta has the highest lethality indices in Brazil. In most cases, antivenom fails to neutralize local effects, leading to disabilities in victims. Thus, alternative treatments are under investigation, and plant extracts are promising candidates. The objective of this work was to investigate the ability of crude extracts, fractions, or isolated products of Erythroxylum ovalifolium and Erythroxylum subsessile to neutralize some toxic effects of L. muta venom. All samples were mixed with L. muta venom, then in vivo (hemorrhage and edema and in vitro (proteolysis, coagulation, and hemolysis assays were performed. Overall, crude extracts or fractions of Erythroxylum spp. inhibited (20%–100% toxic effects of the venom, but products achieved an inhibition of 4%–30%. However, when venom was injected into mice before the plant extracts, hemorrhage and edema were not inhibited by the samples. On the other hand, an inhibition of 5%–40% was obtained when extracts or products were given before venom injection. These results indicate that the extracts or products of Erythroxylum spp. could be a promising source of molecules able to treat local toxic effects of envenomation by L. muta venom, aiding in the development of new strategies for antivenom treatment.

  11. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Kamal A; Nagy, Mohamed A

    2009-10-16

    ) significantly increased in HFD in comparison with the control group. The treatment with L-carnitine or HMF improved the condition. HFD elevated hepatic MDA and lipid peroxidation associated with reduction in hepatic GSH and catalase activity; whereas administration of L-carnitine or herbal extract significantly ameliorated these hepatic alterations. HFD induced obesity associated with a disturbed lipid profile, defective antioxidant stability, and high values of IR parameters; this may have implications for the progress of obesity related problems. Treatment with L-carnitine, or HMF extract improved obesity and its associated metabolic problems in different degrees. Also HMF has antioxidant, hypolipidaemic insulin sensitizing effects. Moreover HMF might be a safe combination on the organs whose functions were examined, as a way to surmount the obesity state; and it has a distinct anti-obesity effect.

  12. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats

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    Amin Kamal A

    2009-10-01

    , hyperinsulinemia, and high insulin resistance (IR significantly increased in HFD in comparison with the control group. The treatment with L-carnitine or HMF improved the condition. HFD elevated hepatic MDA and lipid peroxidation associated with reduction in hepatic GSH and catalase activity; whereas administration of L-carnitine or herbal extract significantly ameliorated these hepatic alterations. Conclusion HFD induced obesity associated with a disturbed lipid profile, defective antioxidant stability, and high values of IR parameters; this may have implications for the progress of obesity related problems. Treatment with L-carnitine, or HMF extract improved obesity and its associated metabolic problems in different degrees. Also HMF has antioxidant, hypolipidaemic insulin sensitizing effects. Moreover HMF might be a safe combination on the organs whose functions were examined, as a way to surmount the obesity state; and it has a distinct anti-obesity effect.

  13. Prophylactic effects of Clausena excavata Burum. f. leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaayit SFA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas Albaayit,1,2 Yusuf Abba,3 Rasedee Abdullah,4 Noorlidah Abdullah1 1Faculty of Science, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; 3Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, 4Department of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Clausena excavata is a natural herb with both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been used for decades in folkloric practice for the amelioration of various ailments. In this study, the gastroprotective activity of methanolic extract of C. excavata leaves (MECE was determined in the Sprague Dawley rat ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Rats were pretreated with a single dose of vehicle (5% Tween 20, 20 mg/mL omeprazole, 400 and 200 mg/mL of MECE dissolved in 5% Tween 20. Ulcer was induced with 5 mL/kg of ethanol and stomach tissue was obtained after 1 hour. Histological examination was done on hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and immunochemically stained gastric mucosal tissues. Prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation levels of the gastric tissue homogenates were also determined. Significantly (P<0.05 smaller ulcer areas, less intense edema, and fewer leukocytes’ infiltration were observed in MECE- and omeprazole-treated than in untreated gastric mucosa with ulcer. The gastric pH, mucus production, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase contents increased, while the lipid peroxidation content decreased as a result of MECE treatment. Bcl-2-associated X protein was underexpressed, while heat shock protein 70 and transforming growth factor-beta protein were overexpressed in the ulcerated gastric mucosa tissues treated with omeprazole and MECE. Similarly, there was a reduction in

  14. The protective effect of PRMT6 overexpression on cigarette smoke extract-induced murine emphysema model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He X

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Xue He,1–3 Tiao Li,1–3 Naixin Kang,1–3 Huihui Zeng,1–3 Siying Ren,1–3 Dandan Zong,1–3 Jinhua Li,1–3 Shan Cai,1–3 Ping Chen,1–3 Yan Chen1–3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, 2Research Unit of Respiratory Disease, 3Diagnosis and Treatment Center of Respiratory Disease, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China Background: Cigarette smoke exposure is the most common risk factor for emphysema, which is one of the major pathologies of COPD. Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6 is a nuclear enzyme that specially catalyzes dimethylation of R2 in histone H3 (H3R2me2a. H3R2me2a prevents trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me3, which is located in the transcription start sites of genes in mammalian genomes. We attempted to determine the expression of PRMT6 in human samples, and investigate whether the upregulation of PRMT6 expression can attenuate the development of cigarette smoke extract (CSE-induced emphysema. Further experiments were performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved.Materials and methods: Human lung tissues were obtained from patients undergoing pneumonectomy for benign pulmonary lesions. BALB/c mice were treated with lentiviral vectors intratracheally and injected with CSE three times. The protein expression of PRMT6, H3R2me2a, and H3K4me3 in human and mouse samples, as well as B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in mice were detected in lung homogenates by Western blotting. The mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, Bcl-2, Bax, and eNOS in mice was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: The expression of PRMT6 was significantly downregulated in the pulmonary parenchyma in smokers with COPD as well as in mice treated with CSE. Overexpression of PRMT6 was detected in the CSE + Lenti-PRMT6 group of mice, which reversed the expression of H3R2me2a and H3K4me3

  15. Protective Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. fruit extract against calcium oxalate monohydrate induced proximal tubular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraft-Bahloul, Nassima; Husson, Cécile; Ourtioualous, Meriam; Sinaeve, Sébastien; Atmani, Djebbar; Stévigny, Caroline; Nortier, Joëlle L; Antoine, Marie-Hélène

    2017-09-14

    The world prevalence of kidney stones is increasing and plants are frequently used to treat urolithiasis. Pistacia lentiscus L, a plant which freely grows around the Mediterranean basin areas, is widely used for various pathologies. P. lentiscus has an important impact as it has economical value on top of its pharmacological interest. Decoctions of its aerial parts and/or resin are used to treat kidney stones. To in vitro assess the potential nephroprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus ethanolic fruit extract (PLEF) on proximal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Human Kidney [HK]-2 cells were incubated with and without COM in the presence or absence of PLEF. Cell viability was measured by the resazurin assay. The expression of E-cadherin was analyzed by PCR. The extracellular production of H 2 O 2 was measured by Amplex® Red H 2 O 2 Assay. The numbers of detached or non-adherent COM crystals in the presence of PLEF were microscopically captured and counted using ImageJ software. The interaction of PLEF with COM and the effect of PLEF on crystal size were analyzed by flow cytometry. The spectrophotometric measurement of turbidity was performed for assessing the COM concentration. PLEF incubated with COM was able to increase the cell viability. The decrease of E-cadherin expression after incubation with COM was counteracted by PLEF. Overproduction of H 2 O 2 induced by COM was also inhibited by PLEF. Observations using flow cytometry showed that interactions between PLEF and the COM crystals occurred. PLEF was also effective in reducing the particles size and in lowering COM concentration. Our data show that COM tubulotoxicity can be significantly reversed by PLEF -at least in part- via an inhibition of COM crystals adhesion onto the apical membrane. This early beneficial effect of PLEF needs to be further investigated as a useful strategy in nephrolithiasis prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  16. Ginkgo Biloba Extract Kaempferol Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Aaron Y.; Li, Min; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi

    2010-01-01

    Background Kaempferol is one of the most important constituents in ginkgo flavonoids. Recent studies indicate kaempferol may have anti-tumor activities. The objective in this study was to determine the effect and mechanisms of kaempferol on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Materials and Methods Pancreatic cancer cell lines MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1 were treated with Kampferol, and the inhibitory effects of kaempferol on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation were examined by direct cell counting, 3H-thymidine incorporation and MTS assay. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from cells was determined as an index of cytotoxicity. Apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL assay. Results Upon the treatment with 70 μM kaempferol for 4 days, MIA PaCa-2 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by 79% and 45.7% as determined by direct cell counting and MTS assay, respectively, compared with control cells (Pkaempferol significantly inhibited Panc-1 cell proliferation. Kaempferol treatment also significantly reduced 3H-thymidine incorporation in both MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells. Combination treatment of low concentrations of kaempferol and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) showed an additive effect on the inhibition of MIA PaCa-2 cell proliferation. Furthermore, kaempferol had a significantly less cytotoxicity than 5-FU in normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (P=0.029). In both MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells, apoptotic cell population was increased when treated with kaempferol in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions Ginkgo biloba extract kaempferol effectively inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and induces cancer cell apoptosis, which may sensitize pancreatic tumor cells to chemotherapy. Kaempferol may have clinical applications as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:18570926

  17. Carvacrol and Pomegranate Extract in Treating Methotrexate-Induced Lung Oxidative Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Hadice Selimoğlu; Şen, Velat; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Türkçü, Gül; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Sezgi, Cengizhan; Abakay, Özlem; Kaplan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carvacrol (CRV) and pomegranate extract (PE) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced lung injury in rats. Material/Methods A total of 32 male rats were subdivided into 4 groups: control (group I), MTX treated (group II), MTX+CRV treated (group III), and MTX+PE treated (group IV). A single dose of 73 mg/kg CRV was administered intraperitoneally to rats in group III on Day 1 of the investigation. To group IV, a dose of 225 mg/kg of PE was administered via orogastric gavage once daily over 7 days. A single dose of 20 mg/kg of MTX was given intraperitoneally to groups II, III, and IV on Day 2. The total duration of experiment was 8 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured from rat lung tissues and cardiac blood samples. Results Serum and lung specimen analyses demonstrated that MDA, TOS, and OSI levels were significantly greater in group II relative to controls. Conversely, the TAC level was significantly reduced in group II when compared to the control group. Pre-administering either CRV or PE was associated with decreased MDA, TOS, and OSI levels and increased TAC levels compared to rats treated with MTX alone. Histopathological examination revealed that lung injury was less severe in group III and IV relative to group II. Conclusions MTX treatment results in rat lung oxidative damage that is partially counteracted by pretreatment with either CRV or PE. PMID:25326861

  18. Radioprotection by Tinospora cordifolia root extract against gamma radiation induced testicular toxicity in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Goyal, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the deleterious effects of gamma radiation on testicular tissue and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCE). For this purpose, Swiss albino male mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) was administered double distilled water volume equal to TCE (75 mg/kg.b.wt/animal) by oral gavage. Group II was supplemented TCE as 75 mg/kg.b.wt once daily for 5 consecutive days. Group III (irradiated control) divided into three sub groups a, b and c, received DDW orally equivalent to TCE for 5 days then exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 Gy gamma radiation, respectively. Group IV (irradiated experimental) was administered TCE and exposed to gamma radiation (as in group III). Animals from all the above mentioned groups were necropsied at various post-treatment intervals between 12 hrs and 30 days. Following radiation exposure, the spermatogonial population and spermatid counts decreased incessantly in a dose-dependent manner (2.5<5.0<7.5 Gy) from 12 hrs to 7th day post-irradiation but thereafter a statically significant increase in the number of spermatogonia was recorded however but the normal counts could not be obtained even by the last autopsy interval. In contrast, TCE pre-treatment resulted in the increased counts of all the types of spermatogenic cells as well as spermatids as compared to the irradiated controls, but the normal score could not be achieved in none of the group except that irradiated to 2.5 Gy gamma rays. Furthermore, these animals showed a significant restoration in radiation-induced elevated level of LPO, glutathione and catalase activity in testes at all the dose levels. These observations indicate that the TCE can be use as an efficient radio-protector against radiation mediated testicular injuries in mammals. (author)

  19. DNA damage induced in mouse tissues by organic wood preserving waste extracts as assayed by {sup 32}P-postlabeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerath, E. [Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Zhou, G.D. [Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Donnelly, K.C. [Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Safe, S.H. [Department of Veterinary Physiology/Pharmacology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Randerath, K. [Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    In the present study, a mouse bioassay was used in combination with {sup 32}P-postlabeling to determine DNA adduct formation induced by hexane/acetone extracts of two samples from a WPW site. Female ICR mice were treated dermally with extract corresponding to 3 mg residue or vehicle control once per day for 2 days and killed 24 h later. Skin, lung, liver, kidney, and heart DNA preparations were assayed by nuclease P1-enhanced postlabeling. Adduct profiles were tissue-specific and displayed a multitude of non-polar DNA adducts with levels amounting to one adduct in 1.6 x 10{sup 6} DNA nucleotides in skin (both extracts) and one adduct in 3.2 x 10{sup 7} or 1.2 x 10{sup 7} DNA nucleotides in liver (extract 1 or extract 2). Based on their chromatographic properties, these adducts appeared largely derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the extracts. One of the major adducts was identified as the {sup 32}P-labeled derivative of the reaction product of 7{beta}, 8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9{alpha}, 10{alpha}-epoxy-7, 8, 9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE I) with N{sup 2} of deoxyguanosine. Total non-polar DNA adduct levels were highest in skin and lung, amounting to 17.4 and 24.0% of the skin values for extracts 1 and 2, respectively, in lung while the corresponding levels in liver were 5.0 and 12.6%. These results were in accord with the carcinogenic potencies of PAHs in these organs. Extract 2 induced higher adduct levels in internal organs, although its PAH concentrations were lower than those of extract 1, i.e. lung, liver, kidney, and heart had 1.4, 2.5, 1.9, and 1.7 times higher total adduct levels and 1.6, 3.3, 1.6, and 1.9 times higher benzo[a]pyrene adduct levels. With the exception of total adducts in lung, the differences between the two extracts were all significant, suggestive of compound interactions. (orig.) (orig.). With 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. DNA damage induced in mouse tissues by organic wood preserving waste extracts as assayed by 32P-postlabeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randerath, E.; Zhou, G.D.; Donnelly, K.C.; Safe, S.H.; Randerath, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, a mouse bioassay was used in combination with 32 P-postlabeling to determine DNA adduct formation induced by hexane/acetone extracts of two samples from a WPW site. Female ICR mice were treated dermally with extract corresponding to 3 mg residue or vehicle control once per day for 2 days and killed 24 h later. Skin, lung, liver, kidney, and heart DNA preparations were assayed by nuclease P1-enhanced postlabeling. Adduct profiles were tissue-specific and displayed a multitude of non-polar DNA adducts with levels amounting to one adduct in 1.6 x 10 6 DNA nucleotides in skin (both extracts) and one adduct in 3.2 x 10 7 or 1.2 x 10 7 DNA nucleotides in liver (extract 1 or extract 2). Based on their chromatographic properties, these adducts appeared largely derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the extracts. One of the major adducts was identified as the 32 P-labeled derivative of the reaction product of 7β, 8α-dihydroxy-9α, 10α-epoxy-7, 8, 9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE I) with N 2 of deoxyguanosine. Total non-polar DNA adduct levels were highest in skin and lung, amounting to 17.4 and 24.0% of the skin values for extracts 1 and 2, respectively, in lung while the corresponding levels in liver were 5.0 and 12.6%. These results were in accord with the carcinogenic potencies of PAHs in these organs. Extract 2 induced higher adduct levels in internal organs, although its PAH concentrations were lower than those of extract 1, i.e. lung, liver, kidney, and heart had 1.4, 2.5, 1.9, and 1.7 times higher total adduct levels and 1.6, 3.3, 1.6, and 1.9 times higher benzo[a]pyrene adduct levels. With the exception of total adducts in lung, the differences between the two extracts were all significant, suggestive of compound interactions. (orig.) (orig.). With 5 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus racemosus root extract against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Sharmila, K.P.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice. Micronucleus assay was performed in the bone marrow of Swiss albino mice according to the method of Hosseinimehr et al., 2003. The experimental animals were orally administered 200 mg/kg body weight of ARE once daily for 15 consecutive days. At the end of experimental period, the animals were euthanized and the bone marrow was collected from the femur. Control (C), Radiation control (RC) and drug control (DC) group was also maintained. The number of radiation induced Micronucleated Polychromatic Erythrocytes (MnPCE) and Micronucleated Normochromatic Erythrocytes were decreased in the ARE treated mice which was statistically significant (p<0.05) compared to radiation control group. Present findings demonstrate the antigenotoxic potential of ARE against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation which may be attributed to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals

  2. Inhibition of IRAK-4 activity for rescuing endotoxin LPS-induced septic mortality in mice by lonicerae flos extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hong; Roh, Eunmiri [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung-Il [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Nam Song [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Narae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsoo, E-mail: youngsoo@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate, Phase I for sepsis treatment. •Here, HS-23 or its major constituents rescued LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. •As a mechanism, they directly inhibited IRAK-4-catalyzed kinase activity. •Thus, they suppressed LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes. -- Abstract: Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate currently undergoing Phase I trial in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected healthy human volunteers, but its molecular basis remains to be defined. Here, we investigated protective effects of HS-23 or its major constituents on Escherichia coli LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. Intravenous treatment with HS-23 rescued LPS-intoxicated C57BL/6J mice under septic conditions, and decreased the levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) in the blood. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its isomers were assigned as major constituents of HS-23 in the protection against endotoxemia. As a molecular mechanism, HS-23 or CGA isomers inhibited endotoxin LPS-induced autophosphorylation of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) in mouse peritoneal macrophages as well as the kinase activity of IRAK-4 in cell-free reactions. HS-23 consequently suppressed downstream pathways critical for LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB or activating protein 1 (AP-1) in the peritoneal macrophages. HS-23 also inhibited various toll-like receptor agonists-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and down-regulated LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes in the cells. Taken together, HS-23 or CGA isomers exhibited anti-inflammatory therapy against LPS-induced septic mortality in mice, at least in part, mediated through the inhibition of IRAK-4.

  3. Effect of aqueous bark extract of Garuga pinnata Roxb. in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaikar, Annie; Rajendran, K; Barik, Rakesh

    2006-09-19

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of bark of Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae). The various parameters studied included fasting blood sugar levels, serum lipid levels, liver glycogen content, serum insulin level and glycated hemoglobin in diabetic and normal rats. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide was used to induce type-II diabetes mellitus. Treatment with the extract at two dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the HDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased upon treatment with the extract thus proving the potent antidiabetic property of the plant.

  4. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Hydroponic Stevia rebaudiana Aqueous Extract in Hyperglycemia Induced by Immobilization Stress in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anush Aghajanyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a serious worldwide problem related to human hyperglycemia. Thus, herbal preparations with antihyperglycemic properties especially leaf extracts of hydroponic Stevia rebaudiana (SR would be useful in hyperglycemia treatment. The antihyperglycemic potential of this medicinal plant grown using hydroponics methods has been evaluated. Significant reduction of some biochemical characteristics for sugars and fatty acids in blood, liver, and muscle especially fasting glucose levels, serum triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol levels, and increased HDL-cholesterol ones was shown with SR aqueous extract treatment. Therefore, the aqueous extract of SR is suggested to have antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity and to restore liver and muscle glycogen levels (hepatoprotective effects in hyperglycemia induced by immobilization stress in rabbits and might be recommended for treatment of DM (hyperglycemia.

  5. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Hydroponic Stevia rebaudiana Aqueous Extract in Hyperglycemia Induced by Immobilization Stress in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanyan, Anush; Movsisyan, Zaruhi

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious worldwide problem related to human hyperglycemia. Thus, herbal preparations with antihyperglycemic properties especially leaf extracts of hydroponic Stevia rebaudiana (SR) would be useful in hyperglycemia treatment. The antihyperglycemic potential of this medicinal plant grown using hydroponics methods has been evaluated. Significant reduction of some biochemical characteristics for sugars and fatty acids in blood, liver, and muscle especially fasting glucose levels, serum triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol levels, and increased HDL-cholesterol ones was shown with SR aqueous extract treatment. Therefore, the aqueous extract of SR is suggested to have antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity and to restore liver and muscle glycogen levels (hepatoprotective effects) in hyperglycemia induced by immobilization stress in rabbits and might be recommended for treatment of DM (hyperglycemia). PMID:28758125

  6. The effects of Pretreatment with stomach extract on the incidence of x-ray-induced gastric tumor in ICR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Naito, Masashi; Kawashima, Kengo; Ito, Akihiro

    1984-01-01

    The effect of crude stomach extracts (CSE) on X-ray-induced gastric tumorigenesis was examined. ICR mice were treated with two or four administrations of CSE at one-week intervals then irradiated with 20 Gy of X-rays one week after the final CSE administration. Unexpectedly, the incidence of X-ray-induced tumors was not significantly altered by two CSE pretreatments but was markedly reduced by four CSE pretreatments. Similarly, erosion and squamous metaplasia produced in the glandular stomach a week after X-irradiation were markedly diminished by four CSE pretreatments but not by two CSE pretreatments. (author)

  7. Asparagus cochinchinensis Extract Alleviates Metal Ion-Induced Gut Injury in Drosophila: An In Silico Analysis of Potential Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ions and sulfate are components of atmospheric pollutants that have diverse ways of entering the human body. We used Drosophila as a model to investigate the effect of Asparagus cochinchinensis (A. cochinchinensis extracts on the gut and characterized gut homeostasis following the ingestion of metal ions (copper, zinc, and aluminum. In this study, we found that the aqueous A. cochinchinensis extract increased the survival rate, decreased epithelial cell death, and attenuated metal ion-induced gut morphological changes in flies following chronic exposure to metal ions. In addition, we screened out, by network pharmacology, six natural products (NPs that could serve as putative active components of A. cochinchinensis that prevented gut injury. Altogether, the results of our study provide evidence that A. cochinchinensis might be an effective phytomedicine for the treatment of metal ion-induced gut injury.

  8. A Vitex agnus-castus extract inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in prostate epithelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, M; Schaffner, W; Jundt, G; Sulser, T; Wyler, S; Tullberg-Reinert, H

    2005-10-01

    Extracts of Vitex agnus-castus fruits (VACF) are described to have beneficial effects on disorders related to hyperprolactinemia (cycle disorders, premenstrual syndrome). A VACF extract has recently been shown to exhibit antitumor activities in different human cancer cell lines. In the present study, we explored the antiproliferative effects of a VACF extract with a particular focus on apoptosis-inducing and potential cytotoxic effects. Three different human prostate epithelial cell lines (BPH-1, LNCaP, PC-3) representing different disease stages and androgen responsiveness were chosen. The action of VACF on cell viability was assessed using the WST-8-tetrazolium assay. Cell proliferation in cells receiving VACF alone or in combination with a pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-fmk) was quantified using a Crystal Violet assay. Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis and measurement of DNA fragmentation using an ELISA method were used for studying the induction of apoptosis. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was determined as a marker of cytotoxicity. The extract inhibited proliferation of all three cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner with IC (50) values below 10 microg/mL after treatment for 48 h. Cell cycle analysis and DNA fragmentation assays suggest that part of the cells were undergoing apoptosis. The VACF-induced decrease in cell number was partially inhibited by Z-VAD-fmk, indicating a caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. However, the concentration-dependent LDH activity of VACF treated cells indicated cytotoxic effects as well. These data suggest that VACF contains components that inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cell lines. The extract may be useful for the prevention and/or treatment not only of benign prostatic hyperplasia but also of human prostate cancer.

  9. Antihyperlipidemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Dodonaea viscosa Leaves Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqsood Ahmad, Qaisar Mahmood, Kamran Gulzar1, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar1, Mohammad Saleem and Muhammad Imran Qadir*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is associated with diabetes and hepatotoxicity has emerged as a common clinical complication by antidiabetics. The present study was conducted to determine the antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective activity of Dodonaea viscosa leaves extracts in the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The rabbits (n = 70 were divided into seven groups including normal and diabetic control, the remaining were aqueous, aqueous:methanol (70:30, aqueous:methanol (50:50, aqueous: methanol (30:70, and methanol extracts given for 30 days. Serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, ALT and AST were estimated by using commercially available kits. The oral administration of aqueous:methanol (70:30 extract of the Dodonaea viscosa leaves significantly (P<0.01 decreased the raised parameters (triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to normal values. But the extract has significantly increased HDL-cholesterol, ALT and AST levels. For the aqueous:methanol (70:30 extract given animals, the average serum level of total cholesterol was 60.00±1.30 mg/dL, LDL-cholesterol was 92.80±2.29 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol was 31.80±1.0 mg/dL and triglyceride was 15.40±0.75 mg/dL while the average serum levels of ALT and AST were 45.60±3.08 and 27.20±1.36 IU/dL, respectively. It is concluded from the study that aqueous:methanolic (70:30 extract of Dodonaea viscosa leaves exerts antihy- perlipidemic and hepatoprotective effects in the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  10. The effect of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from Opuntia ficus-indica in a mouse model of diet induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Torres, Nimbe; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Noriega, Lilia G; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Leal-Díaz, Ana M; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Márquez-Mota, Claudia; Ordaz, Guillermo; Chavez-Santoscoy, Rocío A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-03-01

    A diet rich in polyphenols can ameliorate some metabolic alterations associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a plant rich in isorhamnetin glycosides and is highly consumed in Mexico. The purpose of this research was to determine the metabolic effect of an OFI extract on a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and in isolated pancreatic islets. OFI extract was added to a high fat (HF) diet at a low (0.3%) or high (0.6%) dose and administered to C57BL/6 mice for 12 weeks. Mice fed the HF diet supplemented with the OFI extract gained less body weight and exhibited significantly lower circulating total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to those fed the HF diet alone. The HF-OFI diet fed mice presented lower glucose and insulin concentration than the HF diet fed mice. However, the HF-OFI diet fed mice tended to have higher insulin concentration than control mice. The OFI extract stimulated insulin secretion in vitro, associated with increased glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA content. Furthermore, the OFI extract improved glucose tolerance, and additionally increased energy expenditure. These metabolic improvements were associated with reduced adipocyte size, increased hepatic IRS1 tyr-608 and S6 K thr-389 phosphorylation. OFI isorhamnetin glycosides also diminished the hepatic lipid content associated with reduced mRNA expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and lipogenic enzymes and increased mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation. Overall, the OFI extract prevented the development of metabolic abnormalities associated with diet-induced obesity.

  11. Effects of Trichilia monadelpha (Meliaceae extracts on bone histomorphology in complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INEMESIT OKON BEN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effect of petroleum ether extract (PEE, ethyl acetate extract (EthE, and ethanol extract (EAE of Trichilia monadelpha stem bark on bone histomorphology in arthritis. Methods: Percentage inhibition of edema and arthritic scores in complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced (0.1 ml of 5 mgml-1 of heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in paraffin oil injected sub-plantar into the right hind paw arthritic Sprague-Dawley rats treated with PEE, EthE, or EAE (10, 30, and 100 mgkg-1, dexamethasone (0.3-3.0 mgkg-1 or methotrexate (0.1–1.0 mgkg-1 over a 28-day period were estimated. Rat paws were radiographed and scored. Body weights were taken and paw tissues harvested for histopathological studies. Results: The extracts significantly (P≤0.01-0.0001 and dose-dependently reduced the polyarthritic phase of arthritis. EAE and PEE significantly (P≤0.01-0.0001 minimized edema spread from acute arthritic phase (day 0-10 to polyarthritic phase (day 10-28. EthE improved deteriorated body weight in arthritis. All extracts significantly (P≤0.05-0.01 improved arthritic score; reducing erythema, swelling and joint rigidity, and also significantly (P≤0.05-0.01 reduced hyperplasia, pannus formation, and exudation of inflammatory cells into synovial spaces. Conclusion: The stem bark extracts of Trichilia monadelpha reduce bone tissue damage and resorption associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis, hence could be useful in managing arthritis in humans. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 177-185

  12. Effect of acacia nilotica leaves extract on hyperglycaemia, lipid profile and platelet aggregation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Munir, T.A.; Nadeem, A.

    2011-01-01

    To consider new hypoglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-platelet aggregation sources, aqueous methanol extract of Acacia Nilotica (AN) leaves was investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 90 out of 120 male albino rats by administering 50 mg/Kg body weight (bw) streptozotocin intraperitoneal y, and was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose level >200 mg/dL on fourth post-induction day. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups, A (normal control), B (diabetic control), C (diabetics rats treated with plant extract) and group D (diabetics rats treated with glyburide). The rats of group C and D were given single dose of 300 mg/Kg bw, An extract, and 900 micro g/Kg bw glyburide respectively for 3 weeks. Blood glucose levels were measured by gluco meter, platelet aggregation by Dia Med method, beta-thrombo globulin and insulin by ELISA technique, and lipid components were measured by enzymatic calorimetric method. Results: Significant differences (p<0.05) were noticed in blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats treated with AN extract and glyburide as compared to diabetic controlled rats. A significant difference (p<0.05) in beta-thrombo globulin and LDL levels was also noticed in rats treated with glyburide than the diabetic controlled rats. The levels of fasting blood glucose, beta-thrombo globulin and platelet aggregation were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in diabetic rats treated with glyburide than AN extract treated rats. Conclusions: Administration of AN leaves extract showed hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide. (author)

  13. Walnut Polyphenol Extract Attenuates Immunotoxicity Induced by 4-Pentylphenol and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in Murine Splenic Lymphocyte

    OpenAIRE

    Lubing Yang; Sihui Ma; Yu Han; Yuhan Wang; Yan Guo; Qiang Weng; Meiyu Xu

    2016-01-01

    4-pentylphenol (PP) and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC), two important components of vehicle emissions, have been shown to confer toxicity in splenocytes. Certain natural products, such as those derived from walnuts, exhibit a range of antioxidative, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we investigated the effects of walnut polyphenol extract (WPE) on immunotoxicity induced by PP and PNMC in murine splenic lymphocytes. Treatment with WPE was shown to significantly enhance prolifer...

  14. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Hibiscus Polyphenol Rich Extract (HPE) Against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCL4) - Induced Damage in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adetutu, Adewale; Owoade, Abiodun O.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Hibiscus sabdariffa is a medicinal plant that is consumed for its health benefits in Africa. The study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective potentials of Hibiscus polyphenolic rich extract (HPE), (a group of phenolic compounds occurring in the dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa) against CCl4-induced damaged in rats. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria, between January 2011 and June 2012. Method...

  15. An orally active Cannabis extract with high content in cannabidiol attenuates chemical induced intestinal inflammation and hypermotility in the mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Pagano; Raffaele Capasso; Fabiana Piscitelli; Barbara Romano; Olga Alessandra Parisi; Stefania Finizio; Anna Lauritano; Vincenzo Di Marzo; Angelo A Izzo; Francesca Borrelli

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for CBD botanical drug substance, on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was ev...

  16. Anticancer activity and apoptosis inducing effect of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma against human cancer cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Azizur Rahman; Arshad Hussain

    2015-01-01

    MTT assay and DAPI staining test were performed to evaluate anticancer potential and to assess apoptosis inducing effect of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma leaves (MECD) against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Changes in MMP and intracellular ROS level were also assessed by JC-1 and DCFH-DA staining. Total phenolic contents were determined by colorimetric principle. Levels of statistical significance were determined by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett’s posttest...

  17. Effect of Trifolium sp. Flowers extracts on the Status of Liver Histology of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlRawi, Maisaa M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study deals with the effect of (water, hexane and ethanol) extracts prepared from the flower head of clover flowers (CF) (Trifolium alexandrinum), in the treatment of diabetes induced experimentally by streptozotocin (STZ) in male rats. More than fifty percent of diabetic rats were died by 48 hours post streptozotocin injection. A single dose of STZ (50mg/kg body weight) induced destruction of the liver architecture, cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes and nuclei of many cells revealed clear signs of necrosis, leucocytic infiltration, liver fibrosis and fatty infiltration. Moreover, Dilatation and inflammation in central vein and blood vessels, the portal veins appeared congested with blood with fibrosis and leucocytic infiltration around it. After treatment with water, hexan and ethanol extracts of CF remarkable improvement in histological structure of liver sections of diabetic rats, the water extract is more potent than hexane and ethanol extracts. Thus, the result of the present study provides a scientific rationale for the use of Trifolium alexandrinum as promising antidiabetic agent. (author)

  18. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  19. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract from the leaves of Artocarpus altilis "breadfruit" in Rattus norvegicus induced hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Campos Florián

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to demonstrate the hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis, in a model of acute hyperlipidemia induced with triton X-305, using Rattus norvegicus specimens males, mean weight 204.5 g, who were orally administered 0.05 g/100g and 0.2 g/100 g of aqueous extract of A. altilis; included a negative control group received physiological saline and hyperlipidemic positive control group. After 24 hours of administering the treatments were made measurements of the concentrations of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Found significant reductions (p < 0.01 in both cholesterol and triglyceride levels relative to the positive control group. We also found a significant difference (p < 0.01 between triglyceride concentrations of the animals treated with both doses of the aqueous extract of A. altilis. Conclude that the aqueous extract from the leaves of A. altilis has hypolipidemic effect at the doses tested for the model of hyperlipidemia induced with triton X-305.

  20. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-09-11

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke ( Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight) by gavage once daily. Up to 40% alcohol (12 mL/kg body weight) was administered orally 1 h after artichoke treatment. All mice were fed for 10 consecutive days. Results showed that artichoke extract significantly prevented elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, the decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were elevated by artichoke administration. Histopathological examination showed that artichoke attenuated degeneration, inflammatory infiltration and necrosis of hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in liver tissues were significantly suppressed by artichoke treatment. Results obtained demonstrated that artichoke extract exhibited significant preventive protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury. This finding is mainly attributed to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and suppress the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway. To the best of our knowledge, the underlying mechanisms of artichoke on acute ALD have been rarely reported.

  1. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe(2+) chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress.

  2. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata against intoxication of thioacetamide induced rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Das

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaves extracts of Oxalis corniculata L., Oxalidaceae, against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats of either sex by subcutaneous injection of thioacetamide. An aqueous and ethanolic extract of aerial parts of O. corniculata (200 and 400 mg/kg/day were evaluated. Oral administration of O. corniculata aqueous and ethanolic leaves extract at 400 mg/kg resulted in a significant reduction in SGOT (146.42±2.54 and 136.75±1.37 IU/L respectively, SGPT (81.96±3.15 and 72.05±2.33 IU/L respectively, GGTP (16.6±0.49 and 15.02±0.68 IU/L respectively, ALP (241.86±3.94 and 202.42±5.37 IU/L respectively and total bilirubin (0.226±0.00 mg/dL 0.288±0.01 mg/dL respectively content that were lesser than positive control, thioacetamide damaged rats. Histology of the liver sections of the animals treated with the extract also showed dose dependent reduction of necrosis. Hence the study concluded that O. corniculata has potential hepatoprotective activity.

  3. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata against intoxication of thioacetamide induced rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Das

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaves extracts of Oxalis corniculata L., Oxalidaceae, against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats of either sex by subcutaneous injection of thioacetamide. An aqueous and ethanolic extract of aerial parts of O. corniculata (200 and 400 mg/kg/day were evaluated. Oral administration of O. corniculata aqueous and ethanolic leaves extract at 400 mg/kg resulted in a significant reduction in SGOT (146.42±2.54 and 136.75±1.37 IU/L respectively, SGPT (81.96±3.15 and 72.05±2.33 IU/L respectively, GGTP (16.6±0.49 and 15.02±0.68 IU/L respectively, ALP (241.86±3.94 and 202.42±5.37 IU/L respectively and total bilirubin (0.226±0.00 mg/dL 0.288±0.01 mg/dL respectively content that were lesser than positive control, thioacetamide damaged rats. Histology of the liver sections of the animals treated with the extract also showed dose dependent reduction of necrosis. Hence the study concluded that O. corniculata has potential hepatoprotective activity.

  4. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.