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Sample records for extract induced significant

  1. Herbal tea extract combined with light-induced significant in vitro cytotoxicity of human bladder cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseyo, Unyime; Kim, Albert; Stavropoulos, Nicholas E.; Skalkos, Dimitris; Nseyo, U. U.; Chung, Theodore D.

    2005-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antiviral, and antidepressant activities of the Greek herb, Hypericum Perforatum L, HP L, have been attributed to the total extract or single constituents. We investigated the use of the extract,specifically of the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) of Epirus"HPL in photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone and in combination with recombinant Interferon-a2b (IFN) and gemcitabine (GCB) in the treatment of human bladder cancer cells. The PMF was extracted from the dry herb with methanol, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with petroleum ether. T-24 bladder cancer cells were plated (105 cells/well) and placed in the incubator (370 C, 5%CO) for 24 hours prior to addition of drugs. PMF 60ug/ml was added and incubation continued. After 24 hours, the cells were subjected to laser light (630nm) treatment with 0, 1, 4 and 8 Joules. After reincubation for 24 hours, IFN, (50,000 IU) or GCB, (2ug/ml) was added to the PDT-treated cells. After this incubation cell survival was assessed by the MTT assay. PMF-PDT alone-induced percent cell kill of 0%, 8%, 44% and 80% versus 31%, 64 and 86 % for PMF-PDT and IFN, versus 63%, 80% and 88% for MPF-PDT plus GCB at 1, 2, 4 and 8 Joules respectively. IFN and GCB induced 20% and 53% cell kill respectively. Our data suggest that MPF may be an effective agent for in vitro photodynamic therapy. PMF-PDT combined with Intron A, or gemcitabine achieved improved kill of cultured bladder cancer cells. Confirmation of these results in preclinical studies may lead to clinical trials.

  2. ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, significantly improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, So Young; Lee, Ki Yong; Koo, Kyung Ah; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Lim, Song Won; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2005-02-25

    We assessed the effects of oral treatments of ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, on learning and memory deficit. The cognition-enhancing effect of ESP-102 was investigated in scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) amnesic mice with both passive avoidance and Morris water maze performance tests. Acute oral treatment (single administration prior to scopolamine treatment) of mice with ESP-102 (doses in the range of 10 to 100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the passive avoidance performance test. Another noteworthy result included the fact that prolonged oral daily treatments of mice with much lower amounts of ESP-102 (1 and 10 mg/kg body weight) for ten days reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits. In the Morris water maze performance test, both acute and prolonged oral treatments with ESP-102 (single administration of 100 mg/kg body weight or prolonged daily administration of 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight for ten days, respectively, significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory deficits as indicated by the formation of long-term and/or short-term spatial memory. In addition, we investigated the effects of ESP-102 on neurotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta25-35) or glutamate in primary cultured cortical neurons of rats. Pretreatment of cultures with ESP-102 (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mug/ml) significantly protected neurons from neurotoxicity induced by either glutamate or Abeta25-35. These results suggest that ESP-102 may have some protective characteristics against neuronal cell death and cognitive impairments often observed in Alzheimer's disease, stroke, ischemic injury and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-08-01

    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  4. Automatically extracting the significant aspects evaluated in game reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Chiok Hoong; Ng, Yen Kaow

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the criteria (or "aspects") that reviewers use to evaluate games is important to game developers and publishers, since this will give them important input on how to improve their products. Techniques for the extraction of such aspects have been studied by others, albeit not specific to the gaming industry. In this paper we demonstrate an aspect extraction and analysis system specific to computer games. The system extracts game review texts from a list of known websites and automatically extracts candidate aspects from the review text using techniques from natural language processing and sentiment analysis. It then ranks the candidate aspects using the HITS algorithm. To evaluate the correctness of the extracted aspects, we used the system to calculate an overall score for each game by aggregating its highly-rated aspects, weighted by the importance of the respective aspects. The aggregated scores resulted in a ranking of games, which we compared to a known ranking from a popular website - the rankings showed overall consistency, which suggests that the system has extracted valuable aspects from the reviews. Using the extracted aspect, our system also facilitates the analysis of a game, by evaluating how review articles have rated its performance in these extracted aspects.

  5. extract attenuates MPTP-induced oxidative stress and behavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on oxidative stress levels were assessed by estimating enzyme status, ... Results: MPTP (25 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated mice resulted in a significant (p ... Conclusion: CCY extract exhibits strong protection against MPTP-induced behavioral deficit through ..... cuminol, cymine, cuminaldehyde, limonene, ... Antibacterial effect of plant.

  6. Glioprotective Effects of Ashwagandha Leaf Extract against Lead Induced Toxicity

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    Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, also known as Indian Ginseng, is a well-known Indian medicinal plant due to its antioxidative, antistress, antigenotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to assess and establish the cytoprotective potential of Ashwagandha leaf aqueous extract against lead induced toxicity. Pretreatment of C6 cells with 0.1% Ashwagandha extract showed cytoprotection against 25 μM to 400 μM concentration of lead nitrate. Further pretreatment with Ashwagandha extract to lead nitrate exposed cells (200 μM resulted in normalization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression as well as heat shock protein (HSP70, mortalin, and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM expression. Further, the cytoprotective efficacy of Ashwagandha extract was studied in vivo. Administration of Ashwagandha extract provided significant protection to lead induced altered antioxidant defense that may significantly compromise normal cellular function. Ashwagandha also provided a significant protection to lipid peroxidation (LPx levels, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD but not reduced glutathione (GSH contents in brain tissue as well as peripheral organs, liver and kidney, suggesting its ability to act as a free radical scavenger protecting cells against toxic insult. These results, thus, suggest that Ashwagandha water extract may have the potential therapeutic implication against lead poisoning.

  7. Effects of Gmelina arborea extract on experimentally induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yogesh Anant Kulkarni; Addepalli Veeranjaneyulu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of aqueous extract of Gmelina arborea bark on normoglycemic levels and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats. Methods: After single administration of the aqueous extract, plasma glucose level was determined up to 6 h. In subacute study, the aqueous extract was administered for 28 d and plasma glucose level was determined weekly. The diabetes was induced in rats by the intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. The diabetic animals were divided into four groups containing six in each: Group Ⅰ diabetic control, GroupⅡandⅢtreated with the aqueous extract respectively at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight once daily and GroupⅣ treated with glibenclamide at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg body weight once daily. In acute study, the aqueous extract and glibenclamide were administered orally to rats. Plasma glucose levels were determined at 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 min after the administration of the test samples. To study subacute effects, test samples (the aqueous extract and glibenclamide) were administered for 28 d consecutively. The effects of each test sample on plasma glucose level, body weight as well as food and water intake were also monitored weekly. The oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical indicators were estimated on day 28. Results:The aqueous extract did not significantly decrease the plasma glucose level in the normoglycemic rats as shown by the acute and subacute assays. However, after oral administration of the aqueous extract, the plasma glucose level was significantly (P<0.001) decreased in the diabetic rats in the acute study. The long-term administration of the aqueous extract significantly (P<0.001) reduced plasma glucose levels of the diabetic rats. Additionally, the aqueous extract also reduced loss of body weight and significantly decreased food and water intake in the diabetic animals. Nevertheless, no effects on biochemical indicators were observed at the selected doses

  8. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Shengqing Wang; Wenhui Cui; Jiujun He; Zhenfu Wang; Xiaolu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capil ary injury and reduced damage to organel es and the matrix around the capil aries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly in-creased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phospha-tase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, im-munohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax pro-tein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apop-tosis.

  9. Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in human lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in ... The dose-dependent effects of EGCG on H1155 xenograft tumor growth, as well as ..... of mitochondrial ROS and changes in .... ATM phosphorylates histone H2AX in response to DNA.

  10. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chan Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  11. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kang Min; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK) extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  12. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

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    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  13. Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.

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    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation.

  14. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Kavipriya; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Gangaipillai Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Methods:Anti-diabetic activity of P. pinnata leaf extract at dosage of 500 mg/kg and 1 g/kg body weight was evaluated.Results:The levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly increased in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats when compared to that of the normal rats. After supplemented with plant extract, significant lower blood glucose level was recorded.Conclusions:The methanolic leaf extract of P. pinnata has been potent anti-diabetic effect in male albino rats.

  15. Mechanism and clinical significance of prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjernschantz, Johan W; Albert, Daniel M; Hu, Dan-Ning; Drago, Filippo; Wistrand, Per J

    2002-08-01

    The new glaucoma drugs latanoprost, isopropyl unoprostone, travoprost, and bimatoprost cause increased pigmentation of the iris in some patients. The purpose of the present article is to survey the available preclinical and clinical data on prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation and to assess the phenomenon from a clinical perspective. Most of the data have been obtained with latanoprost, and it appears that there is a predisposition to latanoprost-induced iris pigmentation in individuals with hazel or heterochromic eye color. As latanoprost and travoprost are selective agonists for the prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor, it is likely that the phenomenon is mediated by this receptor. Several studies indicate that latanoprost stimulates melanogenesis in iridial melanocytes, and transcription of the tyrosinase gene is upregulated. The safety aspects of latanoprost-induced iris pigmentation have been addressed in histopathologic studies, and no evidence of harmful consequences of the side effect has been found. Although a final assessment of the clinical significance of prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation currently is impossible to make, it appears that the only clear-cut disadvantage is a potential heterochromia between the eyes in unilaterally treated patients because the heterochromia is likely to be permanent, or very slowly reversible.

  16. MODELLING SLOW EXTRACTION INDUCED RADIOACTIVITY IN SPS LSS2

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo Martinez, Aurora Cecilia; CERN. Geneva. TE Department

    2017-01-01

    The Accelerator and Beam Transfer (ABT) group is investigating the impact of recent proposals to extract higher proton intensities to Fixed Target experiments at the SPS. The 400 GeV high-energy proton beam is typically extracted over a few seconds using a resonant slow-extraction technique that induces small but unavoidable beam losses on the extraction equipment in SPS LSS2. In this report, the induced radioactivity for 2016-2017 is used to predict future activation levels and cool-down times, using a past intervention as a reference to predict dose to the personnel carrying-out maintenance of the accelerator.

  17. Cat's claw oxindole alkaloid isomerization induced by common extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat's claw oxindole alkaloids are prone to isomerization in aqueous solution. However, studies on their behavior in extraction processes are scarce. This paper addressed the issue by considering five commonly used extraction processes. Unlike dynamic maceration (DM and ultrasound-assisted extraction, substantial isomerization was induced by static maceration, turbo-extraction and reflux extraction. After heating under reflux in DM, the kinetic order of isomerization was established and equations were fitted successfully using a four-parameter Weibull model (R² > 0.999. Different isomerization rates and equilibrium constants were verified, revealing a possible matrix effect on alkaloid isomerization.

  18. Effect of aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium wood on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, H M; Ansari, S H; Ali, M; Bhat, Z A; Naved, T

    2005-06-01

    An aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium wood was screened for hypoglycemic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. During both acute and sub-acute tests, the water extract, at an oral dose of 250 mg/kg, showed statistically significant hypoglycemic activity.

  19. DETECTION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THROMBOMODULIN IN BOTH PLASMA AND TISSUE EXTRACTS OF CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓华; 卢兴国; 徐根波; 朱蕾; 黄连生

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of thrombomodulin (TM) in both plasma and tissue extracts of cancer patients for evaluating its clinical significance. Methods: Plasma TM levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in both plasma of 188 cancer patients and 24 cancer tissue extracts including their adjacent non-cancer tissues. Results: The plasma TM levels both in cancer patients and in metastasis patients were significantly higher than that in controls [(33.47±14.25)μg/L, (41.68±16.96)μg/L, vs(20.40±7.22)μg/L,P0.05). The TM levels in cancer tissue extracts were significantly lower than that in their adjacent non-cancer tissue extracts [(647.71±317.51)μg/L vs (1455.63±772.22)μg/L, P<0.01]. On the contrary, the plasma TM levels in these cancers were significantly higher than that in controls. Conclusion: The rise of plasma TM levels in cancer patients was associated with metastasis and diffusion of cancers. The TM levels can be served as an sensitive index for judging progression and metastasis of cancers.

  20. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Yanbo Cheng; Jiale Yin; Qian Lu; Xingshun Xu; Xiaoxing Yin

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzed the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PC12 cell apoptosis in a model of Parkinson's disease. The results showed that Ginkgo biloba extract had a potent cytoprotective action and inhibited apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. Ginkgo biloba extract decreased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 and markedly inhibited the activation of p53 and caspase-3. These experimental findings indicate that Ginkgo biloba extract may significantly reduce the effects of oxidative stress induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in PC12 cells and suppress cell apoptosis. The potential effects of Ginkgo biloba extract might be greater than those of levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  1. Antidiarrheal activity of Pterocarpus erinaceus methanol leaf extract in experimentally-induced diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeja, I Maxwell; Ezeigbo, Ihechiluru I; Madubuike, Kelechi G; Udeh, Nkiru E; Ukweni, Iheanacho A; Akomas, Stella C; Ifenkwe, Daniel C

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the antidiarrheal activity of the methanol leaf extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus in vivo. The methanol leaf extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus was evaluated using different doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) orally for antidiarrheal activity using castor oil-induced diarrhea, charcoal meal transit time and castor oil-induced enteropooling in different groups of albino Wistar mice. The activity of the extract at different doses were compared to diphenoxylate (5 mg/kg) and atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg) which were used as standard reference drugs and also to the distilled water administered negative control group of mice. The extract at the doses used caused a significant (PPterocarpus erinaceus extract produced significant antidiarrheal activity and the action may attribute to inhibition of gastrointestinal movement and fluid secretion. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Palm kernel cake extract exerts hepatoprotective activity in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Goh, Yong Meng; Shakeri, Majid; Oskoueian, Armin

    2014-10-02

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens. This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of PKC extract in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes. The nature of the active metabolites and elucidation of the possible mechanism involved were also investigated. The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p Heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocyte impaired the total protein, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity significantly (p heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p stress biomarkers including TNF-like, IFN-γ and IL-1β genes; NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins expression upon heat stress in chicken hepatocytes. The PKC extract and silymarin were able to alleviate the expression of all of these biomarkers in heat-induced chicken hepatocytes. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity. Palm kernel cake extract could be a potential agent to protect hepatocytes function under heat induced oxidative stress.

  3. Humic-Like Substances from Different Compost Extracts Could Significantly Promote Cucumber Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Da-Bing; WANG Qiu-Jun; WU Yun-Cheng; YU Guang-Hui; SHEN Qi-Rong; HUANG Qi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The effects of direct extracts of compost (DEC),aerated fermentation extracts of compost (AFEC) and non-aerated fermentation extracts of compost (NAFEC) on cucumber growth and the action mechanisms were evaluated based on the structure and activity analysis of humic-like substances.AFEC increased cucumber growth most significantly,followed by DEC and NAFEC,which was insignificant compared to the control treatment.Humic-like substances from compost extracts played an important role in promoting cucumber growth.Application of humic-like substances stimulated auxin-like activity and increased chlorophyll content and nitrogen accumulation in plants.The positive auxin-like activity of humic-like substances could be attributed to the relative distribution of special carbon groups,such as those with a large amount of peptidic and carbohydratic groups or with a low content of phenolic groups.In conclusion,the best growth promotion by application of AFEC was mainly attributed to the humic-like substances in the AFEC.

  4. Significance and nature of bystander responses induced by various agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neha; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2017-07-01

    Bystander effects in a biological system are the responses shown by non-targeted neighbouring cells/tissues/organisms. These responses are triggered by factors released from targeted cells when exposed to a stress inducing agent. The biological response to stress inducing agents is complex, owing to the diversity of mechanisms and pathways activated in directly targeted and bystander cells. These responses are highly variable and can be either beneficial or hazardous depending on the cell lines tested, dose of agent used, experimental end points and time course selected. Recently non-targeted cells have even been reported to rescue the directly exposed cells by releasing protective signals that might be induced by non-targeted bystander responses. The nature of bystander signal/s is not yet clear. However, there are evidences suggesting involvement of ROS, RNS, protein factors and even DNA molecules leading to the activation of a number of signaling pathways. These can act independently or in a cascade, to induce events leading to changes in gene expression patterns that could elicit detrimental or beneficial effects. Many review articles on radiation induced bystander responses have been published. However, to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive review on bystander responses induced by other genotoxic chemicals and stress inducing agents has not been published so far. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to give an overview of the literature on different aspects of bystander responses: agents that induce these responses, factors that can modulate bystander responses and the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective effect of Cardiospermum halicacabum leaf extract on glycoprotein components on STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnadurai Veeramani; Khalid S Al-Numair; Mohammed A Alsaif; Govindasamy Chandramohan; Nouf S Al-Numair; Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective role of Cardiospermum halicacabum (C. halicacabum) leaf extract on glycoprotein metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods:Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitonial administration of STZ. TheC. halicacabum leaf extract (CHE) was administered orally to normal and STZ-diabetic rats for 45 days. The effects of C. halicacabum leaf extract (CHE) on plasma and tissue glycoproteins (hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) were determined. Results: The levels of plasma and tissues glycoproteins containing hexose, hexosamine and fucose were significantly increased in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the level of sialic acid significantly increased in plasma and liver while decreased in kidney of STZ-induced diabetic rats. After administration of CHE to diabetic rats, the metabolic alteration of glycoprotein reverted towards normal levels.Conclusions:The present study indicates that the CHE possesses a protective effect on abnormal glycoprotein metabolism in addition to its antihyperglycemic activity.

  6. Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Rep, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Inducible defense-related proteins have been described in many plant species upon infection with oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, or viruses, or insect attack. Several types of proteins are common and have been classified into 17 families of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). Others have so far been fo

  7. Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Rep, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Inducible defense-related proteins have been described in many plant species upon infection with oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, or viruses, or insect attack. Several types of proteins are common and have been classified into 17 families of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). Others have so far been

  8. Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Rep, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Inducible defense-related proteins have been described in many plant species upon infection with oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, or viruses, or insect attack. Several types of proteins are common and have been classified into 17 families of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). Others have so far been fo

  9. Effect of Salvia officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Vincristine-induced Neuropathy in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Namvaran Abbas Abad; Mir Hadi Khayate Nouri; Farzaneh Tavakkoli

    2011-01-01

    AIM:Vincristine is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs to treat a variety of malignant diseases,including leukemia and lymphoma.Studies have shown that vincristine cause painful effects,whereas Salvia ofcinalis(SO)showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the SO hydro-alcoholic extract on vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice in comparison with morphine.METHODS:Experiments were performed on 60 NMRI male mice weighing 25-30g divided into six groups.The individual groups received normal saline,SO hydro-alcoholic extract,vincristine,SO hydro-alcoholic extract and vincristine(12 days before formalin test),morphine,and vincristine and morphine,respectively.The injected hind paw biting and licking was measured in a 5-minute interval for one hour.RESULTS:The results showed that formalin induce significant(P<0.05)pain responses(the fast phase:0-5 min and the second phase:15-40 min after injection).Administration of SO extract before formalin testshowed significant(P<0.05)decrease of pain response in the second phase.Administration of vincristine caused significant(P<0.05)increase in the second phase of pain response.Injections of SO extract and vincristine showed that SO significantly(P<0.05)decrease the second phase of vincristine-induced pain.Morphine decreased vincristine-induced pain in the first and second phase of formalin test significantly(P<0.05).In comparison,morphine showed analgesig effects in the first phase and SO extract showed significant(P<0.05)anti-inflammatory effects in the second phase of formalin test.CONCLUSION:Both SO and vincristine showed analgesic and painful neuropathic effects,suggesting that SO extract could be useful in the treatment of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathic pain.

  10. Rhubarb extract has a protective role against radiation-induced brain injury and neuronal cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kui; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Wenjun; Zhou, Min; Tang, Yamei; Peng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress caused by ionizing radiation is involved in neuronal damage in a number of disorders, including trauma, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ionizing radiation can lead to the formation of free radicals, which cause neuronal apoptosis and have important roles in the development of some types of chronic brain disease. The present study evaluated the effects of varying concentrations (2, 5 and 10 µg/ml) of ethanolic rhubarb extract on the neuronal damage caused by irradiation in primary neuronal cultures obtained from the cortices of rat embryos aged 20 days. Brain damage was induced with a single dose of γ-irradiation that induced DNA fragmentation, increased lactate dehydrogenase release in neuronal cells and acted as a trigger for microglial cell proliferation. Treatment with rhubarb extract significantly decreased radiation-induced lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation, which are important in the process of cell apoptosis. The rhubarb extract exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase release and neuronal cell apoptosis that were induced by the administration of ionizing radiation. The effect of a 10 µg/ml dose of rhubarb extract on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by radiation was also investigated. This dose led to significant inhibition of ROS generation. In conclusion, the present study showed a protective role of rhubarb extract against irradiation-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and ROS generation.

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran Aiyalu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg. Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity.

  12. The significance of the erosion-induced terrestrial carbonsink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berhe, A.A.; Harte, J.; Harden, J.W.; Torn, M.S.

    2006-10-10

    Estimating carbon (C) balance in erosional and depositionallandscapes is complicated by the effects of soil redistribution on bothnet primary productivity (NPP) and decomposition. Recent studies arecontradictory as to whether soil erosion does or does not constitute a Csink. Here we clarify the conceptual basis for how erosion can constitutea C sink. Specifically, the criterion for an erosional C sink is thatdynamic replacement of eroded C, and reduced decomposition rates indepositional sites, must together more than compensate for erosionallosses. This criterion is in fact met in many erosional settings, andthus erosion and deposition can make a net positive contribution to Csequestration. We show that, in a cultivated Mississippi watershed and acoastal California watershed, the magnitude of the erosion-induced C sinkis likely to be on the order of 1 percent of NPP and 16 percent of erodedC. Although soil erosion has serious environmental impacts, the annualerosion-induced C sink offsets up to 10 percent of the global fossil fuelemissions of carbon dioxide for 2005.

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on lantadenes-induced hepatotoxicity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimoo, Haroon A; Sharma, Rinku; Patil, Rajendra D; Sharma, Om P; Kumar, Pawan; Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-04-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of freeze-dried methanolic leaf extract of Ginkgo biloba was evaluated against lantadenes-induced hepatic damage in guinea pigs. The reversed-phase HPLC analysis of lantadenes confirmed the presence of 72.82% of lantadene A. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis showed the presence of ginkgolide B, C, bilobalide and traces of ginkgolide A and J in G. biloba extract. The concentration of ginkgolide B in the sample was found as 0.29%. The elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase due to lantadenes were significantly restored towards normal values by G. biloba extract in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of lantadenes and G. biloba extract on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were assayed in liver homogenates to evaluate the antioxidant activity. G. biloba extract in a dose-dependent manner produced significant decrease in lantadenes-induced increased levels of LPO. The lantadene-induced decreased levels of SOD, GSH and catalase were elevated by G. biloba extract. The findings of biochemical and antioxidant enzyme levels were supported by gross and histopathological observations. Moreover, liver sections of G. biloba group also showed a marked decrease in apoptosis in comparison to lantadenes group. This study suggested that G. biloba could be used as a promising hepatoprotectant against lantadenes-induced hepatic damage. Future studies are needed to elucidate the precise mechanism of hepatoprotection for practical application.

  14. Beneficial effects of a Cannabis sativa extract treatment on diabetes-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Comelli, Francesca; Bettoni, Isabella; Colleoni, Mariapia; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Costa, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and it is still considered to be relatively refractory to most of the analgesics. The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptive effect of a controlled cannabis extract (eCBD) in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain. Repeated treatment with cannabis extract significantly relieved mechanical allodynia and restored the physiological thermal pain perception in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats w...

  15. Protective effect of root extract of Operculina turpethum linn. Against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract obtained from roots of Operculina turpethum (Convolvulaceae were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats by inducing liver damage by paracetamol. The ethanol extract at an oral dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Silymarin was used as positive control.

  16. Antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect of Punica granatum L flower extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anusha Bhaskar; Anish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous and ethanolic flower extracts of Punica granatum (P. granatum) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus in wistar rats. Methods: Antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect of P. granatum aqueous (PGFAet) and ethanolic extracts (PGFEet) at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg bw was evaluated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels, lipid peroxide levels and the antioxidant enzyme levels were determined. Results: The administration of the extracts markedly reduced blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin increased the levels of plasma insulin and liver glycogen. The extract also had a hypolipidemic activity decreasing the levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. The levels of lipid peroxides in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were remarkably reduced and the activities of the enzymes SOD, CAT and GPx and GSH were increased. We also saw an increase in the activity of the enzyme glucokinase and decrease in glucose-6-phosphatase. It can be concluded that the flower extracts of P. granatum (PGFAet and PGFEet) has significant restorative effect on the blood glucose, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the studies that the ethanolic extracts of the flowers of P. granatum at dosage 400 mg/kg/day exhibit significant effect in lowering blood sugar and lipid levels and increasing the antioxidant enzymes when compared to the aqueous extract. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were reduced and the extract exhibited a stimulatory effect on insulin.

  17. Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of aqueous leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice against pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Bhosle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole, and maximal electroshock induced convulsion were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. In the pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion, aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg significant delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion (p<0.05 and reduced mortality. The aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg dose reduced hind limb tonic extension phase of maximal electroshock induced convulsion induced convulsion in mice (p<0.05. The pretreated aqueous extract of D. triflorum showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increases the reduced glutathione level in mice brain tissue (p<0.001. The results revealed that D. triflorum possesses a significant dose dependent anticonvulsant activity.

  18. Hexafluoroisopropanol-induced catanionic-surfactants-based coacervate extraction for analysis of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Niu, Manli; Xiao, Yuxiu

    2017-02-01

    A coacervate extraction method, based on hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP)-induced catanionic surfactants and coupled with a back-extraction procedure, was developed for separation and purification of proteins, using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) as representative catanionic surfactants and lysozyme as a model protein. After the coacervate extraction and back extraction, the obtained lysozyme solutions were examined in terms of quantitative analysis by capillary electrophoresis, bacteriolytic activity, and circular dichroism (CD). The effects of several parameters including back-extraction solvent, HFIP content, total surfactant concentration, and SDS/DTAB molar ratio were investigated in detail on the extraction efficiency and activity of lysozyme. Under the optimized extraction conditions (66 mM KH2PO4 buffer with pH 6.2 as back-extraction solvent, SDS/DTAB molar ratio = 1:1 mol/mol, total surfactant concentration = 30 mM, HIFP concentration = 8 % v/v), the extraction recovery was 89.8 % (±4.7, n = 3), limit of detection was 2.2 (±0.3, n = 3) μg mL(-1), and meanwhile nearly 65 % of native lysozyme activity was retained. In addition, the activity and CD assays showed that SDS/DTAB molar ratio had a significant influence on the activity and structure of lysozyme after extraction. The DTAB-rich extraction systems, in which the DTAB mole fraction was equal to or larger than 70 %, could keep the activity and structure of lysozyme almost in the native state. Graphical Abstract Procedure of HFIP-induced SDS/DTAB coacervate extraction and back extraction of lysozyme.

  19. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry.

  20. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic effect of methanol extract of Lippia nodiflora L. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rangachari Balamurugan; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of Lippia nodiflora (L. nodiflora).Methods:Acute toxicity test was done to check the toxicity of L. nodiflora methanol extract and oral glucose tolerance test was performed in normal rats. L. nodiflora methanol extract at three dose levels was administerd orally to streptozotocin (STZ) (40mg/kg bw) induced diabetic rats for 15 days. The various parameters were studied including body weight, fasting blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, lipid profile, glycogen content, glycoslylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum marker enzyme levels in normal, treated and diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis of pancreas was also carried out in normal, treated and diabetic rats. Results: The treatment group with the extract at three dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver, muscle glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein level was significantly increased upon treatment with the L. nodiflora methanol extract. Histochemical study of pancreas also confirmed the biochemical findings. Acute toxicity studies revealed the non-toxic nature of the L. nodiflora methanol extract. Conclusions: The results of the experiments presented here suggest that methanol extract of L. nodiflora exerts significant antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  1. Hypoglycemic Effect of Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus) Extract on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Joo; Han, Ji-Sook

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the inhibitory effect of jicama extract on α-glucosidase activity, α-amylase activity, and postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Jicama extract showed prominent inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The IC50 values of jicama extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were 0.083±0.004 and 0.091±0.017 mg/mL, respectively. The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly suppressed in the jicama extract-administered group than in the control group of both STZ-induced diabetic and normal mice. Blood glucose levels of the control group increased to 383.75±11.54 and 402.50±15.32 mg/dL at 30 and 60 min after a meal and decreased to 349.67±11.62 mg/dL at 120 min. However, postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly decreased, when diabetic mice were fed with jicama extract (342.00±15.73, 367.00±13.00, and 329.67±12.43 mg/dL at 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively). Furthermore, the area under the curve was significantly decreased with jicama extract administration in diabetic mice (Pjicama extract may help decrease postprandial blood glucose level by inhibiting α-glucosidase.

  2. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm(2)) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm(2)), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products.

  3. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  4. Significant anthropogenic-induced changes of climate classes since 1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Duo; Wu, Qigang

    2015-08-28

    Anthropogenic forcings have contributed to global and regional warming in the last few decades and likely affected terrestrial precipitation. Here we examine changes in major Köppen climate classes from gridded observed data and their uncertainties due to internal climate variability using control simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5). About 5.7% of the global total land area has shifted toward warmer and drier climate types from 1950-2010, and significant changes include expansion of arid and high-latitude continental climate zones, shrinkage in polar and midlatitude continental climates, poleward shifts in temperate, continental and polar climates, and increasing average elevation of tropical and polar climates. Using CMIP5 multi-model averaged historical simulations forced by observed anthropogenic and natural, or natural only, forcing components, we find that these changes of climate types since 1950 cannot be explained as natural variations but are driven by anthropogenic factors.

  5. Hypoglycemic Effect of Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus) Extract on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chan Joo; Han, Ji-Sook

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the inhibitory effect of jicama extract on α-glucosidase activity, α-amylase activity, and postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Jicama extract showed prominent inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The IC50 values of jicama extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were 0.083±0.004 and 0.091±0.017 mg/mL, respectively. The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly...

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of Ficus carica Linn leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan G.K.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the leaves of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats with liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. The extract at an oral dose of 500 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total serum bilirubin, and malondialdehyde equivalent, an index of lipid peroxidation of the liver. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The activity of extract was also comparable to that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective. 

  7. Effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. on tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Yarlagadda, Sanjyothi; Chintala, Saritha

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. seeds (100, 200 mg/kg) was studied on tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia. Tacrine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) treated animals were observed for vacuous chewing movements (VCM), tongue protrusions (TP) and orofacial bursts (OB) for 1 h followed by observations for locomotor changes and cognitive dysfunction. Sub-chronic administration of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract (E-CS) (100, 200 mg/kg, p.o., for 15 days significantly (P Coriandrum sativum. L against tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia.

  8. Effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract (Bottle gourd on hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajeet K. Funde

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria fruit possesses significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity in antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 728-734

  9. Grape seed extract prevents gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Salama, Osama M

    2006-09-01

    The protection conferred by grape seed extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and bone marrow chromosomal aberrations have been evaluated in adult Swiss albino mice. The activity of reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH peroxidase), the levels of glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidneys homogenates, serum urea and creatinine were measured, and in addition the changes in kidney histology and bone marrow chromosomes were investigated. Gentamicin (80 mg/kg b.wt. intraperitoneally for 2 weeks) induced kidney damage as indicated from a pronounced changes in kidney histology, a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine and MDA content in the kidney homogenate. While the activity of the antioxidant enzyme GSH peroxidase and the level of GSH were significantly decreased. Gentamicin induced genotoxicity indicated by increased the number of aberrant cells and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations (fragment, deletion and ring chromosome) and showed no effect on mitotic activity of the cell. Pretreatment with grape seed extract (7 days) and simultaneously (14 days) with gentamicin significantly protected the kidney tissue by ameliorating its antioxidant activity. Moreover, grape seed extract significantly protected bone marrow chromosomes from gentamicin induced genotoxicity by reducing the total number of aberrant cells, and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations. It could be concluded that grape seed extract acts as a potent antioxidant prevented kidney damage and genotoxicity of bone marrow cells.

  10. Extract of Rhus verniciflua stokes protects the diet-induced hyperlipidemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Se-Jin; Park, Jong-Gil; Kim, Sinai; Kweon, Hyae Yon; Seo, Seungwoon; Na, Dae-Seung; Lee, Dongho; Hong, Cheol Yi; Na, Chun-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Oh, Goo Taeg

    2015-11-01

    Rhus verniciflua stokes (RVS) is a popular medicinal plant in oriental medicines which is commonly used to resolve extravasated blood. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the role of RVS extracts on the regulation of lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis, we investigated whether RVS extract protect the hyperlipidemia in western diet-induced C57BL6/J mice. Mice fed a western diet and additionally RVS extracts was administered orally at a dose of 0.1 or 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks respectively. Group with higher dose of RVS extract showed a significantly decreased body weight compared with western diet fed mice groups. And total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol levels and fatty liver formation were also improved especially in group of mice fed western diet supplemented high dose RVS extracts. Next, synthesis of hepatic bile acids were significantly increased in RVS extract fed groups. Furthermore, RVS extracts significantly increase promoter activity of Cyp7a1 via up-regulate the transcriptional expression level of LXRα. Our data suggest that RVS extracts could be a potent therapeutic ingredient for prevent a hyperlipidemia via increase of bile acids biosynthesis.

  11. Effect of Argyreia speciosa root extract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To evaluate the antiobesity effects of the ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots in rats fed with a cafeteria diet (CD. Materials and Methods : Obesity was induced in albino rats by feeding them a CD daily for 42 days, in addition to a normal diet. Body weight and food intake was measured initially and then every week thereafter. On day 42, the serum biochemical parameters were estimated and the animals were sacrificed with an overdose of ether. The, liver and parametrial adipose tissues were removed and weighed immediately. The liver triglyceride content was estimated. The influence of the extract on the pancreatic lipase activity was also determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein. Results : The body weight at two-to-six weeks and the final parametrial adipose tissue weights were significantly lowered (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively in rats fed with the CD with Argyreia speciosa extract 500 mg/kg/day as compared to the CD alone. The extract also significantly reduced (P < 0.01 the serum contents of leptin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and triglycerides, which were elevated in rats fed with CD alone. In addition, the extract inhibited the induction of fatty liver with the accumulation of hepatic triglycerides. The extract also showed inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity by using triolein as a substrate. Conclusions : The ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots produces inhibitory effects on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

  12. Huaier aqueous extract induces apoptosis of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells through the mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yang; Meng, Hongmei; Liu, Weidong; Wang, Huan; Liu, Qingpeng

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, aqueous extract of Trametes robiniophila Murr. (Huaier), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been frequently used in China for complementary cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects have yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of Huaier extract to inhibit proliferation, promote apoptosis and suppress mobility in the fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line in vitro. The cells were treated with gradient doses of Huaier extract at concentrations of 0, 4, 8 or 16 mg/ml for 24, 48 or 72 h. The cell viability and motility were measured in vitro using MTT, invasive, migration and scratch assays. The distribution of the cell cycle and the extent of cellular apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The apoptotic pathways were detected using a mitochondrial membrane potential transition assay and western blotting. The results revealed that the cellular viability decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of Huaier extract. In addition, cell invasiveness and migration were also suppressed significantly. It was demonstrated that Huaier extract induced G2 cell-cycle arrest and cellular apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 and pro-caspase-3, and upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 suggested that Huaier extract induced the apoptosis of HT1080 cells through the mitochondrial pathway. The results of the present study indicate that Huaier extract is a potential complementary agent for the treatment of fibrosarcoma.

  13. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Saumya R; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K

    2011-04-01

    The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; Pvariegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy.

  14. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

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    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and inulin were measured. Results: The K2Cr2O7 caused significant renal dysfunction, but A. sativum extract prevented this condition by improving all measured biomarkers. Conclusions: A single injection of K2Cr2O7 induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but the supply of an Allium sativum aqueous extract prevented the disorders caused by this metal.

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of aqueous ethanol extract of Cestrum nocturnum against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

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    M. Imran Qadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activities of Cestrum nocturnum (Queen of Night was evaluated against the paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the mice. Aqueous ethanol (30:70 extract of plant was obtained by maceration. Results showed that aqueous ethanol extract of C. nocturnum (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.05 hepatoprotective activities against paracetamol induced liver injury in Swiss albino mice. Histopathalogical studied of liver further supported the hepatoprotective effects of C. notrunum. Phyto-chemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and volatile oils. Most of the flavonoids have hepatoprotective activity. Therefore, the hepatoprotective activity of C. nocturnum may be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic components. It was concluded from the present study that aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of C. nocturnum has hepatoprotective activity against the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino mice.

  16. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus and Ferula assa-foetida extracts on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeboon, Ghazaleh S; Tavakoli, Fatemeh; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Sabzevari, Omid; Ostad, S Nasser

    2013-10-01

    Many of CNS diseases can lead to a great quantity of release of glutamate and the extreme glutamate induces neuronal cell damage and death. Here, we wanted to investigate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and Ferula assa-foetida extracts treatment on glutamate-induced cell damage in a primary culture of rat cerebellar granule neurons. Cerebellums were collected from 7-d rat brains and cerebellar granule neurons were obtained after 8-d culture. CGN cells were treated with C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts at concentration of 100 μg/ml before, after, and during exposure to 30 μM glutamate. The cellular viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5-dimethytthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) staining. The flow cytometry assay was used to examine cell cycle and apoptosis. MTT assay showed a glutamate-induced reduction in cellular viability while treatment with C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts before, during, and after exposure to glutamate was increased. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that F. assa-foetida extracts treatment significantly (p < 0.001) attenuated glutamate-induced apoptotic/necrotic cell death and the necrotic rate was decreased by C. citratus essential oil treatment compared to glutamate group, significantly (p < 0.001). The results show that C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts display neuroprotective effects in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. These extracts exert antiapoptotic activity in cerebellar granule neurons due to cell cycle arrest in G0G1 phase, which explain the beneficial effects of C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts as therapies for neurologic disorders.

  17. Thioacetamide-induced acute liver toxicity in rats treated with Balanites roxburghii extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mallikarjuna Rao Talluri; Rajananda Swamy Tadi; Ganga Rao Battu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and thioacetamide induced liver toxicity using extracts of aerial parts of Balanites roxburghii (B. roxburghii). Methods: The in-vitro antioxidant activity was estimated for different extracts on super-oxide, hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and the hepatoprotective activity of the selected plant extracts was evaluated by using thioacetamide-induced liver intoxication in rats model. Results: There were no visible signs of toxicity, mortality and no behavioral changes were observed for the selected plant extracts (hydroalcoholic, ethyl acetate and hexane) at 2 000 mg/kg body weight. The plant extracts showed dose-dependent effectiveness in the inhibition of free radicals generation and hepatoprotective nature. The hydroalcoholic extract showed more scavenging activity as compared to other extracts with IC50 values of (332.50 ± 1.30) mg, (302.00 ± 1.50) mg and (230.40 ± 1.10) mg on superoxide, hy-droxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals. Aerial parts of B. roxburghii at three dose levels such as 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed dose dependent percentage protection as standard drugs and on enhancement activities of serum biomarker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phos-phatase, total bilirubin and total protein) observed in thioacetamide-induced hepatotox-icity. The hydroalcoholic extract showed significant results at 500 mg/kg body weight as compared to other extracts (P Conclusions: It was observed that the B. roxburghii plant extracts are non-toxic and have capacity to restore the physiological changes caused by the hepatotoxic compounds.

  18. Peptide-induced de novo bone formation after tooth extraction prevents alveolar bone loss in a murine tooth extraction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ono, Takashi; Murali, Ramachandran; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2016-07-05

    Tooth extraction causes bone resorption of the alveolar bone volume. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) markedly promotes de novo bone formation after tooth extraction, the application of high-dose rhBMP-2 may induce side effects, such as swelling, seroma, and an increased cancer risk. Therefore, reduction of the necessary dose of rhBMP-2 which can still obtain sufficient bone mass is necessary by developing a new osteogenic reagent. Recently, we showed that the systemic administration of OP3-4 peptide, which was originally designed as a bone resorption inhibitor, had osteogenic ability both in vitro and in vivo. This study evaluated the ability of the local application of OP3-4 peptide to promote bone formation in a murine tooth extraction model with a very low-dose of BMP. The mandibular incisor was extracted from 10-week-old C57BL6/J male mice and a gelatin hydrogel containing rhBMP-2 with or without OP3-4 peptide (BMP/OP3-4) was applied to the socket of the incisor. Bone formation inside the socket was examined radiologically and histologically at 21 days after the extraction. The BMP/OP3-4-group showed significant bone formation inside the mandibular extraction socket compared to the gelatin-hydrogel-carrier-control group or rhBMP-2-applied group. The BMP/OP3-4-applied mice showed a lower reduction of alveolar bone and fewer osteoclast numbers, suggesting that the newly formed bone inside the socket may prevent resorption of the cortical bone around the extraction socket. Our data revealed that OP3-4 peptide promotes BMP-mediated bone formation inside the extraction socket of mandibular bone, resulting in preservation from the loss of alveolar bone.

  19. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Moringa Oleifera Linn on Alloxan Induced Hyperglycemia

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    Ruchi Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study determines the effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds with respect to its route of administration. The rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I-Rats received only rat chow and water. Group II- Rats received alloxan and were treated with 500mg/kg body weight after 2hours. Group III- Rats receiving alloxan after 2 hours were treated with aqueous extract of M. oleifera (500mg/kg body weight intraperitonially. Group IV- Rats receiving alloxan after 24 hours began receiving aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds (500mg/kg body weight intraperitonially for 1 week. The result of the study showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level after 12 hours and also after 7 days of both orally and intraperitonially with M. oleifera seed extract. This proves that M. oleifera seed extract have a hypoglycemic effect on both the mild and severe alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats.

  20. Induction and mechanism of cucumber resistance to anthracnose induced by Pieris rapae extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Pieris rapae extract was sprayed on the surface of cucumber leaf to determine the induction of resistance to anthracnose.The enzyme activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were detected on cucumber leaves after P.rapae extract induction and pathogen challenge.The results showed that the disease index of cucumber anthracnose was significantly decreased after the cucumber was induced with the P.rapae extract at a concentration of 5.0 mg·mL-1.The POD and PPO activities in foliar-applied P.rapae extract without pathogen inoculation (PETO) or with pathogen inoculation (PETI) were relatively higher than those with no-P.rapae extract treatment and without pathogen inoculation (CONO) or with pathogen inoculation (CONI),respectively.The results suggested that the increased levels of POD and PPO activities in PETO and PETI play an important role in the induction of resistance to cucumber anthracnose.

  1. Reno-protective effect of garlic extract against immobilization stress induced changes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed; Kashif; Zaidi; Shakeel; Ahmed; Ansari; Ghulam; Md.Ashraf; Mohammad; Alam; Jafri; Shams; Tabrez; Naheed; Banu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine immobilization stress-induced antioxidant defense alterations in rat kidney and the antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract in pre and post stress extract treatments. Methods: Albino rats were treated with aqueous extract of garlic both before and 6 h of immobilization stress. Pro-oxidant eminence of rat kidney was assessed by determining the levels of glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and antioxidant enzymes activities. Results: In response to 6 h of immobilization stress, a significant rise in the level of kidney enzymes was recorded. However, antioxidant enzyme activities showed a sharp decline. Conclusions: The extract treatment before and after the stress reverted the activities of above mentioned enzymes towards their control values. Hence, garlic extract can be given as nutritional supplement for scavenging the free radicals generated in rat kidney.

  2. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tebekeme Okoko; Diepreye Ere

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results:Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions:The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

  3. Ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis protect against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Nguyen Thanh; Hue Pham Thi Minh; Tuan Anh Le; Huong Duong Thi Ly; Tung Nguyen Huu; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Dang Kim; Tung Bui Thanh

    2015-01-01

    To investigated the protective potential of ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis ) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury. Methods: Dried roots of S. baicalensis were extracted with ethanol and concentrated to yield a dry residue. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg of the ethanol extracts orally once daily for one week. Animals were subsequently administered a single dose of LPS (5 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneal injection). Both protein and mRNA levels of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in liver tissues were evaluated by ELISA assay and quantitative PCR. Cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-κB protein levels in liver tissues were analyzed by western blotting. Results: Liver injury induced by LPS significantly increased necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-κB in liver tissues. Treatment with ethanol extracts of S. baicalensis prevented all of these observed changes associated with LPS-induced injury in liver mice. Conclusions: Our study showed that S. baicalensis is potentially protective against LPS-induced liver injury in mice.

  4. Protective effect of alcoholic extract of Entada pursaetha DC. against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; More, Amar Sunil; Kumari, Rashmi Rekha; Lingaraju, Madhu Cholenahalli; Kumar, Dhirendra; Kumar, Dinesh; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Tandan, Surender Kumar

    2014-03-01

    The alcoholic extract of stem of E. pursaetha (PSE, 30, 100, 300 mg/kg body weight, po for 7 days) showed hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight, ip)-induced hepatotoxicity. The extract exhibited a significant dose-dependent hepatoprotective effect comparable to standard drug silymarin, by preventing increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase; by lowering hepatic levels of malonaldehyde, nitrate-nitrite, myeloperoxidase activity; enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and increasing reduced glutathione levels in liver, which suggests the antioxidant property of PSE. Histopathological studies also supported the above biochemical parameters. The results suggested that alcoholic extract of E. pursaetha possesses significant hepatoprotective activity in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats and this is likely to be mediated through its antioxidant activities.

  5. Effects of yam peel extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yen-Hung; Hsieh, You-Liang; Lee, Ya-Ting

    2013-07-31

    The phenolic acid and flavonoid profiles in yam peel extract were determined by HPLC. Quercetin, hesperidin, and apigenin were predominant components in yam peel extract. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with yam peel extract (100.02, 266.72, and 433.42 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) daily, with administration of CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 20% CCl4 in olive oil) twice a week. Yam peel extract for 8 weeks significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The overall potential of the antioxidant system was significantly enhanced by the yam peel extract supplements as the plasma and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were lowered, whereas the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) protein level were elevated. Yam peel extract decreased the level of nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in CCl4. These results point out that yam peel extract can inhibit lipid peroxidation, enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and decrease the TNF-α/NF-κB level, nitric oxide production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions. Therefore, it was speculated that yam peel extract protects rats from liver damage through its anti-inflammation capacity.

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Mussaenda philippica (stems against anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity

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    Swarnalatha Reddy Dugasani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Mussaenda philippica against isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats. Six groups of six rat were selected for the study. Methanolic extract of Mussaendaphilippicaat a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg as well as silymarin (50 mg/kg were administered orally once daily for 14 d in isoniazid and rifampicin group. The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin were estimated along with total protein. Histopathological analysis was carried out to assess injury to the liver. The altered biochemical parameters were significantly reverting back by the methanolic extract treatment. Histopathology also supported the biochemical variation. From this study it has been concluded that the methanolic extract of Mussaendaphilippicashows significant hepatoprotective activity.

  7. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouad, Hassan; Maghrani, Mhamed; Eddouks, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga (Apiaceae) on blood glucose levels was investigated in fasting normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after single and repeated oral administration. The aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga (AV) at a dose of 20 mg/kg significantly reduced blood glucose in normal rats six hours after a single oral administration (P < 0.005) and nine days after repeated oral administration (P < 0.05). This hypoglycemic effect is more pronounced in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats (P < 0.001). Acute toxicity (LD50) and general behavioural effects of an aqueous extract of AV fruits was studied in mice. The LD50 of intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral administration was 3.6 and 10.1 g/kg, respectively. These findings suggest that the aqueous extract of AV possess significant hypoglycemic effect in both normal and STZ diabetic rats and support, therefore, its claimed clinical use by the Moroccan population.

  8. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of Kigelia pinnata flowers extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumar S; Kumar V; Prakash OM

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of Kigelia pinnata methanolic flowers extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic wistar rat. Methods: Rats were made diabetic by a single dose of STZ at 60 mg/kg body weight i.p. The blood glucose level was checked before and 72 h after STZ injection to confirm the development of diabetes. The flower extract and glibenclamide were administered orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 21 days. Results:Daily oral treatment with the extract and standard drug for 21 days significantly reduced blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels. High density lipoprotein-cholesterol level was found to be improved (P<0.01) as compared to diabetic control group. Conclusions:It is concluded that Kigellia pinnata flowers extract have significant antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect.

  9. Anticlastogenic effect of Spirulina maxima extract on the micronuclei induced by maleic hydrazide in Tradescantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Flores, L Elvia; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Salazar, María; Chamorro, Germán

    2003-02-07

    The aim of this investigation was to determine if extracts of Spirulina maxima reduce the genotoxic damage induced by maleic hydrazide (MH) using the Tradescantia biosssay. Two types of extracts from the alga were prepared: an aqueous extract with two different concentrations, 100 and 500 mg/ml, and a second one, the extract of a 1% solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which corresponded to 100 mg/ml of the alga. The capacity of MH to induce micronuclei (MN) was initially established by administering 0.005, 0.01, and 0.015 mg/ml of the chemical to the Tradescantia inflorescences, and observing its effect after 24 h.The results of this experiment showed a significant MN increase with the two high concentrations tested, although no dose-response effect was observed. For the anticlastogenic assay, the extracts of Spirulina were applied to the inflorescences alone or immediately before the application of MH (0.01 mg/ml) and the induced MN were observed 24 h later. We found that none of the extracts increased the MN level with respect to the untreated plants; also, that MH more or less doubled the basal micronuclei frequency, and finally, that all tested extracts reduced the genotoxic damage caused by MH. The inhibitory indices obtained for the aqueous extracts (100 and 500 mg/ml) and for the DMSO extract were respectively 59, 85, and 56.3%. These data indicate that Spirulina is an anticlastogenic agent and suggest that it is advisable to extend studies on this matter using other biological models.

  10. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, R; Jana, D; Das, U K; Ghosh, D

    2004-05-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level.

  11. Protective effects of Coriandrum sativum extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R; Umadevi, M

    2009-04-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of various liver injuries. The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Coriandrum sativum on CCl(4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. CCl(4) injection induced oxidative stress by a significant rise in serum marker enzymes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes. In serum, the activities of enzymes like ALP, ACP and protein and bilirubin were evaluated. Pretreatment of rats with different doses of plant extract (100 and 200mg/kg) significantly lowered SGOT, SGPT and TBARS levels against CCl(4) treated rats. Hepatic enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx were significantly increased by treatment with plant extract, against CCl(4) treated rats. Histopathological examinations showed extensive liver injuries, characterized by extensive hepatocellular degeneration/necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, congestion, and sinusoidal dilatation. Oral administration of the leaf extract at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the toxic effects of CCl(4). The activity of leaf extract at the dose of 200mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, silymarin. Based on these results, it was observed that C. sativum extract protects liver from oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) and thus helps in evaluation of traditional claim on this plant.

  12. Red Lentil Extract: Neuroprotective Effects on Perphenazine Induced Catatonia in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahomi, Shahram; Arzi, Ardeshir; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Rashidi-Nooshabadi, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease that is defined by certain symptoms such as muscle rigidity, impaired movement, catatonia, tremor and disorientation of body. Aim The aim was to investigate the effect of red lentil extract on perphenazine-induced Catatonia in model of rat. Materials and Methods This experimental study was done on 48 male albino rats (weight 180–200g) of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups and were pre-treated with a single dose of red lentil extract (200, 400, 800 and 1000 mg/kg), most effective dose of bromocriptine (30mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg) via intraperitoneal (IP) route. perphenazine (5 mg/kg) was after 30 minutes, administered (IP) to induce catatonia. The scoring method of Morpurgo was used to determine the muscular rigidity of animals. Results The results showed that the 200mg/kg red lentil extract treated group had no significant reduction in catatonic responses after perphenazine administration in comparison with control group while the groups that received 800 and 1000mg/kg of red lentil extract showed significant difference (pCatatonia induced by perphenazine in rats. So this extract may be probably beneficial for catatonia in Parkinsonism. PMID:27504309

  13. Hepatoprotective effect ofAverrhoea carambolafruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AK Azeem; Molly Mathew; Chandramohan Nair DilipC

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the hepatoprotective activity ofAverroha carambola fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury.Methods:Hepatotoxicity was induced on albino mice by intraperitoneal administration ofCCl4, half an hour after the administration of the last dose of the extract ofAverroha carambola fruit. Aqueous extract of the fruit ofAverroha carambola was administered at a dose of 0.9 g/kg body weight once daily for seven days. The hepatic injury and its prevention was assessed by the estimation of serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphates(ALP), glutathione level and histopathological studies of liver.Results: Pre-treatment of mice with the fruit extract ofAverrhoea carambola significantly reduced serum levels ofALT, AST andALP enzyme and significantly increased the liver reduced glutathione levels24 h after the administration of carbon tetrachloride. A marked improvement in the enzyme activities and the liver reduced glutathione level was observed in the pre-treated mice 4 days after the administration of carbon tetrachloride. Histopathological studies provided supportive evidence for the biochemical analysis. Conclusions:The aqueous extract of the fruit ofAverrhoea carambola has hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in mice.

  14. The Protective Action of the Aqueous Extract of Auricularia polytricha in Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappan, Dinesh K; Ganasen, Sivamalar; Batumalai, Shaminiswary; Candasamy, Mayuren; Krishnappa, Purushotham; Dua, Kamal; Chellian, Jestin; Gupta, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver injuries considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Auricularia polytricha has been used as food or medicine due to its antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of the fruiting bodies of A. polytricha against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver toxicity was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by oral administration of 2g/kg paracetamol on the 15th day after the administration of aqueous extract and silymarin 100 mg/kg. Aqueous extract of A. polytricha was administered orally at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses, daily for a period of 14 days. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Total bilirubin (TB), Total protein (TP), Triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol were measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol-induced hepatic damage. The patent on Auricularia Polytricha (EP0413052A1) assisted in selecting the extraction procedure. The study also included histopathological examination of liver sections to assess hepatoprotective activity. Paracetamol significantly (Pinduced increase in AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, TB, TG and cholesterol and increased the diminished TP in a dose dependent manner. The standard drug, silymarin produced significant (Pinduced liver toxicity in rats, due to its potent antioxidant activity.

  15. Melissa officinalis extract inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun Beom; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (Pofficinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, Pofficinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. Inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9 via anti-oxidative activity may underlie this effect.

  16. Antihyperlipidemic and renoprotective activities of methanolic extract of Canscora decussata extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Irshad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic and renopro-tective effects of methanolic extract of powdered Canscora decussata whole plant in the diabetic rabbits. Thirty rabbits were divided into five groups having 6 animals each including normal and diabetic controls groups, the remaining groups received methanolic extract in 400 and 600 mg/kg doses and another group got pioglitazone (3 mg/kg for 30 days. Serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, albumin, globulin and total proteins were estimated by using commercially available kits. The results showed that extract significantly (p<0.01 decreased the raised parameters including triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, Coronary risk index up to normal values compared to diabetic rabbits. However, it significantly increased HDL-cholesterol, albumin, globulin and total protein levels. Therefore, it is suggested that methanolic extract of C. decussata exerts hypolipidemic and renoprotective effects in the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  17. Protective effects of bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract against endotoxin-induced uveitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nan; Lan, Fang; He, Rong-Rong; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2010-04-28

    Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU), a useful animal model of ocular inflammation, is induced by injection of lipopolysacharide (LPS). These experiments showed that the nitric oxide (NO) level significantly increased in the whole eye homogenate of BALB/C mice 24 h after footpad injection of LPS at a dosage of 100 mg/mouse. However, the elevated NO level was significantly reduced by oral administration of bilberry extract (containing 42.04% anthocyanins) at dosages of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day for 5 days before the LPS injection. In addition, bilberry extract decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) level, glutathione (GSH) level, vitamin C level, and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Moreover, bilberry extract increased expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and GPx mRNA. Taken together, bilberry extract showed protective effects against EIU, whereas the effects of bilberry extract (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, 5 days) were dose-dependent. In conclusion, these results provide new evidence to elucidate the beneficial effects of bilberry extract on eye health.

  18. Protective Effect of Onion Extract on Bleomycin-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes

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    Yoon Hee Cho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following one of the world’s largest nuclear accidents, occured at Fukushima, Japan in 2011, a significant scientific effort has focused on minimizing the potential adverse health effects due to radiation exposure. The use of natural dietary antioxidants to reduce the risk of radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage is a simple strategy for minimizing radiation-related cancer rates and improving overall health. The onion is among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and is an important food for increasing their overall intake. Therefore, we examined the effect of an onion extract on cyto- and geno-toxicity in human lymphocytes treated with bleomycin (BLM, a radiomimetic agent. In addition, we measured the frequency of micronuclei (MN and DNA damage following treatment with BLM using a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and a single cell gel electrophoresis assay. We observed a significant increase in cell viability in lymphocytes treated with onion extract then exposed to BLM compared to cells treated with BLM alone. The frequency of BLM induced MN and DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent manner; however, when lymphocytes were pretreated with onion extract (10 and 20 μL/mL, the frequency of BLM-induced MN was decreased at all doses of BLM and DNA damage was decreased at 3 μg/mL of BLM. These results suggest that onion extract may have protective effects against BLM-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes.

  19. Acellular bone marrow extracts significantly enhance engraftment levels of human hematopoietic stem cells in mouse xeno-transplantation models.

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    Kazem Zibara

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC derived from cord blood (CB, bone marrow (BM, or mobilized peripheral blood (PBSC can differentiate into multiple lineages such as lymphoid, myeloid, erythroid cells and platelets. The local microenvironment is critical to the differentiation of HSCs and to the preservation of their phenotype in vivo. This microenvironment comprises a physical support supplied by the organ matrix as well as tissue specific cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. We investigated the effects of acellular bovine bone marrow extracts (BME on HSC in vitro and in vivo. We observed a significant increase in the number of myeloid and erythroid colonies in CB mononuclear cells (MNC or CB CD34+ cells cultured in methylcellulose media supplemented with BME. Similarly, in xeno-transplantation experiments, pretreatment with BME during ex-vivo culture of HSCs induced a significant increase in HSC engraftment in vivo. Indeed, we observed both an increase in the number of differentiated myeloid, lymphoid and erythroid cells and an acceleration of engraftment. These results were obtained using CB MNCs, BM MNCs or CD34(+ cells, transplanted in immuno-compromised mice (NOD/SCID or NSG. These findings establish the basis for exploring the use of BME in the expansion of CB HSC prior to HSC Transplantation. This study stresses the importance of the mechanical structure and soluble mediators present in the surrounding niche for the proper activity and differentiation of stem cells.

  20. Red Seaweed (Hypnea Bryodies and Melanothamnus Somalensis) Extracts Counteracting Azoxymethane-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim Waly, Mostafa; Al Alawi, Ahmed Ali; Al Marhoobi, Insaaf Mohammad; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur

    2016-12-01

    Background: Azoxymethane (AOM) is a well-known colon cancer-inducing agent in experimental animals via mechanisms that include oxidative stress in rat colon and liver tissue. Few studies have investigated AOM-induced oxidative stress in rat liver tissue. Red seaweeds of the genera Hypnea Bryodies and Melanothamnus Somalensis are rich in polyphenolic compounds that may suppress cancer through antioxidant properties, yet limited research has been carried out to investigate their anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant influence against AOM-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Objective: This study aims to determine protective effects of red seaweed (Hypnea Bryodies and Melanothamnus Somalensis) extracts against AOM-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injections of AOM, 15 mg/kg body weight, once a week for two consecutive weeks and then orally administered red seaweed (100 mg/kg body-weight) extracts for sixteen weeks. At the end of the experiment all animals were overnight fasted then sacrificed and blood and liver tissues were collected. Results: AOM treatment significantly decreased serum liver markers and induced hepatic oxidative stress as evidenced by increased liver tissue homogenate levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, decreased total antioxidant capacity and glutathione, and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase). Both red seaweed extracts abolished the AOM-associated oxidative stress and protected against liver injury as evidenced by increased serum levels of liver function markers. In addition, histological findings confirmed protective effects of the two red seaweed extracts against AOM-induced liver injury. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that red seaweed (Hypnea Bryodies and Melanothamnus Somalensis) extracts counteracted oxidative stress-induced hepatotoxicity in a

  1. In vitro antibacterial evaluation of Anabaena sp. against several clinically significant microflora and HPTLC analysis of its active crude extracts

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    Chauhan Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible antibacterial activity of Anabaena extracts. Anabaena was isolated from a natural source and cultured in vitro. after suitable growth, cyanobacterial culture was harvested using different solvents. Extracts, thus prepared, were evaluated for their antibacterial potential by agar-well diffusion assay against bacterial species of clinical significance. MIC values were determined further to check the concentration ranges for significant inhibition. HPTLC analysis was done to separate the components of active crude extract in an attempt to identify the bio-active chemical entity. Methanol extract exhibited more potent activity than that of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. No inhibitory effect was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Staphylococcus aureus required about 256 μg/ml of the crude methanol extract for effective inhibition. HPTLC evaluation at λ 254 nm was performed for the separation of a complex mixture of the methanol extract. The results provide evidence that Anabaena sp. extracts might indeed be potential sources of new antibacterial agents.

  2. HEMATOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOBIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF GREEN TEA AND GINGER EXTRACTS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DIABETIC RABBITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkirdasy, Ahmed; Shousha, Saad; Alrohaimi, Abdulmohsen H; Arshad, M Faiz

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the extract of green tea and/or ginger on some hematological and immunobiochemical profiles in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The results revealed that treatment of diabetic animals with extract of green tea and/or ginger elevated the decreased HDL-c and LDL-c but significantly decreased triglycerides, the elevated glucose and GOT concentrations. The result also displayed a non-significant increase in the levels of CRP and fibrinogen. The experiment also revealed that the elevated MDA and GSH level fell down to the normal control group. The result also showed that after green tea and/or ginger extract treatment, the lowered RBC, WBC counts, PCV, percentage of neutrophils were increased and the elevated MCV, MCH, and MCHC of diabetic rabbits were decreased to normal levels. Thus, the overall results may indicate that green tea and/or ginger extracts have a significant hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rabbits. In addition, the extracts may be capable of improving hyperlipidemia, the impaired kidney function and hemogram in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  3. Ameliorative effect of Leucas cephalotes extract on isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhini Bais; Payal Saiju

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate ameliorative effect of alcoholic extract of whole herb of Lucas cephalotes (L. cephalotes) on isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Hepatoprotective potential of alcoholic extract of L. cephalotes was ascertained at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were intoxicated with isoniazid and rifampicin (100 mg/kg each, i.p.) for 21 d. Assessment was done on the basis of liver function test (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin);effect on enzymes involved in oxidative stress (lipid peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase) and histology of liver were assessed as well. Comparison among different treatment group was done using One way ANOVA followed by Benferroni’s t test. Results: It was observed that at both of the selected doses extract exhibited significant ameliorative effect. In animals treated with the extract at both doses, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and lipid peroxidase level was found to be significantly less (P Conclusions:From the present study it can be concluded that alcoholic extract of L. cephalotes possesses significant hepatoprotective potential against isoniazid and rifampicin induced heptoxicity.

  4. Anti-diabetic activity of Ferula assafoetida extract in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaiton, Ahmed Saber

    2010-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic potential of Asafetida extract against the pancreatic beta-cells damage from alloxan-induced diabetes in rats and some hormones related to diabetes mellitus. Asafetida induced significant reduction in blood glucose and increasing of serum insulin, our data indicate that the level of glucose in the animals that subjected with alloxan was 10.28 +/- 0.85 mmol L(-1) p < 0.05 comparing with control group 3.27 +/- 0.25 p < 0.05, the level of blood glucose in diabetic group when subjected with Asafetida extract decreasing to 6.75 +/- 0.31 p < 0.05. There was significant amount of insulin secretion in diabetic animals when subjected with Asafetida extract 0.48 +/- 0.05 p < 0.05 in comparison with diabetic animal's 0.33 +/- 0.06 p < 0.05. These findings suggested that Asafetida extract treatment exerts therapeutic protective effect in diabetes by preserving pancreatic beta-cells integrity and significant activity extract, which supports traditional usage to prevent diabetic complications.

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Morus nigra against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

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    Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus nigra (Family Moraceae is traditionally used injaundice, diabetes, hypertension, cough, fever and cancer. The current study was conducted to determine hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of leaves of M. nigra. Two doses of 250 mg/kg p.o and 500 mg/kg p.o showed that extract of M. nigra produced significant (p<0.001 reduction in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin induced by paracetamol and the results are comparable to silymarin (p<0.001. Results were supported by histopathologi-cal investigations, phytochemical screening and detection of active consti-tuents by HPLC. The current study showed that aqueous methanolic extract of M. nigra possess hepatoprotective activity that might be due to quercetin, luteolin and isorhamnetin. It was concluded from this study that M. nigra has hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver injury in mice.

  6. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. calyx extract on tetracycline induced testicular toxicity in mice

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    Nawaphat Taweebot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae calyx extract (HSE was evaluated for theprotective effect against testicular toxicity induced by tetracycline dose of 20 mg/100 gBW for 14 daysin mice. The extract doses of 20, 50 and 100 mg/100 gBW used in pretreatment by oral administrationfor 4 days and subsequent co-treatment with tetracycline for 14 days had the protective effectexhibiting significantly increasing quality of seminal fluid including an increase in total sperm count,percentage of mobile sperms and viable sperms when compared to the tetracycline treated group (p H. Sabdariffa. calyx extract may be used as protective agent againsttetracycline-induced reproductive toxicity in mice.

  7. Hepatoprotective efficacy of Hypnea muciformis ethanolic extract on CCl4 induced toxicity in rats

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    Giridharan Bupesh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of Hypnea muciformis (red algae was tested for hepatoprotective activity against experimentally induced liver damage by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in male albino rats. The levels of serum enzymatic and biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase, 5' nucleotidase, bilirubin, creatinine, urea, triglycerides, lipid peroxides and albumin were determined. The CCI4 induced lesions in the liver significant increased the levels of serum marker enzymes SGPT and SGOT, bilirubin, creatinine and decreased urea. The oral treatment with ethanolic extract of H. muciformis exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity by reducing the CCL4 caused changes in the biochemical parameters such as total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea. These parameters were restored towards the normal levels as shown by the enzymatic tests. In addition, H. muciformis significantly decreased the liver weight of CCl4 intoxicated rats. Apparently the H. muciformis extract interfered with the free radical formation, which resulted in hepatoprotective activity. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the LD50 value was more than 3 g/kg body weight. These results clearly indicated that this seaweed contained some active principles in its ethanolic extract which acted as an antidote against the hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4.

  8. Nephroprotective effect ofCroton zambesicus root extract against gentimicin-induced kidney injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jude E Okokon; Paul A Nwafor; Kufre Noah

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the kidney protective effect of ethanolic root extract ofCroton zambesicus (C. zambesicus) against gentimicin-induced kidney injury in rats.Methods: The root extract (27 -81 mg/kg) was administered to rats for eight days with concurrent administration of gentimicin (100mg/kg) daily for the same period of time. Protective effect of the extract was evaluated in serum levels of creatinine, urea, and uric acid as well as some ions like sodium, potassium and chloride. Histological examination of the kidneys from different treatment groups were also carried out.Results: Administration of the root extract significantly reduced histopathological changes in the kidneys of the extract-treated rats especially in the rats treated with lower doses of the extract (27and54 mg/kg). The levels of serum urea and creatinine were also reduced significantly (P<0.01) at these doses with no observable effect on the levels of uric acid and ions. Conclusions: The kidney - protective activity of this extract could be due to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.

  9. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p < 0.05) increased, decreased and decreased, respectively for all tested times. The best response observed in 30, 45 and 60 min. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula.

  10. Effect of Matricaria chamomilla Hydroalcoholic Extract on Cisplatin-induced Neuropathy in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Namvaran Abbas Abad; M.H.Kayate Nouri; A.Gharjanie; F.Tavakoli

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is a mainstay for the treatment of solid tumors, especially colorectal, ovarian,testicular, bladder, and lung cancer. Studies have shown that cisplatin could have painful effects on human and animal models. Matricaria chamomilla (MC) has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MC hydroalcoholic extract on cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy and to compare with morphine in mice. METHODS: Experiments were performed on 60 NMRI male mice weighed 25 g to 30 g which have been divided into 6 groups. The fast group received normal saline;the second group received MC hydroalcoholic extract; the third group received cisplatin; the fourth group received MC hydroalcoholic extract and cisplatin, 96 hours before formalin test; the fifth group received morphine and the sixth group received cisplatin and morphine. The time of injected hind paw biting and licking time were measured in 5-minute interval for an hour. RESULTS: Results showed that formalin induced significant (P<0.05) pain response (the first phase: 0-5 min and the second phase: 15-40 min after injection). Administration of MC extract before formalin injection showed significant (P<0.05) decrease of pain responses in the first and second phase. Administration of cisplatin produced significant (P<0.05) increase in pain response in both phases of formalin test.Injection of MC extract and cisplatin together have shown that MC is able to decrease the second phase of cisplatin-induced pain sig-nificantly (P<0.05). Morphine decreased cisplatin-induced pain in the first and second phase of formalin test significantly(P<0.05).In comparison morphine has analgesic effects in the first phase and MC extract has anti inflammatory effects in the second phase of formalin test significantly (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: MC and cisplatin have analgesic and painful neuropathic respective effects, and MC hydroalcoholic extract is able to

  11. EVALUATION OF ANXIOLYTIC POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT HYPERICUM HOOKERIANUM IN STRESS INDUCED SWISS ALBINO MICE

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    S.Subakanmani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is evaluate to Anxiolytic profile of Hypericum hookerianum in stress induced Swiss albino mice. The study was carried out using Swiss albino mice (25- 30 g. The Anxiolytic effect of aerial parts of ethanolic extract of Hypericum hookerianum was evaluated by using behavioral analysis like Elevated plus maze (EPM test, Open Field Test (OFT, Hole Board Test (HBT, Light dark exploration Test (LDE in restraint stress induced animals. Behavioral test parameters for anxiety were assessed followed by biochemical parameters (lipid per oxidation, super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione per oxidase, reduced glutathione, etc. and Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard Anxiolytic drug, administered intraperitonealy. The results were shown that, ethanolic extract of H.hookerianum (Hh 100mg/kg and Hh 200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in lipid per oxidation, depletion of super oxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase activity and glutathione per oxidase in stress induced animals as compared to unstressed animal. Six days treatment of Hh (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg comparable with Diazepam, significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral and oxidative damage. The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of H.hookerianum may possess Anxiolytic activity in stressed animals and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim.

  12. Effect of Potent Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    T. Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ- induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200?mg/kg. Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200?mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine.

  13. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA PULP AND SEED EXTRACT IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Somshuvra Bhattacharya et al

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic potential of Lagenaria siceraria pulp extract (LSPE) and Lagenaria siceraria seed extract (LSSE) against the pancreatic damage from alloxan-induced diabetes in rats related to diabetes mellitus. Lagenaria siceraria induced significant reduction in blood glucose and increasing of serum insulin, our data indicate that the level of glucose in the animals that were subjected with alloxan was 210 mg/dl comparing with normal 70...

  14. Protective effects of Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) extract against digoxin-induced arrhythmias in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Hayrullah; Soner, Burak Cem; Baysal, Tamer; Şahin, Ayşe Saide

    2015-01-01

    Digitalis preparations are commonly used by children and adults with heart diseases worldwide, although excessive doses may cause cardiac effects. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antiarrhythmic effect of Crataegus oxyacantha extract on digoxin-induced arrhythmias in anesthetized Wistar rats. Control and experimental groups were evaluated for arrhythmias induced by digoxin. Fifteen rats (7 as controls and 8 as the experimental group) were included in the study. The dry fruits of 100 mg Crataegus oxyacantha were extracted by percolation method. Digoxin, at a dose of 40 µg/kg/min, was infused to form the arrhythmias in all rats. Simultaneously, the extract was infused into the experimental group, while 0.9% NaCl was infused into control group. Electrocardiographic QRS prolongation and arterial blood pressure changes were analyzed. The experimental group lived longer (62.13±2.20 min) than the controls (p=0.002). On the other hand, the time to beginning of QRS prolongation did not differ between the two groups (p=0.812). Bradycardia was significant in the control group (288.01±10.54 beat/min and p=0.01). The maximum QRS duration was observed in the control group during the digoxin and 0.9% NaCl infusion period (53.29±3.99 ms and p=0.001). Also, the durations of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were shorter in the experimental group. However, arterial blood pressure dipping was significant in the experimental group (23.67±10.89 mm Hg and p<0.001). Crataegus oxyacantha alcoholic extract produced an antiarrhythmic effect that was induced by digoxin in Wistar rats. However, in the clinical use of this extract, the hypotensive effect should be considered. Also, the alcoholic extract of Crataegus oxyacantha may be an alternative treatment medication for arrhythmias induced by digoxin toxicity in humans.

  15. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Pandanus odoratissimus root against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Garima Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pandanus odoratissimus (Pandanaceae is popular in the indigenous system of medicines like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy. In the traditional system of medicine various plant parts such as leaves, root, flowers, and oils are used as anthelmintic, tonic, stomachic, digestive and in the treatment of jaundice and various liver disorders. Objective: The aim was to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of the root of P. odoratissimus against paracetamol (PCM induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rat by PCM (2 g/kg b.w. p.o. for 7 days. The ethanolic extract of P. odoratissimus root was administered at the dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. orally for 7 days and silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w. p.o. as standard drug was administered once daily for a week. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin and triglycerides. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results: Experimental findings revealed that the extract at dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of b.w. showed dose dependant hepatoprotective effect against PCM induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal that was comparable to that of silymarin, but the extract at dose level of 400 mg/kg was found to be more potent when compared to that of 200 mg/kg. Besides, the results obtained from histopathological study also support the study. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that ethanolic extract of the root of P. odoratissimus afforded significant protection against PCM induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  16. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Adansonia digitata Extract on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, Abeer; Aldawsari, Hibah M; Badr, Jihan M; Ibrahim, Amany K; Abdel-Hady, Seham El-Sayed

    2016-01-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae) was examined for its hepatoprotective activity against liver damage induced by acetaminophen in rats. The principle depends on the fact that administration of acetaminophen will be associated with development of oxidative stress. In addition, hepatospecific serum markers will be disturbed. Treatment of the rats with the methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. prior to administration of acetaminophen significantly reduced the disturbance in liver function. Liver functions were measured by assessment of total protein, total bilirubin, ALP, ALT, and AST. Oxidative stress parameter and antioxidant markers were also evaluated. Moreover, histopathological evaluation was performed in order to assess liver case regarding inflammatory infiltration or necrosis. Animals were observed for any symptoms of toxicity after administration of extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. to ensure safety of the fruit extract.

  17. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Adansonia digitata Extract on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

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    Abeer Hanafy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae was examined for its hepatoprotective activity against liver damage induced by acetaminophen in rats. The principle depends on the fact that administration of acetaminophen will be associated with development of oxidative stress. In addition, hepatospecific serum markers will be disturbed. Treatment of the rats with the methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. prior to administration of acetaminophen significantly reduced the disturbance in liver function. Liver functions were measured by assessment of total protein, total bilirubin, ALP, ALT, and AST. Oxidative stress parameter and antioxidant markers were also evaluated. Moreover, histopathological evaluation was performed in order to assess liver case regarding inflammatory infiltration or necrosis. Animals were observed for any symptoms of toxicity after administration of extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. to ensure safety of the fruit extract.

  18. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpenia crista leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Garima Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Caesalpenia crista (C. crista against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Paracetamol (2 g/kg body weight was used to induce hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Ethanolic extract of leaves of C. crista was administered at the dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally for 7 d. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct, and triglycerides content. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results: Administration of ethanolic extract at doses 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant reduction in elevated level of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin (total and direct and triglycerides when compared to positive control group. Conclusions: It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. crista leaves seems to justify the promising hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol induced liver damage in rats.

  19. Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract on oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity: in vitro evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinci, Lorenzo; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Maidecchi, Anna; Mattoli, Luisa; Ghelardini, Carla

    2017-02-04

    Hypericum perforatum L. has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for the treatment of many disorders. Neuropathic pain is a common side effect of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy and often the cause of therapy discontinuation. Thanks to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, the use of H. perforatum may be a novel therapeutic strategy for neuropathy. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of H. perforatum hydrophilic extract on an in vitro model of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The antioxidant potential of extract was first evaluated in cell-free models by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay and nitro blue tetrazolium oxidation test; the ability of H. perforatum extract to reduce oxaliplatin-induced caspase-3 activity in rat astrocytes and its potential interference with the cytotoxic effects of oxaliplatin in a colorectal cancer in vitro model (HT-29 cells) were also evaluated. The extract showed a significant antioxidant effect and was able to reduce caspase-3 activity in rat astrocytes. Of note, the extract alone exerted a cytotoxic effect in HT-29 cells and did not reduce the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin in HT-29 cells. These data suggest that H. perforatum could be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for counteracting chemotherapy-induced neuropathy.

  20. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpenia crista leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Garima Mishra; Ratan Lal Khosa; Pradeep Singh; Keshri Kishor Jha

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Caesalpenia crista (C. crista) against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods:Paracetamol (2 g/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Ethanolic extract of leaves of C. crista was administered at the dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally for 7 d. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct), and triglycerides content. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results:Administration of ethanolic extract at doses 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant reduction in elevated level of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin (total and direct) and triglycerides when compared to positive control group. Conclusions:It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. crista leaves seems to justify the promising hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol induced liver damage in rats.

  1. Use of Arctium lappa Extract Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kott, Attalla Farag; Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed

    2015-12-01

    Severe destructive hepatic injuries can be induced by acetaminophen overdose and may lead to acute hepatic failure. To investigate the ameliorative effects of Arctium lappa root extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group, Arctium lappa extract group, acetaminophen-injected group, and acetaminophen treated with Arctium lappa extract group. The treatment with Arctium lappa extract reduced serum alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in the acetaminophen group when compared with the control group. DNA fragments in the acetaminophen-injected group were also significantly increased (P Arctium lappa treatment (12.97±0.89 nmol/mg) when compared with the acetaminophen-treated-only group (12.97±0.89 nmol/mg). Histopathologic examination revealed that acetaminophen administration produced hepatic cell necrosis, infiltrate of lymphocytes, and vacuolation that were associated with the acetaminophen-treated animal group, but the degree of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity was mediated by treatment with Arctium lappa extract. Arctium lappa can prevent most of the hepatic tissue damage caused by acetaminophen overdose in rats.

  2. Phellinus linteus extract induces autophagy and synergizes with 5-fluorouracil to inhibit breast cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Ying; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Chiang, Tai-An; Chen, Chee-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus linteus (PL) is a medicinal mushroom due to its several biological properties, including anticancer activity. However, the mechanisms of its anticancer effect remain to be elucidated. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the ethanolic extract from the PL combined with 5-FU on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line and to determine the mechanism of cell death. Individually, PL extract and 5-FU significantly inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PL extract (30 mg/mL) in combination with 5-FU (10 μg/mL) synergistically inhibited MDA-MB-231 cells by 1.8-fold. PL did not induce apoptosis, as demonstrated by the DNA fragmentation assay, the sub-G1 population, and staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The exposure of MDA-MB-231 cells to PL extracts resulted in several confirmed characteristics of autophagy, including the appearance of autophagic vacuoles revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining, the formation of acidic vesicular organelles, autophagosome membrane association of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) characterized by cleavage of LC3 and its punctuate redistribution, and ultrastructural observation of autophagic vacuoles by transmission electron microscopy. We concluded that PL extracts synergized with low doses of 5-FU to inhibit triple-negative breast cancer cell growth and demonstrated that PL extract can induce autophagy-related cell death.

  3. Black tea extract: a supplementary antioxidant in radiation-induced damage to DNA and normal lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debjani; Pal, Sandip; Saha, Chabita; Chakrabarti, Amit Kumar; Datta, Salil C; Dey, Subrata Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Myriad research has contributed significantly toward the understanding and identification of health benefits stemming from tea polyphenols and many other naturally occurring flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables. These flavonoids are known to mitigate reactive oxygen species-induced damage by scavenging them. In this study, hot-water black tea extract rich in flavonoids is evaluated as a supplementary antioxidant. The antioxidant efficacy of black tea extract was investigated by evaluating radioprotection conferred to pBR322 DNA, calf thymus DNA, and normal lymphocytes during gamma irradiation. The protection was measured by gel electrophoresis, fluorimetric study, cell viability assay, cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei assay, and comet assay. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability of the tea extract used increased in a dose-dependent manner (IC50: 182.45 µg/mL). Positive correlation of radioprotection with antioxidant activity of black tea extract was observed in all systems. Maximum protection against radiation-induced damage was observed in pBR322 DNA and calf thymus DNA at ≥200 µg/mL of black tea extract. At a dose of black tea extract as low as 5 µg/mL, efficient radioprotection was observed in normal lymphocytes, which is encouraging and can be tested in the future as a natural antioxidant supplement during radiotherapy.

  4. The hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia elegans induces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, S; Millán, R; Lungenstrass, H; Díaz-Véliz, G; Morán, J A; Herrera-Ruiz, M; Tortoriello, J

    2006-06-15

    Behavioral effects of a hydroalcoholic (60% ethanol) extract from the leaves of Salvia elegans Vahl (Lamiaceae) were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract was administered intraperitoneally and its effects on spontaneous motor activity (total motility, locomotion, rearing and grooming behavior) were monitored. Putative anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of Salvia elegans were studied in the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) and in the forced swimming test (FST), respectively. Deleterious effects of Salvia elegans on learning and memory were also studied by using active and passive avoidance paradigms. The results revealed that all doses (3.12, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) of the extract caused a significant decrease in total motility, locomotion, rearing and grooming behavior. Only the dose of 12.5 mg/kg increased the exploration of the EPM open arms in a similar way to that of diazepam (1 mg/kg). In the FST, all doses of the extract induced a reduction of immobility, in a similar way to that of fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and imipramine (12.5 mg/kg), along with a significant increase in the time spent in swimming behavior. Acquisition of active avoidance responses was disrupted by pre-treatment with the extract, but retention of a passive avoidance response was not significantly modified. These results suggest that some of the components of the hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia elegans have psychotropic properties, which deserve further investigation.

  5. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic study of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. leaves extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leila Mousavi; Rabeta Mohd Salleh; Vikneswaran Murugaiyah; Mohd Zaini Asmawi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (O. tenui-florum) leaves used in the traditional medicine management of diabetes in Malaysia. Methods: O. tenuiflorum leaves were extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were evaluated in terms of antidiabetic activity by using acute, subcutaneous glucose tolerance, and sub-chronic tests in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The extracts were also subjected to phytochemical analyses. Results: With an acute dose (1 g/kg), the methanol extracts showed significant reduction (31%) in fasting blood glucose (FBG) of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The FBG-decreasing effect of ethyl acetate extract was more rapid than that of the other extracts;the decreasing rates were 20%after 2 h, 21%after 3 h, and 8%after 5 and 7 h. After 7 h (31%), the effect of methanol extract on FBG was significantly lower than that of metformin. In the subcutaneous glucose tolerance test, only methanol and hexane extracts showed the similarity of metformin in diabetic rats. After 14 days, the effects of these extracts were similar to those of metformin (63.33%). The total flavonoid and phenolic contents of extracts decreased as the polarity of the extraction solvent increased. Conclusions: The results obtained provide support for a possible use of O. tenuiflorum leaves in managing hyperglycemia and preventing the complications associated with it in type 2 diabetic.

  6. Silica Induced Early Fibrogenic Reaction in Lung of Mice Ameliorated by Nyctanthes arbortristis Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pharmacological effect of Nyctanthes arbortristis (NAT) leaf extract in the prevention of lung injury induced by silica particles. Method Lung injury was induced in Swiss mice through inhalation exposure to silica particles (<5μ) using a Flow Past Nose Only Inhalation Chamber at the rate of -10 mg/m3 respirable mass for 5 h. Lung bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collected between 48 and 72 h was subjected to protein profiling by electrophoresis and cytokine evaluation by solid phase sandwich ELISA. Lung histopathology was performed to evaluate lung injury. Results Inhalation of silica increased the level of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and of the 66 and 63 kDa peptides in the BAL fluid in comparison to sham-treated control. Pre-treatment of silica exposed mice with NAT leaf extract significantly prevented the accumulation of TNF-α in the BAL fluid, but the 66 and 63 kDa peptides remained unchanged. The extract was also effective in the prevention of silica-induced early fibrogenic reactions like congestion, edema and infiltration of nucleated cells in the interstitial alveolar spaces, and thickening of alveolar septa in mouse lung. Conclusion NAT leaf extract helps in bypassing silica induced initial lung injury in mice.

  7. Green Tea Extract-induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Sayama, Kazutoshi; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-10-01

    Although green tea is considered to be a healthy beverage, hepatotoxicity associated with the consumption of green tea extract has been reported. In the present study, we characterized the hepatotoxicity of green tea extract in rats and explored the responsible mechanism. Six-week-old IGS rats received a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 200 mg/kg green tea extract (THEA-FLAN 90S). At 8, 24, 48 and 72 hrs and 1 and 3 months after exposure, liver damage was assessed by using blood-chemistry, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry to detect cell death (TUNEL and caspase-3) and proliferative activity (PCNA). Analyses of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and the liver and of MDA and thymidine glycol (TG) by immunohistochemistry, as oxidative stress markers, were performed. Placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P), which is a marker of hepatocarcinogenesis, was also immunohistochemically stained. To examine toxicity at older ages, 200 mg/kg green tea extract was administered to 18-wk-old female rats. In 6-wk-old rats, 12% of males and 50% of females died within 72 hrs. In 18-wk-old rats, 88% died within 72 hrs. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and/or total bilirubin increased in both males and females. Single-cell necrosis with positive signs of TUNEL and caspase-3 was seen in perilobular hepatocytes from 8 hrs onward in all lobular areas. PCNA-positive hepatocytes increased at 48 hrs. MDA levels in the serum and liver tended to increase, and MDA- and TG-positive hepatocytes were seen immunohistochemically. GST-P-positive hepatocellular altered foci were detected in one female rat at the 3-month time point. In conclusion, a single injection of green tea extract induced acute and severe hepatotoxicity, which might be associated with lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidative stress in hepatocytes.

  8. Cupressus lusitanica (Cupressaceae) leaf extract induces apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopéz, L; Villavicencio, M A; Albores, A; Martínez, M; de la Garza, J; Meléndez-Zajgla, J; Maldonado, V

    2002-05-01

    A crude ethanolic extract of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. leaves demonstrate cytotoxicity in a panel of cancer cell lines. Cell death was due to apoptosis, as assessed by morphologic features (chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies formation) and specific DNA fragmentation detected by in situ end-labeling of DNA breaks (TUNEL). The apoptotic cell death was induced timely in a dose-dependent manner. Despite the absence of changes in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, proapoptotic Bax protein variants omega and delta were increased. These results warrant further research of possible antitumor compounds in this plant.

  9. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  10. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Jacyra Antunes dos Santos; Geraldo Amaral, Juliano; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Tabosa do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Maria Zucolotto, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Snakebites are a serious worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, about 90% of accidents are attributed to snakes from the Bothrops genus. The specific treatment consists of antivenom serum therapy, which has some limitations such as inability to neutralize local effects, difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions, and high cost. Thus, the search for alternative therapies to treat snakebites is relevant. Jatropha mollissima (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly used in folk medicine as an antiophidic remedy. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of the aqueous leaf extract from J. mollissima on local effects induced by Bothrops venoms. High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection analysis and Mass Spectrometry analysis of aqueous leaf extract confirmed the presence of the flavonoids isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This extract, at 50–200 mg/kg doses administered by intraperitoneal route, showed significant inhibitory potential against local effects induced by Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms. Local skin hemorrhage, local edema, leukocyte migration, and myotoxicity were significantly inhibited by the extract. These results demonstrate that J. mollissima extract possesses inhibitory potential, especially against bothropic venoms, suggesting its potential as an adjuvant in treatment of snakebites. PMID:27847818

  11. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacyra Antunes dos Santos Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are a serious worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, about 90% of accidents are attributed to snakes from the Bothrops genus. The specific treatment consists of antivenom serum therapy, which has some limitations such as inability to neutralize local effects, difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions, and high cost. Thus, the search for alternative therapies to treat snakebites is relevant. Jatropha mollissima (Euphorbiaceae is a medicinal plant popularly used in folk medicine as an antiophidic remedy. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of the aqueous leaf extract from J. mollissima on local effects induced by Bothrops venoms. High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection analysis and Mass Spectrometry analysis of aqueous leaf extract confirmed the presence of the flavonoids isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This extract, at 50–200 mg/kg doses administered by intraperitoneal route, showed significant inhibitory potential against local effects induced by Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms. Local skin hemorrhage, local edema, leukocyte migration, and myotoxicity were significantly inhibited by the extract. These results demonstrate that J. mollissima extract possesses inhibitory potential, especially against bothropic venoms, suggesting its potential as an adjuvant in treatment of snakebites.

  12. Protective effect of Irvingia gabonensis stem bark extract on cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ojo, Adebola Busola; Olarewaju, Olaide Ibiwumi

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium has been considered a risk factor for humans as it accumulates in body tissues, such as the liver, lungs, kidneys, bones, and reproductive organs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Irvingia gabonensis (IG) against cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity. The study was performed on twenty (20) male rats divided into four groups: control group, cadmium group (4 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally), cadmium + extract (200 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage) and cadmium + extract (400 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage). Changes in the kidney biochemical markers, namely glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, and creatinine were determined in serum. Histological examinations were monitored. Exposure to Cd lowered the activities of kidney antioxidants, while it increased LPO levels. Levels of all disrupted parameters were alleviated by co-administration of IG extract. The malondialdehyde concentration of the rats treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract significantly decreased (prats. Yet the creatinine concentration decreased significantly (prats and these were ameliorated in cadmium treated rats by co-administration of IG extract. IG showed apparent protective and curative effect on Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  13. Antidiabetic activity of methanol extract of Acorus calamus in STZ induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Hansi Prisilla; Rangachari Balamurugan; Harshit R Shah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antihperglycemic activity of methanol extract of Acorus calamus (AC) rhizome in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). 200 mg/kg of AC extract was administered orally to diabetic rats for 21 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity by estimating various biochemical parameters. Results:Oral administration of AC methanol extract showed significant restoration of the levels of blood glucose level. After 21 days of treatment, blood glucose, lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol), glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6 bis phosphatase levels and hepatic markers enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase) were decreased when compared with diabetic control. Plasma insulin, tissue glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels were increased significantly compared to diabetic control. Concurrent histopathological studies of the pancreas showed comparable regeneration by extract which were earlier necrosed by STZ. Conclusions: The results exhibited that AC methanol extract possess potent antihyperglycemic activity in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats and so might be of useful in the management of diabetes. The phyto-treatment showed more efficient antihyperglycemic effect than the standard drug glibenclamide.

  14. Crocus sativus stigma extract and its major constituent crocin possess significant antiproliferative properties against human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Anna M; Mancini, Andrea; Lizzi, Anna Rita; De Simone, Angela; Marroccella, Carmine Esposito; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Tatone, Carla; Festuccia, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of saffron extract (SE) and its major constituent crocin on 5 different malignant and 2 nonmalignant prostate cancer cell lines. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the purity and content of crocin were determined. All cells were incubated with different concentrations of SE or crocin for 48 h. Cell cycle and apoptosis were also evaluated. In a time- and concentration-dependent manner, both SE and crocin reduced cell proliferation in all malignant cell lines with IC50 values ranging between 0.4 and 4 mg/ml for SE and between 0.26 and 0.95 mM/ml for crocin. Nonmalignant cells were not affected. Flow cytometry profiles revealed that most cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase with a significant presence of apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of Bcl-2 was strikingly downregulated, whereas Bax was upregulated. Analysis of caspase activity indicated a caspase-dependent pathway with involvement of caspase-9 activation, suggesting an intrinsic pathway. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that both SE and crocin can inhibit cell proliferation, arrest cell cycle progression, inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer. Consequently, these agents could potentially be used as a chemopreventive as well as a chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer management.

  15. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (linn. whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya R Pani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.. Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w. to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001 and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001 associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001 and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05 as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w. exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy.

  16. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of rat aorta induced by extract of Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyun; Li, Sujuan; Wang, Peng; Yan, Saimei; Hu, Lin; Pan, Xiaoxia; Yang, Cui; Leung, George Pakheng

    2014-09-25

    Schizophyllum commune (SC) is widely consumed by Chinese, especially in southern part of China. The aim of the present study was to assess the extract of SC on vascular tone and the mechanisms involved. Experiments were performed on aorta of 18-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Dried SC was extracted with 50% ethanol, 90% ethanol and deionized water, respectively. The effects of SC on the isometric tension of rat aortic rings were measured. Protein expression for the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was also determined in the primarily cultured rat aortic arterial endothelial cells (RAECs). The results showed that the water extract of SC induced a marked relaxation in aortic rings with or without endothelium. After the pretreatments of N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin, RP-cAMP, and methylene blue, the SC-induced relaxation was significantly decreased. In addition, the contraction due to Ca(2+) influx and intracellular Ca(2+) release was also inhibited by SC. Furthermore, expression of the eNOS protein was significantly elevated in RAECs after treatment of SC. In conclusion, the water extract of SC induces an endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation in rat aorta. The relaxing effect of SC involves the modulation of NO-cGMP-dependent pathways, PGI2-cAMP-depedent pathways, Ca(2+) influx though calcium channels and intracellular Ca(2+) release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of effects of Bauhinia variegata stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Ravindra G; Dhake, Avinash S

    2011-04-01

    Bauhinia variegata Linn (family: Caesalpiniaceae), popularly known as Rakta Kanchnar, is a medium-sized tree found throughout India. The stem bark of B. variegata (BV) is used traditionally in the treatment of asthma, jaundice, tuberculosis, leprosy, and skin diseases. In the present study, we have investigated the role of aqueous (BVA) and ethanol (BVE) extracts of the plant against milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia in albino mice. The results of the study revealed that pretreatment with both the extracts caused significant reduction in the total leukocyte and eosinophil counts in animals in dose-dependent manner. From these results, it can be concluded that the plant BV is having antieosinophilic activity.

  18. Effect of leaf extracts of Taraxacum officinale on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats, in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulfraz, Muhammad; Ahamd, Dawood; Ahmad, Muhammad Sheeraz; Qureshi, Rehmatullah; Mahmood, Raja Tahir; Jabeen, Nyla; Abbasi, Kashif Sarfraz

    2014-07-01

    Taraxacum officinale L is a medicinal plant, which has enormous medicinal values against various types of liver disorders and it has traditionally been used for the treatment of liver problems by people from the South East Asia. Previously we have screened the crude methanolic extract of T. officinale against cytotoxicity induced by CCl4. Present study was designed to compare the protective effect of ethanolic and n-hexane extract of leaves in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver toxicity in rats. The extract (200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight) along with silymarin (100 mg/kg) a standard drug was administered to experimental animals. It was observed that ethanolic plant extract has significantly reduced the negative effect of CCl4 as compared to n-hexane extract and effect of extract was increased with increasing dose level. Although both leaf extracts decreased the concentration of TBARS, H2O2 and nitrite contents which enhance due to CCl4 toxicity but effect was higher in ethanolic extract. The results clearly indicated that Taraxacum officinale ethanolic leaves extract has better protective effect against CCl4 induced liver tissues toxicity. This claim was also supported by histopathological results obtained during this study and this might be due to presence of various polar phytochemicals that might be more prevent in this extract.

  19. Effect of n-Hexane extract of Nigella sativa on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim A Begum

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the administration of the n-hexane extract of the Nigella sativa Linn. (kalajira ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day for 7 days was administered and nephrotoxicity was evaluated biochemically (significantly decreased reduced glutathione in renal cortex and significantly increased serum creatinine and serum urea and histologically (moderate degree of proximal tubular damage. The n-hexane extract of N. sativa (5 ml/kg/day was administered as pre-, post- and concomitant treatment for 7 days in the nephrotoxic rats. Statistically significant amelioration in all the biochemical parameters supported by significantly improved renal cortical histology was observed in the n-hexane extract of N. sativa treated nephrotoxic rats, which was more evident in the post-treatment group than the pre- treatment and the concomitantly-treated group. It is suggested that some ingredients contained in the n-hexane extract of N. sativa effected in ameliorating the signs of nephrotoxicity and that the specific active principle of the n-hexane extract of N. sativa responsible for this amelioration if obtained, would be more useful.

  20. Floral extract ofTecoma stans:A potent inhibitor of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicityin vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju S; Kavimani S; Uma Maheshwara rao V; Sreeramulu Reddy K; Vasanth Kumar G

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To highlight the nephroprotective activity of ethyl acetate extract of dried flowers ofTecoma stans for its protective effects on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Methods:For studying acute toxicity study, single oral dose of5 000 mg ethyl acetate floral extract/kg body weight was administered to albino rats (five females, five males). Nephrotoxicity was induced in albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin80 mg/kg/day for eight days. Effect of concurrent administration of ethyl acetate floral extract of Tecoma stans at a dose of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg/day given by oral route was determined using serumcreatinine, serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen and serum urea as indicators of kidney damage. The study groups contained six rats in each group. As nephrotoxicity of gentamicin is known to involve induction of oxidative stress,in vitro antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging activity of this extract was also evaluated.Results:For acute toxicity testing both female and male rats administered with the extract at a dose of5 000mg/kg. The results showed no toxicity in terms of general behavior change, mortality, or change in gross appearance of internal organs (LD50 > 5 000 mg/kg). It was observed that the ethyl acetate floral extract ofTecoma stans significantly protected rat kidneys from gentamicin-induced histopathological changes. Gentamicin-induced glomerular congestion, peritubular and blood vessel congestion, epithelial desquamation, accumulation of inflammatory cells and necrosis of the kidney cells were found to be reduced in the groups receiving the ethyl acetate floral extract ofTecoma stans along with gentamicin in a dose dependent manner. The floral extract also reduced the gentamicin-induced increase in serum creatinine, serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen and serum urea levels (P>0.01).Conclusions:The present study indicates a very important role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)and the relation to

  1. In vivo antioxidant activity of bark extract of Bixa orellana L. against acetaminophen- induced oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Smilin Bell Aseervatham G; Shamna R; Sangeetha B; Sasikumar JM

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vivo activity of bark extract of Bixa orellana L. (B. orellana) against acetaminophen induced oxidative stress. Methods: In the present study, antioxidant activity ofB. orellana was evaluated by using normal and acetaminophen induced oxidative stressed rats at the dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg p.o. oraly daily for 20 days. The animal's body weight was checked before and after treatment. Different biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases, serum glutamate oxalo transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, protein, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbic acid, lipid peroxide was performed. Histopathological analysis of the control and the hepatotoxicity induced rats were performed. Results: It was observed that the B. orellana bark extract showed significant protective activity against acetaminophen induced damage at 200 mg/kg dose level, while the 100 mg/kg dose showed moderate activity. Conclusions: From the result obtained in the present study suggest that B. orellana bark extract elicit protective activity through antioxidant activity on acetaminophen induced hepatic damage in rats.

  2. Spent coffee ground extract suppresses ultraviolet B-induced photoaging in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Park, Eu Ddeum; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of spent coffee ground (SCG) ethanol extract on UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. An ethanol extract of SCG (ESCG) was prepared using the residue remaining after extraction of oil from roasted SCG. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the content of caffeine (41.58 ± 0.54 μg/mg) was higher than that of chlorogenic acid isomers (~9.17 μg/mg) in ESCG. ESCG significantly decreased the UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species in HaCaT cells. UVB-induced wrinkle formation in mice dorsal skin was effectively reduced by ESCG administration; high dose of ESCG (5 g/L) caused the reduction of wrinkle area by 30% compared with UVB-treated control (UVBC). This result correlated with the ESCG-mediated decrease in epidermis thickness (25%). In addition, ESCG administration significantly reduced transdermal water loss (20%) and erythema formation (35%) derived from UVB exposure. Collagen type I (COL-1) level in dorsal skin was effectively recovered by ESCG administration. These results were supported by down-regulation of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and 9 (MMP9) expressions. Our results indicate that ESCG protects mouse skin from UVB-induced photoaging by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Our study suggests that ESCG may be anti-photoaging agent.

  3. Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2011-06-01

    In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer.

  4. Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Oldenlandia herbacea Against D - Galactosamine Induced Rats

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    S Pandian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Oldenlandia herbacea against D - Galactosamine/ Lipopolysacharide (D - GalN induced rats. Hepatoprotective activity was performed by using the toxicant D-GalN (200 mg/kg in Wistar rats. Methanolic extract of the whole plant of O. herbacea was administered orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 8 days. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was used as standard drug. Levels of various biochemical parameters in serum the histopathology of liver were assessed to study the hepatoprotective effect of the extract.  The extract showed significant reduction in the D-GalN induced liver damage and symptoms of liver injury by restoration of the deviated levels of various biochemical parameters of liver which were observed in toxic control group. Histopathology of the liver sections confirmed that the extract prevented hepatic damage induced by D-GalN. The methanolic extract of O. herbacea showed significant hepatoprotective activity. Industrial relevance: The herbal drugs continue to serve as an important source of conventional therapies for diverse disease conditions and reactions. This is a preliminary study and this will support us to isolate the biological active phyto-constituents for treating liver disorders. This study will help in discovering a new or active phytochemicals and thus create a novel hepatoprotective moiety with less adverse effect for the betterment of the human society and more affordable and accessible to the users. Keywords: Oldenlandia herbacea; D-galactosamine; Hepatoprotective activity; Silymarin.

  5. Ameliorating effects of Tamarindus indica fruit extract on anti-tubercular drugs induced liver toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Mohd; Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Ahmad, Sayeed; Akhtar, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shah Alam; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica fruit against combination of two antitubercular drugs viz. Isoniazid and Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of T. indica by DPPH-HPLC method was found to be 81.48%. Treatment with aqueous extract of T. indica significantly reduced the elevated levels of biochemical markers such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, bilirubin, TBARS and increased the albumin level as well antioxidant activities of SOD, CAT and GSH in intoxicated rats. The biochemical changes were supported by histological observations. Results of this study clearly demonstrate that aqueous extract of T. indica fruit protects against anti tuberculosis induced oxidative liver damage in rats and thus possess significant hepatoprotective activity. Further, it could be suggested that supplementation with this food extract might prove beneficial in the individuals on anti-TB drugs.

  6. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic and aqueous extract of flowers of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) induced by CCl4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ishwer Kale; Mohd Asif Khan; Yusufuddin Irfan; Veerana Goud A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora(Linn) flower in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods:The ethanolic and aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) flower are screened for its hepatoprotective activity in CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg, i.p) induced liver damage in Swiss albino rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw. Results: The ethanolic and aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) flower significantly (P<0.001) decreases the biochemical parameters (SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TP, and TB). Silymarin (25 mg/kg), a known hepatoprotective drug used for comparison exhibited significant activity (P<0.001). The extract did not shown any mortality up to a dose of 2000 g/kg bw. These findings suggest that the ethanolic and aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) flower (500mg/kg) was effective in bringing about functional improvement of hepatocytes. The healing effect of this extract was also confirmed by histological observations. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) flower have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity animal models.

  7. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats by standardized Feronia limonia. Linn leaf extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N.; Jain, Mahendra; Kapadia, Rakhee; Mishra, S. H.; Menaka C. Thounaojam

    2012-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of standardized Feronia limonia (Family, Rutaceae) methanolic extract (FL-7) and chloroform soluble fraction (FL-9) were assessed against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats treated with CCl4 recorded significant elevation in plasma markers of hepatic injury, alteration in hepatic antioxidant status and histopathological damages. However, rats pretreated with FL-7 (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and FL-9 (100 or 200 mg/...

  8. Corchorus olitorius (jute) extract induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on human multiple myeloma cells (ARH-77).

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşeri, Özlem Darcansoy; Yurtcu, Erkan; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-06-01

    Corchorus olitorius L. (Malvaceae) has industrial importance in world jute production and is a widely cultivated and consumed crop in Cyprus and in some Arabic countries. The present study investigated cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of leaf extracts (LE) and seed extracts (SE) of the C. olitorius on the multiple myeloma-derived ARH-77 cells. The extracts were also evaluated for their total phenol content (TPC) and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA). C. olitorius was collected from Nicosia, Cyprus. TPC and FRSA were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH free radical methods, respectively. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay (4-2048 µg/mL range), and DNA damage (at IC50 and ½IC50) was measured by the comet assay. The LE had significantly higher total phenol (78 mg GAE/g extract) than the SE (2 mg GAE/g extract) with significantly higher FRSA (IC50 LE: 23 µg/mL and IC50 SE: 10 401 µg/mL). Both LE and SE exerted cytotoxic effects on cells after 48 h. The IC50 of SE (17 µg/mL) was lower than LE (151 µg/mL), which demonstrates its higher cytotoxicity on cells. The extracts were applied at 150 and 75 µg/mL for LE and at 17 and 8.5 µg/mL for SE, and the results of the comet assay revealed that the extracts induced genotoxic damage on ARH-77 cells. In both 48 h leaf and seed extract treatments, genotoxic damage significantly increased with increasing concentrations at relevant cytotoxic concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the high cytotoxic potential of C. olitorius SE and the genotoxic potential of LE and SE.

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Viola odorata against paracetamol-induced liver injury in mice

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    M. Imran Qadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally Viola odorata is used for liver protection. To provide scientific support to its traditional use, aqueous methanolic extract of V. odorata (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg was given to mice intoxicated with paracetamol. Obtained results demonstrated that the extract significantly (p<0.01-0.001 reduced paracetamol induced increase levels of serum hepatic enzymes and total bilirubin. Histopathological studies showed that the plant attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation. HPLC results showed the presence of hepatoprotective flavonoids (isorhamnetin and luteolin in the extract. It was concluded from the present study that V. odorata has hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced liver injury in mice.

  10. Amelioration of nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity by the ethanol extract of the herb Euphorbia hirta

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    Subramanian Suganya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Euphorbia hirta (L. (Euphorbiaceae is a very popular herb amongst practitioners of traditional medicine and used in the treatment of female disorders, respiratory ailments, tumors, jaundice, digestive problems, wounds, etc. We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of E. hirta against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The nephroprotective activity of the ethanol extract of E. hirta (400 mg/kg body weight was studied in nitrobenzene-induced albino rats (1000 mg/kg body weight. The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, total thiols and vitamin C in the kidney tissues were determined. Histopathologic investigation was performed in the kidney tissue samples. Results: Nitrobenzene administration significantly (P < 0.01 enhanced the lipid peroxidation and significantly (P < 0.05 depleted the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, total thiols and vitamin C. Treatment with the ethanol extract of E. hirta significantly normalized the antioxidant levels. The nephroprotective activity was also supported by histopathologic studies of kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results indicate that the ethanol extract of E. hirta ameliorates renal dysfunction and could be used as an effective protector against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity, primarily through its antioxidant capacity.

  11. Malva sylvestris extract protects upon lithium carbonate-induced kidney damages in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Anouar; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Brahmi, Dalel; Smida, Amani; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazher

    2016-12-01

    Malva sylvestris has recently attracted special attention due to its potential activities in many chronic disorders. We aimed to assess the beneficial effects of Malva sylvestris extract against lithium carbonate induced renal damage in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, Malva sylvestris extract at a dose of 0.2g/kg was orally administrated, followed by 25mg/kg of lithium carbonate (intraperitoneal injection) for 30 days. Malva sylvestris extract was proved to contain large amounts of K(+), Na(+), Ca(++) and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids shown by the obtained HPLC-based analysis. The antioxidant capacities in vitro showed high level of radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The in vivo results showed that intraperitoneal injection of lithium carbonate exhibited a significant increase (pkidney. However, pretreatment with Malva sylvestris extract restored the status of all parameters studied. It can be concluded that lithium carbonate has induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes and histopathological damage but the supplementation with Malva sylvestris extract has prevented such toxicity.

  12. Extract of Rhus verniciflua Bark Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

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    Dong Ki Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RV has traditionally been used as a food supplement and a traditional herbal medicine for centuries in Korea. Recent studies suggest that RV has potent antioxidative, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of RV from mice sensitized with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB and activated macrophages were investigated. The results showed that RV reduced ear swelling and hyperplasia of ear tissue as well as an increase in vascular permeability, which are characteristics of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD with evident histomorphological changes in epidermis and dermis. Decreased numbers of infiltrated mast cells were seen in RV extract treated group, using toluidine blue staining. RV extract significantly regulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS at the translational level in activated macrophages. Furthermore, RV extract and its active compound, fisetin, attenuated the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6 mRNA in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Anti-ACD effect of RV extract may be due to the suppression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines which might be mediated via the NFκB signaling pathways. Collectively, RV extract has potential for alleviating ACD-like symptoms induced by DNFB in the mouse.

  13. Stenochlaena palustris aqueous extract reduces hepatic peroxidative stress in Marmota caligata with induced fever

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    Adenan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The kelakai fern (Stenochlaena palustris contains bioactive substances, such as flavonoids, steroids, and alkaloids. The kelakai is used by the Kenyah Dayak communities for the treatment of anemia, fever, and cutaneous disorders. Fever is increased temperature regulation of the body, which process indirectly increases the production of peroxides, leading to peroxidative stress. The aim of this research study was to evaluate the influence of an aqueous extract of the kelakai fern on peroxidative stress in the hoary marmot (Marmota caligata with experimentally-induced fever. This was a true experimental study, with post test-only and control group design, involving 6 groups, each made up of 4 animals. Peroxide concentration was measured by a modification of the FOX2 method and peroxidase activity by the Kanehira method. The kelakai extract was administered to the animals by gavage at weight-adjusted dosages between 7.75 x 10-4 mg/kg body weight to 1.24 x 10-2 mg/kg body weight. Data were analyzed using singe linear regression test. The results showed that kelakai extract dose significantly reduced the peroxide levels, regression equation with the Y = 2.513-106.03 X (R2 = 0.8057, indicating that 80.5% variation of peroxide levels is predicted by the kelakai extract dose. From the results we conclude that kelakai aqueous extract decreases peroxide levels in hoary marmots with experimentally-induced fever.

  14. Dietary uptake of Wedelia chinensis extract attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

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    Yuh-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available SCOPE: Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12 revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight was not toxic to mice. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb leaf extract ameliorates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2010-10-28

    Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) known as "Mahabala" in Ayurveda and marketed as "Shahadeyi" is used in ethnomedicine to treat ailments such as dysuria and urinary disorders. To evaluate nephroprotective potential of SR against gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats with GM (100 mg/kg bodyweight (i.p.) for 8 days) and were treated with SR extract (200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight (p.o.) for 8 days) or 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (vehicle). Plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with lipid peroxidation were evaluated in various experimental groups. GM treatment induced significant elevation (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea, creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant decrement (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR treatment to GM treated rats (GM+SR) recorded significant decrement (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant increment (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR leaf extract ameliorates GM induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction and thus validates its ethnomedicinal use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojari, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjay; Maru, Girish; Khade, Bharat; Bhagwat, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively. Treatment with seed extract significantly inhibited the increase in DEN/CCl(4) induced activities of pre-cancerous marker enzymes; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, hepatotoxicity marker enzymes; glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as well as lipid peroxidase. Depleted glutathione, protein and albumin levels were restored. Also, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic studies showed prevention of cellular degenerative changes. The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity.

  17. Ulcer healing properties of different extracts of Origanum majorana in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats

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    BP Pimple

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the ulcer healing properties of different extracts of Origannum majorana, viz., hydrodistilled volatile oil (OMO, methanolic (OMM and aqueous extract (OMW in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Methods: All the extracts were administered in different doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. to investigate the ulcer healing potential. Streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg, i.p. along with nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p. was used to induce non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in rats. Aspirin (200 mg/kg, i.p. was administered for initial 7 d to induce gastric ulcerations in the diabetic rats. Various biochemical markers of blood and tissue origin were estimated to compare the ulcer healing potential of these extracts. Results: The OMO and OMM exhibited dose dependent significant (P<0.01 ulcer healing property than the OMW. Additionally, the antidiabetic property of OMO and OMM was better than OMW. Conclusions: The OMO and OMM of Origanum majorana leaves can prove to be beneficial in the concomitant treatment of gastric ulcers and diabetes.

  18. Inhibitory effect ofThymus vulgaris extract on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra Rabiei; Shiva Mokhtari; Samira Asgharzade; Mostafa Gholami; Samira Rahnama; Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect ofThymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) on learning and memory functions in scopolamine-induced memory deficit in rats. Memory enhancing activity in scopolamine-induced amnesic rats was investigated by assessing the Morris water maze and passive avoidance paradigm. Methods:A total of 42 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 equal groups as follow: control group: received water, scopolamine treated group: received scopolamine 1 mg/kg for 15 days, two scopolamine+T. vulgaris treated groups: received scopolamine andT. vulgaris extract 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days, two intact groups: receivedT. vulgaris extract 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days. Results: Administration ofT. vulgaris extract significantly restored memory and learning impairments induced by scopolamine in the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. Conclusions:T. vulgaris extract has repairing effects on memory and behavioral disorders produced by scopolamine and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris extract on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rat简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra; Rabiei; Shiva; Mokhtari; Samira; Asgharzade; Mostafa; Gholami; Samira; Rahnama; Mahmoud; Rafieian-kopaei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Thymus vulgaris(T. vulgaris) on learning and memory functions in scopolamine-induced memory deficit in rats. Memory enhancing activity in scopolamine-induced amnesic rats was investigated by assessing the Morris water maze and passive avoidance paradigm.Methods: A total of 42 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 equal groups as follow:control group: received water, scopolamine treated group: received scopolamine 1 mg/kg for 15 days, two scopolamine + T. vulgaris treated groups: received scopolamine and T. vulgaris extract 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days, two intact groups:received T. vulgaris extract 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days.Results: Administration of T. vulgaris extract significantly restored memory and learning impairments induced by scopolamine in the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test.Conclusions: T. vulgaris extract has repairing effects on memory and behavioral disorders produced by scopolamine and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  20. Melissa officinalis extract inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in a rat model.

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    Eun Kyoung Lee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. METHODS: Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19 as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001, 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P = 0.016, and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001. The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced

  1. Significance of chymase-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation on indomethacin-induced small intestinal damages in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Kazuki; Takai, Shinji; Murano, Mitsuyuki; Ishida, Kumi; Yoda, Yukiko; Inoue, Takuya; Jin, Denan; Umegaki, Eiji; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2010-02-01

    The side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include gastrointestinal damage not only in the stomach but also in the small intestine. Chymase converts promatrix metalloproteinase-9 to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which plays an important role in NSAID-induced gastric damage, but it has been unclear whether chymase-dependent MMP-9 activation is involved in the NSAID-induced small intestinal damage. To clarify the involvement of chymase-dependent MMP-9 activation on NSAID-induced small intestinal damage, the effect of a chymase inhibitor, 2-[4-(5-fluoro-3-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)sulfonamido-3-methanesulfonylphenyl] thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (TY-51469), on indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage in rats was evaluated. Until 6 h after oral administration of indomethacin in rats, intestinal MMP-9 activity was unchanged compared with normal rats, but significant increases in MMP-9 activity were observed 12 and 24 h after indomethacin administration. Significant increases in the small intestinal damage score were also observed 12 and 24 h after indomethacin administration. In the extract from the small intestine 24 h after indomethacin administration, the MMP-9 activation was significantly attenuated by TY-51469. Intraperitoneal injection of TY-51469 (10 mg/kg) 3 h before indomethacin administration significantly attenuated the MMP-9 activity in the small intestine compared with placebo treatment. Myeloperoxidase activity, which indicates accumulation of neutrophils, was significantly increased in the small intestine in the placebo-treated rats, but its activity was significantly attenuated by TY-51469 treatment. The area of small intestinal damage was also significantly ameliorated by TY-51469 treatment. These findings suggest that chymase-dependent MMP-9 activation has a significant role in indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage in rats.

  2. Ethanol extract of Brazilian red propolis induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tetsuro; Nishihara, Hiroko; Hara, Hirokazu; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2012-11-07

    Propolis, a natural product collected from plants by honey bees, is commonly used in folk medicines. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to induce apoptosis through the induction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Here, we investigated whether ethanol extracts of propolis and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) induce apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and human fibroblasts. Among several ethanol extracts of propolis and CAPE, Brazilian red propolis (BRP) significantly reduced MCF-7 cell viability through the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation but did not affect those of fibroblasts. Moreover, treatment with BRP significantly induced CHOP expression in MCF-7 cells compared to fibroblasts. Further, pretreatment with a chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid, suppressed BRP-triggered MCF-7 cell death. Overall, we revealed that an ethanol extract of BRP induces MCF-7 cell apoptosis through, at least in part, ER stress-related signaling.

  3. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORINGA PEREGRINA LEAVES EXTRACT ON ACETAMINOPHEN -INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Samy Abdelfatah Abdel; Abdelrahem, Mohamed Taha; Said, Mostafa Mohamed; Khattab, Alshaimaa

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a common antipyretic drug but at overdose can cause severe hepatotoxicity that may further develop into liver failure and hepatic centrilobular necrosis in experimental animals and humans. This study was undertaken to assess the ameliorative role of Moringa peregrina leaves extract against acetaminophen toxicity in rats. Induction of hepatotoxicity was done by chronic oral administration of acetaminophen (750 mg/kg bwt) for 4 weeks. To study the possible hepatoprotective effect, Moringa peregrina leaves extract (200 mg/kg bwt) or Silymarin (50 mg/kg bwt) was administered orally, for 4 weeks, along with acetaminophen. acetaminophen significantly increased serum liver enzymes and caused oxidative stress, evidenced by significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, hepatic DNA fragmentation, and significant decrease of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes in liver, blood and brain. On the other hand, administration of Moringa peregrina leaves extract reversed acetaminophen-related toxic effects through: powerful malondialdehyde suppression, glutathione peroxidase normalization and stimulation of the cellular antioxidants synthesis represented by significant increase of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in liver, blood and brain, besides, DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased in the liver tissue. acetaminophen induced oxidative damage can be improved by Moringa peregrina leaves extract-treatment, due to its antioxidant potential.

  4. Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1

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    Lee Sung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is the outer skin of an evergreen tall tree belonging to the family Lauraceae containing several active components such as essential oils (cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde, tannin, mucus and carbohydrate. They have various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activity. Previously, we have reported that anti-cancer effect of cinnamon extracts is associated with modulation of angiogenesis and effector function of CD8+ T cells. In this study, we further identified that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is also link with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the activities NFκB and AP1 in mouse melanoma model. Methods Water soluble cinnamon extract was obtained and quality of cinnamon extract was evaluated by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis. In this study, we tested anti-tumor activity and elucidated action mechanism of cinnamon extract using various types of tumor cell lines including lymphoma, melanoma, cervix cancer and colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Results Cinnamon extract strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induced active cell death of tumor cells by up-regulating pro-apoptotic molecules while inhibiting NFκB and AP1 activity and their target genes such as Bcl-2, BcL-xL and survivin. Oral administration of cinnamon extract in melanoma transplantation model significantly inhibited tumor growth with the same mechanism of action observed in vitro. Conclusion Our study suggests that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is directly linked with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity and inhibition of NFκB and AP1 activities and their target genes in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Hence, further elucidation of active components of cinnamon extract could lead to development of potent anti-tumor agent or complementary and alternative

  5. White Tea extract induces lipolytic activity and inhibits adipogenesis in human subcutaneous (pre-adipocytes

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    Wenck Horst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dramatic increase in obesity-related diseases emphasizes the need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fat metabolism. To investigate how natural substances influence lipolysis and adipogenesis, we determined the effects of White Tea extract on cultured human subcutaneous preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods For our in vitro studies we used a White Tea extract solution that contained polyphenols and methylxanthines. Utilizing cultured human preadipocytes we investigated White Tea extract solution-induced inhibition of triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis and possible effects on cell viability. In vitro studies on human adipocytes were performed aiming to elucidate the efficacy of White Tea extract solution to stimulate lipolytic activity. To characterize White Tea extract solution-mediated effects on a molecular level, we analyzed gene expression of essential adipogenesis-related transcription factors by qRT-PCR and determined the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c on the protein level utilizing immunofluorescence analysis. Results Our data show that incubation of preadipocytes with White Tea extract solution significantly decreased triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner (n = 10 without affecting cell viability (n = 10. These effects were, at least in part, mediated by EGCG (n = 10, 50 μM. In addition, White Tea extract solution also stimulated lipolytic activity in adipocytes (n = 7. Differentiating preadipocytes cultivated in the presence of 0.5% White Tea extract solution showed a decrease in PPARγ, ADD1/SREBP-1c, C/EBPα and C/EBPδ mRNA levels. Moreover, the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c was not only decreased on the mRNA but also on the protein level. Conclusion White Tea extract is a natural source that effectively inhibits adipogenesis and stimulates lipolysis-activity. Therefore, it can be utilized to

  6. Nephroprotective effects of Zingiber zerumbet Smith ethyl acetate extract against paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

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    Zariyantey ABDUL HAMID; Siti Balkis BUDIN; Ng WEN JIE; Asmah HAMID; Khairana HUSAIN; Jamaludin MOHAMED

    2012-01-01

    Paracetamol (PCM) overdose can cause nephrotoxicity with oxidative stress as one of the possible mechanisms mediating the event.In this study,the effects of ethyl acetate extract of Zingiber zerunbet rhizome [200 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg) and 400 mg/kg] on PCM-induced nephrotoxicity were examined.Rats were divided into five groups containing 10 rats each.The control group received distilled water while other groups were treated with extract alone (400 mg/kg),PCM alone (750 mg/kg),750 mg/kg PCM+200 mg/kg extract (PCM+200-extract),and 750 mg/kg PCM+400 mg/kg extract (PCM+400-extract),respectively,for seven consecutive days.The Z.zerumbet extract was given intraperitoneally concurrent with oral administration of PCM.Treatment with Z.zerumbet extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg prevented the PCM-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative impairments of the kidney,as evidenced by a significantly reduced (P<0.05) level of plasma creatinine,plasma and renal malondialdehyde (MDA),plasma protein carbonyl,and renal advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP).Furthermore both doses were also able to induce a significant increment (P<0.05) of plasma and renal levels of glutathione (GSH) and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity.The nephreprotective effects of Z.zerumbet extract were confirmed by a reduced intensity of renal cellular damage,as evidenced by histological findings.Moreover,Z.zerumbet extract administered at 400 mg/kg was found to show greater protective effects than that at 200 mg/kg.In conclusion,ethyl acetate extract of Z.zerumbet rhizome has a protective role against PCM-induced nephrotoxicity and the process is probably mediated through its antioxidant properties.

  7. Antihyperlipidemic effect of peucedanum pastinacifolium extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Ahmad Movahedian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus, significantly contributing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn. is commonly used as an antihyperlipidemic vegetable in Iranian folk medicine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, we examined a hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Peucedanum pastinacifolium to determine its lipid-lowering activity in normal and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. Normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were separated into four groups. The groups were fed with 0, 125, 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight of Peucedanum Pastinacifolium hydroalcoholic Extract (PPE in aqueous solution for 30 days. RESULTS: The results show that there were significant (P < 0.05 increases in total serum cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with PPE over a period of a month returned these levels close to control levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PPE has hypolipidemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  8. Prevention of endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Sargassum echinocarpum extract

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    Muhamad Firdaus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim This study aimed to elicit the protective effect of Sargassum echinocarpum extract on endothelial dysfunction in thoracic aorta of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Methods The animals were divided into 5 groups. The first was normal, the second was diabetic non treated animals. The third to fifth groups were the diabetic animals which given Sargassum echinocarpum extract (150; 300, and 450 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively by oral gavage and extract treatment was given for 12 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single administration of streptozotocin (45 mg kg-1, i.p., dissolved in freshly prepared 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 4.5. Diabetes was confirmed ten days latter in streptozotocin induced animals showing blood glucose levels > 200 mg dL-1 (11.1 mmol L-1 as monitored in the blood from tail vein using glucometer. After the treatment period, the blood serum acquired was used for antioxidant enzymes assays and the thoracic aorta was used for vasorelaxation assay.Results There was a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px in diabetic rats (3.31 ± 0.12;67.17 ± 0.62;35.10 ± 0.83 comaped to control rats (9.97 ± 0.12;185.31 ± 0.23;116.38 ± 0.88. Administration of Sargassum extract increased the activity of SOD, CAT, and GSH-px. The diabetic rats exhibit endothelial dysfunction as shown by loss of vasodilatory response to acethylcholine (ACH. This was restored by administration of Sargassum extract.Conclusion Sargassum echinocarpum extract ameliorates oxidative stress and reverses the endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes. This effect appears to be due to its antioxidant properties. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:32-5Keywords: oxidative stress, sargassum echinocarpum, endothelium dependent relaxation, thoracic aorta

  9. Nephroprotective role of alcoholic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood against experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy

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    Pankaj Gupta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium has been widely reported for its effect on diabetes clinical or preclinically. However, role in diabetic complications is yet to be revealed. Aims: To investigate the effect of alcoholic extract of the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupiumin experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Methods: The streptozotocin (STZ 55 mg/kg, i.p., once daily induced diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats. These animals were treated orally with alcoholic extract of P. marsupium (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg or glimepiride (10 mg/kg for 60 days. Body weight, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c, biochemical markers of renal function were estimated on day 30 and at the end of study (day 60. Kidney weight measurement, oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione were estimated in kidney tissues, and histopathological evaluation was carried out at the end of study period. Results: The administration of an alcoholic extract of P. marsupium showed a decrease in blood glucose, HBA1c, kidney weight, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid, urea, urine volume, urine albumin and the level of TBARS. While the increase in urine creatinine, the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were observed when compared to the diabetic control group. This effect was observed significantly at the highest dose of the plant extract. The histopathological study also confirmed that alcoholic extract prevented structural kidney damage. Conclusions: These results suggest that the alcoholic extract of P. marsupium has renoprotective effects against STZ induced diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Hepatoprotective Effect of Citrus limon Fruit Extract against Carbofuran Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

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    Sunil Kumar Jaiswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranol methylcarbamate, is known to induce oxidative stress and to cause inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. The present work was envisaged to evaluate the effect of carbofuran on redox indices and its interactions with hepatic markers in rat. The ameliorating effect of Citrus limon fruit extract on carbofuran induced toxicity was also monitored. The results indicated that carbofuran treatment caused significant alterations in the levels of activities of AST, ALT, and LDH in liver tissues and serum. The levels of enzymatic oxidative stress markers such as SOD and catalase and nonenzymatic redox molecules such as total thiol, GSH, and protein thiol also showed significant perturbations in rat liver due to carbofuran treatment. The administration of Citrus limon fruit extract, however, was able to markedly ameliorate the toxicity of carbofuran by protecting the levels of aforesaid biomarkers to near normal levels. The ameliorative effect of Citrus limon fruit extract may be due to the presence of different antioxidants in it which may neutralize the ROS and RNS generated in the body tissue due to pesticide stress. These results suggested that Citrus limon fruit extract may be utilized as a potential supplement in proper management of pesticide intoxication in association with relevant therapeutics.

  11. Pomegranate extract induces ellagitannin metabolite formation and changes stool microbiota in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoping; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Lu, Qing-Yi; Summanen, Paula H; Thames, Gail; Corbett, Karen; Downes, Julia; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Finegold, Sydney M; Heber, David

    2015-08-01

    The health benefits of pomegranate (POM) consumption are attributed to ellagitannins and their metabolites, formed and absorbed in the intestine by the microbiota. In this study twenty healthy participants consumed 1000 mg of POM extract daily for four weeks. Based on urinary and fecal content of the POM metabolite urolithin A (UA), we observed three distinct groups: (1) individuals with no baseline UA presence but induction of UA formation by POM extract consumption (n = 9); (2) baseline UA formation which was enhanced by POM extract consumption (N = 5) and (3) no baseline UA production, which was not inducible (N = 6). Compared to baseline the phylum Actinobacteria was increased and Firmicutes decreased significantly in individuals forming UA (producers). Verrucomicrobia (Akkermansia muciniphila) was 33 and 47-fold higher in stool samples of UA producers compared to non-producers at baseline and after 4 weeks, respectively. In UA producers, the genera Butyrivibrio, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Serratia and Veillonella were increased and Collinsella decreased significantly at week 4 compared to baseline. The consumption of pomegranate resulted in the formation of its metabolites in some but not all participants. POM extract consumption may induce health benefits secondary to changes in the microbiota.

  12. Antioxidant Effect of Sepia Ink Extract on Extrahepatic Cholestasis Induced by Bile Duct Ligation in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanan Saleh; Amel M Soliman; Ayman S Mohamed; Mohamed-Assem S Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to assess the complications of hepatic fibrosis associated with bile duct ligation and the potential curative role of sepia ink extract in hepatic damage induced by bile duct ligation. Methods Rattus norvegicus rats were divided into 3 groups: Sham-operated group, model rats that underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL), and BDL rats treated orally with sepia ink extract (200 mg/kg body weight) for 7, 14, and 28 d after BDL. Results There was a significant reduction in hepatic enzymes, ALP, GGT, bilirubin levels, and oxidative stress in the BDL group after treatment with sepia ink extract. Collagen deposition reduced after sepia ink extract treatment as compared to BDL groups, suggesting that the liver was repaired. Histopathological examination of liver treated with sepia ink extract showed moderate degeneration in the hepatic architecture and mild degeneration in hepatocytes as compared to BDL groups. Conclusion Sepia ink extract provides a curative effect and an antioxidant capacity on BDL rats and could ameliorate the complications of liver cholestasis.

  13. Saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduces stress-induced anorexia in mice.

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    Halataei, Bahar-al-Sadat; Khosravi, Maryam; Arbabian, Sedigheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Golmanesh, Leila; Zardooz, Homeira; Jalili, Cyrus; Ghoshooni, Hassan

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, the effects of an ethanol and aqueous extract of saffron Crocus sativus and its constituents safranal and crocin on the stress-induced reduction in food intake, weight gain and anorexic time in mice were investigated. Male albino mice (20-25 g) were irregularly exposed to a trial of electroshock stress for 7 days. Then, the anorexic time as well as the animal's food intake and weight were recorded. In addition, blood samples were obtained on days 1 and 7 for corticosterone determination. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the aqueous but not the ethanol extract (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the anorexic time. The results were similar for crocin (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg; i.p.). In addition, a reduction in weight gain was observed in the controls as well as in the groups that received alcohol extract or safranal. However, this was not observed in animals treated with aqueous extract or crocin. The plasma corticosterone level did not increase in the aqueous extract and crocin treated animals. It can be concluded that the saffron aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduce side effects of electroshock stress in mice.

  14. Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Rubia cordifolia extract

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    Joy Jisha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutics against a wide range of cancers including head, neck, ovarian and lung cancers. But its usefulness is limited by its toxicity to normal tissues, including cells of the kidney proximal tubule. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia could decrease the intensity of toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Cisplatin at a dose of 12 mg/kg body wt was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice. Another set of animals was given hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia at different doses along with cisplatin treatment. The antioxidant levels, serum creatinine, serum urea etc. were analyzed. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as inferred from the tissue antioxidant status in the drug administered animals. Remarkable change was observed in serum creatinine and urea levels. Lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver tissues was also considerably reduced in Rubia cordifolia extract treated animals. Conclusion: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of Rubia cordifolia are effective in reducing the renal damage caused by the cancer chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Since Rubia cordifolia has been in use as an important ingredient in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, it could be safe and beneficial to use this herbal extract as an adjuvant to ameliorate renal damage in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy with cisplatin.

  15. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis and DNA damage induced by Alpinia galanga rhizome extract.

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    Muangnoi, P; Lu, M; Lee, J; Thepouyporn, A; Mirzayans, R; Le, X C; Weinfeld, M; Changbumrung, S

    2007-07-01

    Alpinia galanga, or galangal, has been a popular condiment used in Thai and Asian cuisine for many years. However, relatively little is known of the potential beneficial or adverse health effects of this spice. This study was conducted to analyze the capacity of galangal extract to induce cytotoxicity and DNA damage in six different human cell lines including normal and p53-inactive fibroblasts, normal epithelial and tumour mammary cells and a lung adenocarcinoma cell line. We deliberately focused on treatment with the crude aqueous extract of galangal rhizomes, rather than compounds extracted into an organic solvent, to more closely reflect the mode of dietary consumption of galangal. The cell lines displayed a broad range of cytotoxicity. There was no evidence for preferential cytotoxicity of tumour cells, but there was an indication that p53-active cell lines may be more sensitive than their p53-inactive counterparts. The contribution of apoptosis to total cell killing was only appreciable after exposure to 300 microg/mL of extract. Apoptosis appeared to be independent of p53 expression. Exposure to as little as 100 microg/mL galangal extract generated a significant level of DNA single-strand breaks as judged by the single-cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay). The three major UV-absorbing compounds in the aqueous extract were identified by mass spectrometry as 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and its deacetylated derivatives. However, when tested in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells, these compounds were not responsible for the cytotoxicity induced by the complete aqueous extract.

  16. Effect of Argyreia speciosa root extract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

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    Kumar, Shiv; Alagawadi, K R; Rao, M Raghavendra

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the antiobesity effects of the ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots in rats fed with a cafeteria diet (CD). Obesity was induced in albino rats by feeding them a CD daily for 42 days, in addition to a normal diet. Body weight and food intake was measured initially and then every week thereafter. On day 42, the serum biochemical parameters were estimated and the animals were sacrificed with an overdose of ether. The, liver and parametrial adipose tissues were removed and weighed immediately. The liver triglyceride content was estimated. The influence of the extract on the pancreatic lipase activity was also determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein. The body weight at two-to-six weeks and the final parametrial adipose tissue weights were significantly lowered (P cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

  17. Cardioprotective Effect of Saffron Extract and Safranal in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

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    Roya Mehdizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffronaqueous extract and safranal, the major constituent of the essential oil of saffron, on lipid peroxidation, biochemical parameters and histopathological findings in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods:The saffron extract (20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/day IP or control were administered for 9 days along with ISO (85 mg/kg, SC, at 24 hr interval on 8th and 9th day in rats. Activities of creatine kinase-muscle, brain (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured using standard commercial kits. The level of malondialdehyde in heart tissue was estimated with thiobarbituric acid reactive species test. For histopathological examination, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining was used. Results:ISO administration induced a statistically significant increase          (P

  18. Effects of Black Hoof Medicinal Mushroom, Phellinus linteus (Agaricomycetes), Polysaccharide Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamac, Mustafa; Zeytinoglu, Melih; Senturk, Hakan; Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Gungor; Bayramoglu, Gokhan; Oglakci, Aysegul; Van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the healing effects of a Phellinus linteus fruiting body hot water extract (PLE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. PLE was given before and after STZ. The preprotective, protective, and postprotective effects of PLE on STZ-induced oxidative stress were studied using biochemical (caspase 3 activity, cytosolic-to-lysosomal ratio of cathepsin B and L, DNA fragmentation levels), ordinary histological and immuno-histochemical investigation parameters. Following oral administration of PLE after STZ application, the serum glucose concentration significantly decreased up to 41.13% compared with the control group (P Linteus hot water extract on STZ-induced diabetes.

  19. Dental extraction following zoledronate, induces osteonecrosis in rat's jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Gutiérrez, X; Gómez-Clavel, J-F; Gaitán-Cepeda, L-A

    2017-03-01

    Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (BRONJ) is clinically characterized by the presence of exposed bone in the oral cavity that persists for more than eight weeks. Previous attempts to establish an animal model have not sufficiently considered disease features. Our aim was to establish an inexpensive and replicable animal model that develops BRONJ in a short time. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and experimental. In the experimental group, we administered 0.06mg/kg intraperitoneal dose of zoledronic acid (ZA) 7 and 14 days prior to maxillary second molar extraction. At two, four and six weeks after tooth extraction, the animals were euthanized, and we dissected the maxilla following histological procedures. We stained serial slides with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. The samples were harvested for macroscopic, radiologic and histological evaluation of bone changes. At two weeks postextraction, we observed exposed necrotic bone in dental socket areas in experimental groups. Radiological analysis revealed osteolytic lesions accompanied by extensive destruction and sequestrum formation in the same group. Histological examination confirmed the absence of necrotic bone in control groups in contrast with the experimental groups. The percentage of empty lacunae and the number of osteoclasts and the necrotic bone area were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the experimental groups. The animal model using ZA administration to prior dental extraction successfully mimicked human BRONJ lesions. Also, the model was easily replicated, inexpensive and showed different features than other previous BRONJ models.

  20. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

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    Zahra Hesami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, we used immunohistochemical analysis in male rats. Methods: In this project the 28 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 animals. The rats were divided into four experimental groups as follows: the first group (sham intraperitoneally received only olive oil as the solvent of carbon tetrachloride; second group (CCl4 intraperitoneally received carbon tetrachloride dissolved in olive oil (ratio of about 1: 1 at a concentration of 1 ml/kg and a twice a week for eight weeks; third group subcutaneously received only platelet extract at a concentration of 0.5 ml/kg twice a week for three weeks; and fourth group received both CCl4 intraperitoneally for eight weeks and platelet extract subcutaneously for last three weeks. After 8 weeks of trial blood and liver sampling were done. Blood samples sent for enzymatic (AST, ALT tests and liver samples tested for histological and immunohistochemical studies. The data were analyzed using  one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test by Graph pad Prism 5 software and data were considered significant at p≤ 0.05. Results: The results show that platelet extract causes a significant (p≤ 0.001 decrease in liver enzymes and albumin improves the function of liver. The level of alfa smooth muscle actin (α-SMA as an index of hepatic stellate cell activation was decreased by platelet extract administration which eventually reduced the necrosis and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in studied rats

  1. Use of Arctium lappa Extract Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Attalla Farag El-Kott, PhD; Mashael Mohammed Bin-Meferij, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Severe destructive hepatic injuries can be induced by acetaminophen overdose and may lead to acute hepatic failure. Objective: To investigate the ameliorative effects of Arctium lappa root extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group, Arctium lappa extract group, acetaminophen-injected group, and acetaminophen treated with Arctium lappa extract group. Results: The treatment with Arctium lappa extract reduc...

  2. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Root Bark Extract Zanthoxylum chalybeum in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Moses Solomon Agwaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medicinal plants offer cheaper and safer treatment options to current diabetic drugs. The present study evaluated the effect of aqueous root bark extract of Zanthoxylum chalybeum on oral glucose tolerance and pancreas histopathology in alloxanized rats. Method. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Root extract of Z. chalybeum was administered to rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW daily for 28 days. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and pancreatic histopathology evaluated microscopically. Results. Initial increase was observed in blood glucose of the rats after oral administration of glucose from time zero. Two hours after treatment with Z. chalybeum, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed within treatment groups (p<0.05 compared to 0.5 hr and 1 hr. There was no significant difference between treatment group receiving 400mg/Kg BW extract and the normal groups (p=0.27, implying that the former group recovered and were able to regulate their blood sugar, possibly via uptake of glucose into cells. The reversal in pancreatic histopathology further supports the protective effect of Z. chalybeum extract towards diabetic damage. Conclusion. Extract of Z. chalybeum is effective in controlling blood glucose in diabetes and protecting pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage.

  3. Andrographis paniculata extract induced apoptosis of adenocarcinoma mammae in C3H mice

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    Nugrahaningsih

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Apoptosis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Induction of apoptosis is a strategy for developing cancer therapy. In vitro study found that andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata has anticancer activity by an apoptotic mechanism in cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to prove the effect of Andrographis paniculata extract administered orally on apoptosis of mammary adenocarcinoma in C3H mice. METHODS This study was of post test randomized control group design. Twenty four C3H mice with transplanted mammary adenocarcinomas were divided into four groups. To three groups Andrographis paniculata extract was administered orally for 14 days, at doses of 5, 10 and 15 mg/day, respectively, whereas to the control group no Andrographis paniculata extract was administered. On day 15 the mice were terminated. The mammary adenocarcinomas were examined by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method. The values of the apoptotic index were expressed as mean±SD and analyzed using Anova and Pearson’s correlation test. RESULTS The mean apoptotic index values differed significantly among the experimental groups (p=0.001. The highest value was found in the group receiving Andrographis paniculata extract 15 mg/day, while the lowest was in the control group, the values being significantly correlated (r=0.974. CONCLUSIONS Oral administration of Andrographis paniculata extract induced apoptosis in C3H mice with mammary adenocarcinoma

  4. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

    2010-11-25

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p basilicum before the administration of sodium arsenite resulted in the attenuation of the sodium arsenite-induced aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities: ALT (from 282.6% to 167.7% and 157.8%), AST (from 325.1% to 173.5% and 164.2%) for the group administered sodium arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium arsenite respectively, expressed as percentage of the negative control. These findings support the presence of hepatoprotective activity in the O.basilicum extracts.

  5. Effect of Moringa oleifera bark extracts on dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholapur, H N; Patil, B M

    2013-10-01

    Experimental study has revealed the antidiabetic potentials of ethanolic extract of the bark of Moringa oleifera Lam., (Moringaceae), a multipurpose tree of south Asia. To investigate the effects of alcoholic and petroleum ether extracts of Moringa oleifera bark on acute and chronic insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone in rats. Dexamethasone (dexa) was administered for 11 days (1 mg/kg, s. c., once daily) and single dose (1 mg/kg, i. p.) to induce chronic and acute insulin resistance respectively. 2 doses each of alcoholic (AE125 and AE250 mg/kg) and petroleum ether extracts (PEE30 and PEE60 mg/kg) and single dose each of alcoholic (AE250 mg/kg) and petroleum ether extract (PEE 60 mg/kg) of Moringa oleifera bark were tested in chronic and acute studies. At the end of the studies fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride levels and oral glucose tolerance were measured. In chronic study, treatment of rats with AE125 and AE250 prevented dexamethasone-induced hypertriglyceridemia and oral glucose intolerance but not fasting hyperglycemia, whereas both PEE30 and PEE60 had no effects on any of these parameters measured except that significant reduction of triglyceride level was observed in PEE60 treated rats. Oral glucose intolerance induced by single dose administration of dexamethasone was prevented by AE250 but not by PEE60. In normal rats AE250 treatment improved the glucose tolerance, where as PEE60 had no effect on this parameter. The present study indicates that AE of Moringa oleifera prevents dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Significance of terpenoids in induced indirect plant defence against herbivorous arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mumm, R.; Posthumus, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Many plants respond to herbivory by arthropods with an induced emission of volatiles such as green leaf volatiles and terpenoids. These herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) can attract carnivores, for example, predators and parasitoids. We investigated the significance of terpenoids in attracti

  7. Changes and significance of coagulation function, hemodynamics and blood rheology in women with pregnancy induced hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bang-Zhi Zeng; Bo Zhang; Yu-Na Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the changes of coagulation function, hemodynamics and blood rheology in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension, and to explore its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 88 cases of women with pregnancy induced hypertension who were admitted in our hospital from July 2011 to February 2016 were selected as the research objects, at the same time, 90 normal pregnant women were selected as normal late pregnancy group. The coagulation parameters, hemodynamics, blood rheology indexes were detected in the two groups.Results:Before delivery, values of the PT and AT-Ⅲ in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly lower than those in the normal late pregnancy group, and the values of D-D and FIB were significantly higher than those in the normal late pregnancy group. After delivery, values of the PT and AT-Ⅲ in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly higher, and the FIB value was significantly lower, there were no significant differences between the two group. But the D-D value was still significantly higher than that in the normal late pregnancy group. The blood flow dynamics parameter in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly higher than that in the normal late pregnant group, the differences were statistically significant. The whole blood high and low shear viscosity, plasma viscosity, low shear reduction viscosity, hematocrit, erythrocyte deformation index, erythrocyte electrophoresis time and fibrinogen in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly higher than those in normal late pregnancy group.Conclusion:The blood indexes in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension showed a high coagulation state compared with the normal late pregnancy women. Timely detection of patients’ coagulation function, hemodynamics, and blood rheology indexes has important significance for the detection, auxiliary diagnosis and prevention of the disease.

  8. Extracting biologically significant patterns from short time series gene expression data

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    McGinnis Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time series gene expression data analysis is used widely to study the dynamics of various cell processes. Most of the time series data available today consist of few time points only, thus making the application of standard clustering techniques difficult. Results We developed two new algorithms that are capable of extracting biological patterns from short time point series gene expression data. The two algorithms, ASTRO and MiMeSR, are inspired by the rank order preserving framework and the minimum mean squared residue approach, respectively. However, ASTRO and MiMeSR differ from previous approaches in that they take advantage of the relatively few number of time points in order to reduce the problem from NP-hard to linear. Tested on well-defined short time expression data, we found that our approaches are robust to noise, as well as to random patterns, and that they can correctly detect the temporal expression profile of relevant functional categories. Evaluation of our methods was performed using Gene Ontology (GO annotations and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip data. Conclusion Our approaches generally outperform both standard clustering algorithms and algorithms designed specifically for clustering of short time series gene expression data. Both algorithms are available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/astro/.

  9. The pericarp extract of Prunus persica attenuates chemotherapy-induced acute nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Ki; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Sang Kook; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2008-06-01

    The fruit of Prunus persica L. (peach) is one of the common fruits. Its seed is well known as a traditional medicine (Persicae Semen) in Japan, China, and other Asian countries. However, the biological activities of P. persica fruit except its seed are poorly understood. This study was aimed at evaluating the protective effect of the pericarp extract of P. persica (PPE) against cisplatin-induced acute toxicity in mice. PPE (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a significant protection against the acute nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by a single administration of cisplatin (45 mg/kg, i.p.) over a 16-hour period in mice. Its protective effect was evaluated by serum and tissue biochemical parameters. The pretreatment with PPE for 7 days prevented the cisplatin-induced decrease in the kidney and liver weights as a percentage of the total body weight. PPE significantly inhibited both the cisplatin-induced elevation in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels caused by kidney damage and the cisplatin-induced increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels by the liver damage. In addition, the administration of PPE caused recovery of the cisplatin-mediated changes in levels of serum nitric oxide and tissue lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione content returned to control levels. These results suggest that PPE protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity by reducing cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in mice.

  10. Reversal of acetaminophen induced subchronic hepatorenal injury by propolis extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Monika; Nirala, Satendra Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of propolis (200mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated against acetaminophen (APAP; 20mg/kg, p.o.) induced subchronic hepatorenal injury in rats. Administration of APAP significantly increased the release of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin and serum proteins, whereas concomitantly decreased hemoglobin, blood sugar and albumin. Hepatorenal reduced glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, hepatic CYPs i.e., aniline hydroxylase and amidopyrine-N-demethylase were significantly decreased after APAP intoxication. Lipid peroxidation showed significant elevation in both organs significantly after APAP assault. Total proteins, glycogen contents and the activities of certain metabolic enzymes i.e., adenosine triphosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were altered after APAP administration. Propolis extract exhibited curative effects by reversing APAP induced alterations in blood biochemical variables, CYP enzymes and markers of oxidative stress. Histopathological analysis of liver and kidney was consistent with the biochemical findings and led us to conclude the curative potential of propolis against APAP induced hepatorenal injury. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Perilla leaf extract prevents atopic dermatitis induced by an extract of Dermatophagoides farinae in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Ken-Ichi; Takanari, Jun; Maeda, Takahiro; Kitadate, Kentaro; Sato, Takashi; Mihara, Yoshihiro; Uehara, Kaori; Wakame, Koji

    2016-12-01

    Perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) leaf comprises many types of active components, mainly flavonoids, and acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in in vitro and in vivo atopic dermatitis (AD) models. We investigated the effects of orally administered perilla leaf extract (PLE) on the symptoms of AD induced by Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE) in NC/Nga AD model mice. The mice were allowed free intake of 0.5% PLE. Skin lesions were assessed, and blood was sampled from the caudal vein on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 31. On day 31, all mice were sacrificed to obtain blood, skin, spleen, and intestinal tissue samples. The assessment scores of the skin lesions and total serum IgE levels of PLE-treated mice (PLE group) were significantly lower than DFE-treated mice (DFE group) on days 7, 14, and 21. On day 31, the serum periostin and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) levels in the PLE group were significantly lower than those in the DFE group. Histological analysis of the skin revealed that hyperplasia of the epidermal and dermal layers and infiltration of inflammatory cells (cell infiltration in corium tissues) were suppressed by PLE. Periostin deposition was observed in the skin tissue obtained from the DFE group. Moreover, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of splenic T cells was suppressed in the PLE group but not in the DFE group.

  12. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

  13. Protective Effect of Momordica charantia Fruit Extract on Hyperglycaemia-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis

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    Razif Abas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diabetes mellitus, cardiac fibrosis is characterized by increase in the deposition of collagen fibers. The present study aimed to observe the effect of Momordica charantia (MC fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the rats were subdivided (n = 6 into control group (Ctrl, control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC, diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl, diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC, and diabetic group treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin (DM-Met. Administration of MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg body weight in diabetic rats for 28 days showed significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the fasting blood glucose level. Significant increase in cardiac tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione contents (GSH, and catalase (CAT was observed following MC treatment. Hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced and associated morphological damages reverted to normal. The decreased expression of type III and type IV collagens was observed under immunohistochemical staining. It is concluded that MC fruit extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.

  14. Protective effect of Momordica charantia fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Razif; Othman, Faizah; Thent, Zar Chi

    2014-01-01

    In diabetes mellitus, cardiac fibrosis is characterized by increase in the deposition of collagen fibers. The present study aimed to observe the effect of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the rats were subdivided (n = 6) into control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC), and diabetic group treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin (DM-Met). Administration of MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg body weight) in diabetic rats for 28 days showed significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the fasting blood glucose level. Significant increase in cardiac tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione contents (GSH), and catalase (CAT) was observed following MC treatment. Hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced and associated morphological damages reverted to normal. The decreased expression of type III and type IV collagens was observed under immunohistochemical staining. It is concluded that MC fruit extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.

  15. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA PULP AND SEED EXTRACT IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Somshuvra Bhattacharya et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic potential of Lagenaria siceraria pulp extract (LSPE and Lagenaria siceraria seed extract (LSSE against the pancreatic damage from alloxan-induced diabetes in rats related to diabetes mellitus. Lagenaria siceraria induced significant reduction in blood glucose and increasing of serum insulin, our data indicate that the level of glucose in the animals that were subjected with alloxan was 210 mg/dl comparing with normal 70 mg/dl, the level of blood glucose in diabetic group when subjected with Lagenaria siceraria extract decreased to 89-106.5 mg/dl. These findings suggest that LSPE and LSSE treatment exerts therapeutic protective effect in diabetes by preserving pancreatic cell integrity and significant activity extract, which supports traditional usage of the plant to prevent diabetic complications.

  16. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karuppasamy Balamurugan; Antony Nishanthini; Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract ofMelastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats.Results:In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2 000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats.Conclusions:Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats.

  17. Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice by Inhibition of Oxidative Stress

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    Eunhui Seo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic beta-cell death is known to be the cause of deficient insulin production in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of beta-cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS extract on beta-cell death. Oral administration of PCS extract resulted in a significant improvement of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PCS extract treatment improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin levels. To study the mechanisms involved, we investigated the effects of PCS extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells. Treatment with PCS extract inhibited cell death. PCS extract treatment decreased reactive oxygen species level and activated antioxidative enzymes. Among the major components of PCS extract, psoralen and isopsoralen (coumarins, but not bakuchiol, showed preventive effects against H2O2-induced beta-cell death. These findings indicate that PCS extract may be a potential pharmacological agent to protect against pancreatic beta-cell damage caused by oxidative stress associated with diabetes.

  18. Sapium ellipticum (Hochst. Pax Ethanol Leaf Extract Maintains Lipid Homeostasis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Osasenaga Mcdonald Ighodaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic disorder especially in diabetes mellitus (DM. In this study, the ability of Sapium ellipticum (SE leaf extract to restore lipid homeostasis in streptozotocin-induced diabetes was examined. DM was induced in experimental rats (Wistar strains using single intraperitoneal dose (55 mg/kg body weight BW of streptozotocin (STZ. Treatment of diabetic rats with SE was oral (p.o, at doses of 400 and 800 mg kg−1 BW, twice daily at 8 h interval for 21 days. Lipid parameters were analyzed in the serum of rats using test kits. SE caused a significant (P≤0.05 reduction in STZ-induced hypercholesterolemia in a dose dependent pattern (13.7 and 17.89%. These effects were comparable to that provided by metformin (15.45%, a standard antidiabetic drug. Similar pattern was noted with serum triglycerides (TG (10.63 and 19.06% and LDL (31.47 and 25.97%. Adipose tissue TG level was improved to near normal. Besides, the cardiovascular risk predictors in terms of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and LDL/HDL ratio were lowered by 57.85 and 44.12%, respectively. However, the extract failed to significantly reverse the STZ-induced decline in serum HDL. Overall, with AIP value of 0.28 and LDL/HDL ratio of 0.91, SE demonstrated the potential to maintain lipid homeostasis in the diabetics.

  19. Protective Effect of Plantago major Extract against t-BOOH-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage and Cytotoxicity

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    Joyce C. Mello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plantago major L. produces several chemical substances with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and its use in the treatment of oral and throat inflammation in popular medicine is well described. In this study, the antioxidant potential of the Plantago major hydroethanolic extract was screened and its protective action was evaluated against t-BOOH-induced oxidative stress. The extract was obtained by fractionated percolation using 50% ethanolic solution and, after drying, suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide. The chromatographic profile of crude extract was obtained with the identification of some phytochemical markers and the total phenols and flavonoids were quantified. The scavenger activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals was determined and the antioxidant activity in biological systems was evaluated in isolated rat liver mitochondria and HepG2 cells. The extract exhibited a significant free radical scavenger activity at 0.1 mg/mL, and decreased the ROS (reactive oxygen species generation in succinate-energized mitochondria. Such an effect was associated with the preservation of the intrinsic antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione and NAD(PH against the oxidation by t-BOOH, and also to the protection of membranes from lipid oxidation. The cytoprotective effect of PmHE against t-BOOH induced cell death was also shown. These findings contribute to the understanding of the health benefits attributed to P. major.

  20. Protective Effect of Plantago major Extract against t-BOOH-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage and Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Joyce C; Gonzalez, Mariano V D; Moraes, Vivian W R; Prieto, Tatiana; Nascimento, Otaciro R; Rodrigues, Tiago

    2015-09-25

    Plantago major L. produces several chemical substances with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and its use in the treatment of oral and throat inflammation in popular medicine is well described. In this study, the antioxidant potential of the Plantago major hydroethanolic extract was screened and its protective action was evaluated against t-BOOH-induced oxidative stress. The extract was obtained by fractionated percolation using 50% ethanolic solution and, after drying, suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide. The chromatographic profile of crude extract was obtained with the identification of some phytochemical markers and the total phenols and flavonoids were quantified. The scavenger activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals was determined and the antioxidant activity in biological systems was evaluated in isolated rat liver mitochondria and HepG2 cells. The extract exhibited a significant free radical scavenger activity at 0.1 mg/mL, and decreased the ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation in succinate-energized mitochondria. Such an effect was associated with the preservation of the intrinsic antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione and NAD(P)H) against the oxidation by t-BOOH, and also to the protection of membranes from lipid oxidation. The cytoprotective effect of PmHE against t-BOOH induced cell death was also shown. These findings contribute to the understanding of the health benefits attributed to P. major.

  1. Protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract on bromobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Jalali, Mohammadtaha; Jalali, Amir; Salimi, Abobakr; Alhalvachi, Foad; Varga, Balazs; Juhasz, Bela; Jakab, Anita; Kemeny-Beke, Adam; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Tosaki, Arpad; Zsuga, Judit

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of a crude hydro-alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula (golden shower tree) fruit to protect the kidney against bromobenzene-induced toxicity was studied. Negative control mice received normal saline; positive control mice were given 460 mg/kg of bromobenzene; Cassia fistula treated mice received 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg of Cassia fistula fruit extract followed by 460 mg/kg bromobenzene (daily by oral gavage for 10 days). On the 11th day, the mice were sacrificed, blood samples were obtained to assess blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, and kidneys were removed for histological examination. We found that bromobenzene induced significant nephrotoxicity reflected by an increase in levels of BUN and creatinine that was dose dependently prevented by the Cassia fistula fruit extract. The nephroprotective effect of the Cassia fistula fruit extract was confirmed by the histological examination of the kidneys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the protective effect of Cassia fistula in nephrotoxicity.

  2. Ethanolic extract of propolis induces apoptosis of HL-60 cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shi; Yana Li; Co-first author Naie Li; Min Yu; Dong Wang; Lijun Kong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate whether ethanolic extract of propolis inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis of HL-60 cel s. Methods HL-60 cel s were treated for 24, 48, 72 h with various concentrations ethanolic extracts of prop-olis (0, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL). The proliferation of HL-60 cels was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimeth-ylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Subsequently, Hochest 33258 staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) were used to test the apoptosis of HL-60 cel s. We observed the expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in HL-60 cel s by immunohistochemistry. Results MTT assay showed that various concentrations of ethanolic extract of propolis had significant inhibitory efect on HL-60 cel proliferation (P Conclusion Ethanolic extract of propolis inhibits leukemia cel proliferation and induces apoptosis in vitro. Its mechanism may be related to the regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  3. Renoprotective effect of aged garlic extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiju, T M; Rajesh, N G; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2013-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been proven to exhibit antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties. However, its effect on diabetic nephropathy was unexplored. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the renoprotective effect of AGE in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Albino Wistar rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of streptozotocin. Commercially available AGE was supplemented orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Aminoguanidine, which has been proven to be an anti-glycation agent was used as positive control and was supplemented at a dose of 1 g/L in drinking water. The serum and urinary biochemical parameters were analyzed in all the groups and at the end of 12 weeks follow up, the renal histological examination were performed using H & E and PAS staining. The diabetic rats showed a significant change in the urine (P garlic extract restored all these biochemical changes. The efficacy of the extract was substantiated by the histopathological changes in the kidney. From our results, we conclude that aged garlic extract has the ability to ameliorate kidney damage in diabetic rats and the renoprotective effect of AGE may be attributed to its anti-glycation and hypolipidemic activities.

  4. Ethanol extract of Moringa oliefera prevents in vitro glucose induced cataract on isolated goat eye lens

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    Raghvendra Kurmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: The aim of current work was to evaluate in vitro anticataract potential of Moringa oliefera extract. Materials and Methods: Goat eye lenses were divided into 4 groups; Group served as control, Group II as toxic control, Group III and Group IV were incubated in extract (250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml of extract of M. oliefera Group II, III and IV were incubated in 55 mM glucose in artificial aqueous humor to induce lens opacification. Estimation of total, water soluble protein, catalase, glutathione and malondialdehyde along with photographic evaluation of lens was done. Results: Group II (toxic control lenses showed high amount of MDA (Malondialdehyde, soluble, insoluble protein, decreased catalase and glutathione levels, while lenses treated with Moringa oliefera extract (Group III and Group IV showed significant (FNx01 P < 0.05 reduction in MDA and increased level of catalase, glutathione, total and soluble protein. Conclusion: Results of present findings suggest protective effect of Moringa oliefera in prevention of in vitro glucose induced cataract.

  5. The Effect of Alium Satium Extract on the Glomerular Diameter of STZ -induced Sprague dawley Rats

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    Susilorini Susilorini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia exert toxic effect in kidney.The aim of this study was to investigate the short term effect of ethanolic extract of garlic in preventing nephropathy following streptozotocin (STZ induced rats. Twenty male Sprague dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 group, all group induced induced by single dose intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg kg-1 of streptozotocin (STZ. Treatment with 3 doses ethanolic extract of garlic (0,1; 0,25; 0,5 mg kg-1 day-1 was followed for 14 days, then the left kidneys were excised and histhopathological studies were carried out using scanner 3D Hitech and Panoramic view software. Statistical analysis have been done using non parametric analysis Kruskall Wallis. The study revealed that glomerular diameter of the treatment rats was significantly different from the control group (p=0,0001. Increasing doses didn’t make difference. The ethanolic extract of garlic (Allium sativum influences the diameter glomeruli but increasing doses has no effect on the glomerular diameter.

  6. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

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    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  7. Protective effect of hawthorn extract against genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Tanha, Mohammad; Mahmodzadeh, Aziz; Mohammadifar, Sohila

    2011-05-01

    The preventive effect of hawthorn (Crataegus microphylla) fruit extract against genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) has been investigated in human cultured blood lymphocytes. Peripheral blood samples were collected from human volunteers at 0 (10 minutes before), and at 1 and 2 hours after a single oral ingestion of 1 g hawthorn powder extract. At each time point, the whole blood was treated in vitro with MMS (200 µmol) at 24 hours after cell culture, and then the lymphocytes were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. The lymphocytes treated with hawthorn and MMS to exhibit a significant decreasing in the incidence of micronucleated binucleated cells, as compared with similarly MMS-treated lymphocytes from blood samples collected at 0 hour. The maximum protection and decreasing in frequency of micronuclei (36%) was observed at 1 hour after ingestion of hawthorn extract. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that hawthorn contained chlorogenic acid, epicatechin and hyperoside. It is obvious that hawthorn, particularly flavonoids constituents with antioxidative activity, reduced the oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by toxic compounds. This set of data may have an important application for the protection of human lymphocyte from the genetic damage and side effects induced by chemicals hazardous in people.

  8. Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Saber A; Abo-El-Yazid, Samah M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats.

  9. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

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    Akram Ahangarpour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI, serum triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, alanin trasaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined.Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP.Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome.

  10. Effect of methanolic extract of Allium sativum (AS) in delaying cataract in STZ-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, T. Naga; Kanth, V. Rajani; Lavanya, K.

    2008-01-01

    Glycemic-induced stress is a major culprit contributing to oxidative insult that has far-reaching effects in diabetic cataract worldwide. In an attempt to prevent/delay cataract, many therapeutic agents have been identified, and among these, natural dietary sources have gained pharmacological significance. Hence, we investigated the efficacy of the methanolic garlic extract against diabetic cataract in Wistar rats. Methanolic garlic extract scavenged the transition metal ion-generated H2O2 wi...

  11. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  12. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ECBOLIUM VIRIDE (FORSSK. ALSTON ROOTS AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY

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    Ashoka Babu V.L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the methanolic extract of Ecbolium viride root was evaluated for its hepatoprotective effect against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats. Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like SGOT, SGPT, ALP, triglycerides, bilirubin, total proteins and liver weight were tested in both treated and untreated groups. CCl4 (1ml/kg enhanced the SGPT, SGOT, ALP, triglycerides, liver weight and reduced total proteins significantly. Treatment with methanolic extract of Ecbolium viride roots (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg has brought back the altered levels of altered levels of biochemical markers significantly to the near normal levels in the dose dependant manner.

  13. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia Induced by High Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Elancheran, Ramakrishnan; Deori, Meetali; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF) and seed extract (GS) were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 4.01 μg/ml), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 0.82 μg/ml), NBT (IC50 = 0.07 μg/ml) and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.26 μg/ml). Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%), serum total cholesterol (33%), triglycerides (32%), low-density lipoprotein (38%) and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat. PMID:27642282

  14. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia induced by High Fat Diet

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    Rahul Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast (NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract (ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF and seed extract (GS were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=4.01 µg/ml, ABTS•+ (IC50=0.82 µg/ml, NBT (IC50=0.07 µg/ml and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=19.26 µg/ml. Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%, serum total cholesterol (33%, triglycerides (32%, low-density lipoprotein (38% and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

  15. Suppression of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammatory responses in a mouse model of asthma by Mimosa pudica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ji-Sook; Yun, Chi-Young; Ryang, Yong Suk; Kim, Jong-Bae; Kim, In Sik

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease. The pathogenic mechanisms of asthma include the infiltration of leukocytes and release of cytokines. Mimosa pudica (Mp) has been used traditionally for the treatment of insomnia, diarrhea and inflammatory diseases. Although Mp extract has various therapeutic properties, the effect of this extract on asthma has not yet been reported. This study investigated the suppressive effects of Mp extract on asthmatic responses both in vitro and in vivo. Mp extract was acquired from dried and powdered whole plants of M. pudica using 80% ethanol. BALB/c mice were used for the mouse model of asthma induced by ovalbumin. Mp extract significantly inhibited the HMC-1 cell migration induced by stem cell factor and blocked the release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in EoL-1 cells. Leukocytosis, eosinophilia and mucus hypersecretion in asthmatic lung were significantly suppressed by Mp extract. The release of ovalbumin-specific IgE in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum was also decreased. Mp extract treatment resulted in no liver cytotoxicity. The Mp extract has inhibitory properties on asthma and may be used as a potent therapeutic agent for allergic lung inflammation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Attenuates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

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    Eunhui Seo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, along with obesity, is increasing world-wide and is one of the major causes of chronic hepatic disease. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS on high fat diet-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6 mice after daily administration at 300 or 500 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Treatment with PCS extract significantly reduced body weight and blood glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition, PCS extract treatment significantly attenuated lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissue and reduced serum lipid and hepatic triglyceride levels. Furthermore, the expression of lipogenic genes and inflammatory genes were reduced, and the expression of fat oxidation-related genes was increased in the liver of PCS extract-treated mice compared with control mice. Our study suggests the therapeutic potential of PCS extract for NAFLD by inhibiting lipid accumulation and inflammation in liver.

  17. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Methanol Extract of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight. Leaf in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Tri Widyawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium polyanthum (S. polyanthum, a plant belonging to Myrtaceae, is widely used in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisines. Diabetic patients in Indonesia also commonly use it as a traditional medicine. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the methanol extract (ME of S. polyanthum leaf and its possible mechanisms of action. To test for hypoglycemic activity, ME was administered orally to normal male Sprague Dawley rats after a 12-h fast. To further test for antihyperglycemic activity, the same treatment was administered to glucose-loaded (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, IPGTT and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats, respectively. Hypoglycemic test in normal rats did not show significant reduction in blood glucose levels (BGLs by the extract. Furthermore, IPGTT conducted on glucose-loaded normal rats also did not show significant reduction of BGLs. However, repeated administration of metformin and three doses of ME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for six days caused significant reduction of fasting BGLs in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The possible mechanisms of action of S. polyanthum antihyperglycemic activity were assessed by measurement of intestinal glucose absorption and glucose uptake by isolated rat abdominal muscle. It was found that the extract not only inhibited glucose absorption from the intestine but also significantly increased glucose uptake in muscle tissue. A preliminary phytochemical qualitative analysis of ME indicated the presence of tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. Additionally, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analysis detected squalene. In conclusion, S. polyanthum methanol leaf extract exerts its antihyperglycemic effect possibly by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and promoting glucose uptake by the muscles.

  18. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Methanol Extract of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight.) Leaf in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyawati, Tri; Yusoff, Nor Adlin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Ahmad, Mariam

    2015-09-14

    Syzygium polyanthum (S. polyanthum), a plant belonging to Myrtaceae, is widely used in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisines. Diabetic patients in Indonesia also commonly use it as a traditional medicine. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the methanol extract (ME) of S. polyanthum leaf and its possible mechanisms of action. To test for hypoglycemic activity, ME was administered orally to normal male Sprague Dawley rats after a 12-h fast. To further test for antihyperglycemic activity, the same treatment was administered to glucose-loaded (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, IPGTT) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, respectively. Hypoglycemic test in normal rats did not show significant reduction in blood glucose levels (BGLs) by the extract. Furthermore, IPGTT conducted on glucose-loaded normal rats also did not show significant reduction of BGLs. However, repeated administration of metformin and three doses of ME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) for six days caused significant reduction of fasting BGLs in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The possible mechanisms of action of S. polyanthum antihyperglycemic activity were assessed by measurement of intestinal glucose absorption and glucose uptake by isolated rat abdominal muscle. It was found that the extract not only inhibited glucose absorption from the intestine but also significantly increased glucose uptake in muscle tissue. A preliminary phytochemical qualitative analysis of ME indicated the presence of tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. Additionally, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis detected squalene. In conclusion, S. polyanthum methanol leaf extract exerts its antihyperglycemic effect possibly by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and promoting glucose uptake by the muscles.

  19. Hepatocurative potential of Vitex doniana root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Dorcas Bolanle; Kadejo Olubukola Adetoro; Sallau Abdullahi Balarabe; Owolabi Olumuyiwa Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatocurative effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves ofVitex doniana in carbon tetrachloride (CCl albino rats.Methods:4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weight) as a 1:1(v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weight per day) for 21 d, while the animals in the non induced groups were only treated with the daily oral administration of these extracts at the same dose. The administration of CCl4 was done once a week for a period of 3 weeks.Results:There was significant (P<0.05) increase in concentration of all liver marker enzymes, A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline aminotransferase (ALT, AST and ALP) and significant (P<0.05) decrease in albumin in the CCl4 induced liver damage control when compared to the normal control. The extracts caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the serum activities of liver marker enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) and a significant (P<0.05) increase in albumin of all the induced treated groups. Only stem bark extract and vitamin E significantly (P<0.05) increased total protein. All the extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum creatinine whereas only root bark extract significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum level of urea in the rats with CCl4 induced liver damage.Conclusion:Hepatocurative study shows that all the plant parts (root bark, stem bark and leaves) possess significant hepatocurative properties among other therapeutic values justifying their use in folklore medicine.

  20. Protective effect of Azadirachta indica extract against Eimeria papillata-induced coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Delic, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Coccidiosis in poultry is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria, which is responsible for worldwide economic losses. The methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves was used in vivo for its pharmacological, antioxidant, and anticoccidial properties. Four groups of mice were investigated. The first group was inoculated only with sterile saline and served as the control group. The second group was treated by oral gavage with neem extract (500 mg/kg) daily for 4 days. The third and fourth groups were infected with 10(3) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria papillata. The fourth group was also treated once daily with neem extract for 4 days. Paraffin sections from the jejunum as well as jejunal homogenate were prepared for the histopathological and biochemical investigations, respectively. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata revealed an output of 6.5 × 10(5) ± 29,753 oocysts per gram feces on day 4 postinoculation. This output is significantly decreased to 2.7 × 10(5) ± 37,341 oocysts in neem-treated mice. Infection with E. papillata induced marked histopathological alterations in the jejunum in the form of inflammation, vacuolation of the epithelium, and destruction of some villi. Also, the neem extract greatly diminished body weight loss of infected mice. Moreover, the number of goblet cells stained with Alcian blue within the infected villi was significantly lowered (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, E. papillata enhanced lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in both serum and jejunum with concomitant reduction in glutathione. Neem induced marked improvements in all of the studied parameters as well as the histopathological features of the jejunum. Our study revealed that neem as a natural product has protective effects against E. papillata-induced coccidiosis.

  1. An Extract of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Reduces Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice

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    Wen-Wei Chang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is used as a treatment for various types of solid tumors. Renal injury severely limits the use of cisplatin. Renal cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation contribute to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Previously, we found that an extract of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Lycogen™ inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and the production of nitric oxide in activated macrophages in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis model. Here, we evaluated the effect of Lycogen™, a potent anti-inflammatory agent, in mice with cisplatin-induced renal injury. We found that attenuated renal injury correlated with decreased apoptosis due to a reduction in caspase-3 expression in renal cells. Oral administration of Lycogen™ significantly reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in mice with renal injury. Lycogen™ reduces renal dysfunction in mice with cisplatin-induced renal injury. The protective effects of the treatment included blockage of the cisplatin-induced elevation in serum urea nitrogen and creatinine. Meanwhile, Lycogen™ attenuated body weight loss and significantly prolonged the survival of mice with renal injury. We propose that Lycogen™ exerts anti-inflammatory activities that represent a promising strategy for the treatment of cisplatin-induced renal injury.

  2. Protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es Haghi, M; Dehghan, G; Banihabib, N; Zare, S; Mikaili, P; Panahi, F

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Cornus mas is used for in renal aliments traditionally in Iran. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of C. mas fruit extract (CMFE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Forty two male albino rats were divided into seven groups. Group I served as a sham; Group II served as a normal control; Group III served as a toxic control, with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight; 80% in olive oil); Groups IV and V received CMFE at doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg before CCl4 injection; Groups VI and VII received extract at same doses orally at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. CCl4 injection produced a significant rise in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismuta, catalase and glutathion peroxidase. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased whereas level of protein and albumin were reduced. Treatment of rats with different doses of fruit extract (300 and 700 mg/kg) significantly (P induced with CCl4 in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, biochemical and renal lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that CMFE protects kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4.

  3. Protection of zonisamide induced memory impairment by tulsi extract and piracetam on mice

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    Shraddha J Bennadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Memory impairment is the major adverse effects associated with antiepileptic drug therapy. This study was designed to assess the memory impairment activity of zonisamide (ZNS, an antiepileptic drug, in mice. Memory deficit potential of ZNS was compared with phenytoin (PHT, a standard antiepileptic known for its memory impairment activity. The protective effect of Ocimum sanctum extract (OS and piracetam (PIR on memory impairment induced by ZNS was also assessed. Materials and Methods: ZNS was administered orally for 29 days and the extent of memory deficit was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM test on maximal electro shock-induced epileptic mice. The animals were observed for escape latency time (ELT and time spent in target quadrant (TSTQ on MWM test. The brain acetylcholinesterase level was estimated to determine the brain acetylcholine concentration. Result: Chronic administration of ZNS has shown memory deficit in mice and this was significantly restored by co-administration of OS extract and PIR. PIR showed best nootropic activity, whereas OS showed good nootropic as well as synergistic anti-convulsant activity. Conclusion: This study reveals that chronic administration of ZNS produces memory impairment in mice, which can be significantly minimized by co-administration of OS extract and PIR without compromising on ZNS antiepileptic potency. These results provide evidence for potential corrective effect of nootropics in cognitive deficit associated with ZNS.

  4. Lygodium flexuosum extract down regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pallara Janardhanan Wills; Velikkakathu Vasumathi Asha

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in a time dependant manner on carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in experimental animals.Methods:CCl4(150 μL/100 g) was dissolved in corn oil(1:1 v/v%) and administered orally.GroupI was treated as normal control and received corn oil on8th day.GroupII was toxic control and was given a single dose ofCCl4 on8th days.GroupIII wastreated withLygodium flexuosum(L. flexuosum)n-hexane extract(200 mg/kg) for8 days and on8th day a single dose ofCCl4 was received.GroupIV(negative control) receivedL. flexuosumn-hexane extract(200 mg/kg) alone for8 days.Results:Treatment withn-hexane extract prior to the administration ofCCl4 significantly prevented an increase in serumAST,ALT,LDH activity and lipid peroxidation and prevented the depletion of glutathione (GSH).Rats treated withL. flexuosum had reduced mRNA levels ofTGF-β1,TNF-α andIL-1βgenes in liver ofCCl4 intoxicated rats when compared toCCl4 control as evidenced byRT-PCR. Conclusions:The data suggest that L. flexuosum, a widely available fern, significantly reduces CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity by down-regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats.

  5. Attenuation of Cyclosporine-Induced Sperm Impairment and Embryotoxicity by Crataegus monogyna Fruit Aqueous Extract

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    Zahra Armand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cyclosporine (Cs, a cyclic undecapeptide with potent immunosuppressive activity, causes several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. This study aims to examine the ability of Crataegus monogyna aqueous fruit extract as an antioxidant to protect against Cs-induced reproductive toxicity.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Rats in two groups received 40 mg/kg/day Cs for 45 days by oral gavage. In addition, one of the two groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after Cs administration. The remaining two groups consisted of a vehicle treated control (Cont group and a Crataegus monogyna control (Cr group. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using the SPSS software package for Windows.Results: Cs treatment caused a significant decrease in sperm count and viability with an increase in DNA damage and protamine deficiency of the sperm cells. We observed significant decreases in fertilization rate and embryonic development, in addition to an increased rate of embryo arrest in Cs-treated rats. Crataegus monogyna co-administration attenuated all Cs-induced negative changes in the above-mentioned parameters.Conclusion: Supplementation with Crataegus monogyna a queous fruit extract could be useful against reproductive toxicity during Cs treatment in a rat model.

  6. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

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    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  7. Hypocholesterolemic and Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Basella alba Leaf Extract in Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Rabbits

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    Gunasekaran Baskaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is the major risk factor that leads to atherosclerosis. Nowadays, alternative treatment using medicinal plants gained much attention since the usage of statins leads to adverse health effects, especially liver and muscle toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of Basella alba (B. alba using hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbits. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed with varying diets: normal diet, 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD, 2% HCD + 10 mg/kg simvastatin, 2% HCD + 100 mg/kg B. alba extract, and 2% HCD + 200 mg/kg B. alba extract, respectively. The treatment with B. alba extract significantly lowered the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides and increased HDL and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx levels. The elevated levels of liver enzymes (AST and ALT and creatine kinase were noted in hypercholesterolemic and statin treated groups indicating liver and muscle injuries. Treatment with B. alba extract also significantly suppressed the aortic plaque formation and reduced the intima: media ratio as observed in simvastatin-treated group. This is the first in vivo study on B. alba that suggests its potential as an alternative therapeutic agent for hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  8. Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and the Hepatoprotective Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Jessiaea Nervosa Leaf

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    Ama Udu Ibiam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extract against Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Methods: Forty albino rats were randomly assigned into groups A-G with 4 rats in each of the groups A-F. Group A served as control and were given feed only while rats in groups B-F were orally exposed to varying concentrations of cadmium for six weeks. Effects of cadmium were most significant at 12 mg/Kg body weight (BW, and this dose was used for subsequent test involving oral administration of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extracts. In this segment, group G (n= 16 was sub-divided into four: G1-G4, with each sub-group containing four rats. Rats in sub-group G1 were given cadmium and feed only and served as positive control. Rats in sub-groups G2, G3, and G4 were given cadmium and 20, 50 and 100g/kg BW of Jussiaea nervosa extract, respectively, for six weeks. Blood and liver were analysed using standard laboratory techniques and methods. Results: Liver function parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in exposed rats in comparison to the controls, except for total protein and albumin, which were significantly decreased. Histopathological assessment reveals renal pathology in exposed rats in sharp contrast with the controls. Jussiaea nervosa extract however lowered the values of liver function parameters with 100mg/Kg BW dose producing the highest ameliorative effects. Similarly, the serum albumin and total protein significantly (p<0.05 improved with normal liver architecture. Conclusion: The results show the hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa extract against Cd toxicity.

  9. Protective effect of Curcuma longa L. extract on CCl4-induced acute hepatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geum-Hwa; Lee, Hwa-Young; Choi, Min-Kyung; Chung, Han-Wool; Kim, Seung-Wook; Chae, Han-Jung

    2017-02-01

    The Curcuma longa L. (CLL) rhizome has long been used to treat patients with hepatic dysfunction. CLL is a member of the ginger family of spices that are widely used in China, India, and Japan, and is a common spice, coloring, flavoring, and traditional medicine. This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of CLL extract and its active component curcumin in an acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver stress model. Acute hepatic stress was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (0.1 ml/kg body weight) in rats. CLL extract was administered once a day for 3 days at three dose levels (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day) and curcumin was administered once a day at the 200 mg/kg/day. We performed alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). activity analysis and also measured total lipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels, and lipid peroxidation. At 100 g CLL, the curcuminoid components curcumin (901.63 ± 5.37 mg/100 g), bis-demethoxycurcumin (108.28 ± 2.89 mg/100 g), and demethoxycurcumin (234.85 ± 1.85 mg/100 g) were quantified through high liquid chromatography analysis. In CCl4-treated rats, serum AST and ALT levels increased 2.1- and 1.2-fold compared with the control. AST but not ALT elevation induced by CCl4 was significantly alleviated in CLL- and curcumin-treated rats. Peroxidation of membrane lipids in the liver was significantly prevented by CLL (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day) on tissue lipid peroxidation assay and immunostaining with anti-4HNE antibody. We found that CLL extract and curcumin exhibited significant protection against liver injury by improving hepatic superoxide dismutase (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase activity, and glutathione content in the CCl4-treated group (p < 0.05), leading to a reduced lipid peroxidase level. Our data suggested that CLL extract and curcumin protect the liver from acute CCl4-induced injury in a rodent model by suppressing hepatic

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of Stachys pilifera ethanol extract in carbon tetrachloride-induce hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi Kokhdan, Esmaeel; Ahmadi, Kyomarth; Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Sadeghi, Hossein; Dadgary, Fahemeh; Danaei, Nazanin; Aghamaali, Mahmoud Reza

    2017-12-01

    Stachys pilifera Benth (Lamiaceae) has long been used to treat infectious diseases, respiratory and rheumatoid disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Antitumor and antioxidant activity of the plant have been reported. The study was designed to assess the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of Stachys pilifera in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The rats were randomly divided into six equal groups (n = 7). Group I was treated with normal saline; Group II received CCl4 (1 mL/kg. i.p., twice a week) for 60 consecutive days; Groups III, IV and V were given CCl4 plus Stachys pilifera (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/d,p.o.); Group VI received the extract (400 mg/kg/d, p.o.). Histopathological analysis and measurement of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB) were performed. CCl4 caused a significant increase in the serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and MDA as well as decreased ALB, and TP serum levels (p < 0.001). The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg/d) significantly normalized the CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p < 0.001). The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg/d) also increased the serum levels of TP compared to CCl4 group (p< 0.01). The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg/d) also decreased the histological injuries (inflammation and fatty degeneration) by CCl4. The results revealed that the Stachys pilifera extract could provide considerable protection against CCl4 hepatotoxicity in rats that may be related to its antioxidant properties.

  11. Exposure to Anisakis extracts can induce inflammation on in vitro cultured human colonic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciale, Antonio; Trombetta, Domenico; Saija, Antonella; Panebianco, Antonio; Giarratana, Filippo; Ziino, Graziella; Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cimino, Francesco; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2017-07-12

    Anisakis spp. is a parasitic nematode whose infective third-stage larvae may be found within the flesh of fish species commonly consumed by humans. Thorough cooking or freezing should render the fish safe for consumption; furthermore, marinating solutions containing biocidal agents might have a significant action against Anisakis larvae. Some studies suggest a relationship between some parasitic infections and development of inflammatory bowel disorders, and Anisakis infection might be a risk factor for stomach or colon cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate if crude extracts (CEs) obtained from Anisakis larvae marinated in a solution with added allyl isothiocyanate (ACE-AITC) and frozen, or from frozen only Anisakis larvae (ACE), can induce an inflammatory effect on in vitro differentiated colonic Caco-2 cells exposed or not to LPS. Caco-2 exposure to the two CEs induced a marked COX-2 expression and potentiated LPS-induced COX-2 overexpression, confirming that substances present in Anisakis larvae can induce an inflammatory response in the intestinal epithelium, possibly also exacerbating the effects of other inflammatory stimuli. ACE induced a marked decrease in caspase-3 activation, while AITC-ACE increased its activation. However, LPS-induced caspase-3 activation appeared lower in cells treated with ACE and with the lower concentration of AITC-ACE. Thus, it is evident that Anisakis CEs may affect various cell pathways crucial not only in the inflammatory process but also in cell growth and death. Thus, CEs obtained from nonviable Anisakis larvae retain or are otherwise provided with noxious properties able to induce a strong inflammation response in intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, their influence may persist also following pretreatment with the biocidal agent AITC, indicating that the harmful substances contained in crude extracts from Anisakis larvae are resistant to the thermal or biocidal agent treatments.

  12. Antioxidant effects of aqueous extract of Salep on Paraquat-induced rat liver injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashpour, Shekoufeh; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Kargar Jahromi, Zahra; Zarei, Sanaz

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of Salep on Paraquat-mediated liver injury. METHODS In this experimental study, 56 adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly to 7 groups as control, sham, and 5 experimental groups. In control group, rats did not receive any substance during experiment. In Sham group, rats were given distilled water according to their body weight and in experimental groups, Paraquat alone and with different doses of Salep aqueous extract (40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneal daily for 14 d. After that, liver biochemical parameter and histologic changes were analyzed and compared in different groups. RESULTS Paraquat compared to control and sham groups, significantly (P Paraquat. Salep at doses of 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg significantly decreased serum level of ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin, MDA and TOC and significantly increased total protein, albumin and TAC level as compared to Paraquat exposed group in dose dependent manner. Aqueous extract of Salep at doses of 40 mg/kg made no significant changes in serum level of mentioned biochemical parameters. Liver microscopic observation revealed that Paraquat could cause hepatocyte necrosis, degenerative changes, proliferation and activation of Kupffer cells (sporadically) which were reduced by Salep treatment. CONCLUSION Salep possesses remarkable hepatoprotection activity against Paraquat-induced hepatic injury by having antioxidant activity and reducing lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. PMID:28217258

  13. Gastroprotective potentials of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathy, G; Venkatesan, D; Palani, S

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Gastric ulceration was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (30 mg/kg b.wt.). M. maderaspatana extract produced significant reduction in gastric mucosal lesions, malondialdehyde and serum tumour necrosis factor-α associated with a significant increase in gastric juice mucin content and gastric mucosal catalase, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels. The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in pretreated rats. The plant extract was evaluated in the gastric juice of rats, untreated has showed near normal levels in pretreated rats. The M. maderaspatana was able to decrease acidity and increase the mucosal defence in the gastric area, therefore justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. Ranitidine significantly increased pH value and decreased pepsin activity and gastric juice free and total acidity. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically.

  14. Dose-response effects of Elephantopus scaber methanolic extract on N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Linza; P.J.Wills; P.N.Ansil; S.P.Prabha; A.Nitha; B.Latha; K.O.Sheeba; M.S.Latha

    2013-01-01

    AIM:A decoction of Elephantopus scaber (Asteraceae) root is used to treat liver disorders in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine.The study was designed to examine the dose response effects of E.scaber methanolic extract on rats exposed to N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced hepatotoxicity (0.02% NDEA in water five days per week,per oral) in preventive and curative models.METHODS:In preventive groups,NDEA was administered for six weeks.Daily doses of E.scaber methanolic extract (200 and 100mg·kg-1) started one week before the onset of NDEA intoxication and continued for six weeks.In curative animals,NDEA was administered for six weeks followed by treatment with the methanolic n-hexane extract of E.scaber (200 and 100mg·kg-1) for ten days.RESULTS:E.scaber extract treatment significantly (P≤0.05) reduced the levels of AST,ALT,and MDA in both experimental groups.The extract also enhanced the antioxidant enzyme and protein levels in rats intoxicated with NDEA.Treatment with the extract dose dependently protected the liver from NDEA-induced hepatotoxicity with normal hepatocytes and uniform sinusoids,but in some areas showed degenerating hepatic cells in both treatment groups.CONCLUSION:E.scaber methanolic extract dose dependently prevented and reversed the hepatotoxicity induced by NDEA in both experimental models.

  15. Cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb extract against isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ansarullah; Karn, Sanjay S; Shah, Jigar D; Patel, Dipak K; Salunke, Sunita P; Padate, Geeta S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigates cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb (SR) extract on heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and membrane bound ATPases against isoproterenol (IP) induced myocardial necrosis (MN) in rats. Rats treated with IP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) recorded significant (p<0.05) increment in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activity levels of Ca(+2) ATPase whereas there was significant (p<0.05) decrease in plasma HDL, cardiac endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Mg(+2) ATPase. Pre-treatment with SR extract (400 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 30 consecutive days followed by IP injections on days 29th and 30th, showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, cardiac lipid peroxidation, Ca(+2) ATPase and significant increase in plasma HDL, cardiac endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Mg(+2) ATPase compared to IP treated group. Hence, this study is the first scientific report on cardioprotective effect of SR against IP induced MN in rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats

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    D Anantha Krishna Chaitanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. Results : Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body weight was administered orally once for 3 days. Substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment were restored towards normal. Biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. In addition, BHEE significantly decreased the liver weight of paracetamol intoxicated rats. Silymarin at a dose level of 25 mg/kg used as a standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion : The results of this study strongly indicate that BHEE has got a potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats.

  17. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats

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    Khaja Zeeyauddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts in albino rats.

  18. Hypoglycemic activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: Underlying mechanism of action

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    Barun Kanti Saha, Md. Nurul Huda Bhuiyan, Kishor Mazumder and K.M. Formuzul Haque

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic effect of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaves hot water extract on chemically induced diabetes in rat was investigated. Experimental result showed that, streptozotocin significantly (p<0.001 elevated the normal blood sugar level whereas treatment with hot water extract depressed the streptozotocin-induced high blood sugar level about 43.20% as compare to diabetic controls. Treatment with hot water extract increased the activity of shunt enzyme glucose–6-phosphate dehydrogenase (33.81% and glutathione level (31.25% and depression of the activity of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phasphatase (31.63% and fructose–1,6-bisphosphatase (27.40%. These studies thus strongly suggest that the hot water extract of L. speciosa leave attributed its prominent hypoglycemic activity on experimental diabetic rats through suppression of gluconeogenesis and stimulation of glucose oxidation using the pentose phosphate pathway.

  19. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. suspension cell extract show antidiabetic potential in Alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Karthic; S Nagaraj; P Arulmurugan; S Seshadri; R Rengasamy; K Kathiravan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic effects of suspension cell extract of Gymnema sylvestre (G.sylvestre in vitro grown suspension cells of G. sylvestre along with field grown and wild plant leaves of G.sylvestre was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results: While oral administration of the extracts reduced the glucose content in blood and urine, sugar and lipids in serum significantly (P≤0.05), it also increased the body weight, total haemoglobin and plasma protein content.Conclusions:It can be concluded that G. sylvestre suspension cell extract show excellent) along with field grown and wild plants. Methods: The effect of ethanolic extracts of the antidiabetic potential against alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats therefore be considered as potent antidiabetic drug.

  20. Effect of nettle (Urtica dioica) extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Abdulkarim Salih

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the antioxidant effect of an orally administered ethanol extract of nettle (Urtica dioica) and its protective role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative stress as a major factor in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits. Methods: Twenty rabbits were divided into 4 equal groups: (G1) control group, (G2) gentamicin treated group (100 mg/kg), (G3) nettle treated group (100 mg/kg), (G4) combination treated group with both gentamicin (100 mg/kg) and nettle (100 mg/kg) for 10 days. The antioxidant properties of nettle were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, such as determination of glutathione and malondialdehyde levels and total phenolic content analysis. Results: Biochemical and histopathological study revealed that gentamicin caused nephrotoxicity observed clearly in the histopathological section of the kidney in the gentamicin treated group. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were biochemical indicators for nephrotoxicity which increased significantly in gentamicin treated group; other groups have no significant change in these two parameters. Nettle extract protected the rabbits from alteration in the level of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine when given after inducing of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. The nettle treated group showed a great effect as an antioxidant factor by increasing the glutathione level and reducing malondialdehyde level. No significant changes in biochemical parameters and no renal histopathological changes observed in the groups treated with nettle extract, which meant nettle had powerful antioxidant activity. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be assumed that the nephroprotective effect shown by nettle in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity can reserve intracellular levels of biological pathways and supportively enhance excretion of toxic levels of gentamicin.

  1. Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract Attenuates Neuropathic Pain Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury

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    Jurairat Khongrum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Neuropathic pain, a challenge of this decade, has been reported to be associated with the diversity conditions including diabetes. At present, there are no conventional analgesics that can effectively treat neuropathic pain with a satisfactory outcome. Due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy, the searching for novel effective remedies in the management of neuropathic pain is required. Approach: Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g were induced diabetes mellitus by Streptozotocin (STZ (single injection, 65 mg kg-1 BW, i.p. Diabetic rats were induced neuropathic pain by Constricting the right sciatic nerve (CCI at permanently. Then, all rats were administered the extract of M. oleifera leaves at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 BW once daily in a period of 21 days. The analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated using Von Frey filament and hot plate tests every 3 days after CCI throughout 21-day experimental period. In addition, at the end of the experiment, the alteration of oxidative damage markers including MDA level and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in the injured sciatic nerve were also evaluated. Results: The current results showed that rats subjected to M.oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 BW significantly reversed the decreased withdrawal threshold intensity and withdrawal latency in Von Frey filament and hot plate tests respectively. In addition, rats subjected to the medium dose extract also reversed the decreased activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the elevation of MDA level in the injured nerve. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract can attenuate neuropathic pain in diabetic condition. The possible underlying mechanism may occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress. However, other mechanisms may also involve. Conclusion: Our results suggest that M. oleifera leaves may be the potential novel adjuvant therapy for neuropathic pain management.

  2. The protective effect of Kaempferia parviflora extract on UVB-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Eun; Pyun, Hee-Bong; Woo, Seon Wook; Jeong, Jae-Hong; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2014-10-01

    Chronic skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stimulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) through c-Jun and c-Fos activation. These signaling cascades induce the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, resulting in photoaging. This study evaluated the preventive effect of the ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker (black ginger) on UVB-induced photoaging in vivo. To investigate the antiphotoaging effect of K. parviflora extract (KPE), UVB-irradiated hairless mice administered oral doses of KPE (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) for 13 weeks. In comparison to the UVB control group, KPE significantly prevented wrinkle formation and the loss of collagen fibers with increased type I, III, and VII collagen genes (COL1A1, COL3A1, and COL7A1). The decrease in wrinkle formation was associated with a significant reduction in the UVB-induced expression of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 via the suppression of c-Jun and c-Fos activity. KPE also increased the expression of catalase, which acts as an antioxidant enzyme in skin. In addition, expression of inflammatory mediators, such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), was significantly reduced by KPE treatment. The results show that oral administration of KPE significantly prevents UVB-induced photoaging in hairless mice, suggesting its potential as a natural antiphotoaging material. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hepatoprotective Potential of Clitoria ternatea Leaf Extract Against Paracetamol Induced Damage in Mice

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    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Clitoria ternatea, a medicinal herb native to tropical equatorial Asia, is commonly used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of C. ternatea against experimentally induced liver injury. Methods: The antioxidant property of methanolic extract (ME of C. ternatea leaf was investigated by employing an established in vitro antioxidant assay. The hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in mice of ME of C. ternatea leaf was also studied. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and billirubin along with histopathological analysis. Results: The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 358.99 ± 6.21 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 123.75 ± 2.84 mg/g catechin equivalent, respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea leaf extract was 67.85% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC50 value of 420.00 µg/mL. The results of the paracetamol-induced liver toxicity experiments showed that mice treated with the ME of C. ternatea leaf (200 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (p < 0.01. C. ternatea leaf extract therapy also protective effects against histopathological alterations. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and a maximum improvement in the histoarchitecture was seen. Conclusions: The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea leaf extract against the model hepatotoxicant paracetamol. The hepatoprotective action is likely related to its potent antioxidative activity.

  4. Anti-ocular-inflammatory Effects of Salvia hypoleuca Extract on Rat Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

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    Jasem Estakhr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia hypoleuca is used in Iranian traditional medicine as an agent for treatment of some diseases and troubles. In this study, attention was focused on the antioxidant effect of Salvia hypoleuca. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Salvia hypoleuca extract on Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis (EIU in rats. In addition, the endotoxin-induced expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 proteins was determined in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 treated with Salvia hypoleuca extract in vitro, to clarify the anti-inflammatory properties. EIU was induced in male Wistar rats by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Immediately after the LPS injection, 1, 10, or 100 mg extract or 10 mg prednisolone was injected intravenously. After 24 h, the aqueous humor was collected from both eyes, and the number of infiltrating cells, protein concentration, Nitric Oxide (NO, prostaglandin (PG-E2, and TNF-alevels in the aqueous humor were determined. RAW 264.7 cells treated with various concentrations of extract were incubated with 10 μg/mL LPS for 24 h. Levels of NO, PGE2, and TNF-a were determined. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins was analyzed by Western blot analysis. The number of inflammatory cells, the protein concentrations, and the levels of NO, PGE2, and TNF-ain the aqueous humor in the groups treated with Salvia hypoleuca were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the anti inflammatory effect of 100 mg Salvia hypoleuca was as strong as that of 10 mg prednisolone. The antiinflammatory action of Salvia hypoleuca was stronger than that of either quercetin or anthocyanin administered alone. Extract also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro in a dosedependent manner. The results suggest that Salvia hypoleuca has a dose-dependent anti-ocular inflammatory effect that is due to the direct blocking of the

  5. Evaluation of Anti-diabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic rats.

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    Mrinmay Das

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. (EEAS was investigated in a model of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. The biochemical parameters studied were: plasma glucose, degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin and peripheral consumption of glucose levels on 1, 3, 7 and 10th day. Ethanolic extract had shown significant protection and lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in glucose tolerance test. In streptozotocin induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after 2h at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight. The streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant reductions in biochemical parameter after treatment with the extract and Glibenclamide (used as standard as compared to the diabetic controls. The ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. exhibited antidiabetic activity and its sensitivity in experimentally induced diabetic rats in dose dependent manner. The current results clearly indicated the beneficial effects of the ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. in both controlling hyperglycemia and the protection of the pancreatic islet cells against oxidative stress in the diabetic animals.

  6. Ameliorative properties of Iranian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds and Punica granatum L. peel extracts in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic guinea pigs

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    Nabil Abdel Salam Ahmed Hasona

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The Iranian T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extracts are significantly potent in ameliorating diabetic condition induced by streptozotocin and improving various biochemical parameters in serum and liver of guinea pigs.

  7. Comparative study to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of commercially available extract of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica in streptozocin induced diabetic rat

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    Nishant Pathak

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Commercially available extract of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica have significant anti-diabetic activity in streptozocin induced diabetic rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1641-1646

  8. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

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    Daye Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE has been reported to have a wide range of health benefits in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effects of GBE on streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (60 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. GBE (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w. was administered orally once a day for a period of 30 days. Body weight and blood glucose levels were determined in different experimental days. Serum lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in hepatic and pancreatic tissue were measured at the end of the experimental period. Significant decreases in body weight and antioxidant ability and increases in blood glucose, lipid profile, and lipid peroxidation were observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The administration of GBE and glibenclamide daily for 30 days in STZ-induced diabetic rats reversed the above parameters significantly. GBE possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and antihyperlipidemia activities in STZ-induced chronic diabetic rats, which promisingly support the use of GBE as a food supplement or an adjunct treatment for diabetics.

  9. Moringa oleifera hydroethanolic extracts effectively alleviate acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats through their antioxidant nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakurazi, Sharida; Sharifudin, Syazana Akmal; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2012-07-10

    The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant properties Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) extracts and its curative role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxic liver injury in rats caused by oxidative damage. The total phenolic content and antioxidant properties of hydroethanolic extracts of different MO edible parts were investigated by employing an established in vitro biological assay. In the antihepatotoxic study, either flowers or leaves extract (200 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg, i.p) were administered an hour after APAP administration, respectively. N-Acetylcysteine was used as the positive control against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. The levels of liver markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the levels of oxidative damage markers including malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) protein adduct, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analysed and compared between experimental groups. Among MO edible parts the flower extracts contain the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, followed by leaves extract. The oxidative marker MDA, as well as 4-HNE protein adduct levels were elevated and GSH, SOD and CAT were significantly decreased in groups treated with hepatotoxin. The biochemical liver tissue oxidative markers measured in the rats treated with MO flowers and leaves hydroethanolic extracts showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the severity of the liver damage. The results of this study strongly indicate the therapeutic properties of MO hydroethanolic extracts against acute liver injury and thereby scientifically support its traditional use.

  10. The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss hydroalcoholic extract and fractions in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice

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    Ali Shamsizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: At present, there are many antiepileptic drugs with a wide range of side effects on the human body. It was assumed that Zataria multiflora Boiss (Z. multiflora with sedative, anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity may be effective in the treatment of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract and its fraction extracts on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced chemical kindling. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, eight separate groups of male albino mice were used. All groups received 11 separate intraperitoneal injections of PTZ (35 mg/kg with two-day intervals. 30 min before the injection of PTZ, mice received vehicle, Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract (300 and 600 mg/kg, n-hexane, acetone, methanol fraction extracts (150 mg/kg, or diazepam (10 mg/kg. Results: The kindled mice that were pretreated with vehicle showed a gradual increase in their seizure scores up to the end of the study. The hydroalcoholic extract of Z. multiflora (300 and 600 mg/kg reduced seizure scores significantly. However, n-hexane, acetone and methanol extracts did not affect seizure scores significantly. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate that the hydroalcoholic extract of Z. multiflora did reduce the severity of seizure attacks in PTZ-induced chemical kindling in mice.

  11. Antioxidant and Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Rhizome on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Rat Liver Injury

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    Showkat Ahmad Ganie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, and its reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent, which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, α-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced liver damage. Pretreated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30, and 50 mg/kg dose prior to CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg, 1:1 in olive oil. Rats pretreated with P. hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH, and liver lipid peroxides in CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-S-transferase significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver-protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities.

  12. Evaluation of effects of Bauhinia variegata stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice

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    Ravindra G Mali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata Linn (family: Caesalpiniaceae, popularly known as Rakta Kanchnar, is a medium-sized tree found throughout India. The stem bark of B. variegata (BV is used traditionally in the treatment of asthma, jaundice, tuberculosis, leprosy, and skin diseases. In the present study, we have investigated the role of aqueous (BVA and ethanol (BVE extracts of the plant against milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia in albino mice. The results of the study revealed that pretreatment with both the extracts caused significant reduction in the total leukocyte and eosinophil counts in animals in dose-dependent manner. From these results, it can be concluded that the plant BV is having antieosinophilic activity.

  13. Anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract of Crateva nurvala bark against testosterone and MNU-induced prostate cancer in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dugganaboyana GURU KUMAR; Vijayakumar PARVATHI; Periasamy MEENAKSHI; Muthaiyan Ahalliya RATHI; Velliyur Kanniappan GOPALAKRISHNAN

    2012-01-01

    AIM:In the present study the anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract of Crateva nurvala bark was evaluated against testosterone and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced prostate cancer in male Wistar rats.METHODS:Prostate cancer was induced in rats by the injection of testosterone for 3 d followed by injection of the chemical carcinogen MNU for 1 week.The prostate cancer-induced rats were treated with the ethanolic extract of C.nurvala bark,and testosterone injection was also continued through the experimental period of 4 months.Biochemical estimations including prostatic acid phosphatase,lipid peroxidation,enzymic antioxidants and non-enzymic antioxidants activity were done in the prostate and seminal vesicle tissue homogenate.RESULTS:There was a significant increase in the level of acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in prostate cancer-induced rats,and after treatment with C.nurvala extract a significant decrease in the level of acid phosphatase lipid peroxidation were observed.The enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were decreased in the prostate cancer induced group and after treatment they were restored to near normal values.Histopathological examination showed significant changes such as hyperplastic prostatic acini and malignant proliferation of ductal epithelial cells in the prostate and seminal vesicle of carcinogen induced rats.After treatment with C.nurvala extract normal and flow-dilated ducts and acini with regular epithelial lining were observed in the prostate and partially hyperplastic and partially flattered epithelium were observed in seminal vesicles.CONCLUSION:The ethanolic extract of C.nurvala has significant anticancer activity evaluated by in an in vivo model.

  14. Protective effect of Wormwood extract on lead induced neurotoxicity and cognitive disorder

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    Kharoubi O

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a ubiquitous and a potent neurotoxicant causes several neurophysiological and behavioural alterations. Considering the vulnerability of the developing brain to Pb neurotoxicity, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of Pb exposure on brain regions acetylcholinesterase (AchE and monoamino oxidase (MAO enzymes activities and on behavioural changes. Wister rat were exposed to 750 ppm of lead acetate in the drinking water for 11-weeks after weaning, and treated by Artemisia Absinthium L. (wormwood extract (200 mg.kg-1 body weight for 4 weeks. The activities of AchE and MAO were determined in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, cortex and striatum of male rat; and general/ Locomotors activity was evaluated in the open-field test. Results indicated a significant decrease in AchE activity in intoxicated group (Pb compared to untreated group (as contral (hypothalamus: -12%, hippocampus: -57%, cerebral cortex: -18% and striatum: -43% and in MAO activity (hypothalamus: -29%, hippocampus: -41%, cerebral cortex: -28% and striatum: -51% respectively, with decrease crossing test score and increase sniffing test score. After, wormwood extract administration, the activity of AchE and MAO were significantly increased in all brain region compared to Pb group, but were significantly lower than control. The locomotors activity was reduced compared to Pb group. These data suggest that administration of wormwood extract for 4 weeks protect against the lead acetate-induced change in behavioural and neurobiochemical parameters changes.

  15. Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic root extract of Caesalpinia digyna in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Kumar; DK Patel; SK Prasad; K Sairam; S Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation deals with evaluation of antidiabetic (Type 2) activity of standardized alcoholic root extracts of Caesalpinia digyna in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Methods: Alcoholic root extract of Caesalpinia digyna (ACD), obtained from Soxhlet extractor was standardized by HPLC. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) followed by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Diabetic rats ware administered ACD at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg (p.o.) and different parameters such as normoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The study also included estimations of blood plasma glucose, lipid profile, liver glycogen, body weight and anti-oxidant status in normal and diabetic rats. Results: Normoglycemic rats did not reduce the blood glucose level, whereas oral glucose tolerance test showed better tolerance of glucose in treated rats. The alcoholic extract showed a dose dependent reduction in fasting blood glucose level i.e. more pronounced at 750 mg/kg (P<0.05). ACD showed significant reduction in plasma lipid like triglycerides, total cholesterol and improvement in high density lipo-protein cholesterol (HDL-C) in treated groups. The decrease in lipid peroxides and increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver clearly showed the antioxidant potential while rat hemi-diaphragm glucose uptake study revealed increases in peripheral glucose uptake of treated rats. Conclusions: Results showed that standardized alcoholic extract of C. digyna possessed significant antidiabetic activity which may be attributed to increase in glycogen storage, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity thus, rationalizing its traditional use.

  16. Amelioratory effect of flavonoids rich Pergularia daemia extract against CFA induced arthritic rats.

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    Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Rameshkumar, Angappan; Jeyadevi, Ramachandran; Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sripriya, Jaganathan; Bose, Prabaharan Chandra; Sivasudha, Thilagar

    2016-05-01

    Pergularia daemia Forsk. (Asclepiadaceae) is a traditionally reported medicinal herb used to treat joint pain and arthritis. However, there are no scientific reports about anti-arthritic activity of P. daemia methanolic extract on rats as animal model. This study identifies bioactive compounds present in the P. daemia methanolic extract and evaluates its anti-arthritic potential in CFA induced arthritic rats. Phytoconstituents of P. daemia extract were examined using LC-ESI/MS method. Anti-arthritic activity of P. daemia extract was determined by various biochemical experiments (RF, ESR and CRP), ultrasonography and histological analysis. LC-ESI/MS analysis resulted in the identification of major flavonoids compounds such as formononetin, qurecetin, chrysoeriol, taxifolin and naringenin. Serum biomarker analysis, after the treatment with PDME (500mg/kg b.w.) revealed that the hemoglobin (11.84±0.42g/dL) and RBC (8.38±0.67million/mm(3)) levels were significantly increased whereas WBC (8.91±0.38thousands/mm(3)), RF (17.94±0.45IU/mL), ESR (7.91±0.12mm/h) and CRP (22.56±0.26mg/L) levels were decreased when compared with the CFA induced arthritic control group. Histology results revealed that treatment with PDME has resulted in significant prevention against bony destruction by decreasing soft tissue swelling and narrowing of joint spaces (250 and 500mg/kg b.w.). Anti-arthritic effect of P. daemia might be due to the presence of these bioactive flavonoids. These findings lend pharmacological support to the reported folkloric use of P. daemia in the treatment and management of painful, arthritic inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract on sodium dichromate-induced liver injury in rats.

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    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2016-03-01

    Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber, commonly known as Dandelion, has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders and some women diseases such as breast and uterus cancers. The main objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of T. officinale leaf extract (TOE) in treating sodium dichromate hazards; it is a major environmental pollutant known for its wide toxic manifestations witch induced liver injury. TOE at a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w was orally administered once per day for 30 days consecutively, followed by 10 mg/kg b.w sodium dichromate was injected (intraperitoneal) for 10 days. Our results using Wistar rats showed that sodium dichromate significantly increased serum biochemical parameters. In the liver, it was found to induce an oxidative stress, evidenced from increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidative activities. In addition, histopathological observation revealed that sodium dichromate causes acute liver damage, necrosis of hepatocytes, as well as DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, animals that were pretreated with TOE, prior to sodium dichromate administration, showed a significant hepatoprotection, revealed by a significant reduction of sodium dichromate-induced oxidative damage for all tested markers. These finding powerfully supports that TOE was effective in the protection against sodium dichromate-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity and, therefore, suggest a potential therapeutic use of this plant as an alternative medicine for patients with acute liver diseases.

  18. Protective effect of oat bran extracts on human dermal fibroblast injury induced by hydrogen peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing FENG; Lai-ji MA; Jin-jing YAO; Yun FANG; Yan-ai MEI; Shao-min WEI

    2013-01-01

    Oat contains different components that possess antioxidant properties;no study to date has addressed the antioxidant effect of the extract of oat bran on the cellular level.Therefore,the present study focuses on the investigation of the protective effect of oat bran extract by enzymatic hydrolysates on human dermal fibroblast injury induced by hydrogen peroxide(H2O2).Kjeldahl determination,phenol-sulfuric acid method,and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)analysis indicated that the enzymatic products of oat bran contain a protein amount of 71.93%,of which 97.43% are peptides with a molecular range from 438.56 to 1301.01 Da.Assays for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)radical scavenging activity indicate that oat peptide-rich extract has a direct and concentration-dependent antioxidant activity.3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide(MTT)colorimetric assay and the TdT-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling(TUNEL)assay for apoptosis showed that administration of H2O2 in human dermal fibroblasts caused cell damage and apoptosis.Pre-incubation of human dermal fibroblasts with the Oatp for 24 h markedly inhibited human dermal fibroblast injury induced by H2O2,but application oat peptides with H2O2 at same time did not.Pre-treatment of human dermal fibroblasts with Oatp significantly reversed the H2O2-induced decrease of superoxide dismutase(SOD)and the inhibition of malondialdehyde(MDA).The results demonstrate that oat peptides possess antioxidant activity and are effective against H2O2-induced human dermal fibroblast injury by the enhanced activity of SOD and decrease in MDA level.Our results suggest that oat bran will have the potential to be further explored as an antioxidant functional food in the prevention of aging-related skin injury.

  19. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control) at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls). Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL). The extract reduced significantly (p Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring. PMID:20858231

  20. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant Extract

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    Priyanka Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice.

  1. Protective effect of Cratoxylum formosum extract against acid/alcohol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats.

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    Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Teepsawang, Somsuda; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2010-10-01

    Cratoxylum formosum is an edible plant that is commonly consumed among the people in Northeast Thailand. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of C. formosum leaves (C. formosum ethanolic extract [CFE]). Gastric ulceration was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration of acid/alcohol. Oral dosing with CFE at 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight after the acid/alcohol induction significantly decreased the number of bleeding spots, area of bleeding, ulcer score, and ulcer index. Pretreatment with 500 mg/kg CFE significantly prevented the gastric damage. Histological studies of the acid/alcohol-induced animals indicated the gastric inflammation with lesion depth through the mucosal layer. Whereas the gastric lesion of the CFE-treated animals at both 250 and 500 mg/kg doses was decreased to be one-fourth of the mucosal layers, pretreatment with 500 mg/kg CFE prior to acid/alcohol induction completely protected against the mucosal damage. Biochemical analysis of gastric mucosa revealed a significant decrease of malondialdehyde in the CFE-treated group in a dose-response manner. These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CFE could be mediated possibly through its antioxidant effect.

  2. Report: Antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity of strawberry fruit extracts against alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

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    Abdulazeez, Sheriff Sheik; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2016-01-01

    The strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) of Rosaceae family are an accomplished source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid and diverse range of polyphenols including anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonols, ellagitannins etc. These phenolic compounds classify strawberry as an important health promoting food. Strawberries are proved to have potent antioxidant capacity in various in vitro assay systems. The in vivo beneficial effects are getting explored against various ailments including cancer, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. The present research study was designed to analyze the effect of strawberry fruit extracts (water and methanol) against alloxan induced hyperglycemia in albino rats of Wister strain. Upon alloxan (150mg/kg body weight) induction, the diabetic animals showed marked increase in the values of plasma glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and concomitant decrease in body weight and plasma insulin level. The oral administration of strawberry extracts for 45 days in diabetic animals reversed the biochemical changes significantly (P0.05) to near normal. Furthermore, the restoration of body weight loss was also observed. The results suggest that the strawberry extract has effective hypoglycemic activity against alloxan diabetes. The poly phenolic antioxidant contents of the strawberry fruit extracts are responsible for the observed biological effect.

  3. Cardioprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Tecoma stans flowers against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

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    Shanmukha Ittagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the cardioprotective effect of 70% ethanolic extract of Tecoma stans (T. stans flowers against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat myocardium. Methods: Wister rats were pretreated with 70% ethanolic extract of T. stans flowers (250 and 500 mg/kg orally for 14 d and then intoxicated with isoproterenol [200 mg/(kg · day, s.c.] for 2 consecutive d. The biochemical markers for myocardial infarction such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins were determined. In addition the antioxidant status on heart tissue is also evaluated by testing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase. Results: The results indicated that pretreatment with 70% ethanolic extract of T. stans flowers prevented fall in antioxidants and retarded elevation of cardiac damage markers in isoproterenol treated rats, significantly. In addition, these findings were evidently supported by the remarkable protection revealed in the histopathological studies, even GC-MS analysis data also substantiated out investigation. Conclusions: It was concluded that, in addition to poly phenolics, some of the phyto fragments found during GC-MS analysis might also contributed to the cardiac protection offered by the extract.

  4. Mangosteen peel extract reduces formalin-induced liver cell death in rats

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    Afiana Rohmani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Formalin is a xenobiotic that is now commonly used as a preservative in the food industry. The liver is an organ that has the highest metabolic capacity as compared to other organs. Mangosteen or Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML peel contains xanthones, which are a source of natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mangosteen peel extract on formalin-induced liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression in Wistar rats. Methods Eighteen rats received formalin orally for 2 weeks, and were subsequently divided into 3 groups, consisting of the formalin-control group receiving a placebo and treatment groups 1 and 2, which were treated with mangosteen peel extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kgBW/day, respectively. The treatment was carried out for 1 week, and finally the rats were terminated. The differences in liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression were analyzed. Results One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant differences in liver cell mortality rate among the three groups (p=0.004. The liver cell mortality rate in the treatment group receiving 400 mg/kgBW/day extract was lower than that in the formalin-control group. There was no p53 expression in all groups. Conclusions Garcinia mangostana Linn peel extract reduced the mortality rate of liver cells in rats receiving oral formalin. Involvement of p53 expression in liver cell mortality in rats exposed to oral formalin is presumably negligible.

  5. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity.

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    Shahid, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ullah, Ihsan; Ali, Gowhar; Alam, Javaid; Shah, Rehmat

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of morphine and illicit street heroin and their amelioration by a standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (L.) (mBME) in rats. Morphine or street heroin was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg for 14 and 21 days. mBME (40 mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg) was administered two hours before morphine or street heroin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the standardization of bacoside-A major components in mBME. The antioxidant potential of mBME was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Administration of morphine and street heroin resulted in marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine. Histopathological changes induced by morphine and street heroin after 14 days were of reversible nature while treatment for 21 days was associated with irreversible changes. Pretreatment with mBME or ascorbic acid restored the elevation of serum ALT, AST and creatinine and protected liver and kidneys from the toxicological influence of morphine and street heroin. HPLC analysis showed that mBME contained bacoside-A major components i.e. bacoside-A3 (37.5 μg/mg), bacopaside-II (4.62 μg/mg) and bacopasaponin-C (1.91 μg/mg). The EC50 for the DPPH free radical scavenging assay revealed that mBME possessed strong antioxidant potential. These results concluded that as compared to morphine, street heroin was associated with severe biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Bacopa monnieri having strong antioxidant potential may provide a beneficial herbal remedy for the efficient management of opioid related hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  6. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity

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    Muhammad Shahid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of morphine and illicit street heroin and their amelioration by a standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (L. (mBME in rats. Morphine or street heroin was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg for 14 and 21 days. mBME (40 mg/kg or ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg was administered two hours before morphine or street heroin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for the standardization of bacoside-A major components in mBME. The antioxidant potential of mBME was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Administration of morphine and street heroin resulted in marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and creatinine. Histopathological changes induced by morphine and street heroin after 14 days were of reversible nature while treatment for 21 days was associated with irreversible changes. Pretreatment with mBME or ascorbic acid restored the elevation of serum ALT, AST and creatinine and protected liver and kidneys from the toxicological influence of morphine and street heroin. HPLC analysis showed that mBME contained bacoside-A major components i.e. bacoside-A3 (37.5 μg/mg, bacopaside-II (4.62 μg/mg and bacopasaponin-C (1.91 μg/mg. The EC50 for the DPPH free radical scavenging assay revealed that mBME possessed strong antioxidant potential. These results concluded that as compared to morphine, street heroin was associated with severe biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Bacopa monnieri having strong antioxidant potential may provide a beneficial herbal remedy for the efficient management of opioid related hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  7. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from Ziziphus oenoplia (L Mill on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Pramod Mourya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to investigate hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Ziziphus oenoplia (L stem bark against Alloxan induce hyperglycemia in rats. Hyperglycemia was induced by an injection of alloxan monohydrate 150 mg/kg (i.p.. After 72 hr, the rats having Blood Glucose Level (BGL above 150 mg/dL were selected for the investigation. At two different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. of aqueous and ethanolic extracts were observed antidiabetic effect for 12 consecutive days. BGL was monitored after 1, 3, 6 and 12 days and compared with Metformin (250 mg/kg. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity of both extracts were also determined. Phytochemical study revealed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids in ethanol extract and flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins found in aqueous extract of Z. oenoplia bark. Oral administration of both extracts showed significant (P < 0.05 antihyperglycemic activity in dose dependent manner in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The diabetic rats had significant (P < 0.01 reduction in blood glucose; serum liver enzyme level (AST, ALT, and ALP and lipid profile were compared with normal rats. Significant effects of aqueous and alcoholic extract in alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity were observed in rats. The ethanolic and aqueous extract reveals the reduction in the blood glucose level, inhibition of alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzymes which support antidiabetic effect (reduce postprandial glucose levels of Z. oenoplia and this may be due to presence of flavonoids constituents.

  8. Effect of green tea extracts on oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats

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    Lee Jung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common side effect of oxaliplatin is peripheral neurotoxicity. Oxidative stress to dorsal root ganglion (DRG may be one of important pathogenic mechanisms. Green tea contains four polyphenol catechins, which are known to be potent antioxidants. The present work is aimed to determine whether green tea extracts have neuroproective or palliative effects on neurotoxicity symptoms induced by oxaliplatin. Methods We conducted behavioral tests including sensory and thermal thresholds, an electrophysiological study, and TUNEL staining to assess neurotoxicity during the experimental period using animal models. Results A total of 14 adult rats were randomly allocated into two groups. Oxaliplatin (4 mg/kg with or without green tea (300 mg/kg orally once daily was administered intraperitoneally twice per week for 6 weeks. At 4 and 6 weeks after oxaliplatin administration, sensory threshold values were significantly decreased and at 6 weeks after oxaliplatin administration, thermal threshold values were significantly increased in oxaliplatin-treated rats compared with those in rat treated with oxaliplatin and green tea extracts. The electrophysiological assessment, including sensory nerve conduction and H-reflex-related sensory nerve conduction velocity, revealed no significant changes in the two groups. TUNEL staining showed no significant difference in the number of apoptotic-featured cells between the two experimental groups in the DRG or peripheral nerves, but the number of apoptotic-featured cells in DRG was higher than that in sciatic nerves within each group. Conclusions Green tea extracts may be a useful adjuvant to alleviate sensory symptoms after oxaliplatin administration, such as allodynia, but did not prevent morphometric or electrophysiological alterations induced by oxaliplatin.

  9. Pretreatment with Olive Leaf Extract partially attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

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    akram Beiranvand

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is a major anti-neoplastic agent which nephrotoxicity is its main side effect and limits its usage in cancer chemotherapy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are highly responsible for cisplatin induced nephropathy, so we determined the effects of oral administration of ethanolic olive leaf extract (OLE as a plant antioxidant on nephrotoxicity of this drug. Material and methods: 21 adult male wistar rats were divided to 3 groups: “OLE75+CP” group [14 days of oral administration of OLE (75mg/kg before i.p. injection of 5mg/kg cisplatin], “Water+CP” group [14 days of oral administration of water before i.p. injection of cisplatin] and “Water+Saline” [As previous group with administration of saline instead of cisplatin]. Plasma samples were collected 72h after cisplatin injection and Urine samples were collected for 24h before blood sampling. Plasma creatinine (PCr and urea, fractional excretion of Na and K, creatinine clearance and relative kidney weights were determined in various groups as kidney function tests. Results: Cisplatin led to significant deterioration of all of this kidney function tests. Oral aministration of OLE significantly reduced PCr and fractional excretion of K. Plasma urea level was lower in “OLE75+CP” than Water+CP” group with a marginally significant level (p=0.08. Other kidney function tests were not significantly different between these 2 groups. Conclusion: Low dose oral administration of an olive leaf extract preparation (especially enriched in oleuropein for 14 days could partially reduce cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The effects of higher doses of the extract remains to be investigated.

  10. Biochemical evaluation of the hypoglycemic effects of extract and fraction of Cassia fistula linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    E E Jarald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae such as petroleum ether (60-80°, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05 to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg.

  11. Beneficial effect of Citrus limon peel aqueous methanol extract on experimentally induced urolithic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Badrinathan; Michael, Shiju T; Arya, Ramachandran; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj; Ganesh, Rajesh N; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2016-01-01

    Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (Rutaceace) is a commonly available fruit variety with high medicinal and industrial values. Lemon peel (LP) extract was studied as a potent preventive and curative agent for experimentally induced hyperoxaluric rats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and toxicity study were performed for aqueous methanol LP extract. Twenty-four Wistar rats were segregated into four groups. Group 1: Control; Group 2: Urolithic (ethylene glycol (EG) - 0.75%); Group 3: Preventive study (EG + LP extract administration from 0th to 7th week); Group 4: Curative study (EG + LP extract administration from 4th to 7th week). Animals received LP extract daily by oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) for 7 weeks. GC-MS analyses revealed that compound 6 was abundant in the LP extract (32%) followed by compound 1 (∼21%). The LD50 value of LP extract was found to be >5000 mg/kg of body weight. Urolithic rats showed significantly higher urinary calcium and oxalate (4.47 ± 0.44 and 18.86 ± 0.55 mg/24 h, respectively) excretion compared with control and experimental rats. Renal function parameters like urea (84 ± 8.5 and 96.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL), creatinine (1.92 ± 0.27 and 1.52 ± 0.22 mg/dL), and urinary protein (2.03 ± 0.02 and 2.13 ± 0.16 mg/24 h) were also reduced by LP extract (p < 0.001) and corroborated with tissue analyses (SOD, catalase, and MDA levels) and histological studies in normal and experimental animals. Immunohistochemical staining of THP and NF-κB in urolithic animals showed elevated expression than the control, while LP extract suppressed the expression of these proteins. In conclusion, lemon peel is effective in curing kidney stone disease and also can be used to prevent the disease and its recurrence.

  12. Antidiabetic and enzymatic antioxidant properties from methanol extract of Ficus talboti bark on diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karuppusamy Arunachalam; Thangaraj Parimelazhagan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore scientifically, the type–I anti-diabetic potential of Ficus talboti bark (FTB). Methods:The HPLC analysis was carried out to identify the phenolic compounds. Effect of two doses of methanol extract of FTB (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body wt.) was orally administered to STZ (Streptozotocin) induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The various parameters were studied including body weight, fasting blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, lipid profile, glycogen content, total protein, serum enzymes levels, and antioxidant activities in normal, treated and diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis of liver and pancreas were also carried out in normal, treated and diabetic rats. Results: The HPLC analysis showed the presence of antidiabetic responsible compounds of Rutin, Quercetin and Kaemfeorl. The treatment group with the extract at two dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver, muscle glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein and plasma enzymes level was significantly increased upon treatment with the FTB methanol extract. Histochemical study of pancreas also confirmed the biochemical findings. Acute toxicity studies revealed the non-toxic nature of the FTB methanol extract. Conclusion:The results of the experiments presented here suggest that methanol extract of FTB exerts significant antidiabetic and antioxidant effect in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  13. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  14. Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic leaves extract ofAlangium lamarckii Thwaites on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh Kumar; Dinesh Kumar Pate; Satyendra Kuldip Prasad; Kirshnamurthy Sairam; Siva Hemalatha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antidiabetic potential of alcoholic leaves extract ofAlangium lamarckii (A. lamarckii) on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type2 diabetic rats.Methods: Oral glucose tolerance test was done by inducing hyperglycemic state via administration of glucose in water (2 g/kg). Single dose of alcoholic leaves extract ofA. lamarckii(250and500 mg/kg,p.o.) were administered to normoglycemic, hyperglycemic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) followed by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). The study also included estimations of blood plasma glucose, lipid profile, liver glycogen, body weight and antioxidant status in normal and diabetic rats.Results: Admistration of alcoholic extract ofA. lamarckii at two dosage250 and500 mg/kg,p.o. did not showed any significant change in blood glucose level of normoglycemic rats (P>0.05), whereas, oral glucose tolerance test depicted reduction in blood glucose level (P<0.05). The streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats, significantly decreased the blood plasma glucose level (P<0.001) comparable to glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), restored the lipid profile and showed improvement in liver glycogen, body weight and antioxidant status in diabetic rats.Conclusions: Present finding demonstrated the significant antidiabetic activity of alcoholic leaves extract ofA. lamarckii.

  15. Aluminium-induced acute neurotoxicity in rats:Treatment with aqueous extract of Arthrophytum (Hammada scoparia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaddour Tar; Omar Kharoubi; Oussama Anouar Tar; Nouria Hellal; Imene Benyettou; Abdelkader Aoues

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the antioxidative and protective properties of aqueous extract of Hammada scoparia (H. scoparia) against the effects of sub-chronic aluminium (Al) intoxication on mnemonic process and some neurochemical markers. Methods: Al was administered intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg body weight, three times a week), and H. scoparia and malic acid were given orally by gavage at a daily dose (100 mg/kg body weight) to rats for 90 days. Results: Al caused significant short-term and long-term memory disturbances, a decrease in locomotor activity, a significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and a significant depletion of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) and glutathione. It significantly increased lipid peroxidation levels in cerebrum and cerebellum. However, treatment with H. scoparia extract pro-tected efficiently the neurological functions of intoxicated rats by considerably increasing antioxidants levels and decreasing production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances by 4.26%compared to untreated group. We noted some controversial results with malic acid. It showed some positive results but it was not as efficient as H. scoparia extract. Current results were consistent with histopathological observations including neurodegeneration and vacuolated cytoplasm (spongiosis) in Al treated sec-tions when H. scoparia and malic acid treated sections showed marked neuroprotection signs. Conclusions: This study strongly suggested that H. scoparia extract could possibly restore the altered neurological capacities and antioxidant power in rats, and it could even be a good alternative to chelating agents or other chemical medicines against Al-induced neurotoxicity.

  16. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    R S Kujur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stevia rebaudiana regulates blood sugar, prevents hypertension and tooth decay. Other studies have shown that it has antibacterial as well as antiviral property. Methods : Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, ether and methanolic extracts of S. rebaudiana was done. Acute and sub-acute toxicity were conducted on twenty four Albino rats, divided into one control (Group I and three treatment groups viz. aqueous extract (Group II, ether extract (Group III and methanolic extract (Group IV. For the study of antidiabetic effect of S. rebaudiana rats were divided into seven groups (n=6. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 5% alloxan monohydrate (125 mg/kg, i.p. after 24 hour fasting.Blood samples were analysed on day 0, 1, 5, 7, 14 and 28. Results : Phytochemical tests showed presence of different kinds of phyto-constituents in aqueous, ether and methanol extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Daily single dose (2.0 g/kg administration of aqueous extract (A.E. , ether extract (E.E. and methanol extract (M.E. for 28 days of S. rebaudiana could not show any significant change in ALT and AST levels in rats. Blood sugar level was found to be decreased on day 28 in groups of rats treated with A.E., E.E. and M.E. of S. rebaudiana. Conclusion : The extracts of Stevioside rebaudiana could decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats in time dependent manner.

  17. Effects of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis on induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... linings of the stomach of rats pre-treated with the C. quadrangularis extract before induction with ethanol and ... Results from this study suggest that the extract of C, quadrangularis roots possesses antiulcer ... atropine, digoxin, morphine (pain killer), quinine and so ..... selected medicinal plants of Pakistan.

  18. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

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    Jin Bae Weon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ- induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC.

  19. AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF PUNICA GRANATUM ETHANOLIC EXTRACT IN CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED TESTICULAR TOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS

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    Divya Bhargavan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To explore the potential role of Punica granatum ethanolic extract (PGEE in Cyclophosphamide (CP induced testicular toxicity. Methods: Healthy male Wistar rats were allotted to 4 groups (N=6, each Group I: Control, Group II: CP 15mg/kg twice a week, Group III: PGEE 100mg/kg, Group IV: CP and PGEE for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, organ weight, body weight, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, SOD, catalase, GSH, ACP & testosterone level in the testis were evaluated. Results: The CP treated rats showed toxicity evidenced by decreased organ and body weight, decreased sperm quality and testosterone level also increase in MDA and decrease in antioxidants SOD, GSH indicating oxidative stress. In contrast PGEE co-treatment with CP resulted in significant restoration of the above mentioned parameters. Conclusion: These results indicate that PGEE attenuates CP induced testicular toxicity through its ROS scavenging activity.

  20. Liquorice plant extract reduces ochratoxin A-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekinejad, H; Farshid, A A; Mirzakhani, N

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the protective effect of liquorice plant extract (LPE) on ochratoxin A-induced nephrotoxicity, rats were exposed to ochratoxin A for 28 consecutive days. Biochemical analyses showed that ochratoxin A elevated the serum level of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) while antioxidant power of the serum was diminished significantly (Pnephrotoxicity. Moreover, total antioxidant power of the serum and MDA generation was increased. The test compounds melatonin (MLT) and LPE alleviated most of the biochemical alterations. The results of the histopathological investigations of the kidneys supported these findings confirming the protective effects of the test compounds albeit with some differences in antioxidant potency. Taken together, our data may suggest that LPE like MLT could alleviate an ochratoxin A-reduced antioxidant power of serum and lower the toxin-induced MDA generation. Hence LPE might be considered as a practically antioxidant compound that may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of ochratoxicosis.

  1. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavana, P; Manoharan, S; Renju, G L; Sethupathy, S

    2007-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide leading metabolic syndrome, associated with profound alterations in carbohydrate, lipids, lipoproteins and protein metabolisms. Worldwide, traditional practitioners for the treatment of diabetes and its complications use a wide variety of medicinal plants. In the present study the aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea leaves (TpALet) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Profound alterations in the concentrations of blood glucose, lipids and lipoproteins were observed in diabetic rats. Oral administration of TpALet to diabetic rats at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the level of blood glucose and increased the level of plasma insulin as well as normalized the lipids and lipoproteins profile. The present study thus demonstrated that TpALet has prominent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  2. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

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    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  3. Sustained systemic delivery of green tea polyphenols by polymeric implants significantly diminishes benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengxiao; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Spencer, Wendy A; Cai, Jian; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-06-20

    The polyphenolics in green tea are believed to be the bioactive components. However, poor bioavailability following ingestion limits their efficacy in vivo. In this study, polyphenon E (poly E), a standardized green tea extract, was administered by sustained-release polycaprolactone implants (two, 2-cm implants; 20% drug load) grafted subcutaneously or via drinking water (0.8% w/v) to female S/D rats. Animals were treated with continuous low dose of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) via subcutaneous polymeric implants (2 cm; 10% load) and euthanized after 1 and 4 weeks. Analysis of lung DNA by (32)P-postlabeling resulted in a statistically significant reduction (50%; p = 0.023) of BP-induced DNA adducts in the implant group; however, only a modest (34%) but statistically insignificant reduction occurred in the drinking water group at 1 week. The implant delivery system also showed significant reduction (35%; p = 0.044) of the known BP diolepoxide-derived DNA adduct after 4 weeks. Notably, the total dose of poly E administered was >100-fold lower in the implant group than the drinking water group (15.7 versus 1,632 mg, respectively). Analysis of selected phase I, phase II, and nucleotide excision repair enzymes at both mRNA and protein levels showed no significant modulation by poly E, suggesting that the reduction in the BP-induced DNA adducts occurred presumably due to known scavenging of the antidiolepoxide of BP by the poly E catechins. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that sustained systemic delivery of poly E significantly reduced BP-induced DNA adducts in spite of its poor bioavailability following oral administration.

  4. Protective effects of Punica granatum seeds extract against aging and scopolamine induced cognitive impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sokindra; Maheshwari, Kamal Kishore; Singh, Vijender

    2008-10-25

    Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. This impairment probably is due to the vulnerability of the brain cells to increased oxidative stress during aging process. Many studies have shown that certain phenolic antioxidants attenuate neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress. The present work was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum seeds on cognitive performance of aged and scopolamine treated young mice using one trial step-down type passive avoidance and elevated plus maze task. Aged or scopolamine treated mice showed poor retention of memory in step-down type passive avoidance and in elevated plus maze task. Chronic administration (21 days) of Punica granatum extract and vitamin C significantly (p Punica granatum extract also significantly lowered lipid peroxidation level and increased antioxidant glutathione level in brain tissues. Punica granatum preparations could be protective in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Gracilaria edulis extract induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Satyajit; Muthuraman, Meenakshi Sundaram

    2013-11-25

    Marine environment is inestimable for their chemical and biological diversity and therefore is an extraordinary resource for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. Recent development in elucidation of the mechanism and therapeutic action of natural products helped to evaluate for their potential activity. We evaluated Gracilaria edulis J. Ag (Brown algae), for its antitumor potential against the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Gracilaria edulis (EEGE) using EAT cells showed significant activity. In vitro studies indicated that EEGE cytotoxicity to EAT cells is mediated through its ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore decreasing intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels may be attributed to oxidative stress. Apoptotic parameters including Annexin-V positive cells, increased levels of DNA fragmentation and increased caspase-2, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities indicated the mechanism might be by inducing apoptosis. Intraperitoneally administration of EEGE to EAT-bearing mice helped to increase the lifespan of the animals significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased survival of mice. Extensive hematology, biochemistry and histopathological analysis of liver and kidney indicated that daily doses of EEGE up to 300 mg/kg for 35 days are well tolerated and did not cause hematotoxicity nor renal or hepatotoxicity. Comprehensive antitumor analysis in animal model and in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor cells was done including biochemical, and pathological evaluations indicate antitumor activity of the extract and non toxic in vivo. It was evident that the mechanism explains the apoptotic activity of the algae extract.

  6. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment.

  7. Protective effect of Cupressus sempervirens extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats

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    Koriem Khaled M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens belongs to the family Cupressaceae. It is widspread in Northern Africa, Greece, Turkey, North America, Cyprus and Syria. Cupressuflavone is the major ingredient of the plant leave extract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiulcerogenic activity of the extract of C. sempervirens leaves in gastric ulcer tissues induced by indomethacin. The results of the present study revealed that indomethacin significantly decreased glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione reductase (GR and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels, while it increased significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA, nitric oxide (NO and protein carbonyl (PC levels in gastric tissue. Furthermore, indomethacin decreased p53 expression, while it increased bcl-2 expression in gastric tissue. Pretreatment with 5%, 10% & 20% of the LD50 of C. sempervirens and cupressuflavone of indomethacin-treated rats restored all the above parameters to approach normal values. C. sempervirens at the highest dose was more effective than the two lower doses. C. sempervirens proved more potent than cupressuflavone. In conclusion, C. sempervirens exerted antiulcerogenic activity and the effect was dose-dependent and related to the cupressuflavone ingredient of the plant leave extract.

  8. Protective effect of Cupressus sempervirens extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Gad, Islam B; Nasiry, Zayenab K

    2015-03-01

    Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens) belongs to the family Cupressaceae. It is widspread in Northern Africa, Greece, Turkey, North America, Cyprus and Syria. Cupressuflavone is the major ingredient of the plant leave extract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiulcerogenic activity of the extract of C. sempervirens leaves in gastric ulcer tissues induced by indomethacin. The results of the present study revealed that indomethacin significantly decreased glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, while it increased significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and protein carbonyl (PC) levels in gastric tissue. Furthermore, indomethacin decreased p53 expression, while it increased bcl-2 expression in gastric tissue. Pretreatment with 5%, 10% & 20% of the LD50 of C. sempervirens and cupressuflavone of indomethacin-treated rats restored all the above parameters to approach normal values. C. sempervirens at the highest dose was more effective than the two lower doses. C. sempervirens proved more potent than cupressuflavone. In conclusion, C. sempervirens exerted antiulcerogenic activity and the effect was dose-dependent and related to the cupressuflavone ingredient of the plant leave extract.

  9. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death induced by Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in A431 skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Nirmala, J; Evangeline Celsia, S; Swaminathan, Akila; Narendhirakannan, R T; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2017-10-05

    Vitis vinifera. L is one of the most widely consumed fruits in the world and are rich in antioxidant abundant polyphenols. The present study was carried out to assess the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in an in vitro model using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell lines. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were incubated with A431 cells to evaluate the antiproliferative, apoptotic effects and the morphological apoptotic changes induced by the extracts. Mitochondrial membrane potential was also measured after incubating the cells with extracts. At the inhibitory concentration (IC50), grape seed extract (111.11 µg/mL) and grape peel extract (319.14 µg/mL) were incubated for 24 h with A431 cells. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were able to impart cytotoxic effects, induced apoptosis and apoptotic morphological changes in A431 cells significantly (p Vitis vinifera peel and seed phytochemicals can selectively target cancer cells and the phytochemicals that are occluded can serve as potential anticancer agents providing better efficacy in killing cancer cells.

  10. Protective effect of Petroselinum crispum extract in abortion using prostadin-induced renal dysfunction in female rats

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    Maryam Rezazad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study investigated the effects of parsley extract on pregnant rat kidneys which have undergone clinical abortion using prostaglandins. The renal protective effect of parsley extract was evaluated in pregnant rats which had an abortion. Parsley was used due to its antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods:  Fifty-four female rats were divided in 9 groups of 6: control pregnant, two pregnant groups which received parsley extract and prostadin, two non-pregnant groups treated with parsley extract and prostadin, a group administered with both treatments, and three groups which received parsley extract in pre-implantation, implantation, and post-implantation periods of embryos. Ethanolic extract (5 mg/kg was given daily to animals for 18 days of pregnancy period. Parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant statues (TAS, creatinine, and urea were measured using biochemical assays. Histopathologic studies were also done with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining method. Results: After 18 days of treatment, significant differences were observed in serum creatinine, urea, and MDA and TAS levels. Kidney cross-sections showed edema in prostadin-treated rats while improvements in parsley + prostadin -treated rats were observed. Conclusion: These results suggested that ethanolic extract of Petroselinum crispum reduced the dysfunction in rats kidney caused by prostadin-induced abortion and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of prostaglandin-induced edema.

  11. Evaluation of Mango Byproduct Extracts as Antioxidant Against Pb-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Mice

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    Makawy Aida I. El

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of mango by-products were investigated. This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of mango peel or kernel defatted extracts against Pb-acetate adverse effects on oxidant/antioxidant status, liver dysfunction biomarkers, histopathological changes and genotoxicity in male mice. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of both extracts were evaluated. Two doses of both extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg were used to evaluate their role against the toxicity of Pb-acetate (500 ppm. Mice given mango extracts with Pb-acetate had significantly lower plasma MDA, AST and ALT and higher glutathione than mice given Pb-acetate alone. Mango extracts prevented the histopathological changes in liver induced by Pb-acetate and decreased the cytotoxicity of lead by increasing the ratio of PCE/NCE. Mango extract treatment reduced the DNA damage induced by Pb-acetate in liver as demonstrated by a reduction in micronuclei and decrease in tail length, tail DNA% and Olive tail moment. It can be concluded that mango by-product extracts have potential to protect from oxidative stress and genotoxicity of lead.

  12. Gastroprotective effects of extracts and guttiferone A isolated from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) against experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niero, Rivaldo; Dal Molin, Marlova Manhabosco; Silva, Suellen; Damian, Natália Santos; Maia, Láis Orlof; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2012-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of seed, leaf, and branch methanolic extracts and guttiferone A obtained from Garcinia achachairu (Clusiaceae). Mice were used in all the models, and treatments were administered orally only in pylorus-ligated model of the extracts, and drugs were administered intraduodenally. Treatment with different extracts (500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the ethanol/HCl-induced model; however, the seed extract was most active. When tested in different doses (50, 250, or 500 mg/kg), the seed extract of G. achaicharu showed a dose-dependent effect with a percentage of inhibition of gastric lesions of 41, 49, and 85 %, respectively. The seed extract also significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the indomethacin/bethanechol-induced ulcer. In this model, the percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 24, 58, and 90 %, respectively. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction of gastric juice volume and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. Considering that the seed extract was the most active, it was subjected to silica gel column chromatography, leading to the isolation of guttiferone A. The isolated compound and omeprazole were evaluated in the HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer model. In this assay, both compounds at a dose of 30 mg/kg reduced the ulcerative lesions by about 75 %. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that extracts obtained from G. achachairu and guttiferone A produce gastroprotective effects, corroborating ethnomedicinal use of this plant.

  13. Antihepatotoxic effect of marrubium vulgare and withania somnifera extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghareib, Salah A; Nagy, Ayman A; Gabr, Salah A; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats' liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats' liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts.

  14. In-Vivo Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Mentha pulegium leaf against CCl4 induced toxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin Jain; Dinesh Kumar Jain; Neelam Balekar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in-vivo antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Mentha Pulegium against CCl4 induced toxicity in rats. Methods: Animals were treated with plant extract for 7 days and then toxicity was induced with a single CCl4 intraperitoneal injection. Pre-treatment with 600 mg/kg (p.o.) of ethanolic extract of Mentha Pulegium improved the glutathione, SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels significantly as compared to control group. Results: The present studies revealed that Mentha Pulegium has significant in-vivo antioxidant activity and can be used to protect tissue from oxidative stress. The result showed that the activities of glutathione, SOD, catalase and peroxidase in group treated with CCl4 declined significantly than that of normal group. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Mentha Pulegium in the dose of 600 mg/kg, p.o., has improved the glutathione, SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels significantly, which were comparable with Liv 52. Based on this study we conclude that Ethanolic extract of MenthaPulegium possesses in vivo antioxidant activity and can be employed in protecting tissue from oxidative stress.

  15. Antidiabetic activity of methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. in alloxan induced diabetic albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Sunil Kumar; Sonia Kohli; Renu Arya; Jyoti Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. bark in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Methods: Group-Ⅰ (normal control) mice received only basal diet without any treatment. In Group-Ⅱ (Diabetic control) mice, diabetes was induced by alloxan (150 mg/kgi.p.) and received only Tween80, 5% v/v in normal saline. Group-Ⅲ and Group-Ⅳ mice received metformin (10 mg/kg) and gliclazide (10 mg/kg) as standard drugs. Group-Ⅴ and Ⅵ mice received methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima at doses of250 and500 mg/kg body weightp.o., respectively.Results: The results of the study indicates thatAlbizia odoratissima bark extract significantly (P<0.01) reduced the blood sugar level. The bark extract also significantly reduced the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and decreases level of total proteins in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Conclusions:Methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima has protective effects on the protection of vital tissues (pancreas, kidney, liver, heart and spleen), thereby reducing the causation of diabetes in experimental animals.

  16. Protective effect of Tetracera scandens L.leaf extract against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tung; Bui; Thanh; Hai; Nguyen; Thanh; Hue; Pham; Thi; Minh; Huong; Le-Thi-Thu; Huong; Duong; Thi; Ly; Loi; Vu; Duc

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective potential of ethanolic extracts of Tetracera scandens L.(T.scandens) against CCl4 induced oxidative stress in liver tissues.Methods:Dried leaf powder of T.scandens was extracted with ethanol and concentrated to yield a dry residue.Rats were administered with 100 mg/kg of ethanolic extracts orally once daily for one week.Animals were subsequently administered with a single dose of CCl4(I mL/kg body weight,intraperitoneal injection).Various assays,such as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase,lipid peroxidation,protein oxidation(carbonyl protein group),tumor necrosis factor alpha,catalase,superoxide dismutase,and glutathione peroxidase,were used to assess damage caused by CCl4 and the protective effects of the ethanol extract on liver tissues.Results:Hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 was evidenced by a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase level,lipid peroxidation,protein carbonyl group,and tumor necrosis factor alpha,as well as decreased activity of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes(catalase.superoxide dismutase.and glutathione peroxidase).Treatment with ethanolic T.scandens extracts prevented all of these typically observed changes in CCl4-treated rats.Conclusions:Our findings indicate that T.scandens has a significant protective effect against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rat.which may be due to its antioxidant properties.

  17. Ipomoea aquatica Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

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    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

  18. Ipomoea aquatica extract shows protective action against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkiyumi, Salim Said; Abdullah, Mahmood Ameen; Alrashdi, Ahmed Salim; Salama, Suzy Munir; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2012-05-22

    In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda) it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg) for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months). The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time). The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

  19. Ameliorative potential of Tephrosia purpurea extract against arsenic induced toxicity in wistar rats

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    Birendra kumar Roy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the protective activity of Tephrosia purpurea extract (TPE against arsenic induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: For this study, twenty four wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, group – I rats were given sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg and group – II rats were treated with TPE @ 500 mg/kg along with sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, haematological parameter analysis and histomorphological examination are carried out with estimation of arsenic concentration in tissues. Results: Oral administration of sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant decrease in Hb%, TEC and TLC, significant increase of serum glucose, cholesterol, calcium and significant increase in arsenic accumulation in tissues. Histopathological results of intestine revealed haemorrhagic enteritis along with loss of villi. Treatment with Tephrosia purpurea @ 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the elevated glucose, LDH levels, along with significant increase haematological levels towards normal. There was reduced haemorrhagic enteritis and presence of intact villi, as compared to arsenic treated group. But there was no significant difference in serum calcium, serum cholesterol and arsenic concentration in tissues, when compared with arsenic treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of TPE (500 mg/kg daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against arsenic induced toxicity by its protective effect. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 493-496

  20. Evaluation of biochemical effects of Casuarina equisetifolia extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Phytochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy; Mohamed, Shaza Abdel-Halim; Abd Al Haleem, Ekram Nemr

    2013-11-01

    Nephrotoxicity is defined as renal dysfunction that arises as result of exposure to external agents such as drugs and environmental chemicals. The present work was undertaken to carry out the phytochemical study and nephroprotective activity of methanolic extract of Casuarina equisetifolia leaves in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Subcutaneous injection of rats with gentamicin (80 mg/kg body weight/day) for six consecutive days induced marked acute renal toxicity, manifested by a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine and uric acid levels, along with a significant depletion of serum potassium level, compared to normal controls. Also oxidative stress was noticed in renal tissue as evidenced by a significant decrease in glutathione level, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase activities, also a significant increase in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels when compared to control group. Administration of plant extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg once daily for 4 weeks restored normal renal functions and attenuated oxidative stress. In conclusion, Casuarina equisetifolia leaves extract ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage by scavenging oxygen free radicals, decreasing lipid peroxidation and improving intracellular antioxidant defense, thus extract may be used as nephroprotective agent.

  1. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ziziphus spina-christi against scopolamine-induced anxiety in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effect of Ziziphus spina-christi extract against anxiety related behavior induced by scopolamine. Rats were randomly divided into six groups, each group consists of eight rats. Vehicle group received distilled water, negative control received scopolamine (1 mg/kg and positive control received diazepam (1 mg/mL. Experimental groups received Z. spina-christi extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg IP 30 min after scopolamine injection. Anxiety related behaviors were assessed using the elevated plus maze. The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Administration of Z. spina-christi extract (200 mg/kg significantly increased the time spent in the open arm of elevated plus maze. The extract also reduced the percentage of closed arms entries and time spent in the closed arms. Different concentration of Z. spina-christi extract didn’t affect motor coordination and balance. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Z. spina-christi significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced anxiety.

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis in Normoglycemic and Streptozocine (STZ Induced Diabetic Male Rats

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    MR Nikbakht

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Citrullus colocynthis is a plant which has been used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit on normoglycemic and streptozocine induced diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: 45 male Wistar rats weighing, 250-350 gr, have been selected and randomly divided in seven groups. Group1 without any drugs usage, group 2 that received normal saline (IV and distilled water (oral, group 3 received only streptozocine (IV, group 4 received only the extract of Citrullus colocynthis (1000 mg/kg, groups 5, 6 and 7 received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of Citrullus colocynthis extract after injection of STZ and induction of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection (45 mg/kg of STZ. Blood sampling was provided directly from animal heart and blood sugar was measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using students t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean of normal blood sugar in control group was 156.5±15.7 mg/dl which defined as normal blood sugar. Streptozocine significantly increased blood sugar (p<0.05. The Citrullus colocynthis extract with 500 mg/kg dosage has not significantly reduced the blood sugar but is dosage of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood sugar in a dose-dependent mode (p<0.05. Results also showed that the extract in dosage of 1000 mg/kg did not have a significant effect on normoglycemic animals. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit dose-dependently reduced the blood glucose level in streptozocine-induced diabetic rats but did not have significant effect on normal blood sugar.

  3. COMPARISION BETWEEN THE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA BARK AGAINST EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

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    Darji Vinay C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. (Apocynaceae is useful as an adjunctive therapy for Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. However, its effect on ulcerative colitis has not been investigated. In the present study, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica were tested for 2, 4 - dinitro benzene sulfonic acid (DNBS induced colitis, and antioxidant activity were evaluated to clarify possible mode of action. Male albino wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: Normal control (Group I, Vehical contol (Group II, colitis induced by DNBS without any therapy (Group III, colitis treated with standard Dexamethasone (Group IV, colitis treated with methanolic extract of test drug Holarrhena antidysenterica (Group V, colitis treated with aqueous extract of test drug Holarrhena antidysenterica (Group VI. Treatment was given for 18 days. Rats were sacrificed on the 18th day after the procedure and the levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA, Nitric oxide (NO, Reduced gluthathione (GSH, Superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured in the isolated colon tissue. MDA & NO levels in colon tissue homogenate were decreased while SOD & GSH level were increased in group IV, V & VI as compared to those of Group III. There was also increase in food intake, water intake & decreased colon weight in Group IV, V & VI as compared to Group III. There was also improvement in inflammatory indices of colon mucosal damage index (CMDI & disease activity index (DAI & histopathology of Group IV, V & VI as compared to those of group III. Levels of all the chemical parameters, Physical parameters & Histological parameters were significantly improved after the treatment with methanolic extract of test drug compared to aqueous extract of test drug. Treatment with aqueous extract also improves the colitis condition but it was not significantly improved by it as compared to methanolic extract of test drug. The results of our study suggest that

  4. High-fat diet induces significant metabolic disorders in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hao; Jia, Xiao; Yu, Qiuxiao; Zhang, Chenglu; Qiao, Jie; Guan, Youfei; Kang, Jihong

    2014-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrinopathy associated with both reproductive and metabolic disorders. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is currently used to induce a PCOS mouse model. High-fat diet (HFD) has been shown to cause obesity and infertility in female mice. The possible effect of an HFD on the phenotype of DHEA-induced PCOS mice is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate both reproductive and metabolic features of DHEA-induced PCOS mice fed a normal chow or a 60% HFD. Prepubertal C57BL/6 mice (age 25 days) on the normal chow or an HFD were injected (s.c.) daily with the vehicle sesame oil or DHEA for 20 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, both reproductive and metabolic characteristics were assessed. Our data show that an HFD did not affect the reproductive phenotype of DHEA-treated mice. The treatment of HFD, however, caused significant metabolic alterations in DHEA-treated mice, including obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and pronounced liver steatosis. These findings suggest that HFD induces distinct metabolic features in DHEA-induced PCOS mice. The combined DHEA and HFD treatment may thus serve as a means of studying the mechanisms involved in metabolic derangements of this syndrome, particularly in the high prevalence of hepatic steatosis in women with PCOS.

  5. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice

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    V. Tangpu

    2014-06-01

    Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice, using four experimental models, i.e. measurement of faecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 enteropooling assay and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100 and ndash;3200 mg/kg. In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrhoeal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhoea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared to 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard anti-diarrhoeal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for the protection from diarrhoea. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 103-108

  6. THE EFFECT OF CUCUMBER ( ) EXTRACT ON ACID INDUCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    ... of corneal acid burn. Cucumber extract, corneal acid burn, guinea pigs, alpha hydroxyl acids, beta hydroxyl ..... cholesterol arteriosclerosis in rabbits. Circulation.12:696 ... production in human skin fibroblast cultures in vitro. Dermatol. Surg.

  7. Protective Effect of Amphipterygium adstringens Extract on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

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    Mario Rodriguez-Canales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as “cuachalalate.” Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa. AaEE significantly reduced the inflammation of colon and significantly increased SOD and GPx activities. AaEE also significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β cytokine levels compared to DSS-treated mice and reduced both infiltration of inflammatory cells and the mucosal damage in colon. The results suggested the protective potential of AaEE in DSS-induced colitis and this might be attributed to its phytochemicals compounds that have been found to induce a wide spectrum of activities such as reduction in oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, modulating numerous signal transduction pathways, and induction of apoptosis. The findings of this study suggest that AaEE has substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis.

  8. Protective Effect of Amphipterygium adstringens Extract on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canales, Mario; Jimenez-Rivas, Ruben; Canales-Martinez, Maria Margarita; Garcia-Lopez, Ana Judith; Rivera-Yañez, Nelly; Nieto-Yañez, Oscar; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Sanchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as “cuachalalate.” Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index), antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa. AaEE significantly reduced the inflammation of colon and significantly increased SOD and GPx activities. AaEE also significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β cytokine levels compared to DSS-treated mice and reduced both infiltration of inflammatory cells and the mucosal damage in colon. The results suggested the protective potential of AaEE in DSS-induced colitis and this might be attributed to its phytochemicals compounds that have been found to induce a wide spectrum of activities such as reduction in oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, modulating numerous signal transduction pathways, and induction of apoptosis. The findings of this study suggest that AaEE has substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis. PMID:27635116

  9. Protective Effect of Amphipterygium adstringens Extract on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canales, Mario; Jimenez-Rivas, Ruben; Canales-Martinez, Maria Margarita; Garcia-Lopez, Ana Judith; Rivera-Yañez, Nelly; Nieto-Yañez, Oscar; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Sanchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as "cuachalalate." Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index), antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa. AaEE significantly reduced the inflammation of colon and significantly increased SOD and GPx activities. AaEE also significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β cytokine levels compared to DSS-treated mice and reduced both infiltration of inflammatory cells and the mucosal damage in colon. The results suggested the protective potential of AaEE in DSS-induced colitis and this might be attributed to its phytochemicals compounds that have been found to induce a wide spectrum of activities such as reduction in oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, modulating numerous signal transduction pathways, and induction of apoptosis. The findings of this study suggest that AaEE has substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis.

  10. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba extract on experimental Bothrops venom-induced acute kidney injury.

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    Monique Silva Martines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV-induced AKI. METHODOLOGY: Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C, SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance, renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler, blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer, renal vascular resistance (RVR, urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method, hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit, fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. CONCLUSION: SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR.

  11. Amelioration of Isoproterenol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Myocardium by Withania somnifera Leaf Extract

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    Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective role of Withania somnifera leaf extract (WSLEt on isoproterenol- (ISO- induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg body weight (b.w. administered to rats for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in cardiac troponin I (cTnI levels and serum lipid profiles, as well as the activities of some marker enzymes. In addition to these diagnostic markers, there were increased levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO and decreased activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GRx, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST in the myocardium. However, oral pretreatment (100 mg/kg b.w. with WSLEt for 4 weeks elicited a significant cardioprotective activity by lowering the levels of cTnI, lipid profiles, and marker enzymes. The levels of LPO products were also significantly decreased. Elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes were also observed in rats pretreated with WSLEt. As further confirmed histopathologically, our findings strongly suggest that the cardioprotective effect of WSLEt on myocardium experiencing ISO-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidant system and an inhibition of LPO in the myocardial membrane. We conclude that WSLEt confers some protection against oxidative damage in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  12. Amelioration of Isoproterenol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Myocardium by Withania somnifera Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Ahmmed, Istiyak; Ahmed, Romana; Tanvir, E M; Afroz, Rizwana; Paul, Sudip; Gan, Siew Hua; Alam, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective role of Withania somnifera leaf extract (WSLEt) on isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) administered to rats for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels and serum lipid profiles, as well as the activities of some marker enzymes. In addition to these diagnostic markers, there were increased levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) in the myocardium. However, oral pretreatment (100 mg/kg b.w.) with WSLEt for 4 weeks elicited a significant cardioprotective activity by lowering the levels of cTnI, lipid profiles, and marker enzymes. The levels of LPO products were also significantly decreased. Elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes were also observed in rats pretreated with WSLEt. As further confirmed histopathologically, our findings strongly suggest that the cardioprotective effect of WSLEt on myocardium experiencing ISO-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidant system and an inhibition of LPO in the myocardial membrane. We conclude that WSLEt confers some protection against oxidative damage in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  13. Botanical Extracts as Medical Countermeasures for Radiation Induced DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    date June 2013 Listed medicinal ingredients - Grape seed extract standardized to 85 % polyphenols - Grape skin extract standardized to 15...Control wells contained dH2O or ethanol (concentration dependent on test substance solvent), NADPH (beta- nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate...statistical number of repeats NaCl sodium chloride NADPH beta- nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate nm nanometer (10-9) PBS phosphate buffered

  14. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of flower extract of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity

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    S Babitha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Millingtonia hortensis Linn is an abundant resource of flavonoids, which might be beneficial in protecting liver tissue from injury. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of M. hortensis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanism involved therein were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents. 30 adult Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups. Control group received vehicle, group-2 received CCl 4 alone (1 ml/kg body weight, intraperitonially, groups 3 - 5 received the ethanolic flower extract in 2 dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg and Curcumin (100 mg/kg as a standard for 8 days orally, followed by CCl 4 as a single dose on the 8 th day. 48 hours later, blood was withdrawn, serum was subjected to biochemical assessments, and liver homogenate was examined for lipid peroxides, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopatological studies. Results: CCl 4 treatment produced a profound increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, hepatic marker enzymes and bilirubin content compared with the control (P < 0.05. Pre-treatment with the flower extract of M. hortensis significantly enhanced the levels of endogenous antioxidants and reduced the levels of hepatic marker enzymes in relation to the CCl 4 treated group (P < 0.05. Balloning degeneration and fatty changes in hepatocytes was prevented by pre-treatment with the flower extract. Conclusion: The antioxidant nature of the flower extract of M. hortensis could be responsible for averting damage to the liver.

  15. EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. (COMBRETACEAE ON FREE RADICALS INDUCED IN RAT BRAIN

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    Calderón, Abhel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia catappa leaves was tested in vivo to determine its antioxidant activity. The objective was to determine the antioxidant effect of the extract of T. catappa against free radicals induced in rat brain. We worked with two groups, the control consisting of positive control and negative control subsets which were administered carbon tetrachloride (CTC 1 ml·Kg-1 body weight and 2 mL of physiological saline solution (PSS, respectively. The experimental group consisted of two subgroups treated with the hydroalcoholic extract of T. catappa + CTC: one with 0.8 mg of extract T. catappa/kg bodyweight and the other with 1.5 mg T. catappa/kg body weight, for seven days. In all groups was determined the amount of free radicals in the brain by the technique of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. From the positive control was obtained an average concentration of 26.68 μg malondialdehyde/g brain tissue, and in the negative control an average concentration of 9.76 μg malondialdehyde/g brain tissue; in the experimental group treated with T. catappa to 0.8 mg·kg-1 body weight and 1.5 mg·kg-1 body weight was obtained an average concentration of 13.64 μg malondialdehyde/g brain tissue and 15.80 μg malondialdehyde/g brain tissue, respectively. It was determined that the group treated with the hydroalcoholic extract of T. catappa concentration to 0.8 mg·Kg-1 body weight showed significant inhibition of free radicals compared to the positive control subgroup.

  16. Potential anti-inflammatory effect of lemon and hot pepper extracts on adjuvant-induced arthritis in mice

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    Hend M. Tag

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis and related disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA, are common diseases affecting millions of people. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of lemon and hot pepper extracts on adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA in mice. Arthritis was induced by injection of complete Freund adjuvant (CFA subcutaneously at the planter surface of hind paw, the lemon and hot pepper extracts were administered subcutaneously at the same site twice weekly (100 mg/kg, for 2 weeks starting 2 days after CFA injection. Arthritic scores, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C reactive protein (CRP, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and paw histopathology were assessed at the end of the experiment. The extract treatments reduced the severity of arthritic scores in the following order: lemon fruit peel (LFP > lemon leaf (LL > hot pepper leaf (HL during the experimental period as compared with positive control (RA. LFP, LL and HL extracts significantly suppressed ESR, ANA, CRP and TNF-α as compared with RA group. HL, LFP and LL reduced the IL-1β by 63.02%, 47.22%, 44.92%, while IL-6 cytokine production significantly decreased by 29.74%, 28.96%, and 23.93% for IL 6 as compared with RA. Hot pepper fruit (HF extract treated-group showed a significant decrease for ESR on the other hand there was non-significant difference for TNF-α, IL-6, IL1β, CRP and ANA as compared with RA. Histopathological examination indicated that LFP, LL and HL extracts alleviated infiltration of inflammatory cells and synovial hyperplasia as well as protected joint destruction. The data showed that all extracts except HF have significant anti-arthritic and anti-inflammation effects and suggest that these effects may be mediated via the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  17. Silymarin BIO-C, an extract from Silybum marianum fruits, induces hyperprolactinemia in intact female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Capasso, Francesco; Savino, Francesco; Izzo, Angelo A; Lembo, Francesca; Borrelli, Francesca

    2009-09-01

    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged to have important health benefits for infants and mothers. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum fruits) has been recently proposed to be used by nursing mothers for stimulating milk production; however, the mode of action of this herbal drug is still unknown. In this paper, we have evaluated the effect of a micronized standardized extract of S. marianum (Silymarin BIO-C=Piùlatte) on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C (25-200mg/kg, given orally) increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels. Moreover, after a 66-day discontinuation of Silymarin BIO-C treatment, prolactin levels were still significantly elevated although we observed a trend to decrease that was counteracted by a further 7-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C. Bromocriptine, a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, (1-10mg/kg, os) significantly and in a dose dependent manner, reduced the serum prolactin levels; bromocriptine, at the dose of 1mg/kg, significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silymarin BIO-C. In conclusion, we have shown that an extract from S. marianum fruits significantly increases circulating prolactin levels in female rats; this effect seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D(2) receptors.

  18. Ameliorative effect of Grewia tenax (Forssk) fiori fruit extract on CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Said, Mansour S; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O; Rafatullah, Syed

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Grewia tenax (GTE) fruit was tested for possible efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver toxicity in Wistar albino rats. GTE at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg were administered orally to CCl(4)-treated rats. Acute toxicity test and sleeping time determination were done with mice. The results showed that oral administration of GTE for 3 wk to rats significantly reduced the CCl(4)-induced elevated levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, and triglycerides. Moreover, it was found that the treatment with GTE significantly elevated the hemoglobin level in serum and increased the nonprotein sulfhydryl and total protein contents in the liver tissue, and a significant diminution was observed in the CCl(4)-induced elevated levels of malondialdehyde in the liver tissue. The biochemical findings were supported by an evaluation with liver histopathology. Pentobarbital-induced prolongation of narcolepsy in mice was shortened significantly by the extract. The observed hepatoprotective effect is believed to occur due to antioxidant properties of the contents of G. tenax extract, which may provide a new drug to be used for fighting liver diseases and it validates its folkloric use in anemic and other conditions.

  19. Anti-acne-inducing bacterial activity of mangosteen fruit rind extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the most effective solvent extract of mangosteen, anti-acne- inducing bacterial activity and the amount of alpha-mangostin, a major active component in each mangosteen fruit rind extract, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fruit rinds of mangosteen were extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and water. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity against bacteria that induce acne, including Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thin-layer chromatographic autobiography against these bacteria was also performed for each extract, while the alpha-mangostin content was analyzed using a validated HPLC method. The dichloromethane extract exhibited the strongest antibacterial effect with minimum inhibitory concentration values for both bacterial species at 3.91 microg/ml, while the minimum bactericidal concentration values against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 3.91 and 15.63 microg/ml, respectively. Thin-layer chromatographic autobiography indicated that alpha-mangostin was present in all extracts, except the water extract, and is a major active component against both P. acnes and S. epidermidis. Using HPLC, the dichloromethane extract yielded the highest content (46.21% w/w) of alpha-mangostin followed by the ethanol extract (18.03% w/w), the hexane extract (17.21% w/w) and the water extract (0.54% w/w). Dichloromethane extract exhibited the strongest anti-acne-inducing bacterial effect and this extract yielded the highest amount of alpha-mangostin. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A Novel Approach to Extract Significant Patterns of Travel Time Intervals of Vehicles from Freeway Gantry Timestamp Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Doo Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is attractive to extract and determine the key features of traffic patterns for mitigating road congestion and predicting travel time of vehicles in traffic analysis. Based on the previous work that is a scalable approach via a Hadoop MapReduce programming model, this paper aims to extract significant patterns of travel time intervals of vehicles from freeway traffic in Taiwan, and meanwhile to compute the statistics of these patterns from the point of view one may concern. Experimental resources are the records of timestamp gantry sequences of vehicles passed in five months from 2016/11 to 2017/3 that were downloaded from the Traffic Data Collection System, one of Taiwan government open data platforms. To select one specific gantry sequence for demonstration, the longest sequence on the trip within the Taiwan National Freeway No. 5 is selected. Experimental results show that some statistics of vehicle travel time intervals according to 24 h per day are computed for illustration. These statistics can not only provide clues to experts to analyze traffic congestions, but also help drivers how to avoid rush hours. Furthermore, this work is able to handle a larger amount of real data and be promising for further traffic and transportation research in the future.

  1. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (AL), Camellia sinensis (CS), Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG), and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM) are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (m)RNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results A noncytotoxic dose (200 μM) of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001) regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation into molecular mechanisms modulated by herbal extracts should be undertaken to shed light on the development of novel

  2. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomari E

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pomari, Bruno Stefanon, Monica Colitti Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy Background: Arctium lappa (AL, Camellia sinensis (CS, Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG, and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods: Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (mRNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results: A noncytotoxic dose (200 µM of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001 regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in

  3. Effect of aqueous extract of Rheum ribes on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat

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    Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Rheum ribes extract prevents cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups: Group A considered as control group, group B were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg B.W. for 3 alternative days, and group C further to cisplatin received the aqueous extract of Rheum ribes (150 mg/rat. Results: Blood urea nitrogen (BUN level increased in group B on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 ( P < 0.001; it was also increased in group B vs. group A on day 14 ( P < 0.001. Rheum ribes extract decreased the serum BUN level on day 14 compared to group B ( P < 0.001. Serum creatinine level in group B had a similar profile as serum BUN level but Rheum ribes had no effect on blood creatinine level. Serum cholesterol level was increased in group B on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 ( P < 0.001. Also, cholesterol level was significantly increased in group B when compared to group A on day 14 ( P < 0.001. Rheum ribes decreased the blood cholesterol level on day 42 in comparison to group B ( P < 0.001. Serum glucose level was increased in group B on days 14 and 42 vs. day 0 ( P < 0.001. Also, glucose level was significantly increased in group B when compared to group A on day 42 ( P < 0.001. Rheum ribes increased the serum glucose level on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 ( P < 0.05. Histology of kidneys exposed to cisplatin showed renal injury, but Rheum ribes had no effect on the kidney architecture. Conclusion: Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was confirmed in our study. Although Rheum ribes had some effects on biochemical parameters; its effect on renal histology in injured kidney was insignificant.

  4. Neuroprotective role of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M; Anisha, M

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine the protective potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera in ameliorating the alterations induced by aluminium (Al) on behavioural and neurochemical indices. Al was given orally (100mg/kg b.wt./day) whereas V. vinifera extract was administered through diet (400mg/kg, p.o.) to rats for a total duration of 45 days. Passive avoidance and open field tests revealed significant alterations in the short-term memory and cognitive behaviour in rats treated with Al. Further, locomotor as well as muscular activities were also found to be significantly affected. Co-administration of V. vinifera extract with Al caused significant improvement in the short-term memory, cognition, anxiety, locomotion and muscular activity. Al exposure led to a significant decrease in the acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain, increase in serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT. Anti-oxidant parameters-reduced glutathione, catalase and glutathione reductase levels were also found to be significantly decreased but the levels of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in brain following Al treatment. V. vinifera extract supplementation to Al treated animals caused a significant improvement in the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase which was altered by Al. Serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT were brought back to normal levels. Further, V. vinifera extract when given along with Al was also able to regulate the levels of Anti-oxidant parameters in brain and the values were found close to the normal controls. Histopathological studies revealed neurodegeneration and vacuolated cytoplasm after Al treatment. Therefore, the study strengthens the hypothesis that V. vinifera extract can be used as a neuroprotectant during Al induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ANTIDIABETIC AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FENUGREEK EXTRACT ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Parixit Bhandurge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecumL. Leguminosae is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Antihyperglycaemic effect of the two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg of the fenugreek extract was evaluated in this study. Blood glucose, liver profile, renal profile and total lipid levels were determined in alloxan induced diabetic rats after oral administration of a fenugreek extract. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract. The extract lowered the total cholesterol and serum triglycerides. Histopathological analysis of pancreas showed normal acini, and normal cellular in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas of normal control and Extensive damage to islets of langerhans and reduced dimensions of islets in alloxan induced diabetes. Restoration of islets of langerhans seen in diabetic rats treated with fenugreek extract. The results of this study clearly shows the hypoglycaemic activity of the extract

  6. Ability of aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera to effectively alleviate paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental Wister albino rats

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    Emmanuel Ogboma Dania

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the preventive, protective and ameliorative activity of the aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera L. (P. dactylifera against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: A total of 50 male albino rats were used for the study and 2 g/kg body weight of paracetamol and 400 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of P. dactylifera were administered orally for the study. They were divided into 5 groups, namely group A (vehicle control, group B (paracetamol control, group C (preventive, group D (ameliorative and group E (protective, with 10 rats in each group. Group B was administered with paracetamol for 7 days; group C was administered with the extract for 7 days before administering with paracetamol for 7 days; group D was administered with paracetamol for 7 days, then the extract for 7 days; while group E was administered with paracetamol and the extract simultaneously for 7days. Results: The study revealed that the extracts of date palms contained active chemical compounds such as anthocyanins, phenolics, sterols, carotenoids and flavonoids. The levels of antioxidant enzymes activity such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase were found to be reduced while malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in the paracetamol-treated group. This trend was reversed in groups where the extract was administered, as the antioxidant enzymes level in the liver was raised. Conclusions: This study has shown that the aqueous extract of P. dactylifera can mitigate the hepatotoxicity effect of paracetamol with a better ameliorating effect than protective or preventive

  7. Effect of methanol extract of Cuscuta reflexa aerial parts on hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs in rats

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    B R Balakrishnan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of extracts of Cuscuta reflexa (Convolvulaceae on Isoniazid (INH and Rifambicin (RIF induced hepatotoxicity rats. Hepatotoxicity was observed by biochemical measurments: Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities, ﻻ- GT the levels of total bilirubin were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in serum parameters in extract and standard drug treated groups. Histopathological changes were also observed in livers of animals that received extract and standard drug. Industrial relevance: The data generated in this study suggest that Cuscuta reflexa, could be very useful in the management of hepatoprotection on INH and RIF induced hepatotoxicity. Further studies will still be required at identifying the active hypoglycaemic phytoconstituents and their possible mechanism.

  8. Therapeutic efficacies of Coriandrum sativum aqueous extract against metronidazole-induced genotoxicity in Channa punctatus peripheral erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talapatra, Soumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Subham; Guha, Gunjan; Auddy, Moumita; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha

    2010-12-01

    Metronidazole (MTZ), a nitroimidazole drug, is primarily used as an anti-protozoan or an anti-bacterial agent in humans, although its genotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been widely reported, particularly in aquatic organisms. MTZ may induce DNA damages through single-strand breaks, modification of bases, DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links, ultimately leading to apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we have assessed the genotoxicity of MTZ in the peripheral erythrocytes of Channa punctatus, using micronucleation (MN) and binucleation (BN) as genotoxicity markers. The therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum against MTZ-induced genotoxicity has also been examined. The results show significant (Psativum leaf extract. Hence, we establish that MTZ can produce considerable degrees of micronucleus and binucleus formation in peripheral erythrocytes of C. punctatus, and such deleterious effect of MTZ treatment can be mitigated by aqueous extract of C. sativum leaves.

  9. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extract inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced procoagulant and pro-inflammatory factors in cultured vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Theertham Pradyumna; Okamoto, Takayuki; Akita, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Kato-Yasuda, Naomi; Suzuki, Koji

    2013-12-01

    Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) has been used for many centuries in traditional Indian Ayurvedic formulations for the prevention and treatment of many inflammatory diseases. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties of amla fruit extract. The amla fruit extract potentially and significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor expression and von Willebrand factor release in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations (1-100 μg/ml). In a leucocyte adhesion model of inflammation, it also significantly decreased LPS-induced adhesion of human monocytic cells (THP-1) to the HUVEC, as well as reduced the expression of endothelial-leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin) in the target cells. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in a LPS-induced endotoxaemia rat model. Oral administration of the amla fruit extract (50 mg/kg body weight) significantly decreased the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 in serum. These results suggest that amla fruit extract may be an effective anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  10. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Anoja P Attanayake

    2013-01-01

    C onclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  11. oleifera seed extract on copper sulphate induced injury in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    oleifera seed also known as Moringa seed on copper sulphate induced injury in Wistar rats. ... ministered aqueous extract of Moringa seed (200mg/kg body weight) and copper sulphate ... Human Care and Use of Laboratory Animals,. 2002).

  12. Ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis protect against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver injury in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Nguyen Thanh; Hue Pham Thi Minh; Tuan Anh Le; Huong Duong Thi Ly; Tung Nguyen Huu; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Dang Kim; Tung Bui Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the protective potential of ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury. Methods: Dried roots of S. baicalensis were extracted with ethanol and concentrated to yield a dry residue. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg of the ethanol extracts orally once daily for one week. Animals were subsequently administered a single dose of LPS (5 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneal injection). Both protein ...

  13. Inhibitory effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, Chihiro; Ichimura, Mahoko; Bai, Yanjing; Tanaka, Ken; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2008-07-01

    Neurons with atrophic neurites may remain alive and therefore may have the potential to regenerate even when neuronal death has occurred in some parts of the brain. This study aimed to explore effects of drugs that can facilitate the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses even in severely damaged neurons. We investigated the effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses in rat cultured cortical neurons damaged by amyloid beta (Abeta)(25-35). Treatment with Abeta(25-35) (10 microM) induced axonal and dendritic atrophies and synaptic loss in cortical neurons. Subsequent treatment with the methanol extract and the water extract of E. senticosus (10 - 1000 ng/ml) resulted in significant axonal and dendritic regenerations and reconstruction of neuronal synapses. Co-application of the extract and Abeta(25-35) attenuated Abeta(25-35)-induced neuronal death. We investigated neurite outgrowth activities of eleutherosides B and E and isoflaxidin, which are known as major compounds in E. senticosus. Although eleutheroside B protected against Abeta(25-35)-induced dendritic and axonal atrophies, the activities of eleutheroside E and isofraxidin were less than that of eleutheroside B. Although the contents of these three compounds in the water extract were less than in the methanol extract, restoring activities against neuronal damages were not different between the two extracts. In conclusion, extracts of E. senticosus protect against neuritic atrophy and cell death under Abeta treatment, and one of active constituents may be eleutheroside B.

  14. Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. extract on cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anamika; Gautam, Manish K; Singh, Rahul K; Kumar, M Vijay; Rao, Ch V; Goel, R K; Anupurba, Shampa

    2010-11-01

    Immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract (50%) of M. oleifera leaves (MOE) has been studied in normal and immunosuppressed mice models. Different doses of MOE i.e. 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of mice were administered orally for 15 days. Cyclophosphamide at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for the next 3 days. On day 16 and 19, hematological parameters like white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin level (Hb), percent neutrophils and organ weight were recorded. Effect of MOE on phagocytic activity of mice macrophages was determined by carbon clearance test. MOE showed significant dose dependent increase in WBC, percent neutrophils, weight of thymus and spleen along with phagocytic index in normal and immunosuppressed mice. The results indicate that MOE significantly reduced cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression by stimulating both cellular and humoral immunity.

  15. Effect of fractionated extracts and isolated pure compounds of Spondias mombin (L. Anacardiaceae) leaves on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoka, Abiodun O; Owolabi, Rotimi A; Bamitale, Samuel K; Akomolafe, Rufus O; Aladesanmi, Joseph A; Ukponmwan, Eghe O

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to elucidate the neurotransmitter systems involved in the neurophysiological properties of ethanolic extract, fractions and pure isolates of Spondias mombin leaves in mice (n = 6) after intraperitoneal (i.p.) route of administration.The crude ethanolic extract of Spondian mombin leaves was fractionated using the partitioning method to obtain the ethylacetate, butanolic and aqueous fractions. Open column chromatographic fractionation of the ethylacetate fraction yielded seven sub-fractions, out of which the pure coumaroyl, quercetin and gallic acid derivatives were obtained after purification on Sephadex LH 20. The ethanolic extract, butanolic fraction, ethylacetate subfractions and pure isolates of the Spondian mombin leaves were tested on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice with standard pharmacological tools using the open field method. The extract and its fractions decreased novelty-induced rearing in a dose-dependent manner. While the Coumaroyl derivative had no effect on novelty-induced rearing, it significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of yohimbine, propranolol and haloperidol on novelty-induced rearing. Quercetin significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone significantly potentiated the quercetin-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing. Gallic acid derivative significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone, atropine and haloperidol pretreatments significantly potentiated gallic acid derivative-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing.The extract and its fractions had biphasic effect on novelty-induced grooming in mice. Coumaroyl derivative significantly increased novelty-induced grooming, while quercetin and gallic acid derivative decreased novelty-induced grooming significantly. The three pure isolates significantly reversed the effects of yohimbine and atropine on the novelty-induced grooming in

  16. Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2012-10-01

    Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-κB, TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors.

  17. The Aqueous Seed Extract Of Carica papaya Linn. Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats

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    A A Adeneye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Carica papaya Linn. is known to have a versatile application in African folkloric medicine. In the current study, the dose-dependent (100 – 400 mg/kg/day/oral route and time-course protective effects of the 400 mg/kg/oral route of the aqueous seed extract of unripe and mature Carica papaya fruit (CPE were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 hepatotoxic rats for 72 hours. Results showed the extract to cause significant (p<0.05, p<0.001, dose related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST, serum lipids (TG, TC, HDL-c, LDL-c and VLDL-c and serum proteins (TP and ALB. Maximum hepatoprotection was offered at an oral dose of 400 mg/kg/day of the extract. The biochemical results obtained were corroborated by improvements in the CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. In addition, maximum hepatoprotection was offered at the 400 mg/kg of CPE for up to 3 hours post-CCl4 induction. In conclusion, the results obtained in the current study justify the folkloric application of CPE in the treatment of drug-related hepatic injury. Industrial relevance: Results of the current study provide some scientific information to develop safe and effective products such as food supplements, dietary supplements, etc. that could be useful in the clinical management of patients with drug related hepatic disorders.

  18. Antidiabetic Activity of Different Extracts of Myrtus Communis in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Panjeshahin Mohammad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Hydroalcoholic (70° extract of leaves of Myrtus communis has been shown to have antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats in our previous study. In this study, we intended to determine the components of the mentioned extract and identify the mechanism for its action.

  19. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-RE...

  20. Carissa carandas Linn. fruit extract ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats via attenuation of oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayesh B. Dhodi; Deepavali R. Thanekar; Snehal N. Mestry; Archana R. Juvekar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the mechanism of action of methanolic extract of Carissa carandas fruits (MCCF) in attenuation of diabetic nephropathy using gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity model.Methods:Extract was daily administered to Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 8 days along with intramuscular injection of gentamicin (80 mg/kg). After completion of the study, serum was analyzed for blood urea nitrogen, albumin and creatinine; urine (24 h) was analyzed for albumin and creatinine. Kidney was evaluated for its biochemical and morphological changes. Results: Extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly normalized the nephrotoxic biomarkers in serum and urine and increased the kidney antioxidant activities which were altered due to gentamicin toxicity. The histological findings reveal that MCCF was capable of protecting the kidney against gentamicin toxicity. Conclusions: Extract ameliorated oxidative stress generated by gentamicin administration, which is one of the mechanisms for its preventive action against diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Prevention of experimentally-induced gastric ulcers in rats by an ethanolic extract of "Parsley" Petroselinum crispum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; El-Tahir, Kamal; Rafatullah, Syed

    2003-01-01

    An ethanolic extract of Parsley, Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym.ex A.W. Hill (Umbelliferae), was tested for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, indomethacin and cytodestructive agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) in rats. The extract in doses of 1 and 2 g/kg body weight had a significant antiulcerogenic activity on the models used. Besides, ethanol-induced depleted gastric wall mucus and non-protein sulfhydryl contents were replenished by pretreatment with Parsley extract. Acute toxicity tests showed a large margin of safety for the extract. The phytochemical screening of Parsley leaves revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, sterols and/or triterpenes.

  2. Ethanolic Extract of Propolis (EEP Enhances the Apoptosis- Inducing Potential of TRAIL in Cancer Cells

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    Wojciech Krol

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP is one of the richest sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids. EEP and its phenolic compounds have been known for various biological activities including immunopotentiation, chemopreventive and antitumor effects. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic toward normal cells. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of EEP and phenolic compounds identified in propolis in combination with TRAIL on HeLa cancer cells. HeLa cells were resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our study demonstrated that EEP and its components significantly sensitize to TRAIL induced death in cancer cells. The percentage of the apoptotic cell after exposure to 50 μg/mL EEP and 100 ng/mL TRAIL increased to 71.10±1.16%. The strongest cytotoxic effect in combination with TRAIL on HeLa cells exhibited apigenin and CAPE at the concentration of 50 μM (58.87±0.75% and 49.59±0.39%, respectively. In this report, we show for the first time that EEP markedly augmented TRAIL mediated apoptosis in cancer cells and confirmed the importance of propolis in chemoprevention of malignant tumors.

  3. Ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) enhances the apoptosis- inducing potential of TRAIL in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Czuba, Zenon P; Domino, Maciej; Mazur, Bogdan; Zydowicz, Grzegorz; Krol, Wojciech

    2009-02-13

    Ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) is one of the richest sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids. EEP and its phenolic compounds have been known for various biological activities including immunopotentiation, chemopreventive and antitumor effects. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic toward normal cells. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of EEP and phenolic compounds identified in propolis in combination with TRAIL on HeLa cancer cells. HeLa cells were resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our study demonstrated that EEP and its components significantly sensitize to TRAIL induced death in cancer cells. The percentage of the apoptotic cell after exposure to 50 microg/mL EEP and 100 ng/mL TRAIL increased to 71.10 +/- 1.16%. The strongest cytotoxic effect in combination with TRAIL on HeLa cells exhibited apigenin and CAPE at the concentration of 50 microM (58.87 +/- 0.75% and 49.59 +/- 0.39%, respectively). In this report, we show for the first time that EEP markedly augmented TRAIL mediated apoptosis in cancer cells and confirmed the importance of propolis in chemoprevention of malignant tumors.

  4. Melissa Officinalis L. Extracts Protect Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, In Cheul; Jee, Donghyun; Rho, Chang-Rae; Kang, Seungbum

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the protective effect of ALS-L1023, an extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells). ARPE-19 cells were incubated with ALS-L1023 for 24 h and then treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry. Caspase-3/7 activation and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were measured to investigate the protective role of ALS-L1023 against apoptosis. The protective effect of ALS-L1023 against oxidative stress through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) was evaluated by Western blot analysis. ALS-L1023 clearly reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and intracellular production of ROS. H2O2-induced oxidative stress increased caspase-3/7 activity and apoptotic PARP cleavage, which were significantly inhibited by ALS-L1023. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was associated with the protective effect of ALS-L1023 on ARPE-19 cells. ALS-L1023 protected human RPE cells against oxidative damage. This suggests that ALS-L1023 has therapeutic potential for the prevention of dry age-related macular degeneration.

  5. Mulberry Fruit Extract Affords Protection against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

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    Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl carbamate (EC is a food and environmental toxicant and is a cause of concern for human exposure. Several studies indicated that EC-induced toxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Mulberry fruits are reported to have a wide range of bioactive compounds and pharmacological activities. The present study was therefore aimed to investigate the protective property of mulberry fruit extract (MFE on EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Chemical composition analysis showed that total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in MFE were 502.43 ± 5.10 and 219.12 ± 4.45 mg QE/100 g FW. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were the major anthocyanins in MFE. In vitro antioxidant studies (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays jointly exhibited the potent antioxidant capacity of MFE. Further study indicated that MFE protected human liver HepG2 cells from EC-induced cytotoxicity by scavenging overproduced cellular ROS. EC treatment promoted intracellular glutathione (GSH depletion and caused mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP collapse, as well as mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation, whereas MFE pretreatment significantly inhibited GSH depletion and restored the mitochondrial membrane function. Overall, our study suggested that polyphenolic-rich MFE could afford a potent protection against EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  6. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

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    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  7. An Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) extract protects mice against ozone-induced lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Francisco J; Jayo, Manuel; Niedziela, Linda

    2005-01-15

    Ozone (O(3)) inhalation has been associated with respiratory tract inflammation and lung functional alterations. To characterize the O(3)-induced lung inflammation in mice, the effective dose and exposure time were determined. Total protein levels of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), cytological smears, and lung histopathology and morphometry were used to assess and measure the degree of pulmonary inflammation in the mouse model. Ozone inhalation caused acute pneumonitis that was characterized by a high number of infiltrating neutrophils (PMNs) immediately after exposure and increased levels of protein in BALF in mice killed 8h after O(3) exposure. The anti-inflammatory properties of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) have been documented previously. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of UT, male mice were given an UT extract for 8 days, exposed to O(3), and killed 0 or 8 h after O(3) exposure. When compared to untreated controls, UT-treated mice had significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of protein in BALF, lower degree of epithelial necrosis, higher number of intact epithelial cell nuclei in bronchial wall, and decreased number of PMNs in the bronchiolar lumen. Therefore, UT extract appeared to prevent O(3)-induced respiratory inflammation in male mice.

  8. Metabolomics evaluation of the effects of green tea extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yihong; Sun, Jinchun; Petrova, Katya; Yang, Xi; Greenhaw, James; Salminen, William F; Beger, Richard D; Schnackenberg, Laura K

    2013-12-01

    Green tea has been purported to have beneficial health effects including protective effects against oxidative stress. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic drug that can cause acute liver injury in overdose situations. These studies explored the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in liver tissue extracts using ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mice were orally administered GTE, APAP or GTE and APAP under three scenarios. APAP alone caused a high degree of hepatocyte necrosis associated with increases in serum transaminases and alterations in multiple metabolic pathways. The time of GTE oral administration relative to APAP either protected against or potentiated the APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Dose dependent decreases in histopathology scores and serum transaminases were noted when GTE was administered prior to APAP; whereas, the opposite occurred when GTE was administered after APAP. Similarly, metabolites altered by APAP alone were less changed when GTE was given prior to APAP. Significantly altered pathways included fatty acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and energy pathways. These studies demonstrate the complex interaction between GTE and APAP and the need to employ novel analytical strategies to understand the effects of dietary supplements on pharmaceutical compounds.

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of Rosa canina fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat

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    Heibatollah Sadeghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4, R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i.p. were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine amino transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin (ALB, total protein (TP and malondialdehyde (MDA. Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining of liver section.Results: Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCL4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p

  10. Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

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    Poonam Lodhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides, lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD. The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity.

  11. Opuntia ficus indica extract protects against chlorpyrifos-induced damage on mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncibi, Saida; Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Akacha, Amira; Krifi, Mohamed Naceur; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2008-02-01

    This original study investigates the role of Opuntia ficus indica (cactus) cladodes extract against liver damage induced in male SWISS mice by an organophosphorous insecticide, the chlorpyrifos (CPF). Liver damage was evaluated by the measure of its weight and the quantification of some biochemical parameters, such as alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), phosphatase alkaline (PAL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cholesterol and albumin in serum by spectrophotometric techniques. The experimental approach lasted 48 h and consisted of 6 treatments of six mice each one; (1) control, (2) 10 mg/kg (b.w) CPF, (3) 10mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 100 mg/kg (b.w) cactus, (4) 150 mg/kg (b.w)CPF, (5) 150 mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 1.5 g/kg cactus, (6) 1.5 g/kg cactus. Both chlorpyrifos and cactus were administrated orally via gavages. Our results showed that CPF affects significantly all parameters studied. However, when this pesticide was administrated associated to cactus, we noticed a recovery of all their levels. In the other hand, cactus alone did not affect the studied parameters. These results allow us to conclude firstly that CPF is hepatotoxic and secondly that Opuntia ficus indica stem extract protects the liver and decreases the toxicity induced by this organophosphorous pesticide.

  12. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

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    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  13. Change and significance of nuclear factor-κB in adriamycin induced cardiomyopathy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-li; LIU Bin; ZHOU Ling-wang; YU Wei-han

    2005-01-01

    Background This study aimed at investigating the change and significance of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in cardiomyopathy induced by adriamycin (ADR) in rats.Methods Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, ADR and ADR+pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) groups. After 30-day experiment, myocardial histopathological observation was performed. Location and distribution of NF-κB p50 was examined by immunohistochemical assay. Expression of NF-κB p50 protein was examined by immunobolt assay. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay examined activity of NF-κB; Myocardium p53 gene expression was examined by RT-PCR analysis. Results The myocardial lesions of rats were less pronounced in ADR +PDTC group than in ADR group. Compared with control group, there were many myocardium nucleuses, which expressed NF-κB p50 and distribute under epicardium. Expression of NF-κB p50 protein in nucleus increased significantly in ADR group. The NF-κB binding activity increased significantly in ADR group. Myocardium expressions of p53 mRNA increased in ADR group. Conclusions The NF-κB binding activity increased significantly in cardiomyopathy induced by ADR in rats. Moreover, NF-κB plays an important role in causing degeneration of myocardial tissue and regulating expression of related-apoptosis genes.

  14. Polyyne-Enriched Extract from Oplopanax elatus Significantly Ameliorates the Progression of Colon Carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ Mice

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    Xin Qiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world. Oplopanax elatus is widely used in traditional medicine. However, little is known about its pharmacological effects and bioactive compounds. We evaluated the effects of the polyyne-enriched extract from O. elatus (PEO on the progression of colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. In addition, these effects were also investigated in HCT116 and SW480 cells. After PEO oral administration (0.2% diet for 12 weeks, PEO significantly improved body weight changes and reduced the tumor burden and tumor multiplicity compared with the untreated mice. Meanwhile, western blot and immunohistochemistry results showed PEO significantly reduced the expression of β-catenin and cyclinD1 in both small intestine and the colon tissues compared with the untreated mice. In addition, PEO treatment significant decreased the cell viability in both HCT116 and SW480 cell lines. It also decreased the levels of β-catenin, cyclinD1, c-myc and p-GSK-3β in HCT116 and SW480 cells at 25 μM. These results indicate that PEO may have potential value in prevention of colon cancer by down-regulating Wnt-related protein.

  15. Ameliorative Influence of Green Tea Extract on Copper Nanoparticle-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A.; Khalaf, A. A.; Galal, Mona K.; Ogaly, Hanan A.; H. M. Hassan, Azza

    2015-09-01

    The potential toxicity of copper nanoparticles (CNPs) to the human health and environment remains a critical issue. In the present study, we investigated the protective influence of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against CNPs-induced (20-30 nm) hepatotoxicity. Four different groups of rats were used: group I was the control, group II received CNPs (40 mg/kg BW), group III received CNPs plus GTE, and group IV received GTE alone. We highlighted the hepatoprotective effect of GTE against CNPs toxicity through monitoring the alteration of liver enzyme activity, antioxidant defense mechanism, histopathological alterations, and DNA damage evaluation. The rats that were given CNPs only had a highly significant elevation in liver enzymes, alteration in oxidant-antioxidant balance, and severe pathological changes. In addition, we detected a significant elevation of DNA fragmentation percentage, marked DNA laddering, and significance over expression of both caspase-3 and Bax proteins. The findings for group III clarify the efficacy of GTE as a hepatoprotectant on CNPs through improving the liver enzyme activity, antioxidant status, as well as suppressing DNA fragmentation and the expression of the caspase-3 and Bax proteins. In conclusion, GTE was proved to be a potential hepatoprotective additive as it significantly ameliorates the hepatotoxicity and apoptosis induced by CNPs.

  16. Protective Effect of Salicornia europaea Extracts on High Salt Intake-Induced Vascular Dysfunction and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panth, Nisha; Park, Sin-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Deuk-Hoi; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    High salt intake causes and aggravates arterial hypertension and vascular dysfunction. We investigated the effect of Salicornia europaea extracts (SE) on vascular function and blood pressure. SE constituents were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and SE’s effect on vascular function was evaluated in isolated porcine coronary arteries. SE’s vascular protective effect was also evaluated in vivo using normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). SE mainly contained sodium chloride (55.6%), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, p-coumaric acid, and trans-ferulic acid. High sodium (160 mmol/L) induced vascular dysfunction; however, SE containing the same quantity of sodium did not cause vascular dysfunction. Among the compounds in SE, trans-ferulic acid accounts for the vascular protective effect. Normotensive rats fed a high-salt diet showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), which decreased significantly in the SE-treated groups. In SHRs, high edible salt intake significantly increased SBP, DBP, and MAP, but SE intake was associated with a significantly lower MAP. Thus, SE did not induce vascular dysfunction, and trans-ferulic acid might be at least partly responsible for the vasoprotective effect of SE. Taken together, SE could be used as an alternative to purified salt to prevent and ameliorate hypertension. PMID:27455235

  17. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Cucumis melo fruit peel extracts in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidkar, Jayant S; Ghanwat, Dhanaji Dadaso; Bhujbal, Madhuri D; Dama, Ganesh Y

    2012-09-24

    Abstract Cucumis melo Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits have been used, traditionally in Indian traditional system of medicine, for the treatment of various disorders such as liver tonic, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, antiobesity, etc. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Cucumis melo fruit peel (CMFP) methanolic and aqueous extract in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Treatment with CMFP methanolic and aqueous extract showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in gain in body weight, serum lipid profile like total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, atherogenic index and increased the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in 28 days treatment when compared to the hyperlipidemic control group. The fecal excretion of bile acids and sterols was further increased upon treatment with CMFP methanolic and aqueous extract and standard drug. Administration of methanolic extract of CMFP at a dose of 500 mg/kg showed higher antihyperlipidemic activity as compared to other extract treated groups. The results concluded that CMFP methanolic extract (500 mg/kg) have potent antihyperlipidemic activity in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia model and which is equipotent activity when compared with atorvastatin treated group.

  18. Onion and garlic extracts as potential antidotes for cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in prostate glands of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola-Mudathir, F K; Suru, S M

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been implicated in increased prostate gland malignancy risk in both wildlife and humans. This study examines the chemoprotective roles of onion and garlic extracts on Cd-induced biochemical alterations in the prostate glands of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups: control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd alone (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day); extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bwt per day) for 1 week and then co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day) for additional 3 weeks. Oxidant/antioxidant status and acid phosphatase (ACPtotal and ACPprostatic ) activity were examined in prostate glands. Cd intoxication caused a marked (P garlic extract significantly minimised these alterations. The onion extract offered a dose-dependent protection. Our findings suggest a chemoprotective capability for onion and garlic extracts against Cd-induced biochemical alteration in the prostate glands.

  19. Protective effect of aqueous jujube extract in Carbamazepine induced teratogenicity on Balb/c mice fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doostabadi Mohammadreza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carbamazepine (CBZ is an anticonvulsant medication that can produce congenital anomalies. This study aimed to assess protective role of aqueous jujube extract (JE on CBZ induced congenital anomalies in mice fetuses. Methods:One hundred pregnant Balb/c mice were divided into 8 experimental (E and 2 control (C groups equally. The groups (E1, E5, E6 and (E2, E7, E8 received 50 and 100 mg/kg of CBZ, respectively IP, from GD 0 to GD15. Besides, groups (E5, E7 and (E6, E8 in addition to CBZ, were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg JE, respectively from ten days prior to gestation, till GD15. The groups E3 and E4 received only 200 and 400 mg/kg of JE respectively. The control groups (C1, C2 received normal saline and tween-20 in turn. On GD18 dams cesarianed and their fetuses assessed for skeletal anomalies by using Alizarin red-alcian blue staining. Results:CBZ induced various anomalies such as; limb defects, craniofacial malformations and etc in mice fetuses. However, these anomalies significantly decreased in groups which were co-administered with CBZ and JE. Conclusion: Co-administration of JE and CBZ significantly decrease teratogenicity of CBZ. Therefore, JE may play a protective role against those properties of CBZ inducing teratogenicity

  20. Protective effect of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) extract on lead acetate--induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Jackie, Tan; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Rao, Mallikarjuna; Kulur, Anupama

    2010-10-01

    Lead is known to disrupt the biological systems by altering the molecular interactions, cell signaling, and cellular function. Exposure to even low levels of lead may have potential hazardous effects on brain, liver, kidneys and testes. The efficacy of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) to protect hepatotoxicity induced by lead acetate was evaluated experimentally in male Sprague - Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (500 ppm) for 21 days and the effects of concurrent treatment with extract of E. elatior on hepatic lipid hydroperoxides (LPO), protein carbonyl content (PCC), total antioxidants (TA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S- Transferase (GST) levels and histopathological changes in liver were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in TA and other antioxidant enzymes (p induced changes in hepatic architecture. E. elatior has also reduced the blood lead levels (BLL). Thus, there has been extensive biochemical and structural alterations indicative of liver toxicity with exposure to lead and E. elatior treatment significantly reduced these oxidative damage. Our results suggest that E. elatior has a powerful antioxidant effect against lead-induced hepatotoxicity.

  1. Radioprotective effects of dragon's blood and its extracts on radiation-induced myelosuppressive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ran; Hasan, Murtaza; Jia, Qiutian; Tang, Bo; Shan, Shuangquan; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2014-07-03

    Dragon׳s blood, a traditional Chinese herb, has been used to "panacea of blood activating" and its major biological activity appears to be from phenolic compounds. In this study, our research aims to examine the effects of Dragon׳s blood (DB) and its extracts (DBE) on radiation-induced myelosuppressive mice. Adult BALB/C mice were exposed to the whole body irradiation with 4 Gy (60)Co γ-rays. DB and DBE were respectively administered orally for 5 constitutive days prior to irradiation treatment. The radioprotective effects and relevant mechanisms of DB and DBE in radiation-induced bone marrow injury were investigated by ex vivo examination. We found that the administration of DB and DBE significantly increased the numbers of peripheral blood cells and colony forming unit of bone marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells. Interestingly, compared with the irradiation group, the administration of DB and DBE significantly decreased the levels of the inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ and oxidative stress injury such as SOD, CAT, GSH, MDA in serum of mice. Furthermore, DBE markedly improved the morphology of bone marrow histopathology. Our data suggest that DB and DBE effectively attenuate radiation-induced damage in bone marrow, which is likely associated with the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of DB and DBE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Silybum marianum Extract on High-Fat Diet Induced Metabolic Disorders in Rats

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    Sayin Fatma Kubra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silybum marianum extract (SME has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for diseases of liver and biliary tract. Lately, it has been promoted as a nutritional supplement for beneficial effects on some risk factors of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of SME on high-fat diet (HFD induced metabolic disorders. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed HFD for 11 weeks to induce obesity. SME was given to animals for two different durations, for 11 weeks or for 7 weeks. The results showed significant increase in plasma transaminases, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, leptin, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, glucose and insulin along with significant increase in body mass index (BMI and liver weights in rats fed the HFD diet compared to rats fed with standard rat diet. SME supplementation for different durations raised improvement in the HFD-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hepatopathy at different degrees. Our study concludes that SME can be well considered as an effective supplement to improve insulin and leptin sensitivity and hyperlipidemia and to suppress body weight gain.

  3. Vitamin E Modulates Cigarette Smoke Extract-induced Cell Apoptosis in Mouse Embryonic Cells

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    Zhao-Li Chen, Jian Tao, Jie Yang, Zhen-Li Yuan, Xing-Hua Liu, Min Jin, Zhi-Qiang Shen, Lu Wang, Hai-Feng Li, Zhi-Gang Qiu, Jing-Feng Wang, Xin-Wei Wang, Jun-Wen Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E (VE can effectively prevent occurrence of lung cancer caused by passive smoking in mice. However, whether VE prevents smoking-induced cytotoxicity remains unclear. In this study, a primary culture of embryonic lung cells (ELCs was used to observe the cytotoxic effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE, including its influence on cell survival, cell cycle, apoptosis, and DNA damage, and also to examine the effects of VE intervention on CSE-induced cytotoxicity. Our results showed that CSE could significantly inhibit the survival of ELCs with dose- and time-dependent effects. Furthermore, CSE clearly disturbed the cell cycle of ELCs by decreasing the proportion of cells at the S and G2/M phases and increasing the proportion of cells at the G0/G1 phase. CSE promoted cell apoptosis, with the highest apoptosis rate reaching more than 40%. CSE also significantly caused DNA damage of ELCs. VE supplementation could evidently inhibit or reverse the cytotoxic effects of CSE in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The mechanism of CSE effects on ELCs and that of VE intervention might involve the mitochondrial pathway of cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation. Our study validate that VE plays a clearly protective effect against CSE-induced cytotoxicity in mouse embryonic lung cells.

  4. Immunostimulative effects of Cyperus rotundus, Alpinia calcarata, Solanum surattense, Clerodendrum infortunatum and Croton laccifer extracts combination on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosupression in rats

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    Ediriweera P. S. Chandana

    2015-06-01

    Results: Hematological analyses revealed that total WBC and leukocyte adhesion were not significantly different in control and extract-treated groups. Expression of IL-4 and IL-10 was significantly different in treated and control groups while expression of IL-12 was not significantly different. Cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression of the control group caused moderate to severe skin lesions while the rats in the extract-treated group did not sustain any skin lesions. All the rats in the cyclophosphamide-treated control group died after three months while 83.33% of the cyclophosphamide + plant extract received group survived, indicating the ability of the plant combination to alleviate the immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide. Conclusions: Treating with ethanolic extract combination of above plant species might exert their immunomodulatory effect via cytokine expression and can attenuate the immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide. [J Exp Integr Med 2015; 5(2.000: 110-113

  5. Abrogation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats by Berne date extract through ameliorating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis

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    El-Sayed M. El-Sayed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of Berne date extract on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. A single dose of cisplatin (6 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally (i.p to male rats produced significant elevation in serum urea, creatinine and TNF-α levels with significant reduction in serum albumin. It also increased kidney contents of lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA and caspase-3 contents accompanied by a significant decrease in kidney contents of reduced glutathione (GSH as well as enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD compared to that of the control group. On the other hand, administrations of Berne date extract and vitamin E (a standard reference antioxidant drug given per os (p.o in doses of 300 mg/kg and 1g/kg, respectively for 14 days before cisplatin and 7 consecutive days after cisplatin injection ameliorated the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity as indicated by the restoration of kidney function and oxidative stress parameters. Furthermore, they reduced the histopathological changes induced by cisplatin. In conclusion, Berne date extract showed protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity; effects that may be attributed to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities.

  6. Peumus boldus (Boldo) Aqueous Extract Present Better Protective Effect than Boldine Against Manganese-Induced Toxicity in D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Matheus Chimelo; Gularte, Claudia Ortiz Alves; Escoto, Dandara Fidélis; Pereira, Geovana; Gayer, Mateus Cristofari; Roehrs, Rafael; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Puntel, Robson L

    2016-10-01

    The cellular, intracellular and molecular mechanism(s) underlying the toxicity of Mn are still incompletely understood, although several points concerning Mn neurotoxicity have been addressed. Importantly, oxidative changes have been reported to be involved in Mn-induced toxicity. As a consequence, antioxidants are expected to offer protection in Drosophila melanogaster exposed to this metal. So, in this study we evaluated the hypothesis that the aqueous extract of boldo (Peumus boldus), and its alkaloids boldine, could prevent/ameliorate behavioral and oxidative alterations induced by Mn in a D. melanogaster intoxication model. Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to Mn (3 mM) and boldo aqueous extract (5 mg/mL) or boldine (327.37 µg/mL) in the food during 9 days. Mn-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay and in the open-field test, as well as a higher incidence of mortality and TBARS levels in head and body, when compared to control group. Boldo aqueous extract was found to reduce the mortality rate of the flies exposed to Mn. In turn, boldine was ineffective against Mn-induced mortality and significantly increases mortality per se. Additionally, Mn-induced locomotors dysfunction were fully ameliorated by boldo crude extract and only partially ameliorated by boldine. Likewise, boldo completely normalize head and body TBARS levels, whereas boldine only partially normalize in body. Finally, we found that flies treated with Mn presented significantly decrease in dopamine levels. Our results suggest that boldo crude extract can exert protective effect against Mn-induced toxicity in D. melanogaster, whereas boldine do not. Moreover, our data confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, such as that caused by Mn.

  7. Protective effects of Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels leaf extracts on acetaminophen and thioacetamide induced hepatic injuries in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nilesh Kumar Jain; Abhay K Singhai

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and compare the hepatoprotective effects of crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels (P. acidus) leaves on acetaminophen (APAP) and thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver toxicity in wistar rats. Silymarin was the reference hepatoprotective agent. Methods:In two different sets of experiments, the P. acidus extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg, body weight) and silymarin (100 mg/kg, body weight) were given orally for 7 days and a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg, per oral) or TAA (100 mg/kg, subcutaneous) were given to rats. The level of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and total protein were monitored to assess hepatotoxicity and hepatoprotection. Results:APAP or TAA administration caused severe hepatic damage in rats as evident from significant rise in serum AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin and concurrent depletion in total serum protein. The P. acidus extracts and silymarin prevented the toxic effects of APAP or TAA on the above serum parameters indicating the hepatoprotective action. The aqueous extract was found to be more potent than the corresponding ethanolic extract against both toxicants. The phenolic and flavonoid content (175.02±4.35 and 74.68±1.28, respectively) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) [IC50=(33.2±0.31)μg/mL] scavenging potential was found maximum with aqueous extract as compared to ethanolic extract. Conclusions:The results of present study suggests that the aqueous extract of P. acidus leaves has significant hepatoprotective activity on APAP and TAA induced hepatotoxicity, which might be associate with its high phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant properties.

  8. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

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    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  9. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Prunus yedoensis Bark Extract on Adipose Tissue in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

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    Hee Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic, low-grade inflammatory responses occur in obese adipose tissue and play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. Macrophages exposed to high glucose upregulate the expression of SRA, a macrophage-specific scavenger receptor. The present study investigated whether Prunus yedoensis (PY bark extract affects the inflammatory response and scavenger receptor gene expression observed in a diet-induced obesity model in vivo. Oral administration of PY extract significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels without a change in body weight in mice fed a high fat diet for 17 weeks. PY extract significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory and macrophage genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and F4/80 in epididymal adipose tissue. Among scavenger receptor genes, SRA expression was significantly reduced. The inhibitory responses of PY extract and its fractions were determined through evaluation of scavenger receptor expression in THP-1 cells. PY extract and its ethyl acetate fraction decreased the levels of SRA mRNA and phospho-ERK1/2 during monocyte differentiation. Our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of PY extract and its downregulation of SRA seem to account for its hypoglycemic effects.

  10. Identifying potentially induced seismicity and assessing statistical significance in Oklahoma and California

    CERN Document Server

    McClure, Mark; Chiu, Kitkwan; Ranganath, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we develop a statistical method for identifying induced seismicity from large datasets and apply the method to decades of wastewater disposal and seismicity data in California and Oklahoma. The method is robust against a variety of potential pitfalls. The study regions are divided into gridblocks. We use a longitudinal study design, seeking associations between seismicity and wastewater injection along time-series within each gridblock. The longitudinal design helps control for non-random application of wastewater injection. We define a statistical model that is flexible enough to describe the seismicity observations, which have temporal correlation and high kurtosis. In each gridblock, we find the maximum likelihood estimate for a model parameter that relates induced seismicity hazard to total volume of wastewater injected each year. To assess significance, we compute likelihood ratio test statistics in each gridblock and each state, California and Oklahoma. Resampling is used to empirically d...

  11. Protective Effect of Cornus mas Fruits Extract on Serum Biomarkers in CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Banihabib, Nafiseh; Es Haghi, Masoud; Panahi, Farid

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays attention to use herbs such as cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is increasing, which contains high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. Cornus mas fruits have been used for gastrointestinal and excretory disorders for many years in traditional medicine, also may improve liver and kidney functions, and have protective effects such as anti-allergic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antihistamine and antimalarial properties. The aim of this study was to investigate protective effects of Cornus mas fruits extract on serum biomarkers in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (1 mL/kg i.p.) in 1:1 dilution with olive oil. To evaluate the effect of Cornus mas fruits extract on disease progression, serum marker enzymes, serum total protein and albumin and liver lipid peroxidation were determined in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of Cornus mas fruits extract to rats for 14 days provided a significant (P mas fruit extract effect may be due to including some antioxidant components, which caused membrane stabilizing and normalization of fluctuated biochemical profiles induced by CCl4 exposure. Our results validated the traditional use of Cornus mas in the treatment of liver disorders.

  12. Protective effect of methanolic extract of Annona squamosa Linn in isoniazid-rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thattakudian Sheik Uduman, Mohamed Saleem; Sundarapandian, Ramkanth; Muthumanikkam, Azagusundharam; Kalimuthu, Gnanaprakash; Parameswari S, Angala; Vasanthi Srinivas, Thiruvengada Rajan; Karunakaran, Gauthaman

    2011-04-01

    The present study was made to investigate the protective effect of methanolic extract of Annona squamosa on isoniazid-rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into five different groups (n=6), group 1 served as a control, Group 2 received isoniazid (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and co-administered with rifampicin (100 mg/kg, i.p.), in sterile water, group 3 and 4 served as extract treatment groups and received 250 & 500 mg/kg bw, p.o methanolic extract of Annona squamosa and group 5 served as standard group and received silymarin 2.5 mg/kg bw, p.o. All the treatment protocols followed 21 days and after rats were sacrificed blood and liver were used for biochemical and histological studies, respectively. Administration of isoniazid and rifampicin caused a significant elevation in the levels of liver marker enzymes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, oxidative stress markers) in experimental rats. Administration of methanolic extracts of Annona squamosa significantly prevented isoniazid-rifampicin-induced elevation in the levels of serum diagnostic liver marker enzymes (alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamate transpeptidase (γ-GT)), serum bilirubin, and TBARS level in experimental groups of rats. Moreover, total protein and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly increased in treatment group. The effect of extract was compared with a standard drug, silymarin. The changes in biochemical parameters were supported by histological profile. It is to be concluded that the methanolic extract of Annona squamosa protects against isoniazid and rifampicin-induced oxidative liver injury in rats.

  13. Deer bone extract prevents against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chun Nan; Min, A Young; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Shin, Suk Kyung; Yu, Ha Ni; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Chang-Won; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2015-02-01

    Deer bone has been used as a health-enhancing food as well as an antiaging agent in traditional Oriental medicine. Recently, the water extract of deer bone (DBE) showed a neuroprotective action against glutamate or Aβ1-42-induced cell death of mouse hippocampal cells by exerting antioxidant activity through the suppression of MAP kinases. The present study is to examine whether DBE improves memory impairment induced by scopolamine. DBE (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to mice for 14 days, and then scopolamine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered together with DBE for another 7 days. Memory performance was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test and passive avoidance test. Also, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, biomarkers of oxidative stress and the loss of neuronal cells in the hippocampus, was evaluated by histological examinations. Administration of DBE significantly restored memory impairments induced by scopolamine in the MWM test (escape latency and number of crossing platform area), and in the passive avoidance test. Treatment with DBE inhibited the AChE activity and increased the ChAT activity in the brain of memory-impaired mice induced by scopolamine. Additionally, the administration of DBE significantly prevented the increase of lipid peroxidation and the decrease of glutathione level in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine. Also, the DBE treatment restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase to control the level. Furthermore, scopolamine-induced oxidative damage of neurons in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions were prevented by DBE treatment. It is suggested that DBE may be useful for memory improvement through the regulation of cholinergic marker enzyme activities and the suppression of oxidative damage of neurons in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine.

  14. Environmentally induced displacements in the ecotourism-extraction nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Davidov, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, we increasingly see the often-deemed incongruent activities of ecotourism, associated environmental conservation and natural resource or fossil fuel extraction happening in the same spaces, often supported by the same institutions. Rather than being incongruent, however, these s

  15. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Flower Extract on Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Rats-a Dose Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirunalini SANKARAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ was administered as a single dose (40 mg/kg to induce diabetes. The hypoglycemic activity of Hibiscus rosasinensis extract (HRSEt was investigated in a dose dependent manner such as (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bwt by evaluating various biochemical parameters. The levels of blood glucose, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, TBARS, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and lipid profiles were found to be significantly increased in diabetic rats when compared to control groups. Administration of extract in the treated groups showed altered changes in the above mentioned parameters and found that among the three doseses, 250 mg/kg showed best result when compared to other two doses. HRSEt possess antioxidant, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. However the detailed mechanism(s of action will require elucidating in further studies.

  16. Study of the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract microemulsion of Teucrium polium .L against bromobenzene -induced hepatotoxicity in mice

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    alihasan Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Liver is a major organ of the body, which can be exposed to various chemicals, drugs and many other xenobiotics such as bromobenzene. The aim of this study was to find out the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract microemulsion of Teucrium polium against hepatotoxicity induced by bromobenzene. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into eight groups, with ten animals in each group. Group 1-3 received respectively normal saline base of microemulsion and extract microemulsions in dose of 400 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Group 4 received bromobenzene (0.36 ml/kg, ip only on the 10th day groups 5-8 received extract microemulsions orally in doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, during 10 days and bromobenzene (0.36 ml/kg, ip on the 10th day 1 hour after last dose of extract. 24 hours later, the animals were bled and enzymes ALT, AST and ALP were measured. Animal liver was removed for histological studies. Results: The results showed a significant increase in liver enzyme activity by bromobenzene. The treated groups with Teucrium polium showed a significant decrease in liver enzyme activity in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (P<0.05. Histological observations also confirmed the results. Conclusion: The results revealed that hydroalcoholic extract microemulsion of Teucrium polium has protective effect on liver toxicity induced by bromobenzene

  17. Protective effects of Saffron hydroalcoholic extract against renal tissue damages induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats

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    Houshang Najafi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of saffron hydroalcoholic extract against tissue damages induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups; 1. sham group which underwent surgery with no vessel occlusion and passed equivalent reperfusion period, 2. Ischemia/reperfusion group which received solvent of extract and went through surgery, bilateral renal ischemia for 30 min and 24-h reperfusion period (I/R. The other three groups underwent ischemia/reperfusion receiving saffron extracts of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg/ip, respectively. At the end of reperfusion period, the left kidney tissue was collected and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histological studies. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Following ischemia/reperfusion, the size of Bowman's space increased significantly (P<0.001. In addition, cell necrosis in the tubules of the cortex and outer medulla, vascular congestion and tubular casts in the outer and inner medulla increased. However, the number of RBCs in glomerular capillaries decreased. Administration of saffron extract could significantly improve all the injuries by all three doses. Nevertheless, the effect of 20 mg dose was smaller. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal administration of saffron hydroalcoholic extract has protective effects against tissue damages induced by 30 min ischemia and 24-h reperfusion in the rat’s kidney.

  18. Protective effects of Rosa canina L fruit extracts on renal disturbances induced by reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Najafi, Houshang; Jalalvandi, Sepeideh; Hosseinei, Fatemeh

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Rosa canina L fruit extracts on histological damages, oxidative stress, and functional disturbances induced by bilateral renal ischemia and reperfusion. Ischemia and reperfusion were induced on the kidneys of anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats in the reperfusion and Rosa canina groups were administered extract solvent and Rosa canina extract, respectively. In addition, in the sham group, surgery was done without ischemia. In the last 6 hours of the reperfusion period, urine sample were collected using metabolic cage and at the end of this period, blood samples were taken from the descending aorta. The kidney tissues were collected and subjected to microscopic study for histological damages, while oxidative stress was measured by determining malondialdehyde and ferric reducing/antioxidant power levels. The comparison between the reperfusion and sham groups indicated reductions in creatinine clearance, absolute excretion of potassium, urine osmilarity, and increase in absolute excretion of sodium in the reperfusion group. These changes were less pronounced with Rosa canina fruit extract. In addition, blood creatinine and urea concentrations which increased in the reperfusion group, were significantly lower in the Rosa canina group. In this group, the degree of histological damages and the level of malondialdehyde were lower than the reperfusion group, while ferric reducing/antioxidant power level was significantly higher. The findings of this study showed that Rosa canina fruit extract possesses protective effects against kidney function disturbances, oxidative stress, and histological damages.

  19. Neuroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on aluminium-induced temporal cortical degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekong, Moses B; Ekpo, Mfon M; Akpanyung, Edet O; Nwaokonko, Dennis U

    2017-04-11

    Aluminium (Al), one of the metals implicated in neurodegeneration easily gain access to the nervous system through its presence in many manufactured foods, medicines and drinking water, and causes neurotoxicity utilizing the reactive oxygen specie pathway. The need to curtail these effects on the nervous system motivated the use of the plant Moringa oleifera (MO). This study thus, investigated the neuroprotective effects of MO leaf extract on aluminium-induced temporal cortical degeneration in rats. 24 male albino Wistar rats were grouped (n = 6) into control (1 ml/kg distilled water), l00 mg/kg aluminium chloride (AlCl3), 300 mg/kg MO, and 100 mg/kg AlCl3 and 300 mg/kg MO groups. The administration lasted for 28 days and the rats were sacrificed on day 29 by perfusion-fixation after blood was obtained for serum Al estimation. The brain tissues were then routinely processed for some histological and immunnolabelling studies. There was no significant difference in serum Al in the test groups. Histological results showed atrophied and karyorrhetic cells with loss of Nissl substance in the temporal cortex of the AlCl3 group, while no adverse effect was observed in the cytoarchitecture of the temporal cortex and Nissl substance of the MO group. However, groups which were administered AlCl3 simultaneously with MO extract showed less degenerative features in the cyto-architecture of the temporal cortex with normal Nissl substance staining. There was increased neuron specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressions in the AlCl3 group, while the MO group also showed increased NSE but decreased GFAP expression. However, the group which were administered AlCl3 simultaneously with MO extract showed less expression of NSE and GFAP. In conclusion, MO protects against Al-induced neurotoxicity of the temporal cortex of rats.

  20. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on oxidative damage in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats.

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    Reza Karami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An important role for oxidative stress, as a consequence of epileptic seizures, has been suggested. Coriandrum sativum has been shown that have antioxidant effects. Central nervous system depressant effects of C. sativum have also been reported. In this study, the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plants on brain tissues oxidative damages following seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ was investigated in rats.The rats were divided into five groups and treated: (1 Control (saline, (2 PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p., (3-5 three doses (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum extract (CSE before PTZ. Latencies to the first minimal clonic seizures (MCS and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS were recorded. The cortical and hippocampal tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements.The extract significantly increased the MCS and GTCS latencies (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 following PTZ-induced seizures. The malondialdehyde (MDA levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of the control animals (P < 0.001. Pretreatment with the extract prevented elevation of the MDA levels (P < 0.010-P < 0.001. Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in both cortical and hippocampal tissues (P < 0.050. Pre-treatment with the 500 mg/kg of the extract caused a significant prevention of decreased in total thiol concentration in the cortical tissues (P < 0.010.The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of C. sativum possess significant antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities.

  1. Effects of Balsamodendron mukul Gum Resin Extract on Articular Cartilage in Papain-induced Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjhi, Jayanand; Gupta, Maneesh; Sinha, Anvesha; Rawat, Beena; Rai, Durg V

    2016-07-01

    Context • Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of the musculoskeleton, causing functional disability among older adults. Management of OA includes conventional pharmacological treatments consisting primarily of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, physiotherapy, and surgical procedures. The medications are not ideal therapeutic agents; NSAIDs in particular can cause serious side effects. Objective • The study was conducted to investigate the effects of Balsamodendron mukul (BDM) gum resin extract on cartilage damage and microstructural changes in the subchondral bone of rats with papain-induced, osteoarthritic knee joints. Design • The authors designed a parallel randomized, controlled study to examine the effects of 3 concentrations of BDM on OA in a murine model. Setting • The present study was undertaken at the research laboratory, Faculty of Biological Engineering, Shobhit University (Modipuram, Meerut, India). Intervention • OA was induced by intra-articular injections of 0.2 mL of 4% papain solution and 0.1 mL of 0.03 M cysteine through the patellar ligament using a 26-gauge, 1.27-cm needle. The rats in the sham group received same volume of isotonic sodium chloride solution. The rats were divided into 6 groups : (1) control group-fresh rats, with ages and genders similar to those of the other groups but with no induction of OA and no treatments; (2) sham group-rats receiving a sham induction of OA using an intra-articular injection of saline of the same volume as the papain given to all OA rats but no treatments; (3) OA group-rats induced with OA but receiving no treatments; (4) OA + BDM (10%) group-rats induced with OA that received a 10% dose of BDM; (5) OA + BDM (20%) group-rats induced with OA that received a 20% dose of BDM; and (6) OA + BDM (40%) group-rats induced with OA that received a 40% dose of BDM. Rats in the treatment groups were fed their respective doses of BDM extract for 30 d

  2. Antioxidant effect of Ajuga iva aqueous extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb-Senouci, D; Ghomari, H; Krouf, D; Bouderbala, S; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible antioxidant effect of an aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (Ai) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Twelve diabetic rats were divided into two groups fed a casein diet supplemented or not with Ai (0.5%), for 4 weeks. In vitro, the Ai extract possessed a very high antioxidant effect (1 mg/ml was similar to those of trolox 300 mmol/l). The results indicated that plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were reduced by 41% in Ai-treated compared with untreated diabetic rats. TBARS concentrations were lower 1.5-fold in liver, 1.8-fold in heart, 1.9-fold in muscle and 2.1-fold in brain in Ai-treated than untreated group. In erythrocytes, Ai treatment increased significantly the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (+25%) and glutathione reductase (GSSH-Red) (+22%). Superoxide dismutase activity was increased in muscle (+22%), while GSH-Px activity was significantly higher in liver (+28%), heart (+40%) and kidney (+45%) in Ai-treated compared with untreated group. Liver and muscle GSSH-Red activity was, respectively, 1.6- and 1.5-fold higher in Ai-treated than untreated diabetic group. Catalase activity was significantly increased in heart (+36%) and brain (+32%) in Ai-treated than untreated group. Ai treatment decreased plasma nitric oxide (-33%), carbonyls (-44%) and carotenoids (-68%) concentrations. In conclusion, this study indicates that Ajuga iva aqueous extract improves the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes activities in plasma, erythrocytes and tissues of diabetic rats.

  3. Extract of Salvadora persica roots attenuates lead acetate-induced testicular oxidative stress in rats

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    Gamal A. Soliman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lead exerts pathological changes on male mammals. Deleterious effects on testicular tissues may be mediated by oxidative damage and subsequent lipid peroxidation. Medicinal plants can protect against such oxidative stress. Aims: To determine the protective activity of Salvadora persica, against lead acetate (LA testicular oxidative stress in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were allocated into six groups: control group received the vehicle, S. persica group received extract (500 mg/kg, LA group was exposed to 0.1% LA in drinking water and three other groups were co-treated with LA plus S. persica (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Treatments were applied for 60 days. Five days prior to the end of the experiment, male rats in all groups were mated with untreated females. Results: S. persica (500 mg/kg increased testosterone level and relative weights of testes, cauda epididymis and seminal vesicles in normal rats but did not affect testicular antioxidant parameters and sperm characteristics. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase activities and the level of reduced glutathione were significantly reduced and malondialdehyde was elevated in the testicular homogenate of LA-exposed rats. LA exposure significantly reduced serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, as well as, sperm characteristics and relative weight of the testes, cauda epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate. Administration of S. persica extract (250 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced oxidative stress and protected against LA-exposure effects. Conclusions: S. persica extract exhibited marked protective activity against LA-induced testicular oxidative stress in rats.

  4. Perilla frutescens extract ameliorates DSS-induced colitis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushima, Hayato; Nishimura, Junichi; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Ito, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects have been reported in Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PE), which is a plant of the genus belonging to the Lamiaceae family. We examined the effect of PE on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Preliminarily, PE was safely administered for 7 wk without any adverse effects. In the preventive protocol, mice were fed 1.5% DSS solution dissolved in distilled water (control group) or 0.54% PE solution (PE group) ad libitum for 7 days. In the therapeutic protocol, distilled water or 0.54% PE solution was given for 10 days just after administration of 1.5% DSS for 5 days. PE intake significantly improved body weight loss. The serum cytokine profile demonstrated that TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-10 were significantly lower in the PE group than in the control group. In the therapeutic protocol, mice in the PE group showed significantly higher body weight and lower histological colitis scores compared with mice in the control group on day 15. The serum cytokine profile demonstrated that TGF-β was significantly higher in the PE group than in the control group. In distal colon mRNA expression, TNF-α, and IL-17A were significantly downregulated. In vitro analyses of biologically active ingredients, such as luteolin, apigenin, and rosmarinic acid, in PE were performed. Luteolin suppressed production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17A. Apigenin also suppressed secretion of IL-17A and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Rosmarinic acid increased the regulatory T cell population. We conclude that PE might be useful in treatment and prevention of DSS-induced colitis.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia ethanol extract on 6-hydroxy dopamine induced Parkinsonism

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    Jayasankar Kosaraju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigates the neuroprotective activity of ethanol extract of Tinospora cordifolia aerial parts against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA lesion rat model of Parkinson′s disease (PD. Materials and Methods: T. cordifolia ethanol extract (TCEE was standardized with high performance thin layer chromatography using berberine. Experimental PD was induced by intracerebral injection of 6-OHDA (8 μg. Animals were divided into five groups: sham operated, negative control, positive control (levodopa 6 mg/kg and two experimental groups (n = 6/group. Experimental groups received 200 and 400 mg/kg of TCEE once daily for 30 days by oral gavage. Biochemical parameters including dopamine level, oxidative stress, complex I activity and brain iron asymmetry ratio and locomotor activity including skeletal muscle co-ordination and degree of catatonia were assessed. Results: TCEE exhibited significant neuroprotection by increasing the dopamine levels (1.96 ± 0.20 and 2.45 ± 0.40 ng/mg of protein and complex I activity (77.14 ± 0.89 and 78.50 ± 0.96 nmol/min/mg of protein at 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively when compared with negative control group. Iron asymmetry ratio was also significantly attenuated by TCEE at 200 (1.57 ± 0.18 and 400 mg/kg (1.11 ± 0.15 when compared with negative control group. Neuroprotection by TCEE was further supported by reduced oxidative stress and restored locomotor activity in treatment groups. Conclusion: Results show that TCEE possess significant neuroprotection in 6-OHDA induced PD by protecting dopaminergic neurons and reducing the iron accumulation.

  6. Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2009-02-12

    An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruit peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. Pre-standardized doses (200mg/kg of MI and 100mg/kg both of CV and CM), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic LPO, were administered to Wistar albino male rats for 10 consecutive days and the changes in tissue (heart, liver and kidney) LPO and in the concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)), insulin, glucose, alpha-amylase and different lipids were examined. Administration of three test peel extracts significantly increased both the thyroid hormones (T(3) and T(4)) with a concomitant decrease in tissue LPO, suggesting their thyroid stimulatory and antiperoxidative role. This thyroid stimulatory nature was also exhibited in propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroid animals. However, only minor influence was observed in serum lipid profile in which CM reduced the concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), while CV decreased triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C). When the combined effects of either two (MI+CV) or three (MI+CV+CM) peel extracts were evaluated in euthyroid animals, serum T(3) concentration was increased in response to MI+CV and MI+CV+CM treatments, while T(4) level was elevated by the combinations of first two peels only. Interestingly, both the categories of combinations increased T(4) levels, but not T(3) in PTU treated hypothyroid animals. Moreover, a parallel increase in hepatic and renal LPO was observed in these animals, suggesting their unsafe nature in combination. In conclusion the three test peel extracts appear to be stimulatory to thyroid functions and inhibitory to tissue LPO but only when treated individually.

  7. Evaluation of effect of highly standardized aqueous extract of roots and leaves of Withania somnifera on cold pressor test induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects

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    Raveendranath Pilli

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Withania somnifera extract showed a significant decrease in cold pressor stress test induced changes on aortic wave reflections, suggesting its beneficial effects in reducing stress induced cardiovascular changes. However, further clinical studies are warranted to evaluate these effects in patients with cardiovascular and other associated diseases. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 873-878

  8. Apoptosis of Hela cell induced by Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb extract and primary mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Wang; Yanqing Liu; Xiaojun Dai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The apoptosis of Hela cells induced by ethyl acetate extract and n-butanol extract of Celastrus or-biculatus Thunb was studied in order to assess its antitumor effect. Methods: Hela cells were cultured in vitro and treated by a series of concentrations of ethyl acetate extract and n-butanol extract of Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. Cell proliferation was detected based on MTT assay. Quantity of apoptosis were observed and analyzed by flow cytometry with Annexin V and propidium iodide double staining. P53 gene expression was detected by flow cytometry. Results: The proliferation of Hela cells was obviously inhibited by 15, 30, 60 and 120 μg/mL extract of Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb and apoptosis of Hela was induced by dosed dependent manner. P53 gene showed increasing tendency when treated by 60-480 μg/mL extract of Celas-trus orbiculatus Thunb. Conclusion: The ethyl acetate extract and n-butanol extract of Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb could induce apoptosis of Hela gastric cancer cells by dose dependent manner, which maybe one of the important mechanisms of Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb's anticancer effects. P53 protein expression in Hela was up-regulated by Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb, which maybe one of the molecular mechanisms involved in the anticancer and proapoptotic effect of Celastrus or-biculatus Thunb.

  9. Inhibitory effect of oatmeal extract oligomer on vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced inflammation in surviving human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisnic, S; Branchet-Gumila, M C; Coutanceau, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of oatmeal extract oligomer on skin fragments stimulated by a neuromediator, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Skin fragments (from plastic surgery) were maintained in survival conditions for 6 h. To induce inflammation, VIP was placed in contact with dermis by culture medium. Histological analysis was then performed on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Edema was evaluated with semiquantitative scores. Vasodilation was studied by quantifying the percentage of dilated vessels according to scores and by measuring their surface by morphometrical image analysis. TNF-alpha dosage was made on culture supernatants. Vasodilation was significantly increased after application of VIP. After treatment with oatmeal extract oligomer, the mean surface of dilated vessels and edema were significantly decreased compared with VIP-treated skin. Moreover, treatment with this extract decreased TNF-alpha.

  10. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cestrum nocturnum Leaves in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Anil; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Vipin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cestrum nocturnum leaves in Wistar rats. Method. Cestrum nocturnum leaves extract in hydroalcoholic solution were prepared by Soxhletation method and stored in refrigerator at 4°C for two days before use. Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single dose of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg i.p.). Hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Cestrum nocturnum was screened for antidiabetic activity and given to the STZ-induced diabetic rats at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Metformin is also given to another group to support the result at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight orally once a day for 15 days. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on 0, 5, 7, and 15th days. Results. Oral administration of the extracts for 15 days caused a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The body weight of diabetic animals was also improved after daily administration of extracts. The extract also improved other altered biochemical parameters associated with diabetes. Also the changes in food intake, water intake, and weight of internal organs were also restored to normal by the prolonged effect of extract treatment.

  11. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cestrum nocturnum Leaves in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Anil Kamboj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cestrum nocturnum leaves in Wistar rats. Method. Cestrum nocturnum leaves extract in hydroalcoholic solution were prepared by Soxhletation method and stored in refrigerator at 4°C for two days before use. Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single dose of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg i.p.. Hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Cestrum nocturnum was screened for antidiabetic activity and given to the STZ-induced diabetic rats at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Metformin is also given to another group to support the result at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight orally once a day for 15 days. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on 0, 5, 7, and 15th days. Results. Oral administration of the extracts for 15 days caused a significant ( reduction in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The body weight of diabetic animals was also improved after daily administration of extracts. The extract also improved other altered biochemical parameters associated with diabetes. Also the changes in food intake, water intake, and weight of internal organs were also restored to normal by the prolonged effect of extract treatment.

  12. Ethanolic extract of dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) induces estrogenic activity in MCF-7 cells and immature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Min; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Yong Hwa; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2015-11-01

    Plants of the genus Taraxacum, commonly known as dandelions, are used to treat breast cancer in traditional folk medicine. However, their use has mainly been based on empirical findings without sufficient scientific evidence. Therefore, we hypothesized that dandelions would behave as a Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and be effective as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the postmenopausal women. In the present study, in vitro assay systems, including cell proliferation assay, reporter gene assay, and RT-PCR to evaluate the mRNA expression of estrogen-related genes (pS2 and progesterone receptor, PR), were performed in human breast cancer cells. Dandelion ethanol extract (DEE) significantly increased cell proliferation and estrogen response element (ERE)-driven luciferase activity. DEE significantly induced the expression of estrogen related genes such as pS2 and PR, which was inhibited by tamoxifen at 1 μmol·L(-1). These results indicated that DEE could induce estrogenic activities mediated by a classical estrogen receptor pathway. In addition, immature rat uterotrophic assay was carried out to identify estrogenic activity of DEE in vivo. The lowest concentration of DEE slightly increased the uterine wet weight, but there was no significant effect with the highest concentration of DEE. The results demonstrate the potential estrogenic activities of DEE, providing scientific evidence supporting their use in traditional medicine.

  13. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effect of Methanol Extract of Artanema sesamoides in Streptatozocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    V T Selvan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The methanol extract of Artanema sesamoides Benth (Scrophuilariaceae (MEAS was found to have potent antidiabetic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptatozocin-(STZ induced diabetic rats. In this study, the acute and subacute (15 days anti hyperglycemic effect of the two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.p.o of MEAS were investigated. Glybenclamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 0.5mg/kg b.w. Fasting blood glucose level, serum insulin level, lipid profiles, and biomarkers enzymes were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. While the liver glycogen level and kidney and liver anti oxidant system also were additionally evaluated. Supplementation of this extract by gavage significantly reduces the fasting blood glucose level. Moreover this supplementation significantly increases the glycogen level in liver (25.84 ± 1.52 as compare to diabetic control (12.31 ± 0.63 (P<0.001. Elevated serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, and alkaline phosphatase (SALP were diminished significantly by the treatment of MEAS in respect to diabetic group. The antioxidant activity was studied in liver and kidney tissues by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH and catalase levels. In the MEAS treated groups, the HDL/LDL ratio was improved and cholesterol and triglycerides levels also decreased significantly.  Histopathological studies of pancreas, liver, and kidney in diabetic and extract treated groups substantiate the cytoprotective action of extract. All the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level.   Industrial relevance: Herbal formulations are getting more importance in the treatment of diabetes, cancer and hepatic disorder because of the hazardous adverse effects of the current therapy. Especially diabetes can be controlled by Allopathic medicine as well as Herbal medicine. In case of Allopathic medicine, complete cure and tolerance are

  14. Chemopreventive effects of Calluna vulgaris and Vitis vinifera extracts on UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, A; Clichici, S; Daicoviciu, D; Catoi, C; Bolfa, P; Postescu, I D; Gal, A; Baldea, I; Gherman, C; Muresan, A

    2011-06-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a major cause of non-melanoma skin cancer in humans. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy in the management of cutaneous neoplasia. The study investigated the protective activity of Calluna vulgaris (Cv) and red grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L, Burgund Mare variety) (BM) extracts in vivo on UVB-induced deleterious effects in SKH-1 mice skin. Forty SKH-1 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10): control, UVB irradiated, Cv + UVB irradiated, BM+UVB irradiated. Both extracts were applied topically on the skin in a dose of 4 mg/40 μl/cm(2) before UVB exposure - single dose. The effects were evaluated in skin 24 hours after irradiation through the presence of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and sunburn cells, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 levels. The antioxidant activity of BM extract was higher than those of Cv extract as determined using stable free radical DPPH assay and ABTS test. One single dose of UVB generated formation of CPDs (p<0.0001) and sunburn cells (p<0.0002) and increased the cytokine levels in skin (p<0.0001). Twenty hours following irradiation BM extract inhibited UVB-induced sunburn cells (p<0.02) and CPDs formation (p<0.0001). Pretreatment with Cv and BM extracts resulted in significantly reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α compared with UVB alone (p<0.0001). Our results suggest that BM extracts might be a potential candidate in preventing the damages induced by UV in skin.

  15. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

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    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  16. Cinnamon Extract Improves TNF-a Induced Overproduction of Intestinal ApolipoproteinB-48 Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    TNF-alpha stimulates the overproduction of intestinal apolipoproteins. We evaluated whether a water extract of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF®) improved the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339 treated hamsters, and whether Cinnulin PF® inhibits the TNF-alpha-induced over the secretion of apoB...

  17. Crataegus Monogyna Aqueous Extract Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Toxicity in Rat Testis: Stereological Evidences

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    Hassan Malekinejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is extensively used as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of various cancers, as well as an immunosuppressive agent. However, despite its wide spectrum of clinical uses, CP is known to cause several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. Crataegus monogyna is one of the oldest pharmaceutical plants that have been shown to be cytoprotective by scavenging free radicals. The present study was conducted to assess whether Crataegus monogyna fruits aqueous extract with anti-oxidant properties, could serve as a protective agent against reproductive toxicity during CP treatment in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were categorized into four groups. Two groups of rats were administered CP at a dose of 5 mg in 5 ml saline/kg/day for 28 days by oral gavages. One of these groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after cyclophosphamide administration. A vehicle treated control group and a Crataegus monogyna control group were also included. The CP-treated group showed significant decreases in the body, testes and epididymides weights as well as many histological alterations. Stereological parameters and spermatogenic activities (Sertoli cell, repopulation and miotic indices were also significantly decreased by CP treatment. Notably, Crataegus coadministration caused a partial recovery in above-mentined parameters. These findings indicate that Crataegus monogyna may be partially protective against CP-induced testicular toxicity.

  18. Cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction and its amelioration by Launaea taraxacifolia leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuwon, S A; Femi-Akinlosotu, O M; Omirinde, J O

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the ameliorative potential of Launea taraxacifolia (LT) aqueous leaf extract on cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction in Wistar rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups (A-F) of 5 rats each: Group A which served as control received water; Group B was intraperitoneally (ip) injected 10 mg kg(-1) body wt cisplatin on day 21; Groups C and D were given 100 and 400 mg of LT via oral administration, respectively, for 21 days while Groups E and F received similar treatment as Groups C and D, respectively, and then exposed to ip administration of 10 mg kg(-1) body weight cisplatin on the 21st day. Exclusively, Cisplatin-exposed Group B rats showed reduced sperm characteristics and increased sperm morphological abnormalities; distorted histological architecture of seminiferous tubules; significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH)levels in the testes. These parameters in LT alone treated Groups C and D were not markedly different compared with the control group. The rats with the combined treatment in Groups E and F showed significantly improved sperm parameters, testicular histo-architecture and antioxidant enzymatic activities. Conclusively, aqueous extract of L. taraxacifolia has protective potential against cisplatin damage.

  19. Pyrolysates of raw vitrinites and their residues after CS2-NMP solvent extraction and its significance for petroleum geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dayong; PENG Ping'an

    2006-01-01

    Binary solvent (CS2-NMP) has extreme high extraction ability to coals, and it can extract most bitumens out of coals and vitrinites. And large amount of messages on side chains and their distribution character in vitrinites should be acquired through flash pyrolysis before and after binary solvent (CS2-NMP) extraction. A few low maturated coals have been selected and vitrinites are handpicked from coals. Then vitrinites have been extracted using different solvents in the order of polarity. Flash pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrum has been applied to samples. The result shows that CS2-NMP is efficient for the extraction of vitirnites, giving much higher extraction yield than common solvents. Production ratio of liquid hydrocarbons in pyrolysates of vitrinites extracted with CS2-NMP is lower than that of raw vitrinites. And relative ratio of each component in pyrolysates has changed apparently. Production ratio of aliphatic hydrocarbons, especially those long chain aliphatics have decreased much after mixed solvent extraction. It shows that bitumens extracted with CS2-NMP have largely contributed to pyrolysates, especially those aliphatics in pyrolysates.

  20. Inhibitory effect of extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves on VEGF-induced hyperpermeability of bovine coronary endothelial cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan QIU; Yao-cheng RUI; Tie-jun LI; Li ZHANG; Peng-yuan YANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study whether extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) can protect against atherosclerosis. METHODS: Confluent monolayers of bovine coronary endothelial cells (BCECs), bovine coronary smooth muscle cells (BCSMCs), and cocultures of the two were incubated with medium containing VEGF and/or EGb, and flux of 125Ⅰ-labeled oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) across the monolayers was measured. RESULTS: Incubation with VEGF significantly increased the permeability of BCEC monolayers to 125Ⅰ-ox-LDL in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on permeability of BCSMCs or endothelial cells-smooth muscle cells cocultures. EGb significantly inhibited the VEGF-induced hyperpermeability of BCECs. CONCLUSION: VEGF was important in the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The inhibition of VEGF-induced permeability by EGb suggests that extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves may have important clinical applications in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Rhubarb extract partially improves mucosal integrity in chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajic, Juliana E; Eden, Georgina L; Lampton, Lorrinne S; Cheah, Ker Y; Lymn, Kerry A; Pei, Jinxin V; Yool, Andrea J; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of orally gavaged aqueous rhubarb extract (RE) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis in rats. METHODS Female Dark Agouti rats (n = 8/group) were gavaged daily (1 mL) with water, high-dose RE (HDR; 200 mg/kg) or low-dose RE (LDR; 20mg/kg) for eight days. Intestinal mucositis was induced (day 5) with 5-FU (150 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection. Intestinal tissue samples were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histological examination. Xenopus oocytes expressing aquaporin 4 water channels were prepared to examine the effect of aqueous RE on cell volume, indicating a potential mechanism responsible for modulating net fluid absorption and secretion in the gastrointestinal tract. Statistical significance was assumed at P < 0.05 by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS Bodyweight was significantly reduced in rats administered 5-FU compared to healthy controls (P < 0.01). Rats administered 5-FU significantly increased intestinal MPO levels (≥ 307%; P < 0.001), compared to healthy controls. However, LDR attenuated this effect in 5-FU treated rats, significantly decreasing ileal MPO activity (by 45%; P < 0.05), as compared to 5-FU controls. 5-FU significantly reduced intestinal mucosal thickness (by ≥ 29% P < 0.001) as compared to healthy controls. LDR significantly increased ileal mucosal thickness in 5-FU treated rats (19%; P < 0.05) relative to 5-FU controls. In xenopus oocytes expressing AQP4 water channels, RE selectively blocked water influx into the cell, induced by a decrease in external osmotic pressure. As water efflux was unaltered by the presence of extracellular RE, the directional flow of water across the epithelial barrier, in the presence of extracellular RE, indicated that RE may alleviate water loss across the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal health in chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis. CONCLUSION In summary, low dose RE improves selected parameters of mucosal integrity and reduces ileal

  2. Desmodium gangeticum root extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth in rats.

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    Divya Hitler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Desmodium gangeticum (L DC (Fabaceae; DG, a medicinal plant that grows in tropical habitats, is widely used to treat various ailments including digestive and inflammatory disorders. Aims: To investigate the possible cardioprotective activity of a DG root extract against isoproterenol (ISO-induced left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH in adult Wistar rats. Methods: Daily intraperitoneal administration of ISO (10 mg/kg body weight, single injection for 7 days induced LVH in rats. The LVH rats were post-treated orally with DG (100 mg/kg body weight for a period of 30 days. Thereafter, changes in heart weight (HW and body weight (BW, HW/BW ratio, percent of hypertrophy, collagen accumulation, activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -2 and -9, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzymes, and the level of an oxidative stress marker, lipid peroxide (LPO, were determined. Results: HW/BW ratio, an indicator of hypertrophic growth, was significantly reduced in DG root post-treated LVH rats as compared with that for the non-treated LVH rats. The altered levels of ventricular LPO, collagen, MMPs-2 and -9, and antioxidant enzymes in the ISO-treated animals reverted back to near normal upon DG treatment. Further, the anti-hypertrophic activity of DG was comparable to that of the standard drug losartan (10 mg/kg. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the aqueous root extract of DG exhibited anti-hypertrophic activity in-vivo by inhibiting ISO-induced ROS generation and MMP activities.

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum TN627 significantly reduces complications of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejar, Wacim; Hamden, Khaled; Ben Salah, Riadh; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN627 for preventing alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The oral administration of this probiotic was noted to significantly improve the immunological parameters, protect the pancreatic tissues, and reduce the pancreatic and plasmatic α-amylase activities and level of plasma glucose in the treated as compared to the control group of rats. Furthermore, this probiotic treatment was observed to markedly reduce pancreatic and plasmatic lipase activities and serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol rates and to increase the level of HDL-Cholesterol. It also exerted efficient protective effects on the liver and kidney functions evidenced by significant decreases in serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities, as well as creatinine and urea contents. Taken together, the findings indicate that L. plantarum TN627 exhibits attractive in vivo antidiabetic effects that may be helpful in preventing diabetic complications in adult rats.

  4. Effect of Butea monosperma Lam. leaves and bark extracts on blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats

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    Faiyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that has significant impact on the health, quality of life and life expectancy, as well as on the health care system. Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntze (Fabaceae, commonly known as palash, is widely used in the treatment of various diseases and disorders including diabetes. Materials and Methods: The present study was planned to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extracts of B. monosperma leaves and bark in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups, with each consisting of six rats, viz. control, diabetic control, leaf extract-treated and bark extract-treated groups. Treatment was continued for 6 weeks. The biochemical estimations included blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Histopathology of pancreas was also performed. Results: The results indicated that both leaf and bark extracts of B. monosperma produced insignificant antihyperglycemic activity. The leaf and bark extracts reduced blood glucose to an extent of 28% and 11%, respectively. It was also evidenced that both leaf and bark extracts did not increase insulin synthesis or secretion and did not improve pancreatic architecture as reflected by the histopathologic studies. Conclusions: The findings of the study emphasize that B. monosperma does not possess significant antidiabetic activity in severe experimental diabetes at the dosage tested.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of the Salvia sclarea L. ethanolic extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced periodontitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Milica; Kitić, Dušanka; Petrović, Milica B; Jevtović-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Jović, Marko; Petrović, Aleksandar; Živanović, Slavoljub

    2017-03-06

    Salvia sclarea L., clary, is an aromatic plant traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases and conditions. Although it has been primarily used as a stomachic, there are data on traditional use of S. sclarea as an agent against gingivitis, stomatitis and aphthae. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the S. sclarea ethanolic extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontitis in rats from the immunological and histopathological standpoint. Periodontal inflammation in rats was induced by repeated injections of LPS from Escherichia coli into the interdental papilla between the first and second right maxillary molars. The extract was administered two times a day by oral gavage (200mg/kg body weight). The inflammatory status was assessed by the measurements of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of gingival tissues and descriptive analysis of histological sections of periodontium. Chemical characterization of the extract was determined using high performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC). Antioxidant activity of the extract was estimated with two in vitro complementary methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene/linoleic acid models. Treatment with S. sclarea extract, compared to the untreated group of the rats, significantly diminished the process of inflammation decreasing the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, reducing the gingival tissue lesions and preserving bone alveolar resorption. Considerably smaller number of inflammatory cells and larger number of fibroblasts was noticed. The administration of the extract three days earlier did not have significant preventive effects. Rosmarinic acid was the predominant compound in the extract. The extract showed strong antioxidant effects in both test systems. S. sclarea extract manifested anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-induced periodontitis suggesting that it may have a role as a

  6. Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, induces human hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway

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    Dongxu Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, performs immunomodulatory activity on cancer patients suffering from radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The present study aims to investigate the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects of CSEI in cells and tumor-xenografted mouse models. In HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, CSEI reduced cell viability, enhanced apoptosis rate, caused reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, inhibited migration ability, and induced caspases cascade and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. CSEI significantly inhibited HepG2-xenografted tumor growth in nude mice. In cell and animal experiments, CSEI increased the activations of pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase 8, caspase 9 and caspase 3; meanwhile, it suppressed the expressions of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and anti-oxidation proteins, such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 and catalase (CAT. The enhanced phosphorylation of P38 and c-JunN-terminalkinase (JNK, and decreased phosphorylation of extra cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERKs were observed in CSEI-treated cells and tumor tissues. CSEI-induced cell viability reduction was significantly attenuated by N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (a ROS inhibitor pretreatment. All data demonstrated that the upregulated oxidative stress status and the altered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs phosphorylation contributed to CSEI-driven mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, CSEI exactly induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  7. An extract of Polygonum multiflorum protects against free radical damage induced by ultraviolet B irradiation of the skin

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    I.K. Hwang

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the incidence of ultraviolet B (UVB-related skin problems has been increasing. Damages induced by UVB radiation are related to mutations that occur as a result of direct DNA damage and/or the production of reactive oxygen species. We investigated the anti-oxidant effects of a Polygonum multiflorum thumb extract against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation. Female SKH-1 hairless mice were divided into three groups: control (N = 7, distilled water- (N = 10, and P. multiflorum extract-treated (PM, N = 10 groups. The PM (10 g was extracted with 100 mL distilled water, cryo-dried and 9.8 g was obtained. The animals received a topical application of 500 µL distilled water or PM extract (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16%, w/v, dissolved in distilled water for 30 min after UVB irradiation (wavelength 280-320 nm, 300 mJ/cm²; 3 min of the dorsal kin for 14 days, and skin immunohistochemistry and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 activity were determined. SOD1 immunoreactivity, its protein levels and activities in the skin were significantly reduced by 70% in the distilled water-treated group after UVB irradiation compared to control. However, in the PM extract-treated groups, SOD1 immunoreactivity and its protein and activity levels increased in a dose-dependent manner (1-16%, w/v, PM extract compared to the distilled water-treated group. SOD1 protein levels and activities in the groups treated with 8 and 16%, w/v, PM extract recovered to 80-90% of the control group levels after UVB. These results suggest that PM extract strongly inhibits the destruction of SOD1 by UV radiation and probably contains anti-skin photoaging agents.

  8. Methanol leaf extract of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis (Lauraceae) enhances gastric defense against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hanita; Nordin, Noraziah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah

    2017-01-01

    Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), also known as "Medang payung" by the Malay people, belongs to the Lauraceae family. In this study, methanol leaf extract of A. sesquipedalis was investigated for their acute toxicity and gastroprotective effects to reduce ulcers in rat stomachs induced by ethanol. The rats were assigned to one of five groups: normal group (group 1), ulcer group (group 2), control positive drug group (group 3) and two experimental groups treated with 150 mg/kg (group 4) and 300 mg/kg (group 5) of leaf extract. The rats were sacrificed an hour after pretreatment with extracts, and their stomach homogenates and tissues were collected for further evaluation. Macroscopic and histological analyses showed that gastric ulcers in rats pretreated with the extract were significantly reduced to an extent that it allowed leukocytes penetration of the gastric walls compared with the ulcer group. In addition, an ulcer inhibition rate of >70% was detected in rats treated with both doses of A. sesquipedalis extract, showing a notable protection of gastric layer. Severe destruction of gastric mucosa was prevented with a high production of mucus and pH gastric contents in both omeprazole-treated and extract-treated groups. Meanwhile, an increase in glycoprotein uptake was observed in pretreated rats through accumulation of magenta color in Periodic Acid Schiff staining assay. Analysis of gastric homogenate from pretreated rats showed a reduction of malondialdehyde and elevation of nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and protein concentration levels in comparison with group 2. Suppression of apoptosis in gastric tissues by upregulation of Hsp70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein was also observed in rats pretreated with extract. Consistent results of a reduction of gastric ulcer and the protection of gastric wall were obtained for rats pretreated with A. sesquipedalis extract, which showed its prominent

  9. Assessing Anticonvulsant Effect of Aqueous Extract of Datura Stramonium Seed on PTZ-Induced Seizures in the Male Mice

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    S Namvar Aghdash

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders that affect social, economic and biological aspects of the human life. Many epileptic patients have uncontrolled seizures and medication-related side effects despite adequate pharmacological treatment. The use of plant extracts is proposed as a therapeutic modality in order to treat different diseases. Datura plant has long been used in the traditional medicine in regard with some nervous disorders like epilepsy. Thus, this study aimed to provide a scientific basis investigating the effect of Datura aqueous extract on PTZ-induced seizures in the male mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male mice were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups including: one control group, one sham group and three experimental groups. The experimental groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Datura Stramonium seed via gavage for 30 days, and the sham group received stilled water via gavage. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 35 mg/kg, i.p were injected into control, sham and experimental groups 30 minutes after gavage in order to induce the seizure. Then latency time of seizure onset, seizure duration and seizure phases were measured and recorded in the experimental, sham and control groups. The data analysis was carried out via one way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests.  Moreover, difference less than 0.05 (P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study findings revealed that the aqueous extract of Datura Stramonium seed produced a significant effect on PTZ-induced seizure. In addition, Datura increases latency time of seizure onset (P˂0.01, inhibits progress of seizure stages (P˂0.05 and decreases seizure duration (P˂0.001. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that extract of this plant has anticonvulsant effects on PTZ-induced seizure. As a result, it seems to be beneficial to the epilepsy treatment.

  10. Anti-atherogenic properties of Deglet Noor Date seeds (Phoenix dactylifera) Methanol extract on Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saryono, S.; Eliyan, J.; Herdiati, D.; Khikmatullah, AA; Silvana, CP; Adi, HP

    2017-02-01

    This is the first study to investigate the completely anti-atherogenic effect of Deglet Noor Date seeds methanol extract administration on diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. About 24 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. The normal control (NC) group, Hypercholesterolemic Control (HC) group was given high cholesterol diet, and Simvastatin Control (SC) group was given 0.18 mg/200g simvastatin after high cholesterol diet induction. The treatment groups of T0.25, T0.5 and T1 were given supplementation of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg of dates seed extract after high cholesterol diet induction, respectively for 21 days. Blood was collected from orbitals plexus vein for plasma lipid profile analysis. The levels of Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Atherogenic Index (AI) values were significantly decreased (p<0.05) on diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats after supplemented with date seeds extract (T0.25, T0.5 and T1) but not in Triglycerides (TG). Along with that, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (p<0.05). However, the T1 group was the best anti-atherogenic activity in compared to other groups. Results showed that plasma lipid profile was significant to get better after supplemented with date seeds extract.

  11. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS ROOT EXTRACT STUDIED IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES IN RATS

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    S. Subramanian et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. Hemidesmus indicus is employed as an indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments from earlier days. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Hemidesmus indicus in alloxan-induced experimental diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract (400 mg/kg b.w. on glucose tolerance, the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, protein, lipid peroxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid profile, muscle glycogen content were determined in control and experimental groups of rats. The altered levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, and protein in the diabetic rats were significantly reverted back to near basal values by the administration of ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root to diabetic rats for 30 days. The levels of lipid peroxides in the plasma and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats were elevated significantly and were normalized by the administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The activities of pancreatic enzymic antioxidants and the levels of plasma non-enzymic antioxidants were markedly declined in the diabetic rats. Upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract to diabetic rats, these decreased levels were elevated to near normal values. The reduced level of glycogen content in muscle tissues of diabetic rats was significantly improved upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The altered levels of lipid profile were reverted back to near normalcy upon the extract treatment. The results of the study indicate that Hemidesmus indicus root extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activity. The results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard hypoglycemic drug. The phytochemicals present in the Hemidesmus indicus root extract may

  12. Amniotic membrane extract ameliorates benzalkonium chloride-induced dry eye in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinye; Luo, Pingping; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Jingyao; He, Hui; Xu, Yuxue; Lin, Zhirong; Zhou, Yueping; Xu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zuguo

    2013-10-01

    Human amniotic membrane (AM) is avascular but contains various beneficial bioactive factors, its extract (AE) is also effective in treating many ocular surface disorders. In this study, we for the first time evaluated the therapeutic effects of AE on dry eye induced by benzalkonium chloride in a BALB/c mouse model. Topical application of AE (1.5 and 3 μg/eye/day) resulted in significantly longer tear break-up time on Day 3 and 6, lower fluorescein staining scores on Day 3, and lower inflammatory index on Day 6. AE reduced corneal epithelial K10 expression, inflammatory infiltration, and levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in BAC treated mice than that in the control mice. Moreover, decreased TUNEL positive cells in cornea and increased goblet cells in conjunctiva were also observed in AE treated corneas. Finally, AE induced more Ki-67 positive cells in corneal epithelium of dry eye mouse. Taken together, our data provide further support for BAC induced dry eye model as a valuable for dry eye study and suggest a great potential for AE as a therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye.

  13. Protective Role of Black Tea Extract against Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis-Induced Skeletal Dysfunction

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    Subhra Karmakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper aimed to examine the chemoprotective actions of aqueous black tea extract (BTE against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis- (NASH- induced skeletal changes in rats. Material. Wistar rats (body wt. 155–175 g of both sexes, aged 4–5 months, were randomly assigned to 3 groups; Group A (control, Group B (60% high-fat diet; HFD, and Group C (HFD + 2.5% BTE. Methods. Several urinary (calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and calcium-to-creatinine ratio serum (alkaline phosphatase and serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and molecular markers of bone turnover (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG, and estrogen were tested. Also, several bone parameters (bone density, bone tensile strength, bone mineral content, and bone histology and calcium homeostasis were checked. Results. Results indicated that HFD-induced alterations in urinary, serum, and bone parameters as well as calcium homeostasis, all could be significantly ameliorated by BTE supplementation. Conclusion. Results suggest a potential role of BTE as a protective agent against NASH-induced changes in bone metabolism in rats.

  14. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on peripheral nerves in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-pei; Li, Bao-ying; Gao, Hai-qing; Wei, Na; Wang, Wei-ling; Lu, Mei

    2008-08-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. The aim of this study was to clarify whether grape seed proanthocyanidins extracts (GSPE) are therapeutic agents against DPN. In this study, we used streptozocin (STZ) to induce diabetic rats. GSPEs (250 mg/kg body weight/d) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 wk. Motor nerve conductive velocity (MNCV) and mechanical hyperalgesia were determined in the rats. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined. Light and electron microscopy were used to observe the changes of nerval ultrastructure.GSPE significantly increased the MNCV, mechanical hyperalgesia and SOD of diabetic rats (pnerval damage. This study may provide a new recognition of natural medicine for the treatment of DPN.

  15. Momordica cochinchinensis Aril Extract Induced Apoptosis in Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchsak, Phuchong; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2015-01-01

    Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (MC) has been used in traditional medicine due to its high carotenoid content. The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying apoptotic effects of MC on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A lycopene-enriched aril extract of MC (AE) showed cytotoxicity and antiestrogenicity to MCF-7 cells. On DAPI staining, AE induced cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation were evident. With flow cytometric analysis, AE increased the percentage of cells in an early apoptosis stage when compared with the control group. RT-PCR analysis showed AE to significantly increase the expression of the proapoptotic bax gene without effect on expression of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene. Moreover, AE enhanced caspase 6, 8 and 9 activity. Taken together, we conclude that AE of MC fruit has anticancer effects on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells by induction of cell apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of signaling.

  16. Ethanolic Extract of Propolis Augments TRAIL-Induced Apoptotic Death in Prostate Cancer Cells

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    Ewelina Szliszka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer in men. The ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP and its phenolic compounds possess immunomodulatory, chemopreventive and antitumor effects. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/APO2L is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic to normal cells. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of EEP and phenolic compounds isolated from propolis in combination with TRAIL on two prostate cancer cell lines, hormone-sensitivity LNCaP and hormone-refractory DU145. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide. The prostate cancer cell lines were proved to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our study demonstrated that EEP and its components significantly sensitize to TRAIL-induced death in prostate cancer cells. The percentage of the apoptotic cells after cotreatment with 50 μg mL−1 EEP and 100 ng mL−1 TRAIL increased to 74.9 ± 0.7% for LNCaP and 57.4 ± 0.7% for DU145 cells. The strongest cytotoxic effect on LNCaP cells was exhibited by apigenin, kaempferid, galangin and caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE in combination with TRAIL (53.51 ± 0.68–66.06 ± 0.62% death cells. In this work, we showed that EEP markedly augmented TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and suggested the significant role of propolis in chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

  17. Ethanolic Extract of Propolis Augments TRAIL-Induced Apoptotic Death in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Czuba, Zenon P; Bronikowska, Joanna; Mertas, Anna; Paradysz, Andrzej; Krol, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer in men. The ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and its phenolic compounds possess immunomodulatory, chemopreventive and antitumor effects. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/APO2L) is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic to normal cells. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of EEP and phenolic compounds isolated from propolis in combination with TRAIL on two prostate cancer cell lines, hormone-sensitivity LNCaP and hormone-refractory DU145. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide. The prostate cancer cell lines were proved to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our study demonstrated that EEP and its components significantly sensitize to TRAIL-induced death in prostate cancer cells. The percentage of the apoptotic cells after cotreatment with 50 μg mL(-1) EEP and 100 ng mL(-1) TRAIL increased to 74.9 ± 0.7% for LNCaP and 57.4 ± 0.7% for DU145 cells. The strongest cytotoxic effect on LNCaP cells was exhibited by apigenin, kaempferid, galangin and caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE) in combination with TRAIL (53.51 ± 0.68-66.06 ± 0.62% death cells). In this work, we showed that EEP markedly augmented TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and suggested the significant role of propolis in chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

  18. Effect of Scutellariae Radix extract on experimental dextran-sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Scutellariae Radix extract (SRE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats induced by dextran-sulfate sodium (DSS).METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (170-180 g) by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, wt/v; MW 54000) in drinking water for 8 d. The treated rats received 4% DSS and SRE orally (100 mg/kg per day). Control rats received either tap water or SRE only. Macroscopic assessment which included body weight changes, fecal occult blood and stool consistency were determined daily. At the appointed time, the rats were sacrificed and the entire colons were removed. The colon length and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. The severity of colitis was graded by morphological and histological assessments. The ion transport activity of the colonic mucosa was assessed by electrophysiological technique. RESULTS: Rats treated with oral administration of 4% DSS regularly developed clinical and macroscopic signs of colitis. Treatment with SRE relieved the symptoms, including the reduction in body weight, shortening and ulceration of the colon. Administration of SRE also significantly reduced the histological damage induced by DSS. Moreover, the Isc responses of the colonic mucosa to forskolin were suppressed after the induction of colitis. The stimulated ion transport activity of DSS-rats treated with SRE displayed significant improvement in the secretory responsiveness.CONCLUSION: SRE was effective in treating acute DSS -induced ulcerative colitis, as gauged by reduced clinical disease, improved macroscopic and histological damage scores, and enhanced recovery of normal colonic secretory function.

  19. Anti-ocular-inflammatory Effects of Salvia hypoleuca Extract on Rat Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jasem Estakhr; Nasim Javdan

    2012-01-01

    Salvia hypoleuca is used in Iranian traditional medicine as an agent for treatment of some diseases and troubles. In this study, attention was focused on the antioxidant effect of Salvia hypoleuca. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Salvia hypoleuca extract on Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis (EIU) in rats. In addition, the endotoxin-induced expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 proteins was determined in a mouse macrophage cell...

  20. Mechanistic evaluation of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity in L5178Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haixia; Guo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Suhui; Dial, Stacey L; Guo, Lei; Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Moore, Martha M; Mei, Nan

    2014-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba has been used for many thousand years as a traditional herbal remedy and its extract has been consumed for many decades as a dietary supplement. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract is a complex mixture with many constituents, including flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones. The National Toxicology Program 2-year cancer bioassay found that G. biloba leaf extract targets the liver, thyroid gland, and nose of rodents; however, the mechanism of G. biloba leaf extract-associated carcinogenicity remains unclear. In the current study, the in vitro genotoxicity of G. biloba leaf extract and its eight constituents was evaluated using the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and Comet assay. The underlying mechanisms of G. biloba leaf extract-associated genotoxicity were explored. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the mutant frequency and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Western blot analysis confirmed that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol activated the DNA damage signaling pathway with increased expression of γ-H2AX and phosphorylated Chk2 and Chk1. In addition, G. biloba leaf extract produced reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels in L5178Y cells. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of mutants indicated that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol treatments resulted in extensive chromosomal damage. These results indicate that G. biloba leaf extract and its two constituents, quercetin and kaempferol, are mutagenic to the mouse L5178Y cells and induce DSBs. Quercetin and kaempferol likely are major contributors to G. biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity.

  1. Effects of Rhus tripartitum fruit extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Nizar; Feriani, Anouar; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Saadoui, Ezzeddine; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Nasri, Nizar

    2016-08-01

    Rhus tripartitum D.C., Anacardiaceae, has traditionally been used in Tunisia against many illnesses. The present study investigates, for the first time, the protective effects of the methanol extract of Rhus tripartitum fruit (MERT) against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicty in Wistar rats. ALT, AST, LDH, GGT, creatinin, urea, and uric acid levels were studied. The changes in antioxidant parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl contents were also determined. The increased levels of MDA (30.97 and 11.50 nmol MDA/mg protein in liver and kidney, respectively) and protein carbonyls (13.4 and 17.95 nmol/mg protein in liver and kidney, respectively) were attenuated by MERT pretreatment (19.35 and 6.1 nmol MDA/mg protein and 9.15 and 12 nmol/mg protein in liver and kidney, respectively). The MERT pretreatment significantly reduced the increased biochemical parameters of liver and kidney caused by CCl4 and cisplatin treatment. The histopathologic observation showed that MERT pretreatment restores the altered tissues. The observed results could be due to the high phenolic content and to MERT's important antioxidant potential. This study supports the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of R. tripartitum.

  2. Prostaglandin-Induced Cystoid Macular Edema Following Routine Cataract Extraction

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    Negin Agange

    2010-01-01

    patient first developed CME OD 4-months post uncomplicated cataract extraction. XALATAN (Latanoprost had been restarted after surgery and discontinued at onset of CME. While off XALATAN (Latanoprost, the patient's CME resolved, but his IOP rose. The patient was started on LUMIGAN (Bimatoprost to control the IOP, but within weeks his CME recurred. The patient's CME was again treated and his IOP remained acceptable, but then progressively increased. TRAVATAN (Travoprost was attempted, but he presented with a third round of CME. Definitive conclusions about causal relationships cannot be made without well-designed, prospective clinical trials addressing this issue.

  3. Significantly enhanced lung metastasis and reduced organ NK cell functions in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, J; Hanke, J; Knauf, D; Ben-Eliyahu, S; Jacobs, R; Stangl, G I; Bähr, I; Kielstein, H

    2017-01-01

    Obesity was identified as a major risk factor for malignant diseases, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Natural killer (NK) cells, a pivotal aspect of innate immunity, are capable of identifying and killing virally infected and tumor cells. Previous studies have shown altered NK cell functions in obesity, and the current study aimed to investigate the relationship between altered NK cell functions and increased cancer risk in obesity. To induce obesity male F344-rats received a high-fat diet (34% fat) or a control diet (4% fat). Thereafter, syngeneic mammary adenocarcinoma cells (MADB106) or a vehicle were intravenously (i.v.) injected. 15 min after injection, half of each group of rats were killed, lungs removed and immunohistochemically stained. Numbers of NK cells, MADB106 cells and NK cell-tumor cell interactions were quantified. Twenty-one days after tumor-cell injection the other half group of rats was killed and lung metastases were counted and relative mRNA concentrations of different NK cell receptors were determined. After short-term MADB106-challenge, DIO fed animals showed significantly decreased NK cell numbers in the blood and NK cell-tumor cell interactions in the lung as compared to their control littermates. Twenty-one days after MADB106 injection, the lungs of the DIO fed rats showed significantly more lung metastases compared to control animals, accompanied by reduced relative mRNA concentrations of the activating NK cell receptor NKG2D. We conclude that induction of obesity in F344-rats leads to reduced lung NK cell function against tumor cells and results in significantly enhanced lung metastasis as compared to lean animals. It can be hypothesized that obesity-induced altered NK cell functions play an important role in cancer growth and metastasis.

  4. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Pistacia vera on pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in rat

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    F. Fatehi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Most antiepileptic drugs that are commonly being used in the clinic have a wide range of unwanted side effects; while some species of pistachioshave been used in the traditional medicine to treat epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Pistacia vera L. in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced chemical kindling. Methods: this study was carried out on 40 male Wistar rats. Chemical kindling was induced by intraperitoneal administration of PTZ (40 mg/kg on every alternate day (30 days. The hydroalcoholic extract of P. vera (50 and 100 mg/kg were administered orally every day (30 days. In days which animals received both PTZ and extract, PTZ was injected 30 min after extract administration. Convulsive behavior was observed for 30 min after PTZ injection and scored according to racine scale. Diazepam was used as the reference anticonvulsant drug. Results: Pretreatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg of P. vera extract decreased seizure scores, stage 4 latency and stage 5 duration compared to the control group. The anti-epileptic effects of P. vera extract were comparable to diazepam. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrated that the hydroalcoholic extract of P. vera may inhibit the development of seizure behavior following chronic PTZ-induced model of epilepsy in rats.

  5. Potential nephrotoxic effects produced by steroidal saponins from hydro alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the development of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigated the potential effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris, a plant of Zygophyllaceae family, on the renal complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ (90 mg/kg) to the 2-days old neonates. After 6 weeks of induction, diabetic rats were treated with 50 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of T. terrestris for 8 weeks. The anti-hyperglycaemic nature was confirmed by reduction in blood glucose and improvement in insulin levels. Diabetic renal injury associated with decrease in total proteins and albumin levels was observed to be improved by T. terrestris extract. Glomerular filtration rate along with inflammatory and growth factors, adiponectin and erythropoietin were also improved by the treatment, though the findings were not significant. However, the beneficial antidiabetic effects of T. terrestris extract in plasma were not observed in kidney histopathology. This was confirmed by the quantitative estimation of unhydrolyzed fraction of saponins (major component: protodioscin) in plasma and kidney samples of normal and diabetic rats. Hence, it can be concluded that 8 weeks treatment with T. terrestris extract produces potential toxic effects in kidney, which are independent of its anti-diabetic action.

  6. Protective Properties of Flavonoid Extract of Coagulated Tofu (Curdled Soy Milk Against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndatsu Yakubu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoid contents of the various coagulated tofu and the hepatoprotective potential of all tofu flavonoid extracts were investigated. Tofu was prepared from locally sourced coagulants (steep water, alum, lemon, and lemon peel ash extract. Total flavonoid contents of all coagulated tofu were investigated as established in vitro flavonoid assay. The hepatoprotective activities of tofu flavonoid extracts against acetaminophen-induced hepatic cell toxicity in rats was also investigated in this study. The activity was analyzed by assessing the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. The concentrations of the serum sugar, total protein, albumin, and cholesterol as well as prothrombin time (PT of experimental rats with histopathological analysis were also conducted. The range of the total flavonoid contents of tofu was 4.3-6.4 mg/g. Tofu flavonoid extracts significantly reduced the activities of serum AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH; total cholesterol, and sugar levels, but total protein and albumin concentrations increased compared to acetaminophen-intoxicated rats. Also, the prothrombin time prolongation of serum in acetaminophen intoxicated rats was reduced. Histology of the liver tissue demonstrated that tofu flavonoid extracts inhibited the acetaminophen-induced hepatic cell necrosis, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and accelerated hepatocellular regeneration. Therefore, all tofus exhibited high total flavonoid contents, and the tofu supplement in human diets is highly recommended as it can be used as a functional food to prevent liver injuries.

  7. Chemopreventive effect and HPTLC fingerprinting analysis of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. Extract against DLA-induced lymphoma in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiselvi, M; Narmadha, R; Ragavendran, P; Vidya, B; Gomathi, D; Raj, C Arul; Starlinraj, T; Gopalakrishnan, V K; Uma, C; Kalaivani, K

    2013-02-01

    The anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract of Jasminum sambac against Dalton's lymphoma ascites-induced lymphatic cancer in Swiss albino mice was investigated. The anticancer activity of J. sambac was studied against lymphoma using lipid profiles, biochemical parameters, and membrane-bound marker enzymes by standard procedures. A high-performance thin-layer chromatography fingerprinting analysis showed the presence of terpenoids and flavonoids. The levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were significantly decreased in tumor-induced mice, while HDL cholesterol showed increased levels compared with those profiles. On treatment with J. sambac, the levels were brought back to near normal. The albumin, creatinine, total protein, urea, and uric acid contents were also approaching normal values. There was s significant increase in the levels of ATPase in group II. These levels were brought back to normal upon plant extract treatment of mice. DNA fragmentation occurred in the tumor-induced group of tissue, and treatment with ethanolic extract reduced the DNA damage caused by lymphoma. Expression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes shows an increase in the levels of LDH-4 and LDH-5 in cancer-bearing animals which is brought back to near normal. Histopathological investigation showed normal sections of liver tissues in the treatment group. The results found in mice treated with ethanolic extract 100 mg kg(-1) body weight quite promising and were comparable with the standard drug 5-fluorouracil. The statistically processed results support the conclusion that the ethanolic extract of J. sambac flower (100 mg kg(-1)) possesses a dose-dependent significant anticancer activity against lymphoma.

  8. Significant Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) in the Lipids Extracted by Supercritical CO2 from the Livers of Australian Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung T; Zhang, Wei; Barber, Andrew R; Su, Peng; He, Shan

    2015-05-13

    Australian rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) liver contains approximately 24.3% (w/w) lipids, which can contain a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, this material has been found to be contaminated with arsenic (240 mg/kg) and cadmium (8 mg/kg). The high level of contaminants in the raw material and the large amount of PUFAs in the lipids prove a significant challenge in the extraction of high-quality lipids from this byproduct by conventional methods. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a highly promising technology for lipid extraction with advantages including low contamination and low oxidation. The technique was optimized to achieve nearly 94% extraction of lipids relative to conventional Soxhlet extraction in Australian rock lobster liver at conditions of 35 MPa and 50 °C for 4 h. The extracted lipids are significantly enriched in PUFAs at 31.3% of total lipids, 4 times higher than those in the lipids recovered by Soxhlet extraction (7.8%). Specifically, the concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in SC-CO2 extraction are 7 times higher than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, very small amounts of toxic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids, 0.5-27 times lower than those in the Soxhlet-extracted lipids, which are 40-200 times lower than the regulatory limit maximum values. The low levels of contaminants and the high proportion of PUFAs (dominated by DHA and EPA) found in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids from Australian rock lobster liver suggest that the material could potentially be used as a valuable source of essential fatty acids for human consumption.

  9. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract induces hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchikaya, Francis Olivier; Bantsielé, Guy Bernard; Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Datté, Jacques Yao; Yapo, Paul Angoue; Zirihi, Noel Guedé; Offoumou, Michel Atté

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models.

  10. Effect of Coleus forskohlii extract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, Hebbani Nagarajappa; Gopalakrishna, Sushma; Mariyanna, Bhanumathy; Thekkoot, Midhun; Reddy, Roopa; Tippeswamy, Boreddy Shivanandappa

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder that can lead to adverse metabolic effects on blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance and also increases the risk of coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to determine the effect of Coleus forskohlii on obesity and associated metabolic changes in rats fed with cafeteria diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate antiobesogenic and metabolic benefits of C. forskohlii in cafeteria diet induced obesity rat model. RATS WERE RANDOMLY DIVIDED INTO FIVE GROUPS OF SIX ANIMALS IN EACH GROUP AND AS FOLLOWS: Normal pellet diet group; cafeteria diet group; cafeteria diet followed by 50 mg/kg/d Coleus forskohlii extract (CFE), 100 mg/kg/d CFE and 45 mg/kg/d orlistat groups, respectively. Indicators of obesity such as food intake, body weight and alteration in serum lipid profiles were studied. Feeding of cafeteria diet induced obesity in rats. Administration of CFE significantly halted increase in food intake and weight gain associated with cafeteria diet. Development of dyslipidemia was also significantly inhibited. The observed effects validate that supplementation of CFE with cafeteria diet could curb the appetite and mitigate the development of dyslipidemia.

  11. Protective effect of Sida cordata leaf extract against CCl(4) induced acute liver toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Sunil; Dutt, K R; Jena, J

    2013-04-13

    To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of Sida cordata (Malvaceae) (S. cordata) in experimental rats to validate its traditional claim. Wister albino rats were divided into 6 groups: Group I served as control; Group II served as hepatotoxic (CCl(4) treated) group; Group III, IV and V served as (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) S. cordata leaf extract (SCLE) treated groups; Group VI served as positive control (Silymarin) treated group. Liver marker enzymes serum glutamate oxyloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured and compared along with histopathological studies. Obtained results show that the treatment with SCLE significantly (P<0.05-<0.001) and dose-dependently reduced CCl4 induced elevated serum level of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, SCLE significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels, which was confirmed by the histopathological studies. The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of SCLE against CCl(4) induced acute liver toxicity in rats and thereby scientifically support its traditional use. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple treatment of propolis extract ameliorates carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Monika; Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2008-08-01

    Propolis, a resinous wax-like beehive product has been used as a traditional remedy for various diseases due to a variety of biological activities of this folk medicine. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to validate hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of propolis (50-400mg/kg, p.o.) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4,) 0.5 ml/kg, p.o.) induced acute liver injury in rats. Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug was used as a positive control. Administration of CCl(4) altered various diagnostically important biochemical variables. Multiple treatment of propolis significantly prevented the release of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, urea and uric acid in serum; improved the activity of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes, i.e., aniline hydroxylase and amidopyrine-N-demethylase; significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation and markedly enhanced glutathione in liver and kidney as well as brought altered carbohydrate contents (blood sugar and tissue glycogen), protein contents (serum, microsomal and tissue protein) and lipid contents (serum and tissue triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total and esterified cholesterol in tissue) towards control. Propolis treatment also reversed CCl(4) induced severe alterations in histoarchitecture of liver and kidney in a dose dependent manner. Hepatoprotective activity of propolis at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was statistically compared to silymarin and found that propolis exhibited better effectiveness than silymarin in certain parameters, concluded its hepatoprotective potential.

  13. Protective effect of Sida cordata leaf extract against CCl4 induced acute liver toxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Mistry; KR Dutt; J Jena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of Sida cordata (Malvaceae) (S. cordata) in experimental rats to validate its traditional claim. Methods: Wister albino rats were divided into 6 groups: Group Ⅰ served as control; Group Ⅱ served as hepatotoxic (CCl4 treated) group;Group Ⅲ, Ⅳ and Ⅴ served as (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) S. cordata leaf extract (SCLE) treated groups; Group Ⅵ served as positive control (Silymarin) treated group. Liver marker enzymes serum glutamate oxyloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured and compared along with histopathological studies. Results:Obtained results show that the treatment with SCLE significantly (P<0.05-<0.001) and dose-dependently reduced CCl4 induced elevated serum level of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, SCLE significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels, which was confirmed by the histopathological studies. Conclusions: The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of SCLE against CCl4 induced acute liver toxicity in rats and thereby scientifically support its traditional use.

  14. Complexation-induced supramolecular assembly drives metal-ion extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ross J; Meridiano, Yannick; Muller, Julie; Berthon, Laurence; Guilbaud, Philippe; Zorz, Nicole; Antonio, Mark R; Demars, Thomas; Zemb, Thomas

    2014-09-26

    Combining experiment with theory reveals the role of self-assembly and complexation in metal-ion transfer through the water-oil interface. The coordinating metal salt Eu(NO3)3 was extracted from water into oil by a lipophilic neutral amphiphile. Molecular dynamics simulations were coupled to experimental spectroscopic and X-ray scattering techniques to investigate how local coordination interactions between the metal ion and ligands in the organic phase combine with long-range interactions to produce spontaneous changes in the solvent microstructure. Extraction of the Eu(3+)-3(NO3(-)) ion pairs involves incorporation of the "hard" metal complex into the core of "soft" aggregates. This seeds the formation of reverse micelles that draw the water and "free" amphiphile into nanoscale hydrophilic domains. The reverse micelles interact through attractive van der Waals interactions and coalesce into rod-shaped polynuclear Eu(III) -containing aggregates with metal centers bridged by nitrate. These preorganized hydrophilic domains, containing high densities of O-donor ligands and anions, provide improved Eu(III) solvation environments that help drive interfacial transfer, as is reflected by the increasing Eu(III) partitioning ratios (oil/aqueous) despite the organic phase approaching saturation. For the first time, this multiscale approach links metal-ion coordination with nanoscale structure to reveal the free-energy balance that drives the phase transfer of neutral metal salts.

  15. Changes and significance of IL-25 in chicken collagen II-induced experimental arthritis (CIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiwen, Wang; Zhaoliang, Su; Yinxia, Zhao; Siamak, Sandoghchian Shotorbani; Zhijun, Jiao; Yuan, Xue; Heng, Yang; Dong, Zheng; Yanfang, Liu; Pei, Shen; Shengjun, Wang; Qixiang, Shao; Xinxiang, Huang; Liwei, Lu; Huaxi, Xu

    2012-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease. It is a systemic inflammatory disease, characterized by chronic, symmetrical, multi-articular synovial arthritis. IL-25 (IL-17E) is a member of the recently emerged cytokine family (IL-17s), which is expressed in Th2 cells and bone marrow-derived mast cells. Unlike the other members of this family, IL-25 is capable of inducing Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and also promotes the release of some pro-immune factors (IL-6 and IL-8). IL-25 is also a pleiotropic factor, which constitutes a tissue-specific pathological injury and chronic inflammation. In this study, we used chicken collagen II-induced experimental arthritis (CIA) model in DBA/1 mice to investigate the relationship between IL-25 and other inflammatory factors, revealing the possible mechanism in CIA. Our results showed that the expression level of IL-25 was enhanced in the late stage of CIA, and IL-17 was increased in the early stage of the disease. It is well known that IL-17 has a crucial role in the development of RA pathogenesis, and IL-25 plays a significant role in humoral immune. For reasons given above, we suggested that the IL-25 inhibited IL-17 expression to some extent, while enhancing the production of IL-4. It was confirmed that IL-25 not only regulated the cellular immune, but also involved the humoral immune in rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Mitochondrial oxidative stress significantly influences atherogenic risk and cytokine-induced oxidant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Corey M; Pompilius, Melissa; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    Oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors contributes to disease development. However, less is known whether specific subcellular components play a role in disease susceptibility. In this regard, it has been previously reported that vascular mitochondrial damage and dysfunction are associated with atherosclerosis. However, no studies have determined whether altered mitochondrial oxidant production directly influences atherogenic susceptibility and response in primary cells to atherogenic factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We undertook this study to determine whether increased mitochondrial oxidant production affects atherosclerotic lesion development associated with CVD risk factor exposure and endothelial cell response to TNF-α. We assessed atherosclerotic lesion formation, oxidant stress, and mitochondrial DNA damage in male apolipoprotein E (apoE)-null mice with normal and decreased levels of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2; apoE(-/-) and apoE(-/-), SOD2(+/-), respectively) exposed to environmental tobacco smoke or filtered air. Atherogenesis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial damage were significantly higher in apoE(-/-), SOD2(+/-) mice than in apoE(-/-) controls. Furthermore, experiments with small interfering RNA in endothelial cells revealed that decreased SOD2 activity increased TNF-α-mediated cellular oxidant levels compared with controls. Endogenous mitochondrial oxidative stress is an important CVD risk factor that can modulate atherogenesis and cytokine-induced endothelial cell oxidant generation. Consequently, CVD risk factors that induce mitochondrial damage alter cellular response to endogenous atherogenic factors, increasing disease susceptibility.

  17. Changes and significance of SIRT3 expression in cellular senescence induced by high glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin ZHANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the role of the silent information regulator 3(SIRT3 in the decrepitude process of human diploid fibroblasts(WI-38 induced by high glucose.Methods The WI-38 cells [population doublings(PDs,20-32] were cultured in media containing different concentrations of glucose as follows: low glucose(3.34mmol/L,LG,normal glucose(5.56mmol/L,NG,and high glucose(25mmol/L,HG.The protein expression levels of p21,p27,catalase,MnSOD,and SIRT3 were evaluated through Western blot.The double-label immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the location and expression of SIRT3,MnSOD,and senescence-associated heterochromatin foci(SAHF in the WI-38 cells.The ROS level was determined with fluorescent probe.Results The results from the Western blot showed that the protein expression of SIRT3,catalase,and MnSOD decreased significantly in the HG group compared with the LG and NG groups(P 0.05.SIRT3 and MnSOD were highly expressed in the cytoplasm.The ROS levels in the HG group were elevated compared with those in the LG and NG groups.Conclusion SIRT3 may play an important role in cellular senescence induced by high glucose in human diploid fibroblasts.

  18. Sequential changes of hypoxia- inducible factor 1 alpha in experimental spinal cord injury and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠延; 贺民; 毛伯镛

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the sequential changes of HIF-1α(hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha) in experimental spinalcord injury in rats and to analyze its potential effects inSCI.Methods: A static compression model of SCI wasemployed in this study. Expressions of HIF-1α weremeasured with immunohistochemical staining, while flowcytometry was used to determine the apoptotic ratio andbcl-2 expressions.Results: HIF-1α began to increase 1 day after injury,and reached the peak at 3-7 days. Two weeks later, itdeclined significantly. The sequential changes of HIF-1αcoincided well with the alterations of apoptotic ratio andcontents of bel-2.Conclusions: HIF-1α possibly participates in thesecondary ischemic and hypoxic procedures after spinalcord injury, and may mediate the traumatic apoptosis.Further understanding of HIF-1α may provide newtherapeutic regimens for SCI.

  19. Significance of Shrinkage Induced Clamping Pressure in Fiber-Matrix Bonding in Cementitious Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The present paper accesses the significance of shrinkage inducedclamping pressure in fiber/matrix bonding mechanisms incementitious composite materials. The paper contains a description of an experimental setup whichallows mbox{measurement} of the clamping pressure which develops on anelastic...... acting on any elastic inhomogeneityembedded in the same cementitious matrix material. Fiber-shaped inhomogeneities are of special interest in cementitious composite material systems andresults are presented for the development of clamping pressure on three typical fiber types in two typical cementpastes...... used in high performance cementitious composite materials.Assuming a Coulomb type of friction on the fiber/matrix interface andusing typical values for the frictional coefficient it is shownthat the shrinkage induced clamping pressure could be one of the mostimportant factors determining the frictional...

  20. The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the fruits of Balanites aegypticea in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdella Emam Abdella Baragob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balanites aegypticea is used medically for many purposes e.g. anti-spasmodic, stomach pain, malaria, and yellow fever. The extract of the fruit is also used to reduce the blood glucose levels. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of the aqueous extract of the fruits of the Balanites aegypticea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five adult male Vistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly collected and divided into 5 groups (5 rats in each group. The untreated rats (negative control group received basal diet and tap water only for 15 days. The experimental rats became diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight. The fruit of Balanites aegypticea was powdered, extracted, and dried using organic solvents. The diabetic rats received aqueous extract 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg, respectively, for 2 weeks. Plasma glucose levels were measured by using Glucose GOD-PAP method through spectrophotometer. Results: The results showed that 800 mg/kg aqueous extract decrease significantly the plasma glucose level (P ≤ 0.05 in diabetic rats, and there is a considerable gain in body weight (P ≤ 0.05 compared to the diabetic control group. Four-hundred mg/kg aqueous extract has a mild effect on body weights and plasma glucose levels, while 200 mg/kg aqueous extract has no significant effect on plasma glucose level and a little effect on body weight. Conclusions: The results of the presented study revealed that the aqueous extract of Balanites aegypticea has hypoglycemic properties. It can decrease the plasma glucose level and can improve weight in diabetic experimental animals.

  1. Optimised extraction of β-carotene from Spirulina platensis and hypoglycaemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiu-Yue; Fang, Ming; Zheng, Jia-Hui; Ren, Di-Feng; Lu, Jun

    2016-03-30

    Spirulina platensis is rich in β-carotene, which possesses many important biological activities. This study investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification of β-carotene from Spirulina platensis by using response surface methodology (RSM), determined its antioxidant capacity in vitro and explored its hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic mice. The raw β-carotene extract with a concentration of 1942.14 ± 10.03 µg mL(-1) was obtained at the optimised condition by RSM (0.40 of the solid-liquid ratio, 51% of the extraction power, and 17 min of the extraction time), and the purity of evaporated β-carotene extract reached 816.32 ± 10.57 mg g(-1) after purified by a NKA-9 resin with a sampling and elution rate of 1 mL min(-1) . The β-carotene extract scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radicals with the highest ratios of 44 ± 0.26% and 35 ± 0.45% respectively, and exhibited strong inhibiting capacity on anti-lipid peroxidation. The blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice was significantly reduced from 15.81 ± 1.71 mmol L(-1) to 8.10 ± 0.88 mmol L(-1) after 10 d administration of the β-carotene extract [100 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW)], and the increased food and water intakes in the diabetic mice were also significantly relieved after β-carotene treatment. Our results suggested that extraction of β-carotene from Spirulina platensis had potential prospects in scaled-up industrialisation and healthcare applications. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor in hepatitis B virus-induced hepatic fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Li Piao; David R Brigstock; Jie Zhu; Man-Li Zhang; Run-Ping Gao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the utility of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) for assessing hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced chronic liver diseases (CLD-B).METHODS:Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure CCN2 in sera from 107 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 39 patients with HBVinduced active liver cirrhosis and 30 healthy individuals.Liver samples from 31 patients with CHB,8 patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis and 8 HBV carriers with normal liver histology were examined for transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) or CCN2 mRNA levels by in situ hybridization,and computer image analysis was performed to measure integrated optimal density (IOD) of CCN2 mRNA-positive cells in liver tissues.Histological inflammation grading and fibrosis staging were evaluated by H and E staining and Van Gieson's method.RESULTS:Serum CCN2 concentrations were,respectively,4.0-or 4.9-fold higher in patients with CHB or active liver cirrhosis as compared to healthy individuals (P < 0.01).There was good consistency between the levels of CCN2 in sera and CCN2 mRNA expression in liver tissues (r =0.87,P < 0.01).The levels of CCN2 in sera were increased with the enhancement of histological fibrosis staging in patients with CLD-B (r =0.85,P < 0.01).Serum CCN2 was a reliable marker for the assessment of liver fibrosis,with areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.94 or 0.85 for,respectively,distinguishing normal liver controls from patients with F1 stage liver fibrosis or discriminating between mild and significant fibrosis.CONCLUSION:Detection of serum CCN2 in patients with CLD-B may have clinical significance for assessment of severity of hepatic fibrosis.

  3. Effect of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" fruit extract in Mus musculus var. swis with induced hyperlipidemi.

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    Julio Campos Florián

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the hypolipidemic activity of the fruit of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" in a model of acute hyperlipidemia induced by triton. Mus musculus var. swis males as experimental animals. We worked with four groups of mice, the white group received distilled water orally and saline intraperitoneally, the control group received distilled water orally and intraperitoneally triton, the problem group 1 received orally 0.05g/100g Physalis peruviana extract intraperitoneally and triton and the problem group 2 received orally 0.2g/100g extract of Physalis peruviana and triton intraperitoneally. After 24 hours of administering the treatments were performed measurements of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Mean levels of cholesterol (mg/dL were: 58.87 ± 11.54 (white, 121.71 ± 15.00 (control, 58.08 ± 9.21 (Problem 1 and 66 78 ± 16.77 (Problem 2. Average levels of triglycerides (g /L were: 0.48 ± 0.07 (white, 1.84 ± 0.18 (control, 0.34 ± 0.10 (Problem 1 and 0.94 ± 0.25 (Problem 2. We found significant reductions (p <0.000 concentrations of both cholesterol and triglycerides in relation to those obtained in the group treated only with Triton.

  4. Protective effect of red orange extract supplementation against UV-induced skin damages: photoaging and solar lentigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Carmelo; Offerta, Alessia; Saija, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Venera, Cardile

    2014-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations causes important oxidative damages that result in clinical and hystopathological changes, contributing to premature skin aging. Hyperpigmented lesions, also known as age spots, are one of the most visible alterations in skin photoaging. Skin is naturally equipped with antioxidant systems against UV-induced ROS generation; however, these antioxidant defenses are not completely efficient during exposure to sunlight. Oral antioxidants are able to counteract the harmful effects of UV radiation and to strengthen the physiological skin antioxidant defenses. The present study was performed to evaluate the in vivo skin photo-protecting and anti-aging effects of a red orange (Citrus sinensis varieties Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) extract supplementation. Previous studies showed that red orange extracts possess strong in vitro free radical scavenging/antioxidant activity and photo-protective effects on human skin. The photo-protective effects of red orange extract intake against UV-induced skin erythema and melanin production in solar lentigo was evaluated on healthy volunteers by an objective instrumental method (reflectance spectrophotometry). Data obtained from in vivo studies showed that supplementation of red orange extract (100 mg/daily) for 15 days brought a significant reduction in the UV-induced skin erythema degree. Moreover, skin age spots pigmentation (melanin content) decreased from 27% to 7% when subjects were exposed to solar lamp during red orange extract supplementation. Red orange extract intake can strengthen physiological antioxidant skin defenses, protecting skin from the damaging processes involved in photo-aging and leading to an improvement in skin appearance and pigmentation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract from the leaves of Artocarpus altilis "breadfruit" in Rattus norvegicus induced hyperlipidemia

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    Julio Campos Florián

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to demonstrate the hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis, in a model of acute hyperlipidemia induced with triton X-305, using Rattus norvegicus specimens males, mean weight 204.5 g, who were orally administered 0.05 g/100g and 0.2 g/100 g of aqueous extract of A. altilis; included a negative control group received physiological saline and hyperlipidemic positive control group. After 24 hours of administering the treatments were made measurements of the concentrations of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Found significant reductions (p < 0.01 in both cholesterol and triglyceride levels relative to the positive control group. We also found a significant difference (p < 0.01 between triglyceride concentrations of the animals treated with both doses of the aqueous extract of A. altilis. Conclude that the aqueous extract from the leaves of A. altilis has hypolipidemic effect at the doses tested for the model of hyperlipidemia induced with triton X-305.

  6. Effect of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis extracts on histamine and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the chicken skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomash, V; Parihar, S K; Jain, N K; Katiyar, A K

    2010-02-09

    We studied anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum leaves and Ricinus communis root bark using chicken skin as model. Leaves of these plants were dried under shade and powdered. 5% Ethanol extracts were prepared using Soxhlet and injected intraperitoneally (400 mg/kg) 1 hour prior to the induction of inflammation. Inflammatory lesion were induced by intradermal injection of 0.02 ml 0.05%w/v histamine (0-2 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr and 6 hr) and 1% w/v carrageenan (0-2 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr and 48 hr) in different group of birds. Increase in vascular permeability was studied using Evans blue as a permeability marker both qualitatively and quantitatively. Cellular events were studied in skin lesions at various time intervals and cells were counted at high power objective under microscope. Both, extracts exhibited significant decrease in permeability response at an early stage (0-2 min) of histamine as well as in carrageenan induced inflammatory lesions. There was a significant (pRicinus communis pretreated chicken skin lesions as compared to the control. The present study suggested antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis.

  7. Antiamnesic Effects of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Crinum macowanii on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

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    Andrew T. Mugwagwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crinum macowanii has been found to contain alkaloids that have activity against acetylcholinesterase enzyme in vitro. The present study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo ability of hydroethanolic crude extract of Crinum macowanii to ameliorate memory impairment induced by scopolamine. Thirty-six male Balb/c mice weighing around 25–35 g were employed in the present investigation. Y-maze and novel object recognition apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioural models, and scopolamine-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioural model. C. macowanii (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg p.o. was administered in single doses to the mice. Donepezil (3 mg/kg p.o. was used as a positive control agent. C. macowanii extract reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine as indicated by a dose-dependent increase in spontaneous alternation performance in the Y-maze task. C. macowanii 40 mg/kg showed significant activity (p<0.05 versus negative control, comparable to that of the positive control. C. macowanii also showed memory-enhancing activity against scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the long-term memory novel object recognition performance as indicated by a dose-dependent increase in the discrimination index. The results indicate that the hydroethanolic extract of C. macowanii may be a useful memory restorative mediator in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  8. Turmeric Extract Rescues Ethanol-Induced Developmental Defect in the Zebrafish Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Connors, Craig T; Mohammed, Arooj S; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, Kathleen; Marrs, James A; Chism, Grady W

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL), Desmethoxycurcumin (43.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL), and Bisdemethoxycurcumin (36.6 ± 0.1 μg/mL). Zebrafish embryos were treated with 100 mM (0.6% v/v) ethanol during gastrulation through organogenesis (2 to 48 h postfertilization (hpf)) and supplemented with turmeric extract to obtain total curcuminoid concentrations of 0, 1.16, 1.72, or 2.32 μM. Turmeric supplementation showed significant rescue of the body length at 72 hpf compared to ethanol-treated embryos. The mechanism underlying the rescue remains to be determined. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Echinophora platyloba DC (Apiaceae crude extract induces apoptosis in human prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC 3

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    Fatemeh Zare Shahneh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is the second leading malignancy worldwide and the second prominent cause of cancer-related deaths among men. Therefore, there is a serious necessity for finding advanced alternative therapeutic measures against this lethal malignancy. In this article, we report the cytotoxicity and the mechanism of cell death of the methanolic extract prepared from Echinophora platyloba DC plant against human prostate adenocarcinoma PC 3 cell line and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells HUVEC cell line. Methods: Cytotoxicity and viability of the methanolic extract were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and dye exclusion assay. Cell death enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production resulting from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determine whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. The cell death was identified as apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay and DNA fragmentation gel electrophoresis. Results: E. platyloba could decrease cell viability in malignant cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 values against PC 3 were determined as 236.136 ± 12.4, 143.400 ± 7.2, and 69.383 ± 1.29 μg/ml after 24, 36, and 48 h, respectively, but there was no significant activity in HUVEC normal cell (IC50 > 800 μg/ml. Morphological characterizations and DNA laddering assay showed that the methanolic extract treated cells displayed marked apoptotic characteristics such as nuclear fragmentation, appearance of apoptotic bodies, and DNA laddering fragment. Increase in an early apoptotic population was observed in a dose-dependent manner. PC 3 cell death elicited by the extract was found to be apoptotic in nature based a clear indication of TUNEL assay and gel electrophoresis DNA fragmentation, which is a hallmark of apoptosis

  10. Ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis protect against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai; Nguyen; Thanh; Hue; Pham; Thi; Minh; Tuan; Anh; Le; Huong; Duong; Thi; Ly; Tung; Nguyen; Huu; Loi; Vu; Duc; Thu; Dang; Kim; Tung; Bui; Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the protective potential of ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis(S. baicalensis) against lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced liver injury. Methods: Dried roots of S. baicalensis were extracted with ethanol and concentrated to yield a dry residue. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg of the ethanol extracts orally once daily for one week. Animals were subsequently administered a single dose of LPS(5 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneal injection). Both protein and m RNA levels of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in liver tissues were evaluated by ELISA assay and quantitative PCR. C yclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-κB protein levels in liver tissues were analyzed by western blotting. Results: Liver injury induced by LPS signifi cantly increased necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-κB in liver tissues. Treatment with ethanol extracts of S. baicalensis prevented all of these observed changes associated with LPS-induced injury in liver mice.Conclusions: Our study showed that S. baicalensis is potentially protective against LPS-induced liver injury in mice.

  11. The Effects of Maekmoondong-Tang on Cockroach Extract-Induced Allergic Asthma

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    Soojin Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maekmoondong-tang (MMDT has long been used in Asian countries to treat respiratory diseases. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its effects on asthma are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of MMDT in a cockroach allergen (CKA-induced animal model of allergic asthma. After being challenged with CKA, the number of macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was evaluated. The Th2 specific cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were also analyzed in BALF along with IgE levels in serum. For histological analysis, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. In addition, airway hyperresponsiveness was assessed by noninvasive plethysmography. The cellular profiles and histopathologic analysis demonstrated that peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates were significantly decreased in the MMDT-treated groups compared with the cockroach extract-injected (CKA groups. In addition, the IgE, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels were significantly decreased in the MMDT group. MMDT treatment also significantly attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. These results demonstrated that MMDT significantly reduced the hallmark signs of asthma: elevated serum IgE, airway eosinophilia, airway remodeling, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The remarkable antiasthmatic effects of MMDT suggest its therapeutic potential in allergic asthma treatment.

  12. Studies on the Antidiabetic Activities of Cordyceps militaris Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Yuan Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to substantial morbidity and high complications, diabetes mellitus is considered as the third “killer” in the world. A search for alternative antidiabetic drugs from herbs or fungi is highly demanded. Our present study aims to investigate the antidiabetic activities of Cordyceps militaris on diet-streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Diabetic rats were orally administered with water extract or alcohol extract at 0.05 g/kg and 2 g/kg for 3 weeks, and then, the factors levels related to blood glucose, lipid, free radicals, and even nephropathy were determined. Pathological alterations on liver and kidney were examined. Data showed that, similar to metformin, Cordyceps militaris extracts displayed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels by promoting glucose metabolism and strongly suppressed total cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum. Cordyceps militaris extracts exhibit antioxidative effects indicated by normalized superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels. The inhibitory effects on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, and protein revealed the protection of Cordyceps militaris extracts against diabetic nephropathy, which was confirmed by pathological morphology reversion. Collectively, Cordyceps militaris extract, a safe pharmaceutical agent, presents excellent antidiabetic and antinephropathic activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment.

  13. Studies on the Antidiabetic Activities of Cordyceps militaris Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Jing, Tianjiao; Meng, Qingfan; Liu, Chungang; Hu, Shuang; Ma, Yihang; Liu, Yan; Lu, Jiahui; Cheng, Yingkun; Teng, Lirong

    2014-01-01

    Due to substantial morbidity and high complications, diabetes mellitus is considered as the third “killer” in the world. A search for alternative antidiabetic drugs from herbs or fungi is highly demanded. Our present study aims to investigate the antidiabetic activities of Cordyceps militaris on diet-streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Diabetic rats were orally administered with water extract or alcohol extract at 0.05 g/kg and 2 g/kg for 3 weeks, and then, the factors levels related to blood glucose, lipid, free radicals, and even nephropathy were determined. Pathological alterations on liver and kidney were examined. Data showed that, similar to metformin, Cordyceps militaris extracts displayed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels by promoting glucose metabolism and strongly suppressed total cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum. Cordyceps militaris extracts exhibit antioxidative effects indicated by normalized superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels. The inhibitory effects on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, and protein revealed the protection of Cordyceps militaris extracts against diabetic nephropathy, which was confirmed by pathological morphology reversion. Collectively, Cordyceps militaris extract, a safe pharmaceutical agent, presents excellent antidiabetic and antinephropathic activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment. PMID:24738047

  14. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Pia K; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf; Overmann, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particular Actino bacteria and Proteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Pia K.; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particular Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. PMID:26896137

  16. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Hydroponic Stevia rebaudiana Aqueous Extract in Hyperglycemia Induced by Immobilization Stress in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanyan, Anush; Movsisyan, Zaruhi

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious worldwide problem related to human hyperglycemia. Thus, herbal preparations with antihyperglycemic properties especially leaf extracts of hydroponic Stevia rebaudiana (SR) would be useful in hyperglycemia treatment. The antihyperglycemic potential of this medicinal plant grown using hydroponics methods has been evaluated. Significant reduction of some biochemical characteristics for sugars and fatty acids in blood, liver, and muscle especially fasting glucose levels, serum triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol levels, and increased HDL-cholesterol ones was shown with SR aqueous extract treatment. Therefore, the aqueous extract of SR is suggested to have antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity and to restore liver and muscle glycogen levels (hepatoprotective effects) in hyperglycemia induced by immobilization stress in rabbits and might be recommended for treatment of DM (hyperglycemia). PMID:28758125

  17. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Hydroponic Stevia rebaudiana Aqueous Extract in Hyperglycemia Induced by Immobilization Stress in Rabbits

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    Anush Aghajanyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a serious worldwide problem related to human hyperglycemia. Thus, herbal preparations with antihyperglycemic properties especially leaf extracts of hydroponic Stevia rebaudiana (SR would be useful in hyperglycemia treatment. The antihyperglycemic potential of this medicinal plant grown using hydroponics methods has been evaluated. Significant reduction of some biochemical characteristics for sugars and fatty acids in blood, liver, and muscle especially fasting glucose levels, serum triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol levels, and increased HDL-cholesterol ones was shown with SR aqueous extract treatment. Therefore, the aqueous extract of SR is suggested to have antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity and to restore liver and muscle glycogen levels (hepatoprotective effects in hyperglycemia induced by immobilization stress in rabbits and might be recommended for treatment of DM (hyperglycemia.

  18. The effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Juglans regia leaves in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Jamshid; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Malekzadeh, Jan Mohammad; Roozbehi, Amrollah

    2012-04-01

    Phytotherapy has been achieved to maintain glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic properties of the Juglans regia leaf extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Nicotinamide was injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) 15 min before the injection of Streptozotocin (i.p.). One week after induction of diabetes, oral treatment started with extract of Juglans regia and Metformin and continued for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar, body weight, serum lipids and insulin level were measured in different groups. A significant reduction of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides were detected after 4 weeks in rats treated with Juglans regia leaves compared to the control groups. Thus, Juglans regia extract treatment showed potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in type 2 diabetic rats.

  19. Effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose con-centration of alloxan induced diabetic Albino Wistar Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose of alloxan induced albino wist-ar rats.Methods:Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Abrus precatorius for 14 days.The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period.Results:There was a significant reduction in blood glucose concentration (P <0.05)with the mean blood glucose of the different groups as 5.0 ±0.3 for normal control,7.0 ±0.4 for diabetic control group and 4.0 ±0.2 for diabetic treated group. Conclusion:The findings of this study suggest that extract of Abrus precatorius has hypoglycemic effect.

  20. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta–cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Onakpa Michael Monday

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.