WorldWideScience

Sample records for extract afsc 1c4x1

  1. United States Air Force Occupational Survey Report. Tactical Air Command and Control. AFSC 1C4X1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    computer-programming support, and Ms. Dolores Navarro provided administrative support. Major Jose Caussade, Chief, Airman Analysis Section, reviewed...TRNG OPPORTUNITIES 51 2.11 36 2.08 43 2.38 OFF-DUTY EDU OR TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES 38 2.15 30 2.10 46 2.23 MEDICAL/ DENTAL CARE FOR AD MEMBER 53...2.46 55 2.44 43 2.59 MEDICAL/ DENTAL CARE FOR FAMILY MEMBERS 43 2.74 39 2.54 46 2.77 BASE HOUSING 8 2.00 6 1.50 13 2.11 BASE SERVICES 9 1.80 6 2.00 19

  2. Training Extract. AFSC 4D0X1 Diet Therapy (Active Duty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    212* 23* 52* 49* 109* 51* V0165 Diet (s) exp- Vegan Diet ...2* 2* V0165 Diet (s) exp- Vegan Diet TOT ALL AETC ACC AMC PAC AFE...UNITED STATES AIR FORCE TRAINING EXTRACT AFSC 4D0X1 DIET THERAPY (ACTIVE DUTY) OSSN: 2472 JULY 2002 OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS PROGRAM AIR FORCE

  3. Photo-Sensors Maintenance AFSC 455XOA/B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Supplement 1 and ATCR 52-22. There are a number of unsupported elements in the Electronics Principles STS for each shred that need to be reviewed by...skill level members performing each matched task. Electronics principles data for each shred are listed in a separate extract which contains EPI data...personnel responding. These listings are included in sepa- rate Electronics Principles extracts. AFSC 455XOA STS. The first 10 paragraphs of the A-shred STS

  4. AFSC/FMA/ATLAS Remote Client

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data is collected by observers on deck sheets and either entered onto local databases and transmitted electronically or faxed to the AFSC for data entry. The FMA...

  5. Wideband Communications Equipment, AFSC 304X0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    areas that may deserve inclusion in any revision to the documents. Areas of electronics principles (EP) were identified that were performed by 50...from the Electronics Principles Inventory (EPI). The EPI is a knowledge-based inven- tory containing 1,366 questions in 63 electronics-related subject...47 TABLE 21 ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES USED BY FIFTY PERCENT OR MORE OF AFSC 30450 PERSONNEL MATHEMATICS OSCILLOSCOPES DIRECT CURRENT SEMICONDUCTOR

  6. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Channel Islands Pinniped Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated and maintains census programs for California sea lions (Zalophus...

  7. AFSC/REFM: Alaska groundfish AGEDATA database,1982 to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AFSC AGEDATA database is a collection of historic and ongoing fish ageing efforts by the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's Age and Growth Program from 1982 to...

  8. An Investigation of the Effects of Rank, AFSC, and Dependents on the Length of the Separation for Air Force Enlisted Join Spouse Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    AFSC 20 INTELLIGENCE 442 MALES 420 FEMALES AFSC 22 PHOTOMAPPING 0 MALES 0 FEMALES AFSC 23 AUDIOVISUAL 61 MALES 92 FEMALES AFSC 24 SAFTEY 48 MALES 29...60 TRANSPORTATION 325 MALES 349 FEMALES AFSC 61 SUPPLY SERVICES 57 MALES 79 FEMALES AFSC 62 FOOD SERVICES 71 MALES 102 FEMALES AFSC 63 FUELS 166 MALES...sper * afsc(6) N(6) * N(6) * 1 goto 100 C 24 SAFTEY laeif(efecl .lt. 25) then rper a afec(7) N(7) a N(7) * 1 goto 100 C 25 WEATHER elself(feicl .It. 26

  9. AFSC/NMML: Cetacean line-transect survey in the eastern Bering Sea shelf; 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visual surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf along transect lines, in association with the AFSC.s echo integration trawl surveys for...

  10. Space Systems Equipment Maintenance Career Ladder AFSC-309X0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    26 ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES INVENTORY (EPI) .... ............... .... 31 JOB SATISFACTION ANALYSIS ........... ........... . . . . 32...the-job training) are ade- quately meeting the needs of the career ladder. ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES INVENTORY (EPI) - An additional source of information...for AFSC 309X0 training developers is the EPI. The EPI is a 1,366 item, knowledge-based inventory which identifies the range of electronics principles personnel

  11. Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) AFSC 454X1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    MECHANICS (AFSC 45451) 65 0115 INITIATE OR MAINTAIN TRAINING RECORDS, SUCH AS AF FORMS 623 OR 623A 64 E176 INITIATE OR ANNOTATE AF FORMS 2005 (ISSUE/TURN-IN...preoperations inspections 79 E176 Initiate or annotate AF Forms 2005 (Issue/Turn-in Request) 79 H395 Parallel generators 79 0867 Perform mobile TACS load...PERFORMED: 61 TASKS ARE LISTED IN DESCENDING ORDER OF PERCENT MEMBERS PERFORMING: PERCENT MEMBERS TASKS PERFORMING E176 Initiate or annotate AF Forms 2005

  12. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2008 pollock acoustic trawl survey Shelikof DY0803

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's (AFSC) Resource Assessment and...

  13. AFSC/REFM: North Pacific Groundfish Stock Assessment Chapters, 1998-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Members of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's (AFSC) Stock Assessment and Multispecies Assessments Program are responsible for determining the condition of...

  14. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2006 Pollock Acoustic-Trawl Survey Bering Sea- DY0606

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Alaska Fisheries Science Center’s (AFSC) Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program conduct biennial echo...

  15. AFSC/REFM: Community Profiles for North Pacific Fisheries, Alaska 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2005, the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) compiled baseline socioeconomic information about 136 Alaska communities most involved in commercial fisheries....

  16. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Rooper: Deep sea coral and sponge distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a series of ongoing research projects, the AFSC has been mapping and modeling the distribution of deep-sea coral and sponge communities throughout Alaska....

  17. AFSC/ABL: Blackspotted and rougheye rockfish genetics and age data from RACE trawl surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains field and genetic identification of rougheye (Sebastes aleutianus) and blackspotted (Sebastes melanostictus) rockfish collected during AFSC...

  18. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2011 acoustic trawl survey Gulf of Alaska DY1103

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) Resource Assessment and...

  19. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2012 acoustic trawl survey Shelikof DY1203

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) Resource Assessment and...

  20. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2014 acoustic trawl survey Bogoslof DY1402

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) regularly conduct acoustic-trawl...

  1. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food habits of California sea lions in Washington, 1986 - 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1986 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples and stomachs of male California...

  2. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Armistead: 1975 - 2016 eastern Bering Sea Crab Distribution For Web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering Division (RACE) of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) conducts bottom trawl surveys to monitor the...

  3. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2012 acoustic trawl survey Bogoslof DY1202

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) Resource Assessment and...

  4. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food habits of Steller sea lions in Washington, 1993 - 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1993 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples from Steller sea lions in...

  5. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2013 acoustic trawl survey Gulf of Alaska DY1307

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) Resource Assessment and...

  6. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2014 Pollock Acoustic-Trawl Survey Shelikof- DY1403

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's (AFSC) Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering...

  7. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2015 acoustic trawl survey Shelikof DY1503

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's (AFSC) Resource Assessment and...

  8. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2016 acoustic trawl survey Shumagins/Sanak DY1602

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's (AFSC) Resource Assessment and...

  9. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2016 acoustic trawl survey Bogoslof DY1603

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's (AFSC) Resource Assessment and...

  10. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food Habits of Pinnipeds at San Miguel Island, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collects fecal samples to examine the diet of pinnipeds, including...

  11. AFSC/FMA/North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut Observer Program, Post 2008 Fishery Statistics.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected by the ATLAS Client and transmitted electronically or by fax to the AFSC are loaded into production transaction tables which are the source data for...

  12. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Northern fur seal demography at San Miguel Island, California, 1974 - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of northern fur seals (Callorhinus...

  13. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2013 Pollock Acoustic/Trawl Survey Shelikof 201303

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's (AFSC) Resource Assessment and...

  14. Instrumentation Career Ladder AFSC 316X3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    well as a number of survey respondents, expressed the opinion that only electronics principles should be included in the entry-level course. They feel...Because there are so many, they will not be dis- cussed in this report. School personnel need to review the table and the Electronics Principles Extract

  15. Dental Assistant, AFSC 981X0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    career ladder assist dental officers in the performance of restorative, endodontic, orthodontic , pedodontic, periodontic, prosthodontic, and dental...representative location for orthodontic , pedodontic, and medi- cal readiness functions Randolph AFB TX Typical USAF Clinic In addition to interviews at the...members performing, command concerns, or criticality. Products in the Training Extract contain 26 several listings of tasks with accompanying TE and TD

  16. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Natality rates of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California during 1987-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of California sea lions (Zalophus...

  17. AFSC/RACE/SAP: Detailed Crab Data From NOAA Fisheries Service 2012 Chukchi Sea Bottom Trawl Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detailed crab data collected from the 2012 NOAA/NMFS/AFSC/RACE crab-groundfish bottom trawl survey of the Chukchi Sea. 71 survey stations were...

  18. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Harbor seal demography in Washington; capture, tagging, branding data from 1981 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) in collaboration with Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife captured...

  19. Avionics Instrument Systems Specialist Career Ladder: AFSCs 32531, 32551, 31571, and 32591. Occupational Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The Avionics Instrument Systems career ladder (AFSC 325X1) provides flight line and shop maintenance training on aircraft instrument systems, electromechancial instruments, components, and test equipment. Duties involve inspecting, removing, installing, repairing, operating, troubleshooting, overhauling, and modifying systems such as flight and…

  20. Automatic Tracking Radar Career Ladder, AFSC-303X3. Electronics Principles Inventory (EPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    81 UNCLASSIFIED NL mhhmI/I/II///IEEIIIIEIIIIIEE EIIIIEEEEIIIII UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES INVENTORY (EPI),., / b AUTOMATIC...presents the preliminary results of an Air Force Electronics Principles Survey of the Automatic Tracking Radar career ladder (AFSC 303X3). The project was...undertaken at the request of Mr. James R. Haupt, Training Manager, Keesler AFB, MS. Authority for conducting electronics principles inventories is

  1. Occupational Survey Report, Bioenvironmental Engineering, AFSC 4B0X1, OSSN: 2501

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    analyzed the data and wrote the final report. Mrs. Jeanie C. Guesman provided computer-programming support, and Ms. Dolores Navarro provided...for at least two of the tenure groups) were off- duty education or training opportunities, medical or dental care for AD member, job security...NO OR PROBABLY NO 51 46 36 32 10 7 WILL RETIRE 0 4 1 6 27 33 * Comparative sample of Medical and Dental AFSC 4XXXX career fields surveyed in last

  2. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2009 ACOUSTIC-TRAWL SURVEYS OF THE SHUMAGINS, SANAK TROUGH & WESTERN GULF OF ALASKA SHELFBREAK DY0901

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's (AFSC) Resource Assessment and...

  3. AFSC/RACE/SAP: Detailed Crab Data From NOAA Fisheries Service Annual Eastern Bering Sea Summer Bottom Trawl Surveys 1975 - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detailed crab data collected from the annual NOAA/NMFS/AFSC/RACE crab-groundfish bottom trawl survey of the eastern Bering Sea continental...

  4. AFSC/REFM: Groundfish Survey of the Chukchi Sea in 2013 by Shelf Habitat and Ecology of Fish and Zooplankton (SHELFZ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alaska Fisheries Science Centers (AFSC) Status of Stocks and Multispecies Assessment (SSMA) Programs Fishery Interaction Team (FIT) conducted an offshore fish...

  5. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Diet of Pacific harbor seals at Umpqua River, Oregon and Columbia River, Oregon/Washington during 1994 through 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1994 to 2005, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples at the Umpqua River, Oregon and...

  6. Occupational Survey Report. Ground Radio Communications, AFSC 2E1X3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    analyzed the data, and wrote the final report. Mr. Tyrone Hill provided computer-programming support, and Ms. Dolores Navarro and Ms. Sherry Evans...AFSC 2E1X3 members selected military-related education and training opportunities and medical/ dental care for AD members as their second and third...TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES 52 2.52 55 2.49 50 2.34 MEDICAL/ DENTAL CARE FOR AD MEMBER 60 2.57 55 2.56 53 2.48 MEDICAL/ DENTAL CARE FOR FAMILY MEMBERS 48

  7. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  8. Training Extract AFSC 51XX Computer Systems Officer AFPT 90-51X-468.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    LOACING;O. OUNLIAD INkS OF ADPE 1.26 20.9 26.7 20.0 .0 -𔃿 DETROY OR wITNE SS ERE TION0Of CLASSIFIED MATERIALS 1.26 27.5 3 3.3 25.0? 103.0 ’𔃼 S...LT LI7 L LI - 7 . TLC ’! CRON-LINE EN9I’CN"-ENlT~j 4.3 . 32 5. 27 1. - b ’ Q I I’E 7 C ;C I5 RIAL TI E ENRIXONMET 4.6 t. 2. .30 339 7. 58i DE .ELCP EIT

  9. Training Extract, AFSC 113X0B, Flight Engineer, Helicopter Qualified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    45.2 6.61 8O ASSIGN 0N-rWE-JOB (OJT$ TRAINERS 1.58 .0 b. -. 32.2 4.9s 7 1q PREPARE f0813tNG :CHCOULCS 1.S!, .0 12.3 I,4 3Z.z 5.63 1 18 PLAN OJT 1.Sc...37.4 T.98 SYSTEM STATIC PORTS .𔃽b INSPECT PRIMARY FL1-1 CjNTROL SYSTEW (PFCS! 0,,? L65. 6-.5 t5.3 7C.4 4.4 Z!7 I’SPECT SEATS, SEAT IELTS . OR S40ULDP...6.61 A- ASS1% ON-THE-JOT I3jTI TRAINERS 1.S8 19.9 3b.4 19.C 17." 2S.5 4.95 •i P8CPAP’r TWATNTNPJ SC64ouLES 1.55 2l.5 27.3 9.5 24.6 19.1 5.63 l ip P.AN

  10. Analysis Extract. AFSC 4D0X1 Diet Therapy (Active Duty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    AD Clinical Dietetics Independent Job 459 37. RP0080 prtjob AD Nutritional Education...orientations for newly assigned 23.85 .88 .21 78.39 personnel B0058 Prepare foods for fiber - and...foods for fiber - and residue-restricted diets 33.33 .64 .21 76.71 M0340 Complete accident or incident reports

  11. Avionic Sensor Systems and Aerospace Photographic Systems Repair Career Ladders AFSCs 322X2A, 322X2C, and 404X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    3ABR322X2C is 98 days; and course 3ABR404X1 is 73 days in duration. The A- and C-shred attend a 226-hour G3AQR32020-005 Electronics Principles Course...The 404X1 receive electronics principles incorporated into their regular curriculum for a total of 183 hours. Successful completion of the tech school... Electronics Principles Inventory (EPI) was recently completed which included the 322X2A AFSC. The goal of an EPI is to obtain information on percent

  12. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  13. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007630.htm Tooth extraction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from ...

  14. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  15. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  16. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  17. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human nutrition, particularly in developing ... studied the effect of NaCl on the extractability of ... significant influence on the functional properties ..... Malaka, S. L. O. and Amund, O. O. Studies on the Life Cycle and Morphometrics of Honeybees,.

  18. AFSC/ABL: Multibeam Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seafloor habitat maps have been created using high resolution multibeam sonar with co-registered backscatter at various locations throughout the Alaska Region. Most...

  19. AFSC: Various fish maturity studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knowledge of the reproductive biology of fish and crab stocks is critical to stock assessment estimates of the reproductive potential (typically measured as spawning...

  20. Public Health (AFSC 43HX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    D238 Write training reports 1.41 3 D234 Score tests .65 16 0014 3. Occupational Health E252 Maintain Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference...hazard reports 2.22 9 E252 Maintain Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference files 1.59 6 0024 3j. Industrial Case files B B 131 Update shop...0048 3bb. Indoor Air Quality B E252 Maintain Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference files 1.59 6 0050 4a. Food Inspection Program B E242

  1. AFSC/ABL: Rockfish Barotrauma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Because rockfish (Sebastes spp.) are physoclystic, i.e. their gas bladders are closed off from the gut, they often suffer internal injuries from rapid, internal air...

  2. Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

  3. Bevalac extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

  4. Information extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lei; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to extract relevant information by knowledge graphs from natural language text. We give a multiple level model based on knowledge graphs for describing template information, and investigate the concept of partial structural parsing. Moreover, we point out that

  5. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the phenomeno

  6. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  7. Extraction parameters for metabolomics from cell extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Zheng; Liu, Xiaojing; Tang, Ngoc Nu; Locasale, Jason W

    2015-01-01

    The successful extraction of metabolites is a critical step in metabolite profiling. By optimizing metabolite extraction, the range and quantitative capacity of metabolomics studies can be improved. We considered eight separate extraction protocols for the preparation of a metabolite extract from cultured mammalian cells. Parameters considered included temperature, pH, and cell washing before extraction. The effects on metabolite recovery were studied using a high resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) platform that measures metabolites of diverse chemical classes including among others amino acids, lipids, and sugar derivatives. The temperature considered during the extraction or the presence of formic acid, a commonly used additive, was shown to have minimal effects on the measured ion intensities of metabolites. However, washing of samples before metabolite extraction whether with water or PBS (both commonly considered practices) exhibited dramatic effects on measured intensities of both intra- and extra-cellular metabolites. Together these findings present a systematic assessment of extraction conditions for metabolite profiling. PMID:25613493

  8. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce inflammation. Grape seed extract contains the antioxidant compound oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC), which has been studied for a variety of health conditions. OPCs are found in extracts of grape skin and seeds, which are by-products of the ...

  9. Method of infusion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  10. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço; Mônica Tirre de Souza Araújo

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portugue...

  11. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  12. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de S. Dardengo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases.

  13. AFSC/ABL: Longline Survey Special Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two-day experiments have been conducted as a separate leg on the Alaska Fisheries Science Centers longline survey since 1998. Experiments are conducted usually in...

  14. Munitions Operations AFSC 465X0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    training officials . Captain Marlon K. Gardley, Occupational Analyst, developed the survey instrument. Captain Virgil Hamaty analyzed the survey data...The relative time spent in a specific duty provides a guide to the different aspects of a job, but is not in itself indicative of that particular job...ms- I Z; in 41 c S-L.SEA 1 ~ -L.’ 5- 1 ~ ~ ii WWj I -In-- Gmat - wf04 a0 1a’~~ c I 1 0a-- 3Q.a. l-~. 1 1S a---1’ ol 01 u a- 000 C I m 0 -4 O" C I I1 C

  15. AFSC/ABL: Female Giant Grenadier maturity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Giant grenadiers Albatrossia pectoralis are caught as bycatch in deep-sea commercial fisheries in relatively large numbers. The population appears to be stable,...

  16. AFSC/FMA/Current Observer Data Interface

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishery regulators and industry require near real time fishery statistics formatted appropriately for their software to record and process. This project is the...

  17. AFSC/FMA/Vessel Assessment Logging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vessels fishing trawl gear, vessels fishing hook-and-line and pot gear that are also greater than 57.5 feet overall, and shoreside and floating processing facilities...

  18. Instrumentation Career Ladder AFSC 316X3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    tasks of average difficulty have ratings of 5.00. Tasks rated as above average in difficulty were ostly associated with laser technology . These laser...UTILIZATION OF TALEN : EXCELLENTLY TO PERFECTLY 29% VERY WILL TO FAIRLY WELL 71% LITTLE OR NOT AT ALL 0. PERCEIVED UrILIZATION OF TRAINING: EXCELLENTLY TO

  19. AFSC/ABL: Seafloor Habitat Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since 1988, scientists at the Auke Bay Laboratories have been using the /Delta/ submarine for a wide range of research projects. Over 500 dives have been completed....

  20. Medical Laboratory Technician--Microbiology (AFSC 90470).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are laboratory procedures in clinical bacteriology (the history of bacteriology; aseptic techniques and sterilization procedures; bacterial morphology and…

  1. AFSC/FMA/Observer Logistics System (OLS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alaska groundfish fisheries observers have been monitoring domestic groundfish fishing activities in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off Alaska for over...

  2. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACEBASE Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Division is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and related ecological and...

  3. Open Mess Management (AFSC 742X0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    inspect dining room appearance monitor floor service for special functions coordinate special function arrangements with section heads evaluate...77 F204 REVIEW DAY OR NIGHT MANAGER’S LOGS 74 L339 MONITOR FLOOR SERVICE FOR SPECIAL FUNCTIONS 73 J281 ESTABLISH CUSTOMER RELATIONS 73 L356 MONITOR...WAITER OR WAITRESS PROCEDURES 73 L340 MONITOR FOOD PRODUCTION FOR SPECIAL FUNCTIONS 72 L325 BRIEF STAFF ON SPECIAL FUNCTION REQUIREMENTS 72 N383 PERFORM

  4. AFSC/REFM: Groundfish SAFE Economic Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Groundfish SAFE Economic Report, published annually as a supplement to the Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Reports for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  5. AFSC/FMA/CAMS Data Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CAMS system consists of a set of tables and packages that provide authentication services to all other North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut Observing Program...

  6. AFSC/ABL: Chinook allozyme baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Allozyme variation was used to examine population genetic structure of adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, collected between 1988 and 1993 from 22...

  7. AFSC/ABL: 2009 Chinook Excluder Samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project genetically analyzed 1,620 chinook salmon samples from the 2009 spring salmon excluder device test. These samples were collected over a short period of...

  8. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon allozyme baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Allozymes from 46 loci were analyzed from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) collected at 61 locations in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Of the 42...

  9. Graphics Career Ladder AFSC 231X1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    TIP MARKERS, BRUSHES, LIGHT TABLE, LINE MASTER, PAPER, MATS, T-SQUARE, RULER, FLIP CHART PAPER, TEMPLATES, SQUARE, TAPE, NON-PHOTO BLUE PENCIL, PAINT...ILLUSTRATORS TOOLS AND SUPPLIES, FRENCH CURVE, GRAPH PAPER, KROY MACHINE, LIGHT TABLE, FELT TIP MARKERS, COPY MACHINE, FLIP CHART PAPER, TEMPLATES (MILITARY...LETTERING SHEETS (TASK 00010) A - PROOFREAD TEXT (F241) OR A - PLACE GUIDE SHEET ON BACK OF CHART PAPER A - SKETCH ROUGH DRAFT ON FLIP CHART (G257) A

  10. Transportation Career Field, AFSC 60XXX

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    SATISFACTION REPORT FORMS 45 H549 INSPECT COMMERCIAL PACKERS FOR COMPLIANCE WITH CONTRACTUAL SPECIFICATIONS 45 A6 DETERMINE WORK PRIORITIES 42 E297 ...PREPARE AF FORMS 1530 (PUNCH CARD TRANSCRIPT) 48 E297 PREPARE DD FORMS 1812 (WAREHOUSE INSPECTION REPORT) 48 . E311 REVIEW GOVERNMENT BILLS OF LADING (GBL

  11. Diet Therapy Career Ladder, AFSC 926XO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    prep- aring, cooking, and serving routine and therapeutic diets for personnel under - medical treatment; performing clinical dietetics tasks; and...operating and cleaning medical food service equipment; procuring, storing, and issuing dietetic foods and sup- plies; and performing medical food...FOOC FOR MINIMAL-RESIDUE DIETS ACCORDING TO PHYSICIAN’S OR DIETITIAN’S GUIDELINES AND AFR 160-8 50% 5.98 G193 PREPARE FOOD FOR HIGH FIBER DIETS

  12. AFSC/ABL: 2006 Sockeye genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this study was to genetically analyze axillary process samples from ~6,000 sockeye salmon harvested in the 2006 and 2007 Districts 101 gillnet and 104...

  13. AFSC/ABL: Southeast Alaska Estuaries Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains trawl and seine catches from Southeast Alaskan estuaries sampled from 1995 to 2008. The data also include physical variables (temp, salinity,...

  14. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish habitat utilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile rockfish were observed amongst coral, sponge, cobble, and gravel habitats. Rockfish utilized coral habitats more than any other, while gravel was the least...

  15. AFSC/ABL: Salisbury Sound sponge recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1995, an area of the seafloor near Salisbury Sound was trawled to identify immediate effects on large, erect sponges and sea whips. Video transects were made in...

  16. AFSC/ABL: Coldwater coral growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Colonies of the gorgonian coral Calcigorgia spiculifera were tagged at three sites in Southeast Alaska, Little Port Walter, Tenakee Inlet, and Kelp Bay. The corals...

  17. AFSC/ABL: Longline Sablefish Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data is available from annual bottom longline surveys conducted cooperatively by Japan (1979-1994) and the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries...

  18. Avionics Instrument Systems Specialist (AFSC 32551).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lawrence B.; Crowcroft, Robert A.

    This six-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for avionics instrument systems specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are career field familiarization (career field progression and training, security, occupational safety and health, and career field reference material);…

  19. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Aleutians Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 2.1 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings extending 1,900 km along the Aleutian Islands from Unimak Island in the east to the...

  20. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehala. G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS. FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extracting true minutiae.

  1. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  2. Extractant Design by Covalency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Angela Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozimor, Stosh Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cross, Justin Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, Enrique Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Macor, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  3. Parallel Feature Extraction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHuimin; WANGYan

    2003-01-01

    Very high speed image processing is needed in some application specially for weapon. In this paper, a high speed image feature extraction system with parallel structure was implemented by Complex programmable logic device (CPLD), and it can realize image feature extraction in several microseconds almost with no delay. This system design is presented by an application instance of flying plane, whose infrared image includes two kinds of feature: geometric shape feature in the binary image and temperature-feature in the gray image. Accordingly the feature extraction is taken on the two kind features. Edge and area are two most important features of the image. Angle often exists in the connection of the different parts of the target's image, which indicates that one area ends and the other area begins. The three key features can form the whole presentation of an image. So this parallel feature extraction system includes three processing modules: edge extraction, angle extraction and area extraction. The parallel structure is realized by a group of processors, every detector is followed by one route of processor, every route has the same circuit form, and works together at the same time controlled by a set of clock to realize feature extraction. The extraction system has simple structure, small volume, high speed, and better stability against noise. It can be used in the war field recognition system.

  4. Extraction of polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loucif Seiad L.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of certain parameters on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols from an Algerian tree (Pinus Halepensis Mill. Extraction was conducted in a stirred closed extractor. Our study was conducted to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic contents (TPC using Folin Ciocalteu method. A response surface methodology (RSM was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on extraction followed by a composite design (CD approach. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were for a temperature of 45°C and for the smallest particles.

  5. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing...

  6. Nano-electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.

    2013-01-01

    The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 μL acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE......), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary...... as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction...

  7. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  8. CARICA PAPAYA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Powdered leaves of Carica papaya (L.) were extracted with ethanol and partitioned in chloroform and distilled .... employed in this research is important in determining whether the ... Screening of higher plants reputed as pesticides using brine ...

  9. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mehala. G

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE) algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS). FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extractin...

  10. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  11. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  12. Neutral Complex Extraction and Synergistic Extraction of Macrolide Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the theory of reactive extraction, new solvent systems were developed to replace butylacetate for extraction of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, kitasamycin, spiramycin meleumycin etc.). A new neutral complex solvent extraction system, fatty alcohol-kerosene (marked by E1), was used for extraction of erythromycin, one of the macrolide antibiotics. The extraction equilibrium equation is obtained, and the extraction distribution is as follows The effects of several parameters on extraction equilibrium were investigated. Furthermore, a new synergistic extraction system (marked by E2) was developed, in which another solvent was used as synergistic agent to replace the diluent kerosene in the neutral complex extraction system. Based on these new extraction systems, an improved process for extraction of erythromycin was developed, showing remarkable advantages in technology and economics owing to its low solvent consumption of 3kg per billion unit compared with 9-10 for butylacetate. The recovery process of solvent from raffinate may be eliminated.

  13. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  14. Tevatron extraction microcomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

    1985-06-01

    Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance.

  15. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  16. Missile Electronic Equipment Career Ladder, AFSC 411XOA (Formerly AFSC 316X2G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    Plan of Instruction ........ ........ 31 Analysis of Equipment Used at the Technicai School....... 36 ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES INVENTORY...two courses at Chanute AFB IL: Electronics Principles Course AQR31020-0O2, Blocks I through IX, followed by one of two separate airman basic resident...Blocks I through IV of Electronics Principles Course AQR31020- 002 before advancing to the ABR courses. Secondly, the former 316X2G ABR courses were

  17. Strategic Aircraft Maintenance Career Ladder AFSC 452X4 (Formerly AFSC 431X1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    8217 - I ’DCCN * to A4 AO N6* A- I in V% in0.4 .0 -’- NI- 0 , Lij ~ ~ ~ N. 0N Nto Nwa4 aUr- m 4 0 r- NF 0 Nif # CN .4 - -4 eqfa 4P-f C) N D , a f--0 - c 0...0 a o o 0 𔃺 000 a c aa. if .9 x. .19 6 0’ 0’ NIf ~~CZ. I= I I ~ c .0 U, 1.3 U .4 .4 4N -4 N 0.04 MM 0 00 4 01&i NM 4-INI Gf P4 *~~~ P.. tf ~ .- 4 N 10...I0’C4 ’A Ln C, M0 I0 2 04 w14 sU C 6 ’o 44naL 41 42 a 4m1 42L 4 1 4 411 .. 41 CU4i NJ -4 .0 :1 6 6 I 0 u0 qr a Z o1. C- b10 0 S. 1. 41 U ’ 0~ -W 4

  18. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition

  19. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  20. Supercritical fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  1. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  2. Second premolar serial extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joondeph, D R; Riedel, R A

    1976-02-01

    Serial extraction of mandibular second premolars should be considered if they are impacted or in cases with moderate arch length deficiency combined with an absence of dentofacial protrusion. The favorable dental changes associated with this approach greatly minimize future orthodontic treatment complexity and time.

  3. [Amebicidal plants extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara; Sułek, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The free-living amoebae from genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system; amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Chemotherapy of Acanthamoeba infection is problematic. The majority of infections have been fatal. Only a few cases are reported to have been treated successfully with very highly toxic drugs. The therapy might be succeed, if the diagnosis and therapy is made at very early stage of infection. In our experiments we used the following plant extracts: Solidago virgaurea, Solidago graminifolia, Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, and natural plants products as ellagic acid and puerarin. Those therapeutic agents and plants extracts have been tested in vitro for amebicidal or amebostatic activity against pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. Our results showed that methanol extracts obtained from plants are active against axenic pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. trophozoites in vitro at concentration below 0.1 mg/ml. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these extracts are also effective in vivo in animal model of infection with Acanthamoeba sp.

  4. SPS extraction systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    One of the 3-m long electrostatics septa. The septum itself consists of 0.15 mm thick molybdenum wires with a 1.5 mm pitch. Each of the two SPS extraction systems will contain four of these electrostatic septa.

  5. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhan Ocakcioglu; Serhat Koyuncu; Mustafa Kupeli; Oguzhan Bol

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum.

  6. Endophthalmitis following cataract extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, K; Coster, D J; Badenoch, P R; Sanders, R; Chandraratnam, E; Kupa, A

    1987-02-01

    We describe a case of bacterial endophthalmitis complicating routine cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation in a 91-year-old woman. The ocular and systemic factors that may have predisposed to intraocular infection in this case, and the possibility of predicting these pre-operatively, are discussed.

  7. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  8. Comparison of the outcomes of the lower incisor extraction, premolar extraction and non-extraction treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan; Malkoc, Siddik; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of lower incisor extraction and to compare it with premolar extraction and non-extraction treatment. The sample consisted of 60 subjects with Class I malocclusion and moderate crowding. The sample was separated into three groups: extraction of a lower incisor group, extraction of a four first premolar group and a non-extraction group. All groups involved 13 girls and 7 boys with a total of 20 patients. The Peer assessment rating (PAR) index was applied to a patient's pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) dental casts. T1 dental casts were also used for determining Bolton discrepancy. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. For the mean percentage PAR score reduction for each group, there was one significant difference seen between the lower incisor extraction group and the non-extraction group (P = 0.047). For the mean anterior ratios, there were significant differences among premolar extraction group versus non-extraction group (P = 0.042) and non-extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.000). For the mean overall ratios, there were significant differences among the premolar extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.048) and the non-extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.001). Orthodontic treatment without extraction has a better treatment outcome than the four-first premolar extraction and single lower incisor extraction protocols in Class I cases with moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding.

  9. Extracting tag hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...

  10. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  11. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  12. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  13. Driver Fatigue Features Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengtian Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver fatigue is the main cause of traffic accidents. How to extract the effective features of fatigue is important for recognition accuracy and traffic safety. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new method of driver fatigue features extraction based on the facial image sequence. In this method, first, each facial image in the sequence is divided into nonoverlapping blocks of the same size, and Gabor wavelets are employed to extract multiscale and multiorientation features. Then the mean value and standard deviation of each block’s features are calculated, respectively. Considering the facial performance of human fatigue is a dynamic process that developed over time, each block’s features are analyzed in the sequence. Finally, Adaboost algorithm is applied to select the most discriminating fatigue features. The proposed method was tested on a self-built database which includes a wide range of human subjects of different genders, poses, and illuminations in real-life fatigue conditions. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. DNA extraction from crayfish exoskeleton

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Yanhe; Wang, Weimin; Liu, Xiaolian; Luo, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Gul, Yasmeen

    2011-01-01

    .... However, it is difficult to extract DNA from them. This study was intended to investigate CE as a DNA source and design an easy and efficient DNA extraction protocol for polymerase chain reactions...

  15. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  16. Contact dermatitis to botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Cohen, David E

    2002-09-01

    A review of the literature of reported cases of contact dermatitis to a variety of natural herbal extracts is Presented. Natural extracts are commonly used ingredients in many cosmetic preparations and homeopathic remedies. Although the term natural botanical extracts inherently purports to have beneficial and benign properties, these extracts can cause adverse reactions in individuals. As such, dermatologists should be cognizant of these agents as possible sources of allergenicity in patients presenting with contact dermatitis.

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  18. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  19. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  20. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  1. Application of ultrasound in extractive metallurgy: Sonochemical extraction of nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesic, Batric; Zhou, Taili

    1992-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound in solvent extraction was examined by studying solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70 extractants. The studied parameters were ultrasonic energy and frequency, pH, temperature, and organic and aqueous solution composition. The stability of extractants under the influence of ultrasound was also examined. It was found that ultrasound had a significant importance, because it increased the extraction rates four- to sevenfold. The effect of ultrasound was physical, i.e., to increase the surface area. Ultrasonic energy consumption was also evaluated. The consumption was high, but it can be significantly reduced by the appropriate method of application. A novel solvent extraction method, extraction-in-pipe, was also proposed.

  2. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  3. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  4. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN ZEKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.

  6. Extracting Text from Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  7. EXTRACTING TEXT FROM VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  8. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  9. Solvent extraction:The coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, Mn+, metalate anions, MXxn-, or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal ...

  10. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    OpenAIRE

    Haritha Kanne; Narayan Pandurang Burte; Prasanna, V; Ravi Gujjula

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: T...

  11. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  12. Foreign Body Extraction Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract are common. Mostly they are swallowed accidentally by children but also by adults. When round and slippery, foreign bodies cause a technical problem for removal. After several days in the stomach they are covered with mucus and extraction becomes even harder. There are various devices designed for use through the flexible endoscope for grasping foreign bodies but due to the great variety of objects, one may face a real problem while trying to remove them. We faced a challenge in a woman who underwent vertical band gastroplasty and was obstructed by a round and slippery hazelnut. We managed to remove the nut using a simple homemade device. This device is easy to make, cheap, and simple to use and maybe useful for various foreign bodies.

  13. Feature Extraction Using Mfcc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mel Frequency Ceptral Coefficient is a very common and efficient technique for signal processing. Thispaper presents a new purpose of working with MFCC by using it for Hand gesture recognition. Theobjective of using MFCC for hand gesture recognition is to explore the utility of the MFCC for imageprocessing. Till now it has been used in speech recognition, for speaker identification. The present systemis based on converting the hand gesture into one dimensional (1-D signal and then extracting first 13MFCCs from the converted 1-D signal. Classification is performed by using Support Vector Machine.Experimental results represents that proposed application of using MFCC for gesture recognition havevery good accuracy and hence can be used for recognition of sign language or for other householdapplication with the combination for other techniques such as Gabor filter, DWT to increase the accuracyrate and to make it more efficient.

  14. Quantitative metamaterial property extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schurig, David

    2015-01-01

    We examine an extraction model for metamaterials, not previously reported, that gives precise, quantitative and causal representation of S parameter data over a broad frequency range, up to frequencies where the free space wavelength is only a modest factor larger than the unit cell dimension. The model is comprised of superposed, slab shaped response regions of finite thickness, one for each observed resonance. The resonance dispersion is Lorentzian and thus strictly causal. This new model is compared with previous models for correctness likelihood, including an appropriate Occam's factor for each fit parameter. We find that this new model is by far the most likely to be correct in a Bayesian analysis of model fits to S parameter simulation data for several classic metamaterial unit cells.

  15. [Quality control of plant extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yun-dong; Gao, Wen-yuan; Liu, Dan; Jia, Wei; Duan, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2003-10-01

    The current situation of plant extract in domestic and international market was analyzed in the paper. The quality control of 20 plant extracts which have reasonably good sales in USA market was compared and analyzed. The analysis of the quality control of six plant extracts indicated that there were two main reasons leading to the varied quality specifications among different suppliers. One reason was that the plant species utilized by different companies were different. The other reason was that the extraction processes were different among different production plants. Comparing with the significant international suppliers of plant extracts, the product quality of Chinese companies were not satisfactory. It was suggested that chromatography and chromatographic fingerprint techniques should be applied to improve the quality control standard of plant extract in our country.

  16. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  17. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  18. Complex Event Extraction using DRUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    read papers and combine results of individual studies into a comprehensive explanatory model. A first step is to automatically extract relevant events...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Complex Event Extraction using DRUM The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are...event extraction , big mechanism, deep reading REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S

  19. Quasi-linear Dialectica Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Trifon

    Gödel's functional interpretation [1] can be used to extract programs from non-constructive proofs. Though correct by construction, the obtained terms can be computationally inefficient. One reason for slow execution is the re-evaluation of equal subterms due to the use of substitution during the extraction process. In the present paper we define a variant of the interpretation, which avoids subterm repetition and achieves an almost linear bound on the size of extracted programs.

  20. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  1. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  2. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  3. Crystal extraction at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

  4. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  5. Analysis of antioxidants extracted from polypropylene by supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, J A; Catalá, R; Gavara, R

    1998-01-01

    Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which the samples were exposed to the fluid without flux, the introduction of hexane and methanol as fluid modifiers significantly improved the extraction. Hexane appears to facilitate polymer swelling while methanol solvates the antioxidants. In the dynamic step (in which the extraction actually occurs) time is the key parameter. Extraction for 90 min results in an efficiency of around 75%. The introduction of modifiers during this step (by an HPLC-SFE procedure) did not produce any significant improvement. When SFE was carried out on all samples, extraction efficiency was around 75% except for Irganox 1010 and Hostanox O3. The large molecular volume of these antioxidants may be responsible for the considerable reduction of extraction efficiency. Particle size and shape of polymer sample were also important. The greater the surface to volume ratio the greater the extraction efficiency.

  6. Extractive Metallurgy Program funded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In an effort to concentrate research on ore dressing and metal production, the National Science Foundation (NSF) formed a new basic research program as a part of its Chemical and Process Engineering Division. This program will be under the auspices of NSF's Engineering Directorate. Research is to be supported on every step of extractive metallurgy, from mining to processing to production, and even to reprocessing and disposal. Budgeting for the new program is expected to be on the order of $1.2 million for fiscal year 1981.A program of this nature was apparently considered seriously by the Carter administration as a joint Department of Interior-private industry project of considerable size. Then-Secretary of Interior Cecil Andrus evidently did not support the program, but there is wide agreement throughout the mineral industries and the university community that such research is badly needed for the U.S. to compete. A joint program could benefit by cutting across the many difficult regulations that now are blamed for slowing research in minerals processing in this country.

  7. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sharon Suhono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post

  8. Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases.

  9. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  10. Extracting amplitudes from photoproduction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, R. L.

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problems associated with amplitude extraction, from meson photoproduction data, over the first resonance regions. The notion of a complete experiment has motivated the FROST program at Jefferson Lab. Exercises applied to pion photoproduction data illustrate the problems to be confronted in any attempt to extract underlying resonance signals from these data (without introducing a model for the resonant process).

  11. Extraction systems of the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    A pair of prototype septum magnets for the extraction systems of the SPS. Each of the two extraction systems will contain eighteen of these septum magnets (eight with a 4 mm septum and ten with a 16 mm septum) mounted in pairs in nine vacuum tanks.

  12. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  13. Event extraction for DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohta Tomoko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts including a representative sample of all PubMed citations relevant to DNA methylation, and introduce manual annotation for this corpus marking nearly 3000 gene/protein mentions and 1500 DNA methylation and demethylation events. We retrain a state-of-the-art event extraction system on the corpus and find that automatic extraction of DNA methylation events, the methylated genes, and their methylation sites can be performed at 78% precision and 76% recall. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that reliable extraction methods for DNA methylation events can be created through corpus annotation and straightforward retraining of a general event extraction system. The introduced resources are freely available for use in research from the GENIA project homepage http://www-tsujii.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/GENIA.

  14. Development of signal-extraction scheme for Resonant Sideband Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kokeyama, K; Kawazoe, F; Sato, S; Kawamura, S; Sugamoto, A

    2008-01-01

    As a future plan, an advanced gravitational-wave detector will employ an optical configuration of resonant sideband extraction (RSE), achieved with an additional mirror at the signal-detection port of the power-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. To control the complex coupled cavity system, one of the most important design issues is how to extract the longitudinal control signals of the cavities. We developed a new signal-extraction scheme which provides an appropriate sensing matrix. The new method uses two sets of sidebands: one of the sideband components satisfies the critical coupling ondition for the RSE interferometer and reaches the signal-extraction port, and the other sideband is completely reflected by the Michelson interferometer. They provide a diagonalized sensing matrix and enable the RSE control to be robust.

  15. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated.

  16. Implantable defibrillator lead extraction with optimized standard extraction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Ming Chu; Xue-Bin Li; Ping Zhang; Yi An; Jiang-Bo Duan; Long Wang; Ding Li; Bing Li; Ji-Hong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads might not be extracted especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools. We aimed to evaluate transvenous extraction of ICD leads using optimized standard techniques. Methods We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, optimized extraction techniques and the feasibility of extraction for 40 patients (33 males; mean age 47.9 ± 16.1 years) with 42 ICD leads. Results Complete procedural success rate was 95.2% (40/42), and the clinical success rate was 97.6% (41/42). One ICD lead required cardiothoracic surgery. Minor complications occurred in three cases (7.5%), and no major complications or death occurred. Locking stylets were used to extract most leads (34, 81.0%) and almost half of the leads (20, 47.6%) required mechanical dilatation to free fibrotic adhesions; these leads had been implanted for a longer period of time than the others (43.7 ± 18.2 vs. 18.4 ± 13.4 months, P < 0.05). Three-quarters of the leads (30, 71.4%) were extracted with locking stylets plus manual traction (12, 28.6%), or mechanical dilatation with counter-traction (18, 42.8%) by the superior vena cava approach and one-quarter of the leads (11, per lead. Linear regression analysis showed that the extraction time was significantly correlated with implant duration (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). optimized procedure for transvenous extraction of ICD leads provides a practical and low-cost method for standard procedures.

  17. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  18. REACTIVE EXTRACTION OF TARTARIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Marchitan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the results of reactive extraction of tartaric acid in model systems, which can be used for its separation from secondary wine products. As extractant have been used a normal/isododecyl mixed secondary amine Amberlite LA-2. The following parameters of the separation process have been varied: nature of diluent and modifier; modifier concentration; concentration, temperature and pH of the tartaric acid solution and the stirring time, and the work intervals have been established. It was concluded that in determinated conditions the extent of tartaric acid extraction attains value 85-95%.

  19. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 1. Reactive extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of downstream processes for biosynthetic products constitutes a particularity of industrial biotechnologies, especially because of the biosynthetic product high dilution in fermentation broth, their chemical and thermal liability and the presence of secondary products. For these reasons, new separation techniques have been developed and applied to bioseparations. Among them, reactive extraction, pertraction (extraction and transport through liquid membranes and direct extraction from broths have considerable potential and are required for the further development of many biotechnologies. This review is structured on two parts and presents our original results of the studies on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, amino acids, alcohols by reactive extraction in the first part, and by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration in the second. For all the analyzed cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies by reducing material and energy consumption, by avoiding product inhibition, by increasing the separation selectivity, therefore decreasing the overall cost of the product.

  20. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Kanne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO 3 and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S 3 O 9 . Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements.

  1. COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-09-07

    A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

  2. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  3. ACTIVITIES OF ACACIA NILOTICA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The water, chloroform and interface fractions were separated in glass ... (Ciulei, 1994), saponins (Turner and Brain, 1975), .... computer loaded with Finney program (Guerrero and. Robledo .... interface extracts appears to have the highest.

  4. The fallacy of serial extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K Paul

    2013-11-01

    It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'.

  5. Methanol Leaf Extracts in Experimental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commonly available natural drugs as alternative to currently used antitliarrhoeal drugs, which are not completely free from .... TABLE I: Effect of the extract of Anacardium rlccidentrlle on Castor .... and electrolyte movement in canine jejunum.

  6. TSCA Inventory Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...

  7. Extracting oil using carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, J.

    1984-01-01

    Special literature is the basis for a brief characterization of a method for extracting oil using CO2 and for generalizing the basic results of physical and chemical experiments, as well as displacement experiments conducted in laboratory conditions.

  8. Community extraction for social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yunpeng; Zhu, Ji

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of networks and in particular discovering communities within networks has been a focus of recent work in several fields, with applications ranging from citation and friendship networks to food webs and gene regulatory networks. Most of the existing community detection methods focus on partitioning the entire network into communities, with the expectation of many ties within communities and few ties between. However, many networks contain nodes that do not fit in with any of the communities, and forcing every node into a community can distort results. Here we propose a new framework that focuses on community extraction instead of partition, extracting one community at a time. The main idea behind extraction is that the strength of a community should not depend on ties between members of other communities, but only on ties within that community and its ties to the outside world. We show that the new extraction criterion performs well on simulated and real networks, and establish asymptotic consistency ...

  9. Point Source Extraction with MOPEX

    CERN Document Server

    Marleau, D M F R

    2005-01-01

    MOPEX (MOsaicking and Point source EXtraction) is a package developed at the Spitzer Science Center for astronomical image processing. We report on the point source extraction capabilities of MOPEX. Point source extraction is implemented as a two step process: point source detection and profile fitting. Non-linear matched filtering of input images can be performed optionally to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and improve detection of faint point sources. Point Response Function (PRF) fitting of point sources produces the final point source list which includes the fluxes and improved positions of the point sources, along with other parameters characterizing the fit. Passive and active deblending allows for successful fitting of confused point sources. Aperture photometry can also be computed for every extracted point source for an unlimited number of aperture sizes. PRF is estimated directly from the input images. Implementation of efficient methods of background and noise estimation, and modified Simplex a...

  10. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  11. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  12. Electrochemical process of titanium extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CH. RVS. NAGESH; C. S. RAMACHANDRAN

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of processes are being pursued by researchers for cost effective extraction of titanium metal. Electrochemical processes are promising due to simplicity and being less capital intensive. Some of the promising electrochemical processes of titanium extraction were reviewed and the results of laboratory scale experiments on electrochemical reduction of TiO2 granules were brought out. Some of the kinetic parameters of the reduction process were discussed while presenting the quality improvements achieved in the experimentation.

  13. Caesium extraction by calixarene molecules: Some aspects of extraction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Tournois, B.; Volle, G

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the environment Code (2000 studies were developed to recover long-lived fission products (F.P.) from acidic highly radioactive effluents issuing the reprocessing of spent fuels, to destroy them by transmutation or to encapsulate them into specific matrices. Efforts had been directed towards caesium, particularly {sup 135}Cs, which is one of the most harmful fission products because of its long half life (more than 2.10{sup 6} years) and its mobility in repository. The flow-sheet will be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was decided to define a process based on liquid-liquid extraction. Crown-calixarenes molecules were chosen for process development. To refine the flowsheet diagram, it is necessary to know the rate constants of the implied chemical reactions involved in the extraction. This paper describes the first determination of rate constant in the Cs extraction with crown calixarenes. (authors)

  14. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2006-06-15

    In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that

  15. Propolis extract application in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Spaziani Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has been ground in various areas of science, but its application in agriculture, is a recent and almost unknown subject. In agronomy work mainly seek to explore the antibiotic and antifungal properties of propolis, but other uses have been proposed, such as plant nutrition, pest control (such as mites and even reducing water stress in plants. Despite numerous utilities proven and proposals, there are many questions, particularly for the preparation of the extract, most appropriate chemical composition for a particular use, application forms, crude propolis extract in percentages, dose minimum efficiency, efficiency, etc. Given the above, the purpose of this literature review is to present the origin and chemical composition of propolis, making methodology of propolis extract, more effective dose in the control of fungi, plant pathogenic bacteria and reduce water stress. During the study, it can be seen that the difference in propolis composition occurs mainly due to the variability of vegetable composition in the vicinity of the hive, the bees forage and chemical composition is quite complex and variable in terms of both concentration and chemicals gifts. In the extraction, there are still many gaps to be studied, including the best way to obtain the extract, with questions about the best puller, with lack of consensus in the literature. On the efficiency of this technology, there are numerous studies with promising results, which allow implementation of technology in the field and these jobs concentrated in coffee crops, beans, cucumber and tomato.

  16. Optimal Extraction of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Kamal; Scherer, Charles, R.

    1977-06-01

    This study is concerned with the optimal extraction of energy from a hot water geothermal field. In view of the relative "commercial" availability of the many energy sources alternative to geothermal, it is possible that a socially "best" extraction policy may not include producing geothermal energy as fast as the current technology will permit. Rather, a truly "optimal" policy will depend on, among other things, the costs and value of geothermal energy in the future and the analogous values of other energy sources. Hence, a general approach to this problem would make the policy contingent on pertinent information on alternative sources. A good example of this approach is given in Manne's (1976) Energy Technology Assessment Model, where he points out that "Each energy source has its own cost parameters and introduction date, but is interdependent with other components of the energy sector." (Manne (1976), p. 379). But by their large dimensions, such relativity macro-analyses tend to preclude a close look at the specific technology of a process is important in developing meaningful resource management models, we substitute for a macro model the increasing value over time of the energy extracted. In this contact we seek an extraction rate (and an economic life) that maximizes the net discounted value of the energy extracted. [DJE-2005

  17. Extraction of Silver by Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Ananya; Gandi, Mounika; Chaudhari, Swathi; Bag, Soumabha; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-06-27

    Unprecedented silver ion leaching, in the range of 0.7 ppm was seen when metallic silver was heated in water at 70 °C in presence of simple carbohydrates, such as glucose, making it a green method of silver extraction. Extraction was facilitated by the presence of anions, such as carbonate and phosphate. Studies confirm a two-step mechanism of silver release, first forming silver ions at the metal surface and later complexation of ionic silver with glucose; such complexes have been detected by mass spectrometry. Extraction leads to microscopic roughening of the surface making it Raman active with an enhancement factor of 5×10(8) .

  18. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  19. Evaluation of Rule Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiruveedula GopiKrishna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For the data mining domain, the lack of explanation facilities seems to be a serious drawback for techniques based on Artificial Neural Networks, or, for that matter, any technique producing opaque models In particular, the ability to generate even limited explanations is absolutely crucial for user acceptance of such systems. Since the purpose of most data mining systems is to support decision making,the need for explanation facilities in these systems is apparent. The task for the data miner is thus to identify the complex but general relationships that are likely to carry over to production data and the explanation facility makes this easier. Also focused the quality of the extracted rules; i.e. how well the required explanation is performed. In this research some important rule extraction algorithms are discussed and identified the algorithmic complexity; i.e. how efficient the underlying rule extraction algorithm is

  20. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2016-11-01

    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other.

  1. Website-Level Data Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yu

    This paper proposes a website-level data extraction approach to identify the object relevant information distributed across multiple web pages. Page-level data extraction is widely studied with assumption that each input web page contains multiple data records of interested objects. However, in many cases for web mining, the multiple pages describing an object are sparsely distributed in a website. It makes page-level solutions no longer applicable. We exploit the hierarchy model of websites for web page organization to solve the problem of website-level data extraction. A new resource, the Hierarchical Navigation Path (HNP), which can be discovered from the website structure, is introduced for object relevant web page filtering. The found web pages are clustered using the URL and semantic hyperlink analysis, and then the entry page and the detailed profile pages of each object are identified. The empirical experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-07

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  3. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible ...

  4. Antibacterial activity of Pulicaria dysenterica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickavar, Bahman; Mojab, Faraz

    2003-06-01

    Aqueous, methanolic and chloroformic extracts of Pulicaria dysenterica aerial parts were tested for their antibacterial activity using the disc-diffusion assay technique. The methanolic extract was found to be the most effective extract against three out of six tested bacteria. All of the extracts were active against Vibrio cholera.

  5. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  6. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... model outperformed other existing content extraction models. We present a browser based implementation of the proposed model as proof of concept and compare the implementation strategy with various state of art implementations. We also discuss various applications of the proposed model with special...

  7. Informed consent in dental extractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Capote Femenías

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When performing any oral intervention, particularly dental extractions, the specialist should have the oral or written consent of the patient. This consent includes the explanation of all possible complications, whether typical, very serious or personalized associated with the previous health condition, age, profession, religion or any other characteristic of the patient, as well as the possi.ble benefits of the intervention. This article is related with the bioethical aspects related with dental extractions, in order to determine the main elements that the informed consent should include.

  8. [Efficient extraction of transmembrane proteins using ProteoExtract Transmembrane Protein Extraction Kit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Karina

    2010-01-01

    Detergents commonly used for solubilization of membrane proteins may be ionic or non-ionic. Exposing membrane proteins to detergents, however, can adversely affect their native structure, which can be a major hindrance for functional studies. This is especially true for proteins with multiple transmembrane domains. The ProteoExtract Transmembrane Protein Extraction Kit (TM-PEK), offered by Merck, provides a detergent-free novel reagents to enable the mild and efficient extraction of proteins containing seven transmembrane domains, such as GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors) e.g.: Frizzled-4 and CELSR-3, from mammalian cells. The fraction enriched in transmembrane proteins using TM-PEK is directly compatible with enzyme assays, non-denaturing gel electrophoresis, 1- and 2-D SDS-PAGE, MS analysis, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation and ELISA. Unlike many alternatives, TM-PEK extraction procedure does not require sonication, extended rigorous vortexing, ultracentrifugation, or incubation of samples at elevated temperatures--thus minimizing the risk of post-extraction degradation or modifications.

  9. Tablets with thyme (Thymus Vulgaris L extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Zoran P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The strongly antiseptic and antifungal activities of thyme is mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds, thymol and carvacrol. Thyme extracts essential oil, extract obtained using 70% ethanol and extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using carbon dioxide, were incorporated in the most useful form of pharmaceutical products - tablets. The work is concerned with the characterisation of the obtained tablets containing thyme extracts.

  10. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  11. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction of mercury species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, G P; Pacey, G E

    2003-12-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction was used to recover organic and inorganic mercury species. Variations in pressure, water, methanol, and chelator create methods that allowed separation of inorganic from organic mercury species. When extracted using a compromised set of extraction conditions, the order of extraction was methyl, phenyl and inorganic mercury. For the individually optimized conditions, quantitative recoveries were observed. Level as low as 20 ppb were extracted and then determined using ICP.

  13. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  14. AFSC/ABL: Exxon Valdez Trustee Hydrocarbon Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This hydrocarbon database was initiated after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The first version was as an RBase database, PWSOIL(Short, Heintz et al. 1996). It...

  15. AFSC/REFM: Alaska Stock Assessment Results Archive (SARA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Each year over 50 Alaskan groundfish stock assessments report the condition of Alaskan fisheries resources in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Stock assessment...

  16. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  17. AFSC/ABL: Ocean Acidification in Southeast Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information from one primary project a Southeast Alaska (SEAK) environmental monitoring study. It also includes support analyses for Kodiak...

  18. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Central Gulf of Alaska Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 1.75 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 225 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted from 1901...

  19. AFSC/ABL: Karluk sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To better understand how density-dependent growth of ocean-dwelling Pacific salmon varied with climate and population dynamics, we examined the marine growth of...

  20. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  1. AFSC/REFM: Seabird Necropsy dataset of North Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The seabird necropsy dataset contains information on seabird specimens that were collected under salvage and scientific collection permits primarily by...

  2. AFSC/ABL: Nearshore Fish Atlas of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information on the distribution and relative abundance of nearshore fishes from beach seine hauls in Alaska is now available to managers as an online Fish Atlas. The...

  3. AFSC/NMML: Platforms of Opportunity Program (POP): 1950 - present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Platforms of Opportunity Program (POP) is an opportunistic marine mammal sighting program that dates back to the 1950s and includes over 108,000 sightings....

  4. Communications-Electronics Utilization Field AFSC 30XX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    needed modification in the type and amount of electronics principles training given to entry-level officers. This finding has not changed over the...intervening 10 years. The 1984 survey indicates a need to review the electronics principles blocks of instruction. While there can be no argument that

  5. Telephone Switching Career Ladder. AFSC 362X1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Emphasis and Task Difficulty Data .......... 26 Specialty Training Standard (STS) .... ............... 26 ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3...EUE Ne V) <In -4- C )CA 00CLF CArnC~ C-4 (iCV C) lA < S- m "C4 c\\JC\\"CD -l(%,--4 it~ U-- L Lj- ULLi- LUU..W L 33 TABLE 19 ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES USED BY

  6. Training Career Ladder AFSC 751X2. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    u0 -4V n on < .z - < .0=w x =Z 14 W! < " e- I.!;. ) En 2 E H C l>)n q 0 w0r M> > 35 JOB INTEREST AND IERCEIVED !Li ,N OF’ TALEN ... AN TRAINNG BY...PERSONNEL WHEN COMPUTERS MALFUNCTION 2.6 13 MAIL OFFICER EDUCATIONAL TRANSCRIPTS TO AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 2.6 6 DESTROY TESTS 2.5 21 42

  7. AFSC/RACE/SAP: Small Mesh Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information about shrimp surveys conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game in the Gulf of...

  8. Occupational Survey Report. Missile Systems Maintenance AFSC 411XOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    TASKS PERFORMING E252 ISSUE JOB CONTROL NUMBERS 100 E220 COMPLETE AFTO FORMS 349-3 (MAINTENANCE DATA COLLECTION RECORD (AUTOMATED)) 87 E209 COMPLETE AF...MONTHS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL SAMPLE: 4% PERCENT MEMBERS TASKS PERFORMING E252 ISSUE JOB CONTROL NUMBERS 100 B38 ADJUST DAILY MAINTENANCE PLANS TO MEET

  9. AFSC/ABL: Rockfish Habitat Dive Video Transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Many species of commercially valuable rockfish (Sebastes spp.) inhabit waters on the outer continental shelf in the Gulf of Alaska typically between depths of...

  10. Manpower Management (Officer and Enlisted) AFSC 74XX/733XX

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGED 94 E340 REVIEW MISSION STATEMENTS 94 E310 IDENTIFY ASSUMED OR INFERRED WORK 94 E331 RESEARCH HISTORY OF MANPOWER ACTIONS 90 E349... E331 RESEARCH HISTORY OF MANPOWER ACTIONS 100 N906 EVALUATE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES 100 E275 COLLECT WORKLOAD DATA 100 E274 COLLECT MAN-HOUR DATA...INFERRED WORK 89 E273 COLLECT FAMILIARIZATION INFORMATION 78 E331 RESEARCH HISTORY OF MANPOWER ACTIONS 78 E315 INTERVIEW WORK CENTER PERSONNEL 78

  11. Aeronautical Systems Division (AFSC) Program Management Resource Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    MANAGEMENT Definition . Program management consists of the actions involved in developing and producing deliverable end items on time, within the...CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT Definition . Configuration management is the formal process of identifying the functional and physical characteristics of

  12. AFSC/ABL: Sockeye salmon allozyme baseline - 1982-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Genetic data were collected and prepared with the use of protein electrophoresis from 52 spawning locations in southeastern Alaska and northern British Columbia....

  13. AFSC/REFM: Alaskan flatfish chronology Black et al

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual growth increment patterns observed in the hard parts of many marine organisms are often related to factors in the physical environment, and investigators are...

  14. AFSC/REFM: Atka mackerel Tagging Studies, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1999-2015, approximately 130,000 Atka mackerel have been tagged and released in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, specifically at Seguam Pass, Tanaga Pass, Amchitka...

  15. Flight Engineer, AFSC 113X0B/C

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    AIRCRAFT DISCREPANCIES 97 G228 VERIFY SAFETY PIN OR STREAMER REMOVAL PRIOR TO FLIGHT OR INSTALLED AFTER FLIGHT 97 1273 COMPUTE CLIMB, CRUISE OR DESCENT...CLIMB, CRUISE OR DESCENT DATA 96 S797 MONITOR HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS 96 G228 VERIFY SAFETY PIN OR STREAMER REMOVAL PRIOR TO FLIGHT OR INSTALLED...OPERATE AUTOMATIC AIRCRAFT PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS 95 N521 MONITOR AUTOMATIC AIRCRAFT PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS 94 G228 VERIFY SAFETY PIN OR STREAMER

  16. AFSC/ABL: Ugashik sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 b?? 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Ugashik River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and...

  17. AFSC/FMA/North Pacific Observer Foreign Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) began placing observers on foreign fishing vessels operating off the northwest and Alaskan coasts of the United States...

  18. AFSC/ABL: Movements of Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, relatively pristine river basin. A total of...

  19. Television Equipment Repair Career Ladder, AFSC 304X5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    publica - tion. The survey data will also impact current CDC and POI revision efforts. / B kackqr6urid 0 . . According to AFR 39-1 Specialty Descriptions...r_ m LUJ =W(AV LU LUZ =39LU0 C xUL -< M =LU UW MUL--J -- " 0- F- F-«E-4 :::- C W::3 0 =:LU::puC)W :>: C< L Uɘ LUJ ) == L m W ==D = (a 0A O..<. 0 C

  20. Occupational Survey Report. Administration AFSC 702X0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    both the Publica - tions Distribution Office and functional levels. They perform a fairly narrow 10 =I-I 2= V) CCJ fl 0. *n 4n C- -L.La - C Jr I ICL...A x (A )( La a . <LJ LUZ ) dc - 0L U w .)C CD F- xA Ln4 -I- I-- ( >- Co (. (A. C9 F- =( U.1 = V V 0P.- IX (A " (A C)- u- UJ w~I ZO. Ne CL. 8-I4> PA( Q

  1. Air Traffic Control Radar, AFSC 303X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    STATUS OF PARTS, SUCH AS REPARABLE, SERVICEABLE OR CONDEMNED 79 E157 PREPARE DD FORMS 1577 (UNSERVICEABLE (CONDEMNED) TAG MATERIEL) 76 E176 VERIFY DUE...INDOPSE AIRMAN PERFORMIANCE REPURTS (APR) e? E176 VERIFY DUE-OUT VALIDATION LISTINGS (M-30) 83 C47 EVALUATE MAINTENANCE DATA COLLECT:ON REPORTS 6; EllS...PROJECTS 43 C57 EVALUATE SUGGESTIONS 29 F204 PROGRAM COMPUTERS 29 A6 DEVELOP INSPECTION SCHEDULES 29 E176 VERIFY DUE-OUT VALIDATION LISTINGS (M-30) 29

  2. B-1B Avionics Systems AFSC 457X3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    PERFORM NUCLEAR HARDNESS MAINTENANCE OR INSPECTIONS 80 H317 SERVICE VIDEO RECORDER MAGAZINES 80 E176 PERFORM CORE AUTOMATED MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS (CAMS...AND REPAIR WORK 65 D94 CONDUi OJT 65 H324 TROUBLESHOOT ORSs 63 H318 TROUBLESHOOT ACUCs 63 E176 PERFORM CORE AUTOMATED MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS (CAMS...DATA 70 E124 ANNOTATE, INITIATE, OR COMPLETE AFTO FORMS 349 (MAINTENANCE DATA COLLECTION RECORD) 70 E176 PERFORM CORE AUTOMATED MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS

  3. Logistics Plans Career Ladder, AFSC 2G0X1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    with appropriate agencies 68 E168 Coordinate appointment of WRM managers with unit commanders 66 E176 Determine distribution of war consumables...12 E176 Determine distribution of war consumables distribution objectives (WCDOs) 13 E177 Determine distribution of WPARRs 14 El80 determine WRM

  4. Missile Systems Maintenance, AFSC 411XOB/C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    55 B61 IMPLEMENT EMERGENCY WAR ORDER (EWO) PLANS 52 E176 COORDINATE AFTO FORMS 349 (MAINTENANCE DATA COLLECTION RECORD) WITH MAINTENANCE CONTROL 49...40 E287 PREPARE MAINTENANCE REPORTS 37 E176 COORDINATE AFTO FORMS 349 (MAINTENANCE DATA COLLECTION E൜ RECORD) WITH MAINTENANCE CONTROL 34 E220 MAKE

  5. Surgical Services Career Ladder, AFSC 902X2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    MEDICAL TRAINING, SUCH AS FIRST AID OR CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION 89 E176 PICK UP DAILY CLINIC ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRIBUTION 89 E137 MAKE ENTRIES ON AF...OTHER THAN DATED MEDICATIONS 76 1137 MKE ENTRIES ON AF FORMS 560 (ADMISSION AUTHORIZATION AND TREATMENT STATEMENT) 87 E176 PICK UP DAILY CLINIC...MAINTAIN PROPERTY CUSTODIAN LOG BOOKS 100 E176 PICK UP DAILY CLINIC ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRIBUTION 100 B21 COUNSEL PERSONNEL ON PERSONAL OR MILITARY-RELATED

  6. Command and Control Career Ladder, AFSC 274X0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    OPERATIONAL SECURITY (OPSEC) RULES 77 E176 REPRODUCE UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS 77 F307 PROVIDE SECURITY FOR CLASSIFIED MATERIALS OR EQUIPMENT 76 E175 REPRODUCE...CLASSIFIED SECRET AND TOP SECRET 77 C96 REVIEW INSPECTION AND OPERATIONAL REPORTS 76 E176 REPRODUCE UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS 76 E175 REPRODUCE CLASSIFIED...PARTICIPATE IN CONFERENCES OR POLICY MEETINGS 100 B56 DRAFT CORRESPONDENCE OR REPORTS 97 E176 REPRODUCE UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS 86 B55 DRAFT CHANGES TO MANUALS

  7. AFSC/REFM: Amendment 80 Economic Data Report Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual series of economic data collected for years 2008 and forward for the Amendment 80 Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of holders of Amendment 80...

  8. Occupational Survey Report. Paralegal AFSC 5JOX1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    support, and Ms. Dolores Navarro provided administrative support. Major Jose Caussade, Chief, Airman Analysis Section, reviewed and approved this...TRNG OPPORTUNITIES 43 2.34 50 2.35 49 2.52 OFF-DUTY EDU OR TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES 56 2.49 51 2.62 53 2.52 MEDICAL/ DENTAL CARE FOR AD MEMBER 48 2.53 50...2.56 49 2.48 MEDICAL/ DENTAL CARE FOR FAMILY MEMBERS 45 2.61 47 2.60 49 2.80 BASE HOUSING 12 2.20 11 2.45 29 2.33 BASE SERVICES 19 1.96 17 2.24 31

  9. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Prescott: Norton Sound Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled approximately 230,000 National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 39 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted...

  10. AFSC/ABL: Southeast Coastal Monitoring Project - CTD database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Alaska Coastal Monitoring (SECM) project in Alaska was initiated in 1997 by the Auke Bay Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, to study the...

  11. AFSC/FMA/North Pacific Observer Domestic Data Dictionary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1986 when the first NMFS observers were placed on domestic fishing vessels until the rollout of the re-engineered data model in December of 2007. Debriefed and...

  12. AFSC/ABL: Embryonic development of quillback rockfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maternal effects on the quality of progeny can have direct impacts on population productivity. Rockfish are viviparous and the oil globule size of larvae at...

  13. AFSC/ABL: Salmonid migrations at Auke Creek, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auke Lake system has endemic populations of pink, chum, sockeye and coho salmon, and supports populations of Dolly Varden char and cutthroat and steelhead trout....

  14. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Conrath: Rockfish habitat and productivity (Coral)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The importance of high relief structure containing biotic habitat to rockfish and other species remains largely unknown. This data set was created to examine the...

  15. AFSC/REFM: BSAI Crab Economic Data Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Economic data collected for years 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2005 and onward for the BSAI Crab Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of any owner or...

  16. AFSC/FMA/Salmon Genetics From Observer Speimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Genetic data of salmon bycatch samples collected by fisheries observers are used for mixed-stock analyses to determine geographic region of origin. This work is done...

  17. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Urban: Golden King Crab tagging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is comprised of the records of individual male golden king crab (GKC) tagged at the Kodiak Laboratory. Initial size, shell condition and missing limbs was...

  18. AFSC/NMML: Southeast Alaska Cetacean Vessel Surveys, 1991 - 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1991, NMML initiated cetacean studies with vessel coverage throughout inland waters of Southeast Alaska. Between 1991 and 1993, line-transect methodology was used...

  19. AFSC/ABL: Auke Bay Climatology 1959-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set includes available climatological and related physical environmental records for Auke Bay, Auke Creek and Auke Lake beginning in 1959. Daily high and low...

  20. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Urban:Tanner Crab Handling Mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish and invertebrates that are unintentionally captured during commercial fishing operations and then released back into the ocean suffer mortality at unknown...

  1. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Urban: Snow Crab Handling Mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish and invertebrates that are unintentionally captured during commercial fishing operations and then released back into the ocean suffer mortality at unknown...

  2. AFSC/ABL: Naknek sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Naknek River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game....

  3. Medical Laboratory Career Ladder (AFSC 924X0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    FOR SYPHILIS, SUCH AS VDRL OR RPR 33 55 -22 55 TRAINING ANALYSIS Occupational survey data are used to assist in the development or review of training...BLUE 100 1240 PERFORM NONTREPONEMAL TESTS FOR SYPHILIS, SUCH AS VDRL OR RPR 100 K299 PERFORM ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE TESTS 100 E171 PREPARE

  4. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Prescott: Norton Sound Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled approximately 230,000 National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 39 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted...

  5. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Prescott: Norton Sound Shoreline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled approximately 230,000 National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 39 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted...

  6. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Aleutians Bathymetry Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 2.1 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings extending 1,900 km along the Aleutian Islands from Unimak Island in the east to the...

  7. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Cook Inlet Bathymetry Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 1.4 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 98 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted from 1910 to...

  8. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Prescott: Norton Sound Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled approximately 230,000 National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 39 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted...

  9. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Cook Inlet Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 1.4 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 98 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted from 1910 to...

  10. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Cook Inlet Shoreline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 1.4 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 98 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted from 1910 to...

  11. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Cook Inlet Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 1.4 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 98 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted from 1910 to...

  12. AFSC/FMA/Observer Declare and Deploy (Resturcture)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The new Observer Program restructures and replaces what was originally considered an "interim program," which lasted for 23 years. Broadly speaking, under the...

  13. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish DNA species identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Many pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes) were collected in juvenile salmonid surveys in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) from 1998 to 2002. Often species identification of...

  14. AFSC/ABL: 2007-2013 Chinook Salmon Bycatch Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analyses of samples from the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bycatch from the 2007-2013 Bering Sea-Aleutian Island and Gulf of Alaska trawl...

  15. AFSC/REFM: Alaska Saltwater Sport Fishing Charter Business Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project was to collect cost, earning, and employment information from the Alaska saltwater sport fishing charter business sector during the...

  16. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACE Groundfish Survey Photo Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Groundfish Assessment Program (GAP) is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and...

  17. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Conrath: Reproduction of Groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data are currently limited or lacking for several federally managed rockfish species of the genus Sebastes found within the Gulf of Alaska. This project is related...

  18. Extracting useful information from images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of methods for extracting useful information from digital images. It covers various approaches that utilized different properties of images, like intensity distribution, spatial frequencies content and several others. A few case studies including isotropic...... and heterogeneous, congruent and non-congruent images are used to illustrate how the described methods work and to compare some of them...

  19. Feature extraction using fractal codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Ben; Zeeuw, Paul M. de

    1999-01-01

    Fast and successful searching for an object in a multimedia database is a highly desirable functionality. Several approaches to content based retrieval for multimedia databases can be found in the literature [9,10,12,14,17]. The approach we consider is feature extraction. A feature can be seen as a

  20. Feature Extraction Using Fractal Codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.; Zeeuw, P.M. de

    1999-01-01

    Fast and successful searching for an object in a multimedia database is a highly desirable functionality. Several approaches to content based retrieval for multimedia databases can be found in the literature [9,10,12,14,17]. The approach we consider is feature extraction. A feature can be seen as a

  1. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict signi...

  2. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  3. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    -tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  4. Development of new natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoine-Hanneguelle, Sophie; Périchet, Christine; Schnaebele, Nicolas; Humbert, Marina

    2014-11-01

    For over the past 20 years, a remarkable development in the study and search of natural products has been observed. This is linked to a new market trend towards ecology and also due to new regulations. This could be a rupture, but also a real booster for creativity. Usually, in the flavor and fragrance field, creativity was boosted by the arrival of new synthetic molecules. Naturals remained the traditional, century-old products, protected by secrecy and specific know-how from each company. Regulatory restrictions or eco-friendly certification constraints like hexane-free processes triggered an important brainstorming in the industry. As a result, we developed new eco-friendly processes including supercritical CO2 extraction, allowing fresh plants to be used to obtain industrial flower extracts (Jasmine Grandiflorum, Jasmine Sambac, Orange blossom). These extracts are analyzed by GC, GC/MS, GCO, and HPTLC techniques. New or unusual raw materials can also be explored, but the resulting extracts have to be tested for safety reasons. Some examples are described. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. Extractive Summarisation of Medical Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeed Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM practice requires practitioners to extract evidence from published medical research when answering clinical queries. Due to the time-consuming nature of this practice, there is a strong motivation for systems that can automatically summarise medical documents and help practitioners find relevant information. Aim The aim of this work is to propose an automatic query-focused, extractive summarisation approach that selects informative sentences from medical documents. MethodWe use a corpus that is specifically designed for summarisation in the EBM domain. We use approximately half the corpus for deriving important statistics associated with the best possible extractive summaries. We take into account factors such as sentence position, length, sentence content, and the type of the query posed. Using the statistics from the first set, we evaluate our approach on a separate set. Evaluation of the qualities of the generated summaries is performed automatically using ROUGE, which is a popular tool for evaluating automatic summaries. Results Our summarisation approach outperforms all baselines (best baseline score: 0.1594; our score 0.1653. Further improvements are achieved when query types are taken into account. Conclusion The quality of extractive summarisation in the medical domain can be significantly improved by incorporating domain knowledge and statistics derived from a specialised corpus. Such techniques can therefore be applied for content selection in end-to-end summarisation systems.

  6. Statistical Model for Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features to predict significance of the node towards overall content...

  7. Extracting Gamers' Opinions from Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirbu, Dorinela; Secui, Ana; Dascalu, Mihai; Crossley, Scott; Ruseti, Stefan; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Opinion mining and sentiment analysis are a trending research domain in Natural Language Processing focused on automatically extracting subjective information, feelings, opinions, ideas or emotions from texts. Our study is centered on identifying sentiments and opinions, as well as other latent ling

  8. EXTRACTIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    ketone (MIBK) extractable yellow nickel(II)-methyldithiocarbamate complex at 380 nm through ... The method has been applied to the analysis of carbaryl in its ...... Farahani, G.H.N.; Zakaria, Z.; Kuntom, A.; Omar, D.; Ismail, B.S. Adv. Environ.

  9. DNA Extraction and Primer Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads

    Talk regarding pitfalls in DNA extraction and 16S amplicon primer choice when performing community analysis of complex microbial communities. The talk was a part of Workshop 2 "Principles, Potential, and Limitations of Novel Molecular Methods in Water Engineering; from Amplicon Sequencing to -omics...

  10. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  11. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  12. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  13. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  14. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  15. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  16. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  17. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  18. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  19. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  20. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  1. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  2. Recycle use of phosphorous mixer extractant to extract indium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The stripping and regeneration of the loaded organic phase of phosphorous mixer extractant (PPD) were studied.The mixed solutions (3 mol/L HCl +2 mol/L ZnCl2) were used as the stripping agent and more than 99% of indium can bestripped after three-stage stripping when the volume ratio of organic phase to stripping agent is 1:1. The organic phase canbe recycled to use after regeneration with HCl. The parallel contrast experiments with D2EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phospho-ric acid) were carried out under the same conditions. The results show that the mixer extractant has good reusability and thestripping and regeneration of PPD are superior to those of D2EHPA.

  3. Recent trends in metals extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regel-Rosocka, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available After near 70 years of practical usage, solvent extraction is a perfectly mastered technique of separation, widely used on an industrial scale for the separation of metals mainly from raw materials. However, currently, in the era of depleting natural resources and increasingly less accessible deposits, environmental restrictions, etc., an increasing interest, both from social and economical constrains, is being directed at the extraction of metals from the secondary sources (such as batteries, electronic scrap. In many cases, solvent extraction, due to its operational characteristics, can be considered as the Best Available Technology for the purpose of separating multielemental metal solutions. This paper provides a brief overview of past achievements and present scenario of solvent extraction investigations and developments, describing some recently commissioned solvent extraction plants, whereas the Skorpion Zinc plant (Namibia for zinc extraction from raw materials and caesium removal from radioactive High Level Wastes (HLWs are told over in detail as case studies. The paper also presents some proposals for the use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate metal ions from secondary sources (e.g. cobalt from industrial waste streams. The review highlights the emerging use of ionic liquids as new extractants for metals, providing an insight into this exciting research field. Despite its detractors, solvent extraction has entered in force into XXI century as a leading separation technology for metals.Después de casi 70 años de uso práctico, la extracción líquido-líquido o extracción con disolventes es una técnica de separación muy evolucionada, utilizándose a escala industrial en el beneficio de metales obtenidos de diversas materias primas. Sin embargo, con el agotamiento de los recursos naturales y el aumento de depósitos minerales de más difícil acceso, restricciones medio ambientales, etc., ha aumentado el interés, tanto desde

  4. Airborne Communications and Electronics Systems AFSC 1A3X1 & Airborne Missions Systems AFSC 1A5X1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    and Ms. Dolores Navarro provided administrative support. Major Jose Caussade, Chief, Airman Analysis Section, reviewed and approved this report for...2.00 38 2.16 OFF-DUTY EDU OR TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES 53 2.40 45 2.38 42 2.40 MEDICAL/ DENTAL CARE FOR AD MEMBER 53 2.48 57 2.49 48 2.47 MEDICAL/ DENTAL ...SECURITY JOB SECURITY PAY AND ALLOWANCES PAY AND ALLOWANCES MEDICAL/ DENTAL CARE FOR AD MEMBER MILITARY LIFESTYLE MILITARY LIFESTYLE OFF-DUTY EDU OR

  5. Experience with intravascular lead extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian; TANG Kai; WANG Fang-zheng; ZHANG Shu; HUANG Cong-xin

    2005-01-01

    @@ With the increase of clinical use of cardiac pacemaker, a certain kinds of severe leads-related complications (especially infection) have presented in a few patients who underwent pacemaker implantation. The best way to manage this problem is to remove the transvenous leads.1,2 The technique for percutaneous removal of transvenous leads have undergone considerable development in western countries over the past 2 decades. However, there was scarce data on the application of this technique in China. This article reports the results of transvenous extraction of 171 permanent pacemaker leads with the standard lead extraction devices and intravascular countertraction technique during the period from January 1996 to May 2005 in the Center of Arrhythmia Diagnosis and Treatment, Fu Wai Hospital, Beijing, China.

  6. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Metallurgists and solution geochemists are joining forces to develop processes for extraction of metals from low-grade ores. The processes, which come under the name hydrometallurgy, include several new applications of solvent extraction techniques. Aqueous solutions are employed, leaching metals from ores, mine waste dumps, and even from deposits still in the ground. It was notable, for example, that Chemical and Engineering News (Feb. 8, 1982) recently featured the subject of hydrometallurgy in a special report. They noted that ‘recovering metals by use of aqueous solutions at relatively low temperatures increasingly is competing with dry, high-temperature pyrometallurgical methods.’ The relatively new techniques have caused a revolution, of sorts, in engineering programs of university metallurgy departments. The challenge of developing selective metal dissolution processes is drawing upon the best national talent in the fields of solution geochemistry and metallurgy.

  7. Antimutagenic activity of berry extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope Smith, S; Tate, Patricia L; Huang, George; Magee, James B; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Wedge, David E; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2004-01-01

    Plants are proven sources of useful anti-tumor and chemopreventative compounds. Hence, identification of phytochemicals useful in dietary prevention and intervention of cancer is of paramount importance. The initial step in the formation of cancer is damage to the genome of a somatic cell producing a mutation in an oncogene or a tumor-suppressor gene. Fresh juices and organic solvent extracts from the fruits of strawberry, blueberry, and raspberry were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the production of mutations by the direct-acting mutagen methyl methanesulfonate and the metabolically activated carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene. Juice from strawberry, blueberry, and raspberry fruit significantly inhibited mutagenesis caused by both carcinogens. Ethanol extracts from freeze-dried fruits of strawberry cultivars (Sweet Charlie and Carlsbad) and blueberry cultivars (Tifblue and Premier) were also tested. Of these, the hydrolyzable tannin-containing fraction from Sweet Charlie strawberries was most effective at inhibiting mutations.

  8. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Extracting aluminum from dross tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, A. M.

    2002-11-01

    Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

  10. Electrostatic septa for SPS extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The extraction system for the N-Area is located in LSS2 (another one for the W-Area, now abandoned, was in LSS6). The electrostatic septum consists of 4 parts, each 3 m long. It is made of W-wires, 0.12 mm thick. The nominal electric field is 100 kV/cm. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  11. Extraction de motifs graduels emergents

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Anne; Lesot, Marie-Jeanne; Rifqi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    National audience; Mining emerging patterns aims at contrasting data sets and identifying itemsets that characterise a data set by contrast to a reference data set, so as to capture and highlight their differences. This paper considers the case of emerging gradual patterns, to extract discriminant attribute co-variations. It discusses the specific features of these gradual patterns and proposes to transpose an efficient border-based algorithm, justifying its applicability to the gradual case....

  12. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  13. Feature extraction for speaker diarization

    OpenAIRE

    Negre Rabassa, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Se explorarán y compararán diferentes características de bajo y alto nivel para la diarización automática de locutores Feature extraction for speaker diarization using different databases Extracción de características para la diarización de locutores utilizando diferentes bases de datos Extracció de caracteristiques per a la diarització de locutors utilitzant diferents bases de dades

  14. Extraction treatment using Invisalign Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Greco, Mario; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2006-01-01

    The Invisalign method is gaining an increasing interest as an alternative treatment option in adult patients and in difficult orthodontic cases. The aim of this work is to show a class II malocclusion with severe crowding in the upper and lower arches treated with the extraction of the upper first premolars performed by means of Invisalign. The alignment phase was successfully completed but the space closure achieved with crown tipping and without correct root inclination making a further fixed appliance phase necessary.

  15. Prevalent Color Extraction and Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.Thyagharajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colors in an image provides tremendous amount of information. Using this color information images can be segmented, analyzed, labeled and indexed. In content based image retrieval system, color is one of the basic primitive features used. In Prevalent Color Extraction and indexing, the most extensive color on an image is identified and it is used for indexing. For implementation, Asteroideae flower family image dataset is used. It consist of more than 16,000 species, among them nearly 100 species are considered and indexed by dominating colors. To extract the most appealable color from the user defined images, the overall color of an image has to be quantized. Spatially, quantizing the color of an image to extract the prevalent color is the major objective of this paper. A combination of K-Mean and Expectation Minimization clustering algorithm called hidden-value learned K-mean clustering quantization algorithm is used to avoid the over clustering behavior of K-Mean algorithm. The experimental result shows the marginal differences between these algorithms.

  16. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  17. Information Extraction and Webpage Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sharmila Begum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The two most important tasks in information extraction from the Web are webpage structure understanding and natural language sentences processing. However, little work has been done toward an integrated statistical model for understanding webpage structures and processing natural language sentences within the HTML elements. Our recent work on webpage understanding introduces a joint model of Hierarchical Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs and extended Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields (Semi-CRFs to leverage the page structure understanding results in free text segmentation and labeling. In this top-down integration model, the decision of the HCRF model could guide the decision making of the Semi-CRF model. However, the drawback of the topdown integration strategy is also apparent, i.e., the decision of the Semi-CRF model could not be used by the HCRF model to guide its decision making. This paper proposed a novel framework called WebNLP, which enables bidirectional integration of page structure understanding and text understanding in an iterative manner. We have applied the proposed framework to local business entity extraction and Chinese person and organization name extraction. Experiments show that the WebNLP framework achieved significantly better performance than existing methods.

  18. Electromembrane extraction: distribution or electrophoresis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Sønsteby, Marit Hovde; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents for the first time a phenomenological theoretical model for the time dependent distribution of analytes during electromembrane extraction (EME). The model was verified experimentally for a range of model drugs and peptides. Analytes were extracted from an acidified aqueous sample solution, through an organic supported liquid membrane (SLM), and into an acidified aqueous acceptor solution. Mass transfer was governed by an applied electric field across the SLM. A rapid depletion was seen in the sample during extractions, with a steady increase in the amount accumulated in the acceptor solution. This was in good accordance with the theoretical model. A deviation from the modeled behavior was seen for some of the peptides where trapping of analyte in the SLM was high. The results demonstrated for the first time that EME behaved like a distribution system, with voltage dependent distribution coefficients. In addition, electrokinetic migration was observed across the SLM, which added an electrophoretic component to the mass transfer. This improved theoretical understanding will be highly beneficial for future optimization and development of applications using EME.

  19. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Wada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.

  20. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  2. [Studies on extraction of active fraction from Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici by supercritical CO2 extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Cai-Ni; He, Wei; Li, Yong; Yuan, Wan-Rui

    2008-10-01

    To study the conditions of extraction of active fraction in Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici by supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE). Using the content of ferulic acid as the index, conditions for the extraction including extracting pressure, extracting temperature, temperature of resolution and extracting time were optimized by uniform design. The best SFE conclusions were as follows: cosolvent was 50% ethanol (ml/g), extracting pressure was 40 MPa, extracting temperature was 50 degrees C, pressure of resolution was 6 MPa, temperature of resolution was 50 degrees C, extracting time was 3.5 hours. The optimum extraction has high extraction ratio of active fraction in Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici, so it is reasonable and practicable.

  3. Modification of Phenolic Oximes for Copper Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents which are capable of transporting transition metal salts. Chapter 1 reviews current solvent extractant technology for metal recovery, including the limited knowledge of the effect of substituents on extractive efficacy. Advances in leaching technology have...

  4. Web-Based Information Extraction Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Information extraction techniques on the Web are the current research hotspot. Now many information extraction techniques based on different principles have appeared and have different capabilities. We classify the existing information extraction techniques by the principle of information extraction and analyze the methods and principles of semantic information adding, schema defining,rule expression, semantic items locating and object locating in the approaches. Based on the above survey and analysis,several open problems are discussed.

  5. Properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, G. V.; Gamelas, J.A.F.; Ramarao, B. F.; Amidon, T. E.; Ferreira, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    This work was a comprehensive study of the properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps. Five levels of hot water extraction were performed, each followed by kraft cooking to three different kappa numbers. As extraction took place, the hemicelluloses content of the kraft pulps was reduced from 21%-22% to 3%-4% and, conversely, the cellulose fraction increased from 73%-75% to 85%-90%. Fiber length decreased for all pulps and kink index increased greatly with extraction. The dispersi...

  6. Extraction of tritium from lithium aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunker, W [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Complete data are presented for the extraction of tritium from neutron irradiated lithium aluminate pellets. Two methods were used: (a) thermal/vacuum extraction at temperatures up to 980/sup 0/C and (b) dissolution of the pellets in sodium tetraborate at 850/sup 0/C followed by vacuum extraction. Approximately 1 percent of the tritium was in a noncondensable (at -195/sup 0/C and 10/sup -3/ torr) form. Extraction efficiency was greater than 95 percent.

  7. Effective Approaches For Extraction Of Keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeen Kaur

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Keywords are index terms that contain most important information. Automatic keyword extraction is the task to identify a small set of words , keyphrases or keywords from a document that can describe the meaning of document. Keyword extraction is considered as core technology of all automatic processing for text materials. In this paper, a Survey of Keyword Extraction techniques have been presented that can be applied to extract effective keywords that uniquely identify a document.

  8. Extraction of aurum(Ⅲ) with thiophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xingzhi; FANG Dawei; XUE Hong; LI Jun; ZANG Shuliang

    2005-01-01

    The extraction capability of aurum with di-(2-ethylhexyl)monothiophosphoric acid from hydrochloric acid solution has been studied. The extraction capability decreases with the increase of acidity. It is showed by the saturation method and equal Moore series method that the composition of the extraction complex is AuR3. IR and 1H NMR studies indicate that the extraction mechanism is a cation exchange process through coordination with P=S bonds.

  9. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENÇ, A.; MEHMETOĞLU, Ü.; ÇALIMLI, A.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of ethanol was studied from both synthetic ethanol solution and fermentation broth using supercritical CO2 in an extraction apparatus in ranges of 313 to 333 K and 80 to 160 atmospheres, for varying extraction times. The experimental system consists mainly of four parts: a CO2 storage system, a high-pressure liquid pump, an extractor and a product collection unit. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, initial ethan...

  10. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa, U.; Rao, J. Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A.M.; Shanmukhappa, S.

    2007-01-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  11. Automated Extraction of DNA from clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing...... the amount of PCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts and increasing the proportion of reportable DNA profiles....

  12. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  13. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  14. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-10-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  15. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of Beauvericin from maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, P; Galvano, F; Fogliano, V; Logrieco, A; Fresa, R; Ritieni, A

    2004-02-27

    Beauvericin (BEA), a supercritical fluid extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide from maize was investigated. Extraction efficiencies under several different extraction conditions were examined. Pressure, temperature, extraction time, organic modifier and water matrix content (10%) were investigated. The best extraction conditions were at a temperature of 60 degrees C, 3200psi, for 30min static extraction time and methanol as modifier solvent. Extraction recovery of 36% without modifier by adding water to the matrix in the extraction vessel (reproducibility relative standard deviations (R.S.D.)=3-5%) were recorded. Extraction recovery of 76.9% with methanol as co-solvent (reproducibility R.S.D.=3-5%) was obtained. Data shows that SFE gives a lower BEA recovery compared to conventional extraction protocol with organic solvents while SFE with modifier and conventional extraction yields are comparable. BEA extract contents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) at 205nm and BEA peak confirmed by LC-MS. Acetonitrile-water as mobile phase and column C-18 were both tested. Instrumental and analytical parameters were optimized in the range linear interval from 1 to 500mgkg(-1) and reached a detection limit of 2ng.

  17. Ameliorative effect of Sida cordifolia in rotenone induced oxidative stress model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Navneet; Gajbhiye, Asmita

    2013-12-01

    Present study focused on the evaluation of aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia (AESC), and its different fractions; hexane (HFSC), chloroform (CFSC) and aqueous (AFSC), against rotenone induced biochemical, neurochemical, histopathological and behavioral alterations in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). An estimation of the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) along with superoxide anion generation (SAG) in different brain regions (cortex, midbrain and cerebellum) was carried out to assess biochemical changes. Behavioral evaluation tests (catalepsy, rearing behavior and posture instability) and neurochemical estimations (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin level) along with histopathological evaluations of different brain regions were also performed. The varying doses (50, 100, 250mg/kg; p.o.) of different test treatments (AESC, HFSC, CFSC and AFSC) were co-administered along with rotenone (2mg/kg; s.c.), for a period of 35 days to rats of various groups and compared with rotenone per se (negative control) and l-deprenyl (positive control; 10mg/kg; p.o.) treated groups for the above mentioned parameters. The increase in catalepsy and posture instability along with decrease in rearing behavior observed due to rotenone treatment was significantly attenuated by co-treatment with varying doses of AESC and AFSC. Results of the histopathological studies of different brain regions of rats showed eosinophilic lesions in the mid brain region due to rotenone treatment. The eosinophilic lesions were significantly attenuated in co-treated groups of AESC-100mg/kg and AFSC-100mg/kg. Rotenone induced oxidative damage, revealed by increased level of TBARS, SAG and decreased level of GSH and CAT in mid brain region of rats, was attenuated by the co-treatment of AESC and AFSC. The rotenone induced decrease of dopamine level in the midbrain region of rats was also attenuated by co-treatment of AESC-100mg/kg and AFSC

  18. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  19. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

  20. The combined extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.): ultrasound followed by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisic, Sandra B; Ristic, Mihajlo; Skala, Dejan U

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of phytochemicals could be isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) using different extraction or distillation technique: the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the volatiles compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) isolation using hydrodistillation or higher molecular compounds with Soxhlet extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by re-extraction of obtained extract with supercritical CO(2) was performed in this study. The goal of performed investigation was to concentrate diterpenes present in sage extract which are generally considered to be responsible for antioxidant activity of extracted compounds. The fractionation using the supercritical CO(2), and different combination of the ultrasound-assisted solvent extractions (water-ethanol mixture or only water) followed by supercritical CO(2) re-extraction of obtained extract or treated plant material were analyzed and compared. Based on the results of these investigations it could be proposed the best extraction procedure: the ultrasound pretreatment of plant material with distilled water and re-extraction of plant material (residue) using supercritical CO(2). That procedure gives two valuable products: the ultrasound extract which is rich in sugars and possess the immunomodulatory activity and supercritical extract which is rich in diterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

  1. Handling uncertainty in relation extraction: a case study on tennis tournament results extraction from tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, J.; Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction involves different types of uncertainty due to the imperfection of the extraction tools and the inherent ambiguity of unstructured text. In this paper, we discuss several ways of handling uncertainties in relation extraction from social media. Our study case is to extract tennis

  2. Integration of galacturonic acid extraction with alkaline protein extraction from green tea leaf residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Bozileva, Elvira; Klis, van der Frits; Dong, Yiyuan; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf pectin can be used as a feedstock for galacturonic acid (GA) production, but high extraction costs limit economic feasibility. To improve the extraction efficiency, leaf pectin extraction was integrated with an already cost-effective alkaline protein extraction, focusing on high yield of GA

  3. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  4. Extraction of Polyphenols from Cashew Nut Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Obichukwu EDOGA; Labake FADIPE; Rita Ngozi EDOGA

    2006-01-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was extracted from cashew nut shell by indirect leaching process using soxhlet extraction equipment. Normal hexane (n-hexane) was used as solvent. The operating conditions for the extraction were 680C and 1 atmosphere in every 100g of cashew nut shell used for the extraction, 35gCNSL was obtained. The CNSL was further separated into cardol, cardanol and anacardic acid (polyphenol) using an amine extractant (alanine) with the aid of shake-out separation equipment...

  5. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  6. Personalized Web Services for Web Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Jarir, Zahi; Erradi, Mahammed

    2011-01-01

    The field of information extraction from the Web emerged with the growth of the Web and the multiplication of online data sources. This paper is an analysis of information extraction methods. It presents a service oriented approach for web information extraction considering both web data management and extraction services. Then we propose an SOA based architecture to enhance flexibility and on-the-fly modification of web extraction services. An implementation of the proposed architecture is proposed on the middleware level of Java Enterprise Edition (JEE) servers.

  7. Automated Extraction of DNA from clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing t...... the amount of PCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts and increasing the proportion of reportable DNA profiles.......Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing...

  8. Development of Poliovirus Extraction Method from Stool Extracts by Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Sensitized with Soluble Poliovirus Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Arita, Minetaro

    2013-01-01

    A method for extracting poliovirus (PV) from stool extracts was developed. Magnetic nanoparticles sensitized with soluble PV receptor efficiently extracted PV pseudovirus (>99% extraction) or endogenous infectious PVs (>90% extraction) from stool extracts. This method would be useful for extraction of PV from crude biological samples.

  9. [Study on condition for extraction of arctiin from fruits of Arctium lappa using supercritical fluid extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-hong; Liu, Ben

    2006-08-01

    To study the feasibility of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for arctiin from the fruits of Arctium lappa. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC, optimum extraction conditions were studied by orthogonal tests. The optimal extraction conditions were: pressure 40 MPa, temperature 70 degrees C, using methanol as modifier carrier at the rate of 0.55 mL x min(-1), static extraction time 5 min, dynamic extraction 30 min, flow rate of CO2 2 L x min(-1). SFE has the superiority of adjustable polarity, and has the ability of extracting arctiin.

  10. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  11. Clinical evaluation of postradiation dental extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusukawa, Jingo; Ohisi, Shinichiro; Kameyama, Tadamitsu; Yoshizumi, Munehiro; Hayabuchi, Naofumi [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-05-01

    Twenty-one patients who had undergone postradiation dental extraction were evaluated clinically. All patients had received irradiation for primary head and neck malignancies at doses ranging from 8 to 60 Gy (mean, 51.6 Gy). Time to dental extraction after irradiation ranged from 8 to 156 months (mean, 57.9 months). Of the 21 patients (80 teeth extracted, including 33 maxillary teeth and 47 mandibular teeth), one had delayed healing after wisdom tooth extraction due to postextraction irradiation. Thus, osteoradionecrosis after dental extraction did not develop. These results suggest that dental extraction after radiation is not contraindicated. To prevent complications, patients who have received radiation and require extractions should be cared for by oral and maxillofacial surgeons in close association with radiation oncologists. (author).

  12. Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

    2000-06-01

    An updated review on the biological activity of Tridax procumbens is presented. A detailed biological screening comprised of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi using crude extracts of this plant was undertaken. The n-hexane extract of the flowers showed activity against Escherichia coli. The same extract of the whole aerial parts was active against Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. The ethyl-acetate extract of the flowers was active against Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella sp. The aerial parts extract also showed activity only against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Staphylococcus aureus, while the aqueous extract showed no antimicrobial activity. None of the tested extracts was active against the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula rubra; or the fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. and Trichophyton rubrum.

  13. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Etre, A.Y

    2003-11-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions.

  14. Schistosoma mansoni antigenic extracts obtained by different extraction procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Tendler

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Solubilization of Schistosoma mansoni antigens was obtained by agitation of adult worms in a 3M KCl solution. The protein contents of the KCl extrats varied from 0.35 to 0.96 mg/ml. Sera from 97 patients with hepatointestinal shistosomiasis and viable eggs in stools from a Brazilian endemic area were studied by immunoelectroomophoresis and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion methods with the KCl extract and with another antigen, obtained by homogenization of adult schistosomes in saline. The rate of positiveness of immunoprecipitation deterctions by immunoelectroomophoresis with the KCl extract was 53.5%. A correlation was verified between methods of detection and extration procedures, resulting in a better association of the extract obtained by agitation in 3M KCl and immunoelectroomophoresis.Foi obtida a solubilização de antígenos do Schistosoma mansoni por agitação de vermes adultos em solução de KCl 3M. O teor protéico dos extratos de KCl variou de 0,35 a 0,96mg/ ml. Foram testados pelos métodos de imunoeletroosmoforese (IEOP e dupla imunodifusão (Ouchterlony, 97 soros de doentes de area endêmica brasileira de esquistossomose, forma clínica hepatointestinal e com exames coprológicos positivos para S. mansoni, com o extrato de KCl e outro antígeno obtido pela homogenização de vermes adultos em salina. A taxa de positividade das reações de imunoprecipitação por IEOP com o antígeno extraído pela ação do KCl 3M foi 53,5%. Foi verificada a correlação entre os métodos de detecção e de extração resultando numa melhor associação entre o extrato obtido por agitação no KCl 3M e a IEOP.

  15. Pediatric tooth extractions under sedoanalgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Ayse Hande; Isik, Berrin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims to evaluate intravenous ketamine and inhalation sedation in children, their unwanted side-effects and surgeon satisfaction. Methods: In this study, data of 922 children aged between 1-18 who underwent tooth extraction under sedoanalgesia in our department between September 2015-January 2016 were gathered and anesthesia approaches, unwanted side effects and surgical satisfaction was investigated. Postoperative recovery emergence agitation or delirium was evaluated with Watcha Behavior Scale (WBS). Results: Patients were grouped and compared according to acceptance of intravenous line placement (Group-1) or not (Group- 2). Group 1 received intravenous ketamine anesthesia (n=822), Group 2 received inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane (n=100). Number of patients, age, weight and gender was significantly different in two groups. When side effects were investigated nausea was observed in 30 patients (3.6%), skin rashes were observed in 26 patients (3.2%) in Group-1 while skin rashes were observed in one patient (1%) in Group 2. 95% of surgeons reported intravenous anesthesia, 18% of surgeons reported inhalation anesthesia to be the anesthesia of choice. Emergence of postoperative recovery agitation (WBS≥3) was observed more frequent in Group 2 (p<0.05) than Group 1. Conclusion: Ketamine, which has analgesic, hypnotic and amnestic effects and which does not alter pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes thus minimizes aspiration possibility, is a safe and effective anesthetic agent for tooth extractions of the pediatric population under sedoanalgesia. PMID:27882039

  16. DESIGNING AN EVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botond BENEDEK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet world, the amount of information available reaches very high quotas. In order to find specific information, some tools were created that automatically scroll through the existing web pages and update their databases with the latest information on the Internet. In order to systematize the search and achieve a result in a concrete form, another step is needed for processing the information returned by the search engine and generating the response in a more organized form. Centralizing events of a certain type is useful first of all for creating a news service. Through this system we are pursuing a knowledge - events from the Internet documents - extraction system. The system will recognize events of a certain type (weather, sports, politics, text data mining, etc. depending on how it will be trained (the concept it has in the dictionary. These events can be provided to the user, or it can also extract the context in which the event occurred, to indicate the initial form in which the event was embedded.

  17. Web Data Identification and Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.Rajya Lakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the rapid growth of the web, a large volume of data and information are published in numerous web pages. As web sites are getting more complicated, the construction of web information extraction systems becomes more difficult and time-consuming. In this paper proposes a new method to perform the task automatically which is more effective than machine learning and semi automated system. The proposed method consists of two steps, (1 identifying individual data records in a page, and (2 aligning and extracting data items from the identified data records. For step 1, we propose a method based on visual information to segment data records, which is more accurate than existing methods. For step 2, we propose a novel partial alignment technique based on tree matching. Partial alignment means that we align only those data fields in a pair of data records that can be aligned (or matched with certainty, and make no commitment on the rest of the data fields.

  18. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-12-01

    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  19. Extraction efficiency of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants from lyophilized foods using pressurized liquid extraction and manual extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. α-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked α-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with α-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used.

  20. Extraction and Separation of Fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with Chitosan as Extractant

    OpenAIRE

    Ronge Xing; Song Liu; Huahua Yu; Xiaolin Chen; Yukun Qin; Kecheng Li; Pengcheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB) were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2), were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The resul...

  1. Extraction and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Coumarin in Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Mikania glomerata Spreng: ("guaco" Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeghini Renata M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for preparation of hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" (Mikania glomerata Spreng. leaves were compared: maceration, maceration under sonication, infusion and supercritical fluid extraction. Evaluation of these methods showed that maceration under sonication had the best results, when considering the ratio extraction yield/extraction time. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure for the determination of coumarin in these hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" leaves is described. The HPLC method is shown to be sensitive and reproducible.

  2. Kinetics study of oil extraction from Citrus auranticum L. by solvent-free microwave extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Septya Kusuma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus and its oil are of high economic and medicinal value because of their multiple uses, such as in the food industry, cosmetics and folk medicine. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of solvent-free microwave extraction for the extraction of essential oils from Citrus auranticum L. peels. Specifically, this study verifies the kinetics based on second-order model and mechanism of solvent-free microwave extraction of Citrus auranticum L. peels. Solvent-free microwave extraction is used to extract essential oils from Citrus auranticum L. peels. The initial extraction rate, the extraction capacity and the second-order extraction rate constant were calculated using the model. Using a three-step experimental design of the kinetics of oil extraction from Citrus auranticum L. peels by solvent-free microwave extraction, this study showed that the extraction process was based on the second-order extraction model. The initial extraction rate (h, the extraction capacity (CS, the second-order extraction rate constant (k, and coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.7483 g L-1 min-1, 0.7291 g L-1, 1.4075 L g-1 min-1 and 0.9992, respectively.

  3. Improving the efficiency of antioxidant extraction from mango peel by using microwave-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta, Eva; Lobo, M Gloria; González, Mónica

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE.

  4. Extraction matrine from Radix Sopheorae Tonkinensis by non-supported liquid membrane extraction technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (NSLME is a new development extraction technology based on Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (SLME. Sample extraction assembly is composed of three phases: an acceptor phase: phosphate–sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution at the bottom; an organic phase: chloroform applied as the non-supported liquid membrane in the middle layer; and a donor phase: aqueous solution samples containing alkaloids in the upper layer. The whole system is maintained stable by density difference among the three layers that avoided the mutual interferences. The alkaloid in the donor phase can spread to the underlying acidic acceptor phase, where it is able to form water soluble salt in the acid environment, and thus cannot return to the middle organic phase. Therefore, the transmission of alkaloid is a one-way path, and the extraction of alkaloids can be achieved and enriched. In this study, the extraction of alkaloid was carried out by using matrine aqueous solution as the donor phase, and the extraction quantity and efficiency were investigated by GC/MS. This study evaluated the relationship between extracted quantity and extraction time. The effects of extraction temperature, membrane thickness, pH value of acceptor phase on extraction quantity and efficiency were also studied, and the optimal extraction condition was found. The extracted quantity achieved the largest amount at 45 °C when pure phosphoric acid was applied as the acceptor phase; the organic solvent volume was 0.2 mL. The extraction of alkaloid from Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis was performed under the optimized condition. The extraction rate of matrine was up to 54% after a four-hour extraction. A huge advantage of NSLME technology is that the extracted alkaloid enjoyed high purity compared with that extracted by the traditional Liquid–Liquid Extraction (LLE.

  5. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

  7. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  8. Clinical utility of curcumin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Gary N; Spelman, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric root has been used medicinally in China and India for thousands of years. The active components are thought to be the curcuminoids, primarily curcumin, which is commonly available worldwide as a standardized extract. This article reviews the pharmacology of curcuminoids, their use and efficacy, potential adverse effects, and dosage and standardization. Preclinical studies point to mechanisms of action that are predominantly anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic, while early human clinical trials suggest beneficial effects for dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, uveitis, orbital pseudotumor, and pancreatic cancer. Curcumin is well-tolerated; the most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea. Theoretical interactions exist due to purported effects on metabolic enzymes and transport proteins, but clinical reports do not support any meaningful interactions. Nonetheless, caution, especially with chemotherapy agents, is advised. Late-phase clinical trials are still needed to confirm most beneficial effects.

  9. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    or a Panorama, where an observer is data space this approach is far from optimal. A more scalable approach is to make the observer-aware database system and to restrict the communication between the database and visualization systems to the relevant data. In this paper VR-tree, an extension of the R......The visual exploration of large databases calls for a tight coupling of database and visualization systems. Current visualization systems typically fetch all the data and organize it in a scene tree that is then used to render the visible data. For immersive data explorations in a Cave......-tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  10. Adaptive web data extraction policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provetti, Alessandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Web data extraction is concerned, among other things, with routine data accessing and downloading from continuously-updated dynamic Web pages. There is a relevant trade-off between the rate at which the external Web sites are accessed and the computational burden on the accessing client. We address the problem by proposing a predictive model, typical of the Operating Systems literature, of the rate-of-update of each Web source. The presented model has been implemented into a new version of the Dynamo project: a middleware that assists in generating informative RSS feeds out of traditional HTML Web sites. To be effective, i.e., make RSS feeds be timely and informative and to be scalable, Dynamo needs a careful tuning and customization of its polling policies, which are described in detail.

  11. Extracting information from multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ̃(S) for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  12. Extracting Information from Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iacovacci, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from Big Data. For these reasons characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function $\\widetilde{\\Theta}^{S}$ for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying thes...

  13. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  14. Extraction and separation of proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagishita, Masaki; Podyma-Inoue, Katarzyna Anna; Yokoyama, Miki

    2009-11-01

    Proteoglycans contain a unique carbohydrate component, glycosaminoglycan, which consists of repeating, typically sulfated disaccharides, and is capable of interacting with diverse molecules. Specific, clustered arrangements of sulfate on the glycosaminoglycan backbone form binding sites for many biologically important ligands such as extracellular matrix molecules and growth factors. Core proteins of proteoglycans also show molecular interactions necessary for organizing scaffolds in the extracellular matrix or for anchoring proteoglycans to the plasma membrane. Experimental protocols aiming at extracting maximal amounts of proteoglycans from tissues or cells require disruption of molecular interactions involving proteoglycans by denaturing solvents. Among many of the proteoglycan separation procedures, anion exchange chromatography, which takes advantage of the presence of highly negatively charged glycosaminoglycans in all proteoglycans, serves one of the most convenient general separation techniques.

  15. [Extraction of praeruptorin A from Radix Peucedani by supercritical fluid extraction-CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-dong; Hou, Wei; Chen, Xue-song; Qiu, Zhi-dong

    2008-12-01

    To extract praeruptorin A from Radix Peucedani by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)-CO2. After preliminary experiment, three main factors were acquired that could influence the result of SFE-CO2, including the time, pressure and temperature of the extraction. The optimal extraction process was carried out on orthogonal design, and SFE-CO2 was compared with the traditional methods. In the extraction of the praeruptorin A, the best extraction conditions were 60 degrees C, 20 MPa, and duration for three hours. As cosolvent alcohol was added, the amount of extraction of the praeruptorin A increased, and the amount of SFE-CO2 extraction was higher than those of decoction and heating reflux. The SFE-CO2 in extracting praeruptorin A from Radix Peucedani is feasible and reliable.

  16. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  17. Topic extraction from adverbial clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio Alcalá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers new data to support findings about Topic extraction from adverbial clauses. Since such clauses are strong islands, they should not allow extraction of any kind, but we show here that if the appropriate conditions are met, Topics of the CLLD kind in Romance can move out of them. We propose that two conditions must be met for such movement to be possible: the first is that the adverbial clause must have undergone topicalisation in the first place; the second is that the adverbial clause is inherently topical from a semantic viewpoint. Contrast with other language families (Germanic, Quechua and Japanese is provided and the semantic implications of the proposal are briefly discussed. Keywords: topicalisation; Clitic Left Dislocation; syntactic islands; adverbial clauses Este artículo ofrece nuevos datos sobre la extracción de Tópicos desde oraciones subordinadas adverbiales. Dado que dichas oraciones son islas fuertes, no deberían permitir extracción de ningún tipo, pero mostramos que si se dan las condiciones apropiadas, los Tópicos del tipo CLLD en lenguas románicas pueden desplazarse fuera de ellas. Proponemos que se deben cumplir dos condiciones para que ese movimiento sea posible: la primera es que la propia subordinada adverbial se haya topicalizado en primer lugar; la segunda es que la subordinada adverbial sea inherentemente un Tópico desde el punto de vista semántico. Proporcionamos también algunos contrastes con otras familias lingüísticas (germánica, quechua y japonés y se discuten brevemente las implicaciones semánticas de la propuesta. Palabras clave: topicalización; dislocación a la izquierda con clítico; islas sintácticas; oraciones adverbiales

  18. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  19. Enzyme extraction by ultrasound from sludge flocs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guanghui; HE Pinjing; SHAO Liming; ZHU Yishu

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes play essential roles in the biological processes of sludge treatment. In this article, the ultrasound method to extract enzymes from sludge flocs was presented. Results showed that using ultrasound method at 20 kHz could extract more types of enzymes than that ultrasound at 40 kHz and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. The optimum parameters of ultrasound extraction at 20 kHz were duration of 10 min and power of 480 W. Under the condition, ultrasound could break the cells and extract both the extracellular and intercellular enzymes. Ultrasound power was apparently more susceptive to enzyme extraction than duration, suggesting that the control of power during ultrasound extraction was more important than that of duration. The Pearson correlation analysis between enzyme activities and cation contents revealed that the different types of enzymes had distinct cation binding characteristics.

  20. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...... and agreement in-between tools. Processing a primary data set with 9 different tandem MS extraction tools resulted in a low overlap of identified peptides. The tools differ by assigned charge states of precursors, precursor and fragment ion masses, and we show that peptides identified very confidently using one...... extraction tool might not be matched when using another tool. We also found a bias towards peptides of lower charge state when extracting fragment ion data from higher resolution raw data without deconvolution. Collecting and comparing the extracted data from the same raw data allow adjusting parameters...

  1. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  2. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...... for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge. The sludge was continuously stirred in the presence of either buffer alone or in the presence of detergent and/or chelating agents. In all cases, a marked reduction in floc size was observed upon continuous stirring. However, no lipase activity...... and negligible protease activity was extracted in the presence of buffer alone, indicating that enzyme extraction was not due to shear force alone. The highest lipase activity was extracted using 0.1% Triton X-100 above which the activity was gradually decreasing. For proteases, the highest activity was obtained...

  3. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  4. [Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction of Rosmarinus officinalis and capability of extracts eliminate OH radical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Li, Jia-Cheng; Zhang, De-La; Feng, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Si-Li

    2008-05-01

    Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction process of antioxidation active components from Rosmarinus officinalis was studied. A new extraction process of components extracted from R. officinalis by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE-CO2 ) was studied in detail. The capability of that the extract eliminate *OH radical was tested by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique and spin catch technique. With free radical clearance as index, by range and variance analysis, the optimum extraction process conditions were: keeping pressure at 30 MPa and temperature at 75 degrees C for 1 h, in the same time adding alcohol 0.30 mL x g(-1).

  5. Extraction of Parquat from Blood by Clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Amin Aghaii-Afshar; Seyed Vahid Shetab-Boushehri

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat is a bipyridyl herbicide and organic divalent cation which due to its high polarity and water solubility cannot be readily extracted by common organic solvents from body fluids. Dithionite color test for qualitative and quantitative determination of paraquat in urine has been proposed and used for many years. Although some methods were proposed for solvent extraction of paraquat from blood, they are less practical in clinical laboratories and lack high extraction recovery. Clinoptilo...

  6. Automatic Extraction of Protein Interaction in Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peilei; Wang, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction extraction is the key precondition of the construction of protein knowledge network, and it is very important for the research in the biomedicine. This paper extracted directional protein-protein interaction from the biological text, using the SVM-based method. Experiments were evaluated on the LLL05 corpus with good results. The results show that dependency features are import for the protein-protein interaction extraction and features related to the interaction w...

  7. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  8. Extraction in Dutch with Lexical Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rentier, G

    1994-01-01

    Unbounded dependencies are often modelled by ``traces'' (and ``gap threading'') in unification-based grammars. Pollard and Sag, however, suggest an analysis of extraction based on lexical rules, which excludes the notion of traces (P&S 1994, Chapter 9). In parsing, it suggests a trade of indeterminism for lexical ambiguity. This paper provides a short introduction to this approach to extraction with lexical rules, and illustrates the linguistic power of the approach by applying it to particularly idiosyncratic Dutch extraction data.

  9. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

  10. The Extraction and Application of Ginger Oleoresin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩吉庆; 张慧; 姜传世; 崔振蕾

    2014-01-01

    Ginger oleoresin is to present the main substance of ginger spicy flavor and aroma from the ginger extract.How to extract a high concentration of ginger oleoresin from ginger ginger is an important research direction.In this paper, different ginger oleoresin extraction process gives a brief introduction and comparison;Finally the application of ginger oleoresin in food and medicine are introduced in the paper.

  11. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Liudmila V. Dyakova; Aleksander G. Kasikov; Elena S. Kshumaneva; Svetlana V. Drogobuzhskaya

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cob...

  12. DNA extraction from formalin-fixed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, Thomas M P

    2012-01-01

    The principal challenges facing PCR-based analyses of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed materials are fragmentation of the DNA and cross-linked protein-DNA complexes. Here, we present an efficient protocol to extract DNA from formalin-fixed or paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE). In this protocol, protein-DNA cross-links are reversed using heat and alkali treatment, yielding significantly longer fragments and larger amounts of PCR-amplifiable DNA than standard DNA extraction protocols.

  13. Pattern Based Term Extraction Using ACABIT System

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Koichi; Koyama, Teruo; Daille, Béatrice; Romary, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pattern-based term extraction approach for Japanese, applying ACABIT system originally developed for French. The proposed approach evaluates termhood using morphological patterns of basic terms and term variants. After extracting term candidates, ACABIT system filters out non-terms from the candidates based on log-likelihood. This approach is suitable for Japanese term extraction because most of Japanese terms are compound nouns or simple phrasal patterns.

  14. Hawthorn extract inhibits human isolated neutrophil functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, Ernesto; Milara, Javier; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Cosín-Sales, Juan; Sotillo, José Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hawthorn extract is a popular herbal medicine given as adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. In contrast to the cardiac properties of hawthorn extract, its anti-inflammatory effect has been scarcely investigated. This study examines the effects of a dry extract of leaves and flowers of Crataegus laevigata on various functional outputs of human neutrophils in vitro. Incubation of human neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood of healthy donors with C. laevigata extract (0.75-250 microg/ml) inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion generation, elastase release and chemotactic migration with potency values of 43.6, 21.9, and 31.6 microg/ml, respectively. By contrast, serum-opsonized zymosan-induced phagocytosis was unaltered by plant extract. C. laevigata extract (125 microg/ml) reduced FMLP-induced leukotriene B(4) production and lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8. Extract inhibited FMLP-induced intracellular calcium signal with potency of 17.4 microg/ml. Extract also markedly inhibited the extracellular calcium entry into calcium-depleted neutrophils, and the thapsigargin-induced intracellular calcium response. In conclusion, C. laevigata extract inhibited various functional outputs of activated human neutrophils which may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiac failure.

  15. Synergistic Extraction of Gallium for Sulfate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGTong; HUANGLijuan; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel extractant mixture, di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate (DEHPA) plus HX, was propose and tested for recovering gallium from sulfate solution.It was found that the extraction capacity of DEPHA for gallium from sulfate solution could be enhanced significantly due to the synergistic effect of acidix extractant HX. Gallium extraction is negligible below pH 0 and highly sensitive to pH of aqueous phase in the range from 0 to 1, and satisfactory extraction can be gained at pH>1. More than 96% Ga extraction was obtained using 15% DEHPA plus 2% HX. Although Fe(Ⅲ) was found to be extracted preferentially to Ga (Ⅲ), effective extraction of Ga (Ⅲ) was possible by reducing ferric to the ferrous state prior to extraction. A loaded organic phase containing 0.48g·L-1 Ga could be produced from solution of 0.12g·L-1 Ga at A/O ratio of 4:1 via three mixer-settler operation stages. Gallium was stripped quantitatively from the loaded organic phase with 1.5mol·L-1 of sulfuric acid.

  16. Rapid Feature Extraction for Optical Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Zahid; Yan, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Feature extraction is one of the fundamental problems of character recognition. The performance of character recognition system is depends on proper feature extraction and correct classifier selection. In this article, a rapid feature extraction method is proposed and named as Celled Projection (CP) that compute the projection of each section formed through partitioning an image. The recognition performance of the proposed method is compared with other widely used feature extraction methods that are intensively studied for many different scripts in literature. The experiments have been conducted using Bangla handwritten numerals along with three different well known classifiers which demonstrate comparable results including 94.12% recognition accuracy using celled projection.

  17. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satdive, R K; Abhilash, P; Fulzele, Devanand P

    2003-12-01

    The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.

  19. Optimization of Protein Extraction for Lichen Thalli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Anna S; Savchuk, Oleksiy M; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2015-06-01

    Lichen-forming fungal proteins have been seldom searched due to many difficulties in their extraction. Phenols, quinones, proteases, and other components released during cell disruption have been known to be the greatest challenges related to protein extraction from lichens. To overcome these problems and maintain good electrophoretic resolution and high protein concentration, an extraction buffer containing polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, ascorbic acid, Triton X-100, polyethylene glycol, proteinase, and oxidase inhibitors in sodium phosphate buffer was developed. This extraction buffer showed high efficiency for all lichen species tested in the study.

  20. A Line Extraction Algorithm for Hand Drawings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for extracting lines from hand drawings.It starts from contour pixel tracing,fits them into contour segments,and then extracts skeleton lines from the contour segments.The algorithm finds all contours in one scan of the input matrix without detecting and marking multiple pixels.In line extraction,the method Elastic Contour Segment Tracing is proposed which extracts lines by referring to the contour segments at both sides,overcoming noise and passing through blotted areas by fitting and extrapolation. Experiments on free hand mechanical drawings,sketches,letter/numerals,as well as Chinese characters are carried out and satisfactory results are achieved.

  1. Pain experience after simple tooth extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Taiseer Hussain; Alnahar, Amir

    2008-05-01

    To assess pain experience after simple uncomplicated tooth extraction and to see if there is a need to prescribe analgesic drugs after such a procedure. A random sample of patients presenting for tooth extraction at the Maxillofacial Unit, Jordan University of Science and Technology was included. A baseline assessment of previously experienced general and dental pains using numeric scales was done. Subsequently, tooth extractions were done and telephone interviews were made during evenings for a week. Pain intensity was assessed on a numeric scale, and use of analgesic drugs and pain quality were recorded. At the evening of extraction 81.8% of patients had pain. Female gender predominance in pain reporting was statistically significant on postextraction days 3 and 5. Chronically inflamed teeth caused the highest mean pain intensity scores and nonsmokers showed significantly higher mean pain intensity scores compared with smokers. Mild pain was experienced by most patients (38.6%) on the evening of extraction. It was found that 55.3% of participants (largely females) used analgesic drugs on the evening of extraction, and 6.8% of participants still used analgesic drugs on day 7 postextraction. There was a significant correlation between mean pain intensity score and previous dental injection pain. Patients, notably females, experienced pain of varying intensity after simple uncomplicated tooth extraction maximally at the evening of extraction; and greater than 50% of the patients used analgesic drugs. We recommend offering regular analgesic drugs during the first week after tooth extraction.

  2. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  3. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiong; He Gui-ming; Zhang Yun

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characteristic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  4. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Xiong; He; Gui-Ming; 等

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System(AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characterstic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  5. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; van Ginneken, Bram; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract vessel trees by continually extending detected branches with locally optimal paths. Our approach uses a cost function from a multi scale vessel enhancement filter. Optimal paths are selected based on rules that take into account the geometric characteristics...... of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  6. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh J. Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3 and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1. Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1 against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1 against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1 against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

  7. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid.

  8. Extraction of PCBs and water from river sediment using liquefied dimethyl ether as an extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Takaoka, Masaki; Kitade, Sin-ichiro; Takeda, Nobuo; Kanda, Hideki; Makino, Hisao; Matsumoto, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and water could be simultaneously removed from river sediment by solvent extraction using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME) as the extractant. DME exists in a gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure and can dissolve organic substances and some amount of water; therefore, liquefied DME under moderate pressure (0.6-0.8 MPa) at room temperature can be effectively used to extract PCBs and water from contaminated sediment, and it can be recovered from the extract and reused easily. First, we evaluated the PCB and water extraction characteristics of DME from contaminated sediment. We found that 99% of PCBs and 97% of water were simultaneously extracted from the sediment using liquefied DME at an extraction time of 4320 s and a liquefied DME/sediment ratio of 60 mL g(-1). The extraction rate of PCBs and water was expressed in terms of a pseudo-first-order reaction rate. Second, we estimated the amount of DME that was recovered after extraction. We found that 91-92% of DME could be recovered. In other words, approximately 5-10% of DME was lost during extraction and recovery. It is necessary to optimize this process in order to recover DME efficiently. The extraction efficiency of the recovered DME is similar to that of the pure DME. From the results, we conclude that solvent extraction using liquefied DME is suitable for extracting PCBs and water from contaminated sediment. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Salido, Sofía; Sánchez, Adolfo; van Beek, Teris A; Altarejos, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    .... Among the fifty olive wood extracts obtained in this study, the most active ones were those prepared with ethyl acetate, either through direct extraction or by successive liquid-liquid partitioning...

  10. Acid Release from an Acid Sulfate Soil Sample Under Successive Extractions with Different Extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An acid sulfate soil sample was successively extracted with deionized water, 1 mol L-1 KCI and 0.000 5 mol L-1 Ca(OH)2 solutions. The results showed that only very small amounts of acidity were extracted by deionized water, possibly through slow jarosite hydrolysis. Acid release through jarosite hydrolysis was greatly enhanced by Ca(OH)2 extraction at the expense of the added OH- being neutralized by the acid released. Successive extraction of the sample with KCI removed the largest amounts of acidity from the sample. However, it is likely that the major form of acidity released by KC1 extraction was exchangeable acidity. The results also show the occurrence of low or non charged A1 and Fe species in water and Ca(OH)2 extracts after first a few extractions. It appears that such a phenomenon was related to a decreasing EC value with increasing number of extractions.

  11. The Effect of Different Extracting Agents on Extraction Rate of Polysaccharides in Shii- Takes from Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO; Liping

    2001-01-01

    Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) contains lots of bioactive components, such as equal amylose, mixed amylose, sugar albumen, albumen polysaccharide, proflin and so on, that all have effects of anticancer and restrain tumour. But the extraction rate by hot water and alkali solution is much low.  Different Shii-Takes contain polysaccharides with different properties and structures, such as acid-base property, solubility, stability and so on. So the property of extracting agent is one of important effects on extraction rate, in addition cell structures of Shii-Takes. Extraction of polysaccharides from four species of Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) from Guizhou in different extracting agents is studied in this paper. Extraction conditions are 0.5mol/L aqueous solution of extracting agents, 40 times of weight ratio of liquid and solid during 1hour at 60℃. The quantities of the polysaccharides extracted shows the following Table 1.……

  12. The Effect of Different Extracting Agents on Extraction Rate of Polysaccharides in Shii- Takes from Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) contains lots of bioactive components, such as equal amylose, mixed amylose, sugar albumen, albumen polysaccharide, proflin and so on, that all have effects of anticancer and restrain tumour. But the extraction rate by hot water and alkali solution is much low. Different Shii-Takes contain polysaccharides with different properties and structures, such as acid-base property, solubility, stability and so on. So the property of extracting agent is one of important effects on extraction rate, in addition cell structures of Shii-Takes. Extraction of polysaccharides from four species of Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) from Guizhou in different extracting agents is studied in this paper. Extraction conditions are 0.5mol/L aqueous solution of extracting agents, 40 times of weight ratio of liquid and solid during 1hour at 60℃. The quantities of the polysaccharides extracted shows the following Table 1.

  13. Extraction of glabridin with heat reflux extraction by response surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ying DING

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the extraction process of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra. Methods: The solid-liquid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature are the three main factors in the experiment, and the extract solvent is ethyl acetate. Establish the response surface quadratic regression equation of glabridin extraction rate and purity. Results:The results indicate that the optimum conditions for glabridin are as follows: solvent is ethyl acetate, extraction time is 90 min, the ratio of solvent to solid is 35 ∶1 (ml/g, and extraction temperature is 44.7 ℃, purity and the maximum yield of Extraction of glabridin are 6.96% and 0.241%, The validation test shows that the experimental values of the model are 0.235% and 6.05% . Conclusion: The model equation can predict the experimental results, it can be used as reference in industrial production. 

  14. Extraction of betulin from bark of Betula platyphylla by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-hong; YU Tao; WANG Yang

    2003-01-01

    Betulin, which is a medicinal pentacyclic triterpene, is abundant in the bark of white birch (Betula platyphlly). The bark of birch was collected at Tayuan Forest Farm of Jiagedaqi, Heilongjiang Province in September 2000. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that is a new separation technology has been used for the processing pharmaceutical and natural products. In this paper, the extraction of betulin from the bark of birch by supercritical CO2 extraction was studied. The authors investigated and analyzed a few parameters such as modifier dosage, extraction pressure and extraction temperature. The optimal extraction conditions showed that the modifier dosage used for per gram bark powder was 1.5 mL, the extraction pressure was at 20 Mpa, and the extraction temperature was at 55 ℃. The velocity of flow of liquid CO2 was at 10 kg/h. The pressure and temperature in separation vessel were at 5.5 Mpa and 50 ℃, respectively.

  15. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction to determine triterpene acids in olive skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pastor, Ignacio; Fernandez-Hernandez, Antonia; Perez-Criado, Sergio; Rivas, Francisco; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Parra, Andres

    2017-03-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is compared with a more classical technique, Soxhlet extraction, to determine the content of triterpene acids in olive skins. The samples used in their original unmilled state and milled were extracted with ethyl acetate or methanol as solvents. The optimized operating conditions (e.g., amount and type of solvent, and time and temperature of extractions) to attain the better extraction yields have been established. For the identification and quantitation of the target compounds, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was employed. The best results were achieved using the microwave-assisted extraction technique, which was much faster than the Soxhlet extraction method, and showed higher efficiency in the extraction of the triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic).

  16. Combined extraction processes of lipid from Chlorella vulgaris microalgae: microwave prior to supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    ...) allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO(2) extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic...

  17. Betalains and phenolics in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) peel extracts: extraction and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, T; Loponen, J; Pihlaja, K

    2001-01-01

    The extraction of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) peel betalains and phenolics was compared with two extraction methods and solvents. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined according to a modification of the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The profiles of extracts were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compounds of beetroot peel extracted with 80% aqueous methanol were characterised from separated fractions using HPLC- diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) techniques. The extraction methods and the choice of solvent affected noticeably the content of individual compounds in the extract. The betalains found in beetroot peel extract were vulgaxanthin I, vulgaxanthin II, indicaxanthin, betanin, prebetanin, isobetanin and neobetanin. Also cyclodopa glucoside, N-formylcyclodopa glucoside, glucoside of dihydroxyindol-carboxylic acid, betalamic acid, L-tryptophan, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and traces of unidentified flavonoids were detected.

  18. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  19. Language extraction from zinc sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varn, Dowman Parks

    2001-09-01

    Recent advances in the analysis of one-dimensional temporal and spacial series allow for detailed characterization of disorder and computation in physical systems. One such system that has defied theoretical understanding since its discovery in 1912 is polytypism. Polytypes are layered compounds, exhibiting crystallinity in two dimensions, yet having complicated stacking sequences in the third direction. They can show both ordered and disordered sequences, sometimes each in the same specimen. We demonstrate a method for extracting two-layer correlation information from ZnS diffraction patterns and employ a novel technique for epsilon-machine reconstruction. We solve a long-standing problem---that of determining structural information for disordered materials from their diffraction patterns---for this special class of disorder. Our solution offers the most complete possible statistical description of the disorder. Furthermore, from our reconstructed epsilon-machines we find the effective range of the interlayer interaction in these materials, as well as the configurational energy of both ordered and disordered specimens. Finally, we can determine the 'language' (in terms of the Chomsky Hierarchy) these small rocks speak, and we find that regular languages are sufficient to describe them.

  20. Volume-Enclosing Surface Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schlei, B R

    2010-01-01

    A new method is presented here, which allows one to construct triangular surfaces from three-dimensional data sets, such as 3D image data and/or numerical simulation data that are based on regularly shaped, cubic lattices. This novel volume-enclosing surface extraction technique, which has been named VESTA, is guaranteed to always produce surfaces that do not contain any holes, e.g., in contrast to the well-known and very popular Marching Cubes algorithm, which has been developed by W.E. Lorensen and H.E. Cline in the mid-1980s. VESTA is not template based. In fact, the surface tiles are determined with a fast and robust construction technique. Among other things, VESTA's relationship to the DICONEX algorithm is explained, which -- in a lower-dimensional analogy -- produces contours from two-dimensional data sets, such as 2D gray-level images. In particular, the generation of isosurfaces from initially created VESTA surfaces is demonstrated here for the very first time. A few examples are provided, namely in ...

  1. Extracting entanglement from identical particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, N; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B

    2014-04-18

    Identical particles and entanglement are both fundamental components of quantum mechanics. However, when identical particles are condensed in a single spatial mode, the standard notions of entanglement, based on clearly identifiable subsystems, break down. This has led many to conclude that such systems have limited value for quantum information tasks, compared to distinguishable particle systems. To the contrary, we show that any entanglement formally appearing amongst the identical particles, including entanglement due purely to symmetrization, can be extracted into an entangled state of independent modes, which can then be applied to any task. In fact, the entanglement of the mode system is in one-to-one correspondence with the entanglement between the inaccessible identical particles. This settles the long-standing debate about the resource capabilities of such states, in particular spin-squeezed states of Bose-Einstein condensates, while also revealing a new perspective on how and when entanglement is generated in passive optical networks. Our results thus reveal new fundamental connections between entanglement, squeezing, and indistinguishability.

  2. Upper incisors' positions after extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics.

  3. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Assays on Polygonum minus Extracts: Different Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The effect of solvent type and extraction method was investigated to study the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Polygonum minus. Two extraction methods were used: a solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the free radical-scavenging capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The highest polyphenol content was obtained from the m...

  4. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev; Renata R. Iskhakova; Zamzagul D. Dosymbaeva; Esen N. Sulejmenov

    2014-01-01

    There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  5. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible and managea

  6. [Guided tooth eruption via serial extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, C

    1995-01-01

    Crowding of teeth is the result of arch length discrepancy (ALD). Minimal crowding can be solved with slice-technique, more severe crowding (ALD > or = 5 mm) can be intercepted with a serial extraction procedure. In this paper a sequence of serial extraction will be explained and illustrated with case reports.

  7. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent) sy

  8. Ranking XPaths for extracting search result records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2012-01-01

    Extracting search result records (SRRs) from webpages is useful for building an aggregated search engine which combines search results from a variety of search engines. Most automatic approaches to search result extraction are not portable: the complete process has to be rerun on a new search result

  9. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  10. Fingerprint Minutiae Extraction using Deep Learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, Luke Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available components, such as image enhancement. We pose minutiae extraction as a machine learning problem and propose a deep neural network – MENet, for Minutiae Extraction Network – to learn a data-driven representation of minutiae points. By using the existing...

  11. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  12. How biomass composition determines protein extractability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Syafitri, U.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass consists of a complex mixture of different components, of which protein potentially has a high added value for biorefinery. In this study, protein extractability of different types of biomass, mostly by-products, was analyzed. Protein yield obtained from a three step extraction using alkali

  13. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto extract, including pigments... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF...

  14. How biomass composition determines protein extractability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Syafitri, U.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass consists of a complex mixture of different components, of which protein potentially has a high added value for biorefinery. In this study, protein extractability of different types of biomass, mostly by-products, was analyzed. Protein yield obtained from a three step extraction using alkali

  15. Automated extraction of DNA from clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing t...

  16. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  17. Outcomes of lead extraction in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chami, Mikhael F; Sayegh, Michael N; Patel, Adarsh; El-Khalil, Jad; Desai, Yaanik; Leon, Angel R; Merchant, Faisal M

    2017-04-01

    Extraction of pacemaker and defibrillator leads in young adults may be technically challenging because of more extensive fibrosis and calcification in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes of lead extraction (LE) in young adults at our institution. We retrospectively identified all patients who underwent LE at our institution between January 1, 2007, and May 31, 2016. Patients were divided by age into 2 groups: extracted per procedure compared to group 1 (1.64 ± 0.80 vs 1.45 ± 0.64; P extraction techniques more frequently (9.5% vs 4.4%; P = .055). Extraction procedural success (group 1: 94.1%, group 2: 94.9%; P = .792), major complications (group 1: 0%, group 2: 1.3%; P = 1), and periprocedural mortality (group 1: 0%, group 2: 0.86%; P = 1) were similar in the 2 groups. LE can be performed safely and effectively in young adults. Despite the lower number of leads extracted per procedure and the similar lead dwell time, younger adults more frequently required the use of femoral extraction tools, thus highlighting the importance of performing these procedures in centers with advanced expertise in extraction techniques. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nethra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is done through Web page segmentation, but it increases the time complexity. Hand crafted rule generation uses string manipulation function for rule generation, but generating those rules is very difficult. A hybrid approach is proposed to extract main content from Web pages. A HTML Web page is converted to DOM tree and features are extracted and with the extracted features, rules are generated. Decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are machine learning methods used for rules generation. By using the rules, noisy part in the Web page is discarded and informative content in the Web page is extracted. The performance of both decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are measured with metrics like precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy.

  19. Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, J.S. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

  20. Kinetics and thermodynamics of cottonseed oil extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, D. K.; Sharma, S. K.

    2011-07-01

    Petroleum derived n-hexane is commercially used in solvent extraction plants due to its higher extraction efficiency in spite of the fact that it is graded as highly toxic and hazardous. The present study is based on the use of both a much safer and non toxic solvent ethanol and n-hexane for the extraction of oil from cottonseed. The extraction data were obtained by varying temperature, solvent-solid ratio and particle size, to compare the extraction efficiency of both ethanol and n-hexane. The data show that nearly the same amount of extraction is possible at a higher solvent-solid ratio for both the solvents. This study has established that the kinetics of oil extraction follows a second order reaction mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis of the data shows that both .{delta}H degree centigrade and {delta}G degree centigrade are positive, and {delta}G degree centigrade is negative indicating that the extraction process is endothermic, irreversible, and spontaneous. (Author) 41 refs.

  1. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  2. Rapid extraction of PCDD/Fs from soil and fly ash samples. Pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, P.; Fabrellas, B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The main reference extraction method in the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) is still the Soxhlet extraction. But it requires long extraction times (up to 24 hs), large volumes of hazardous organic solvents (100-300 ml) and its automation is limited. Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) and Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) are two relatively new extraction techniques that reduce the time and the volume of solvent required for extraction. However, very different PFE extraction conditions are found for the same enviromental matrices in the literature. MAE is not a extraction technique very applied for the analysis of PCDD/Fs yet, although it is used for the determination of other organic compounds, such as PCBs and PAHs. In this study, PFE and MAE extraction conditions were optimized to determine PCDDs y PCDFs in fly ash and soil/sediment samples. Conventional Soxhlet extraction with toluene was used to compare the extraction efficiency of both techniques.

  3. Effect of different extraction protocols on anticancer and antioxidant activities of Berberis koreana bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Syed Abdul; Kwon, Min Chul; Han, Jae Gun; Ha, Ji He; Chung, Hyang Suk; Ahn, Juhee; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2009-03-01

    High-pressure extraction and ultrasonification extraction techniques were employed to extract bioactive compounds from Berberis koreana. This study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonification in a high pressure process on the extraction yield, and the anticancer and antioxidant activities of the B. koreana bark extract. The effect of high-pressure extraction time when carried out for 5 and 15 min (HP5 and HP15) was also investigated. The best extraction yield with maximum percentage of phenolic compounds was obtained using high pressure with sonification (HPWS) extraction method. Experimental results indicated that HPWS altered the antioxidant activities, including the scavenging capacity of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase. HP5 and HP15 with conventional extraction have almost similar bioactivity, but showed lower antioxidant and anticancer activities compared to HPWS. The results showed that the application of ultrasonification improved the extraction efficiency for bioactive compounds and, as deduced from chromatographic profiles, it may have allowed the release of new compounds. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed evidence of rupturing of the tissue surface treated with HPWS, in contrast to conventional extraction, HP5, and HP15. The HPWS extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active compounds of hard plant tissues.

  4. Natural colorants: Pigment stability and extraction yield enhancement via utilization of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamwonglumlert, Luxsika; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2017-10-13

    Natural colorants from plant-based materials have gained increasing popularity due to health consciousness of consumers. Among the many steps involved in the production of natural colorants, pigment extraction is one of the most important. Soxhlet extraction, maceration, and hydrodistillation are conventional methods that have been widely used in industry and laboratory for such a purpose. Recently, various non-conventional methods, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed-electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction have emerged as alternatives to conventional methods due to the advantages of the former in terms of smaller solvent consumption, shorter extraction time, and more environment-friendliness. Prior to the extraction step, pretreatment of plant materials to enhance the stability of natural pigments is another important step that must be carefully taken care of. In this paper, a comprehensive review of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods for chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, and anthocyanins, which are major classes of plant pigments, is provided by using pigment stability and extraction yield as assessment criteria.

  5. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  6. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Wedelia trilobata crude extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

    1999-05-01

    A biological screening of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and fungi of crude extracts from Wedelia trilobata is reported. The n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram-positive bacteria); along with Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella group C, Salmonella paratyphi, and Shigella sonnei (Gram-negative bacteria). The ethyl acetate extract was active only against Salmonella group C; and the aqueous extract was inactive against the tested bacteria. None of the tested extracts showed biological activity against the yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra) or the fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum).

  8. Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef shaikh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the field of natural products and human health care system. Chemical constituents present in the various parts of the plants can resist to parasitic attack by using several defense mechanisms. One such mechanism is the synthesis of antimicrobial compound. Cichorium intybus is one of the important medicinal plants which belong to Asteraceae family. In the present work, antimicrobial screening of C. intybus seed extract was studied by agar well diffusion assay by using aqueous and organic extracts. The pathogenic microorganisms tested include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. All the seed extracts showed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms whereas S. aureus was found to be most sensitive against aqueous extract and had the widest zone of inhibition. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extract were found to be significant against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The results obtained from antimicrobial screening scientifically support the effectiveness of the medicinal plant.

  9. Antimicrobial Effect of Extracts of Cruciferous Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Hu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The cruciferous vegetables cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Chinese radish, Chinese kale, and Chinese kitam were used in this study to prepare water-soluble and methanol-water extracts. Crude protein extracts were also obtained by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE anion exchange chromatography. Water-soluble polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The antimicrobial effects of all these extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast. Crude protein extracts exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity in monoculture experiments. The antimicrobial effects of cruciferous vegetables were also studied by steeping beef, carrot, and celery in chlorine (10 ppm or citric acid solution (1% containing the crude protein extract (500 ppm for different time periods. Total aerobic plate counts and coliform counts on these foods decreased significantly after 10 minutes in all steeping solutions (p < 0.05.

  10. Extraction Optimization of Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cong-fen; LI Peng; ZHAO Hua; SONG Li-ya; ZHU Jun; DONG Yin-mao

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to describe the extraction of polysaccharides from pitaya stems.[Method] The hot water,enzyme-assisted and microwave-assisted methods were used,with the microwave-assisted extraction being deemed optimal by general evaluation.[Result] The main factors affecting the yield of polysaccharides in the microwave-assisted extraction,by order of magnitude,were as follows:timemicrowave powertemperature;additionally,optimal conditions included a 10 min extraction time,an 80 ℃ extraction temperature and a microwave setting of 200 W.Using these optimal conditions,the yield of PSPS(Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems) was 1.42%.After purification,the yield of PSPS was 0.74%.[Conclusion] The PSPS was analyzed by IR,MALDI-TOF-MS and an element analysis technique.It was shown to be a polysaccharide mixture,and the molecular weight was between 3 900 and 4 300 Da.

  11. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    In the process of wastewater treatment hydrolysis of polymeric substances is the first and rate-limiting step. A closer study of the enzymes catalysing these reactions is essential for a better understanding of the microbial activity in the wastewater treatment process. Therefore, development...... of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...... and negligible protease activity was extracted in the presence of buffer alone, indicating that enzyme extraction was not due to shear force alone. The highest lipase activity was extracted using 0.1% Triton X-100 above which the activity was gradually decreasing. For proteases, the highest activity was obtained...

  12. Time profile of the slowly extracted beam

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, M

    1997-01-01

    An important spin-off from accelerators is the use of synchrotrons for cancer therapy. For this application a precise control of the slow extraction is needed to satisfy the medical specifications for the online measurement and control of the delivered dose. This has led to a renewed interest in the basic theory of third-order resonance extraction. In the present paper, an analytic study of the time profile of the extracted beam is made by first considering the time profile of an elementary strip of monoenergetic particles from the side of the shrinking stable triangle. This basic result is then used to predict the characteristics of the spills for the most common extraction configurations. The influence of ripples whose period is comparable to the transit time of a particle in the resonance is also analyzed. Simulations of the extraction process that confirm the analytic study are included.

  13. Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods.

  14. Cinnamomum casia Extract Encapsulated Nanochitosan as Antihypercholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiwiyana; Purbowatiningrum; Fachriyah, Enny; Ismiyarto

    2017-02-01

    Atherosclerosis vascular disease with clinical manifestations such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are the leading cause of death in Indonesia. One solution to these problems is a natural antihypercholesterol medicine by utilizing Cinnamomum casia extract. However, the use of natural extracts to lower blood cholesterol levels do not provide optimal results because it is possible that the active components of extract have been degraded/damaged during the absorption process. So that, we need to do the research to get a combination of chitosan nanoparticles-Cinnamomum casia. extract as a compound which has an antihypercholesterol activity through the in vitro study. Modification of natural extracts encapsulated nanochitosan be a freshness in this study, which were conducted using the method of inclusion. The combination of both has the dual function of protecting the natural extracts from degradation and deliver the natural extracts to the target site. Analysis of nanochitosan using the Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) shows the particle size of synthesis product that is equal to 64.9 nm. Encapsulation efficiency of Cinnamomum casia extract-Chitosan Nanoparticles known through UV-VIS spectrophotometry test and obtained the efficiency encapsulation percentage of 84.93%. Zeta Potential at 193,3 mv that chitosan appropriate for a delivery drug. Antihypercholesterol activity tested in vitro assay that showed the extract-nanoparticle chitosan in concentration 150 ppm gave the highest cholesterol decreasing level in the amount of 49.66% w/v. So it can be concluded that Cinnamomum casia extract can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it has a cholesterol-lowering effect through the in vitro study.

  15. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose.

  16. Influence of extraction method on protein profile of soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlićević Milica Ž.; Stanojević Slađana P.; Vucelić-Radović Biljana V.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison between protein profiles of soybean obtained by commonly used methods of extraction (Tris buffer and Tris-urea buffer) with methods used for extraction of plant proteins for 2D PAGE analysis (direct solubilization in IEF buffer, acetone extraction, phenol extraction, extraction with urea solubilization buffer and thiourea-urea extraction) was investigated. 2D profiles of samples extracted directly in IEF buffer, in urea solubilization buffer and in acetone were characterized ...

  17. Isolation and Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Epimedium Koreanum Nakai by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ming; ZHAO Xue-liang; LIU Zhi-qiang; XING Jun-peng

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper is reported the method for the isolation and extraction of total flavonoids of Epimedium Koreanum Nakai by means of supercritical fluid extraction(SFE). By examining pressure, temperature, amounts of modifier and extraction time, the optimized condition of SFE is confirmed as 30 MPa and 60 ℃, with 70% ethanol as the modifier. The samples were statically extracted for 30 min, followed by dynamic extraction for 120 min at a flow rate of 6 mL/min. The quantitative analysis of total flavonoids was performed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Compared with the conventional method, the SFE method is more efficient, more rapid and more friendly environmentally.

  18. Combined extraction processes of lipid from chlorella vulgaris microalgae: microwave prior to supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Chemat; Frederic Charton; Céline Dejoye; Maryline Abert Vian; Guy Lumia; Christian Bouscarle

    2011-01-01

    Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 e...

  19. Different methods to select the best extraction system for solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The optimization methods for planning a solid-phase extraction experiment are presented. These methods are based on a study of interactions between different parts of an extraction system. Determination of the type and strength of interaction depends on the physicochemical properties of the individual components of the system. The main parameters that determine the extraction properties are described in this work. The influence of sorbents' and solvents' polarity on extraction efficiency, Hansen solubility parameters and breakthrough volume determination on sorption and desorption extraction step are discussed.

  20. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  1. Are extraction methods in quantitative assays of pharmacopoeia monographs exhaustive? A comparison with pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalo, Carlos; Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-10-01

    The extraction methods in selected monographs of the European and the Swiss Pharmacopoeia were compared to pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with respect to the yield of constituents to be dosed in the quantitative assay for the respective herbal drugs. The study included five drugs, Belladonnae folium, Colae semen, Boldo folium, Tanaceti herba and Agni casti fructus. They were selected to cover different classes of compounds to be analyzed and different extraction methods to be used according to the monographs. Extraction protocols for PLE were optimized by varying the solvents and number of extraction cycles. In PLE, yields > 97 % of extractable analytes were typically achieved with two extraction cycles. For alkaloid-containing drugs, the addition of ammonia prior to extraction significantly increased the yield and reduced the number of extraction cycles required for exhaustive extraction. PLE was in all cases superior to the extraction protocol of the pharmacopoeia monographs (taken as 100 %), with differences ranging from 108 % in case of parthenolide in Tanaceti herba to 343 % in case of alkaloids in Boldo folium.

  2. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief.

  3. A review on solid phase extraction of actinides and lanthanides with amide based extractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Seraj A; Mohapatra, Prasanta K

    2017-05-26

    Solid phase extraction is gaining attention from separation scientists due to its high chromatographic utility. Though both grafted and impregnated forms of solid phase extraction resins are popular, the later is easy to make by impregnating a given organic extractant on to an inert solid support. Solid phase extraction on an impregnated support, also known as extraction chromatography, combines the advantages of liquid-liquid extraction and the ion exchange chromatography methods. On the flip side, the impregnated extraction chromatographic resins are less stable against leaching out of the organic extractant from the pores of the support material. Grafted resins, on the other hand, have a higher stability, which allows their prolong use. The goal of this article is a brief literature review on reported actinide and lanthanide separation methods based on solid phase extractants of both the types, i.e., (i) ligand impregnation on the solid support or (ii) ligand functionalized polymers (chemically bonded resins). Though the literature survey reveals an enormous volume of studies on the extraction chromatographic separation of actinides and lanthanides using several extractants, the focus of the present article is limited to the work carried out with amide based ligands, viz. monoamides, diamides and diglycolamides. The emphasis will be on reported applied experimental results rather than on data pertaining fundamental metal complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process.

  5. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mazutti,M.; Mossi,A. J.; CANSIAN,R.L.; Corazza,M. L.; Dariva,C.; Vladimir Oliveira,J.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC) and pressure (100 to 250 bar) on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, ...

  6. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mazutti,M.; A J Mossi; CANSIAN,R.L.; M. L. Corazza; Dariva,C.; J. Vladimir Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC) and pressure (100 to 250 bar) on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, ...

  7. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased.

  8. Massive clot formation after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Hunasgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral surgical procedures mainly tooth extraction can be related with an extended hemorrhage owed to the nature of the process resulting in an "open wound." The attempt of this paper is to present a case of massive postoperative clot formation after tooth extraction and highlight on the oral complications of surgical procedures. A 32-year-old male patient reported to the Dental Clinic for evaluation and extraction of grossly decayed 46. Clinical evaluation of 46 revealed root stumps. Extraction of the root stumps was performed, and it was uneventful. Hemostasis was achieved and postsurgical instructions were specified to the patient. The patient reported to the clinic, the very subsequent morning with a criticism of bleeding at the extraction site. On clinical examination, bleeding was noted from the socket in relation to 46. To control bleeding, oral hemostatic drugs Revici - E (Ethamsylate 500 mg was prescribed and bleeding was stopped in 2 h. However, a massive clot was formed at the extraction site. Further, this clot resolved on its own in 1-week time. Despite the fact that dental extraction is considered to be a minor surgical procedure, some cases may present with life-threatening complications including hemorrhage. Vigilant and significant history taking, physical and dental examinations prior to dental procedures are a must to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  9. INTEGRATED SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION AND BIOPROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Catchpole

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluids are increasingly being used and promoted at a laboratory and pilot scale to produce high value, natural bioactives from biologically based raw materials. Supercritical CO2 is overwhelmingly the solvent of choice for these operations, but is largely limited to the processing of dry raw materials and the extraction of low polarity, low molecular weight compounds. The use of co-solvents and the use of alternative ‘near-critical’ extraction fluids such as dimethyl ether show potential to mitigate these limitations. Commercialisation of new supercritical extraction processes has arguably been limited because the supercritical extraction process has been developed in isolation of other processing steps necessary to achieve a successful product. This study reviews recent developments in integrated processing that incorporate the use of supercritical fluids for bioseparations and in particular process schemes that produce high value natural bioactives. Integrated processes include prior operation (fermentation, extraction, enzyme pre-treatment, physical fractionation or size reduction followed by supercritical extraction or fractionation and processes in which operations are carried out in situ in supercritical fluids (supercritical chromatography, enzymatic conversion, precipitation and coating of solutes. The use of co-solvents and alternative extraction solvents in these processes is discussed. Prospects for future developments are also discussed.

  10. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  11. Oil extraction from microalgae for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Ronald; Gladman, Brendan; Danquah, Michael K; Webley, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the performance of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO(2)) extraction and hexane extraction of lipids from marine Chlorococcum sp. for lab-scale biodiesel production. Even though the strain of Chlorococcum sp. used in this study had a low maximum lipid yield (7.1 wt% to dry biomass), the extracted lipid displayed a suitable fatty acid profile for biodiesel [C18:1 (∼63 wt%), C16:0 (∼19 wt%), C18:2 (∼4 wt%), C16:1 (∼4 wt%), and C18:0 (∼3 wt%)]. For SCCO(2) extraction, decreasing temperature and increasing pressure resulted in increased lipid yields. The mass transfer coefficient (k) for lipid extraction under supercritical conditions was found to increase with fluid dielectric constant as well as fluid density. For hexane extraction, continuous operation with a Soxhlet apparatus and inclusion of isopropanol as a co-solvent enhanced lipid yields. Hexane extraction from either dried microalgal powder or wet microalgal paste obtained comparable lipid yields. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction and isolation of catechins from tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins.

  13. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hua Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract, which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  14. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  15. Chronic toxicity of Passiflora foetida L. extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chivapat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The extract of Passiflora foetida leaf has been reported to possess various interesting biological benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety of ethanolic extract, containing 0.84% vitexin in Wistar rats. The animals were randomly allocated into five groups, each of twenty four rats (12 male and 12 female. Four experimental groups were orally given the P. foetida extract at the doses of 16, 160, 800 and 1600 mg/kg/day for six months respectively, whereas the control received distilled water.  The extract did not affect the body weights, food intake and relative organ weights of the animals, and nor did cause the abnormal changes of hematological and biochemical values.  Histopathological alterations in the various organs of all extract-treated group did not show any significance, except the adrenal glands of the highest dose male group showed the appearance of fatty infiltration in the cortex; however this phenomenon might be physiological rather than pathological change.  The results suggested that the ethanolic extract of P. foetida extract at the given doses did not induce any harmful effects in the rats.   Industrial relevance: In this study, 40% ethanolic extract from Passiflora foetida leaves contained 0.84% vitexin  which was reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, other compounds i.e. Kaempferol, apigenin and luteolin in this plant were found to exert anti-histamine release. The present toxicity study revealed no harmful effect in the experimental animal. Therefore, the quality control of the above mentioned compounds in the extract could lead to anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drug development for compensation of excessive steroidal drugs usage.

  16. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  17. Extraction and assessment of chatter feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Presents feature wavelet packets(FWP)a new method of chatter feature extraction in milling process based on wavelet packets transform(WPF)and using vibration signal.Studies the procedure of automatic feature selection for a given process.Establishes an exponential autoregressive(EAR)model to extract limit cycle behavior of chatter since chatter is a nonlinear oscillation with limit cycle.And gives a way to determine FWTsnumber,and experimental data to assess the effectiveness of the WPT feature extraction by unforced response of EAR model of reconstructed signal.

  18. Enhanced Pattern Representation in Information Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖乐健; 曹元大; 张映波

    2004-01-01

    Traditional pattern representation in information extraction lack in the ability of representing domain-specific concepts and are therefore devoid of flexibility. To overcome these restrictions, an enhanced pattern representation is designed which includes ontological concepts, neighboring-tree structures and soft constraints. An information-extraction inference engine based on hypothesis-generation and conflict-resolution is implemented. The proposed technique is successfully applied to an information extraction system for Chinese-language query front-end of a job-recruitment search engine.

  19. Extraction and chromatography of carotenoids from pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung Sook; Burri, Betty Jane C; Quan, Zhejiu; Neidlinger, Terry R

    2005-05-06

    Vitamin A deficiency is a health problem in Southeast Asia that can be corrected by feeding orange fruits and vegetables such as mango. Pumpkin is a traditional Korean food that is easy to store and is already believed to have health benefits. We extracted carotenoids from pumpkin by liquid-liquid extraction and by supercritical fluid extraction. We measured carotenoids by reversed-phase chromatography with diode array detection. The major carotenoid in pumpkin (> 80%) is beta-carotene, with lesser amounts of lutein, lycopene, alpha-carotene and cis-beta-carotene. Pumpkin is a rich source of beta-carotene and might be useful for preventing Vitamin A deficiency.

  20. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity.

  1. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  2. Chinese Term Extraction Based on PAT Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; FAN Xiao-zhong; XU Yun

    2006-01-01

    A new method of automatic Chinese term extraction is proposed based on Patricia (PAT) tree. Mutual information is calculated based on prefix searching in PAT tree of domain corpus to estimate the internal associative strength between Chinese characters in a string. It can improve the speed of term candidate extraction largely compared with methods based on domain corpus directly. Common collocation suffix, prefix bank are constructed and term part of speech (POS) composing rules are summarized to improve the precision of term extraction. Experiment results show that the F-measure is 74.97 %.

  3. Method for analyzing solvent extracted sponge core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellington, W.E.; Calkin, C.L.

    1988-11-22

    For use in solvent extracted sponge core measurements of the oil saturation of earth formations, a method is described for quantifying the volume of oil in the fluids resulting from such extraction. The method consists of: (a) separating the solvent/oil mixture from the water in the extracted fluids, (b) distilling at least a portion of the solvent from the solvent/oil mixture substantially without co-distillation or loss of the light hydrocarbons in the mixture, (c) determining the volume contribution of the solvent remaining in the mixture, and (d) determining the volume of oil removed from the sponge by substracting the determined remaining solvent volume.

  4. Extracting diagnosis from Japanese radiological report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takeshi; Onogi, Yuzo

    2003-01-01

    This study is aimed at extracting diagnosis with positive or negative assertion from radiological report written in Japanese Natural Language. We get frequency of verb patterns that indicate pos/neg assertion, and extract a rule in order of the occurrence. We made customized dictionary of 36,152 terms relating to disease names or radiological findings, and tried to extract pairs of (pos/neg, disease and verb pattern ) by using rules according to the most frequent pattern from 1,524/5,000 CT reports (each report consists of 15.1 words on the average). We tried only a few rules so far, and continue to find other rules.

  5. Newer methods of extraction of teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHendra Chandha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atraumatic extraction methods are deemed to be important to minimize alveolar bone loss after tooth extraction. With the advent of such techniques, exodontia is no more a dreaded procedure in anxious patients. Newer system and techniques for extraction of teeth have evolved in the recent few decades. This article reviews and discusses new techniques to make simple and complex exodontias more efficient with improved patient outcomes. This includes physics forceps, powered periotome, piezosurgery, benex extractor, sonic instrument for bone surgery, lasers.

  6. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  7. Uvulo-glossopharyngeal dimensions in non-extraction, extraction with minimum anchorage, and extraction with maximum anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germec-Cakan, Derya; Taner, Tulin; Akan, Seden

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate upper respiratory airway dimensions in non-extraction and extraction subjects treated with minimum or maximum anchorage. Lateral cephalograms of 39 Class I subjects were divided into three groups (each containing 11 females and 2 males) according to treatment procedure: group 1, 13 patients treated with extraction of four premolars and minimum anchorage; group 2, 13 cases treated non-extraction with air-rotor stripping (ARS); and group 3, 13 bimaxillary protrusion subjects treated with extraction of four premolars and maximum anchorage. The mean ages of the patients were 18.1 ± 3.7, 17.8 ± 2.4, and 15.5 ± 0.88 years, respectively. Tongue, soft palate, hyoid position, and upper airway measurements were made on pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms and the differences between the mean measurements were tested using Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Superior and middle airway space increased significantly (P extraction treatment using maximum anchorage has a reducing effect on the middle and inferior airway dimensions.

  8. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis, while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract, and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05. As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  9. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Das

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis. Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm: ethanol (ml of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were modeled with seven different mathematical models, including Power law, Peleg, Weinbull’s equation, Pseudo 2nd order, Intraparticle diffusion, Logarithmic, Weinbull’s distribution and one RSM model developed in this study. Pseudo 2nd order model was best fitted model (R2 - 0.99, χ 2 - 0.0091, RMSE- 0.1566, MAE- 0.0115 to describe extraction kinetics of β-carotene from carrot. The extraction time has significant effect on extraction process at p<0.05 level.

  10. Pain and chewing sensitivity during fixed orthodontic treatment in extraction and non-extraction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Gulsilay

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in pain perception and chewing sensitivity between extraction and non-extraction patients. Thirty orthodontic patients (11 males, 19 females) were included in this study who were classified as extraction (n=15; 6 males, 9 females) and non-extraction patients (n=15; 7 males, 8 females). The mean age of patients were 15.10±1.83 years in non-extraction group and 15.44±0.75 years in extraction group. The patients were asked to complete the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire and they were asked to mark the presence or absence of sensitivity during 7 days after the first arch wire placement. Pain intensity comparison between groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. The Friedman test was used to analyze within-group differences over time. There were no significant differences in pain scores between the groups. Pain levels significantly decreased between day 1 and day 3 in both the groups. No differences were found in the chewing sensitivity between the non-extraction and extraction groups. No difference in the pain perception was observed between the extraction and non-extraction patients during the 7 days after arch wire placement.

  11. Separation of digoxin by luiquid-luiquid extraction from extracts of foxglove secondary glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Vesna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the extraction of digoxin (Dgx from chloroform and trichloroethylene extracts of the secondary glycosides of fermented foxglove (Digitalis lanata Ehrh. foliage by liquid-liquid extraction. The extraction degree (ED of Dgx achieved by maceration and percolation using 10% vol. aqueous ethanol solutions were higher than 95%. Using trichlorethylene and chloroform, the ED of Dgx of about 100% and 96%, respectively from the liquid ethanolic extracts (macerate or percolate were achieved by the four-cycle extraction. Fifteen separating funnels were employed for the liquid-liquid extraction. Three different four-component two-phase systems (ethanol:water - chloroform:ethyl acetate, ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene and ethanol:water - trichloroethylene:ethyl acetate were tested as an extracting solvent to get the final product having more than 98% of Dgx. The initial amount of the chloroform or trichloroethylene extract in the light phase was varied between 5 and 25 g/L, while the volume ratio of light and heavy phases was in the range of 1:1 to 1:2. The best Dgx yield of 98% was achieved with the system ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene 35:15:20:30 at the volume ratio of the phases of 1:1.1 and at the initial amount of the extract of 15 g/L. Purity of the separated digoxin was 99.8 %. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-34012

  12. Green Vehicle Guide Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. This data extraction tool allows...

  13. Lunar In-Situ Volatile Extraction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method of extracting volatile resources from the Lunar regolith is proposed to reduce the launch mass and cost of bringing such resources from the Earth to enable...

  14. Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) Chartbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Analytic eXtract Chartbooks are research tools and reference guides on Medicaid enrollees and their Medicaid experience in 2002 and 2004. Developed for...

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL, and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE. The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  16. Antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75-1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC(50) from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  17. Comparison of pyrethrins extraction methods efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... Best developed method was used for determination of pyrethrin content in three different ... There are many areas of application of .... The extractions were made on a soxtec avanti 2055 manual system ... was automated.

  18. Automated Feature Extraction from Hyperspectral Imagery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed activities will result in the development of a novel hyperspectral feature-extraction toolkit that will provide a simple, automated, and accurate...

  19. Extraction of airways from CT (EXACT’09)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Ginneken, Bram van; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for establishing a reference airway tree segmentation, which was used to quantitatively evaluate 15 different airway tree extraction algorithms in a standardized manner. Because of the sheer difficulty involved in manually constructing a complete reference standard...... or not it is a correctly segmented part of the airway tree. Finally, the reference airway trees are constructed by taking the union of all correctly extracted branch segments. Fifteen airway tree extraction algorithms from different research groups are evaluated on a diverse set of 20 chest computed tomography (CT) scans...... from the evaluation showed that no single algorithm could extract more than an average of 74% of the total length of all branches in the reference standard, indicating substantial differences between the algorithms. A fusion scheme that obtained superior results is presented, demonstrating...

  20. Enzymatic Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The procedure of enzymatic aqueous extraction of soybean oil was assessed when two-step controlled enzymatic hydrolysis was applied. With aqueous extraction of soybean oil-containing protein, the highest yield of oil was 96.1% at the optimized conditions studied. Soybean oil-containing protein was hydrolyzed and resulted in releasing part of oil. The separated protein that contained 40% oil was enriched due to its adsorption capacity of released oil, the average oil extraction yeild reached 93.5%. Then the high oil content protein was hydrolyzed again to release oil by enzyme, the oil extraction yeild was 80.4%. As a result, high quality of soybean oil was obtained and the content of total oil yield was 74.4%.